Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Glucagon: Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Accounts Payable and Receivable: Short-term debt obligations and assets occurring in the regular course of operational transactions.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Methoxydimethyltryptamines: Compounds that contain the biogenic monoamine tryptamine and are substituted with one methoxy group and two methyl groups. Members of this group include several potent serotonergic hallucinogens found in several unrelated plants, skins of certain toads, and in mammalian brains. They are possibly involved in the etiology of schizophrenia.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Bufotenin: A hallucinogenic serotonin analog found in frog or toad skins, mushrooms, higher plants, and mammals, especially in the brains, plasma, and urine of schizophrenics. Bufotenin has been used as a tool in CNS studies and misused as a psychedelic.Lysergic AcidAdenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Claviceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Clavicipitaceae, order Hypocreales, parasitic on various grasses (POACEAE). The sclerotia contain several toxic alkaloids. Claviceps purpurea on rye causes ergotism.Harmaline: A beta-carboline alkaloid isolated from seeds of PEGANUM.Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, Type IPituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Gonadotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Receptors, Interleukin-1 Type I: An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that is involved in signaling cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The binding of this receptor to its ligand causes its favorable interaction with INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR ACCESSORY PROTEIN and the formation of an activated receptor complex.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Acetohexamide: A sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent that is metabolized in the liver to 1-hydrohexamide.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Luteolysis: Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.Luteal Cells: PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Dihydroalprenolol: Hydrogenated alprenolol derivative where the extra hydrogens are often tritiated. This radiolabeled form of ALPRENOLOL, a beta-adrenergic blocker, is used to label the beta-adrenergic receptor for isolation and study.Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Receptors, Adrenergic: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
(1/5304) Cell polarization: chemotaxis gets CRACKing.

An early stage in the establishment of cell polarity during chemotaxis of Dictyostelium dicoideum has been identified by a recent study; the new results also show that the development of cell polarity does not rely upon cytoskeletal rearrangement, and may use a spatial sensing mechanism.  (+info)

(2/5304) Probing the function of Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase toxin by manipulating host immunity.

We have examined the role of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin (CyaA) by constructing an in-frame deletion in the Bordetella bronchiseptica cyaA structural gene and comparing wild-type and cyaA deletion strains in natural host infection models. Both the wild-type strain RB50 and its adenylate cyclase toxin deletion (DeltacyaA) derivative efficiently establish persistent infections in rabbits, rats, and mice following low-dose inoculation. In contrast, an inoculation protocol that seeds the lower respiratory tract revealed significant differences in bacterial numbers and in polymorphonuclear neutrophil recruitment in the lungs from days 5 to 12 postinoculation. We next explored the effects of disarming specific aspects of the immune system on the relative phenotypes of wild-type and DeltacyaA bacteria. SCID, SCID-beige, or RAG-1(-/-) mice succumbed to lethal systemic infection following high- or low-dose intranasal inoculation with the wild-type strain but not the DeltacyaA mutant. Mice rendered neutropenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide or by knockout mutation in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor locus were highly susceptible to lethal infection by either wild-type or DeltacyaA strains. These results reveal the significant role played by neutrophils early in B. bronchiseptica infection and by acquired immunity at later time points and suggest that phagocytic cells are a primary in vivo target of the Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin.  (+info)

(3/5304) Adenoviral gene transfer of the human V2 vasopressin receptor improves contractile force of rat cardiomyocytes.

BACKGROUND: In congestive heart failure, high systemic levels of the hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) result in vasoconstriction and reduced cardiac contractility. These effects are mediated by the V1 vasopressin receptor (V1R) coupled to phospholipase C beta-isoforms. The V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R), which promotes activation of the Gs/adenylyl cyclase system, is physiologically expressed in the kidney but not in the myocardium. Expression of a recombinant V2R (rV2R) in the myocardium could result in a positive inotropic effect via the endogenous high concentrations of AVP in heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: A recombinant adenovirus encoding the human V2R (Ad-V2R) was tested for its ability to modulate the cardiac Gs/adenylyl cyclase system and to potentiate contractile force in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Ad-V2R infection resulted in a virus concentration-dependent expression of the transgene and led to a marked increase in cAMP formation in rV2R-expressing cardiomyocytes after exposure to AVP. Single-cell shortening measurements showed a significant agonist-induced contraction amplitude enhancement, which was blocked by the V2R antagonist, SR 121463A. Pretreatment of Ad-V2R-infected cardiomyocytes with AVP led to desensitization of the rV2R after short-term agonist exposure but did not lead to further loss of receptor function or density after long-term agonist incubation, thus demonstrating resistance of the rV2R to downregulation. CONCLUSIONS: Adenoviral gene transfer of the V2R in cardiomyocytes can modulate the endogenous adenylyl cyclase-signal transduction cascade and can potentiate contraction amplitude in cardiomyocytes. Heterologous expression of cAMP-forming receptors in the myocardium could lead to novel strategies in congestive heart failure by bypassing the desensitized beta-adrenergic receptor signaling.  (+info)

(4/5304) Kinetic analysis of drug-receptor interactions of long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics in isolated receptor membranes: evidence against prolonged effects of salmeterol and formoterol on receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase.

The long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics salmeterol and formoterol have been presumed to exert their prolonged action either by binding to an accessory binding site ("exo-site") near the beta2 adrenoceptor or by their high affinity for beta2 adrenoceptors and correspondingly slow dissociation. Whereas most studies with salmeterol had been done in intact tissues, which have slow diffusion and compartmentation of drugs in lipophilic phases, that restrict drug access to the receptor biophase, we used purified receptor membranes from rat lung and disaggregated calf tracheal myocytes as model systems. Binding experiments were designed to measure the slow dissociation of agonists by means of delayed association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol. Rat lung membranes were pretreated with high concentrations of agonists (salmeterol, formoterol, isoprenaline) before dissociation was induced by 50-fold dilution. Half-times of association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol remained unchanged compared with untreated controls, indicating that dissociation of agonists occurred in less than 2 min. Adenylyl cyclase experiments were designed to determine the on and off kinetics of agonists to beta2 adrenoceptors by measuring the rate of receptor-induced cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation. Experiments were performed in tracheal membranes characterized by high Vmax values of cAMP formation. Adenylyl cyclase activation occurred simultaneously with the addition of the agonist, continued linearly with time for 60 min, and ceased immediately after the antagonist was added. Similarly, when receptor membranes were preincubated in a small volume with high salmeterol concentrations, there was a linear increase in cAMP formation, which was immediately interrupted by a 100-fold dilution of the reaction mixture. This militates against the exo-site hypothesis. On the other hand, dissociation by dilution was much less when membranes were preincubated with a large volume of salmeterol at the same concentration, indicating that physicochemical effects, and not exo-site binding, underlie its prolonged mode of action.  (+info)

(5/5304) Biochemical and cytochemical studies on adenylate cyclase activity in the developing rat submandibular gland: differentiation of of the acinar secretory compartment.

To investigate membrane changes in development of the exocrine cells of the rat submandibular gland (SMG), biochemical and cytochemical studies of adenylate cyclase activity were performed on prenatal and postnatal glands. SMG rudiments and glands were studied from 15 days of gestation op to birth and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 weeks after birth. Glands were chemically assayed for adenylate cyclase activity using the procedures of Salomon and coworkers and cytochemically studied using a procedure which was verified biochemically. At 15-16 days of gestation basal adenylate cyclase activity was low and no staining could be observed. Adenylate cyclase activity rose six-fold from the 16th to the 18th day of gestation. Adenylate cyclase staining became evident along the surface of most of the cells of the rudiment at this time. Basal adenylate cyclase activity remained relatively constant from the 18th day of gestation up to 24 weeks of age. However, sequential changes were seen in the cytochemical localization, especially in relation to the apical plasma membrane of the developing secretory cells.  (+info)

(6/5304) Facilitation of signal onset and termination by adenylyl cyclase.

The alpha subunit (Gsalpha) of the stimulatory heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate binding protein (G protein) Gs activates all isoforms of mammalian adenylyl cyclase. Adenylyl cyclase (Type V) and its subdomains, which interact with Gsalpha, promoted inactivation of the G protein by increasing its guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity. Adenylyl cyclase and its subdomains also augmented the receptor-mediated activation of heterotrimeric Gs and thereby facilitated the rapid onset of signaling. These findings demonstrate that adenylyl cyclase functions as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for the monomeric Gsalpha and enhances the GTP/GDP exchange factor (GEF) activity of receptors.  (+info)

(7/5304) The 5'-flanking region of the mouse adenylyl cyclase type VIII gene imparts tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice.

The calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclases (ACs) play a central role in stimulus-dependent modification of synaptic function. The type VIII AC (AC8) is one of three mammalian calcium-stimulated isoforms, each of which is expressed in a region-specific manner in the CNS. To delineate the DNA sequences responsible for appropriate targeting of AC8 expression, we report here the complete structure of the AC8 gene and define the pattern of expression of the full-length cDNA and its splice variants. In addition to expression within the brain, robust expression of AC8 was also found in the lung. By in situ hybridization, we have found the highest expression of AC8 mRNA within the olfactory bulb, thalamus, habenula, cerebral cortex, and hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. By generating transgenic mice whose expression of beta-galactosidase is controlled by the AC8 5'-flanking DNA sequences, we demonstrate that the DNA sequences within the 10 kb preceding exon 1 are critical for establishment of this region-specific pattern. This spectrum of sites of production is unique to AC8 among the calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclases and suggests nonredundant functions with other adenylyl cyclases in neuroendocrine regulation and/or behavior.  (+info)

(8/5304) Role of protein kinase A in the maintenance of inflammatory pain.

Although the initiation of inflammatory pain (hyperalgesia) has been demonstrated to require the cAMP second messenger signaling cascade, whether this mechanism and/or other mechanisms underlie the continued maintenance of the induced hyperalgesia is unknown. We report that injection of adenylyl cyclase inhibitors before but not after injection of direct-acting hyperalgesic agents (prostaglandin E2 and purine and serotonin receptor agonists) resulted in reduction in hyperalgesia, evaluated by the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal test. In contrast, injection of protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors either before or after these hyperalgesic agents resulted in reduced hyperalgesia, suggesting that hyperalgesia after its activation was maintained by persistent PKA activity but not by adenylyl cyclase activity. To evaluate further the role of PKA activity in the maintenance of hyperalgesia, we injected the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKACS) that resulted in hyperalgesia similar in magnitude to that induced by the direct-acting hyperalgesic agents but much longer in duration (>48 vs 2 hr). Injection of WIPTIDE (a PKA inhibitor) at 24 hr after PKACS reduced hyperalgesia, suggesting that PKACS hyperalgesia is not independently maintained by steps downstream from PKA. In summary, our results indicate that, once established, inflammatory mediator-induced hyperalgesia is no longer maintained by adenylyl cyclase activity but rather is dependent on ongoing PKA activity. An understanding of the mechanism maintaining hyperalgesia may provide important insight into targets for the treatment of persistent pain.  (+info)

*  Extracellular adenylate cyclase
... is an adenylate cyclase produced by Bordetella pertussis. Kessin RH, Franke J (April 1986). " ... Ladant D, Brezin C, Alonso JM, Crenon I, Guiso N (December 1986). "Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase. Purification, ... "Secreted adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis: calmodulin requirements and partial purification of two forms". J. ...
*  Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide
... has been shown to interact with secretin receptor. Adenylate cyclase Pituitary ... This gene encodes adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1. Mediated by adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 receptors ... this polypeptide stimulates adenylate cyclase and subsequently increases the cAMP level in target cells. Adenylate cyclase- ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide also known as PACAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADCYAP1 ...
*  ADCY2
"Entrez Gene: ADCY2 adenylyl cyclase 2 (brain)". "Adenylate cyclase type 2". UniProt Consortium. Retrieved 28 May 2014. Stengel ... It belongs to the adenylyl cyclase class-3 or guanylyl cyclase family because it contains two guanylate cyclase domains. ADCY2 ... "Adenylate Cyclase 2 (Brain)". Weizmann Institute of Science. Retrieved 28 May 2014. Xu W, Cohen-Woods S, Chen Q, Noor A, Knight ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (Mar 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ...
*  Alfred G. Gilman
Haga, T; Ross, EM; Anderson, HJ; Gilman, AG (1977). "Adenylate cyclase permanently uncoupled from hormone receptors in a novel ... Haga, T; Haga, K; Gilman, AG (1977). "Hydrodynamic properties of the beta-adrenergic receptor and adenylate cyclase from wild ... Gilman, AG (1984). "G proteins and dual control of adenylate cyclase". Cell. 36 (3): 577-9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(84)90336-2. ... Sternweis, PC; Northup, JK; Smigel, MD; Gilman, AG (1981). "The regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. Purification and ...
*  ADCY3
"Entrez Gene: ADCY3 adenylate cyclase 3". "Gene Cards: ADCY3 Gene". Retrieved 2012-12-30. Human ADCY3 genome location and ADCY3 ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (Mar 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ... Adenylyl cyclase type 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY3 gene. This gene encodes adenylyl cyclase 3, which ... Haber N, Stengel D, Defer N, Roeckel N, Mattei MG, Hanoune J (Jul 1994). "Chromosomal mapping of human adenylyl cyclase genes ...
*  ADCY6
1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 ... Adenylyl cyclase type 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY6 gene. This gene encodes adenylyl cyclase 6, which ... 1998). "Molecular diversity of adenylyl cyclases in human and rat myometrium. Correlation with global adenylyl cyclase activity ... ADCY6 adenylate cyclase 6". Human ADCY6 genome location and ADCY6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Nakajima D, ...
*  ADCY9
"Entrez Gene: ADCY9 adenylate cyclase 9". Human ADCY9 genome location and ADCY9 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 ... Adenylyl cyclase type 9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY9 gene. Adenylyl cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme ... Cumbay MG, Watts VJ (2004). "Novel regulatory properties of human type 9 adenylate cyclase". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 310 (1): ...
*  ADCY7
"Entrez Gene: ADCY7 adenylate cyclase 7". Human ADCY7 genome location and ADCY7 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 ... The product of this gene is a member of the adenylyl cyclase class-4/guanylyl cyclase enzyme family that is characterized by ... Yan SZ, Tang WJ (2002). "Construction of soluble adenylyl cyclase from human membrane-bound type 7 adenylyl cyclase". Meth. ...
*  ADCY5
"Entrez Gene: ADCY5 adenylate cyclase 5". Salim S, Sinnarajah S, Kehrl JH, Dessauer CW (May 2003). "Identification of RGS2 and ... Wang SC, Lai HL, Chiu YT, Ou R, Huang CL, Chern Y (2007). "Regulation of type V adenylate cyclase by Ric8a, a guanine ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ... Adenylyl cyclase type 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY5 gene. ADCY5 has been shown to interact with RGS2. ...
*  ADCY8
"Entrez Gene: ADCY8 adenylate cyclase 8 (brain)". Human ADCY3 genome location and ADCY3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (Mar 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ... Adenylyl cyclase type 8 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY8 gene. Adenylyl cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme ... Parma J, Stengel D, Gannage MH, Poyard M, Barouki R, Hanoune J (Aug 1991). "Sequence of a human brain adenylyl cyclase partial ...
*  G beta-gamma complex
Brandt DR, Ross EM (January 1985). "GTPase activity of the stimulatory GTP-binding regulatory protein of adenylate cyclase, Gs ... "Purification of the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... individual subunits of the G protein complex were first identified in 1980 when the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase ... Another example of Gβγ signaling is its effect of activating or inhibiting adenylyl cyclase leading to the intracellular ...
*  Anthrax
Edema factor is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cyclic AMP ( ... The complexation of adenylate cyclase with calmodulin removes calmodulin from stimulating calcium-triggered signaling, thus ...
*  ADCYAP1R1
... diverse biological actions of adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 and is positively coupled to adenylate cyclase. ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor also known as PAC1, is a protein that in humans is encoded ... Miampamba M, Germano PM, Arli S, Wong HH, Scott D, Taché Y, Pisegna JR (May 2002). "Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase- ... Stoffel M, Espinosa R, Trabb JB, Le Beau MM, Bell GI (Oct 1994). "Human type I pituitary adenylate cyclase activating ...
*  Gs alpha subunit
A mnemonic for remembering this subunit is to look at first letter (Gαs = Adenylate Cyclase stimulator). The G protein-coupled ... However, each Gs activates only one adenylate cyclase. Second messenger system Ellis, Claire (Jul 2004). "The state of GPCR ... is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase. It is one of ... The general function of Gs is to activate adenylyl cyclase, which, in turn, produces cAMP, which, in turn activates cAMP- ...
*  Adenylyl cyclase
... (EC 4.6.1.1, also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with ... Interactive 3D views of Adenylate cyclase at Proteopedia Adenylyl_cyclase Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... Sodeman W, Sodeman T (2005). "Physiologic- and Adenylate Cyclase-Coupled Beta-Adrenergic Receptors". Sodeman's Pathologic ... These adenylyl cyclases are the most familiar based on extensive study due to their important roles in human health. They are ...
*  5'-Guanylyl imidodiphosphate
Guanylyl imidodiphosphate is a potent stimulator of adenylate cyclase. It is often used in studies of protein synthesis. ...
*  CyaA
Bifunctional hemolysin/adenylate cyclase is a protein that in B. pertussis (the bacteria that causes whooping cough) is encoded ... Carbonetti NH, Artamonova GV, Andreasen C, Bushar N (May 2005). "Pertussis toxin and adenylate cyclase toxin provide a one-two ... This protein in turn is cleaved into a calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase (cyaA-ACD) and hemolysin. Both are virulence ... Ladant D, Ullmann A (April 1999). "Bordatella pertussis adenylate cyclase: a toxin with multiple talents". Trends Microbiol. 7 ...
*  GTPase
They always use the activation of adenylate cyclase as the next step in the signal chain. The s stands for stimulation. Their ... Among the target molecules of the active GTPase are adenylate cyclase and ion channels. The heterotrimeric G proteins can be ... The i stands for inhibition of the adenylate cyclase; another effector molecule for this protein family is phospholipase C. ...
*  Lac operon
The cya gene encodes adenylate cyclase, which produces cAMP. In a cya mutant, the absence of cAMP makes the expression of the ... which influences the activity of adenylate cyclase. (In addition, glucose transport also leads to direct inhibition of the ...
*  GPR3
... activates adenylate cyclase in the absence of ligand. GPR3 is expressed in mammalian oocytes where it maintains meiotic ... 1995). "Molecular cloning of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that constitutively activates adenylate cyclase". Biochem. J ... "Molecular cloning of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that constitutively activates adenylate cyclase". Biochem. J. 309 ( ...
*  VIPR2
Zhang ZH, Wu SD, Gao H, Shi G, Jin JZ, Kong J, Tian Z, Su Y (March 2006). "Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating ... Wei Y, Mojsov S (1997). "Tissue specific expression of different human receptor types for pituitary adenylate cyclase ... VIPR2 transduction results in upregulation of adenylate cyclase activity. Furthermore, VIPR2 mediates the anti-inflammatory ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) are homologous peptides that ...
*  Heterotrimeric G protein
link) May, DC; Ross, EM; Gilman, AG; Smigel, MD (1985). "Reconstitution of catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity ... 1984). "Reconstitution of a hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase system. The pure beta-adrenergic receptor and guanine ... activates hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase. Gα subunits consist of two domains, the GTPase domain, and the alpha-helical ...
*  Bordetella
One of the most important of the regulated toxins is adenylate cyclase toxin, which aids in the evasion of innate immunity. The ... Fiser R, Masín J, Basler M, Krusek J, Spuláková V, Konopásek I, Sebo P (2007). "Third activity of Bordetella adenylate cyclase ... Gray MC, Donato GM, Jones FR, Kim T, Hewlett EL (2004). "Newly secreted adenylate cyclase toxin is responsible for intoxication ... Hewlett EL, Donato GM, Gray MC (2006). "Macrophage cytotoxicity produced by adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis: ...
*  Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
Adenylate cyclase is inhibited by agonists of adenylate cyclase inhibitory G (Gi)-protein-coupled receptors. Liver adenylate ... Adenylate cyclase is activated by a range of signaling molecules through the activation of adenylate cyclase stimulatory G (Gs ... This occurs through inhibition of the cAMP-producing enzyme, adenylate cyclase, as a side-effect of glucose transport into the ... cyclase responds more strongly to glucagon, and muscle adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to adrenaline. cAMP ...
*  Biological pacemaker
"Adenylate-cyclase VI transforms ventricular cardiomyocytes into biological pacemaker cells". Tissue Engineering Part A. 16 (6 ... "Adenylate Cyclase" gene into the heart muscle a biological cardiac pacemaker can be created. More recently a gene called TBX18 ...
*  Dinoxyline
Ryman-Rasmussen JP, Nichols DE, Mailman RB (October 2005). "Differential activation of adenylate cyclase and receptor ...
Gel-filtration analysis of soluble adenylate cyclase from bovine corpus luteum | Biochemical Journal  Gel-filtration analysis of soluble adenylate cyclase from bovine corpus luteum | Biochemical Journal
Gel-filtration analysis of soluble adenylate cyclase from bovine corpus luteum. J L Young, D A Stansfield ... Two peaks of adenylate cyclase activity, of approximate mol. wts. 45,000 and 160,000 were detected. 3. The theory of frontal ... Gel-filtration analysis of soluble adenylate cyclase from bovine corpus luteum Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... It was concluded that dissociation of two or more components of the adenylate cyclase complex was occurring on the column and ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/175/2/579
Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on mesencephalic...  Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on mesencephalic...
Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on mesencephalic ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:84589
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated rin activation requires src and contributes to the regulation of...  Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated rin activation requires src and contributes to the regulation of...
Article Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated rin activation requires src and contributes to the ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated .... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38- ... No comments were found for Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated rin activation requires src and ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP38) is a potent neuropeptide that acts through G-protein-coupled ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/articles/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-38-mediated-rin-activation-requires-src-and-contr-36524
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration...  Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration ...
more infohttp://dmm.biologists.org/content/early/2016/12/14/dmm.027185
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide | CTD  Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide | CTD
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide , Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide 27 , Pituitary ... Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide 2.. Chemicals ← Biological Factors ← Intercellular Signaling Peptides and ... Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Equivalent Terms PACAP , PACAP27 , PACAP-27 , PACAP38 , PACAP-38 , ... Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide 38 Definition A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating ...
more infohttp://ctdbase.org/detail.go?type=chem&acc=D051219
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Acti : Severn Biotech, Limited  Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Acti : Severn Biotech, Limited
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Acti - Electrophoresis Products PBS & Saline Solutions Hybridisation Reagents Biological Buffers & ... Home :: Catalogue Peptides :: Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Acti Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Acti. Displaying 1 to 4 (of 4 ...
more infohttp://www.severnbiotech.com/index.php?main_page=index&cPath=109_169
Adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis synergises with lipopolysaccharide to promote innate IL-10 production and...  Adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis synergises with lipopolysaccharide to promote innate IL-10 production and...
Ross, P.J., Lavelle, E.C., Mills, K.H.G. and A.P. Boyd `Adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis synergises with ... Adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis synergises with lipopolysaccharide to promote innate IL-10 production and ... Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) from Bordetella pertussis can subvert host immune responses allowing bacterial colonization. ... Adenylate Cyclase Toxin from Bordetella pertussis Synergizes with Lipopolysaccharide To Promote Innate Interleukin-10 ...
more infohttp://www.tara.tcd.ie/handle/2262/33327
Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: the role of cell interaction in toxin functio - Joshua Eby  Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: the role of cell interaction in toxin functio - Joshua Eby
The adenylate cyclase toxin (AC toxin) is necessary for disease caused by Bordetella pertussis, which has reemerged in the ... Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: the role of cell interaction in toxin functio Eby, Joshua Clark University of Virginia, ... Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: the role of cell interaction in toxin functio. Eby, Joshua Clark / University of Virginia. ... Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: the role of cell interaction in toxin functio. Eby, Joshua Clark / University of Virginia. ...
more infohttp://grantome.com/grant/NIH/K08-AI081900-05
Temporal effects of cytokines on neonatal cardiac myocyte Ca2+ transients and adenylate cyclase activity., Department of...  Temporal effects of cytokines on neonatal cardiac myocyte Ca2+ transients and adenylate cyclase activity., Department of...
... and adenylate cyclase were measured under each condition. Anticipated stepwise increases in adenylate cyclase and intracellular ... and isoproterenol increases adenylate cyclase activity, unlike after short exposure. Forskolin maximally activates adenylate ... Cells in the presence of cytokine for 2 h show increased basal calcium levels but no changes in adenylate cyclase activities, ... Temporal effects of cytokines on neonatal cardiac myocyte Ca2+ transients and adenylate cyclase activity.. ...
more infohttp://www.surgery.wisc.edu/research/publication/181
Adenylate cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei inhibit the innate immune response of the host. | SBRC  Adenylate cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei inhibit the innate immune response of the host. | SBRC
Adenylate cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei inhibit the innate immune response of the host.. Title. Adenylate cyclases of ... Thus, adenylate cyclase activity of lyzed trypanosomes favors early host colonization by live parasites. The role of adenylate ... Adenylate Cyclase, Animals, Catalytic Domain, Cell Line, Cyclic AMP, Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases, Enzyme Activation, ... Using a dominant-negative strategy, we found that reducing adenylate cyclase activity by about 50% allowed trypanosome growth ...
more infohttp://sbrc.vub.ac.be/node/196
Effects of chronic ethanol treatment and aging on brain phosphoinositide turnover and adenylate cyclase activity - UQ eSpace  Effects of chronic ethanol treatment and aging on brain phosphoinositide turnover and adenylate cyclase activity - UQ eSpace
Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not affected by ethanol treatment, but was higher in aged animals. The ... Basal adenylate cyclase activity in cortical membranes of all groups of animals was not different. ... Effects of chronic ethanol treatment and aging on brain phosphoinositide turnover and adenylate cyclase activity. Pietrzak E.R ... Inositol phosphate accumulation and adenylate cyclase activity were investigated in the cortex of young and aged ethanol- ...
more infohttps://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:395695
Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of...  Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of...
Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of ... Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of ... Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of ... This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin ACT which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the ...
more infohttp://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/jun8/149829571451-Ca2-Influx-and-Tyrosine-Kinases-Trigger-Bordetella-Adenylate-Cyclase-Toxin-ACT-Endocytosis-Cell-Physiology-and-Expression-of-the-CD11b-CD18-Integrin.php
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide prevents cytokine-induced cytotoxicity via inhibition of inducible nitric...  Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide prevents cytokine-induced cytotoxicity via inhibition of inducible nitric...
Sekiya K, Nagasaki H, Ozaki N, Suzuki A, Miura Y, Oiso Y. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide prevents cytokine- ... Sekiya, K., Nagasaki, H., Ozaki, N., Suzuki, A., Miura, Y., & Oiso, Y. (2000). Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating ... Sekiya, K, Nagasaki, H, Ozaki, N, Suzuki, A, Miura, Y & Oiso, Y 2000, 'Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide prevents cytokine-induced cytotoxicity via inhibition of inducible nitric ...
more infohttps://pure.fujita-hu.ac.jp/en/publications/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-prevents-cytok
Plus it  Plus it
... pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide; AC, adenylate cyclase; PLC, phospholipase C; PLA2, phospholipase A2; 5-HT, 5 ... The agonists (PACAP-27 and -38) stimulated adenylate cyclase (AC) with equal potencies, but only PACAP-38 could invoke the ... A ternary complex model explains the agonist-specific binding properties of the adenylate cyclase-coupled β-adrenergic receptor ... constitutively activated the Na/H exchanger NHE-1 without constitutively activating the Gαs/adenylate cyclase pathway. Both ...
more infohttp://pharmrev.aspetjournals.org/content/57/2/147
Microglial VPAC1R mediates a novel mechanism of neuroimmune-modulation of hippocampal precursor cells via IL-4 release - Nunan ...  Microglial VPAC1R mediates a novel mechanism of neuroimmune-modulation of hippocampal precursor cells via IL-4 release - Nunan ...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulate murine neural ... Nomenclature of receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. Pharmacol ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide inhibit chemokine production in activated ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide inhibit the production of inflammatory ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/glia.22682/references
adenocarcinoma of pituitary gland 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine  adenocarcinoma of pituitary gland 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine
Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide. Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, ... Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide; 0 / Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, Type I; ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=adenocarcinoma+of+pituitary+gland+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0
Peptides (v.30, #7) | www.chemweb.com  Peptides (v.30, #7) | www.chemweb.com
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide induces somatolactin release from cultured goldfish pituitary cells by Morio ... In the goldfish pituitary, nerve fibers containing pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are located in ... and we examined whether PACAP-induced SL release is mediated by the adenylate cyclase (AC)/cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)- or the ...
more infohttps://chemweb.com/articles/01969781/00300007
Pacap and vip modulation of neuroexcitability in rat intracardiac neur by Wayne I. DeHaven  "Pacap and vip modulation of neuroexcitability in rat intracardiac neur" by Wayne I. DeHaven
Both pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) are important ... Both pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) are important ...
more infohttp://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd/2852/
Modulation of forskolin binding to rat brain membranes<...  Modulation of forskolin binding to rat brain membranes<...
... agents that are known to activate adenylate cyclase through the stimulatory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N(s)). The ... agents that are known to activate adenylate cyclase through the stimulatory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N(s)). The ... agents that are known to activate adenylate cyclase through the stimulatory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N(s)). The ... agents that are known to activate adenylate cyclase through the stimulatory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N(s)). The ...
more infohttps://arizona.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/modulation-of-forskolin-binding-to-rat-brain-membranes
adcy9 adenylate cyclase 9 [Cyprinodon variegatus (sheepshead minnow)] - Gene - NCBI  adcy9 adenylate cyclase 9 [Cyprinodon variegatus (sheepshead minnow)] - Gene - NCBI
Guanylate_cyc; Adenylate and Guanylate cyclase catalytic domain. pfam16214. Location:259 → 376. AC_N; Adenylyl cyclase N- ... adenylate cyclase 9. See related. Ensembl:ENSCVAG00000003552 Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. MODEL. Organism. ... adcy9 adenylate cyclase 9 [ Cyprinodon variegatus (sheepshead minnow) ] Gene ID: 107095220, updated on 13-Oct-2018 ... XM_015391219.1 → XP_015246705.1 adenylate cyclase type 9. Related. ENSCVAP00000021468.1, ENSCVAT00000011721.1. Conserved ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/107095220
  • It was concluded that dissociation of two or more components of the adenylate cyclase complex was occurring on the column and that the maintenance of the complex was essential for the high-activity state of the catalytic unit. (biochemj.org)
  • Chatelain P, Robberecht P, Waelbroeck M, De Neef P, Camus JC, Nguyen Huu A, Roba J, Christophe J (1983) Topographical distribution of the secretin- and VIP-stimulated adenylate cyclase system in the heart of five animal species. (springer.com)
  • The results show that amphetamine produces a regional, dose- and time- dependent down-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast, in mesolimbic tissues, no amphetamine treatment at any time resulted in an alteration of SKF38393-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity relative to saline controls. (jneurosci.org)
  • This secondary messenger amplifies the signal many times over through the synthesis of many molecules of cAMP by adenylyl cyclase. (wikibooks.org)