Adenylate Cyclase Toxin
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Virulence Factors, Bordetella
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
Receptors, Cell Surface
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Receptors, Pituitary Hormone
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Rats, Inbred Strains
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases
Second Messenger Systems
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Amino Acid Sequence
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.
Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars
Leydig Cell Tumor
Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.
Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II
Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone
Protein Kinase C
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Receptors, Cyclic AMP
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
Receptors, Guanylate Cyclase-Coupled
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide, Type I
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Receptors, Parathyroid Hormone
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
Type C Phospholipases
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 188.8.131.52), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Receptors, Atrial Natriuretic Factor
Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A hereditary syndrome clinically similar to HYPOPARATHYROIDISM. It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA; HYPERPHOSPHATEMIA; and associated skeletal development impairment and caused by failure of response to PARATHYROID HORMONE rather than deficiencies. A severe form with resistance to multiple hormones is referred to as Type 1a and is associated with maternal mutant allele of the ALPHA CHAIN OF STIMULATORY G PROTEIN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Receptors, Histamine H2
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H2 receptors act via G-proteins to stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are gastric acid secretion, smooth muscle relaxation, inotropic and chronotropic effects on heart muscle, and inhibition of lymphocyte function. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Receptors, Prostaglandin E
Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
Pituitary Gland, Anterior
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.
Cell polarization: chemotaxis gets CRACKing. (1/5304)An early stage in the establishment of cell polarity during chemotaxis of Dictyostelium dicoideum has been identified by a recent study; the new results also show that the development of cell polarity does not rely upon cytoskeletal rearrangement, and may use a spatial sensing mechanism. (+info)
Probing the function of Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase toxin by manipulating host immunity. (2/5304)We have examined the role of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin (CyaA) by constructing an in-frame deletion in the Bordetella bronchiseptica cyaA structural gene and comparing wild-type and cyaA deletion strains in natural host infection models. Both the wild-type strain RB50 and its adenylate cyclase toxin deletion (DeltacyaA) derivative efficiently establish persistent infections in rabbits, rats, and mice following low-dose inoculation. In contrast, an inoculation protocol that seeds the lower respiratory tract revealed significant differences in bacterial numbers and in polymorphonuclear neutrophil recruitment in the lungs from days 5 to 12 postinoculation. We next explored the effects of disarming specific aspects of the immune system on the relative phenotypes of wild-type and DeltacyaA bacteria. SCID, SCID-beige, or RAG-1(-/-) mice succumbed to lethal systemic infection following high- or low-dose intranasal inoculation with the wild-type strain but not the DeltacyaA mutant. Mice rendered neutropenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide or by knockout mutation in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor locus were highly susceptible to lethal infection by either wild-type or DeltacyaA strains. These results reveal the significant role played by neutrophils early in B. bronchiseptica infection and by acquired immunity at later time points and suggest that phagocytic cells are a primary in vivo target of the Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin. (+info)
Adenoviral gene transfer of the human V2 vasopressin receptor improves contractile force of rat cardiomyocytes. (3/5304)BACKGROUND: In congestive heart failure, high systemic levels of the hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) result in vasoconstriction and reduced cardiac contractility. These effects are mediated by the V1 vasopressin receptor (V1R) coupled to phospholipase C beta-isoforms. The V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R), which promotes activation of the Gs/adenylyl cyclase system, is physiologically expressed in the kidney but not in the myocardium. Expression of a recombinant V2R (rV2R) in the myocardium could result in a positive inotropic effect via the endogenous high concentrations of AVP in heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: A recombinant adenovirus encoding the human V2R (Ad-V2R) was tested for its ability to modulate the cardiac Gs/adenylyl cyclase system and to potentiate contractile force in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Ad-V2R infection resulted in a virus concentration-dependent expression of the transgene and led to a marked increase in cAMP formation in rV2R-expressing cardiomyocytes after exposure to AVP. Single-cell shortening measurements showed a significant agonist-induced contraction amplitude enhancement, which was blocked by the V2R antagonist, SR 121463A. Pretreatment of Ad-V2R-infected cardiomyocytes with AVP led to desensitization of the rV2R after short-term agonist exposure but did not lead to further loss of receptor function or density after long-term agonist incubation, thus demonstrating resistance of the rV2R to downregulation. CONCLUSIONS: Adenoviral gene transfer of the V2R in cardiomyocytes can modulate the endogenous adenylyl cyclase-signal transduction cascade and can potentiate contraction amplitude in cardiomyocytes. Heterologous expression of cAMP-forming receptors in the myocardium could lead to novel strategies in congestive heart failure by bypassing the desensitized beta-adrenergic receptor signaling. (+info)
Kinetic analysis of drug-receptor interactions of long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics in isolated receptor membranes: evidence against prolonged effects of salmeterol and formoterol on receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase. (4/5304)The long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics salmeterol and formoterol have been presumed to exert their prolonged action either by binding to an accessory binding site ("exo-site") near the beta2 adrenoceptor or by their high affinity for beta2 adrenoceptors and correspondingly slow dissociation. Whereas most studies with salmeterol had been done in intact tissues, which have slow diffusion and compartmentation of drugs in lipophilic phases, that restrict drug access to the receptor biophase, we used purified receptor membranes from rat lung and disaggregated calf tracheal myocytes as model systems. Binding experiments were designed to measure the slow dissociation of agonists by means of delayed association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol. Rat lung membranes were pretreated with high concentrations of agonists (salmeterol, formoterol, isoprenaline) before dissociation was induced by 50-fold dilution. Half-times of association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol remained unchanged compared with untreated controls, indicating that dissociation of agonists occurred in less than 2 min. Adenylyl cyclase experiments were designed to determine the on and off kinetics of agonists to beta2 adrenoceptors by measuring the rate of receptor-induced cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation. Experiments were performed in tracheal membranes characterized by high Vmax values of cAMP formation. Adenylyl cyclase activation occurred simultaneously with the addition of the agonist, continued linearly with time for 60 min, and ceased immediately after the antagonist was added. Similarly, when receptor membranes were preincubated in a small volume with high salmeterol concentrations, there was a linear increase in cAMP formation, which was immediately interrupted by a 100-fold dilution of the reaction mixture. This militates against the exo-site hypothesis. On the other hand, dissociation by dilution was much less when membranes were preincubated with a large volume of salmeterol at the same concentration, indicating that physicochemical effects, and not exo-site binding, underlie its prolonged mode of action. (+info)
Biochemical and cytochemical studies on adenylate cyclase activity in the developing rat submandibular gland: differentiation of of the acinar secretory compartment. (5/5304)To investigate membrane changes in development of the exocrine cells of the rat submandibular gland (SMG), biochemical and cytochemical studies of adenylate cyclase activity were performed on prenatal and postnatal glands. SMG rudiments and glands were studied from 15 days of gestation op to birth and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 weeks after birth. Glands were chemically assayed for adenylate cyclase activity using the procedures of Salomon and coworkers and cytochemically studied using a procedure which was verified biochemically. At 15-16 days of gestation basal adenylate cyclase activity was low and no staining could be observed. Adenylate cyclase activity rose six-fold from the 16th to the 18th day of gestation. Adenylate cyclase staining became evident along the surface of most of the cells of the rudiment at this time. Basal adenylate cyclase activity remained relatively constant from the 18th day of gestation up to 24 weeks of age. However, sequential changes were seen in the cytochemical localization, especially in relation to the apical plasma membrane of the developing secretory cells. (+info)
Facilitation of signal onset and termination by adenylyl cyclase. (6/5304)The alpha subunit (Gsalpha) of the stimulatory heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate binding protein (G protein) Gs activates all isoforms of mammalian adenylyl cyclase. Adenylyl cyclase (Type V) and its subdomains, which interact with Gsalpha, promoted inactivation of the G protein by increasing its guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity. Adenylyl cyclase and its subdomains also augmented the receptor-mediated activation of heterotrimeric Gs and thereby facilitated the rapid onset of signaling. These findings demonstrate that adenylyl cyclase functions as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for the monomeric Gsalpha and enhances the GTP/GDP exchange factor (GEF) activity of receptors. (+info)
The 5'-flanking region of the mouse adenylyl cyclase type VIII gene imparts tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice. (7/5304)The calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclases (ACs) play a central role in stimulus-dependent modification of synaptic function. The type VIII AC (AC8) is one of three mammalian calcium-stimulated isoforms, each of which is expressed in a region-specific manner in the CNS. To delineate the DNA sequences responsible for appropriate targeting of AC8 expression, we report here the complete structure of the AC8 gene and define the pattern of expression of the full-length cDNA and its splice variants. In addition to expression within the brain, robust expression of AC8 was also found in the lung. By in situ hybridization, we have found the highest expression of AC8 mRNA within the olfactory bulb, thalamus, habenula, cerebral cortex, and hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. By generating transgenic mice whose expression of beta-galactosidase is controlled by the AC8 5'-flanking DNA sequences, we demonstrate that the DNA sequences within the 10 kb preceding exon 1 are critical for establishment of this region-specific pattern. This spectrum of sites of production is unique to AC8 among the calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclases and suggests nonredundant functions with other adenylyl cyclases in neuroendocrine regulation and/or behavior. (+info)
Role of protein kinase A in the maintenance of inflammatory pain. (8/5304)Although the initiation of inflammatory pain (hyperalgesia) has been demonstrated to require the cAMP second messenger signaling cascade, whether this mechanism and/or other mechanisms underlie the continued maintenance of the induced hyperalgesia is unknown. We report that injection of adenylyl cyclase inhibitors before but not after injection of direct-acting hyperalgesic agents (prostaglandin E2 and purine and serotonin receptor agonists) resulted in reduction in hyperalgesia, evaluated by the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal test. In contrast, injection of protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors either before or after these hyperalgesic agents resulted in reduced hyperalgesia, suggesting that hyperalgesia after its activation was maintained by persistent PKA activity but not by adenylyl cyclase activity. To evaluate further the role of PKA activity in the maintenance of hyperalgesia, we injected the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKACS) that resulted in hyperalgesia similar in magnitude to that induced by the direct-acting hyperalgesic agents but much longer in duration (>48 vs 2 hr). Injection of WIPTIDE (a PKA inhibitor) at 24 hr after PKACS reduced hyperalgesia, suggesting that PKACS hyperalgesia is not independently maintained by steps downstream from PKA. In summary, our results indicate that, once established, inflammatory mediator-induced hyperalgesia is no longer maintained by adenylyl cyclase activity but rather is dependent on ongoing PKA activity. An understanding of the mechanism maintaining hyperalgesia may provide important insight into targets for the treatment of persistent pain. (+info)
Effects of chronic ethanol treatment and aging on brain phosphoinositide turnover and adenylate cyclase activity - UQ eSpace
Inositol phosphate accumulation and adenylate cyclase activity were investigated in the cortex of young and aged ethanol-treated rats. Three months of ethanol treatment of young rats decreased maximal stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation by carbachol by 26%, from 494 ± 76% of basal turnover in control animals to 396 ± 54% in ethanol-treated animals (mean ± SD). In aged rats ethanol-related changes were no longer observed but age-related changes were evident. EC50 was significantly higher than in young animals and maximal stimulation was significantly lower. Basal adenylate cyclase activity in cortical membranes of all groups of animals was not different. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not affected by ethanol treatment, but was higher in aged animals. The activity of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the presence of carbachol was higher in both young and aged ethanol-treated animals, when compared to young controls. These results suggest that both ethanol ...
Differential effects of Ca2+-calmodulin on adenylate cyclase activity cyclase activity in mouse and rat pancreatic islets |...
The effects of Ca2+-calmodulin on adenylate cyclase activity in EGTA-washed, 27000 g particulate fractions of mouse and rat pancreatic islets were studied. Ca2+ (10 microM)-calmodulin (1 microM) stimulated adenylate cyclase activity 53.1 +/- 5.2 (N = 6)% in the particulate fraction of rat islets. Trifluoperazine (50 microM), a specific inhibitor of calmodulin, inhibited the Ca2+-calmodulin activation of the adenylate cyclase activity of this fraction of rat islets. These results confirm previous reports dealing with Ca2+-Calmodulin and rat islet adenylate cyclase [Valverde, Vandermeers. Anjaneyulu & Malaisse (1979) Science 206, 225-227; Sharp, Wiedenkeller, Kaelin, Siegel & Wollheim (1980) Diabetes 29, 74-77]. In contrast, however, Ca2+ (1-100 microM)-calmodulin (1-10 microM) did not stimulate the adenylate cyclase activity in the EGTA-washed particulate fraction of mouse islets, and trifluoperazine (50 microM) did not inhibit the adenylate cyclase activity of this fraction of mouse islets, ...
Gel-filtration analysis of soluble adenylate cyclase from bovine corpus luteum | Biochemical Journal
1. Sepharose 6B gel-filtration analysis of soluble adenylate cyclase from bovine corpus luteum is described. Both zonal and frontal techniques of analysis were used. 2. Under conditions of zonal analysis recoveries of activity were low. It was concluded that dissociation of two or more components of the adenylate cyclase complex was occurring on the column and that the maintenance of the complex was essential for the high-activity state of the catalytic unit. Two peaks of adenylate cyclase activity, of approximate mol. wts. 45,000 and 160,000 were detected. 3. The theory of frontal analysis (or steady-state gel filtration), applied to the study of the interacting components of the adenylate cyclase complex is discussed, and activity profiles are predicted. Activity profiles obtained experimentally be frontal analysis compared well with the theoretically predicted profile and provide evidence that dissociation of a high-activity complex, with concomitant loss of activity, does occur. Recoveries ...
Hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase in glomerular cells. Possible role for inflammatory diseases of the glomerulus<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase in glomerular cells. Possible role for inflammatory diseases of the glomerulus. AU - Paietta, Elisabeth M.. AU - Schwarzmeier, J. D.. AU - Simbruner, G.. AU - Latzka, U.. AU - Lubec, G.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Using the adenylate cyclase assay after Ross the authors examined hormone sensitivity of isolated glomerular cells. cAMP production was increased 1.3-1.6-fold by stimulation with isoproterenol, 1.5-1.8 times by prostaglandin E 1 and 1.4-1.5 times by histamine. The isoproterenol reaction could be completely inhibited by propranolol, the histamine effect was abolished by the H2-blocking agent cimetidine. As a control the authors applied sodium fluoride, which directly activates the catalytic adenylate cyclase unit, increasing the activity 1.8-2.7 times (depending on the method of homogenization). These findings could reflect some physiological or pathophysiological implications, which are discussed.. AB - Using the adenylate cyclase ...
Reconstitution of catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity using three purified proteins<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reconstitution of catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity using three purified proteins. AU - May, D. C.. AU - Ross, E. M.. AU - Gilman, A. G.. AU - Smigel, M. D.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - β-Adrenergic receptors, the GTP-binding regulatory protein that stimulates adenylate cyclase (G(s)), and adenylate cyclase were each purified and reconstituted into unilamellar vesicles composed of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine (3:2, w/w). The molar ratio of receptor:G(s):adenylate cyclase was estimated to be about 1:10:1. Adenylate cyclase activity in the vesicles was stimulated up to 2.6-fold by β-adrenergic agonists. Stimulation was dependent on the presence of guanine nucleotide, displayed appropriate β-adrenergic selectivity and stereoselectivity for agonists, and was blocked appropriately by β-adrenergic antagonists. Therefore, while additional proteins may modulate adenylate cyclase activity in native membranes, these results show that these three ...
Action of feedback regulator on adenylate cyclase | PNAS
A factor [the feedback regulator (FR)] formed by adipocytes after the stimulation of a cAMP raising hormone has been found to be a potent inhibitor of membrane-bound adenylate cyclase [EC 184.108.40.206.; ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing)]. In a standard assay system using rat adipocyte plasma membrane as the source of adenylate cyclase, the FR inhibited adenylate cyclase by lowering the Vmax without affecting the apparent Km for ATP (0.3-0.6 mM). The apparent Ka for epinephrine (5-6 muM) was also not affected by FR. The inhibitory action of FR was partially countered by Mg2+ ions. An increase in phosphorylation of plasma membrane was observed when FR was present in the incubation system. The concentration required for a 50% inhibition was four times higher when adenosine 5-(beta,gamma-imino) triphosphate [AMP-P(NH)P] replaced ATP as the substrate for adenylate cyclase, implying that adenylate cyclase was inactivated by phosphorylation caused by FR. Increase in FR inhibition obtained by adding low ...
Multiple forms of brain adenylate cyclase: Stimulation by Mn<sup>2+<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiple forms of brain adenylate cyclase. T2 - Stimulation by Mn2+. AU - Malamuda, Daniel F.. AU - DiRusso, Concetta C.. AU - Aprille, June R.. PY - 1977/11/23. Y1 - 1977/11/23. N2 - Mn2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase-(cyclizing), EC 220.127.116.11) activity in detergent solubilized preparations from mouse brain. While NaF-stimulated activity was decreased by both solubilization and storage at 0-4°C, the ability of the enzyme to be stimulated by Mn2+ was maintained for up to one week. By including Mn+ in the assay of adenylate cyclase in gel fractions after isoelectric focusing, two distinct peaks of enzyme activity (pI1 = 5.8, pI2 = 6.4) were detected, suggesting the existence of more than one type of catalytic subunit in mouse brain cell membranes.. AB - Mn2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase-(cyclizing), EC 18.104.22.168) activity in detergent solubilized preparations from mouse brain. While NaF-stimulated activity was decreased by both ...
Isoelectric focusing of brain adenylate cyclase<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isoelectric focusing of brain adenylate cyclase. AU - Franks, Douglas J.. AU - Malamud, Daniel. PY - 1976/6. Y1 - 1976/6. N2 - Mouse brain adenylate cyclase has been solubilized with Lubrol PX and separated by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme activity has been measured with a sensitive assay isolating cyclic AMP from Dowex and alumina columns. The technique allows a one-step analysis of this membrane enzyme from a heterogeneous sample within 6 hr.. AB - Mouse brain adenylate cyclase has been solubilized with Lubrol PX and separated by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme activity has been measured with a sensitive assay isolating cyclic AMP from Dowex and alumina columns. The technique allows a one-step analysis of this membrane enzyme from a heterogeneous sample within 6 hr.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017121245&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
Adenylyl Cyclase Type V Inhibitor, NKY80 - CAS 299442-43-6 - Calbiochem CAS 299442-43-6 | 116850
Adenylyl Cyclase Type V Inhibitor, NKY80 - CAS 299442-43-6 - Calbiochem The Adenylyl Cyclase Type V Inhibitor, NKY80, also referenced under CAS 299442-43-6, controls the biological activity of Adenylyl Cyclase Type V. This small molecule/inhibitor is primarily used for Cell Signaling applications. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Transcription of the Escherichia coli adenylate cyclase gene is negatively regulated by cAMP-cAMP receptor protein.
Aiba H.. The regulatory region of the Escherichia coli cya gene was analyzed by using S1 nuclease mapping and in vitro transcription experiments. The cya gene was transcribed, both in vivo and in vitro, from one major promoter (P2) and two weak promoters (P1 and P1) that are located about 200 base pairs upstream of P2. The transcription from P2 was specifically inhibited by cAMP-CRP (cAMP receptor protein) in vitro. This regulatory mechanism was shown to be physiologically relevant through quantitative analyses of the cya mRNA in intact cells by S1 and dot blot assays. DNase I protection experiments revealed that cAMP-CRP binds to the cya DNA region between +11 and -20, in which a consensus CRP binding sequence is present. Moreover, it was found that cAMP-CRP alters the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter region, thus inhibiting the transcription of the cya gene.. J. Biol. Chem. 260:3063-3070(1985) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] ...
The hepatic adenylate cyclase system. I. Evidence for transition states and structural requirements for guanine nucleotide...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The hepatic adenylate cyclase system. I. Evidence for transition states and structural requirements for guanine nucleotide activation. AU - Salomon, Y.. AU - Lin, M. C.. AU - Londos, C.. AU - Rendell, M.. AU - Rodbell, M.. PY - 1975/12/1. Y1 - 1975/12/1. N2 - Previous studies showed that guanine nucleotides, acting at a site termed the nucleotide regulatory site, are required for activation of hepatic adenylate cyclase, and that glucagon facilitates this process. This study shows that only guanine nucleotides containing triphosphate groups at the 5 position of ribose (or 3 deoxyribose) are capable of activating the enzyme. The terminal phosphate is not utilized in the activation process, since 5 guanylylimidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] and 5 guanylyl methylenediphosphonate, analogues of guanosine triphosphate that are not utilized in transferase or hydrolase reactions, stimulate enzyme activity. The nucleotides bind in their free form at the regulatory site; chelation by magnesium ...
Six git genes encode a glucose-induced adenylate cyclase activation pathway in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe |...
An important eukaryotic signal transduction pathway involves the regulation of the effector enzyme adenylate cyclase, which produces the second messenger, cAMP. Previous genetic analyses demonstrated that glucose repression of transcription of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbp1 gene requires the function of adenylate cyclase, encoded by the git2 gene. As mutations in git2 and in six additional git genes are suppressed by exogenous cAMP, these upstream git genes were proposed to act to produce a glucose-induced cAMP signal. We report here that assays of cAMP levels in wild-type and various mutant S. pombe cells, before and after exposure to glucose, show that this is the case. The data suggest that the cAMP signal results from the activation of adenylate cyclase. Therefore these upstream git genes appear to encode a glucose-induced adenylate cyclase activation pathway. Assays of cAMP on a strain carrying a mutation in the git6 gene, which acts downstream of adenylate cyclase, indicate that ...
INT49959 - wiki-pain
We next investigated whether beta gamma subunits play a role in the sensitization of type VI adenylyl cyclase activity; using expression of alpha tau to inhibit beta gamma-mediated effects, we found that the quinpirole-induced sensitization of type VI adenylyl cyclase was abolished ...
Attenuation of inhibitory influence of hormones on adenylyl cyclase systems in the myocardium and brain of obese and type 2...
Attenuation of inhibitory influence of hormones on adenylyl cyclase systems in the myocardium and brain of obese and type 2 diabetic rats as affected by the intranasal insulin treatment Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology Pleiades Publishing 0022-0930 1608-3202 10.1134/S0022093014050044
Bicarbonate-regulated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) mRNA expression and activity in peripheral chemoreceptors<...
TY - GEN. T1 - Bicarbonate-regulated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) mRNA expression and activity in peripheral chemoreceptors. AU - Nunes, A. R.. AU - Monteiro, E. C.. AU - Johnson, S. M.. AU - Gauda, E. B.. PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - Peripheral arterial chemoreceptors in the carotid body (CB) are modulated by pH/CO2. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is directly stimulated by bicarbonate ions (HCO3 -). Because CO2/HCO 3 - mediates depolarization in chemoreceptors, we hypothesized that sAC mRNA would be expressed in the CB, and its expression and function would be regulated by CO2/HCO3 -. Sprague-Dawley rats at postnatal days 16-17 were used to compare sAC mRNA gene expression between CB and non-chemosensitive tissues: superior cervical (SCG), petrosal (PG) and nodose ganglia (NG) by quantitative real time-PCR. Rat sAC gene expression was standardized to the expression of GAPDH (housekeeping gene) and the data were analyzed with the Pfaffl method. Gene and protein expression, and sAC ...
Oxidant Stress Enhances Adenylyl Cyclase Activation | Circulation Research
H2O2 and oxygen-derived free radicals modulate vasodilator mechanisms.1 2 3 4 5 6 9 The present studies indicate that H2O2 enhances adenylyl cyclase activation and that the effect is dependent (in part) on the presence of iron and is blunted by agents that act to inhibit tyrosine kinase activity.. Our data suggest that the oxygen-derived species mediating the enhancement of adenylyl cyclase activation is either H2O2 itself or the hydroxyl radical. Incubation of cells with xanthine oxidase and purine resulted in a qualitatively similar enhancement of adenylyl cyclase activation. The effect of purine and xanthine oxidase was not blocked by coincubation with superoxide dismutase (which catalyzes the conversion from superoxide anion to H2O2). This suggests that the generation of the superoxide anion is not involved in the mechanism of enhancement of adenylyl cyclase activation. However, pretreatment with either catalase (which catalyzes conversion of H2O2 to water) or with deferoxamine (which ...
Demonstration and Characterization of Opiate Inhibition of the Striatal Adenylate Cyclase<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Demonstration and Characterization of Opiate Inhibition of the Striatal Adenylate Cyclase. AU - Law, P. Y.. AU - Wu, J.. AU - Koehler, J. E.. AU - Loh, H. H.. PY - 1981/5. Y1 - 1981/5. N2 - Abstract: The conditions in which Leu5‐enkephalin inhibition of striatal adenylate cyclase was observed were defined. It was determined that enkephalin inhibition was dependent on GTP. The apparent Km for GTP in opiate inhibition was determined to be 0.5 and 2 μM when 0.1 mM‐ and 0.5 mM‐ATP were used as substrate. ITP, but not CTP or UTP, could substitute for GTP in the reaction. Though the addition of monovalent cations-Na+,K+, Li+, Cs+, and choline+-stimulated striatal adenylate cyclase activity, enkephalin inhibition of striatal adenylate cyclase did not require Na+ when theophylline was used as the phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Under optimal conditions, i.e., 20 μM‐GTP and 100 mM‐Na+, Leu5‐enkephalin inhibited the striatal adenylate cyclase activity by 23-27%. When the ...
Effect of membrane phospholipid composition changes on adenylate cyclase activity in normal and rous-sarcoma-transformed...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effect of membrane phospholipid composition changes on adenylate cyclase activity in normal and rous-sarcoma-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Adenylate cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei inhibit the innate immune response of the host. | SBRC
The parasite Trypanosoma brucei possesses a large family of transmembrane receptor-like adenylate cyclases. Activation of these enzymes requires the dimerization of the catalytic domain and typically occurs under stress. Using a dominant-negative strategy, we found that reducing adenylate cyclase activity by about 50% allowed trypanosome growth but reduced the parasites ability to control the early innate immune defense of the host. Specifically, activation of trypanosome adenylate cyclase resulting from parasite phagocytosis by liver myeloid cells inhibited the synthesis of the trypanosome-controlling cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α through activation of protein kinase A in these cells. Thus, adenylate cyclase activity of lyzed trypanosomes favors early host colonization by live parasites. The role of adenylate cyclases at the host-parasite interface could explain the expansion and polymorphism of this gene family.. ...
Temporal effects of cytokines on neonatal cardiac myocyte Ca2+ transients and adenylate cyclase activity., Department of...
This study investigates the hypothesis that inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1alpha IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), influence cardiac function by affecting calcium homeostasis and that this effect is mediated by the beta-adrenergic-adenylate cyclase system. After 4 days in culture, neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were treated with cytokines (10 ng/ml) for short (2 h) or longer (18 h) times. Myocyte calcium, contractility, and adenylate cyclase were measured under each condition. Anticipated stepwise increases in adenylate cyclase and intracellular calcium were found in controls (non-cytokine-treated) with 10(-7) M isoproterenol, 10(-7) M isoproterenol + 0.1 mM guanosine triphosphate, and 10(-9) M forskolin. Cells in the presence of cytokine for 2 h show increased basal calcium levels but no changes in adenylate cyclase activities, and isoproterenol fails to elevate adenylate cyclase levels or affect contractile shortening. After long-term treatment with IL-1beta or TNF, but ...
Adenylate cyclase activity of luteinized ovaries from gonadotropin-primed immature rats was stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH), epinephrine and prostaglandin E1. Treatment of primed rats with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) caused a time-dependent loss of the adenylate cyclase response to LH, and the enzyme also became refractory to stimulation by epinephrine. Conversely, treatment of primed rats with epinephrine caused a time-dependent loss of the adenylate cyclase response to epinephrine, but the enzyme remained responsive to LH. The refractoriness of adenylate cyclase to epinephrine after desensitization by hCG or epinephrine was not reversed by Gpp(NH)p. These studies show that cross-desensitization of epinephrine-responsive adenylate cyclase activity in the ovary is induced by LH-receptor interaction, whereas β-adrenergic desensitization causes more specific refractoriness to epinephrine with no change in the LH receptor activation mechanism. This suggests the existence of ...
Discrete Intracellular Signaling Domains of Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase: Camps of cAMP? | Science Signaling
Soluble adenylyl cyclase can function in the nucleus, defining a nuclear microdomain of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) signaling. Bundey and Insel discuss the evidence for discrete signaling microdomains of cAMP, including the nucleus and caveolae, and conclude that such microdomains may be defined by the localized, subcellular expression of adenylyl cyclase isoforms.. ...
Crystal Structure of Human Soluble Adenylate Cyclase Reveals a Distinct, Highly Flexible Allosteric Bicarbonate Binding Pocket ...
Soluble adenylate cyclases catalyse the synthesis of the second messenger cAMP through the cyclisation of ATP and are the only known enzymes to be directly activated by bicarbonate. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the human enzyme that reveals a pseudosymmetrical arrangement of two catalytic domains to produce a single competent active site and a novel discrete bicarbonate binding pocket. Crystal structures of the apo protein, the protein in complex with α,β-methylene adenosine 5′-triphosphate (AMPCPP) and calcium, with the allosteric activator bicarbonate, and also with a number of inhibitors identified using fragment screening, all show a flexible active site that undergoes significant conformational changes on binding of ligands. The resulting nanomolar-potent inhibitors that were developed bind at both the substrate binding pocket and the allosteric site, and can be used as chemical probes to further elucidate the function of this protein.
Effect of lithium on prostaglandin E<sub>1<sup>-</sup></sub> stimulated adenylate cyclase activity...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of lithium on prostaglandin E1- stimulated adenylate cyclase activity of human platelets. AU - Yao-Chun, Wang. AU - Pandey, Ghanshyam N.. AU - Mendels, Joe. AU - Frazer, Alan. PY - 1974/2/15. Y1 - 1974/2/15. N2 - The effect of lithium (Li) on the stimulation of adenylate cyclase by prostaglandin E1(PGE1) was examined. In platelet sonicates, Li, as well as sodium (Na), potassium (K), and rubidium (Rb) significantly reduced the PGE1-induced stimulation of adenylate cyclase in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition due to Rb was significantly less than that produced by the other cations; at a high concentration, 64 mM, Li was a more potent inhibitor than the other cations. In intact platelets, only Li reduced the PGE1-enhanced accumulation of [3H]cyclic AMP, K and Rb being ineffective. As little as 1 mM Li significantly reduced the stimulatory effect of PGE1 on [3H]cyclic AMP production in this sytem. The inhibition produced by Li was not blocked by phentolamine, whereas ...
Mutations of the adenylyl cyclase gene that block RAS function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae | Science
The interaction between RAS proteins and adenylyl cyclase was studied by using dominant interfering mutations of adenylyl cyclase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RAS proteins activate adenylyl cyclase in this organism. A plasmid expressing a catalytically inactive adenylyl cyclase was found to interfere dominantly with this activation. The interfering region mapped to the leucine-rich repeat region of adenylyl cyclase, which is homologous to domains present in several other proteins and is thought to participate in protein-protein interactions. ...
Guanylyl cyclases with the topology of mammalian adenylyl cyclases and an N‐terminal P‐type ATPase‐like domain in Paramecium,...
We have cloned a GC from Paramecium which has an N‐terminal P‐type ATPase‐like domain and a C‐terminal cyclase domain. So far, mammalian GC catalysts are either homodimers fused to an extracellular receptor by a single TM, or soluble heterodimers linked to a nitric oxide‐binding site (Schulz et al., 1991; Yu et al., 1996; Tang and Hurley, 1998; Koesling and Friebe, 1999). The ciliate GC domain differs. It has the unmistakable topology of a mammalian AC complete with catalytic C1a and C2a regions and two prominent membrane anchors, M1 and M2, with six TMs each. Therefore, the ciliate GC is not related to metazoan GCs but is a close relative of metazoan ACs. A striking difference between the ciliate GCs and their mammalian AC congeners was the switch of the C1a and C2a positions. The preference for GTP could be rationalized by looking at three amino acids which determine the nucleotide specifity in the catalytic pocket. In metazoan ACs, glutamine, lysine and aspartate define ATP as a ...
Hormonal stimulation of adenylyl cyclase through G<sub>i</sub>-protein βγ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hormonal stimulation of adenylyl cyclase through Gi-protein βγ subunits. AU - Federman, Alex D.. AU - Conklin, Bruce R.. AU - Schrader, Karen A.. AU - Reed, Randall R. AU - Bourne, Henry R.. PY - 1992/3/12. Y1 - 1992/3/12. N2 - AGONIST-BOUND receptors activate heterotrimeric (αβγ) G proteins by catalysing replacement by GTP of GDP bound to the α subunit, resulting in dissociation of γ-GTP from the βγ subunits. In most cases, α-GTP carries the signal to effectors, as in hormonal stimulation1-4 and inhibition5,6 of adenylyl cyclase by αs and αi respectively. By contrast, genetic evidence in yeast7 and studies in mammalian cells8-10 suggest that βγ subunits of G proteins may also regulate effector pathways. Indeed, of the four recombinant mammalian adenylyl cyclases available for study11-14, two, adenylyl cyclases II and IV, are stimulated by βγ . This effect of βγ requires costimulation by αs-GTP14,15. This conditional pattern of effector responsiveness led to ...
Catecholamine-induced myocardial potassium uptake mediated by beta 1-adrenoceptors and adenylate cyclase activation in the pig....
The myocardial potassium uptake during intracoronary isoproterenol stimulation was characterized in 12 anesthetized pigs. The beta-receptor subtype specificity and the effect of adenylate cyclase activation were determined. Potassium concentrations were continuously recorded by PVC-valinomycin minielectrodes in the left atrial cavity and in coronary sinus blood diverted through a shunt to the right atrium. The difference in potassium concentration between the left atrial cavity and coronary sinus, and the accumulated myocardial potassium uptake were calculated after computerized data sampling. By intracoronary drug infusion, changes in heart rate and systemic effects were minimized. Isoproterenol (0.6-0.8 microgram/min), a nonspecific beta-agonist, reduced coronary sinus potassium concentration transiently to a nadir of 0.28 (0.15-0.43) mM (median and 95% confidence interval) below control values (n = 12). The potassium uptake, which amounted to 140 (79-202) mumol/100 g tissue, corresponding to ...
Cloning of the second adenylate cyclase gene (cya2) from Rhizobium meliloti F34: sequence similarity to eukaryotic cyclases. -...
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RCSB PDB - 1CS4: COMPLEX OF GS-ALPHA WITH THE CATALYTIC DOMAINS OF MAMMALIAN ADENYLYL CYCLASE: COMPLEX WITH 2-DEOXY-ADENOSINE...
1CS4: COMPLEX OF GS-ALPHA WITH THE CATALYTIC DOMAINS OF MAMMALIAN ADENYLYL CYCLASE: COMPLEX WITH 2-DEOXY-ADENOSINE 3-MONOPHOSPHATE, PYROPHOSPHATE AND MG
Withdrawal of mice from chronic ethanol treatment results in a decreased responsiveness of striatal (but not mesolimbic) dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity to stimulation by dopamine. This subsensitivity is not apparent at the time of withdrawal from chronic feeding of ethanol, when animals are still intoxicated, but becomes evident as ethanol is eliminated from the animals. Addition of ethanol in vitro to tissue homogenates from ethanol-withdrawn animals, at concentrations similar to those found in brain at the time of withdrawal, normalizes the response of the adenylate cyclase to dopamine. No difference is evident between control and ethanol-withdrawn animals in stimulation of adenylate cyclase by sodium fluoride. The specificity of the response of striatal adenylate cyclase to stimulation by dopamine, as compared to other transmitters, is unaltered by chronic ethanol feeding. Chronic treatment with ethanol and withdrawal also does not affect the specific binding of spiroperidol in ...
Pore-formation by adenylate cyclase toxoid activates dendritic cells to prime CD8+ and CD4+ T cells
The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis is a bi-functional leukotoxin. It penetrates myeloid phagocytes expressing the complement receptor 3 and delivers into their cytosol its N-terminal adenylate cyclase enzyme domain (~400 residues). In parallel, ~1300 residue-long RT …
RecName: Full=Adenylate cyclase type 6; EC=22.214.171.124;AltName: Full=Adenylate cyclase type VI;AltName: Full=ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 6;AltName: Full=Adenylyl cyclase 6;AltName: Full=Ca(2+)-inhibitable adenylyl ...
Differential unmasking of adenylate cyclase activity (AC) in cardiac membrane sheets and vesicles<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential unmasking of adenylate cyclase activity (AC) in cardiac membrane sheets and vesicles. AU - Fleming, J. W.. AU - Besch, H. R.. AU - Jones, L. R.. AU - Watanabe, A. M.. PY - 1978/1/1. Y1 - 1978/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017841068&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0017841068&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0017841068. VL - 20. JO - Pharmacologist. JF - Pharmacologist. SN - 0031-7004. IS - 3. ER - ...
JCI - ATP receptor regulation of adenylate cyclase and protein kinase C activity in cultured renal LLC-PK1 cells.
In cultured intact LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells, a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue, ATP gamma S, inhibits AVP-stimulated cAMP formation. In LLC-PK1 membranes, several ATP analogues inhibit basal, GTP-, forskolin-, and AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The rank order potency of inhibition by ATP analogues suggests that a P2y type of ATP receptor is involved in this inhibition. The compound ATP gamma S inhibits agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in solubilized and in isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and quinacrine pretreated membranes, suggesting that ATP gamma S inhibition occurs independent of AVP and A1 adenosine receptors and of phospholipase A2 activity. The ATP gamma S inhibition of AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity is not affected by pertussis toxin but is attenuated by GDP beta S, suggesting a possible role for a pertussis toxin insensitive G protein in the inhibition. Exposure of intact LLC-PK cells to ATP gamma S results in a significant ...
Spermine inhibition of basal and stimulated adenylate cyclase is mediated by the inhibitory GTP-binding protein (Gi). -...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Spermine inhibition of basal and stimulated adenylate cyclase is mediated by the inhibitory GTP-binding protein (Gi). by Carlo Clô et al.
Adenylate cyclase type 5 (EC 126.96.36.199) (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 5) (Adenylate cyclase type V) (Adenylyl cyclase 5) (Ca(2+)-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase ...
A New Site and Mechanism of Action for the Widely Used Adenylate Cyclase Inhibitor SQ22,536 | Molecular Pharmacology
It was assumed through most of the last century that cAMP signaling within mammalian cells proceeded mainly, if not exclusively, through activation of PKA (Kuo and Greengard, 1969). More recently, it has been appreciated that at least three major cAMP-dependent signaling pathways exist in rodent and human cells. A large number of molecular biological and pharmacological investigations have been devoted to parsing the relative contributions of PKA, Epac, and now NCS in cAMP-dependent signaling in mammalian, especially neuroendocrine, cells. These investigations have been fraught with the twin difficulties of establishing both (1) that a particular pathway is, in fact, cAMP-dependent and (2) that the pathway, if cAMP-dependent, relies on either canonical (PKA-dependent) or noncanonical (cAMP sensors other than PKA) signaling. Obviously, reagents for selective stimulation or inhibition of the various isoforms of adenylate cyclase have become increasingly central to these efforts. There is a ...
Because it is the only cell in the human body designed to leave the confines of the body, sperm genes echo those of unicellular life forms. An example is the sperm adenylate cyclase that produces cAMP. The sperm adenylate cyclase gene in homology studies bears the most resemblance to the adenylate cyclase found in cyanobacteria. One way to think about the human genome is that it contains the memory of unicellular life. When the gametes are made, that genetic memory becomes expressed, and genes that are actually most similar to genes found in other unicellular organisms begin to be expressed in the testes, says John Herr at the University of Virginia. We call this the ancestral gene program that is activated during sperm production. (Herr has developed two commercial home tests for male infertility, Sperm Check Fertility and Sperm Check Vasectomy, using biomarkers that are unique to the final stage of sperm development in the testes ...
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Indian Patents. 246529:AN ASSAY OF SCREENING PHARMACEUTICAL
Since PAM is a potent inhibitor of AC enzyme activity, it was next investigated if the translocation of PAM from the ER to the plasma membrane results in an inhibition of AC activity. Serum-treatment of HeLa cells reduced the intracellular cAMP accumulation (Fig. 19a). Additionally, serum-treatment decreased Gas- and forskolin-stimulated AC activity to 56.7% and 64.7%, respectively, as compared to untreated cells (Fig. 19b). The observed decrease in AC activity was not due to a change in the AC isoform expression or due to an increased AC expression since no changes in the mRNA expression of AC isoforms was detected (Fig. 19c). To determine if the decrease in stimulated AC activity was mediated by PAM, the amount of endogenous PAM was decreased, employing antisense oligonucleotides against PAM as previously described in Scholich et al., 2001. As shown in Fig. 19d, in HeLa cells treated with antisense ODN the amount of PAM, as determined by Western Blot analysis, was decreased as compared to ...
Nine membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase isoforms catalyze the production of the second messenger cyclic AMPs (cAMP) in response to various stimuli. Reduction of adenylyl cyclase activity has well-documented benefits, including for heart disease and pain. These roles have inspired an attempt to develop isoform selective adenylyl cyclase inhibitors. The lack of true selectivity currently limits exploration of functions and/or treatment of dysfunctions involving adenylyl cyclase/cAMP signaling. The present study demonstrated that a panel of inhibitors described as AC5-selective actually does not discriminate between AC5 and AC6. Likewise, the putative AC1-selective inhibitor, NB001 [5-[[2-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)ethyl]amino]-1-pentanol], does not directly target AC1 to reduce cAMP levels. These results lead to a discussion regarding the need to reinterpret literature using AC5/6-selective molecules.. See article at J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2013, 347:265-275.. ...
Abstract 17326: Phoshodiesterase Type 3 (PDE3) Controls cAMP Produced by Adenylyl Cyclase Type 5 (AC5) but Not AC6 in Adult...
Background: The two enzyme families involved in the spatiotemporal control of intracellular cAMP are adenylyl cyclases (AC) which account for its synthesis and phosphodiesterases (PDE) which account for its degradation. In adult cardiomyocytes, AC5 and AC6, and PDE3 and PDE4 are the major isoforms of these two enzyme families, respectively. In addition to their role in modulating cardiac contractile function, AC5 and AC6 are differentially regulated in response to different cardiac stress. However the role of each cyclase in cardioprotection is still controversial. Dynamic inter-regulation between ACs and PDEs has never been investigated yet. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of AC5 and AC6 overexpression on submembrane PDE3 related cAMP hydrolysis in response to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation.. Methods and Results: Mice with cardiac specific overexperssion of AC5 (AC5Tg) and AC6 (AC6Tg) were produced. The spatiotemporal dynamics of cAMP were determined on both AC5Tg and AC6Tg ...
ADCY4 - ddPCR Primer Pair - EvaGreen - Digital PCR | PrimePCR | Bio-Rad
Gene Information This gene encodes a member of the family of adenylate cyclases which are membrane-associated enzymes that catalyze the formation of the secondary messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Mouse studies show that adenylate cyclase 4 along with adenylate cyclases 2 and 3 is expressed in olfactory cilia suggesting that several different adenylate cyclases may couple to olfactory receptors and that there may be multiple receptor-mediated mechanisms for the generation of cAMP signals. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq Nov 2010]. ...
adcy8 - Adenylate cyclase 8 (brain) - Danio rerio (Zebrafish) - adcy8 gene & protein
integral component of plasma membrane, adenylate cyclase activity, adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, axon midline choice point recognition, cAMP biosynthetic process, retinal ganglion cell axon guidance
Adenylyl cyclase - Proteopedia, life in 3D
There are ten isozymes of adenylyl cyclases in mammals, adenylyl cyclase type I-X, (ADCY I-X); In mammals adenylyl cyclase plays an important role in signal transduction pathways in which cAMP is a secondary messenger. ADCY I-IX all share a general structure; They are composed of two trans-membrane regions (M1, M2) which are composed of six membrane-spanning helices and function to keep the enzyme anchored in the membrane, and two cytoplasmic regions (C1, C2) which can be further sub divided (C1a, C1b, C2a, C2b) and are responsible for all catalytic activity, and regulation by G-proteins and forskolin. In solution, the C1a and C2a domains can form heterodimers with each other, either in the same or different enzymes, or they can form homodimers with their identical units on different enzymes. The C1b domain is very large (≈15 kDa) with many regulatory sites, and has a variable structure across isozymes; while the C2b domain is nearly non-existent in many isozymes, and has yet to be ...
Effect of gentamicin treatment on adenylate cyclase and Na<sup>+</sup>,K<sup>+</sup>-ATPase activities in...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of gentamicin treatment on adenylate cyclase and Na+,K+-ATPase activities in renal tissues of rats. AU - Queener, S. F.. AU - Luft, F. C.. AU - Hamel, F. G.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - Gentamicin (20 mg/kg) treatment of male rats reduced Na+,K+-ATPase activity by 32% in renal cortical plasma membranes. In contrast, adenylate cyclase stimulation by isoproterenol or a guanyl nucleotide or both was enhanced by as much as twofold in glomeruli and in plasma membranes of gentamicin-treated rats. These effects of gentamicin are suggested to be related to the changes in renal phospholipid metabolism produced by the drug.. AB - Gentamicin (20 mg/kg) treatment of male rats reduced Na+,K+-ATPase activity by 32% in renal cortical plasma membranes. In contrast, adenylate cyclase stimulation by isoproterenol or a guanyl nucleotide or both was enhanced by as much as twofold in glomeruli and in plasma membranes of ...
The EPA National Library Catalog | EPA National Library Network | US EPA
Glucocorticoids and adrenergic stimulation are both thought to control the development of beta-adrenergic receptors/responses. In the current study, rats were exposed to dexamethasone or terbutaline during late gestation and the development of beta-binding capabilities and adenylate cyclase activity evaluated in membrane preparations from kidney and lung. Prenatal dexamethasone exposure produced postnatal adrenergic hyperreactivity of kidney adenylate cyclase; the effect resulted from increases in the enzyme itself, as both basal adenylate cyclase and forskolin-stimulation of the enzyme were also increased by dexamethasone. Similarly, prenatal terbutaline exposure evoked increases in basal, isoproterenol-stimulated and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the kidney. In the lung, dexamethasone produced an initial postnatal deficit in basal asenylate cyclase and deficient responsiveness to isoproterenol, but the deficit resolved shortly after birth. Terbutaline selectively promoted the ...
Extracellular cAMP formation from host cell ATP by Bordetella Pertussis adenylate cyclase | IRIS Università degli Studi del...
The effect of exogenously added adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis (strain 114) has been investigated in Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor, chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and several other cells. A partially purified adenylate cyclase was found not to enter cells but, nevertheless, produced large amounts of cAMP in the medium. We could show that this resulted from release of ATP (and not larger molecules). The ATP released by the cells could be (1) directly measured and was replenished after each change of medium; (2) was reciprocally related to the cAMP produced; and (3) was competed for by ATPases present in added serum or by hexokinase and, less effectively, by exoenzymes on the cell surface. The extent of ATP leakage varied widely between different cell lines, being marked in CHO and Y-1 adrenal cells but negligible in transformed lymphocyte lines. The uncertainty of the origin of cAMP found in media of cultured cells requires separate analysis of cell and medium cAMP and an assessment of ATP ...
Bicarbonate‐sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase is present in the cell cytoplasm and nucleus of multiple shark tissues | Scripps...
The enzyme soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is directly stimulated by bicarbonate (HCO3−) to produce the signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Because sAC and sAC‐related enzymes are found throughout phyla from cyanobacteria to mammals and they regulate cell physiology in response to internal and external changes in pH, CO2, and HCO3−, sAC is deemed an evolutionarily conserved acid‐base sensor. Previously, sAC has been reported in dogfish shark and round ray gill cells, where they sense and counteract blood alkalosis by regulating the activity of V‐type H+‐ ATPase. Here, we report the presence of sAC protein in gill, rectal gland, cornea, intestine, white muscle, and heart of leopard shark Triakis semifasciata. Co‐expression of sAC with transmembrane adenylyl cyclases supports the presence of cAMP signaling microdomains. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry on tissue sections, and western blots and cAMP‐activity assays on nucleus‐enriched fractions demonstrate ...
Ontogeny of the adenylate cyclase system in the pulmonary vascular smooth muscle of the fetal lamb<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ontogeny of the adenylate cyclase system in the pulmonary vascular smooth muscle of the fetal lamb. AU - Shaul, P. W.. AU - Muntz, K. H.. AU - DeBeltz, D.. AU - Buja, L. M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1991/1. Y1 - 1991/1. N2 - Ther enzyme adenylate cyclase (AC) plays a critical role in regulation of vasodilatation in the devel-oping pulmonary circulation. We characterizaed the ontogeney of the function of the AC system in the pulmonary vascular smooth muscle (VSM) of fetal ambs during the third trimester. Basal (non stimulated) AC activity and activioty with targeted stimulation of the components of the AC system were determined in pulmonary VSM plasma membranes from fetal lambs at 110-115 days (F-1) and 125-135 days of gestation (F-2) with term being 144 ± 3 days) and from pregnant ewes (adult) for comparison. We assessed β-adrenergic recepto-mediated activityu so that we could perform parallel studies of the VSM receptor binding ...
Somatostatin coupling to adenylyl cyclase activity in the mouse retina | Unitus DSpace
The peptide somatostatin-14 (SRIF) acts in the mammalian retina through its distinct receptors (sst1-5). Scarce information is available on SRIF function in the retina, including the elucidation of transduction pathways mediating SRIF action. We have investigated SRIF and SRIF receptor modulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity in both wild type (WT) retinas and sst1 or sst2 knock-out (KO) retinas which are known to over-express sst2 or sst1 receptors, respectively. In WT retinas, application of SRIF compounds does not affect forskolin-stimulated AC activity. In contrast, activation of sst1 or sst2 receptors inhibits AC in the presence of sst2 or sst1 receptor antagonists, respectively. Results from sst1 KO retinas demonstrate that either SRIF or octreotide, pertussis toxin-dependently inhibit AC activity. In contrast, in sst2 KO retinas, neither SRIF nor CH-275, an sst1 receptor agonist, are found to influence AC activity. As revealed by immunoblotting experiments, in sst1 KO retinas, levels ...
Adrenocorticotropin/α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (ACTH/MSH)-like peptides modulate adenylate cyclase activity in rat brain...
Adrenocorticotropin/α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (ACTH/MSH)-like peptides modulate adenylate cyclase activity in rat brain slices: evidence for an ACTH/MSH receptor-coupled ...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide
Adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary), also known as ADCYAP1, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: ADCYAP1 adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary)| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene…
Adenylate cyclases in yeast; A comparison of the genes from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adenylate cyclases in yeast; A comparison of the genes from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces. AU - Yamawaki-Kataoka, Yuriko. AU - Tamaoki, Tatsuya. AU - Choe, Hye-Ryun. AU - Tanaka, Hideho. AU - Kotaoka, Tohru. PY - 1989/8/1. Y1 - 1989/8/1. M3 - Article. SP - 5693. EP - 5697. JO - Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. JF - Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. ER - ...
Somatic and dendritic perforated-patch recordings reveal β-adrenergic receptor-induced depolarization in medial prefrontal...
The aim of this perforated-patch study was to test the effect of isoproterenol on the membrane potential in mPFC (medial prefrontal cortex) pyramidal neurons. Isoproterenol depolarized the membrane potential recorded from the soma. This effect was absent in the presence of metoprolol, suggesting the involvement of β1-adrenergic receptors. The adenylate cyclase activator forskolin also depolarized the membrane potential. Moreover, the effect of isoproterenol was abolished by the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ 22536. This suggested that adenylate cyclase was involved in mediating the effect of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist. The isoproterenol-induced depolarization persisted after inhibition of protein kinase A with H-89. The effect of β-adrenergic receptor activation on the membrane potential was dependent on Ih channels because it was abolished in the presence of the Ih channel inhibitor ZD 7288. Dendritic recordings were also performed. In the dendritic segments between 100 μm and 150 ...
Lirias: Candida glabrata Krh proteins can functionally complement the yeast deletion mutant
Recently Peeters and colleagues (2006) discovered a mechanism in yeast by which the G alfa protein Gpa2 activates PKA through two kelch-repeat proteins, Krh1 and Krh2, bypassing adenylate cyclase stimulation. Hence, Gpa2 regulates PKA activity via two distinct pathways: through stimulation of adenylate cyclase and through inhibition of the Krh proteins. We investigated if the C. glabrata homologues of ScKrh1 and ScKrh2 can complement the respective deletion mutants of S. cerevisiae. By measuring the trehalose content of the respective deletions mutants, transformed with CgKrh1 and CgKrh2 cloned into pBEVY-vectors, after 12, 24 and 48 hours, we showed that ChKrh1 and ChKrh2 can complement the function of ScKrh1 and ScKrh2. We will also investigate the expression of STRE-controlled genes and the formation of pseudohyphae in these transformed deletion mutants ...
RecName: Full=Adenylate cyclase type 3; EC=188.8.131.52;AltName: Full=Adenylate cyclase type III; Short=AC-III;AltName: Full=ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 3;AltName: Full=Adenylyl cyclase 3; Short=AC3;AltName: Full=Adenylate cyclase, olfactive type ...
Myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor expression and signal transduction after chronic volume-overload hypertrophy and...
METHODS AND RESULTS We examined the beta-adrenergic receptor-responsive adenylyl cyclase pathway in hearts from pigs subjected to volume-overload hypertrophy with circulatory congestion. Nine pigs underwent initial pharmacological and hemodynamic studies, and, 5 weeks after aortocaval fistula placement, when signs of circulatory congestion were evident, these measurements were repeated. Biochemical analyses of plasma and myocardium from these animals and seven normal animals were compared. Experimental animals showed signs of circulatory congestion (tachypnea, weight gain, pulmonary rales) within 3-4 weeks of fistula placement. Necropsy showed ascites and biventricular cardiac hypertrophy, but no fibrosis or inflammation was present on histological inspection. Heart rate responsiveness to beta AR stimulation was blunted, with ED50, for isoproterenol increased 133% (p less than 0.001) after development of circulatory congestion. Biochemical analyses of the beta AR-responsive adenylyl cyclase ...
Amphetamine has complex behavioral actions in the rat that depend upon the release of dopamine in striatal and mesolimbic brain regions. To explore a possible role of the dopamine-sensitive cAMP second-messenger system in mediating these effects, we examined the effects of in vivo amphetamine treatments on the D1 receptor-coupled adenylate cyclase system in membranes from striatal and mesolimbic rat brain regions. The results show that amphetamine produces a regional, dose- and time- dependent down-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. Intermediate and high doses of amphetamine (2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg, respectively), but not a low dose (1.0 mg/kg), resulted in a decrease in the apparent Vmax and/or an increase in the apparent Ka for the selective D1 partial agonist, SKF38393, in striatal membranes 30 min after amphetamine treatment. Treatment of rats with 7.5 mg/kg amphetamine for 30 and 60 min, but not 10 min, similarly resulted in a down-regulation of D1- mediated adenylate cyclase activity in ...
Modulation of forskolin binding to rat brain membranes<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of forskolin binding to rat brain membranes. AU - Seamon, K. B.. AU - Vaillancourt, Richard. AU - Daly, J. W.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - High affinity binding sites for [3H]forskolin have been identified in rat brain membranes. These sites have a K(d) of 15 nM and a B(max) of about 200 fmol/mg protein. The binding of [3H]forskolin to those high affinity sites in rat brain membranes is increased about two-fold by addition of MgCl2 or MnCl2. Smaller increases are observed in the presence of calcium, sodium, or potassium. The binding of [3H]forskolin is also increased in the presence of NaF or GppNHp, agents that are known to activate adenylate cyclase through the stimulatory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N(s)). The increase in [3H]forskolin binding in the presence of NaF or GppNHp is due to an increase in the number of binding sites with no change in the apparent K(d) for the binding sites. The NaF- and GppNHp-stimulated binding requires the presence of ...
Modulation of forskolin binding to rat brain membranes - University of Arizona
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of forskolin binding to rat brain membranes. AU - Seamon, K. B.. AU - Vaillancourt, R.. AU - Daly, J. W.. PY - 1985/12/1. Y1 - 1985/12/1. N2 - High affinity binding sites for [3H]forskolin have been identified in rat brain membranes. These sites have a K(d) of 15 nM and a B(max) of about 200 fmol/mg protein. The binding of [3H]forskolin to those high affinity sites in rat brain membranes is increased about two-fold by addition of MgCl2 or MnCl2. Smaller increases are observed in the presence of calcium, sodium, or potassium. The binding of [3H]forskolin is also increased in the presence of NaF or GppNHp, agents that are known to activate adenylate cyclase through the stimulatory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N(s)). The increase in [3H]forskolin binding in the presence of NaF or GppNHp is due to an increase in the number of binding sites with no change in the apparent K(d) for the binding sites. The NaF- and GppNHp-stimulated binding requires the presence of ...
Endothelial CD99 signals through soluble adenylyl cyclase and PKA to regulate leukocyte transendothelial migration | JEM
Although CD99 has been known to be critical for leukocyte transmigration for over a decade (Schenkel et al., 2002; Bixel et al., 2004, 2010; Lou et al., 2007; Dufour et al., 2008), the mechanism has remained completely unknown. Here, we report that homophilic engagement of endothelial CD99 recruits membrane from the LBRC to sites of leukocyte-endothelial contact to facilitate the passage of leukocytes through the endothelial junctions. This engagement of endothelial CD99 (Fig. 10 e, #1) signals through sAC (Fig. 10 e, #2) to activate PKA (Fig. 1 e, #3), which works through a yet-to-be-defined mechanism (Fig. 10 e, #4) to induce LBRC membrane trafficking (Fig. 10 e, #5). Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD99 and sAC are held together in a signaling complex with ezrin and PKA and that this interaction is dependent on a lysine-rich juxtamembrane region in the cytoplasmic tail of CD99. These findings represent the first description of the immediate downstream signaling mechanisms of CD99, as well as ...
5 Hydroxytryptamine-induced tachyphylaxis of the molluscan heart and concomitant desensitization of adenylate cyclase<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 5 Hydroxytryptamine-induced tachyphylaxis of the molluscan heart and concomitant desensitization of adenylate cyclase. AU - Higgins, W. J.. PY - 1977/12/1. Y1 - 1977/12/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017707535&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0017707535&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 915059. AN - SCOPUS:0017707535. VL - 3. SP - 293. EP - 302. JO - Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction. JF - Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction. SN - 1079-9893. IS - 4. ER - ...
Isolation of a novel 38 residue-hypothalamic polypeptide which stimulates adenylate cyclase in pituitary cells
A novel neuropeptide which stimulates adenylate cyclase in rat anterior pituitary cell cultures was isolated from ovine hypothalamic tissues. Its amino acid sequence was revealed as: His-Ser-Asp-Gly-Ile-Phe-Thr-Asp-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Arg-Tyr-Arg-Lys-Gln- Met-Ala- Val-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Ala-Ala-Val-Leu-Gly-Lys …
The regulatory GTPase cycle of turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase. - PubMed - NCBI
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Stimulation of Electro-Olfactogram Responses in the Main Olfactory Epithelia by Airflow Depends on the Type 3 Adenylyl Cyclase ...
The objective of this study was to determine whether mechanical force generated by airflow can stimulate the MOE using EOG recordings and to directly assess the role of cAMP signaling using AC3−/− mice. Since the CNG responds to both cAMP and cGMP, the fact that CNG−/− mice lack fluid-generated airflow responses cannot be taken as direct evidence for a role of cAMP signaling. The drug MDL 12330A cannot be used to implicate adenylyl cyclase activity in the airflow response because it is not specific to adenylyl cyclases (Rampe et al., 1987; Gadea et al., 1999) and it did not inhibit EOG responses caused by airflow or odorants in our study.. We discovered that airflow stimulates the MOE with progressively higher EOG responses as airflow increased. This sensitivity to airflow was desensitized by prior increases in cAMP caused by odorants or by a combination of forskolin and IBMX suggesting that odorant and airflow sensitivity may both depend on cAMP signaling. Indeed, the MOE from ...
A Genetic Screen for Fission Yeast Gene Deletion Mutants Exhibiting Hypersensitivity to Latrunculin A | G3: Genes | Genomes |...
Under the category of Biological Process, BiNGO identified genes associated with GO terms related to chromatin remodeling (21 genes), negative regulation of transcription by glucose (seven genes), and regulation of adenylate cyclase activity (six genes) (Figure 5C). Of the genes involved in chromatin remodeling, eight were components of the SAGA complex, and four were components of the Set3 complex. As stated above, it is well established that the Set3p complex plays a role in modulating the transcription of stress-responsive genes in response to LatA (Rentas et al. 2012). Whether the SAGA complex, through its histone modification activity, might also play a role in modulating transcription in response to LatA, remains to be determined.. Perhaps the most surprising enrichments were those involving glucose-mediated signaling. Of the genes enriched in the negative regulation of transcription by glucose and regulation of adenylate cyclase activity categories, the majority comprised members of ...
Banta:Research - OpenWetWare
11/2017 There have been some unexpected changes to the OpenWetWare platform, affecting the formatting of the Banta Lab Website. We are currently working on addressing these issues. A new website is under development and should be launched soon. 10/2017 The Banta Lab is pleased to welcome another new graduate student into the lab group. Nadim Massad has joined the research group this semester. 9/2017 A paper entitled Block V RTX domain of adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis: A conformationally dynamic scaffold for protein engineering applications by Bulutoglu and Banta was published in Toxins as an Invited Review for the Special Issue: Adenylate Cyclase (CyaA) Toxin 9/2017 A paper entitled Catch and release: Engineered allosterically-regulated β-roll peptides enable on/off biomolecular recognition by Bulutoglu, Dooley, Szilvay, Blenner and Banta was published in ACS Synthetic Biology. 9/2017 A paper entitled Block V RTX domain of adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis: A ...
Difference between revisions of Banta:People - OpenWetWare
11/2017 There have been some unexpected changes to the OpenWetWare platform, affecting the formatting of the Banta Lab Website. We are currently working on addressing these issues. A new website is under development and should be launched soon. 10/2017 The Banta Lab is pleased to welcome another new graduate student into the lab group. Nadim Massad has joined the research group this semester. 9/2017 A paper entitled Block V RTX domain of adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis: A conformationally dynamic scaffold for protein engineering applications by Bulutoglu and Banta was published in Toxins as an Invited Review for the Special Issue: Adenylate Cyclase (CyaA) Toxin 9/2017 A paper entitled Catch and release: Engineered allosterically-regulated β-roll peptides enable on/off biomolecular recognition by Bulutoglu, Dooley, Szilvay, Blenner and Banta was published in ACS Synthetic Biology. 9/2017 A paper entitled Block V RTX domain of adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis: A ...
JCI - Downregulation of adenylylcyclase types V and VI mRNA levels in pacing-induced heart failure in dogs.
We have shown that the heart expresses two distinct forms of adenylylcyclase mRNA, types V and VI. In this study we have characterized the expression of these two mRNA species in heart failure generated by overdrive pacing at a rate of 240 beats/min. After 4 wk, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and heart rate increased significantly with the appearance of signs of heart failure, i.e., edema, ascites, and exercise intolerance. Basal as well as forskolin-stimulated adenylylcyclase activities decreased significantly, which was accompanied by a reduction in the steady state mRNA levels of adenylylcyclase types V and VI. These data suggest that in this model of cardiomyopathy, the downregulation of adenylylcyclase catalytic activity results, at least in part, from a reduction in the steady state levels of types V and VI adenylylcyclase mRNA levels.. ...
DSpace at EWHA: Calcium-Sensitive Adenylyl Cyclases in Depression and Anxiety: Behavioral and Biochemical Consequences of...
Background: Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) represent a diverse family of enzymes responsible for the generation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a key intracellular second messenger. The Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated AC1 and AC8 isoforms as well as the calcium-inhibited AC5 isoform are abundantly expressed within limbic regions of the central nervous system. This study examines the contribution of these AC isoforms to emotional behavior. Methods: Male and female AC1/8 double knockout mice (DKO) and AC5 knockout mice (AC5KO) were examined on a series of standard laboratory assays of emotionality. Mice were also assayed for hippocampal cell proliferation and for changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus, three forebrain structures involved in the regulation of mood and affect. Results: The AC5KO mice showed striking anxiolytic and antidepressant phenotypes on standard behavioral assays. In contrast, AC1/8 DKO mice were hypoactive, ...
Potential signalling pathways underlying corticotrophin-releasing hormone-mediated neuroprotection from excitotoxicity in rat...
In several neurological disorders including cerebral ischaemia, glutamate has been implicated as a neurotoxic agent in the mechanisms leading to neuronal cell death. The role of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), the 41-amino acid peptide, which activates the HPA axis in response to stressful stimuli, remains controversial. In this study, we report that CRH in low physiological concentrations (2 pm), prevented glutamate-induced neurotoxicity via receptor-mediated mechanisms when administered to organotypic hippocampal cultures both during and after the glutamate-induced insult. Detailed investigations on the mechanisms mediating this neuroprotective effect showed that activation of the adenylate cyclase pathway and induction of MAP kinase phosphorylation mediate the CRH action. In addition we showed that CRH can inhibit the phosphorylation of JNK/SAPK by glutamate. Most importantly, we showed that CRH can afford neuroprotection against neurotoxicity up to 12 h following the insult, ...
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is among the most aggressive of all cancers in the United States. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) is a second messenger that regulates the proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. Cyclic AMP is formed from cytosolic ATP by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase (AC). In the presence of forskolin, a transmembrane AC activator, the proliferation and migration of pancreatic cells have been inhibited. Since the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of activated adenylyl cyclase are little understood, we investigated the downstream mediators implicated in the AC/cyclic AMP pathway. With this purpose, we overexpressed AC1 in the human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (HPAC) cell line, and through the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 and the exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP (EPAC) inhibitor ESI-09, we assessed the effector involved upon the treatment with forskolin. In a previous study, we showed that PKA alone mediates the inhibitory ...
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Plays a role in the perception of pain and in opiate-mediated analgesia. Plays a role in developing analgesic tolerance to morphine. ...
Long-term effect of forskolin on the activation of adenylyl cyclase in astrocytes - Fingerprint - Scholars @ UT Health San...
Dive into the research topics of Long-term effect of forskolin on the activation of adenylyl cyclase in astrocytes. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Items where Subject is bioinformatics | genomics and proteomics | genetics & nucleic acid processing | protein structure,...
Feigin, M. E., Malbon, C. C. (2008) OSTM1 regulates beta-catenin/Lef1 interaction and is required for Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Cell Signal, 20 (5). 949-957 . Feramisco, J., Sullivan, N., Kamata, T., Barsagi, D., Welch, W., Gross, M., Sweet, R., Rosenberg, M., Sathe, G., Fasano, O., Goldfarb, M., Wigler, M. H., Nitecki, D., Clark, R., Arnheim, N., McCormick, F. (1985) Microinjection of Ras Oncogene Proteins and Inhibitory Antibodies Specific for the Ras Oncogene Proteins into Living Normal and Transformed-Cells. Federation Proceedings, 44 (5). p. 1768. ISSN 0014-9446 Field, J., Broek, D., Kataoka, T., Wigler, M. H. (1987) Guanine nucleotide activation of, and competition between, RAS proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular & Cellular Biology, 7 (6). pp. 2128-2133. Field, J., Xu, H. P., Michaeli, T., Ballester, R., Sass, P., Wigler, M. H., Colicelli, J. (1990) Mutations of the adenylyl cyclase gene that block RAS function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Science, 247 (4941). pp. 464-7. ...
Beta Adrenergic Receptor Phosphorylation Associated with Desensitisation of Adenylate Cyclase in Avian Erythrocytes | Clinical...
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Recent Articles | Ocean Acidification And Microbiology | The Scientist Magazine®
Soluble adenylyl cyclase measures and responds to pH changes in coral cells, but whether it can help the animals withstand ocean acidification is not yet known.. 0 Comments. ...
Enhanced N-terminal degradation of troponin I blunts cardiac function responsiveness to isoproterenol in 4-week tail-suspended...
In the present study, the baseline LVEDP of the working heart was higher in the tail-suspended rats compared with the control, while a blunted response to ISO in all parameters measured in the working heart, isolated cardiomyocytes and skinned fibers was identified in tail-suspended rats. Thus, the decrease in ISO sensitivity with tail-suspension was associated with changes in the β-AR signaling pathway at the level of the individual cardiomyocyte.. Stimulation of β-AR by ISO activates Gs, which in turn activates adenylate cyclase and increases the formation of cAMP within cardiomyocytes. Elevated levels of cAMP increase activation of PKA, which phosphorylates intracellular targets, including L-type Ca2+ channels, ryanodine receptor (RyR), PLB, cTnI and myosin-binding protein C (MyBPC). Therefore, the upstream components in the β-AR signal transduction pathway include β-AR, Gs, adenylate cyclase, cAMP and PKA. The downstream components are the targeting proteins of PKA.. Forskolin, a direct ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY2 adenylyl cyclase 2 (brain)". "Adenylate cyclase type 2". UniProt Consortium. Retrieved 28 May 2014. Stengel ... It belongs to the adenylyl cyclase class-3 or guanylyl cyclase family because it contains two guanylate cyclase domains. ADCY2 ... "Adenylate Cyclase 2 (Brain)". Weizmann Institute of Science. Retrieved 28 May 2014. Xu W, Cohen-Woods S, Chen Q, Noor A, Knight ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (Mar 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ...
Alfred G. Gilman
Haga, T; Ross, EM; Anderson, HJ; Gilman, AG (1977). "Adenylate cyclase permanently uncoupled from hormone receptors in a novel ... Haga, T; Haga, K; Gilman, AG (1977). "Hydrodynamic properties of the beta-adrenergic receptor and adenylate cyclase from wild ... Gilman, AG (1984). "G proteins and dual control of adenylate cyclase". Cell. 36 (3): 577-9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(84)90336-2. ... Sternweis, PC; Northup, JK; Smigel, MD; Gilman, AG (1981). "The regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. Purification and ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY3 adenylate cyclase 3". "Gene Cards: ADCY3 Gene". Retrieved 2012-12-30. Human ADCY3 genome location and ADCY3 ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (Mar 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ... Adenylyl cyclase type 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY3 gene. This gene encodes adenylyl cyclase 3, which ... Haber N, Stengel D, Defer N, Roeckel N, Mattei MG, Hanoune J (Jul 1994). "Chromosomal mapping of human adenylyl cyclase genes ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY6 adenylate cyclase 6". Human ADCY6 genome location and ADCY6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 ... Adenylyl cyclase type 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY6 gene. This gene encodes adenylyl cyclase 6, which ... 1998). "Molecular diversity of adenylyl cyclases in human and rat myometrium. Correlation with global adenylyl cyclase activity ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY4 adenylate cyclase 4". Human ADCY4 genome location and ADCY4 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 ... along with adenylyl cyclases 2 and 3, is expressed in olfactory cilia, suggesting that several different adenylyl cyclases may ... Adenylyl cyclase type 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY4 gene. This gene encodes a member of the family of ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY9 adenylate cyclase 9". Human ADCY9 genome location and ADCY9 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 ... Adenylyl cyclase type 9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY9 gene. Adenylyl cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme ... Cumbay MG, Watts VJ (2004). "Novel regulatory properties of human type 9 adenylate cyclase". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 310 (1): ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY7 adenylate cyclase 7". Human ADCY7 genome location and ADCY7 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 ... The product of this gene is a member of the adenylyl cyclase class-4/guanylyl cyclase enzyme family that is characterized by ... Yan SZ, Tang WJ (2002). "Construction of soluble adenylyl cyclase from human membrane-bound type 7 adenylyl cyclase". G Protein ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY5 adenylate cyclase 5". Salim S, Sinnarajah S, Kehrl JH, Dessauer CW (May 2003). "Identification of RGS2 and ... Wang SC, Lai HL, Chiu YT, Ou R, Huang CL, Chern Y (2007). "Regulation of type V adenylate cyclase by Ric8a, a guanine ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ... Adenylyl cyclase type 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY5 gene. ADCY5 has been shown to interact with RGS2. ...
Adenylate cyclase activity is unaffected by ras. Goodsell DS (1999). "The molecular perspective: the ras oncogene". The ... Other small GTPases may bind adaptors such as arfaptin or second messenger systems such as adenylyl cyclase. The Ras binding ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY8 adenylate cyclase 8 (brain)". Human ADCY3 genome location and ADCY3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (Mar 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ... Adenylyl cyclase type 8 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY8 gene. Adenylyl cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme ... Parma J, Stengel D, Gannage MH, Poyard M, Barouki R, Hanoune J (Aug 1991). "Sequence of a human brain adenylyl cyclase partial ...
G beta-gamma complex
Brandt DR, Ross EM (January 1985). "GTPase activity of the stimulatory GTP-binding regulatory protein of adenylate cyclase, Gs ... "Purification of the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... individual subunits of the G protein complex were first identified in 1980 when the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase ... Tang WJ, Gilman AG (December 1991). "Type-specific regulation of adenylyl cyclase by G protein beta gamma subunits". Science. ...
Another toxin that inhibits the immune response is the adenylate cyclase toxin. This toxin has an intrinsic adenylate cyclase ... The toxin, known as pertussis toxin (or PTx), inhibits G protein coupling that regulates an adenylate cyclase-mediated ... Sebo, Peter; Osicka, Radim; Masin, Jiri (2014-08-04). "Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin relevance for pertussis vaccines". ... Its virulence factors include pertussis toxin, adenylate cyclase toxin, filamentous hæmagglutinin, pertactin, fimbria, and ...
Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is released from bacterium Bordetella pertussis by the T1SS (Type 1 secretion system) and ... October 2008). "Adenylate cyclase toxin subverts phagocyte function by RhoA inhibition and unproductive ruffling". Journal of ... The toxin is a 1706 residue-long polypeptide that consists of an N-terminal ~400 residue-long adenylate cyclase (AC) enzyme ... Sebo P, Osicka R, Masin J (October 2014). "Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin relevance for pertussis vaccines". Expert Review ...
Edema factor is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cyclic AMP ( ... The complexation of adenylate cyclase with calmodulin removes calmodulin from stimulating calcium-triggered signaling, thus ...
... diverse biological actions of adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 and is positively coupled to adenylate cyclase. ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor also known as PAC1, is a protein that in humans is encoded ... "Entrez Gene: ADCYAP1R1 adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary) receptor type I". Ogi K, Miyamoto Y, Masuda Y, ... Miampamba M, Germano PM, Arli S, Wong HH, Scott D, Taché Y, Pisegna JR (May 2002). "Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase- ...
Induced cell cycle arrest
It does so by inhibiting the enzyme adenylate cyclase. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to 3 ... Liao H, Thorner J (April 1980). "Yeast mating pheromone alpha factor inhibits adenylate cyclase". Proceedings of the National ... Zhang G, Liu Y, Ruoho AE, Hurley JH (March 1997). "Structure of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic core". Nature. 386 (6622): 247- ...
Heterotrimeric G protein
August 1984). "Reconstitution of a hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase system. The pure beta-adrenergic receptor and guanine ... May DC, Ross EM, Gilman AG, Smigel MD (December 1985). "Reconstitution of catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity ... activates hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase. More than one type of G protein co-exist in the same tissue. For example, in ... The alpha subunit of a stimulatory G protein activated by receptors for stimulatory hormones could stimulate adenylyl cyclase, ...
EF is an adenylate cyclase that targets ATP. LF enzyme is a metalloprotease that confers the lethal phenotype associated with ...
Guanylyl imidodiphosphate is a potent stimulator of adenylate cyclase. It is often used in studies of protein synthesis. ...
The cya gene encodes adenylate cyclase, which produces cAMP. In a cya mutant, the absence of cAMP makes the expression of the ... which influences the activity of adenylate cyclase. (In addition, glucose transport also leads to direct inhibition of the ...
... activates adenylate cyclase in the absence of ligand. GPR3 was first described as a constitutive activator of adenylate ... August 1995). "Molecular cloning of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that constitutively activates adenylate cyclase". The ... cyclase. This constitutive activity could be due to stimulation by a ubiquitous ligand that may be free, membrane-bound, or ...
Zhang ZH, Wu SD, Gao H, Shi G, Jin JZ, Kong J, Tian Z, Su Y (March 2006). "Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating ... Wei Y, Mojsov S (1997). "Tissue specific expression of different human receptor types for pituitary adenylate cyclase ... VIPR2 transduction results in upregulation of adenylate cyclase activity. Furthermore, VIPR2 mediates the anti-inflammatory ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) are homologous peptides that ...
One of the most important of the regulated toxins is adenylate cyclase toxin, which aids in the evasion of innate immunity. The ... Fiser R, Masín J, Basler M, Krusek J, Spuláková V, Konopásek I, Sebo P (2007). "Third activity of Bordetella adenylate cyclase ... Gray MC, Donato GM, Jones FR, Kim T, Hewlett EL (2004). "Newly secreted adenylate cyclase toxin is responsible for intoxication ... Hewlett EL, Donato GM, Gray MC (2006). "Macrophage cytotoxicity produced by adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis: ...
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
Adenylate cyclase is inhibited by agonists of adenylate cyclase inhibitory G (Gi)-protein-coupled receptors. Liver adenylate ... Adenylate cyclase is activated by a range of signaling molecules through the activation of adenylate cyclase stimulatory G (Gs ... This occurs through inhibition of the cAMP-producing enzyme, adenylate cyclase, as a side-effect of glucose transport into the ... cyclase responds more strongly to glucagon, and muscle adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to adrenaline. cAMP ...
... this protein is a stimulatory regulator of adenylate cyclase. Cells containing this mutant form of the Gs protein will continue ...
"Entrez Gene: CAP1 CAP, adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (yeast)". Hubberstey, A; Yu G; Loewith R; Lakusta C; Young D (Jun ... Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAP1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... Yu G, Swiston J, Young D (1994). "Comparison of human CAP and CAP2, homologs of the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated proteins ... Adenylyl cyclase GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000028656 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center ...
... a process regulator related to adenylate cyclase proteins; a profilin with a molecular weight of approximately 14 kDa that is ...
Histamine H2 receptor
H2 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gs. It is a potent stimulant of cAMP production, which leads to ...
The M2 and M4 subtypes are Gi/Go-coupled; they decrease intracellular levels of cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Their ...
Formyl peptide receptor 2
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 27 (pro-inflammatory). Eicosanoid receptor Formyl peptide receptor Lipoxin ...
"The bacterial two-hybrid system based on adenylate cyclase reconstitution in Escherichia coli". Methods. 58 (4): 325-34. doi: ...
D2-like receptors decrease intracellular levels of the second messenger cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. ... the subtypes can be divided into two subclasses due to their mechanism of action on adenylate cyclase enzyme, D1-like receptors ... D1-like receptors are primarily coupled to Gαs/olf proteins and activates adenylate cyclase which increases intracellular ...
An example is adenylate cyclase, which produces the second messenger cyclic AMP. For this discovery, they won the 1994 Nobel ... The 1971 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Earl Sutherland for discovering the key role of adenylate cyclase, which ... This is accomplished by direct stimulation of the membrane-associated enzyme adenylate cyclase. cAMP can then act as a second ... Tolkovsky AM, Levitzki A (1978). "Mode of coupling between the beta-adrenergic receptor and adenylate cyclase in turkey ...
Ryman-Rasmussen JP, Nichols DE, Mailman RB (October 2005). "Differential activation of adenylate cyclase and receptor ...
Olfactory receptor neuron
The activated OR in turn activates the intracellular G-protein, GOLF (GNAL), adenylate cyclase and production of cyclic AMP ( ... "Phosphorylation and inhibition of olfactory adenylyl cyclase by CaM kinase II in Neurons: a mechanism for attenuation of ...
Metabotropic glutamate receptor
"Metabotropic glutamate receptors negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity and ... by activating a G protein that inhibits the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, which forms cAMP from ATP. These receptors are involved in ...
"Heterologous Upregulation of Nerve Growth Factor-TrkA Receptors in PC12 Cells by Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating ...
... adenylate/guanylate cyclase domain-containing protein, DUF2029 domain-containing protein and hypothetical proteins. These CSIs ... polyketide cyclase, spirocyclase AveC family protein, TobH protein, UDP-N-acetylmuramate-L-alanine ligase, DUF2236 domain- ...
... study of ACTH binding and coupling to adenylate cyclase". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 129 (1): 83-90. doi:10.1016/ ... it is coupled to Gαs and upregulates levels of cAMP by activating adenylyl cyclase. The ACTH receptor plays a role in immune ...
... which inhibits adenylate cyclase, thus effectively antagonising the stimulatory effect of histamine) to reduce acid secretion. ... that inhibits adenylyl cyclase and lowers [cAMP]. In this way, somatostatin inhibits the secretion of several hormones, ... Inhibiting adenylyl cyclase in parietal cells Inhibiting the release of prolactin (PRL) Somatostatin is homologous with ... a protein coupled to adenylyl cyclase". Molecular Endocrinology. 6 (12): 2136-42. doi:10.1210/mend.6.12.1337145. PMID 1337145. ...
The G protein (Golf and/or Gs) in turn activates the lyase - adenylate cyclase - which converts ATP into cyclic AMP (cAMP). The ...
Stimulation of these receptors on central nervous system neurons causes an intracellular inhibition of adenylate cyclase, ...
Glucagon activates adenylate cyclase through a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) coupled to Gs which in turn activates ... adenylate cyclase to increase intracellular concentrations of cAMP. cAMP binds to and activates protein kinase A (PKA). PKA ...
Proteins involved in the SCN pathway (Prokineticin 2 (PK2), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase- ...
In humans it consists of 351 amino acids that are encoded in chromosome 4. Its main function here is as an adenylate cyclase ...
AMP can also exist as a cyclic structure known as cyclic AMP (or cAMP). Within certain cells the enzyme adenylate cyclase makes ... AMP can be regenerated to ATP as follows: AMP + ATP → 2 ADP (adenylate kinase in the opposite direction) ADP + Pi → ATP (this ...
These antibodies activate adenylate cyclase by binding to the TSH receptor. This causes the production of thyroid hormones and ...
Vasopressin receptor antagonist
Inhibition by somatostatin of the vasopressin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in a kidney-derived line of cells grown in defined ...
Tachykinin receptor 1
... the arachidonic acid mobilization via phospholipase A2 and third is the cAMP accumulation via stimulation of adenylate cyclase ...
"Stereochemical effects of 11-OH-delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol-dimethylheptyl to inhibit adenylate cyclase and bind to the ...
When calcium enters a cell and binds with calmodulin, it stimulates adenylate cyclase (AC), which is encoded by the rutabaga ... dual regulation of adenylate cyclase by Ca2+/calmodulin and transmitter". The Journal of Neuroscience. 11 (9): 2655-65. doi: ... Additionally, this synergistic increase in cAMP is mediated by and dependent on rutabaga adenylyl cyclase (rut AC), which is ... Coincidence Detection by Rutabaga Adenylyl Cyclase and Spatial Regulation by Dunce Phosphodiesterase". Neuron. 65 (4): 516-529 ...
... and activation of α2 inhibits the enzyme adenylate cyclase. Inactivation of adenylate cyclase in turn leads to the inactivation ... inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity, reduces brainstem vasomotor center-mediated CNS activation; used as antihypertensive, ...
... which activates adenylate cyclase and activation results in the generation of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate ( ...
Yaka R, He DY, Phamluong K, Ron D (March 2003). "Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP(1-38)) enhances N- ...
"Differences in the interaction of histamine H2 receptor antagonists and tricyclic antidepressants with adenylate cyclase from ...
This ligand binding causes the activation of adenylate cyclase, which causes the creation of cyclic AMP (cAMP). As the ... Once activated, these receptors suppress the action of adenylyl cyclase, which suppresses the production of cAMP. The ...
This integral membrane protein stimulates adenylate cyclase activity in the presence of adenosine. This protein also interacts ... is mediated by G proteins that activate adenylyl cyclase. It is abundant in basal ganglia, vasculature and platelets and it is ...
Adenylate cyclase toxin - Wikipedia
"Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: a unique combination of a pore-forming moiety with a cell-invading adenylate cyclase enzyme ... Antibodies against adenylate cyclase toxin are also present in the serum of humans infected with B. pertussis. Adenylate ... Genetically detoxified adenylate cyclase toxin also serves in promoting the Th1/Th17 response, acting as an adjuvant. Adenylate ... also produce adenylate cyclase toxin. It is a toxin secreted by the bacteria to influence the host immune system. Adenylate ...
Temporal effects of cytokines on neonatal cardiac myocyte Ca2+ transients and adenylate cyclase activity
... cardiac function by affecting calcium homeostasis and that this effect is mediated by the beta-adrenergic-adenylate cyclase ... and adenylate cyclase were measured under each condition. Anticipated stepwise increases in adenylate cyclase and intracellular ... and isoproterenol increases adenylate cyclase activity, unlike after short exposure. Forskolin maximally activates adenylate ... Temporal effects of cytokines on neonatal cardiac myocyte Ca2+ transients and adenylate cyclase activity Am J Physiol. 1997 Apr ...
RCSB PDB - 5CXL: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF RTX DOMAIN BLOCK V OF ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN FROM BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF RTX DOMAIN BLOCK V OF ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN FROM BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS ... Bifunctional hemolysin/adenylate cyclase. A, B. 153. Bordetella pertussis Tohama I. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: cya, cyaA, ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF RTX DOMAIN BLOCK V OF ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN FROM BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. *PDB DOI: 10.2210/pdb5CXL/pdb ... Using Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin, we solved the structure of an essential C-terminal assembly that caps the ...
JCI - Activation of Adenylate Cyclase by Heat-Labile Escherichia Coli Enterotoxin: EVIDENCE FOR ADP-RIBOSYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY...
Activation of Adenylate Cyclase by Heat-Labile Escherichia Coli Enterotoxin: EVIDENCE FOR ADP-RIBOSYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY ... Activation of Adenylate Cyclase by Heat-Labile Escherichia Coli Enterotoxin: EVIDENCE FOR ADP-RIBOSYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY ... Both toxins, which catalyze the NAD-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase, thus appear to possess NAD glycohydrolase and ... The presence of transferase and glycohydrolase activities in structurally distinct toxins that activate adenylate cyclase ...
Functional Selectivity of Dopamine Receptor Agonists. I. Selective Activation of Postsynaptic Dopamine D2 Receptors Linked to...
I. Selective Activation of Postsynaptic Dopamine D2 Receptors Linked to Adenylate Cyclase. David M. Mottola, Jason D. Kilts, ... I. Selective Activation of Postsynaptic Dopamine D2 Receptors Linked to Adenylate Cyclase. David M. Mottola, Jason D. Kilts, ... I. Selective Activation of Postsynaptic Dopamine D2 Receptors Linked to Adenylate Cyclase. David M. Mottola, Jason D. Kilts, ... I. Selective Activation of Postsynaptic Dopamine D2 Receptors Linked to Adenylate Cyclase" - July 01, 2002 ...
GTP-preferring protein phosphorylation systems in brain membranes: Possible role in adenylate cyclase regulation<...
Triton-X-100 extracts of brain membranes, which contain the catalytic and regulatory subunits of adenylate cyclase, were found ... Triton-X-100 extracts of brain membranes, which contain the catalytic and regulatory subunits of adenylate cyclase, were found ... Triton-X-100 extracts of brain membranes, which contain the catalytic and regulatory subunits of adenylate cyclase, were found ... Triton-X-100 extracts of brain membranes, which contain the catalytic and regulatory subunits of adenylate cyclase, were found ...
Reactome | Adenylate Cyclase V or VI [plasma membrane]
Adenylate Cyclase V or VI [plasma membrane] (Caenorhabditis elegans) * Adenylate cyclase type V or VI: G-protein beta gamma ... Adenylate cyclase type V or VI: G-protein beta gamma Complex [plasma membrane] (Caenorhabditis elegans) ... G-beta:G-gamma inhibits Adenylate cyclase (Caenorhabditis elegans) * ...
Anti-viral protection conferred by recombinant adenylate cyclase toxins from Bordetella pertussis carrying a CD8+ T cell...
A mutant toxin devoid of adenylate cyclase activity (i.e., cAMP synthesizing activity) was constructed by insertion of a ... In the present study, we investigated the potential ability of an invasive adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis, ... Anti-viral protection conferred by recombinant adenylate cyclase toxins from Bordetella pertussis carrying a CD8+ T cell ...
Cholera-toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation of the adenylate cyclase regulatory protein in turkey erythrocyte membranes<...
Our data support the view that the 42,000 Mr peptide is part of the adenylate cyclase guanine nucleotide regulatory protein. ... Our data support the view that the 42,000 Mr peptide is part of the adenylate cyclase guanine nucleotide regulatory protein. ... Our data support the view that the 42,000 Mr peptide is part of the adenylate cyclase guanine nucleotide regulatory protein. ... Our data support the view that the 42,000 Mr peptide is part of the adenylate cyclase guanine nucleotide regulatory protein. ...
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide (1-38), frog - LKT Labs
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and its receptors: 20 years after the discovery. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Sep;61( ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous peptide that stimulates cAMP production in the ... Discovery of a new reproductive hormone in teleosts: pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-related peptide (PRP). ... Structural and functional characterization of pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide ( ...
Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide | Colorado PROFILES
Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide. *Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, ... Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide*Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide ... "Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled ... They bind PITUITARY ADENYLATE CYCLASE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes that ...
Adenylate Cyclase | ChemScene llc
Pertussis: Disease Specifics for Clinicians | CDC
Structural and ligand-binding properties of a truncated form of Bacillus anthracis adenylate cyclase and of a catalytically...
Bacillus anthracis adenylate cyclase was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein (CYA 62) exhibited catalytic and ... Structural and ligand-binding properties of a truncated form of Bacillus anthracis adenylate cyclase and of a catalytically ... Abstract : A truncated, 541-residue-long, Bacillus anthracis adenylate cyclase was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified ... Structural and ligand-binding properties of a truncated form of Bacillus anthracis adenylate cyclase and of a catalytically ...
Dopamine inhibits adenylate cyclase in human prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas <...
Dopamine inhibits adenylate cyclase in human prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas . In: Nature. 1979 ; Vol. 278, No. 5701 ... Dopamine inhibits adenylate cyclase in human prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas . Pietro De Camilli, Daniela Macconi, ... A DA-stimulated adenylate cyclase has not been detected in normal anterior pituitaries 3,5,6; furthermore, several studies ... A DA-stimulated adenylate cyclase has not been detected in normal anterior pituitaries 3,5,6; furthermore, several studies ...
Chymotrypsin selectively impairs forskolin stimulation of adenylate cyclase<...
Gierschik, P. ; Spiegel, A. / Chymotrypsin selectively impairs forskolin stimulation of adenylate cyclase. In: Federation ... Gierschik, P., & Spiegel, A. (1985). Chymotrypsin selectively impairs forskolin stimulation of adenylate cyclase. Federation ... Gierschik, P & Spiegel, A 1985, Chymotrypsin selectively impairs forskolin stimulation of adenylate cyclase, Federation ... Chymotrypsin selectively impairs forskolin stimulation of adenylate cyclase. Federation Proceedings. 1985 Jan 1;44(5):No. 8100. ...
Table 2 - Genomewide Pattern of Synonymous Nucleotide Substitution in Two Complete Genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis -...
Human Adenylate cyclase type 3,ADCY3 ELISA Kit - Brogen Medikal Teknolojileri
Chronic Pruritus in the Absence of Specific Skin Disease: An Update
Feeding and Metabolism in Mice Lacking Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide.
... 08.05.2008 , 11:11 AMPublications0 ... Feeding and Metabolism in Mice Lacking Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide.. Bruce A. Adams, Sarah L. Gray, Emma ... Disruption of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene in mice has demonstrated a role for this ...
Mouse ADCY10(Adenylate Cyclase 10, Soluble) ELISA Kit - Elisa kits Gentaur
Mouse ADCY10(Adenylate Cyclase 10, Soluble) ELISA Kit. Mouse ADCY10(Adenylate Cyclase 10, Soluble) ELISA Kit. Contact us to ... Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Adenylate Cyclase 10, Soluble (ADCY10) in samples ... Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Adenylate Cyclase 10, Soluble (ADCY10) in samples ... Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rat Adenylate Cyclase 10, Soluble (ADCY10) in samples ...
Purification and characterization of an inhibitor protein of brain adenylate cyclase and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase -...
Improved adenylate cyclase activity via affinity immobilization onto co-modified GO with bio-inspired adhesive and PEI - USQ...
Improved adenylate cyclase activity via affinity immobilization onto co-modified GO with bio-inspired adhesive and PEI ... Adenylate cyclase; Affinity; Graphene oxide; Polydopamine; Polyethyleneimine. Fields of Research (2020):. 34 CHEMICAL SCIENCES ... Adenylate cyclase (AC) can efficiently catalyze the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine-3′, 5′- ... Improved adenylate cyclase activity via affinity immobilization onto co-modified GO with bio-inspired adhesive and PEI. ...
Pediatric Thrombocytosis Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Consultations, Activity
TCDB » Superfamilies
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Enhance IL-10 Production by Murine...
The VPAC1 is coupled primarily to the adenylate cyclase system (14). To fully understand the mechanism of action of VIP and ... Forskolin stimulates adenylate cyclase in human colonic crypts: interaction with VIP. Eur. J. Pharmacol. ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and PACAP/vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptors: actions on the ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)3 and the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are two multifunctional ...
Mechanisms of phospholipase C activation by the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating...
The vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 2 (VPAC2) receptor was shown to ... T1 - Mechanisms of phospholipase C activation by the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating ... N2 - The vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 2 (VPAC2) receptor was shown ... AB - The vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 2 (VPAC2) receptor was shown ...
Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C Volume 39 Issue 11-12
Moreover, PS stimulated the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase. Solubilization of SPM by the detergent Lubrol-PX did not ... These results indicate that acidic phospholipids do not directly act on adenylate cyclase, but indirectly, affecting the ... Such modifications of interactions through lipid-protein(s) of adenylate cyclase may have implications to physiological ... stimulated adenylate cyclase. The enzyme activity showed a dramatic increase at around 1.6 μmol PS/mg protein, while use of ...
PACAPReceptorReceptorsBordetellaInhibitionForskolinBasalPolypeptideActivationPUTATIVE ADENYLATE CYCLASECyclicEnzymeStimulationIntracellularInhibits adenylateCatalyticEnzymesActivatesToxinsAdenosine triphosphateGTPaseActivateNucleotide regulatoryBacillusADCY10ProteinsRegulatory proteinCAMPIntrinsicHypothesis
- Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous peptide that stimulates cAMP production in the anterior pituitary. (lktlabs.com)
- Structural and functional characterization of pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PACAP-related peptide (PRP) and its receptor in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). (lktlabs.com)
- Disruption of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene in mice has demonstrated a role for this highly conserved neuropeptide in the regulation of me- tabolism and temperature control. (deiodinase.org)
- Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide present in the lymphoid microenvironment, and the structurally related pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) act as potent anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit the function of activated macrophages and TH cells. (aai.org)
- 1- 5 As shown in guinea pig airways in vitro, this effect is mediated via VIP-PACAP (VPAC) receptors because VIP and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) display a similar potency. (bmj.com)
- Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP 38) is a neuropeptide with anti-inflammatory activity. (nel.edu)
- Alfa 1 adrenergic potentiation of progesterone accumulation stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in cultured rat granulosa cells. (nel.edu)
- Wasilewska-Dziubiñska E, Borowiec M, Chmielowska M, Woliñska-Witort E, Baranowska B. Alfa 1 adrenergic potentiation of progesterone accumulation stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in cultured rat granulosa cells. (nel.edu)
- Gargiulo AT , Curtis GR , Barson JR . Pleiotropic pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP): Novel insights into the role of PACAP in eating and drug intake. (wjgnet.com)
- inactivation of SelT in beta-cells leads to glucose intolerance via impaired glucose homeostasis and PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) insulinotropic effect. (genscript.com)
- Also has central innervation directly through the pineal stalk and also from the trigeminal ganglion which contains the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) 10 . (radiopaedia.org)
- Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide is the first volume to be written on the neuropeptide PACAP. (harperandharley.org)
- Adenylate cyclese toxin binds to target cells by the complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18, or Mac-1). (wikipedia.org)
- Thus short-term cytokine treatment blocks the adrenergic receptor-mediated increases in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, dissociating adenylate cyclase activation from cytokine-mediated increases in cell calcium, whereas longer treatment apparently produces direct affects on adenylate cyclase. (nih.gov)
- The vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 2 (VPAC2) receptor was shown to induce both [3H]inositol phosphate ([3H]InsP)and cAMP production in transfected COS7 cells and in GH3 cells where it is natively expressed. (strath.ac.uk)
- Additionally, a mutant of the receptor, which lacks the sites normally phosphorylated by PKA, can activate adenylyl cyclase, the enzyme that generates cAMP, but not MAP kinase. (nih.gov)
- Cloning of another human serotonin receptor (5-HT1F): a fifth 5-HT1 receptor subtype coupled to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase. (semanticscholar.org)
- These G protein-coupled receptors transduce activation or inhibition of adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C. Reasonably selective antagonists are available for some adenosine receptor subtypes. (cdc.gov)
- The activating versions of the TSH receptor are the thyroid-stimulating autoantibodies, which activate adenylate cyclase and which stimulate thyroid function. (medscape.com)
- Induces vasodilation, inhibits platelet aggregation by receptor-mediated stimulation of adenylate cyclase. (enzolifesciences.com)
- Receptor for apelin coupled to G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity. (discoverx.com)
- Adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1), an actin regulatory protein and functional receptor for the obesity-associated adipokine resistin, has been implicated with inferior cancer prognosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Posteriormente se estableci que este receptor se encuentra tambi n en las terminales ax nicas de otras neuronas del Sistema Nervioso Central y perif rico, donde regula como heterorreceptor la liberaci n de varios transmisores. (medigraphic.com)
- La regulaci n por el receptor H 3 de la liberaci n de estos neurotransmisores y neuromoduladores, tanto en condiciones normales como patol gicas, sugiere que los f rmacos que act en sobre dicho receptor pueden tener uso terap utico en alteraciones diversas como los transtornos del sue o, las arritmias cardiacas causadas por isquemia, la migra a, la obesidad, la enfermedad de Alzheimer y la esquizofrenia. (medigraphic.com)
- μ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptor-mediated inhibition of neurotransmitter release and adenylate cyclase activity in rat brain slices: studies with fen. (tocris.com)
- The calcitonin receptor, located on osteoclasts, and in the kidney and also regions of the brain, is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is paired by Gs to adenylate cyclase and thereby to the generation of cAMP in target cells. (inboundmarketingsummit.com)
- Action your doctor within 25 hours possible cause you may need to be formed by dissolving 5 level teaspoons of sugar in the metabolism of methanol) and glycolic, glyoxylic, and oxalic acids (produced by the manifestations develop over weeks to return to its receptor stimulates adenylate cyclase to convert fibrinogen to fibrin and is expressed in indirect ways that can be used to examine your child for take-off or landing. (childbirthsolutions.com)
- Eyler CE, Jackson T, Elliott LE, De Castro LM, Jonassaint J, Ashley-Koch A, Telen MJ, beta(2)-Adrenergic receptor and adenylate cyclase gene polymorphisms affect sickle red cell adhesion. (ithanet.eu)
- VPAC2 Receptor signaling occurs via adenylate cyclase stimulation through trimeric Gs proteins, increasing cAMP, and downstream L-type calcium channel interaction. (innoprot.com)
- Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and its receptors: 20 years after the discovery. (lktlabs.com)
- Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide" by people in this website by year, and whether "Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ucdenver.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide" by people in Profiles. (ucdenver.edu)
- In particular, some of these receptors are coupled to adenylate cyclase (DA-stimulating enzyme activity), whereas others seem to be independent 3-5 . (elsevier.com)
- In particular, some of these receptors are coupled to adenylate cyclase (DA-stimulating enzyme activity), whereas others seem to be independent3-5. (elsevier.com)
- They occur on the inner surface of the plasma membrane and transmit signals from hormone receptors on the outer surface of the cell to adenylate cyclase , which catalyses the formation of the second messenger , cyclic AMP, inside the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- At BWH Eva's work began in earnest on the identification of proteins that modulate signals between cell surface receptors and adenylate cyclase (and other effector proteins). (harvard.edu)
- SST receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that are responsible for the inhibition of adenylate cyclase, activation of potassium channels, and stimulation of tyrosine kinase (Hoyer et al. (springer.com)
- Activation of beta 2-adrenergic receptors on airway smooth muscle leads to the activation of adenylate cyclase and to an increase in the intracellular. (musicaenlamochila.net)
- H2 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gs. (multispaninc.com)
- Her seminal early papers on GPCR signaling demonstrated that dopamine receptors are the target of antipsychotic drugs, that muscarinic receptors inhibit adenylate cyclase and that phospholipase C and CaM kinase II activation mediate cardiac hypertrophy. (aspet.org)
- Gsa functions as a transducer of numerous signaling pathways that are controlled by g protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) by coupling receptors to adenylyl cyclase and results in increased levels of the signaling molecule cAMP. (antibodiesinc.com)
- Both the CB1 and CB2 receptors inhibit adenylate cyclase and stimulate potassium channels. (medscape.com)
- Adenylate cyclase toxin is a virulence factor produced by some members of the genus Bordetella. (wikipedia.org)
- Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella parapertussis, also able to cause pertussis-like symptoms, also produce adenylate cyclase toxin. (wikipedia.org)
- Adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis is a 1706 amino acid residue long protein. (wikipedia.org)
- Using Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin, we solved the structure of an essential C-terminal assembly that caps the RTX domains of RTX family leukotoxins. (rcsb.org)
- In the present study, we investigated the potential ability of an invasive adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis, carrying a CD8+ T cell epitope from the nucleoprotein of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), to stimulate protective anti-viral immunity. (pasteur.fr)
- Determination of serum antibody to Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin in vaccinated and unvaccinated children and in children and adults with pertussis. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Presence of antibody to adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) has been noted following Bordetella pertussis infection. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Wehmann E, Khayer B, Magyar T. (2015): Heterogeneity of Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase (cyaA) RTX domain. (vmri.hu)
- 2013. Role of Bordetella pertussis RseA in the cell envelope stress response and adenylate cyclase toxin release. (umn.edu)
- Anticipated stepwise increases in adenylate cyclase and intracellular calcium were found in controls (non-cytokine-treated) with 10(-7) M isoproterenol, 10(-7) M isoproterenol + 0.1 mM guanosine triphosphate, and 10(-9) M forskolin. (nih.gov)
- Forskolin maximally activates adenylate cyclase following both short- and long-term incubation, but the stepwise increase in activity is blunted following prolonged exposure. (nih.gov)
- The theory behind this effect is that forskolin stimulates adenylate cyclase activity, which, in turn, increases the levels of cAMP in fat cells. (nutralegacy.com)
- Clinical studies have shown that forskolin directly stimulates adenylate cyclase, although it does this without the expected requirement of epinephrine release. (nutralegacy.com)
- Forskolin is a natural product adenylate cyclase activator that increases cyclic AMP levels. (reprocell.com)
- Forskolin - a commonly used CFTR activator - is known to activate CFTR through activation of adenylate cyclase. (nanion.de)
- Cells in the presence of cytokine for 2 h show increased basal calcium levels but no changes in adenylate cyclase activities, and isoproterenol fails to elevate adenylate cyclase levels or affect contractile shortening. (nih.gov)
- After long-term treatment with IL-1beta or TNF, but not IL-1alpha, the significantly elevated levels of basal systolic calcium remain, and isoproterenol increases adenylate cyclase activity, unlike after short exposure. (nih.gov)
- We report here that in homogenates of human PRL adenomas, in which dopaminergic agonists act as inhibitors of PRL secretion, basal adenylate cyclase is inhibited by DA. (elsevier.com)
- Stimulated and basal adenylate cyclase activities from livers of young and old rats were lower in particulates than in homogenates. (uthscsa.edu)
- Fluoride and azide stimulations relative to basal activities were greater in particulates than in homogenates, while relative epinephrine activity was lower in particulates, suggesting qualitative alteration of adenylate cyclase during preparation of particulates. (uthscsa.edu)
- In contrast with these antidopaminergic properties, FCE 23884 consistently stimulated basal adenylate cyclase activity in vitro (ED50 = 0.6 microM) and elicited a rapid increase of cyclic AMP formation in the neostriatum of normal (35%) and reserpinized (82%) rats in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
- Discovery of a new reproductive hormone in teleosts: pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-related peptide (PRP). (lktlabs.com)
- They bind PITUITARY ADENYLATE CYCLASE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes that influence the behavior of CELLS. (ucdenver.edu)
- Feeding and Metabolism in Mice Lacking Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide. (deiodinase.org)
- This page shows the publications Vadim Bolshakov has written about Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide. (harvard.edu)
- Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide induces postsynaptically expressed potentiation in the intra-amygdala circuit. (harvard.edu)
- Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: localization and differential influence on isolated hearts from rats and guinea pigs. (atsu.edu)
- Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide/vasoactive intestinal peptide (Part 2): biology and clinical importance in central nervous system and inflammatory disorders. (wjgnet.com)
- Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in the retina: focus on the retinoprotective effects. (doktori.hu)
- Helospectin and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in the lowing the lead in the. (psm.edu)
- We find that, following axotomy, sympathetic neurons in the superior cervical ganglion express vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), galanin, and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, three neuropeptides not normally expressed by these neurons. (case.edu)
- 2022 - Andero Galí, Raül Porta-Casteràs D, Cano M, Steward T, Andero R, Cardoner N. 'The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide system as a sex-specific modulator of hippocampal response to threat stimuli. (icrea.cat)
- Both toxins, which catalyze the NAD-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase, thus appear to possess NAD glycohydrolase and ADP-ribosyltransferase activities. (jci.org)
- activation may result from ADP-ribosylation of the cyclase itself or of a protein that regulates its activity. (jci.org)
- Preincubation of brain membranes with GTP under phosphorylating conditions resulted in activation of adenylate cyclase which withstood sedimentation and washing. (elsevier.com)
- Previous studies showed that guanine nucleotides, acting at a site termed the nucleotide regulatory site, are required for activation of hepatic adenylate cyclase, and that glucagon facilitates this process. (elsevier.com)
- The three adenylate cyclase genes, acaA , acrA and acgA are required for aggregation, culmination and spore dormancy, respectively, and some of their functions can be suppressed by activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase PKA. (biologists.com)
- The activation of adenylate cyclase rescued the cells from XMRV toxicity, indicating that toxicity resulted from reduced G-protein-mediated cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling. (cnrs.fr)
- They always use the activation of adenylate cyclase as the next step in the signal chain. (chemeurope.com)
PUTATIVE ADENYLATE CYCLASE1
- GBAA_1210 protein, a putative adenylate cyclase, from Bacillus anthracis. (csgid.org)
- Adenylate cyclase (AC) can efficiently catalyze the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine-3′, 5′-monophosphate (cAMP). (edu.au)
- Norepinephrine activated adenylate cyclase through β -adrenoceptors, thereby significantly increased the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which enhanced the analgesic activity of MA [ 25 , 26 ]. (hindawi.com)
- An example is adenylate cyclase , which produces the second messenger cyclic AMP . (wikipedia.org)
- The 1971 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Earl Sutherland for discovering the key role of adenylate cyclase , which produces the second messenger cyclic AMP . (wikipedia.org)
- Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mouse Adenylate Cyclase 10, Soluble (ADCY10) in Tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (1elisakits.com)
- These studies show that adenylate cyclase activity in rat liver is presently best quantitated in homogenates and suggest caution in comparisons of enzyme activities based on particulates or membranes prepared from animals of differing physiologic states. (uthscsa.edu)
- Three plasma membrane-located enzyme activities were analysed: Mg2+-dependent ATPase, 5´-nucleotidase and adenylyl cyclase. (lu.se)
- In Guidotti's laboratory she purified adenylyl and guanylyl cyclase from adrenal medulla, working independently to better understand the enzyme that generates the universal second messenger cAMP. (harvard.edu)
- Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Adenylate Kinase 3 (AK3) in serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and other biological fluids. (allelisakits.com)
- Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Mouse Adenylate Kinase 3 (AK3) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (allelisakits.com)
- The α subunit is thought to be the effector region responsible for stimulation of adenylate cyclase (involved the generation of cAMP ). (wikidoc.org)
- As mentioned above, it is adenylate cyclase that stimulates cAMP, which is the intracellular messenger that triggers the release of the hormone-sensitive lipase that activates lipolysis. (nutralegacy.com)
- Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. (idrblab.net)
- Triton-X-100 extracts of brain membranes, which contain the catalytic and regulatory subunits of adenylate cyclase, were found to be enriched in endogenous activity which phosphorylated the 54K protein with GTP, but not ATP. (elsevier.com)
- A mutant toxin devoid of adenylate cyclase activity (i.e., cAMP synthesizing activity) was constructed by insertion of a dipeptide into the catalytic site of the molecule. (pasteur.fr)
- The B peptide anchors the protein to intestinal epithelial cells, while the A peptide, enters the cytoplasm , and activates adenylate cyclase, and production of cAMP . (dictionary.net)
- B. bronchiseptica" also produces many toxins such as bifunctional adenylate cyclase and dermonecrotic toxins. (kenyon.edu)
- cAMP is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in reaction catalyzed by adenylate cyclase (AC). (csgid.org)
- When toxin-treated membranes were incubated with isoproterenol and GMP before detergent solubilization, the 42,000 M r labeled peptide was adsorbed by GTP-γ-agarose which, with the same conditions, adsorbed the adenylate cyclase guanine nucleotide regulatory protein. (elsevier.com)
- Our data support the view that the 42,000 M r peptide is part of the adenylate cyclase guanine nucleotide regulatory protein. (elsevier.com)
- Structural and ligand-binding properties of a truncated form of Bacillus anthracis adenylate cyclase and of a catalytically inactive variant in which glutamine substitutes for lysine-346. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- A truncated, 541-residue-long, Bacillus anthracis adenylate cyclase was expressed in Escherichia coli. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Adenylate Cyclase 10, Soluble (ADCY10) in samples from tissue homogenates or other biological fluids. (1elisakits.com)
- A major virulence determinant of anthrax is edema toxin (ET), which is formed by the combination of two proteins produced by the organism, edema factor (EF), which is an adenyl cyclase, and protective antigen (PA). (springer.com)
- Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. (idrblab.net)
- Guanosine 5′-O-(2-thiodiphosphate), an analog of GDP which blocks guanine nucleotide- and fluoride-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, caused elution of labeled peptide which exhibited no regulatory protein activity. (elsevier.com)
- The above described effects of the adenylate cyclase toxin, mainly the cAMP overproduction, have a profound effect on target cells. (wikipedia.org)
- We eliminated cAMP production by deleting the three adenylate cyclases and overexpressed PKA-C to enable aggregation. (biologists.com)
- Since cAMP, a product of adenyl cyclase, is known to enhance endothelial barrier integrity, we asked whether ET might decrease extravasation of PMNs into tissues through closure of the paracellular pathway through which PMNs traverse. (springer.com)
- Optogenetic modulation of an adenylate cyclase in Toxoplasma gondii demonstrates a requirement of parasite cAMP for host-cell invasion and stage differentiation. (hu-berlin.de)
- The arrest was not suppressed by the presence of multicopy RAS1, TPK2, or TPK3 genes or by the presence of 5 mM cAMP in the growth medium, suggesting that PPS1 functions in a pathway involving RAS2, but not TPK kinases or adenylate cyclase. (embl.de)
- The adenylate cyclase domain has intrinsic enzymatic activity. (wikipedia.org)
- This study investigates the hypothesis that inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1alpha IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), influence cardiac function by affecting calcium homeostasis and that this effect is mediated by the beta-adrenergic-adenylate cyclase system. (nih.gov)
- These findings provide a means for direct testing of the hypothesis that protein phosphorylation plays a role in adenylate cyclase regulation. (elsevier.com)