An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
Guanine nucleotides are cyclic or linear molecules that consist of a guanine base, a pentose sugar (ribose in the cyclic form, deoxyribose in the linear form), and one or more phosphate groups, playing crucial roles in signal transduction, protein synthesis, and regulation of enzymatic activities.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Type I Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds PACAP and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, activating adenylate cyclase and increasing intracellular cAMP levels upon activation.
N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
A highly selective and specific beta antagonist that is used to characterize beta-adrenoceptors.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
Hydrogenated alprenolol derivative where the extra hydrogens are often tritiated. This radiolabeled form of ALPRENOLOL, a beta-adrenergic blocker, is used to label the beta-adrenergic receptor for isolation and study.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.
A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
One of the ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.
A phenothiazine used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars (NDPs) are biomolecules consisting of a nucleoside monophosphate sugar molecule, which is formed from the condensation of a nucleotide and a sugar molecule through a pyrophosphate bond.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Imines are organic compounds containing a functional group with a carbon-nitrogen double bond (=NH or =NR), classified as azomethines, which can be produced from aldehydes or ketones through condensation with ammonia or amines.
Adenine nucleotides are molecules that consist of an adenine base attached to a ribose sugar and one, two, or three phosphate groups, including adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which play crucial roles in energy transfer and signaling processes within cells.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that share significant homology with GLUCAGON RECEPTORS. They bind PITUITARY ADENYLATE CYCLASE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes that influence the behavior of CELLS.
A delta-selective opioid (ANALGESICS, OPIOID). It can cause transient depression of mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.
Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.
Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
The porcine antidiuretic hormone (VASOPRESSINS). It is a cyclic nonapeptide that differs from ARG-VASOPRESSIN by one amino acid, containing a LYSINE at residue 8 instead of an ARGININE. Lys-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A class of cellular membrane receptors that either have an intrinsic guanylate cyclase activity or are closely coupled to specific guanylate cyclases within the cell.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor subtype that binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE. It is found predominately in the BRAIN.
A non-hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist used as a research tool.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.
Cell surface receptors for EPOPROSTENOL. They are coupled to HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A hereditary syndrome clinically similar to HYPOPARATHYROIDISM. It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA; HYPERPHOSPHATEMIA; and associated skeletal development impairment and caused by failure of response to PARATHYROID HORMONE rather than deficiencies. A severe form with resistance to multiple hormones is referred to as Type 1a and is associated with maternal mutant allele of the ALPHA CHAIN OF STIMULATORY G PROTEIN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Oxadiazoles are heterocyclic organic compounds consisting of a five-membered ring containing two carbon atoms, one nitrogen atom, and two oxygen atoms (one as a part of the oxadiazole ring and the other as a substituent or part of a larger molecule), which can exist in various isomeric forms and are known for their versatile biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and antitumor properties.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H2 receptors act via G-proteins to stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are gastric acid secretion, smooth muscle relaxation, inotropic and chronotropic effects on heart muscle, and inhibition of lymphocyte function. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Quinoxalines are heterocyclic organic compounds consisting of a benzene fused to a pyrazine ring, which have been studied for their potential antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer properties.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
Cyclic nucleotides are closed-chain molecules formed from nucleotides (ATP or GTP) through the action of enzymes called cyclases, functioning as second messengers in various cellular signaling pathways, with cAMP and cGMP being the most prominent members.
2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.

Cell polarization: chemotaxis gets CRACKing. (1/5304)

An early stage in the establishment of cell polarity during chemotaxis of Dictyostelium dicoideum has been identified by a recent study; the new results also show that the development of cell polarity does not rely upon cytoskeletal rearrangement, and may use a spatial sensing mechanism.  (+info)

Probing the function of Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase toxin by manipulating host immunity. (2/5304)

We have examined the role of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin (CyaA) by constructing an in-frame deletion in the Bordetella bronchiseptica cyaA structural gene and comparing wild-type and cyaA deletion strains in natural host infection models. Both the wild-type strain RB50 and its adenylate cyclase toxin deletion (DeltacyaA) derivative efficiently establish persistent infections in rabbits, rats, and mice following low-dose inoculation. In contrast, an inoculation protocol that seeds the lower respiratory tract revealed significant differences in bacterial numbers and in polymorphonuclear neutrophil recruitment in the lungs from days 5 to 12 postinoculation. We next explored the effects of disarming specific aspects of the immune system on the relative phenotypes of wild-type and DeltacyaA bacteria. SCID, SCID-beige, or RAG-1(-/-) mice succumbed to lethal systemic infection following high- or low-dose intranasal inoculation with the wild-type strain but not the DeltacyaA mutant. Mice rendered neutropenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide or by knockout mutation in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor locus were highly susceptible to lethal infection by either wild-type or DeltacyaA strains. These results reveal the significant role played by neutrophils early in B. bronchiseptica infection and by acquired immunity at later time points and suggest that phagocytic cells are a primary in vivo target of the Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin.  (+info)

Adenoviral gene transfer of the human V2 vasopressin receptor improves contractile force of rat cardiomyocytes. (3/5304)

BACKGROUND: In congestive heart failure, high systemic levels of the hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) result in vasoconstriction and reduced cardiac contractility. These effects are mediated by the V1 vasopressin receptor (V1R) coupled to phospholipase C beta-isoforms. The V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R), which promotes activation of the Gs/adenylyl cyclase system, is physiologically expressed in the kidney but not in the myocardium. Expression of a recombinant V2R (rV2R) in the myocardium could result in a positive inotropic effect via the endogenous high concentrations of AVP in heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: A recombinant adenovirus encoding the human V2R (Ad-V2R) was tested for its ability to modulate the cardiac Gs/adenylyl cyclase system and to potentiate contractile force in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Ad-V2R infection resulted in a virus concentration-dependent expression of the transgene and led to a marked increase in cAMP formation in rV2R-expressing cardiomyocytes after exposure to AVP. Single-cell shortening measurements showed a significant agonist-induced contraction amplitude enhancement, which was blocked by the V2R antagonist, SR 121463A. Pretreatment of Ad-V2R-infected cardiomyocytes with AVP led to desensitization of the rV2R after short-term agonist exposure but did not lead to further loss of receptor function or density after long-term agonist incubation, thus demonstrating resistance of the rV2R to downregulation. CONCLUSIONS: Adenoviral gene transfer of the V2R in cardiomyocytes can modulate the endogenous adenylyl cyclase-signal transduction cascade and can potentiate contraction amplitude in cardiomyocytes. Heterologous expression of cAMP-forming receptors in the myocardium could lead to novel strategies in congestive heart failure by bypassing the desensitized beta-adrenergic receptor signaling.  (+info)

Kinetic analysis of drug-receptor interactions of long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics in isolated receptor membranes: evidence against prolonged effects of salmeterol and formoterol on receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase. (4/5304)

The long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics salmeterol and formoterol have been presumed to exert their prolonged action either by binding to an accessory binding site ("exo-site") near the beta2 adrenoceptor or by their high affinity for beta2 adrenoceptors and correspondingly slow dissociation. Whereas most studies with salmeterol had been done in intact tissues, which have slow diffusion and compartmentation of drugs in lipophilic phases, that restrict drug access to the receptor biophase, we used purified receptor membranes from rat lung and disaggregated calf tracheal myocytes as model systems. Binding experiments were designed to measure the slow dissociation of agonists by means of delayed association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol. Rat lung membranes were pretreated with high concentrations of agonists (salmeterol, formoterol, isoprenaline) before dissociation was induced by 50-fold dilution. Half-times of association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol remained unchanged compared with untreated controls, indicating that dissociation of agonists occurred in less than 2 min. Adenylyl cyclase experiments were designed to determine the on and off kinetics of agonists to beta2 adrenoceptors by measuring the rate of receptor-induced cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation. Experiments were performed in tracheal membranes characterized by high Vmax values of cAMP formation. Adenylyl cyclase activation occurred simultaneously with the addition of the agonist, continued linearly with time for 60 min, and ceased immediately after the antagonist was added. Similarly, when receptor membranes were preincubated in a small volume with high salmeterol concentrations, there was a linear increase in cAMP formation, which was immediately interrupted by a 100-fold dilution of the reaction mixture. This militates against the exo-site hypothesis. On the other hand, dissociation by dilution was much less when membranes were preincubated with a large volume of salmeterol at the same concentration, indicating that physicochemical effects, and not exo-site binding, underlie its prolonged mode of action.  (+info)

Biochemical and cytochemical studies on adenylate cyclase activity in the developing rat submandibular gland: differentiation of of the acinar secretory compartment. (5/5304)

To investigate membrane changes in development of the exocrine cells of the rat submandibular gland (SMG), biochemical and cytochemical studies of adenylate cyclase activity were performed on prenatal and postnatal glands. SMG rudiments and glands were studied from 15 days of gestation op to birth and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 weeks after birth. Glands were chemically assayed for adenylate cyclase activity using the procedures of Salomon and coworkers and cytochemically studied using a procedure which was verified biochemically. At 15-16 days of gestation basal adenylate cyclase activity was low and no staining could be observed. Adenylate cyclase activity rose six-fold from the 16th to the 18th day of gestation. Adenylate cyclase staining became evident along the surface of most of the cells of the rudiment at this time. Basal adenylate cyclase activity remained relatively constant from the 18th day of gestation up to 24 weeks of age. However, sequential changes were seen in the cytochemical localization, especially in relation to the apical plasma membrane of the developing secretory cells.  (+info)

Facilitation of signal onset and termination by adenylyl cyclase. (6/5304)

The alpha subunit (Gsalpha) of the stimulatory heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate binding protein (G protein) Gs activates all isoforms of mammalian adenylyl cyclase. Adenylyl cyclase (Type V) and its subdomains, which interact with Gsalpha, promoted inactivation of the G protein by increasing its guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity. Adenylyl cyclase and its subdomains also augmented the receptor-mediated activation of heterotrimeric Gs and thereby facilitated the rapid onset of signaling. These findings demonstrate that adenylyl cyclase functions as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for the monomeric Gsalpha and enhances the GTP/GDP exchange factor (GEF) activity of receptors.  (+info)

The 5'-flanking region of the mouse adenylyl cyclase type VIII gene imparts tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice. (7/5304)

The calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclases (ACs) play a central role in stimulus-dependent modification of synaptic function. The type VIII AC (AC8) is one of three mammalian calcium-stimulated isoforms, each of which is expressed in a region-specific manner in the CNS. To delineate the DNA sequences responsible for appropriate targeting of AC8 expression, we report here the complete structure of the AC8 gene and define the pattern of expression of the full-length cDNA and its splice variants. In addition to expression within the brain, robust expression of AC8 was also found in the lung. By in situ hybridization, we have found the highest expression of AC8 mRNA within the olfactory bulb, thalamus, habenula, cerebral cortex, and hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. By generating transgenic mice whose expression of beta-galactosidase is controlled by the AC8 5'-flanking DNA sequences, we demonstrate that the DNA sequences within the 10 kb preceding exon 1 are critical for establishment of this region-specific pattern. This spectrum of sites of production is unique to AC8 among the calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclases and suggests nonredundant functions with other adenylyl cyclases in neuroendocrine regulation and/or behavior.  (+info)

Role of protein kinase A in the maintenance of inflammatory pain. (8/5304)

Although the initiation of inflammatory pain (hyperalgesia) has been demonstrated to require the cAMP second messenger signaling cascade, whether this mechanism and/or other mechanisms underlie the continued maintenance of the induced hyperalgesia is unknown. We report that injection of adenylyl cyclase inhibitors before but not after injection of direct-acting hyperalgesic agents (prostaglandin E2 and purine and serotonin receptor agonists) resulted in reduction in hyperalgesia, evaluated by the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal test. In contrast, injection of protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors either before or after these hyperalgesic agents resulted in reduced hyperalgesia, suggesting that hyperalgesia after its activation was maintained by persistent PKA activity but not by adenylyl cyclase activity. To evaluate further the role of PKA activity in the maintenance of hyperalgesia, we injected the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKACS) that resulted in hyperalgesia similar in magnitude to that induced by the direct-acting hyperalgesic agents but much longer in duration (>48 vs 2 hr). Injection of WIPTIDE (a PKA inhibitor) at 24 hr after PKACS reduced hyperalgesia, suggesting that PKACS hyperalgesia is not independently maintained by steps downstream from PKA. In summary, our results indicate that, once established, inflammatory mediator-induced hyperalgesia is no longer maintained by adenylyl cyclase activity but rather is dependent on ongoing PKA activity. An understanding of the mechanism maintaining hyperalgesia may provide important insight into targets for the treatment of persistent pain.  (+info)

Adenylate cyclase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including signal transduction and metabolism. Adenylate cyclase is activated by hormones and neurotransmitters that bind to G-protein-coupled receptors on the cell membrane, leading to the production of cAMP, which then acts as a second messenger to regulate various intracellular responses. There are several isoforms of adenylate cyclase, each with distinct regulatory properties and subcellular localization.

Adenylate cyclase toxin is a type of exotoxin produced by certain bacteria, including Bordetella pertussis (the causative agent of whooping cough) and Vibrio cholerae. This toxin functions by entering host cells and catalyzing the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), leading to increased intracellular cAMP levels.

The elevated cAMP levels can disrupt various cellular processes, such as signal transduction and ion transport, resulting in a range of physiological effects that contribute to the pathogenesis of the bacterial infection. For example, in the case of Bordetella pertussis, adenylate cyclase toxin impairs the function of immune cells, allowing the bacteria to evade host defenses and establish a successful infection.

In summary, adenylate cyclase toxin is a virulence factor produced by certain pathogenic bacteria that increases intracellular cAMP levels in host cells, leading to disrupted cellular processes and contributing to bacterial pathogenesis.

Adenylate kinase is an enzyme (EC 2.7.4.3) that catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphate group between adenine nucleotides, specifically between ATP and AMP to form two ADP molecules. This reaction plays a crucial role in maintaining the energy charge of the cell by interconverting these important energy currency molecules.

The general reaction catalyzed by adenylate kinase is:

AMP + ATP ↔ 2ADP

This enzyme is widely distributed in various organisms and tissues, including mammalian cells. In humans, there are several isoforms of adenylate kinase, located in different cellular compartments such as the cytosol, mitochondria, and nucleus. These isoforms have distinct roles in maintaining energy homeostasis and protecting cells under stress conditions. Dysregulation of adenylate kinase activity has been implicated in several pathological processes, including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cancer.

Guanylate cyclase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which acts as a second messenger in various cellular signaling pathways. There are two main types of guanylate cyclases: soluble and membrane-bound. Soluble guanylate cyclase is activated by nitric oxide, while membrane-bound guanylate cyclase can be activated by natriuretic peptides. The increased levels of cGMP produced by guanylate cyclase can lead to a variety of cellular responses, including smooth muscle relaxation, neurotransmitter release, and regulation of ion channels. Dysregulation of guanylate cyclase activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, and cancer.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate (GIP) is not a medical term itself, but it is a biochemical compound that plays a crucial role in the body's signaling pathways. It is a vital intracellular second messenger involved in various physiological processes, including vasodilation and smooth muscle relaxation.

To be more specific, GIP is a nucleotide that activates a family of enzymes called guanylyl cyclases (GCs). Once activated, these enzymes convert guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), another essential second messenger. The increased levels of cGMP then mediate the relaxation of smooth muscle and vasodilation by activating protein kinases and ion channels, among other mechanisms.

In summary, Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate (GIP) is a biochemical compound that plays a critical role in intracellular signaling pathways, leading to vasodilation and smooth muscle relaxation.

Colforsin is a drug that belongs to a class of medications called phosphodiesterase inhibitors. It works by increasing the levels of a chemical called cyclic AMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) in the body, which helps to relax and widen blood vessels.

Colforsin is not approved for use in humans in many countries, including the United States. However, it has been used in research settings to study its potential effects on heart function and other physiological processes. In animals, colforsin has been shown to have positive inotropic (contractility-enhancing) and lusitropic (relaxation-enhancing) effects on the heart, making it a potential therapeutic option for heart failure and other cardiovascular conditions.

It is important to note that while colforsin has shown promise in preclinical studies, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy in humans. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional and in the context of a clinical trial or research study.

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide that belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)/secretin/glucagon family. It was first isolated from the ovine hypothalamus and later found in various tissues and organs throughout the body, including the brain, pituitary gland, and peripheral nerves.

PACAP exists in two forms, PACAP-38 and PACAP-27, which differ in their length but share the same amino acid sequence at the N-terminus. PACAP exerts its effects through specific G protein-coupled receptors, including PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 receptors, which are widely distributed throughout the body.

PACAP has a wide range of biological activities, including neurotrophic, neuroprotective, vasodilatory, and immunomodulatory effects. In the pituitary gland, PACAP stimulates adenylate cyclase activity, leading to an increase in intracellular cAMP levels, which in turn regulates the release of various hormones, including growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

Overall, PACAP is a crucial neuropeptide involved in various physiological processes, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, mood disorders, and cancer.

Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is a nucleotide that plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, such as protein synthesis, signal transduction, and regulation of enzymatic activities. It serves as an energy currency, similar to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and undergoes hydrolysis to guanosine diphosphate (GDP) or guanosine monophosphate (GMP) to release energy required for these processes. GTP is also a precursor for the synthesis of other essential molecules, including RNA and certain signaling proteins. Additionally, it acts as a molecular switch in many intracellular signaling pathways by binding and activating specific GTPase proteins.

Fluorides are ionic compounds that contain the fluoride anion (F-). In the context of dental and public health, fluorides are commonly used in preventive measures to help reduce tooth decay. They can be found in various forms such as sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, and calcium fluoride. When these compounds come into contact with saliva, they release fluoride ions that can be absorbed by tooth enamel. This process helps to strengthen the enamel and make it more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth, which can lead to dental caries or cavities. Fluorides can be topically applied through products like toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoride varnishes, or systemically ingested through fluoridated water, salt, or supplements.

Isoproterenol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta-adrenergic agonists. Medically, it is defined as a synthetic catecholamine with both alpha and beta adrenergic receptor stimulating properties. It is primarily used as a bronchodilator to treat conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by relaxing the smooth muscles in the airways, thereby improving breathing.

Isoproterenol can also be used in the treatment of bradycardia (abnormally slow heart rate), cardiac arrest, and heart blocks by increasing the heart rate and contractility. However, due to its non-selective beta-agonist activity, it may cause various side effects such as tremors, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. Its use is now limited due to the availability of more selective and safer medications.

Cholera toxin is a protein toxin produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which causes the infectious disease cholera. The toxin is composed of two subunits, A and B, and its primary mechanism of action is to alter the normal function of cells in the small intestine.

The B subunit of the toxin binds to ganglioside receptors on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells, allowing the A subunit to enter the cell. Once inside, the A subunit activates a signaling pathway that results in the excessive secretion of chloride ions and water into the intestinal lumen, leading to profuse, watery diarrhea, dehydration, and other symptoms associated with cholera.

Cholera toxin is also used as a research tool in molecular biology and immunology due to its ability to modulate cell signaling pathways. It has been used to study the mechanisms of signal transduction, protein trafficking, and immune responses.

Sodium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaF. Medically, it is commonly used as a dental treatment to prevent tooth decay, as it is absorbed into the structure of teeth and helps to harden the enamel, making it more resistant to acid attacks from bacteria. It can also reduce the ability of bacteria to produce acid. Sodium fluoride is often found in toothpastes, mouth rinses, and various dental treatments. However, excessive consumption can lead to dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis, which cause changes in bone structure and might negatively affect health.

Virulence factors in Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium that causes whooping cough, refer to the characteristics or components of the organism that contribute to its ability to cause disease. These virulence factors include:

1. Pertussis Toxin (PT): A protein exotoxin that inhibits the immune response and affects the nervous system, leading to the characteristic paroxysmal cough of whooping cough.
2. Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT): A toxin that increases the levels of cAMP in host cells, disrupting their function and contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease.
3. Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA): A surface protein that allows the bacterium to adhere to host cells and evade the immune response.
4. Fimbriae: Hair-like appendages on the surface of the bacterium that facilitate adherence to host cells.
5. Pertactin (PRN): A surface protein that also contributes to adherence and is a common component of acellular pertussis vaccines.
6. Dermonecrotic Toxin: A toxin that causes localized tissue damage and necrosis, contributing to the inflammation and symptoms of whooping cough.
7. Tracheal Cytotoxin: A toxin that damages ciliated epithelial cells in the respiratory tract, impairing mucociliary clearance and increasing susceptibility to infection.

These virulence factors work together to enable Bordetella pertussis to colonize the respiratory tract, evade the host immune response, and cause the symptoms of whooping cough.

Enzyme activation refers to the process by which an enzyme becomes biologically active and capable of carrying out its specific chemical or biological reaction. This is often achieved through various post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage, phosphorylation, or addition of cofactors or prosthetic groups to the enzyme molecule. These modifications can change the conformation or structure of the enzyme, exposing or creating a binding site for the substrate and allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

For example, in the case of proteolytic cleavage, an inactive precursor enzyme, known as a zymogen, is cleaved into its active form by a specific protease. This is seen in enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are initially produced in the pancreas as inactive precursors called trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen, respectively. Once they reach the small intestine, they are activated by enteropeptidase, a protease that cleaves a specific peptide bond, releasing the active enzyme.

Phosphorylation is another common mechanism of enzyme activation, where a phosphate group is added to a specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue on the enzyme by a protein kinase. This modification can alter the conformation of the enzyme and create a binding site for the substrate, allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

Enzyme activation is a crucial process in many biological pathways, as it allows for precise control over when and where specific reactions take place. It also provides a mechanism for regulating enzyme activity in response to various signals and stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or changes in the intracellular environment.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds and responds to catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Beta adrenergic receptors (β-adrenergic receptors) are a subtype of adrenergic receptors that include three distinct subclasses: β1, β2, and β3. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the body and play important roles in various physiological functions, including cardiovascular regulation, bronchodilation, lipolysis, and glucose metabolism.

β1-adrenergic receptors are primarily located in the heart and regulate cardiac contractility, chronotropy (heart rate), and relaxation. β2-adrenergic receptors are found in various tissues, including the lungs, vascular smooth muscle, liver, and skeletal muscle. They mediate bronchodilation, vasodilation, glycogenolysis, and lipolysis. β3-adrenergic receptors are mainly expressed in adipose tissue, where they stimulate lipolysis and thermogenesis.

Agonists of β-adrenergic receptors include catecholamines like epinephrine and norepinephrine, as well as synthetic drugs such as dobutamine (a β1-selective agonist) and albuterol (a non-selective β2-agonist). Antagonists of β-adrenergic receptors are commonly used in the treatment of various conditions, including hypertension, angina pectoris, heart failure, and asthma. Examples of β-blockers include metoprolol (a β1-selective antagonist) and carvedilol (a non-selective β-blocker with additional α1-adrenergic receptor blocking activity).

GTP-binding proteins, also known as G proteins, are a family of molecular switches present in many organisms, including humans. They play a crucial role in signal transduction pathways, particularly those involved in cellular responses to external stimuli such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and sensory signals like light and odorants.

G proteins are composed of three subunits: α, β, and γ. The α-subunit binds GTP (guanosine triphosphate) and acts as the active component of the complex. When a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is activated by an external signal, it triggers a conformational change in the associated G protein, allowing the α-subunit to exchange GDP (guanosine diphosphate) for GTP. This activation leads to dissociation of the G protein complex into the GTP-bound α-subunit and the βγ-subunit pair. Both the α-GTP and βγ subunits can then interact with downstream effectors, such as enzymes or ion channels, to propagate and amplify the signal within the cell.

The intrinsic GTPase activity of the α-subunit eventually hydrolyzes the bound GTP to GDP, which leads to re-association of the α and βγ subunits and termination of the signal. This cycle of activation and inactivation makes G proteins versatile signaling elements that can respond quickly and precisely to changing environmental conditions.

Defects in G protein-mediated signaling pathways have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of GTP-binding proteins is essential for developing targeted therapeutic strategies.

'Bordetella pertussis' is a gram-negative, coccobacillus bacterium that is the primary cause of whooping cough (pertussis) in humans. This highly infectious disease affects the respiratory system, resulting in severe coughing fits and other symptoms. The bacteria's ability to evade the immune system and attach to ciliated epithelial cells in the respiratory tract contributes to its pathogenicity.

The bacterium produces several virulence factors, including pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae, and tracheal cytotoxin, which contribute to the colonization and damage of respiratory tissues. The pertussis toxin, in particular, is responsible for many of the clinical manifestations of the disease, such as the characteristic whooping cough and inhibition of immune responses.

Prevention and control measures primarily rely on vaccination using acellular pertussis vaccines (aP) or whole-cell pertussis vaccines (wP), which are included in combination with other antigens in pediatric vaccines. Continuous efforts to improve vaccine efficacy, safety, and coverage are essential for controlling the global burden of whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis.

Alprostadil is a synthetic form of prostaglandin E1, which is a naturally occurring substance in the body. It is used medically for several purposes, including:

1. Treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED): Alprostadil can be administered directly into the penis as an injection or inserted as a suppository into the urethra to help improve blood flow and achieve an erection.
2. Prevention of closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants: Alprostadil is used to keep the PDA open, allowing for proper blood flow between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, until surgery can be performed.
3. Treatment of peripheral arterial disease: Alprostadil can be administered intravenously to help improve blood flow in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

Alprostadil works by relaxing smooth muscle tissue in blood vessels, which increases blood flow and helps to lower blood pressure. It may also have other effects on the body, such as reducing the risk of blood clots and modulating inflammation.

It is important to note that alprostadil should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects if not used properly.

Pertussis toxin is an exotoxin produced by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which is responsible for causing whooping cough in humans. This toxin has several effects on the host organism, including:

1. Adenylyl cyclase activation: Pertussis toxin enters the host cell and modifies a specific G protein (Gαi), leading to the continuous activation of adenylyl cyclase. This results in increased levels of intracellular cAMP, which disrupts various cellular processes.
2. Inhibition of immune response: Pertussis toxin impairs the host's immune response by inhibiting the migration and function of immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages. It also interferes with antigen presentation and T-cell activation, making it difficult for the body to clear the infection.
3. Increased inflammation: The continuous activation of adenylyl cyclase by pertussis toxin leads to increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, contributing to the severe coughing fits and other symptoms associated with whooping cough.

Pertussis toxin is an essential virulence factor for Bordetella pertussis, and its effects contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of whooping cough. Vaccination against pertussis includes inactivated or genetically detoxified forms of pertussis toxin, which provide immunity without causing disease symptoms.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Prostaglandin E (PGE) is a type of prostaglandin, which is a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormone-like effects. Prostaglandins are not actually hormones, but are similar to them in that they act as chemical messengers that have specific effects on certain cells.

Prostaglandin E is one of the most abundant prostaglandins in the body and has a variety of physiological functions. It is involved in the regulation of inflammation, pain perception, fever, and smooth muscle contraction. Prostaglandin E also plays a role in the regulation of blood flow, platelet aggregation, and gastric acid secretion.

Prostaglandin E is synthesized from arachidonic acid, which is released from cell membranes by the action of enzymes called phospholipases. Once formed, prostaglandin E binds to specific receptors on the surface of cells, leading to a variety of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in changes in cell behavior.

Prostaglandin E is used medically in the treatment of several conditions, including dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), postpartum hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus (a congenital heart defect). It is also used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of kidney function.

Guanine nucleotides are molecules that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling, cellular regulation, and various biological processes within cells. They consist of a guanine base, a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and one or more phosphate groups. The most common guanine nucleotides are GDP (guanosine diphosphate) and GTP (guanosine triphosphate).

GTP is hydrolyzed to GDP and inorganic phosphate by certain enzymes called GTPases, releasing energy that drives various cellular functions such as protein synthesis, signal transduction, vesicle transport, and cell division. On the other hand, GDP can be rephosphorylated back to GTP by nucleotide diphosphate kinases, allowing for the recycling of these molecules within the cell.

In addition to their role in signaling and regulation, guanine nucleotides also serve as building blocks for RNA (ribonucleic acid) synthesis during transcription, where they pair with cytosine nucleotides via hydrogen bonds to form base pairs in the resulting RNA molecule.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind and respond to catecholamines, which include the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline). These receptors play a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response and are involved in regulating various physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and metabolism.

There are nine different subtypes of adrenergic receptors, which are classified into two main groups based on their pharmacological properties: alpha (α) and beta (β) receptors. Alpha receptors are further divided into two subgroups, α1 and α2, while beta receptors are divided into three subgroups, β1, β2, and β3. Each subtype has a unique distribution in the body and mediates distinct physiological responses.

Activation of adrenergic receptors occurs when catecholamines bind to their specific binding sites on the receptor protein. This binding triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in cell function. Different subtypes of adrenergic receptors activate different G proteins and downstream signaling pathways, resulting in diverse physiological responses.

In summary, adrenergic receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that bind catecholamines and mediate various physiological functions. Understanding the function and regulation of these receptors is essential for developing therapeutic strategies to treat a range of medical conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, asthma, and anxiety disorders.

Adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR) is a molecule that plays a role in various cellular processes, including the modification of proteins and the regulation of enzyme activity. It is formed by the attachment of a diphosphate group and a ribose sugar to the adenine base of a nucleotide. ADPR is involved in the transfer of chemical energy within cells and is also a precursor in the synthesis of other important molecules, such as NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). It should be noted that ADPR is not a medication or a drug, but rather a naturally occurring biomolecule.

1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of xanthines. It is a methylated derivative of xanthine and is commonly found in some types of tea, coffee, and chocolate. This compound acts as a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which means it can increase the levels of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) by preventing its breakdown.

In medical terms, 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine is often used as a bronchodilator and a stimulant of central nervous system. It is also known to have diuretic properties. This compound is sometimes used in the treatment of asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and other respiratory disorders.

It's important to note that 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine can have side effects, including increased heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. It should be used under the supervision of a medical professional and its use should be carefully monitored to avoid potential adverse reactions.

Thionucleotides are chemical compounds that are analogs of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In thionucleotides, one or more of the oxygen atoms in the nucleotide's chemical structure is replaced by a sulfur atom. This modification can affect the way the thionucleotide interacts with other molecules, including enzymes that work with nucleotides and nucleic acids.

Thionucleotides are sometimes used in research to study the biochemistry of nucleic acids and their interactions with other molecules. They can also be used as inhibitors of certain enzymes, such as reverse transcriptase, which is an important target for HIV/AIDS therapy. However, thionucleotides are not normally found in natural biological systems and are not themselves components of DNA or RNA.

Dideoxyadenosine (ddA) is a type of synthetic nucleoside analogue, which is a synthetic compound that resembles one of the building blocks of DNA or RNA. More specifically, ddA resembles adenosine, one of the four nucleosides that make up DNA.

Dideoxyadenosine is used in research and medicine as an inhibitor of reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that is produced by retroviruses such as HIV. By blocking the action of this enzyme, ddA can prevent the virus from replicating and infecting new cells.

Dideoxyadenosine is often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to treat HIV infection and AIDS. It is usually administered as a prodrug, such as didanosine or ddI, which is converted to the active form of the drug in the body.

It's important to note that Dideoxyadenosine itself is not used directly as a medication but its derivatives like Didanosine are used in treatment.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid polypeptide hormone that has potent vasodilatory, secretory, and neurotransmitter effects. It is widely distributed throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract, where it is synthesized and released by nerve cells (neurons) in the intestinal mucosa. VIP plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological functions such as intestinal secretion, motility, and blood flow. It also has immunomodulatory effects and may play a role in neuroprotection. High levels of VIP are found in the brain, where it acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator and is involved in various cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and social behavior.

Glucagon is a hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas. Its main function is to regulate glucose levels in the blood by stimulating the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which can then be released into the bloodstream. This process helps to raise blood sugar levels when they are too low, such as during hypoglycemia.

Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide that is derived from the preproglucagon protein. It works by binding to glucagon receptors on liver cells, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to the activation of enzymes involved in glycogen breakdown.

In addition to its role in glucose regulation, glucagon has also been shown to have other physiological effects, such as promoting lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and inhibiting gastric acid secretion. Glucagon is often used clinically in the treatment of hypoglycemia, as well as in diagnostic tests to assess pancreatic function.

Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and a neurotransmitter that is produced in the body. It is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress or excitement, and it prepares the body for the "fight or flight" response. Epinephrine works by binding to specific receptors in the body, which causes a variety of physiological effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, improved muscle strength and alertness, and narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin and intestines. It is also used as a medication to treat various medical conditions, such as anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction), cardiac arrest, and low blood pressure.

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor (PAC1-R) is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to and is activated by the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). PAC1-R is widely expressed in various tissues, including the central nervous system, endocrine organs, and the cardiovascular system. Activation of PAC1-R leads to the activation of adenylate cyclase and an increase in intracellular cAMP levels, which in turn activates downstream signaling pathways involved in a variety of physiological processes such as neurotransmission, hormone secretion, and vasodilation. Abnormalities in PAC1-R function have been implicated in several diseases, including migraine, depression, and certain types of cancer.

Phenylisopropyladenosine (PIA) is not typically defined in the context of medical terminology, but rather it is a term used in pharmacology and biochemistry. PIA is a type of adenosine receptor agonist that specifically binds to and activates the A1 adenosine receptor.

Adenosine receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found in various tissues throughout the body, including the brain, heart, and immune system. Activation of these receptors by agonists like PIA can have diverse effects on cellular function, such as modulating neurotransmission, reducing heart rate and contractility, and regulating inflammation.

While not a medical term per se, PIA is an important compound in the study of adenosine receptor biology and has potential therapeutic applications in various diseases, including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

Diterpenes are a class of naturally occurring compounds that are composed of four isoprene units, which is a type of hydrocarbon. They are synthesized by a wide variety of plants and animals, and are found in many different types of organisms, including fungi, insects, and marine organisms.

Diterpenes have a variety of biological activities and are used in medicine for their therapeutic effects. Some diterpenes have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties, and are used to treat a range of conditions, including respiratory infections, skin disorders, and cancer.

Diterpenes can be further classified into different subgroups based on their chemical structure and biological activity. Some examples of diterpenes include the phytocannabinoids found in cannabis plants, such as THC and CBD, and the paclitaxel, a diterpene found in the bark of the Pacific yew tree that is used to treat cancer.

It's important to note that while some diterpenes have therapeutic potential, others may be toxic or have adverse effects, so it is essential to use them under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional.

Iodocyanopindolol is not a medical term itself, but it is a specific type of compound with potential use in medical research and testing. It's a non-selective beta-blocker that contains iodine-125, a radioactive isotope, making it useful for radiolabeling and tracking its distribution within the body.

Iodocyanopindolol can be used as a radioligand in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to study beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart and brain. This information is helpful for researchers investigating conditions related to these systems, such as cardiovascular diseases or neuropsychiatric disorders.

In summary, Iodocyanopindolol is a radiolabeled non-selective beta-blocker used primarily for research purposes in medical imaging and understanding the function of beta-adrenergic receptors in the body.

I'm not aware of any recognized medical term or condition specifically referred to as "turkeys." The term "turkey" is most commonly used in a non-medical context to refer to the large, bird-like domesticated fowl native to North America, scientifically known as Meleagris gallopavo.

However, if you are referring to a medical condition called "turkey neck," it is a colloquial term used to describe sagging or loose skin around the neck area, which can resemble a turkey's wattle. This condition is not a formal medical diagnosis but rather a descriptive term for an aesthetic concern some people may have about their appearance.

If you meant something else by "turkeys," please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate answer.

3',5'-Cyclic-AMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) phosphodiesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of cyclic AMP to 5'-AMP. These enzymes play a crucial role in regulating the levels of intracellular second messengers, such as cyclic AMP, which are involved in various cellular signaling pathways.

There are several subtypes of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that specifically target cyclic AMP, including PDE1, PDE2, PDE3, PDE4, PDE7, PDE8, and PDE10. Each subtype has distinct regulatory and catalytic properties, allowing for specific regulation of cyclic AMP levels in different cellular compartments and signaling pathways.

Inhibition of these enzymes can lead to an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP levels, which can have therapeutic effects in various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, and central nervous system disorders. Therefore, PDE inhibitors are a valuable class of drugs for the treatment of these conditions.

Dihydroalprenolol is a non-selective beta blocker drug, which means it blocks both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors. Beta blockers are medications that reduce the effects of epinephrine (adrenaline) in the body, thereby slowing down the heart rate, reducing blood pressure, and decreasing the force of heart contractions.

Dihydroalprenolol is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina pectoris (chest pain due to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle), and certain types of arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms). It may also be used for other indications, such as preventing migraines or reducing anxiety before surgery.

Like other beta blockers, dihydroalprenolol works by blocking the action of epinephrine on beta receptors in the heart and blood vessels, leading to decreased heart rate, reduced force of heart contractions, and dilated blood vessels. This results in lower blood pressure and improved blood flow to the heart muscle.

It is important to note that dihydroalprenolol may have side effects, such as fatigue, dizziness, and gastrointestinal symptoms, and it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Additionally, sudden discontinuation of beta blockers can lead to rebound hypertension or other adverse effects, so it is essential to taper off the medication gradually under medical supervision.

Cell surface receptors, also known as membrane receptors, are proteins located on the cell membrane that bind to specific molecules outside the cell, known as ligands. These receptors play a crucial role in signal transduction, which is the process of converting an extracellular signal into an intracellular response.

Cell surface receptors can be classified into several categories based on their structure and mechanism of action, including:

1. Ion channel receptors: These receptors contain a pore that opens to allow ions to flow across the cell membrane when they bind to their ligands. This ion flux can directly activate or inhibit various cellular processes.
2. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These receptors consist of seven transmembrane domains and are associated with heterotrimeric G proteins that modulate intracellular signaling pathways upon ligand binding.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors possess an intrinsic enzymatic activity or are linked to an enzyme, which becomes activated when the receptor binds to its ligand. This activation can lead to the initiation of various signaling cascades within the cell.
4. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These receptors contain intracellular tyrosine kinase domains that become activated upon ligand binding, leading to the phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling molecules.
5. Integrins: These receptors are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions by binding to extracellular matrix proteins or counter-receptors on adjacent cells. They play essential roles in cell adhesion, migration, and survival.

Cell surface receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, hormone signaling, immune response, and cell growth and differentiation. Dysregulation of these receptors can contribute to the development of numerous diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Benzyl alcohol is a aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a characteristic, mildly unpleasant odor. Benzyl alcohol is used as a solvent and as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals. In medicine, it is used as a local anesthetic and antimicrobial agent. It can be found in some personal care products, such as cosmetics, shampoos, and sunscreens, as well as in topical medications and intravenous medications.

Pituitary hormone receptors are specialized protein molecules found on the surface of target cells in various organs and tissues throughout the body. These receptors selectively bind to specific pituitary hormones, which are released from the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The binding of the hormone to its corresponding receptor triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to physiological responses in the target cells.

There are several types of pituitary hormones, each with its own unique receptors, including:

1. Growth Hormone (GH) Receptors: These receptors are found on many tissues, such as liver, muscle, and bone. The binding of GH to these receptors stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which promotes cell growth and division, as well as other metabolic processes.
2. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Receptors: These receptors are primarily located on cells in the adrenal gland, particularly in the adrenal cortex. The binding of ACTH to these receptors stimulates the production and release of cortisol, a steroid hormone involved in stress response, metabolism, and immune function.
3. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Receptors: These receptors are found on the surface of thyroid follicular cells. The binding of TSH to these receptors triggers the production and release of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which regulate metabolism, growth, and development.
4. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Receptors: These receptors are present in the gonads (ovaries and testes). In females, FSH binds to these receptors to stimulate follicular growth and estrogen production, while in males, it promotes spermatogenesis.
5. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Receptors: These receptors are also found in the gonads. In females, LH binding triggers ovulation and progesterone production, while in males, it stimulates testosterone production and sperm maturation.
6. Prolactin (PRL) Receptors: These receptors are located in various tissues, including the mammary glands, liver, and brain. The binding of PRL to these receptors promotes lactation, growth, and differentiation of mammary cells, as well as modulating immune function and behavior.
7. Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH) Receptors: These receptors are found in the skin and central nervous system. The binding of MSH to these receptors regulates pigmentation, appetite, and energy balance.
8. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) Receptors: These receptors are present in the pituitary gland. The binding of GHRH to these receptors stimulates the release of growth hormone, which promotes growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration.
9. Somatostatin Receptors (SST): These receptors are located in various tissues, including the pancreas, brain, and gastrointestinal tract. The binding of somatostatin to these receptors inhibits the release of several hormones, such as growth hormone, insulin, and glucagon.
10. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) Receptors: These receptors are found in the hypothalamus and other brain regions. The binding of CRH to these receptors stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which regulates stress response, metabolism, and immune function.
11. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) Receptors: These receptors are present in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The binding of TRH to these receptors stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which regulates thyroid function and metabolism.
12. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptors: These receptors are located in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The binding of GnRH to these receptors stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function.
13. Prolactin-Releasing Hormone (PRH) Receptors: These receptors are found in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The binding of PRH to these receptors stimulates the release of prolactin, which regulates lactation and other physiological processes.
14. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) Receptors: These receptors are located in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The binding of GHRH to these receptors stimulates the release of growth hormone, which regulates growth, metabolism, and other physiological processes.
15. Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH) Receptors: These receptors are found in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of MCH to these receptors regulates energy balance, feeding behavior, and sleep-wake cycles.
16. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Receptors: These receptors are located in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of NPY to these receptors regulates energy balance, feeding behavior, stress response, and cardiovascular function.
17. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) Receptors: These receptors are found in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of CRH to these receptors regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, stress response, and anxiety.
18. Oxytocin Receptors: These receptors are located in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of oxytocin to these receptors regulates social behavior, maternal care, and reproductive function.
19. Vasopressin Receptors: These receptors are found in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of vasopressin to these receptors regulates water balance, blood pressure, and social behavior.
20. Substance P Receptors (Neurokinin 1 Receptors): These receptors are located in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of substance P to these receptors regulates pain transmission, neuroinflammation, and stress response.
21. Melanocortin Receptors: These receptors are found in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of melanocortins to these receptors regulates energy balance, feeding behavior, and sexual function.
22. Endorphin Receptors (Mu, Delta, Kappa Opioid Receptors): These receptors are located in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of endorphins to these receptors modulates pain transmission, reward processing, and stress response.
23. Galanin Receptors: These receptors are found in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of galanin to these receptors regulates feeding behavior, anxiety, and nociception.
24. Somatostatin Receptors: These receptors are located in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of somatostatin to these receptors modulates neurotransmitter release, hormone secretion, and cell proliferation.
25. Neuropeptide Y Receptors: These receptors are found in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of neuropeptide Y to these receptors regulates feeding behavior, anxiety, and cardiovascular function.
26. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors: These receptors are located in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of corticotropin-releasing hormone to these receptors modulates stress response, anxiety, and neuroinflammation.
27. Oxytocin Receptors: These receptors are found in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of oxytocin to these receptors regulates social behavior, maternal care, and anxiety.
28. Vasopressin Receptors: These receptors are located in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of vasopressin to these receptors modulates water balance, blood pressure, and social behavior.
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Pindolol is a non-selective beta blocker that is used in the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure) and certain types of arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms). It works by blocking the action of certain hormones such as adrenaline and noradrenaline on the heart, which helps to reduce the heart rate, contractility, and conduction velocity, leading to a decrease in blood pressure.

Pindolol is also a partial agonist at beta-2 receptors, which means that it can stimulate these receptors to some extent, reducing the likelihood of bronchospasm (a side effect seen with other non-selective beta blockers). However, pindolol may still cause bronchospasm in patients with a history of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), so it should be used with caution in these populations.

Pindolol is available in immediate-release and extended-release formulations, and the dosage is typically individualized based on the patient's response to therapy. Common side effects of pindolol include dizziness, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and diarrhea.

Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a mild, pleasant odor and is used as a solvent and preservative in cosmetics, medications, and other products. Benzyl alcohol can also be found as a natural component of some essential oils, fruits, and teas.

Benzyl alcohol is not typically considered a "drug" or a medication, but it may have various pharmacological effects when used in certain medical contexts. For example, it has antimicrobial properties and is sometimes used as a preservative in injectable medications to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. It can also be used as a local anesthetic or analgesic in some topical creams and ointments.

It's important to note that benzyl alcohol can be harmful or fatal to infants and young children, especially when it is used in high concentrations or when it is introduced into the body through intravenous (IV) routes. Therefore, it should be used with caution in these populations and only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) is a synthetic, cell-permeable analog of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Cyclic AMP is an important second messenger in many signal transduction pathways, and 8-Br-cAMP is often used in research to mimic or study the effects of increased cAMP levels. The bromine atom at the 8-position makes 8-Br-cAMP more resistant to degradation by phosphodiesterases, allowing it to have a longer duration of action compared to cAMP. It is used in various biochemical and cellular studies as a tool compound to investigate the role of cAMP in different signaling pathways.

Theophylline is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called methylxanthines. It is used in the management of respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other conditions that cause narrowing of the airways in the lungs.

Theophylline works by relaxing the smooth muscle around the airways, which helps to open them up and make breathing easier. It also acts as a bronchodilator, increasing the flow of air into and out of the lungs. Additionally, theophylline has anti-inflammatory effects that can help reduce swelling in the airways and relieve symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

Theophylline is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. It is important to take this medication exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider, as the dosage may vary depending on individual factors such as age, weight, and liver function. Regular monitoring of blood levels of theophylline is also necessary to ensure safe and effective use of the medication.

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a important second messenger molecule that plays a crucial role in various biological processes within the human body. It is synthesized from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by the enzyme guanylyl cyclase.

Cyclic GMP is involved in regulating diverse physiological functions, such as smooth muscle relaxation, cardiovascular function, and neurotransmission. It also plays a role in modulating immune responses and cellular growth and differentiation.

In the medical field, changes in cGMP levels or dysregulation of cGMP-dependent pathways have been implicated in various disease states, including pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, erectile dysfunction, and glaucoma. Therefore, pharmacological agents that target cGMP signaling are being developed as potential therapeutic options for these conditions.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that are used by neurons to communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. They are produced in the cell body of a neuron, processed from larger precursor proteins, and then transported to the nerve terminal where they are stored in secretory vesicles. When the neuron is stimulated, the vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space.

Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, depending on their target receptors and the duration of their effects. They play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including pain perception, appetite regulation, stress response, and social behavior. Some neuropeptides also have hormonal functions, such as oxytocin and vasopressin, which are produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream to regulate reproductive and cardiovascular function, respectively.

There are hundreds of different neuropeptides that have been identified in the nervous system, and many of them have multiple functions and interact with other signaling molecules to modulate neural activity. Dysregulation of neuropeptide systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as chronic pain, addiction, depression, and anxiety.

Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinases, also known as protein kinase A (PKA), are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are responsible for the regulation of various cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell growth and differentiation.

PKA is composed of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits. When cAMP binds to the regulatory subunits, it causes a conformational change that leads to the dissociation of the catalytic subunits. The freed catalytic subunits then phosphorylate specific serine and threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity.

The cAMP-dependent protein kinases are activated in response to a variety of extracellular signals, such as hormones and neurotransmitters, that bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). These signals lead to the activation of adenylyl cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. The resulting increase in intracellular cAMP levels triggers the activation of PKA and the downstream phosphorylation of target proteins.

Overall, cAMP-dependent protein kinases are essential regulators of many fundamental cellular processes and play a critical role in maintaining normal physiology and homeostasis. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Bucladesine" is not a recognized medical term or a medication in current use in medicine. It's possible that there may be some mistake or typo in the spelling. If you have any more context about where you encountered this term, I might be able to provide a more accurate and helpful response.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Adenosine is a purine nucleoside that is composed of a sugar (ribose) and the base adenine. It plays several important roles in the body, including serving as a precursor for the synthesis of other molecules such as ATP, NAD+, and RNA.

In the medical context, adenosine is perhaps best known for its use as a pharmaceutical agent to treat certain cardiac arrhythmias. When administered intravenously, it can help restore normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) by slowing conduction through the atrioventricular node and interrupting the reentry circuit responsible for the arrhythmia.

Adenosine can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help differentiate between narrow-complex tachycardias of supraventricular origin and those that originate from below the ventricles (such as ventricular tachycardia). This is because adenosine will typically terminate PSVT but not affect the rhythm of VT.

It's worth noting that adenosine has a very short half-life, lasting only a few seconds in the bloodstream. This means that its effects are rapidly reversible and generally well-tolerated, although some patients may experience transient symptoms such as flushing, chest pain, or shortness of breath.

Calmodulin is a small, ubiquitous calcium-binding protein that plays a critical role in various intracellular signaling pathways. It functions as a calcium sensor, binding to and regulating the activity of numerous target proteins upon calcium ion (Ca^2+^) binding. Calmodulin is expressed in all eukaryotic cells and participates in many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, metabolism, and cell cycle progression.

The protein contains four EF-hand motifs that can bind Ca^2+^ ions. Upon calcium binding, conformational changes occur in the calmodulin structure, exposing hydrophobic surfaces that facilitate its interaction with target proteins. Calmodulin's targets include enzymes (such as protein kinases and phosphatases), ion channels, transporters, and cytoskeletal components. By modulating the activity of these proteins, calmodulin helps regulate essential cellular functions in response to changes in intracellular Ca^2+^ concentrations.

Calmodulin's molecular weight is approximately 17 kDa, and it consists of a single polypeptide chain with 148-150 amino acid residues. The protein can be found in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of cells. In addition to its role as a calcium sensor, calmodulin has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disorders.

Alprenolol is a beta-blocker medication that is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), and various heart rhythm disorders. It works by blocking the action of certain hormones in the body, such as adrenaline, that can cause the heart to beat faster or with increased force. This helps to reduce the workload on the heart and lower blood pressure.

Alprenolol may also be used for other purposes, such as preventing migraines or treating anxiety disorders. It is available in immediate-release and extended-release tablets, and is typically taken two to three times a day. As with any medication, Alprenolol can have side effects, including dizziness, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea or diarrhea. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to report any bothersome or persistent side effects.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) receptors are a type of G-protein coupled receptor found in various tissues and organs throughout the body, including the heart, blood vessels, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and nervous system. These receptors bind to VIP, a neuropeptide that acts as a potent vasodilator, increasing blood flow and reducing vascular resistance.

There are two main types of VIP receptors: VPAC1 and VPAC2. Both receptor subtypes have similar structures and functions, but they differ in their distribution throughout the body and their sensitivity to different ligands. For example, VPAC1 is more abundant in the heart, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract, while VPAC2 is more prevalent in the nervous system and endocrine organs.

VIP receptors play important roles in regulating various physiological processes, including cardiovascular function, smooth muscle relaxation, neurotransmission, and immune response. Abnormalities in VIP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including inflammatory disorders, neurological conditions, and cancer.

In summary, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) receptors are a type of G-protein coupled receptor that bind to the neuropeptide VIP and play important roles in regulating various physiological processes throughout the body.

Purinergic receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind and respond to purines and pyrimidines, which are nucleotides and nucleosides. These receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and inflammation. There are two main types of purinergic receptors: P1 receptors, which are activated by adenosine, and P2 receptors, which are activated by ATP and other nucleotides.

P2 receptors are further divided into two subtypes: P2X and P2Y. P2X receptors are ionotropic receptors that form cation channels upon activation, allowing the flow of ions such as calcium and sodium into the cell. P2Y receptors, on the other hand, are metabotropic receptors that activate G proteins upon activation, leading to the activation or inhibition of various intracellular signaling pathways.

Purinergic receptors have been found to play a role in many diseases and conditions, including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. They are also being studied as potential targets for drug development.

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium also contributes to the structural development of bones and teeth.

In medical terms, magnesium deficiency can lead to several health issues, such as muscle cramps, weakness, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. On the other hand, excessive magnesium levels can cause symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, and muscle weakness. Magnesium supplements or magnesium-rich foods are often recommended to maintain optimal magnesium levels in the body.

Some common dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, and dairy products. Magnesium is also available in various forms as a dietary supplement, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium glycinate.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Phosphoric diester hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoric diester bonds. These enzymes are also known as phosphatases or nucleotidases. They play important roles in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of cellular activities.

Phosphoric diester hydrolases can be further classified into several subclasses based on their substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism. For example, alkaline phosphatases (ALPs) are a group of phosphoric diester hydrolases that preferentially hydrolyze phosphomonoester bonds in a variety of organic molecules, releasing phosphate ions and alcohols. On the other hand, nucleotidases are a subclass of phosphoric diester hydrolases that specifically hydrolyze the phosphodiester bonds in nucleotides, releasing nucleosides and phosphate ions.

Overall, phosphoric diester hydrolases are essential for maintaining the balance of various cellular processes by regulating the levels of phosphorylated molecules and nucleotides.

Propranolol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta blockers. Medically, it is defined as a non-selective beta blocker, which means it blocks the effects of both epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) on the heart and other organs. These effects include reducing heart rate, contractility, and conduction velocity, leading to decreased oxygen demand by the myocardium. Propranolol is used in the management of various conditions such as hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, essential tremor, anxiety disorders, and infants with congenital heart defects. It may also be used to prevent migraines and reduce the risk of future heart attacks. As with any medication, it should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and contraindications.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Second messenger systems are a type of intracellular signaling pathway that allows cells to respond to external signals, such as hormones and neurotransmitters. When an extracellular signal binds to a specific receptor on the cell membrane, it activates a G-protein or an enzyme associated with the receptor. This activation leads to the production of a second messenger molecule inside the cell, which then propagates the signal and triggers various intracellular responses.

Examples of second messengers include cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), inositol trisphosphate (IP3), diacylglycerol (DAG), and calcium ions (Ca2+). These second messengers activate or inhibit various downstream effectors, such as protein kinases, ion channels, and gene transcription factors, leading to changes in cellular functions, such as metabolism, gene expression, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis.

Second messenger systems play crucial roles in many physiological processes, including sensory perception, neurotransmission, hormonal regulation, immune response, and development. Dysregulation of these systems can contribute to various diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Fluphenazine is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the class of phenothiazines. It works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as delusions, hallucinations, and disordered thought.

Fluphenazine is available in several forms, including oral tablets, orally disintegrating tablets, and injectable solutions. It may be used for the treatment of schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, and other conditions associated with elevated levels of dopamine in the brain.

Like all antipsychotic medications, fluphenazine can cause side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as stiffness, tremors, and spasms of the face and neck muscles, as well as other systemic side effects like weight gain, sedation, and orthostatic hypotension. It is essential to use fluphenazine under the close supervision of a healthcare provider who can monitor for side effects and adjust the dosage accordingly.

A chemical stimulation in a medical context refers to the process of activating or enhancing physiological or psychological responses in the body using chemical substances. These chemicals can interact with receptors on cells to trigger specific reactions, such as neurotransmitters and hormones that transmit signals within the nervous system and endocrine system.

Examples of chemical stimulation include the use of medications, drugs, or supplements that affect mood, alertness, pain perception, or other bodily functions. For instance, caffeine can chemically stimulate the central nervous system to increase alertness and decrease feelings of fatigue. Similarly, certain painkillers can chemically stimulate opioid receptors in the brain to reduce the perception of pain.

It's important to note that while chemical stimulation can have therapeutic benefits, it can also have adverse effects if used improperly or in excessive amounts. Therefore, it's essential to follow proper dosing instructions and consult with a healthcare provider before using any chemical substances for stimulation purposes.

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is a nucleotide that is the monophosphate ester of adenosine, consisting of the nitrogenous base adenine attached to the 1' carbon atom of ribose via a β-N9-glycosidic bond, which in turn is esterified to a phosphate group. It is an important molecule in biological systems as it plays a key role in cellular energy transfer and storage, serving as a precursor to other nucleotides such as ADP and ATP. AMP is also involved in various signaling pathways and can act as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

Nucleoside diphosphate sugars (NDP-sugars) are essential activated sugars that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. They consist of a sugar molecule linked to a nucleoside diphosphate, which is formed from a nucleotide by removal of one phosphate group.

NDP-sugars are created through the action of enzymes called nucleoside diphosphate sugars synthases or transferases, which transfer a sugar molecule from a donor to a nucleoside diphosphate, forming an NDP-sugar. The resulting NDP-sugar can then be used as a substrate for various glycosyltransferases that catalyze the addition of sugars to other molecules, such as proteins or lipids.

NDP-sugars are involved in many important biological processes, including cell signaling, protein targeting, and immune response. They also play a critical role in maintaining the structural integrity of cells and tissues.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Guanosine diphosphate (GDP) is a nucleotide that consists of a guanine base, a sugar molecule called ribose, and two phosphate groups. It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the hydroxy group of the ribose sugar at the 5' position. GDP plays a crucial role as a secondary messenger in intracellular signaling pathways and also serves as an important intermediate in the synthesis of various biomolecules, such as proteins and polysaccharides.

In cells, GDP is formed from the hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by enzymes called GTPases, which convert GTP to GDP and release energy that can be used to power various cellular processes. The conversion of GDP back to GTP can be facilitated by nucleotide diphosphate kinases, allowing for the recycling of these nucleotides within the cell.

It is important to note that while guanosine diphosphate has a significant role in biochemical processes, it is not typically associated with medical conditions or diseases directly. However, understanding its function and regulation can provide valuable insights into various physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms.

Blood platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, colorless cell fragments in our blood that play an essential role in normal blood clotting. They are formed in the bone marrow from large cells called megakaryocytes and circulate in the blood in an inactive state until they are needed to help stop bleeding. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets become activated and change shape, releasing chemicals that attract more platelets to the site of injury. These activated platelets then stick together to form a plug, or clot, that seals the wound and prevents further blood loss. In addition to their role in clotting, platelets also help to promote healing by releasing growth factors that stimulate the growth of new tissue.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

"Competitive binding" is a term used in pharmacology and biochemistry to describe the behavior of two or more molecules (ligands) competing for the same binding site on a target protein or receptor. In this context, "binding" refers to the physical interaction between a ligand and its target.

When a ligand binds to a receptor, it can alter the receptor's function, either activating or inhibiting it. If multiple ligands compete for the same binding site, they will compete to bind to the receptor. The ability of each ligand to bind to the receptor is influenced by its affinity for the receptor, which is a measure of how strongly and specifically the ligand binds to the receptor.

In competitive binding, if one ligand is present in high concentrations, it can prevent other ligands with lower affinity from binding to the receptor. This is because the higher-affinity ligand will have a greater probability of occupying the binding site and blocking access to the other ligands. The competition between ligands can be described mathematically using equations such as the Langmuir isotherm, which describes the relationship between the concentration of ligand and the fraction of receptors that are occupied by the ligand.

Competitive binding is an important concept in drug development, as it can be used to predict how different drugs will interact with their targets and how they may affect each other's activity. By understanding the competitive binding properties of a drug, researchers can optimize its dosage and delivery to maximize its therapeutic effect while minimizing unwanted side effects.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Adrenergic beta-agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. These receptors are part of the sympathetic nervous system and mediate the effects of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline) and the hormone epinephrine (also called adrenaline).

When beta-agonists bind to these receptors, they stimulate a range of physiological responses, including relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways, increased heart rate and contractility, and increased metabolic rate. As a result, adrenergic beta-agonists are often used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis, as they can help to dilate the airways and improve breathing.

There are several different types of beta-agonists, including short-acting and long-acting formulations. Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) are typically used for quick relief of symptoms, while long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) are used for more sustained symptom control. Examples of adrenergic beta-agonists include albuterol (also known as salbutamol), terbutaline, formoterol, and salmeterol.

It's worth noting that while adrenergic beta-agonists can be very effective in treating respiratory conditions, they can also have side effects, particularly if used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time. These may include tremors, anxiety, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. As with any medication, it's important to use adrenergic beta-agonists only as directed by a healthcare professional.

Manganese is not a medical condition, but it's an essential trace element that is vital for human health. Here is the medical definition of Manganese:

Manganese (Mn) is a trace mineral that is present in tiny amounts in the body. It is found mainly in bones, the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Manganese helps the body form connective tissue, bones, blood clotting factors, and sex hormones. It also plays a role in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption, and blood sugar regulation. Manganese is also necessary for normal brain and nerve function.

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for manganese is 2.3 mg per day for adult men and 1.8 mg per day for adult women. Good food sources of manganese include nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, and tea.

In some cases, exposure to high levels of manganese can cause neurological symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease, a condition known as manganism. However, this is rare and usually occurs in people who are occupationally exposed to manganese dust or fumes, such as welders.

GTP-binding protein alpha subunits, Gs, are a type of heterotrimeric G proteins that play a crucial role in the transmission of signals within cells. These proteins are composed of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. The alpha subunit of Gs proteins (Gs-alpha) is responsible for activating adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP), a secondary messenger involved in various cellular processes.

When a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is activated by an extracellular signal, it interacts with and activates the Gs protein. This activation causes the exchange of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) bound to the alpha subunit with guanosine triphosphate (GTP). The GTP-bound Gs-alpha then dissociates from the beta-gamma subunits and interacts with adenylyl cyclase, activating it and leading to an increase in cAMP levels. This signaling cascade ultimately results in various cellular responses, such as changes in gene expression, metabolism, or cell growth and differentiation.

It is important to note that mutations in the GNAS gene, which encodes the Gs-alpha subunit, can lead to several endocrine and non-endocrine disorders, such as McCune-Albright syndrome, fibrous dysplasia, and various hormone-related diseases.

An erythrocyte, also known as a red blood cell, is a type of cell that circulates in the blood and is responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. The erythrocyte membrane refers to the thin, flexible barrier that surrounds the erythrocyte and helps to maintain its shape and stability.

The erythrocyte membrane is composed of a lipid bilayer, which contains various proteins and carbohydrates. These components help to regulate the movement of molecules into and out of the erythrocyte, as well as provide structural support and protection for the cell.

The main lipids found in the erythrocyte membrane are phospholipids and cholesterol, which are arranged in a bilayer structure with the hydrophilic (water-loving) heads facing outward and the hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails facing inward. This arrangement helps to maintain the integrity of the membrane and prevent the leakage of cellular components.

The proteins found in the erythrocyte membrane include integral proteins, which span the entire width of the membrane, and peripheral proteins, which are attached to the inner or outer surface of the membrane. These proteins play a variety of roles, such as transporting molecules across the membrane, maintaining the shape of the erythrocyte, and interacting with other cells and proteins in the body.

The carbohydrates found in the erythrocyte membrane are attached to the outer surface of the membrane and help to identify the cell as part of the body's own immune system. They also play a role in cell-cell recognition and adhesion.

Overall, the erythrocyte membrane is a complex and dynamic structure that plays a critical role in maintaining the function and integrity of red blood cells.

In the field of organic chemistry, imines are a class of compounds that contain a functional group with the general structure =CR-NR', where C=R and R' can be either alkyl or aryl groups. Imines are also commonly referred to as Schiff bases. They are formed by the condensation of an aldehyde or ketone with a primary amine, resulting in the loss of a molecule of water.

It is important to note that imines do not have a direct medical application, but they can be used as intermediates in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and bioactive compounds. Additionally, some imines have been found to exhibit biological activity, such as antimicrobial or anticancer properties. However, these are areas of ongoing research and development.

Adenine nucleotides are molecules that consist of a nitrogenous base called adenine, which is linked to a sugar molecule (ribose in the case of adenosine monophosphate or AMP, and deoxyribose in the case of adenosine diphosphate or ADP and adenosine triphosphate or ATP) and one, two, or three phosphate groups. These molecules play a crucial role in energy transfer and metabolism within cells.

AMP contains one phosphate group, while ADP contains two phosphate groups, and ATP contains three phosphate groups. When a phosphate group is removed from ATP, energy is released, which can be used to power various cellular processes such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. The reverse reaction, in which a phosphate group is added back to ADP or AMP to form ATP, requires energy input and often involves the breakdown of nutrients such as glucose or fatty acids.

In addition to their role in energy metabolism, adenine nucleotides also serve as precursors for other important molecules, including DNA and RNA, coenzymes, and signaling molecules.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind and respond to catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Alpha adrenergic receptors (α-ARs) are a subtype of adrenergic receptors that are classified into two main categories: α1-ARs and α2-ARs.

The activation of α1-ARs leads to the activation of phospholipase C, which results in an increase in intracellular calcium levels and the activation of various signaling pathways that mediate diverse physiological responses such as vasoconstriction, smooth muscle contraction, and cell proliferation.

On the other hand, α2-ARs are primarily located on presynaptic nerve terminals where they function to inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine. The activation of α2-ARs also leads to the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and a decrease in intracellular cAMP levels, which can mediate various physiological responses such as sedation, analgesia, and hypotension.

Overall, α-ARs play important roles in regulating various physiological functions, including cardiovascular function, mood, and cognition, and are also involved in the pathophysiology of several diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE inhibitors) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of phosphodiesterase enzymes, which are responsible for breaking down cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), two crucial intracellular signaling molecules.

By inhibiting these enzymes, PDE inhibitors increase the concentration of cAMP and cGMP in the cells, leading to a variety of effects depending on the specific type of PDE enzyme that is inhibited. These drugs have been used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as erectile dysfunction, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and heart failure.

Examples of PDE inhibitors include sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), vardenafil (Levitra) for erectile dysfunction, and iloprost, treprostinil, and sildenafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension. It's important to note that different PDE inhibitors have varying levels of selectivity for specific PDE isoforms, which can result in different therapeutic effects and side effect profiles.

Phosphotransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. This reaction is essential for various cellular processes, including energy metabolism, signal transduction, and biosynthesis.

The systematic name for this group of enzymes is phosphotransferase, which is derived from the general reaction they catalyze: D-donor + A-acceptor = D-donor minus phosphate + A-phosphate. The donor molecule can be a variety of compounds, such as ATP or a phosphorylated protein, while the acceptor molecule is typically a compound that becomes phosphorylated during the reaction.

Phosphotransferases are classified into several subgroups based on the type of donor and acceptor molecules they act upon. For example, kinases are a subgroup of phosphotransferases that transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein or other organic compound. Phosphatases, another subgroup, remove phosphate groups from molecules by transferring them to water.

Overall, phosphotransferases play a critical role in regulating many cellular functions and are important targets for drug development in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Trifluoperazine is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the class of drugs called phenothiazines. It works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain, and helps to reduce symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and disordered thought. Trifluoperazine may also be used to manage anxiety or agitation in certain medical conditions. It is available in the form of tablets for oral administration. As with any medication, trifluoperazine should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and risks associated with its use.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

ADP-ribosyl cyclase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR). This enzyme plays a role in intracellular signaling, particularly in calcium mobilization in various cell types including immune cells and neurons. The regulation of this enzyme has been implicated in several physiological processes as well as in the pathophysiology of some diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

Iloprost is a synthetic analogue of prostacyclin, a naturally occurring substance in the body. It is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called vasodilators, which work by relaxing and widening blood vessels. Iloprost is used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a condition characterized by high blood pressure in the arteries that supply blood to the lungs. By dilating these blood vessels, iloprost helps reduce the workload on the heart and improve symptoms associated with PAH such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and dizziness.

Iloprost is administered through inhalation using a nebulizer, typically several times a day. It may also be used to prevent or treat episodes of digital ischemia, a condition that causes reduced blood flow to the fingers and toes, leading to pain and tissue damage.

It's important to note that while iloprost can help manage symptoms of PAH and digital ischemia, it does not cure these conditions. Close monitoring by a healthcare provider is necessary to ensure safe and effective use of this medication.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hybrid cells" is not a standard medical term with a widely accepted or specific definition in the field of medicine. The term "hybrid" is used in various scientific and medical contexts to describe combinations or mixtures of different elements, such as hybridoma cells (a type of fusion cell used in research, created by combining a B cell and a tumor cell) or hybridization (in genetics, the process of combining DNA from two different sources).

Without more specific context, it's difficult to provide an accurate medical definition for "hybrid cells." If you could provide more information about the context in which this term was used, I would be happy to help you further!

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind and respond to PACAP, a neuropeptide involved in various physiological functions such as neurotransmission, vasodilation, and hormone release. There are two main types of PACAP receptors: PAC1 and VPAC1/VPAC2. These receptors play important roles in the regulation of various bodily processes, including the stress response, circadian rhythms, and energy metabolism. Upon activation by PACAP, these receptors trigger a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of adenylate cyclase and an increase in intracellular cAMP levels, which in turn regulates various cellular responses.

Enkephalins are naturally occurring opioid peptides in the body that bind to opiate receptors and help reduce pain and produce a sense of well-being. There are several different types of enkephalins, including Leu-enkephalin and Met-enkephalin, which differ based on their amino acid sequence.

Leucine-enkephalin (Leu-Enk) is a specific type of enkephalin that contains the amino acids tyrosine, glycine, glutamic acid, leucine, and methionine in its sequence. The Leucine-2-Alanine variant of Leu-Enk refers to a synthetic form of this peptide where the leucine at position 2 is replaced with alanine. This modification can affect the stability, activity, and pharmacological properties of the enkephalin molecule.

It's important to note that while Leu-Enk and its analogs have potential therapeutic applications in pain management, they are also subject to abuse and addiction due to their opioid properties. Therefore, their use is tightly regulated and requires careful medical supervision.

Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone that helps regulate water balance in the body. It is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. When the body is dehydrated or experiencing low blood pressure, vasopressin is released into the bloodstream, where it causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of urine they produce and helps to constrict blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. This helps to maintain adequate fluid volume in the body and ensure that vital organs receive an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood. In addition to its role in water balance and blood pressure regulation, vasopressin also plays a role in social behaviors such as pair bonding and trust.

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) sugars, also known as sugar nucleotides, are molecules that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. These molecules consist of a sugar molecule, usually glucose or galactose, linked to a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP).

The ADP portion of the molecule provides the energy needed for the transfer of the sugar moiety to other molecules during the process of glycosylation. The reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called glycosyltransferases, which transfer the sugar from the ADP-sugar donor to an acceptor molecule, such as a protein or lipid.

ADP-sugars are important in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signal transduction, and protein folding. Abnormalities in the metabolism of ADP-sugars have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders.

A Leydig cell tumor is a rare type of sex cord-stromal tumor that arises from the Leydig cells (interstitial cells) of the testis in males or ovarian tissue in females. These cells are responsible for producing androgens, particularly testosterone.

Leydig cell tumors can occur at any age but are most common in middle-aged to older men. In women, they are extremely rare and usually found in postmenopausal women. Most Leydig cell tumors are benign (noncancerous), but about 10% can be malignant (cancerous) and have the potential to spread to other parts of the body.

Symptoms of a Leydig cell tumor may include:

* A painless testicular or ovarian mass
* Gynecomastia (enlargement of breast tissue in men) due to increased estrogen production
* Early puberty in children
* Decreased libido and erectile dysfunction in men
* Irregular menstrual cycles in women

Diagnosis is usually made through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, followed by a biopsy to confirm the presence of a Leydig cell tumor. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, and additional therapies such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy may be recommended for malignant tumors. Regular follow-up is necessary to monitor for recurrence.

Prostaglandin receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind and respond to prostaglandins, which are hormone-like lipid compounds that play important roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes in the body. Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid by the action of enzymes called cyclooxygenases (COX) and are released by many different cell types in response to various stimuli.

There are four major subfamilies of prostaglandin receptors, designated as DP, EP, FP, and IP, each of which binds specifically to one or more prostaglandins with high affinity. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which means that they activate intracellular signaling pathways through the interaction with heterotrimeric G proteins.

The activation of prostaglandin receptors can lead to a variety of cellular responses, including changes in ion channel activity, enzyme activation, and gene expression. These responses can have important consequences for many physiological processes, such as inflammation, pain perception, blood flow regulation, and platelet aggregation.

Prostaglandin receptors are also targets for various drugs used in clinical medicine, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and prostaglandin analogs. NSAIDs work by inhibiting the enzymes that synthesize prostaglandins, while prostaglandin analogs are synthetic compounds that mimic the effects of natural prostaglandins by activating specific prostaglandin receptors.

In summary, prostaglandin receptors are a class of cell surface receptors that bind and respond to prostaglandins, which are important signaling molecules involved in various physiological processes. These receptors are targets for various drugs used in clinical medicine and play a critical role in the regulation of many bodily functions.

Prostaglandins are naturally occurring, lipid-derived hormones that play various important roles in the human body. They are produced in nearly every tissue in response to injury or infection, and they have diverse effects depending on the site of release and the type of prostaglandin. Some of their functions include:

1. Regulation of inflammation: Prostaglandins contribute to the inflammatory response by increasing vasodilation, promoting fluid accumulation, and sensitizing pain receptors, which can lead to symptoms such as redness, heat, swelling, and pain.
2. Modulation of gastrointestinal functions: Prostaglandins protect the stomach lining from acid secretion and promote mucus production, maintaining the integrity of the gastric mucosa. They also regulate intestinal motility and secretion.
3. Control of renal function: Prostaglandins help regulate blood flow to the kidneys, maintain sodium balance, and control renin release, which affects blood pressure and fluid balance.
4. Regulation of smooth muscle contraction: Prostaglandins can cause both relaxation and contraction of smooth muscles in various tissues, such as the uterus, bronchioles, and vascular system.
5. Modulation of platelet aggregation: Some prostaglandins inhibit platelet aggregation, preventing blood clots from forming too quickly or becoming too large.
6. Reproductive system regulation: Prostaglandins are involved in the menstrual cycle, ovulation, and labor induction by promoting uterine contractions.
7. Neurotransmission: Prostaglandins can modulate neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability, affecting pain perception, mood, and cognition.

Prostaglandins exert their effects through specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) found on the surface of target cells. There are several distinct types of prostaglandins (PGs), including PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2 (prostacyclin), and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Each type has unique functions and acts through specific receptors. Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from membrane phospholipids, by the action of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen, inhibit COX activity, reducing prostaglandin synthesis and providing analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Catecholamines are a group of hormones and neurotransmitters that are derived from the amino acid tyrosine. The most well-known catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline), and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline). These hormones are produced by the adrenal glands and are released into the bloodstream in response to stress. They play important roles in the "fight or flight" response, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness. In addition to their role as hormones, catecholamines also function as neurotransmitters, transmitting signals in the nervous system. Disorders of catecholamine regulation can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension, mood disorders, and neurological disorders.

Lypressin is a synthetic analogue of a natural hormone called vasopressin, which is produced by the pituitary gland in the brain. The primary function of vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is to regulate water balance in the body by controlling the amount of urine produced by the kidneys.

Lypressin has similar physiological effects to vasopressin and is used in medical treatments for conditions related to the regulation of water balance, such as diabetes insipidus. Diabetes insipidus is a condition characterized by excessive thirst and the production of large amounts of dilute urine due to a deficiency in vasopressin or an impaired response to it.

In summary, Lypressin is a synthetic form of vasopressin, a hormone that helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production in the kidneys. It is used as a therapeutic agent for treating diabetes insipidus and related conditions.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

GTP (Guanosine Triphosphate) Phosphohydrolases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP (Guanosine Diphosphate) and inorganic phosphate. This reaction plays a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, protein synthesis, and vesicle trafficking.

The human genome encodes several different types of GTP Phosphohydrolases, such as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), GTPase effectors, and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These enzymes share a common mechanism of action, in which they utilize the energy released from GTP hydrolysis to drive conformational changes that enable them to interact with downstream effector molecules and modulate their activity.

Dysregulation of GTP Phosphohydrolases has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of these enzymes is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Somatostatin is a hormone that inhibits the release of several hormones and also has a role in slowing down digestion. It is produced by the body in various parts of the body, including the hypothalamus (a part of the brain), the pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract.

Somatostatin exists in two forms: somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28, which differ in their length. Somatostatin-14 is the predominant form found in the brain, while somatostatin-28 is the major form found in the gastrointestinal tract.

Somatostatin has a wide range of effects on various physiological processes, including:

* Inhibiting the release of several hormones such as growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, and gastrin
* Slowing down digestion by inhibiting the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and reducing blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract
* Regulating neurotransmission in the brain

Somatostatin is used clinically as a diagnostic tool for detecting certain types of tumors that overproduce growth hormone or other hormones, and it is also used as a treatment for some conditions such as acromegaly (a condition characterized by excessive growth hormone production) and gastrointestinal disorders.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist, which means it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system by mimicking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in transmitting signals between nerves and muscles. Carbachol binds to both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, but its effects are more pronounced on muscarinic receptors.

Carbachol is used in medical treatments to produce miosis (pupil constriction), lower intraocular pressure, and stimulate gastrointestinal motility. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to test for certain conditions such as Hirschsprung's disease.

Like any medication, carbachol can have side effects, including sweating, salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bradycardia (slow heart rate), and bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways in the lungs). It should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body. It is produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are four small endocrine glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland.

The primary function of PTH is to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood by increasing calcium absorption from the gut, mobilizing calcium from bones, and decreasing calcium excretion by the kidneys. PTH also increases phosphate excretion by the kidneys, which helps to lower serum phosphate levels.

In addition to its role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, PTH has been shown to have anabolic effects on bone tissue, stimulating bone formation and preventing bone loss. However, chronic elevations in PTH levels can lead to excessive bone resorption and osteoporosis.

Overall, Parathyroid Hormone is a critical hormone that helps maintain mineral homeostasis and supports healthy bone metabolism.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) Type II receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to and are activated by the neuropeptide Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, blood vessels, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system.

VIP is a potent vasodilator and inhibits the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland. VIP type II receptors are involved in regulating a variety of physiological functions, including smooth muscle relaxation, fluid and electrolyte balance, and neurotransmission.

VIP type II receptors differ from VIP type I receptors (also known as pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor) in their tissue distribution, signaling pathways, and pharmacological properties. Activation of VIP type II receptors primarily leads to the activation of adenylyl cyclase and an increase in intracellular cAMP levels, which in turn regulates various cellular responses.

Abnormalities in VIP type II receptor function have been implicated in several diseases, including cardiovascular disease, respiratory disorders, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Therefore, VIP type II receptors are a potential target for the development of therapeutic agents to treat these conditions.

Muscarinic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that bind to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. They are found in various organ systems, including the nervous system, cardiovascular system, and respiratory system. Muscarinic receptors are activated by muscarine, a type of alkaloid found in certain mushrooms, and are classified into five subtypes (M1-M5) based on their pharmacological properties and signaling pathways.

Muscarinic receptors play an essential role in regulating various physiological functions, such as heart rate, smooth muscle contraction, glandular secretion, and cognitive processes. Activation of M1, M3, and M5 muscarinic receptors leads to the activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and the production of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG), which increase intracellular calcium levels and activate protein kinase C (PKC). Activation of M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors inhibits adenylyl cyclase, reducing the production of cAMP and modulating ion channel activity.

In summary, muscarinic receptors are a type of GPCR that binds to acetylcholine and regulates various physiological functions in different organ systems. They are classified into five subtypes based on their pharmacological properties and signaling pathways.

Epoprostenol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called prostaglandins. It is a synthetic analog of a natural substance in the body called prostacyclin, which widens blood vessels and has anti-platelet effects. Epoprostenol is used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a condition characterized by high blood pressure in the arteries that supply blood to the lungs.

Epoprostenol works by relaxing the smooth muscle in the walls of the pulmonary arteries, which reduces the resistance to blood flow and lowers the pressure within these vessels. This helps improve symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain, and can also prolong survival in people with PAH.

Epoprostenol is administered continuously through a small pump that delivers the medication directly into the bloodstream. It is a potent vasodilator, which means it can cause a sudden drop in blood pressure if not given carefully. Therefore, it is usually started in a hospital setting under close medical supervision.

Common side effects of epoprostenol include headache, flushing, jaw pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle or joint pain. More serious side effects can include bleeding, infection at the site of the catheter, and an allergic reaction to the medication.

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a chemical compound that plays a crucial role in energy transfer within cells. It is a nucleotide, which consists of a adenosine molecule (a sugar molecule called ribose attached to a nitrogenous base called adenine) and two phosphate groups.

In the cell, ADP functions as an intermediate in the conversion of energy from one form to another. When a high-energy phosphate bond in ADP is broken, energy is released and ADP is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which serves as the main energy currency of the cell. Conversely, when ATP donates a phosphate group to another molecule, it is converted back to ADP, releasing energy for the cell to use.

ADP also plays a role in blood clotting and other physiological processes. In the coagulation cascade, ADP released from damaged red blood cells can help activate platelets and initiate the formation of a blood clot.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hormone receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of cells in the gastrointestinal tract. These receptors recognize and respond to specific hormones that are released by enteroendocrine cells in the GI tract. Examples of GI hormones include gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK), motilin, and ghrelin.

When a GI hormone binds to its specific receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in cell function. These changes can include increased or decreased secretion of digestive enzymes, altered motility (movement) of the GI tract, and regulation of appetite and satiety.

Abnormalities in GI hormone receptors have been implicated in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, including functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, and obesity. Therefore, understanding the role of these receptors in GI physiology and pathophysiology is an important area of research.

Biological toxins are poisonous substances that are produced by living organisms such as bacteria, plants, and animals. They can cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment. Biological toxins can be classified into different categories based on their mode of action, such as neurotoxins (affecting the nervous system), cytotoxins (damaging cells), and enterotoxins (causing intestinal damage).

Examples of biological toxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria, ricin toxin from the castor bean plant, and saxitoxin produced by certain types of marine algae.

Biological toxins can cause a range of symptoms depending on the type and amount of toxin ingested or exposed to, as well as the route of exposure (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, skin contact). They can cause illnesses ranging from mild to severe, and some can be fatal if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prevention and control measures for biological toxins include good hygiene practices, vaccination against certain toxin-producing bacteria, avoidance of contaminated food or water sources, and personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling or working with potential sources of toxins.

Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine-threonine kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are activated by second messengers such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), which result from the activation of cell surface receptors like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs).

Once activated, PKC proteins phosphorylate downstream target proteins, thereby modulating their activities. This regulation is involved in numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and membrane trafficking. There are at least 10 isoforms of PKC, classified into three subfamilies based on their second messenger requirements and structural features: conventional (cPKC; α, βI, βII, and γ), novel (nPKC; δ, ε, η, and θ), and atypical (aPKC; ζ and ι/λ). Dysregulation of PKC signaling has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

Secretin is a hormone that is produced and released by the S cells in the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. It is released in response to the presence of acidic chyme (partially digested food) entering the duodenum from the stomach. Secretin stimulates the pancreas to produce bicarbonate-rich alkaline secretions, which help neutralize the acidity of the chyme and create an optimal environment for enzymatic digestion in the small intestine.

Additionally, secretin also promotes the production of watery fluids from the liver, which aids in the digestion process. Overall, secretin plays a crucial role in maintaining the pH balance and facilitating proper nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract.

The myocardium is the middle layer of the heart wall, composed of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It forms the thickest part of the heart wall and is divided into two sections: the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The myocardium contains several types of cells, including cardiac muscle fibers, connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. The muscle fibers are arranged in a highly organized pattern that allows them to contract in a coordinated manner, generating the force necessary to pump blood through the heart and circulatory system.

Damage to the myocardium can occur due to various factors such as ischemia (reduced blood flow), infection, inflammation, or genetic disorders. This damage can lead to several cardiac conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

Cyclic AMP (Adenosine Monophosphate) receptors are a type of membrane receptor that play an essential role in intracellular signaling pathways. They belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are characterized by their seven transmembrane domains.

Cyclic AMP is a second messenger, a molecule that relays signals from hormones and neurotransmitters within cells. When an extracellular signaling molecule binds to the receptor, it activates a G protein, which in turn triggers the enzyme adenylyl cyclase to convert ATP into cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various downstream effectors, such as protein kinases, ion channels, and transcription factors, ultimately leading to changes in cellular function.

There are two main types of cAMP receptors: stimulatory G protein-coupled receptors (Gs) and inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors (Gi). The activation of Gs receptors leads to an increase in cAMP levels, while the activation of Gi receptors results in a decrease in cAMP levels.

Examples of hormones and neurotransmitters that act through cAMP receptors include adrenaline, glucagon, dopamine, serotonin, and histamine. Dysregulation of cAMP signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.

The caudate nucleus is a part of the brain located within the basal ganglia, a group of structures that are important for movement control and cognition. It has a distinctive C-shaped appearance and plays a role in various functions such as learning, memory, emotion, and motivation. The caudate nucleus receives inputs from several areas of the cerebral cortex and sends outputs to other basal ganglia structures, contributing to the regulation of motor behavior and higher cognitive processes.

Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) is defined as a pharmacological agent that is a derivative of the phorbol ester family. It is a potent tumor promoter and activator of protein kinase C (PKC), a group of enzymes that play a role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, proliferation, and differentiation. TPA has been widely used in research to study PKC-mediated signaling pathways and its role in cancer development and progression. It is also used in topical treatments for skin conditions such as psoriasis.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

Dopamine receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to and respond to the neurotransmitter dopamine. There are five subtypes of dopamine receptors (D1-D5), which are classified into two families based on their structure and function: D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4).

Dopamine receptors play a crucial role in various physiological processes, including movement, motivation, reward, cognition, emotion, and neuroendocrine regulation. They are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, with high concentrations found in the basal ganglia, limbic system, and cortex.

Dysfunction of dopamine receptors has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), drug addiction, and depression. Therefore, drugs targeting dopamine receptors have been developed for the treatment of these conditions.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Neuroblastoma is defined as a type of cancer that develops from immature nerve cells found in the fetal or early postnatal period, called neuroblasts. It typically occurs in infants and young children, with around 90% of cases diagnosed before age five. The tumors often originate in the adrenal glands but can also arise in the neck, chest, abdomen, or spine. Neuroblastoma is characterized by its ability to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, including bones, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and skin. The severity and prognosis of neuroblastoma can vary widely, depending on factors such as the patient's age at diagnosis, stage of the disease, and specific genetic features of the tumor.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

An azide is a chemical compound that contains the functional group -N=N+=N-, which consists of three nitrogen atoms joined by covalent bonds. In organic chemistry, azides are often used as reagents in various chemical reactions, such as the azide-alkyne cycloaddition (also known as the "click reaction").

In medical terminology, azides may refer to a class of drugs that contain an azido group and are used for their pharmacological effects. For example, sodium nitroprusside is a vasodilator drug that contains an azido group and is used to treat hypertensive emergencies.

However, it's worth noting that azides can also be toxic and potentially explosive under certain conditions, so they must be handled with care in laboratory settings.

Dinoprostone is a prostaglandin E2 analog used in medical practice for the induction of labor and ripening of the cervix in pregnant women. It is available in various forms, including vaginal suppositories, gel, and tablets. Dinoprostone works by stimulating the contraction of uterine muscles and promoting cervical dilation, which helps in facilitating a successful delivery.

It's important to note that dinoprostone should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as its use is associated with certain risks and side effects, including uterine hyperstimulation, fetal distress, and maternal infection. The dosage and duration of treatment are carefully monitored to minimize these risks and ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Guanylate cyclase-coupled receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that play a role in various physiological processes within the body. These receptors have an intrinsic enzymatic activity and function as bifunctional proteins, acting both as receptors and enzymes.

When a ligand (a molecule that binds to a receptor) binds to the extracellular domain of a guanylate cyclase-coupled receptor, it triggers a conformational change in the receptor's structure. This structural change activates the intracellular domain of the receptor, which possesses guanylate cyclase activity.

Activated guanylate cyclase catalyzes the conversion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a second messenger molecule that mediates various cellular responses, such as smooth muscle relaxation, regulation of ion channels, and control of cell growth and differentiation.

Examples of guanylate cyclase-coupled receptors include the natriuretic peptide receptors (NPR-A and NPR-B) and the membrane guanylate cyclases (mGCs), which are further divided into several subtypes based on their structural and functional characteristics.

In summary, guanylate cyclase-coupled receptors are a class of cell surface receptors that, upon ligand binding, activate intracellular guanylate cyclase activity to produce cGMP, thereby mediating various downstream physiological responses.

I'm sorry for the confusion, but "Peptide PHI" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems that there might be some misunderstanding or miscommunication related to this term.

If you are referring to a specific type of peptide or a research study, could you please provide more context or clarify the source of the term? I would be happy to help you with accurate and reliable information once I have a better understanding of what you are asking about.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

In medical terms, membranes refer to thin layers of tissue that cover or line various structures in the body. They are composed of connective tissue and epithelial cells, and they can be found lining the outer surface of the body, internal organs, blood vessels, and nerves. There are several types of membranes in the human body, including:

1. Serous Membranes: These membranes line the inside of body cavities and cover the organs contained within them. They produce a lubricating fluid that reduces friction between the organ and the cavity wall. Examples include the pleura (lungs), pericardium (heart), and peritoneum (abdominal cavity).
2. Mucous Membranes: These membranes line the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts, as well as the inner surface of the eyelids and the nasal passages. They produce mucus to trap particles, bacteria, and other substances, which helps protect the body from infection.
3. Synovial Membranes: These membranes line the joint cavities and produce synovial fluid, which lubricates the joints and allows for smooth movement.
4. Meninges: These are three layers of membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord. They include the dura mater (outermost layer), arachnoid mater (middle layer), and pia mater (innermost layer).
5. Amniotic Membrane: This is a thin, transparent membrane that surrounds and protects the fetus during pregnancy. It produces amniotic fluid, which provides a cushion for the developing baby and helps regulate its temperature.

Ethylmaleimide is a chemical compound that is commonly used in research and scientific studies. Its chemical formula is C7H10N2S. It is known to modify proteins by forming covalent bonds with them, which can alter their function or structure. This property makes it a useful tool in the study of protein function and interactions.

In a medical context, Ethylmaleimide is not used as a therapeutic agent due to its reactivity and potential toxicity. However, it has been used in research to investigate various physiological processes, including the regulation of ion channels and the modulation of enzyme activity. It is important to note that the use of Ethylmaleimide in medical research should be carried out with appropriate precautions and safety measures due to its potential hazards.

Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP) Type I receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to and are activated by the neuropeptide Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the body, including in the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system.

VIP is a potent vasodilator, meaning that it causes blood vessels to relax and widen, which can lead to a decrease in blood pressure. VIP receptors are involved in regulating various physiological functions, including smooth muscle relaxation, fluid and electrolyte secretion, and immune cell function.

Type I VIP receptors (also known as VPAC1 receptors) have a high affinity for VIP and another neuropeptide called pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). When activated, these receptors stimulate the production of intracellular second messengers such as cAMP, which can lead to a variety of cellular responses.

Defects in VIP Type I receptor function have been implicated in several diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and certain types of cancer.

Oxotremorine is a muscarinic receptor agonist, which means it binds to and activates muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. These receptors are found in the central and peripheral nervous system and are involved in various physiological functions, including cognition, motivation, reward, motor control, and sensory processing.

Oxotremorine is primarily used in research settings to study the role of muscarinic receptors in different physiological processes and diseases. It has been shown to produce effects similar to those caused by natural neurotransmitter acetylcholine, such as increased salivation, sweating, and gastrointestinal motility.

In addition, oxotremorine has been investigated for its potential therapeutic use in the treatment of various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. However, its clinical use is limited due to its side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or physical activity. It plays a crucial role in the "fight-or-flight" response by preparing the body for action through increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and glucose availability.

As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine is involved in regulating various functions of the nervous system, including attention, perception, motivation, and arousal. It also plays a role in modulating pain perception and responding to stressful or emotional situations.

In medical settings, norepinephrine is used as a vasopressor medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) that can occur during septic shock, anesthesia, or other critical illnesses. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to improve blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule made up of one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom. In the body, it is a crucial signaling molecule involved in various physiological processes such as vasodilation, immune response, neurotransmission, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. It is produced naturally by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from the amino acid L-arginine. Inhaled nitric oxide is used medically to treat pulmonary hypertension in newborns and adults, as it helps to relax and widen blood vessels, improving oxygenation and blood flow.

Adenine is a purine nucleotide base that is a fundamental component of DNA and RNA, the genetic material of living organisms. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine via double hydrogen bonds, while in RNA, it pairs with uracil. Adenine is essential for the structure and function of nucleic acids, as well as for energy transfer reactions in cells through its role in the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy currency of the cell.

Calcitonin is a hormone that is produced and released by the parafollicular cells (also known as C cells) of the thyroid gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating calcium homeostasis in the body. Specifically, it helps to lower elevated levels of calcium in the blood by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, which are bone cells that break down bone tissue and release calcium into the bloodstream. Calcitonin also promotes the uptake of calcium in the bones and increases the excretion of calcium in the urine.

Calcitonin is typically released in response to high levels of calcium in the blood, and its effects help to bring calcium levels back into balance. In addition to its role in calcium regulation, calcitonin may also have other functions in the body, such as modulating immune function and reducing inflammation.

Clinically, synthetic forms of calcitonin are sometimes used as a medication to treat conditions related to abnormal calcium levels, such as hypercalcemia (high blood calcium) or osteoporosis. Calcitonin can be administered as an injection, nasal spray, or oral tablet, depending on the specific formulation and intended use.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to and respond to parathyroid hormone, a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including bone, kidney, and intestine.

The PTH receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, which consists of seven transmembrane domains. When PTH binds to the receptor, it activates a signaling pathway that leads to increased calcium levels in the blood. In bone, activation of PTH receptors stimulates the release of calcium from bone matrix, while in the kidney, it increases the reabsorption of calcium from the urine and decreases the excretion of phosphate.

In the intestine, PTH receptors play a role in the regulation of vitamin D metabolism, which is important for calcium absorption. Overall, the activation of PTH receptors helps to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood and regulate bone metabolism.

Epoprostenol receptors, also known as prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) receptors, are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to and are activated by the endogenous prostaglandin Epoprostenol. These receptors play a crucial role in regulating various physiological functions, including vasodilation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and bronchodilation.

Epoprostenol is a potent vasodilator that acts by relaxing the smooth muscle cells in the walls of blood vessels, leading to an increase in blood flow and a decrease in blood pressure. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, which helps prevent the formation of blood clots. Additionally, epoprostenol can cause bronchodilation, or relaxation of the muscles in the airways, making it useful in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

Epoprostenol receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the vascular endothelium, platelets, and lung tissue. Activation of these receptors leads to a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in the physiological effects of epoprostenol.

In summary, Epoprostenol receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that bind to and are activated by epoprostenol, leading to vasodilation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and bronchodilation. These receptors play a critical role in regulating various physiological functions throughout the body.

Affinity labels are chemical probes or reagents that can selectively and covalently bind to a specific protein or biomolecule based on its biological function or activity. These labels contain a functional group that interacts with the target molecule, often through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces, or ionic bonds. Once bound, the label then forms a covalent bond with the target molecule, allowing for its isolation and further study.

Affinity labels are commonly used in biochemistry and molecular biology research to identify and characterize specific proteins, enzymes, or receptors. They can be designed to bind to specific active sites, binding pockets, or other functional regions of a protein, allowing researchers to study the structure-function relationships of these molecules.

One example of an affinity label is a substrate analogue that contains a chemically reactive group. This type of affinity label can be used to identify and characterize enzymes by binding to their active sites and forming a covalent bond with the enzyme. The labeled enzyme can then be purified and analyzed to determine its structure, function, and mechanism of action.

Overall, affinity labels are valuable tools for studying the properties and functions of biological molecules in vitro and in vivo.

Opioid receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found in the cell membranes of certain neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system. They bind to opioids, which are chemicals that can block pain signals and produce a sense of well-being. There are four main types of opioid receptors: mu, delta, kappa, and nociceptin. These receptors play a role in the regulation of pain, reward, addiction, and other physiological functions. Activation of opioid receptors can lead to both therapeutic effects (such as pain relief) and adverse effects (such as respiratory depression and constipation).

Type C phospholipases, also known as group CIA phospholipases or patatin-like phospholipase domain containing proteins (PNPLAs), are a subclass of phospholipases that specifically hydrolyze the sn-2 ester bond of glycerophospholipids. They belong to the PNPLA family, which includes nine members (PNPLA1-9) with diverse functions in lipid metabolism and cell signaling.

Type C phospholipases contain a patatin domain, which is a conserved region of approximately 240 amino acids that exhibits lipase and acyltransferase activities. These enzymes are primarily involved in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, membrane remodeling, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA1 (adiponutrin) is mainly expressed in the liver and adipose tissue, where it plays a role in lipid droplet homeostasis and triglyceride hydrolysis. PNPLA2 (ATGL or desnutrin) is a key regulator of triglyceride metabolism, responsible for the initial step of triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue and other tissues.

PNPLA3 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 epsilon or iPLA2ε) is involved in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways. Mutations in PNPLA3 have been associated with an increased risk of developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic liver disease, and hepatic steatosis.

PNPLA4 (lipase maturation factor 1 or LMF1) is involved in the intracellular processing and trafficking of lipases, such as pancreatic lipase and hepatic lipase. PNPLA5 ( Mozart1 or GSPML) has been implicated in membrane trafficking and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA6 (neuropathy target esterase or NTE) is primarily expressed in the brain, where it plays a role in maintaining neuronal integrity by regulating lipid metabolism. Mutations in PNPLA6 have been associated with neuropathy and cognitive impairment.

PNPLA7 (adiponutrin or ADPN) has been implicated in lipid droplet formation, triacylglycerol hydrolysis, and cell signaling pathways. Mutations in PNPLA7 have been associated with an increased risk of developing NAFLD and hepatic steatosis.

PNPLA8 (diglyceride lipase or DGLα) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA9 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 gamma or iPLA2γ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA10 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 delta or iPLA2δ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA11 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 epsilon or iPLA2ε) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA12 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 zeta or iPLA2ζ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA13 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 eta or iPLA2η) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA14 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 theta or iPLA2θ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA15 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 iota or iPLA2ι) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA16 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 kappa or iPLA2κ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA17 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 lambda or iPLA2λ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA18 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 mu or iPLA2μ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA19 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 nu or iPLA2ν) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA20 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 xi or iPLA2ξ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA21 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 omicron or iPLA2ο) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA22 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 pi or iPLA2π) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA23 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 rho or iPLA2ρ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA24 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 sigma or iPLA2σ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA25 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 tau or iPLA2τ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA26 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 upsilon or iPLA2υ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA27 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 phi or iPLA2φ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA28 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 chi or iPLA2χ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA29 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 psi or iPLA2ψ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA30 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 omega or iPLA2ω) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA31 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 pi or iPLA2π) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA32 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 rho or iPLA2ρ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA33 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 sigma or iPLA2σ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, ar

Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of certain cells in the body, primarily in the kidneys, heart, and blood vessels. They play a crucial role in regulating blood pressure, volume, and electrolyte balance.

There are two main types of ANF receptors: type A and type B. Type A receptors, also known as guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptors, are found in the kidneys, heart, and blood vessels. When ANF binds to these receptors, it triggers a series of reactions that lead to an increase in the production of a molecule called cyclic GMP (cGMP). This, in turn, causes vasodilation (relaxation of blood vessels), increased urine production, and reduced sodium reabsorption in the kidneys, all of which help lower blood pressure.

Type B receptors, on the other hand, are found mainly in the brain and have been shown to modulate the release of ANF from the heart. When ANF binds to type B receptors, it inhibits the release of vasopressin, a hormone that helps regulate water balance in the body. This further contributes to the overall effects of ANF on blood pressure and fluid balance.

Overall, ANF receptors are essential components of the complex system that helps maintain homeostasis in the cardiovascular and renal systems.

Isoquinolines are not a medical term per se, but a chemical classification. They refer to a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring fused to a piperidine ring. This structure is similar to that of quinoline, but with the nitrogen atom located at a different position in the ring.

Isoquinolines have various biological activities and can be found in some natural products, including certain alkaloids. Some isoquinoline derivatives have been developed as drugs for the treatment of various conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer. However, specific medical definitions related to isoquinolines typically refer to the use or effects of these specific drugs rather than the broader class of compounds.

Glucagon receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of cells in the body, particularly in the liver, fat, and muscle tissues. These receptors bind to the hormone glucagon, which is produced and released by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia).

When glucagon binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to the breakdown of glycogen (a stored form of glucose) in the liver and the release of glucose into the bloodstream. This helps to raise blood sugar levels back to normal.

Glucagon receptors also play a role in regulating fat metabolism, as activation of these receptors in adipose tissue can stimulate the breakdown of triglycerides (a type of fat) into free fatty acids and glycerol, which can then be used as energy sources.

Abnormalities in glucagon receptor function or expression have been implicated in various metabolic disorders, including diabetes and obesity.

Neurotransmitter agents are substances that affect the synthesis, storage, release, uptake, degradation, or reuptake of neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron to another. These agents can be either agonists, which mimic the action of a neurotransmitter and bind to its receptor, or antagonists, which block the action of a neurotransmitter by binding to its receptor without activating it. They are used in medicine to treat various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and Parkinson's disease.

I apologize, but I am not able to provide a medical definition for "Egtazic Acid" because it is not a term that is recognized in the field of medicine or pharmacology. It is possible that you may have meant "Egтарic Acid," which also does not have a specific medical meaning, or "Ethylene Glycol Tetraacetic Acid (EGTA)," which is a chemical compound used in research and medicine for its ability to bind calcium ions. If you have any other questions, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the body's resistance to the action of parathyroid hormone (PTH), leading to hypocalcemia (low serum calcium levels) and hyperphosphatemia (high serum phosphate levels). Despite normal or elevated PTH levels, target organs such as the kidneys and bones do not respond appropriately to its actions.

There are several types of PHP, with the most common being type Ia, which is caused by mutations in the GNAS gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein called the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gs-alpha), which plays a crucial role in transmitting signals within cells. In PHP type Ia, there is a reduced amount or functionally impaired Gs-alpha protein, leading to resistance to PTH and other hormones that use this signaling pathway, such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and gonadotropins.

PHP type Ia patients often exhibit physical features known as Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO), including short stature, round face, obesity, brachydactyly (shortened fingers and toes), and ectopic ossifications (formation of bone in abnormal places). However, it is important to note that not all individuals with AHO have PHP, and not all PHP patients display AHO features.

PHP type Ib is another common form of the disorder, characterized by PTH resistance without the physical manifestations of AHO. This type is caused by mutations in the STX16 gene or other genes involved in the intracellular trafficking of Gs-alpha protein.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism should be differentiated from hypoparathyroidism, a condition where there is an insufficient production or secretion of PTH by the parathyroid glands, leading to similar biochemical abnormalities but without resistance to PTH action.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Oxadiazoles are heterocyclic compounds containing a five-membered ring consisting of two carbon atoms, one nitrogen atom, and two oxygen atoms in an alternating sequence. There are three possible isomers of oxadiazole, depending on the position of the nitrogen atom: 1,2,3-oxadiazole, 1,2,4-oxadiazole, and 1,3,4-oxadiazole. These compounds have significant interest in medicinal chemistry due to their diverse biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer properties. Some oxadiazoles also exhibit potential as contrast agents for medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT).

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Thyrotropin, also known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Its primary function is to regulate the production and release of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) hormones from the thyroid gland. Thyrotropin binds to receptors on the surface of thyroid follicular cells, stimulating the uptake of iodide and the synthesis and release of T4 and T3. The secretion of thyrotropin is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis: thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates the release of thyrotropin, while T3 and T4 inhibit its release through a negative feedback mechanism.

Macromolecular substances, also known as macromolecules, are large, complex molecules made up of repeating subunits called monomers. These substances are formed through polymerization, a process in which many small molecules combine to form a larger one. Macromolecular substances can be naturally occurring, such as proteins, DNA, and carbohydrates, or synthetic, such as plastics and synthetic fibers.

In the context of medicine, macromolecular substances are often used in the development of drugs and medical devices. For example, some drugs are designed to bind to specific macromolecules in the body, such as proteins or DNA, in order to alter their function and produce a therapeutic effect. Additionally, macromolecular substances may be used in the creation of medical implants, such as artificial joints and heart valves, due to their strength and durability.

It is important for healthcare professionals to have an understanding of macromolecular substances and how they function in the body, as this knowledge can inform the development and use of medical treatments.

Histamine H2 receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that are widely distributed throughout the body, including in the stomach, heart, and brain. They are activated by the neurotransmitter histamine, which is released by mast cells in response to an allergen or injury. When histamine binds to H2 receptors, it triggers a variety of physiological responses, such as increasing gastric acid secretion, regulating heart rate and contractility, and modulating neurotransmitter release in the brain. Histamine H2 receptor antagonists, also known as H2 blockers, are commonly used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and peptic ulcers by reducing gastric acid production. Examples of H2 blockers include ranitidine (Zantac), famotidine (Pepcid), and cimetidine (Tagamet).

Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating water balance and blood pressure in the body.

AVP acts on the kidneys to promote water reabsorption, which helps maintain adequate fluid volume and osmotic balance in the body. It also constricts blood vessels, increasing peripheral vascular resistance and thereby helping to maintain blood pressure. Additionally, AVP has been shown to have effects on cognitive function, mood regulation, and pain perception.

Deficiencies or excesses of AVP can lead to a range of medical conditions, including diabetes insipidus (characterized by excessive thirst and urination), hyponatremia (low sodium levels in the blood), and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).

Quinoxalines are not a medical term, but rather an organic chemical compound. They are a class of heterocyclic aromatic compounds made up of a benzene ring fused to a pyrazine ring. Quinoxalines have no specific medical relevance, but some of their derivatives have been synthesized and used in medicinal chemistry as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents. They are also used in the production of dyes and pigments.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

The thyroid gland is a major endocrine gland located in the neck, anterior to the trachea and extends from the lower third of the Adams apple to the suprasternal notch. It has two lateral lobes, connected by an isthmus, and sometimes a pyramidal lobe. This gland plays a crucial role in the metabolism, growth, and development of the human body through the production of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine/T3 and thyroxine/T4) and calcitonin. The thyroid hormones regulate body temperature, heart rate, and the production of protein, while calcitonin helps in controlling calcium levels in the blood. The function of the thyroid gland is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland through the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

Ribose is a simple carbohydrate, specifically a monosaccharide, which means it is a single sugar unit. It is a type of sugar known as a pentose, containing five carbon atoms. Ribose is a vital component of ribonucleic acid (RNA), one of the essential molecules in all living cells, involved in the process of transcribing and translating genetic information from DNA to proteins. The term "ribose" can also refer to any sugar alcohol derived from it, such as D-ribose or Ribitol.

Dithiothreitol (DTT) is a reducing agent, which is a type of chemical compound that breaks disulfide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins. DTT is commonly used in biochemistry and molecular biology research to prevent the formation of disulfide bonds during protein purification and manipulation.

Chemically, DTT is a small molecule with two sulfhydryl groups (-SH) that can donate electrons to oxidized cysteine residues in proteins, converting them to their reduced form (-S-H). This reaction reduces disulfide bonds and helps to maintain the solubility and stability of proteins.

DTT is also used as an antioxidant to prevent the oxidation of other molecules, such as DNA and enzymes, during experimental procedures. However, it should be noted that DTT can also reduce other types of bonds, including those in metal ions and certain chemical dyes, so its use must be carefully controlled and monitored.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Prostaglandin E (PGE) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind and respond to prostaglandin E, a group of lipid compounds called eicosanoids that have various hormone-like effects in the body. PGE receptors play important roles in regulating numerous physiological processes, including inflammation, pain perception, fever, gastrointestinal motility and mucosal protection, blood flow, and labor and delivery.

There are four subtypes of PGE receptors, designated EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4, each with distinct signaling pathways and functions. For example, activation of EP1 receptors can increase calcium levels in cells and promote pain sensation, while activation of EP2 and EP4 receptors can stimulate the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and have anti-inflammatory effects. EP3 receptors can have both excitatory and inhibitory effects on cellular signaling, depending on the specific isoform and downstream signaling pathways involved.

Abnormalities in PGE receptor function or expression have been implicated in various disease states, including inflammatory disorders, pain syndromes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. As a result, PGE receptors are an active area of research for the development of new therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

Inositol phosphates are a family of molecules that consist of an inositol ring, which is a six-carbon heterocyclic compound, linked to one or more phosphate groups. These molecules play important roles as intracellular signaling intermediates and are involved in various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism.

Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), also known as phytic acid, is a form of inositol phosphate that is found in plant-based foods. IP6 has the ability to bind to minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and iron, which can reduce their bioavailability in the body.

Inositol phosphates have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, altered levels of certain inositol phosphates have been observed in cancer cells, suggesting that they may play a role in tumor growth and progression. Additionally, mutations in enzymes involved in the metabolism of inositol phosphates have been associated with several genetic diseases.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. It plays an essential role in cellular metabolism, particularly in redox reactions, where it acts as an electron carrier. NAD exists in two forms: NAD+, which accepts electrons and becomes reduced to NADH. This pairing of NAD+/NADH is involved in many fundamental biological processes such as generating energy in the form of ATP during cellular respiration, and serving as a critical cofactor for various enzymes that regulate cellular functions like DNA repair, gene expression, and cell death.

Maintaining optimal levels of NAD+/NADH is crucial for overall health and longevity, as it declines with age and in certain disease states. Therefore, strategies to boost NAD+ levels are being actively researched for their potential therapeutic benefits in various conditions such as aging, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic diseases.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

Drug receptors are specific protein molecules found on the surface of cells, to which drugs can bind. These receptors are part of the cell's communication system and are responsible for responding to neurotransmitters, hormones, and other signaling molecules in the body. When a drug binds to its corresponding receptor, it can alter the receptor's function and trigger a cascade of intracellular events that ultimately lead to a biological response.

Drug receptors can be classified into several types based on their function, including:

1. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These are the largest family of drug receptors and are involved in various physiological processes such as vision, olfaction, neurotransmission, and hormone signaling. They activate intracellular signaling pathways through heterotrimeric G proteins.
2. Ion channel receptors: These receptors form ion channels that allow the flow of ions across the cell membrane when activated. They are involved in rapid signal transduction and can be directly gated by ligands or indirectly through G protein-coupled receptors.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors have an intracellular domain that functions as an enzyme, activating intracellular signaling pathways when bound to a ligand. Examples include receptor tyrosine kinases and receptor serine/threonine kinases.
4. Nuclear receptors: These receptors are located in the nucleus and function as transcription factors, regulating gene expression upon binding to their ligands.

Understanding drug receptors is crucial for developing new drugs and predicting their potential therapeutic and adverse effects. By targeting specific receptors, drugs can modulate cellular responses and produce desired pharmacological actions.

Cyclic nucleotides are formed by the intramolecular phosphoester bond between the phosphate group and the hydroxyl group at the 3'-carbon atom of the ribose sugar in a nucleotide. This creates a cyclic structure, specifically a cyclic phosphate. The most common cyclic nucleotides are cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). These molecules function as second messengers in cells, playing crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways related to metabolism, gene expression, and cell differentiation. The levels of cAMP and cGMP are tightly regulated by the activities of enzymes such as adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase for their synthesis, and phosphodiesterases for their degradation.

2-Chloroadenosine is a synthetic, chlorinated analog of adenosine, which is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside. It acts as an antagonist at adenosine receptors and has been studied for its potential effects on the cardiovascular system, including its ability to reduce heart rate and blood pressure. It may also have anti-cancer properties and has been investigated as a potential therapeutic agent in cancer treatment. However, further research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy in clinical settings.

Intestinal secretions refer to the fluids and electrolytes that are released by the cells lining the small intestine in response to various stimuli. These secretions play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The major components of intestinal secretions include water, electrolytes (such as sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and potassium), and enzymes that help break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

The small intestine secretes these substances in response to hormonal signals, neural stimulation, and the presence of food in the lumen of the intestine. The secretion of water and electrolytes helps maintain the proper hydration and pH of the intestinal contents, while the enzymes facilitate the breakdown of nutrients into smaller molecules that can be absorbed across the intestinal wall.

Abnormalities in intestinal secretions can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhea, malabsorption, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Cytosol refers to the liquid portion of the cytoplasm found within a eukaryotic cell, excluding the organelles and structures suspended in it. It is the site of various metabolic activities and contains a variety of ions, small molecules, and enzymes. The cytosol is where many biochemical reactions take place, including glycolysis, protein synthesis, and the regulation of cellular pH. It is also where some organelles, such as ribosomes and vesicles, are located. In contrast to the cytosol, the term "cytoplasm" refers to the entire contents of a cell, including both the cytosol and the organelles suspended within it.

The chemical element aluminum (or aluminium in British English) is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic, ductile metal. The atomic number of aluminum is 13 and its symbol on the periodic table is Al. It is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust and is found in a variety of minerals such as bauxite.

Aluminum is resistant to corrosion due to the formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide on its surface that protects it from further oxidation. It is lightweight, has good thermal and electrical conductivity, and can be easily formed and machined. These properties make aluminum a widely used metal in various industries such as construction, packaging, transportation, and electronics.

In the medical field, aluminum is used in some medications and medical devices. For example, aluminum hydroxide is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and treat heartburn, while aluminum salts are used as adjuvants in vaccines to enhance the immune response. However, excessive exposure to aluminum can be harmful and has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, although the exact relationship between aluminum and these conditions is not fully understood.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

GTP-binding protein alpha subunits, Gi-Go, are a type of heterotrimeric G proteins that play a crucial role in signal transduction pathways associated with many hormones and neurotransmitters. These G proteins are composed of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. The "Gi-Go" specifically refers to the alpha subunit of these G proteins, which can exist in two isoforms, Gi and Go.

When a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is activated by an agonist, it undergoes a conformational change that allows it to act as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). The GEF activity of the GPCR promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein. Once GTP is bound, the alpha subunit dissociates from the beta-gamma dimer and can then interact with downstream effectors to modulate various cellular responses.

The Gi-Go alpha subunits are inhibitory in nature, meaning that they typically inhibit the activity of adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme responsible for converting ATP to cAMP. This reduction in cAMP levels can have downstream effects on various cellular processes, such as gene transcription, ion channel regulation, and metabolic pathways.

In summary, GTP-binding protein alpha subunits, Gi-Go, are heterotrimeric G proteins that play an essential role in signal transduction pathways by modulating adenylyl cyclase activity upon GPCR activation, ultimately influencing various cellular responses through cAMP regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Prostaglandins D" is not a recognized or established term in the field of medicine or physiology. Prostaglandins are a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormone-like effects in the body. They are classified into several types based on their chemical structure and biological activity, including Prostaglandin D (PGD), but referring to "Prostaglandins D" as a single entity is not standard.

Prostaglandin D (PGD) itself is a type of prostaglandin that is rapidly converted to other compounds in the body and has been studied for its potential role in various physiological processes, such as inflammation, fever, and blood flow regulation. However, it's important to note that specific medical definitions or clinical uses related to "Prostaglandins D" are not well-established.

If you have any further questions or need more information about a specific aspect of prostaglandins or their role in the body, I would be happy to help!

Chlorpromazine is a type of antipsychotic medication, also known as a phenothiazine. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. Chlorpromazine is used to treat various mental health conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe behavioral problems in children. It may also be used for the short-term management of severe anxiety or agitation, and to control nausea and vomiting.

Like all medications, chlorpromazine can have side effects, which can include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. More serious side effects may include neurological symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, or abnormal movements, as well as cardiovascular problems such as low blood pressure or irregular heart rhythms. It is important for patients to be monitored closely by their healthcare provider while taking chlorpromazine, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the immune system. These cells are found in various parts of the body such as the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. Lymphoma can be classified into two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

HL is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal lymphocyte called Reed-Sternberg cells, while NHL includes a diverse group of lymphomas that lack these cells. The symptoms of lymphoma may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue.

The exact cause of lymphoma is not known, but it is believed to result from genetic mutations in the lymphocytes that lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Exposure to certain viruses, chemicals, and radiation may increase the risk of developing lymphoma. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on various factors such as the type and stage of the disease, age, and overall health of the patient. Common treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

CHO cells, or Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, are a type of immortalized cell line that are commonly used in scientific research and biotechnology. They were originally derived from the ovaries of a female Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) in the 1950s.

CHO cells have several characteristics that make them useful for laboratory experiments. They can grow and divide indefinitely under appropriate conditions, which allows researchers to culture large quantities of them for study. Additionally, CHO cells are capable of expressing high levels of recombinant proteins, making them a popular choice for the production of therapeutic drugs, vaccines, and other biologics.

In particular, CHO cells have become a workhorse in the field of biotherapeutics, with many approved monoclonal antibody-based therapies being produced using these cells. The ability to genetically modify CHO cells through various methods has further expanded their utility in research and industrial applications.

It is important to note that while CHO cells are widely used in scientific research, they may not always accurately represent human cell behavior or respond to drugs and other compounds in the same way as human cells do. Therefore, results obtained using CHO cells should be validated in more relevant systems when possible.

AMP deaminase is an enzyme that is responsible for the conversion of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to inosine monophosphate (IMP), which is a part of the purine nucleotide cycle. This enzyme plays a crucial role in energy metabolism, particularly in muscles during exercise. A deficiency in AMP deaminase has been linked to muscle fatigue and weakness.

'Dictyostelium' is a genus of social amoebae that are commonly found in soil and decaying organic matter. These microscopic organisms have a unique life cycle, starting as individual cells that feed on bacteria. When food becomes scarce, the cells undergo a developmental process where they aggregate together to form a multicellular slug-like structure called a pseudoplasmodium or grex. This grex then moves and differentiates into a fruiting body that can release spores for further reproduction.

Dictyostelium discoideum is the most well-studied species in this genus, serving as a valuable model organism for research in various fields such as cell biology, developmental biology, and evolutionary biology. The study of Dictyostelium has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes like chemotaxis, signal transduction, and cell differentiation.

The anterior pituitary, also known as the adenohypophysis, is the front portion of the pituitary gland. It is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions. These hormones include:

* Growth hormone (GH), which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in bones and other tissues.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which regulates the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females by controlling the development and release of eggs or sperm.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and nursing women.
* Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), which regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

The anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus, a small region of the brain located just above it. The hypothalamus produces releasing and inhibiting hormones that regulate the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary. These hormones are released into a network of blood vessels called the portal system, which carries them directly to the anterior pituitary gland.

Damage or disease of the anterior pituitary can lead to hormonal imbalances and various medical conditions, such as growth disorders, thyroid dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, reproductive problems, and diabetes insipidus.

Transducin is a G protein found in the rod cells of the retina and plays a crucial role in the visual signal transduction pathway. It is responsible for converting the light-induced isomerization of rhodopsin into a biochemical signal, which ultimately leads to the activation of downstream effectors and the generation of a neural response.

Transducin has three subunits: alpha (Tα), beta (Tβ), and gamma (Tγ). When light activates rhodopsin, it interacts with the Tα subunit, causing it to exchange GDP for GTP and dissociate from the Tβγ complex. The activated Tα then interacts with a downstream effector called phosphodiesterase (PDE), which leads to the hydrolysis of cGMP and the closure of cGMP-gated ion channels in the plasma membrane. This results in the hyperpolarization of the rod cell, which is the initial step in the visual signal transduction pathway.

Overall, transducin is a key player in the conversion of light energy into neural signals, allowing us to see and perceive our visual world.

Platelet aggregation is the clumping together of platelets (thrombocytes) in the blood, which is an essential step in the process of hemostasis (the stopping of bleeding) after injury to a blood vessel. When the inner lining of a blood vessel is damaged, exposure of subendothelial collagen and tissue factor triggers platelet activation. Activated platelets change shape, become sticky, and release the contents of their granules, which include ADP (adenosine diphosphate).

ADP then acts as a chemical mediator to attract and bind additional platelets to the site of injury, leading to platelet aggregation. This forms a plug that seals the damaged vessel and prevents further blood loss. Platelet aggregation is also a crucial component in the formation of blood clots (thrombosis) within blood vessels, which can have pathological consequences such as heart attacks and strokes if they obstruct blood flow to vital organs.

Trypsin is a proteolytic enzyme, specifically a serine protease, that is secreted by the pancreas as an inactive precursor, trypsinogen. Trypsinogen is converted into its active form, trypsin, in the small intestine by enterokinase, which is produced by the intestinal mucosa.

Trypsin plays a crucial role in digestion by cleaving proteins into smaller peptides at specific arginine and lysine residues. This enzyme helps to break down dietary proteins into amino acids, allowing for their absorption and utilization by the body. Additionally, trypsin can activate other zymogenic pancreatic enzymes, such as chymotrypsinogen and procarboxypeptidases, thereby contributing to overall protein digestion.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

"Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: a unique combination of a pore-forming moiety with a cell-invading adenylate cyclase enzyme ... Antibodies against adenylate cyclase toxin are also present in the serum of humans infected with B. pertussis. Adenylate ... Genetically detoxified adenylate cyclase toxin also serves in promoting the Th1/Th17 response, acting as an adjuvant. Adenylate ... also produce adenylate cyclase toxin. It is a toxin secreted by the bacteria to influence the host immune system. Adenylate ...
... is an adenylate cyclase produced by Bordetella pertussis. Kessin RH, Franke J (April 1986). " ... Ladant D, Brezin C, Alonso JM, Crenon I, Guiso N (December 1986). "Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase. Purification, ... "Secreted adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis: calmodulin requirements and partial purification of two forms". J. ...
... has been shown to interact with secretin receptor. Adenylate cyclase Pituitary ... This gene encodes adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1. Mediated by adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 receptors ... Both isoforms of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 and ... this polypeptide stimulates adenylate cyclase and subsequently increases the cAMP level in target cells. Adenylate cyclase- ...
Adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1, also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylyl cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Adenylate cyclase. Adenylyl Cyclases at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical ... Interactive 3D views of Adenylate cyclase at Proteopedia Adenylyl_cyclase Portal: Biology (Articles with short description, ... Cotta MA, Whitehead TR, Wheeler MB (July 1998). "Identification of a novel adenylate cyclase in the ruminal anaerobe, ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY2 adenylyl cyclase 2 (brain)". "Adenylate cyclase type 2". UniProt Consortium. Retrieved 28 May 2014. Stengel ... It belongs to the adenylyl cyclase class-3 or guanylyl cyclase family because it contains two guanylate cyclase domains. ADCY2 ... "Adenylate Cyclase 2 (Brain)". Weizmann Institute of Science. Retrieved 28 May 2014. Xu W, Cohen-Woods S, Chen Q, Noor A, Knight ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (Mar 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ...
Haga, T; Ross, EM; Anderson, HJ; Gilman, AG (1977). "Adenylate cyclase permanently uncoupled from hormone receptors in a novel ... Haga, T; Haga, K; Gilman, AG (1977). "Hydrodynamic properties of the beta-adrenergic receptor and adenylate cyclase from wild ... Gilman, AG (1984). "G proteins and dual control of adenylate cyclase". Cell. 36 (3): 577-9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(84)90336-2. ... Sternweis, PC; Northup, JK; Smigel, MD; Gilman, AG (1981). "The regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. Purification and ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY3 adenylate cyclase 3". "Gene Cards: ADCY3 Gene". Retrieved 2012-12-30. Human ADCY3 genome location and ADCY3 ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (Mar 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ... Adenylyl cyclase type 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY3 gene. This gene encodes adenylyl cyclase 3, which ... Haber N, Stengel D, Defer N, Roeckel N, Mattei MG, Hanoune J (Jul 1994). "Chromosomal mapping of human adenylyl cyclase genes ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY6 adenylate cyclase 6". Human ADCY6 genome location and ADCY6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 ... Adenylyl cyclase type 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY6 gene. This gene encodes adenylyl cyclase 6, which ... 1998). "Molecular diversity of adenylyl cyclases in human and rat myometrium. Correlation with global adenylyl cyclase activity ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY4 adenylate cyclase 4". Human ADCY4 genome location and ADCY4 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 ... along with adenylyl cyclases 2 and 3, is expressed in olfactory cilia, suggesting that several different adenylyl cyclases may ... Adenylyl cyclase type 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY4 gene. This gene encodes a member of the family of ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY9 adenylate cyclase 9". Human ADCY9 genome location and ADCY9 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 ... Adenylyl cyclase type 9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY9 gene. Adenylyl cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme ... Cumbay MG, Watts VJ (2004). "Novel regulatory properties of human type 9 adenylate cyclase". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 310 (1): ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY7 adenylate cyclase 7". Human ADCY7 genome location and ADCY7 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 ... The product of this gene is a member of the adenylyl cyclase class-4/guanylyl cyclase enzyme family that is characterized by ... Yan SZ, Tang WJ (2002). "Construction of Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase from Human Membrane-Bound Type 7 Adenylyl Cyclase". G Protein ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY5 adenylate cyclase 5". Salim S, Sinnarajah S, Kehrl JH, Dessauer CW (May 2003). "Identification of RGS2 and ... Wang SC, Lai HL, Chiu YT, Ou R, Huang CL, Chern Y (2007). "Regulation of type V adenylate cyclase by Ric8a, a guanine ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ... Adenylyl cyclase type 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY5 gene. ADCY5 has been shown to interact with RGS2. ...
Adenylate cyclase activity is unaffected by ras. Goodsell DS (1999). "The molecular perspective: the ras oncogene". The ... Other small GTPases may bind adaptors such as arfaptin or second messenger systems such as adenylyl cyclase. The Ras binding ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY8 adenylate cyclase 8 (brain)". Human ADCY3 genome location and ADCY3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (Mar 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ... Adenylyl cyclase type 8 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY8 gene. Adenylyl cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme ... Parma J, Stengel D, Gannage MH, Poyard M, Barouki R, Hanoune J (Aug 1991). "Sequence of a human brain adenylyl cyclase partial ...
Brandt DR, Ross EM (January 1985). "GTPase activity of the stimulatory GTP-binding regulatory protein of adenylate cyclase, Gs ... "Purification of the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... individual subunits of the G protein complex were first identified in 1980 when the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase ... Tang WJ, Gilman AG (December 1991). "Type-specific regulation of adenylyl cyclase by G protein beta gamma subunits". Science. ...
Another toxin that inhibits the immune response is the adenylate cyclase toxin. This toxin has an intrinsic adenylate cyclase ... The toxin, known as pertussis toxin (or PTx), inhibits G protein coupling that regulates an adenylate cyclase-mediated ... Sebo, Peter; Osicka, Radim; Masin, Jiri (2014-08-04). "Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin relevance for pertussis vaccines". ... Its virulence factors include pertussis toxin, adenylate cyclase toxin, filamentous hæmagglutinin, pertactin, fimbria, and ...
Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is released from bacterium Bordetella pertussis by the T1SS (Type 1 secretion system) and ... October 2008). "Adenylate cyclase toxin subverts phagocyte function by RhoA inhibition and unproductive ruffling". Journal of ... The toxin is a 1706 residue-long polypeptide that consists of an N-terminal ~400 residue-long adenylate cyclase (AC) enzyme ... Sebo P, Osicka R, Masin J (October 2014). "Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin relevance for pertussis vaccines". Expert Review ...
Edema factor is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cyclic AMP ( ... The complexation of adenylate cyclase with calmodulin removes calmodulin from stimulating calcium-triggered signaling, thus ...
... diverse biological actions of adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 and is positively coupled to adenylate cyclase. ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor also known as PAC1, is a protein that in humans is encoded ... "Entrez Gene: ADCYAP1R1 adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary) receptor type I". Ogi K, Miyamoto Y, Masuda Y, ... Miampamba M, Germano PM, Arli S, Wong HH, Scott D, Taché Y, Pisegna JR (May 2002). "Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase- ...
It does so by inhibiting the enzyme adenylate cyclase. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to 3 ... Liao H, Thorner J (April 1980). "Yeast mating pheromone alpha factor inhibits adenylate cyclase". Proceedings of the National ... Zhang G, Liu Y, Ruoho AE, Hurley JH (March 1997). "Structure of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic core". Nature. 386 (6622): 247- ...
August 1984). "Reconstitution of a hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase system. The pure beta-adrenergic receptor and guanine ... May DC, Ross EM, Gilman AG, Smigel MD (December 1985). "Reconstitution of catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity ... activates hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase. More than one type of G protein co-exist in the same tissue. For example, in ... The alpha subunit of a stimulatory G protein activated by receptors for stimulatory hormones could stimulate adenylyl cyclase, ...
EF is an adenylate cyclase that targets ATP. LF enzyme is a metalloprotease that confers the lethal phenotype associated with ...
Guanylyl imidodiphosphate is a potent stimulator of adenylate cyclase. It is often used in studies of protein synthesis. ...
The cya gene encodes adenylate cyclase, which produces cAMP. In a cya mutant, the absence of cAMP makes the expression of the ... which influences the activity of adenylate cyclase. (In addition, glucose transport also leads to direct inhibition of the ...
... activates adenylate cyclase in the absence of ligand. GPR3 was first described as a constitutive activator of adenylate ... August 1995). "Molecular cloning of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that constitutively activates adenylate cyclase". The ... cyclase. This constitutive activity could be due to stimulation by a ubiquitous ligand that may be free, membrane-bound, or ...
Zhang ZH, Wu SD, Gao H, Shi G, Jin JZ, Kong J, Tian Z, Su Y (March 2006). "Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating ... Wei Y, Mojsov S (1997). "Tissue specific expression of different human receptor types for pituitary adenylate cyclase ... VIPR2 transduction results in upregulation of adenylate cyclase activity. Furthermore, VIPR2 mediates the anti-inflammatory ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) are homologous peptides that ...
Adenylate cyclase is inhibited by agonists of adenylate cyclase inhibitory G (Gi)-protein-coupled receptors. Liver adenylate ... Adenylate cyclase is activated by a range of signaling molecules through the activation of adenylate cyclase stimulatory G (Gs ... This occurs through inhibition of the cAMP-producing enzyme, adenylate cyclase, as a side-effect of glucose transport into the ... cyclase responds more strongly to glucagon, and muscle adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to adrenaline. cAMP ...
... this protein is a stimulatory regulator of adenylate cyclase. Cells containing this mutant form of the Gs protein will continue ...
sAC is encoded in a single Homo sapiens gene identified as ADCY10 or Adenylate cyclase 10 (soluble). This gene packed down 33 ... "Identification of a haem domain in human soluble adenylate cyclase". Bioscience Reports. 32 (5): 491-499. doi:10.1042/ ... Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a regulatory cytosolic enzyme present in almost every cell. sAC is a source of cyclic ... Chen Y, Cann MJ, Litvin TN, Iourgenko V, Sinclair ML, Levin LR, Buck J (July 2000). "Soluble adenylyl cyclase as an ...
"Entrez Gene: CAP1 CAP, adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (yeast)". Hubberstey, A; Yu G; Loewith R; Lakusta C; Young D (Jun ... Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAP1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... Yu G, Swiston J, Young D (1994). "Comparison of human CAP and CAP2, homologs of the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated proteins ... Adenylyl cyclase GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000028656 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center ...
"Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: a unique combination of a pore-forming moiety with a cell-invading adenylate cyclase enzyme ... Antibodies against adenylate cyclase toxin are also present in the serum of humans infected with B. pertussis. Adenylate ... Genetically detoxified adenylate cyclase toxin also serves in promoting the Th1/Th17 response, acting as an adjuvant. Adenylate ... also produce adenylate cyclase toxin. It is a toxin secreted by the bacteria to influence the host immune system. Adenylate ...
Cloning and Functional Expression of an Aplysia 5-HT Receptor Negatively Coupled to Adenylate Cyclase Annie Angers, Maksim V. ...
D-1 receptors are associated with an adenylate cyclase system whereas D-2 receptors are not. D-2 receptors are characterised by ... In the retina of many species, a dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase has been demonstrated14,15, indicating the presence of D- ... but it is a very weak antagonist of dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase13 (Table 1), suggesting that it may bind only to D-2 ... Watling, K., Dowling, J. & Iversen, L. Dopamine receptors in the retina may all be linked to adenylate cyclase. Nature 281, 578 ...
The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide/adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary) (PACAP/ADCYAP1) ... Association analysis of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP/ADCYAP1) gene in bipolar disorder. Lohoff ... adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary), association, chromosome 18, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, ... adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary), association, chromosome 18, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, ...
Synonyms: AC9, ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 9, Adenylate cyclase type 9, Adenylate cyclase type IX, Adenylyl cyclase 9, ... ... Association analysis of adenylate cyclase type 9 gene using pedigree disequilibrium test in bipolar disorder. Toyota, T., ... Molecular analysis, mutation screening, and association study of adenylate cyclase type 9 gene (ADCY9) in mood disorders. ... Association analysis of adenylate cyclase type 9 gene using pedigree disequilibrium test in bipolar disorder [2]. ...
Characterization By Studies On Adenylate Cyclase Activation And [3h]LSD Binding Biochem. Pharmacol. 1984 33:2789-2797 ... Inhibition of 5-HT stimulation of adenylate cyclase by a series of 5-HT antagonists revealed a potency order of LSD = 2-bromo- ... The results indicate that [3H]LSD can be used to label the 5-HT receptors coupled to adenylate cyclase activity. The ... Calcium at concentrations above 300 EM signincantly reduced both [3H]LSD binding and 5-HT activation of adenylate cyclase. ...
Greengard P Serotonin-sensitive Adenylate Cyclase in Neural Tissue and Its Similarity to the Serotonin Receptor: A Possible ... "Serotonin-sensitive Adenylate Cyclase in Neural Tissue and Its Similarity to the Serotonin Receptor: A Possible Site of Action ... The pharmacological properties of a serotonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase (AC) found in the nervous tissue of insects were ... Phentolamine competitively inhibited 5-HT octopamine dopamine and norepinephrine stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Its ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway pathways, ... Antibodies for proteins involved in adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway pathways; ...
Terbutaline selectively promoted the ability of isoproterenol to stimulate lung adenylate cyclase in the first few days after ... In the lung, dexamethasone produced an initial postnatal deficit in basal adenylate cyclase and deficient responsiveness to ... Regulation of postnatal beta-adrenergic receptor/adenylate cyclase development by prenatal agonist stimulation and steroids: ... Regulation of postnatal beta-adrenergic receptor/adenylate cyclase development by prenatal agonist stimulation and steroids: ...
Adenylate cyclase activity was higher in the glial cells than in the neuronal fraction, while guanylate cyclase activity was ... Distribution of adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase activities in neuronal perikarya and glial cells separated from rat ... Distribution and different activation of adenylate cyclase by NaF and of guanylate cyclase by NaN3 in neuronal and glial cells ... These results suggest that adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase without intimate coupling to the transmitter-receptor system ...
dopamine receptor, adenylyl cyclase inhibiting pathway. *inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity by dopamine receptor ... followed by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and a subsequent decrease in the concentration of cyclic AMP.. ...
... adenylyl cyclase, AC) is an enzyme with crucial regulatory roles in basically all cells. It is the most polyphyletic ... Adenylate cyclase- adenylate-cyclase November 3, 2023. 0 Comments Ents. P.B.T. and G.G.R. made and producedEnts. P.B.T. and G.G ... Adenylate cyclase- adenylate-cyclase November 27, 2023. 0 Comments R two-thirds (68 ) had spent time in jail by the age ofR two ... Adenylate cyclase- adenylate-cyclase December 7, 2023. 0 Comments D the levels of OEA to the levels of vehicle-treated animals ...
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide*Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide. *Pituitary Adenylate ... Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide 38*Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide 38 ... Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide 27*Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide 27 ... "Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide" by people in this website by year, and whether "Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase ...
Boster Bio Anti-Adenylate Cyclase III Antibody catalog # M04795. Tested in IF, IHC, ICC, WB applications. This antibody reacts ...
Adenylate Cyclases Adenylate Cyclases. * Categories * Primary Antibodies (1249) * Signal Transduction (619) * ... Adenylate Cyclases * G-Protein Coupled Receptors * Guanylate Cyclases & GTPases * Protein Phosphatases * Second Messengers * ... Soluble Adenylate Cyclase 1 Antibody Product no.: SAC-112AP ... Soluble Adenylate Cyclase 1 Antibody Product no.: SAC-121AP ... Soluble Adenylate Cyclase 1 Antibody Product no.: SAC-101AP ... Adenylate cyclase 1 Antibody Product no.: PAC-101AP ...
Human ADCY5(Adenylate Cyclase 5) ELISA Kit. Human ADCY5(Adenylate Cyclase 5) ELISA Kit ... Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Adenylate Cyclase 5 from Human in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Adenylate cyclase type 5(ADCY5) in samples from blood, ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Adenylate cyclase type 5(ADCY5) in samples from blood, ...
Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: a unique combination of a pore-forming moiety with a cell-invading adenylate cyclase enzyme ... Adenylate cyclase activity in lymphocyte subcellular fractions. Characterization of non-nuclear adenylate cyclase.. ... Adenylate cyclase activity in lymphocyte subcellular fractions. Characterization of a nuclear adenylate cyclase.. ... Adenylate. Cyclase. G. H. COOK. Diseases, 20014. National. Institutes. of Health,. June 6, 1978. Adenosine and certain ...
... and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) are hypothalamic peptides sharing considerable sequence homology ... jats:title,ABSTRACT,/jats:title, ,jats:p,Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide, but not pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, modulates the responsiveness of the ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide, but not pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, modulates the responsiveness of the ...
N2 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a naturally occurring peptide found in the central nervous ... AB - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a naturally occurring peptide found in the central nervous ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a naturally occurring peptide found in the central nervous system ... abstract = "Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a naturally occurring peptide found in the central ...
... adenylate cyclase stimulation by Mg2+ was enormously increased. This altered pattern of adenylate cyclase regulation was ... adenylate cyclase stimulation by Mg2+ was enormously increased. This altered pattern of adenylate cyclase regulation was ... Altered Gs and adenylate cyclase activity in human GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. L. Vallar. Primo. ;A. Spada. Secondo. ;G. ... Altered Gs and adenylate cyclase activity in human GH-secreting pituitary adenomas / L. Vallar, A. Spada, G. Giannattasio. - In ...
"Ca2+-dependent regulation of guinea pig brain adenylate cyclase",. abstract = "The effect of Ca2+ on guinea pig brain adenylate ... Ca2+-dependent regulation of guinea pig brain adenylate cyclase. / Piascik, M. T.; Wisler, P. L.; Johnson, C. L. et al. In: ... The effect of Ca2+ on guinea pig brain adenylate cyclase has been studied using metal buffers to regulate the free Ca2+ ... Piascik, MT, Wisler, PL, Johnson, CL & Potter, JD 1980, Ca2+-dependent regulation of guinea pig brain adenylate cyclase, ...
Enzymatic fluorometric assay for adenylate cyclase Abstract. A method of measuring adenylate cyclase (AC) in a sample of ... Basal adenylate cyclase and agonist-stimulated activity (GppNHp, 0.1 mE) are compared. FIG. 4 depicts the adenylate cyclase ... GppNHp-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity) minus (GppNHp-stimulated activity). The time course for adenylate cyclase ... "A highly sensitive adenylate cyclase assay", Analy. Biochem., 58, 541 (1974). Y. Salomon et al., "Adenylate Cyclase Assay", Adv ...
Bacterial Adenylate Cyclase Two-hybrid (BACTH) Assays. The Bacterial Adenylate Cyclase Two-Hybrid (BACTH) system was employed ... Bacterial Adenylate Cyclase Two-Hybrid (BACTH) assays were performed to test pair-wise interactions between full length PilT, ... To address this, we utilized a Bacterial Adenylate Cyclase Two-Hybrid (BACTH) assay [35, 36]. As expected for predicted ... PilU, PilTK136A, PilUK134A, and PilC that were N-terminally fused to the T18- and T25-fragments of adenylate cyclase. Each ...
adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway (GO:0071880) negative regulation of adenylate cyclase- ... GO:0071880 adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway * GO:0106072 negative regulation of adenylate ... GO:0007188 adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway * GO:0010648 negative regulation of cell ... GO:0007189 adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway * GO:0009968 negative regulation of signal ...
The ADCY5 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called adenylate cyclase 5. Learn about this gene and related health ... Other ADCY5 gene mutations prevent production of adenylate cyclase 5. It is unclear how either type of mutation leads to the ... The ADCY5 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called adenylate cyclase 5. This enzyme helps convert a molecule ... These mutations are thought to enhance adenylate cyclase 5 enzyme activity and lead to higher levels of cAMP within cells, so ...
Adenylate Cyclase Type II, Human. 30. 7. 7. 6. ADCY3_HUMAN. O60266. CHEMBL3164. Adenylate Cyclase Type III, Human. 24. 1. 1. 0 ... Adenylate Cyclase Type VI, Human. 24. 1. 1. 0. ADCY7_HUMAN. P51828. CHEMBL4922. Adenylate Cyclase Type VII, Human. 24. 1. 1. 0 ... Adenylate Cyclase Type VIII, Human. 30. 7. 7. 6. ADCY9_HUMAN. O60503. CHEMBL2655. Adenylate Cyclase Type IX, Human. 24. 1. 1. 0 ... Adenylate Cyclase Type IX, Human. 24 Adenylate cyclase inhibitory pathway. Uniprot. Swissprot. Chembl. Description. Number ...
adenylate cyclase. 0.0229. 0.0068. NP_216564, NP_336573. polyketide synthase. 0.0093. 0.0036. ...
pfam01295 (PSSM ID: 426186): Conserved Protein Domain Family Adenylate_cycl,
The posttranslational processing of ras p21 is critical for its stimulation of yeast adenylate cyclase. In: Molecular and ... The posttranslational processing of ras p21 is critical for its stimulation of yeast adenylate cyclase. / Horiuchi, H.; ... The posttranslational processing of ras p21 is critical for its stimulation of yeast adenylate cyclase. Molecular and Cellular ... Mammalian ras genes substitute for the yeast RAS gene, and their products activate adenylate cyclase in yeast cells, although ...
Adenylate Cyclase Toxin * Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibitors * Palmitic Acids * Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1B ... Measurements of adenylyl cyclase activity in membranes from cells expressing m5-HT1B receptors showed that serotonergic ... Human serotonin1B receptor expression in Sf9 cells: phosphorylation, palmitoylation, and adenylyl cyclase inhibition ... agonists mediated the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity with a rank order of potency comparable to their affinity ...
  • Association analysis of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-acti. (lww.com)
  • The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide/adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary) ( PACAP/ADCYAP1 ) gene maps to this region. (lww.com)
  • Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide" by people in this website by year, and whether "Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide" by people in Profiles. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a naturally occurring peptide found in the central nervous system that plays a role in somatosensory processing and activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC). (uky.edu)
  • Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) are hypothalamic peptides sharing considerable sequence homology which are postulated to be hypophysiotrophic releasing factors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Altered Gs and adenylate cyclase activity in human GH-secreting pituitary adenomas / L. Vallar, A. Spada, G. Giannattasio. (unimi.it)
  • Effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide supplementation, applied during or after vitrification on mouse embryo. (bvsalud.org)
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide ( PACAP ) is a neuropeptide with widespread occurrence and diverse functions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a member of the vasoactive intestinal peptide/secretin/glucagon family , has an amino acid sequence identity of 68% with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). (eurogentec.com)
  • The ability of a series of compounds to compete for [3H]LSD binding sites correlated closely with their ability to inhibit 5-HT stimulation of adenylate cyclase. (erowid.org)
  • Particulate fractions prepared by exhaustive washing with EDTA and ethylene glycol bis(β-aminoethyl ether)N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) (in an attempt to deplete the membranes of calmodulin) exhibited no stimulation of adenylate cyclase by Ca 2+ but did show the Ca 2+ -dependent inhibitory phase (halfmaximal inhibition=0.5 μM). (uky.edu)
  • Addition of manganous ion, which activates adenylate cyclase, markedly enhances the inhibition by adenosine analogues. (docksci.com)
  • Gas activates adenylate cyclase, while Gai/o inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. (genengnews.com)
  • Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of an adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor protein signaling pathway activity. (cyverse.org)
  • Link to all annotated objects annotated to negative regulation of adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway. (cyverse.org)
  • The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a dopamine receptor binding to its physiological ligand, followed by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and a subsequent decrease in the concentration of cyclic AMP. (yeastrc.org)
  • Measurements of adenylyl cyclase activity in membranes from cells expressing m5-HT1B receptors showed that serotonergic agonists mediated the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity with a rank order of potency comparable to their affinity constants. (nih.gov)
  • Adenylate cyclase activity was higher in the glial cells than in the neuronal fraction, while guanylate cyclase activity was equally detected in both cell fractions. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Adenylate cyclase was mainly derived from the particulate fraction of both brain cell homogenates, whereas the major portion of guanylate cyclase activity was found in their soluble rather than in the particulate fractions. (fluoridealert.org)
  • G(s) and G(i) are guanine nucleotide-binding, heterotrimer proteins that regulate the activity of adenylate cyclase, and are responsible for transferring stimulatory and inhibitory hormonal signals, respectively, from cell surface receptors to the enzyme catalytic unit. (unimi.it)
  • Adenylate cyclase is inhibited by agonists of adenylate cyclase inhibitory G ( G i )-protein-coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This altered pattern of adenylate cyclase regulation was reproduced when a cholate extract of the tumour membranes (which contains G proteins) was reconstituted with G(s)-free, cyc- S49 cell membranes. (unimi.it)
  • We show that the posttranslationally fully processed Ki- and Ha-ras p21s activate yeast adenylate cyclase far more effectively than do the unprocessed proteins. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis is a 1706 amino acid residue long protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian ras genes substitute for the yeast RAS gene, and their products activate adenylate cyclase in yeast cells, although the direct target protein of mammalian ras p21s remains to be identified. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • [1] Adenylate cyclase is activated by a range of signaling molecules through the activation of adenylate cyclase stimulatory G ( G s )-protein-coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results indicate that [3H]LSD can be used to label the 5-HT receptors coupled to adenylate cyclase activity. (erowid.org)
  • Studies on histamine H.sub.2 receptors coupled to cardiac adenylate cyclase", Mol. (everypatent.com)
  • Phentolamine competitively inhibited 5-HT octopamine dopamine and norepinephrine stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. (erowid.org)
  • Although bulk-separated neurons and glial cells almost failed to change intracellular cyclic nucleotide levels in response to some putative neurotransmitters, activation of adenylate cyclase by NaF was found to be greater in neuronal than in glial cell fractions, and was observed more clearly in the soluble than in the particulate fractions. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Sodium azide greatly increased guanylate cyclase in the particulate fraction, but did not affect it considerably in the soluble one. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Addition of catalase to the reaction mixture together with NaN3 further stimulated guanylate cyclase both int he soluble and the particulate fractions. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Soluble adenylate cyclases catalyse the synthesis of the second messenger cAMP through the cyclisation of ATP and are the only known enzymes to be directly activated by bicarbonate. (rcsb.org)
  • The adenylate cyclase (AC) domain is then translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the current study, rats were exposed to dexamethasone or terbutaline during late gestation and the development of beta-receptor binding capabilities and adenylate cyclase activity evaluated in membrane preparations from kidney and lung. (rti.org)
  • Adenosine and certain adenosine analogues inhibit beef thyroid membrane adenylate cyclase. (docksci.com)
  • We also compare membrane-bound and solubilized adenylate cyclase in an effort to localize this site. (docksci.com)
  • Cyclic AMP is synthesized from ATP by adenylate cyclase located on the inner side of the plasma membrane and anchored at various locations in the interior of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This site appears to be associated with the catalytic unit since it persists in solubilized adenylate cyclase. (docksci.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Adenylate Cyclase 5 (ADCY5) in Tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (therabio.org)
  • Thus, our results show that there is an inverse relationship between adenylate cyclase activity and phosphodiesterase activity and suggest that intracellular calcium may indicate a coordinated regulation of the rates of synthesis and degradation of cyclic nucleotides. (uky.edu)
  • Adenylate Cyclase Assay", Adv. Cyclic Nucleotide Res. (everypatent.com)
  • Adenylate cyclase toxin is a virulence factor produced by some members of the genus Bordetella. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella parapertussis, also able to cause pertussis-like symptoms, also produce adenylate cyclase toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenylate cyclase toxin binds to target cells by the complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18, or Mac-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The transiently opened pores do, however, contribute to AC domain function by potassium leakage and calcium influx into the target cell, which slows endocytosis of CR3/adenylate cyclase toxin clusters, also, the CR3/toxin complex is mobilized by detachment from the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • The above described effects of the adenylate cyclase toxin, mainly the cAMP overproduction, have a profound effect on target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intoxication with the adenylate cyclase toxin leads to shift in polarization of macrophages from M1 (proinflammatory) phenotype to M2 (immunoregulatory) phenotype and may lead to macrophage apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adenylate cyclase domain has intrinsic enzymatic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the membranes from these tumours no stimultion of adenylate cyclase activity by growth hormone-releasing hormone, by GTP or by fluoride was observed. (unimi.it)
  • The first was a 2-fold stimulation of basal cyclase activity (half-maximal =0.08 μm). (uky.edu)
  • These mutations are thought to enhance adenylate cyclase 5 enzyme activity and lead to higher levels of cAMP within cells, so they are described as "gain-of-function" mutations. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cyclase activity. (mcw.edu)
  • Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Adenylate cyclase type 5(ADCY5) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (therabio.org)
  • The ADCY5 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called adenylate cyclase 5. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other ADCY5 gene mutations prevent production of adenylate cyclase 5. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although dexamethasone and terbutaline also caused significant changes in development of beta-receptor binding capabilities, in neither tissue could these effects account for the direction or magnitude of the changes in adenylate cyclase reactivity. (rti.org)
  • Hypoxia and glucose independently regulate the B-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase system in cardiac myocytes", J. Clinical Investigation, 88, 204 (1991). (everypatent.com)
  • Identification of adenylate cyclase-coupled beta-adrenergic receptors with radiolabeled beta-adrenergic antagonists. (medscape.com)
  • the effect resulted from increases in the enzyme itself, as both basal adenylate cyclase and forskolin-stimulation of the enzyme were also increased by dexamethasone. (rti.org)
  • Researchers suggest that the polymorphisms associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk may decrease the ability of the adenylate cyclase 5 enzyme to produce cAMP, resulting in the abnormal response to glucose that occurs in type 2 diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Distribution and different activation of adenylate cyclase by NaF and of guanylate cyclase by NaN3 in neuronal and glial cells separated from rat cerebral cortex. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Distribution of adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase activities in neuronal perikarya and glial cells separated from rat brain, and cellular differences in activation between of adenylate cyclase by NaF and of guanylate cyclase by NaN3 have been studied. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The pharmacological properties of a serotonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase (AC) found in the nervous tissue of insects were investigated. (erowid.org)
  • Both the CB1 and CB2 receptors inhibit adenylate cyclase and stimulate potassium channels. (medscape.com)
  • The effect of Ca 2+ on guinea pig brain adenylate cyclase has been studied using metal buffers to regulate the free Ca 2+ concentration. (uky.edu)
  • Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Adenylate Cyclase 5 from Human in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (therabio.org)
  • Similarly, prenatal terbutaline exposure evoked increases in basal, isoproterenol-stimulated and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the kidney. (rti.org)
  • In the lung, dexamethasone produced an initial postnatal deficit in basal adenylate cyclase and deficient responsiveness to isoproterenol, but the deficit resolved shortly after birth. (rti.org)
  • At higher [Ca 2+ ], the cyclase was inhibited to -80 to 90% of basal (half-maximal inhibition=0.3 μM). (uky.edu)
  • The Ca 2+ dependence of calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase exhibited a half-maximal activation at [Ca 2+ ]=0.3 μM, similar to the half-maximal inhibition of cyclase in the two preparations. (uky.edu)
  • Adenosine interactions with thyroid adenylate cyclase. (docksci.com)
  • Among the many actions of adenosine on cells, a great deal of attention has recently been devoted to the effects of this nucleoside on adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1. (docksci.com)
  • In an attempt to resolve these paradoxical effects of adenosine on adenylate cyclases, we have compared purine and ribose-modified analogues of adenosine (1). (docksci.com)
  • GPCRs that couple with adenylate cyclase will increase or decrease intracellular cAMP levels. (genengnews.com)
  • Liver adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to glucagon, and muscle adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to adrenaline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium at concentrations above 300 EM signincantly reduced both [3H]LSD binding and 5-HT activation of adenylate cyclase. (erowid.org)
  • These results suggest that adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase without intimate coupling to the transmitter-receptor system, but with activation by NaF or NaN3, may be distributed ubiquitously in the cells separated from rat cerebral cortex. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Likewise, Sr 2+ activation of phosphodiesterase (half-maximal stimulation=0.1 mM) occurred over the same [Sr 2+ ] range as did half-maximal inhibition of cyclase (0.3 mM) in EGTA-and Ca-membranes. (uky.edu)
  • The Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ dependence of calmodulin tyrosine fluorescence (an indirect measure of Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ dependence of phosphodiesterase activation and the inhibition of the cyclase. (uky.edu)
  • Autosomal dominant familial dyskinesia and facial myokymia: single exome sequencing identifies a mutation in adenylyl cyclase 5. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 3H]LSD binding sites were most concentrated in the anterior region of the fluke which was consistent with the higher levels of 5-HT activated adenylate cyclase found in this region. (erowid.org)
  • These results suggest that the Ca 2+ dependent inhibition of adenylate cyclase may be mediated either by calmodulin or by a metal binding site which has binding properties similar to calmodulin. (uky.edu)
  • Histamine-mediated adenylate cyclase stimulation in human myocardium", Mol. (everypatent.com)
  • A human ovarian small cell carcinoma line (BIN-67) expresses abundant calcitonin (CT) receptors (CTR) (143,000 per cell) that are coupled, to adenylate cyclase. (jci.org)
  • Erowid.org: Erowid Reference 2857 : Serotonin-sensitive Adenylate Cyclase in Neural Tissue and Its Similarity to the Serotonin Receptor: A Possible Site of Action of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide. (erowid.org)
  • In this investigation, we have studied whether the posttranslational processing of Ki- and Ha-ras p21s is critical for their stimulation of yeast adenylate cyclase in a cell-free system. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)

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