An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
A highly selective and specific beta antagonist that is used to characterize beta-adrenoceptors.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
Hydrogenated alprenolol derivative where the extra hydrogens are often tritiated. This radiolabeled form of ALPRENOLOL, a beta-adrenergic blocker, is used to label the beta-adrenergic receptor for isolation and study.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.
A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
One of the ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.
A phenothiazine used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that share significant homology with GLUCAGON RECEPTORS. They bind PITUITARY ADENYLATE CYCLASE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes that influence the behavior of CELLS.
A delta-selective opioid (ANALGESICS, OPIOID). It can cause transient depression of mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.
Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.
Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
The porcine antidiuretic hormone (VASOPRESSINS). It is a cyclic nonapeptide that differs from ARG-VASOPRESSIN by one amino acid, containing a LYSINE at residue 8 instead of an ARGININE. Lys-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A class of cellular membrane receptors that either have an intrinsic guanylate cyclase activity or are closely coupled to specific guanylate cyclases within the cell.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor subtype that binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE. It is found predominately in the BRAIN.
A non-hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist used as a research tool.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.
Cell surface receptors for EPOPROSTENOL. They are coupled to HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A hereditary syndrome clinically similar to HYPOPARATHYROIDISM. It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA; HYPERPHOSPHATEMIA; and associated skeletal development impairment and caused by failure of response to PARATHYROID HORMONE rather than deficiencies. A severe form with resistance to multiple hormones is referred to as Type 1a and is associated with maternal mutant allele of the ALPHA CHAIN OF STIMULATORY G PROTEIN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H2 receptors act via G-proteins to stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are gastric acid secretion, smooth muscle relaxation, inotropic and chronotropic effects on heart muscle, and inhibition of lymphocyte function. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.

Cell polarization: chemotaxis gets CRACKing. (1/5304)

An early stage in the establishment of cell polarity during chemotaxis of Dictyostelium dicoideum has been identified by a recent study; the new results also show that the development of cell polarity does not rely upon cytoskeletal rearrangement, and may use a spatial sensing mechanism.  (+info)

Probing the function of Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase toxin by manipulating host immunity. (2/5304)

We have examined the role of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin (CyaA) by constructing an in-frame deletion in the Bordetella bronchiseptica cyaA structural gene and comparing wild-type and cyaA deletion strains in natural host infection models. Both the wild-type strain RB50 and its adenylate cyclase toxin deletion (DeltacyaA) derivative efficiently establish persistent infections in rabbits, rats, and mice following low-dose inoculation. In contrast, an inoculation protocol that seeds the lower respiratory tract revealed significant differences in bacterial numbers and in polymorphonuclear neutrophil recruitment in the lungs from days 5 to 12 postinoculation. We next explored the effects of disarming specific aspects of the immune system on the relative phenotypes of wild-type and DeltacyaA bacteria. SCID, SCID-beige, or RAG-1(-/-) mice succumbed to lethal systemic infection following high- or low-dose intranasal inoculation with the wild-type strain but not the DeltacyaA mutant. Mice rendered neutropenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide or by knockout mutation in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor locus were highly susceptible to lethal infection by either wild-type or DeltacyaA strains. These results reveal the significant role played by neutrophils early in B. bronchiseptica infection and by acquired immunity at later time points and suggest that phagocytic cells are a primary in vivo target of the Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin.  (+info)

Adenoviral gene transfer of the human V2 vasopressin receptor improves contractile force of rat cardiomyocytes. (3/5304)

BACKGROUND: In congestive heart failure, high systemic levels of the hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) result in vasoconstriction and reduced cardiac contractility. These effects are mediated by the V1 vasopressin receptor (V1R) coupled to phospholipase C beta-isoforms. The V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R), which promotes activation of the Gs/adenylyl cyclase system, is physiologically expressed in the kidney but not in the myocardium. Expression of a recombinant V2R (rV2R) in the myocardium could result in a positive inotropic effect via the endogenous high concentrations of AVP in heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: A recombinant adenovirus encoding the human V2R (Ad-V2R) was tested for its ability to modulate the cardiac Gs/adenylyl cyclase system and to potentiate contractile force in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Ad-V2R infection resulted in a virus concentration-dependent expression of the transgene and led to a marked increase in cAMP formation in rV2R-expressing cardiomyocytes after exposure to AVP. Single-cell shortening measurements showed a significant agonist-induced contraction amplitude enhancement, which was blocked by the V2R antagonist, SR 121463A. Pretreatment of Ad-V2R-infected cardiomyocytes with AVP led to desensitization of the rV2R after short-term agonist exposure but did not lead to further loss of receptor function or density after long-term agonist incubation, thus demonstrating resistance of the rV2R to downregulation. CONCLUSIONS: Adenoviral gene transfer of the V2R in cardiomyocytes can modulate the endogenous adenylyl cyclase-signal transduction cascade and can potentiate contraction amplitude in cardiomyocytes. Heterologous expression of cAMP-forming receptors in the myocardium could lead to novel strategies in congestive heart failure by bypassing the desensitized beta-adrenergic receptor signaling.  (+info)

Kinetic analysis of drug-receptor interactions of long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics in isolated receptor membranes: evidence against prolonged effects of salmeterol and formoterol on receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase. (4/5304)

The long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics salmeterol and formoterol have been presumed to exert their prolonged action either by binding to an accessory binding site ("exo-site") near the beta2 adrenoceptor or by their high affinity for beta2 adrenoceptors and correspondingly slow dissociation. Whereas most studies with salmeterol had been done in intact tissues, which have slow diffusion and compartmentation of drugs in lipophilic phases, that restrict drug access to the receptor biophase, we used purified receptor membranes from rat lung and disaggregated calf tracheal myocytes as model systems. Binding experiments were designed to measure the slow dissociation of agonists by means of delayed association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol. Rat lung membranes were pretreated with high concentrations of agonists (salmeterol, formoterol, isoprenaline) before dissociation was induced by 50-fold dilution. Half-times of association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol remained unchanged compared with untreated controls, indicating that dissociation of agonists occurred in less than 2 min. Adenylyl cyclase experiments were designed to determine the on and off kinetics of agonists to beta2 adrenoceptors by measuring the rate of receptor-induced cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation. Experiments were performed in tracheal membranes characterized by high Vmax values of cAMP formation. Adenylyl cyclase activation occurred simultaneously with the addition of the agonist, continued linearly with time for 60 min, and ceased immediately after the antagonist was added. Similarly, when receptor membranes were preincubated in a small volume with high salmeterol concentrations, there was a linear increase in cAMP formation, which was immediately interrupted by a 100-fold dilution of the reaction mixture. This militates against the exo-site hypothesis. On the other hand, dissociation by dilution was much less when membranes were preincubated with a large volume of salmeterol at the same concentration, indicating that physicochemical effects, and not exo-site binding, underlie its prolonged mode of action.  (+info)

Biochemical and cytochemical studies on adenylate cyclase activity in the developing rat submandibular gland: differentiation of of the acinar secretory compartment. (5/5304)

To investigate membrane changes in development of the exocrine cells of the rat submandibular gland (SMG), biochemical and cytochemical studies of adenylate cyclase activity were performed on prenatal and postnatal glands. SMG rudiments and glands were studied from 15 days of gestation op to birth and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 weeks after birth. Glands were chemically assayed for adenylate cyclase activity using the procedures of Salomon and coworkers and cytochemically studied using a procedure which was verified biochemically. At 15-16 days of gestation basal adenylate cyclase activity was low and no staining could be observed. Adenylate cyclase activity rose six-fold from the 16th to the 18th day of gestation. Adenylate cyclase staining became evident along the surface of most of the cells of the rudiment at this time. Basal adenylate cyclase activity remained relatively constant from the 18th day of gestation up to 24 weeks of age. However, sequential changes were seen in the cytochemical localization, especially in relation to the apical plasma membrane of the developing secretory cells.  (+info)

Facilitation of signal onset and termination by adenylyl cyclase. (6/5304)

The alpha subunit (Gsalpha) of the stimulatory heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate binding protein (G protein) Gs activates all isoforms of mammalian adenylyl cyclase. Adenylyl cyclase (Type V) and its subdomains, which interact with Gsalpha, promoted inactivation of the G protein by increasing its guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity. Adenylyl cyclase and its subdomains also augmented the receptor-mediated activation of heterotrimeric Gs and thereby facilitated the rapid onset of signaling. These findings demonstrate that adenylyl cyclase functions as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for the monomeric Gsalpha and enhances the GTP/GDP exchange factor (GEF) activity of receptors.  (+info)

The 5'-flanking region of the mouse adenylyl cyclase type VIII gene imparts tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice. (7/5304)

The calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclases (ACs) play a central role in stimulus-dependent modification of synaptic function. The type VIII AC (AC8) is one of three mammalian calcium-stimulated isoforms, each of which is expressed in a region-specific manner in the CNS. To delineate the DNA sequences responsible for appropriate targeting of AC8 expression, we report here the complete structure of the AC8 gene and define the pattern of expression of the full-length cDNA and its splice variants. In addition to expression within the brain, robust expression of AC8 was also found in the lung. By in situ hybridization, we have found the highest expression of AC8 mRNA within the olfactory bulb, thalamus, habenula, cerebral cortex, and hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. By generating transgenic mice whose expression of beta-galactosidase is controlled by the AC8 5'-flanking DNA sequences, we demonstrate that the DNA sequences within the 10 kb preceding exon 1 are critical for establishment of this region-specific pattern. This spectrum of sites of production is unique to AC8 among the calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclases and suggests nonredundant functions with other adenylyl cyclases in neuroendocrine regulation and/or behavior.  (+info)

Role of protein kinase A in the maintenance of inflammatory pain. (8/5304)

Although the initiation of inflammatory pain (hyperalgesia) has been demonstrated to require the cAMP second messenger signaling cascade, whether this mechanism and/or other mechanisms underlie the continued maintenance of the induced hyperalgesia is unknown. We report that injection of adenylyl cyclase inhibitors before but not after injection of direct-acting hyperalgesic agents (prostaglandin E2 and purine and serotonin receptor agonists) resulted in reduction in hyperalgesia, evaluated by the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal test. In contrast, injection of protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors either before or after these hyperalgesic agents resulted in reduced hyperalgesia, suggesting that hyperalgesia after its activation was maintained by persistent PKA activity but not by adenylyl cyclase activity. To evaluate further the role of PKA activity in the maintenance of hyperalgesia, we injected the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKACS) that resulted in hyperalgesia similar in magnitude to that induced by the direct-acting hyperalgesic agents but much longer in duration (>48 vs 2 hr). Injection of WIPTIDE (a PKA inhibitor) at 24 hr after PKACS reduced hyperalgesia, suggesting that PKACS hyperalgesia is not independently maintained by steps downstream from PKA. In summary, our results indicate that, once established, inflammatory mediator-induced hyperalgesia is no longer maintained by adenylyl cyclase activity but rather is dependent on ongoing PKA activity. An understanding of the mechanism maintaining hyperalgesia may provide important insight into targets for the treatment of persistent pain.  (+info)

Inositol phosphate accumulation and adenylate cyclase activity were investigated in the cortex of young and aged ethanol-treated rats. Three months of ethanol treatment of young rats decreased maximal stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation by carbachol by 26%, from 494 ± 76% of basal turnover in control animals to 396 ± 54% in ethanol-treated animals (mean ± SD). In aged rats ethanol-related changes were no longer observed but age-related changes were evident. EC50 was significantly higher than in young animals and maximal stimulation was significantly lower. Basal adenylate cyclase activity in cortical membranes of all groups of animals was not different. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not affected by ethanol treatment, but was higher in aged animals. The activity of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the presence of carbachol was higher in both young and aged ethanol-treated animals, when compared to young controls. These results suggest that both ethanol ...
The effects of Ca2+-calmodulin on adenylate cyclase activity in EGTA-washed, 27000 g particulate fractions of mouse and rat pancreatic islets were studied. Ca2+ (10 microM)-calmodulin (1 microM) stimulated adenylate cyclase activity 53.1 +/- 5.2 (N = 6)% in the particulate fraction of rat islets. Trifluoperazine (50 microM), a specific inhibitor of calmodulin, inhibited the Ca2+-calmodulin activation of the adenylate cyclase activity of this fraction of rat islets. These results confirm previous reports dealing with Ca2+-Calmodulin and rat islet adenylate cyclase [Valverde, Vandermeers. Anjaneyulu & Malaisse (1979) Science 206, 225-227; Sharp, Wiedenkeller, Kaelin, Siegel & Wollheim (1980) Diabetes 29, 74-77]. In contrast, however, Ca2+ (1-100 microM)-calmodulin (1-10 microM) did not stimulate the adenylate cyclase activity in the EGTA-washed particulate fraction of mouse islets, and trifluoperazine (50 microM) did not inhibit the adenylate cyclase activity of this fraction of mouse islets, ...
1. Sepharose 6B gel-filtration analysis of soluble adenylate cyclase from bovine corpus luteum is described. Both zonal and frontal techniques of analysis were used. 2. Under conditions of zonal analysis recoveries of activity were low. It was concluded that dissociation of two or more components of the adenylate cyclase complex was occurring on the column and that the maintenance of the complex was essential for the high-activity state of the catalytic unit. Two peaks of adenylate cyclase activity, of approximate mol. wts. 45,000 and 160,000 were detected. 3. The theory of frontal analysis (or steady-state gel filtration), applied to the study of the interacting components of the adenylate cyclase complex is discussed, and activity profiles are predicted. Activity profiles obtained experimentally be frontal analysis compared well with the theoretically predicted profile and provide evidence that dissociation of a high-activity complex, with concomitant loss of activity, does occur. Recoveries ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase in glomerular cells. Possible role for inflammatory diseases of the glomerulus. AU - Paietta, Elisabeth M.. AU - Schwarzmeier, J. D.. AU - Simbruner, G.. AU - Latzka, U.. AU - Lubec, G.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Using the adenylate cyclase assay after Ross the authors examined hormone sensitivity of isolated glomerular cells. cAMP production was increased 1.3-1.6-fold by stimulation with isoproterenol, 1.5-1.8 times by prostaglandin E 1 and 1.4-1.5 times by histamine. The isoproterenol reaction could be completely inhibited by propranolol, the histamine effect was abolished by the H2-blocking agent cimetidine. As a control the authors applied sodium fluoride, which directly activates the catalytic adenylate cyclase unit, increasing the activity 1.8-2.7 times (depending on the method of homogenization). These findings could reflect some physiological or pathophysiological implications, which are discussed.. AB - Using the adenylate cyclase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reconstitution of catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity using three purified proteins. AU - May, D. C.. AU - Ross, E. M.. AU - Gilman, A. G.. AU - Smigel, M. D.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - β-Adrenergic receptors, the GTP-binding regulatory protein that stimulates adenylate cyclase (G(s)), and adenylate cyclase were each purified and reconstituted into unilamellar vesicles composed of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine (3:2, w/w). The molar ratio of receptor:G(s):adenylate cyclase was estimated to be about 1:10:1. Adenylate cyclase activity in the vesicles was stimulated up to 2.6-fold by β-adrenergic agonists. Stimulation was dependent on the presence of guanine nucleotide, displayed appropriate β-adrenergic selectivity and stereoselectivity for agonists, and was blocked appropriately by β-adrenergic antagonists. Therefore, while additional proteins may modulate adenylate cyclase activity in native membranes, these results show that these three ...
A factor [the feedback regulator (FR)] formed by adipocytes after the stimulation of a cAMP raising hormone has been found to be a potent inhibitor of membrane-bound adenylate cyclase [EC 4.6.1.1.; ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing)]. In a standard assay system using rat adipocyte plasma membrane as the source of adenylate cyclase, the FR inhibited adenylate cyclase by lowering the Vmax without affecting the apparent Km for ATP (0.3-0.6 mM). The apparent Ka for epinephrine (5-6 muM) was also not affected by FR. The inhibitory action of FR was partially countered by Mg2+ ions. An increase in phosphorylation of plasma membrane was observed when FR was present in the incubation system. The concentration required for a 50% inhibition was four times higher when adenosine 5-(beta,gamma-imino) triphosphate [AMP-P(NH)P] replaced ATP as the substrate for adenylate cyclase, implying that adenylate cyclase was inactivated by phosphorylation caused by FR. Increase in FR inhibition obtained by adding low ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiple forms of brain adenylate cyclase. T2 - Stimulation by Mn2+. AU - Malamuda, Daniel F.. AU - DiRusso, Concetta C.. AU - Aprille, June R.. PY - 1977/11/23. Y1 - 1977/11/23. N2 - Mn2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase-(cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1) activity in detergent solubilized preparations from mouse brain. While NaF-stimulated activity was decreased by both solubilization and storage at 0-4°C, the ability of the enzyme to be stimulated by Mn2+ was maintained for up to one week. By including Mn+ in the assay of adenylate cyclase in gel fractions after isoelectric focusing, two distinct peaks of enzyme activity (pI1 = 5.8, pI2 = 6.4) were detected, suggesting the existence of more than one type of catalytic subunit in mouse brain cell membranes.. AB - Mn2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase-(cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1) activity in detergent solubilized preparations from mouse brain. While NaF-stimulated activity was decreased by both ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isoelectric focusing of brain adenylate cyclase. AU - Franks, Douglas J.. AU - Malamud, Daniel. PY - 1976/6. Y1 - 1976/6. N2 - Mouse brain adenylate cyclase has been solubilized with Lubrol PX and separated by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme activity has been measured with a sensitive assay isolating cyclic AMP from Dowex and alumina columns. The technique allows a one-step analysis of this membrane enzyme from a heterogeneous sample within 6 hr.. AB - Mouse brain adenylate cyclase has been solubilized with Lubrol PX and separated by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme activity has been measured with a sensitive assay isolating cyclic AMP from Dowex and alumina columns. The technique allows a one-step analysis of this membrane enzyme from a heterogeneous sample within 6 hr.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017121245&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
Adenylyl Cyclase Type V Inhibitor, NKY80 - CAS 299442-43-6 - Calbiochem The Adenylyl Cyclase Type V Inhibitor, NKY80, also referenced under CAS 299442-43-6, controls the biological activity of Adenylyl Cyclase Type V. This small molecule/inhibitor is primarily used for Cell Signaling applications. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Aiba H.. The regulatory region of the Escherichia coli cya gene was analyzed by using S1 nuclease mapping and in vitro transcription experiments. The cya gene was transcribed, both in vivo and in vitro, from one major promoter (P2) and two weak promoters (P1 and P1) that are located about 200 base pairs upstream of P2. The transcription from P2 was specifically inhibited by cAMP-CRP (cAMP receptor protein) in vitro. This regulatory mechanism was shown to be physiologically relevant through quantitative analyses of the cya mRNA in intact cells by S1 and dot blot assays. DNase I protection experiments revealed that cAMP-CRP binds to the cya DNA region between +11 and -20, in which a consensus CRP binding sequence is present. Moreover, it was found that cAMP-CRP alters the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter region, thus inhibiting the transcription of the cya gene.. J. Biol. Chem. 260:3063-3070(1985) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The hepatic adenylate cyclase system. I. Evidence for transition states and structural requirements for guanine nucleotide activation. AU - Salomon, Y.. AU - Lin, M. C.. AU - Londos, C.. AU - Rendell, M.. AU - Rodbell, M.. PY - 1975/12/1. Y1 - 1975/12/1. N2 - Previous studies showed that guanine nucleotides, acting at a site termed the nucleotide regulatory site, are required for activation of hepatic adenylate cyclase, and that glucagon facilitates this process. This study shows that only guanine nucleotides containing triphosphate groups at the 5 position of ribose (or 3 deoxyribose) are capable of activating the enzyme. The terminal phosphate is not utilized in the activation process, since 5 guanylylimidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] and 5 guanylyl methylenediphosphonate, analogues of guanosine triphosphate that are not utilized in transferase or hydrolase reactions, stimulate enzyme activity. The nucleotides bind in their free form at the regulatory site; chelation by magnesium ...
An important eukaryotic signal transduction pathway involves the regulation of the effector enzyme adenylate cyclase, which produces the second messenger, cAMP. Previous genetic analyses demonstrated that glucose repression of transcription of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbp1 gene requires the function of adenylate cyclase, encoded by the git2 gene. As mutations in git2 and in six additional git genes are suppressed by exogenous cAMP, these upstream git genes were proposed to act to produce a glucose-induced cAMP signal. We report here that assays of cAMP levels in wild-type and various mutant S. pombe cells, before and after exposure to glucose, show that this is the case. The data suggest that the cAMP signal results from the activation of adenylate cyclase. Therefore these upstream git genes appear to encode a glucose-induced adenylate cyclase activation pathway. Assays of cAMP on a strain carrying a mutation in the git6 gene, which acts downstream of adenylate cyclase, indicate that ...
We next investigated whether beta gamma subunits play a role in the sensitization of type VI adenylyl cyclase activity; using expression of alpha tau to inhibit beta gamma-mediated effects, we found that the quinpirole-induced sensitization of type VI adenylyl cyclase was abolished ...
Attenuation of inhibitory influence of hormones on adenylyl cyclase systems in the myocardium and brain of obese and type 2 diabetic rats as affected by the intranasal insulin treatment Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology Pleiades Publishing 0022-0930 1608-3202 10.1134/S0022093014050044
TY - GEN. T1 - Bicarbonate-regulated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) mRNA expression and activity in peripheral chemoreceptors. AU - Nunes, A. R.. AU - Monteiro, E. C.. AU - Johnson, S. M.. AU - Gauda, E. B.. PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - Peripheral arterial chemoreceptors in the carotid body (CB) are modulated by pH/CO2. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is directly stimulated by bicarbonate ions (HCO3 -). Because CO2/HCO 3 - mediates depolarization in chemoreceptors, we hypothesized that sAC mRNA would be expressed in the CB, and its expression and function would be regulated by CO2/HCO3 -. Sprague-Dawley rats at postnatal days 16-17 were used to compare sAC mRNA gene expression between CB and non-chemosensitive tissues: superior cervical (SCG), petrosal (PG) and nodose ganglia (NG) by quantitative real time-PCR. Rat sAC gene expression was standardized to the expression of GAPDH (housekeeping gene) and the data were analyzed with the Pfaffl method. Gene and protein expression, and sAC ...
H2O2 and oxygen-derived free radicals modulate vasodilator mechanisms.1 2 3 4 5 6 9 The present studies indicate that H2O2 enhances adenylyl cyclase activation and that the effect is dependent (in part) on the presence of iron and is blunted by agents that act to inhibit tyrosine kinase activity.. Our data suggest that the oxygen-derived species mediating the enhancement of adenylyl cyclase activation is either H2O2 itself or the hydroxyl radical. Incubation of cells with xanthine oxidase and purine resulted in a qualitatively similar enhancement of adenylyl cyclase activation. The effect of purine and xanthine oxidase was not blocked by coincubation with superoxide dismutase (which catalyzes the conversion from superoxide anion to H2O2). This suggests that the generation of the superoxide anion is not involved in the mechanism of enhancement of adenylyl cyclase activation. However, pretreatment with either catalase (which catalyzes conversion of H2O2 to water) or with deferoxamine (which ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Demonstration and Characterization of Opiate Inhibition of the Striatal Adenylate Cyclase. AU - Law, P. Y.. AU - Wu, J.. AU - Koehler, J. E.. AU - Loh, H. H.. PY - 1981/5. Y1 - 1981/5. N2 - Abstract: The conditions in which Leu5‐enkephalin inhibition of striatal adenylate cyclase was observed were defined. It was determined that enkephalin inhibition was dependent on GTP. The apparent Km for GTP in opiate inhibition was determined to be 0.5 and 2 μM when 0.1 mM‐ and 0.5 mM‐ATP were used as substrate. ITP, but not CTP or UTP, could substitute for GTP in the reaction. Though the addition of monovalent cations-Na+,K+, Li+, Cs+, and choline+-stimulated striatal adenylate cyclase activity, enkephalin inhibition of striatal adenylate cyclase did not require Na+ when theophylline was used as the phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Under optimal conditions, i.e., 20 μM‐GTP and 100 mM‐Na+, Leu5‐enkephalin inhibited the striatal adenylate cyclase activity by 23-27%. When the ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effect of membrane phospholipid composition changes on adenylate cyclase activity in normal and rous-sarcoma-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The parasite Trypanosoma brucei possesses a large family of transmembrane receptor-like adenylate cyclases. Activation of these enzymes requires the dimerization of the catalytic domain and typically occurs under stress. Using a dominant-negative strategy, we found that reducing adenylate cyclase activity by about 50% allowed trypanosome growth but reduced the parasites ability to control the early innate immune defense of the host. Specifically, activation of trypanosome adenylate cyclase resulting from parasite phagocytosis by liver myeloid cells inhibited the synthesis of the trypanosome-controlling cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α through activation of protein kinase A in these cells. Thus, adenylate cyclase activity of lyzed trypanosomes favors early host colonization by live parasites. The role of adenylate cyclases at the host-parasite interface could explain the expansion and polymorphism of this gene family.. ...
This study investigates the hypothesis that inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1alpha IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), influence cardiac function by affecting calcium homeostasis and that this effect is mediated by the beta-adrenergic-adenylate cyclase system. After 4 days in culture, neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were treated with cytokines (10 ng/ml) for short (2 h) or longer (18 h) times. Myocyte calcium, contractility, and adenylate cyclase were measured under each condition. Anticipated stepwise increases in adenylate cyclase and intracellular calcium were found in controls (non-cytokine-treated) with 10(-7) M isoproterenol, 10(-7) M isoproterenol + 0.1 mM guanosine triphosphate, and 10(-9) M forskolin. Cells in the presence of cytokine for 2 h show increased basal calcium levels but no changes in adenylate cyclase activities, and isoproterenol fails to elevate adenylate cyclase levels or affect contractile shortening. After long-term treatment with IL-1beta or TNF, but ...
Adenylate cyclase activity of luteinized ovaries from gonadotropin-primed immature rats was stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH), epinephrine and prostaglandin E1. Treatment of primed rats with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) caused a time-dependent loss of the adenylate cyclase response to LH, and the enzyme also became refractory to stimulation by epinephrine. Conversely, treatment of primed rats with epinephrine caused a time-dependent loss of the adenylate cyclase response to epinephrine, but the enzyme remained responsive to LH. The refractoriness of adenylate cyclase to epinephrine after desensitization by hCG or epinephrine was not reversed by Gpp(NH)p. These studies show that cross-desensitization of epinephrine-responsive adenylate cyclase activity in the ovary is induced by LH-receptor interaction, whereas β-adrenergic desensitization causes more specific refractoriness to epinephrine with no change in the LH receptor activation mechanism. This suggests the existence of ...
Soluble adenylyl cyclase can function in the nucleus, defining a nuclear microdomain of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) signaling. Bundey and Insel discuss the evidence for discrete signaling microdomains of cAMP, including the nucleus and caveolae, and conclude that such microdomains may be defined by the localized, subcellular expression of adenylyl cyclase isoforms.. ...
Soluble adenylate cyclases catalyse the synthesis of the second messenger cAMP through the cyclisation of ATP and are the only known enzymes to be directly activated by bicarbonate. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the human enzyme that reveals a pseudosymmetrical arrangement of two catalytic domains to produce a single competent active site and a novel discrete bicarbonate binding pocket. Crystal structures of the apo protein, the protein in complex with α,β-methylene adenosine 5′-triphosphate (AMPCPP) and calcium, with the allosteric activator bicarbonate, and also with a number of inhibitors identified using fragment screening, all show a flexible active site that undergoes significant conformational changes on binding of ligands. The resulting nanomolar-potent inhibitors that were developed bind at both the substrate binding pocket and the allosteric site, and can be used as chemical probes to further elucidate the function of this protein.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of lithium on prostaglandin E1- stimulated adenylate cyclase activity of human platelets. AU - Yao-Chun, Wang. AU - Pandey, Ghanshyam N.. AU - Mendels, Joe. AU - Frazer, Alan. PY - 1974/2/15. Y1 - 1974/2/15. N2 - The effect of lithium (Li) on the stimulation of adenylate cyclase by prostaglandin E1(PGE1) was examined. In platelet sonicates, Li, as well as sodium (Na), potassium (K), and rubidium (Rb) significantly reduced the PGE1-induced stimulation of adenylate cyclase in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition due to Rb was significantly less than that produced by the other cations; at a high concentration, 64 mM, Li was a more potent inhibitor than the other cations. In intact platelets, only Li reduced the PGE1-enhanced accumulation of [3H]cyclic AMP, K and Rb being ineffective. As little as 1 mM Li significantly reduced the stimulatory effect of PGE1 on [3H]cyclic AMP production in this sytem. The inhibition produced by Li was not blocked by phentolamine, whereas ...
The interaction between RAS proteins and adenylyl cyclase was studied by using dominant interfering mutations of adenylyl cyclase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RAS proteins activate adenylyl cyclase in this organism. A plasmid expressing a catalytically inactive adenylyl cyclase was found to interfere dominantly with this activation. The interfering region mapped to the leucine-rich repeat region of adenylyl cyclase, which is homologous to domains present in several other proteins and is thought to participate in protein-protein interactions. ...
We have cloned a GC from Paramecium which has an N‐terminal P‐type ATPase‐like domain and a C‐terminal cyclase domain. So far, mammalian GC catalysts are either homodimers fused to an extracellular receptor by a single TM, or soluble heterodimers linked to a nitric oxide‐binding site (Schulz et al., 1991; Yu et al., 1996; Tang and Hurley, 1998; Koesling and Friebe, 1999). The ciliate GC domain differs. It has the unmistakable topology of a mammalian AC complete with catalytic C1a and C2a regions and two prominent membrane anchors, M1 and M2, with six TMs each. Therefore, the ciliate GC is not related to metazoan GCs but is a close relative of metazoan ACs. A striking difference between the ciliate GCs and their mammalian AC congeners was the switch of the C1a and C2a positions. The preference for GTP could be rationalized by looking at three amino acids which determine the nucleotide specifity in the catalytic pocket. In metazoan ACs, glutamine, lysine and aspartate define ATP as a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hormonal stimulation of adenylyl cyclase through Gi-protein βγ subunits. AU - Federman, Alex D.. AU - Conklin, Bruce R.. AU - Schrader, Karen A.. AU - Reed, Randall R. AU - Bourne, Henry R.. PY - 1992/3/12. Y1 - 1992/3/12. N2 - AGONIST-BOUND receptors activate heterotrimeric (αβγ) G proteins by catalysing replacement by GTP of GDP bound to the α subunit, resulting in dissociation of γ-GTP from the βγ subunits. In most cases, α-GTP carries the signal to effectors, as in hormonal stimulation1-4 and inhibition5,6 of adenylyl cyclase by αs and αi respectively. By contrast, genetic evidence in yeast7 and studies in mammalian cells8-10 suggest that βγ subunits of G proteins may also regulate effector pathways. Indeed, of the four recombinant mammalian adenylyl cyclases available for study11-14, two, adenylyl cyclases II and IV, are stimulated by βγ . This effect of βγ requires costimulation by αs-GTP14,15. This conditional pattern of effector responsiveness led to ...
The myocardial potassium uptake during intracoronary isoproterenol stimulation was characterized in 12 anesthetized pigs. The beta-receptor subtype specificity and the effect of adenylate cyclase activation were determined. Potassium concentrations were continuously recorded by PVC-valinomycin minielectrodes in the left atrial cavity and in coronary sinus blood diverted through a shunt to the right atrium. The difference in potassium concentration between the left atrial cavity and coronary sinus, and the accumulated myocardial potassium uptake were calculated after computerized data sampling. By intracoronary drug infusion, changes in heart rate and systemic effects were minimized. Isoproterenol (0.6-0.8 microgram/min), a nonspecific beta-agonist, reduced coronary sinus potassium concentration transiently to a nadir of 0.28 (0.15-0.43) mM (median and 95% confidence interval) below control values (n = 12). The potassium uptake, which amounted to 140 (79-202) mumol/100 g tissue, corresponding to ...
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1CS4: COMPLEX OF GS-ALPHA WITH THE CATALYTIC DOMAINS OF MAMMALIAN ADENYLYL CYCLASE: COMPLEX WITH 2-DEOXY-ADENOSINE 3-MONOPHOSPHATE, PYROPHOSPHATE AND MG
Withdrawal of mice from chronic ethanol treatment results in a decreased responsiveness of striatal (but not mesolimbic) dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity to stimulation by dopamine. This subsensitivity is not apparent at the time of withdrawal from chronic feeding of ethanol, when animals are still intoxicated, but becomes evident as ethanol is eliminated from the animals. Addition of ethanol in vitro to tissue homogenates from ethanol-withdrawn animals, at concentrations similar to those found in brain at the time of withdrawal, normalizes the response of the adenylate cyclase to dopamine. No difference is evident between control and ethanol-withdrawn animals in stimulation of adenylate cyclase by sodium fluoride. The specificity of the response of striatal adenylate cyclase to stimulation by dopamine, as compared to other transmitters, is unaltered by chronic ethanol feeding. Chronic treatment with ethanol and withdrawal also does not affect the specific binding of spiroperidol in ...
The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis is a bi-functional leukotoxin. It penetrates myeloid phagocytes expressing the complement receptor 3 and delivers into their cytosol its N-terminal adenylate cyclase enzyme domain (~400 residues). In parallel, ~1300 residue-long RT …
RecName: Full=Adenylate cyclase type 6; EC=4.6.1.1;AltName: Full=Adenylate cyclase type VI;AltName: Full=ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 6;AltName: Full=Adenylyl cyclase 6;AltName: Full=Ca(2+)-inhibitable adenylyl ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential unmasking of adenylate cyclase activity (AC) in cardiac membrane sheets and vesicles. AU - Fleming, J. W.. AU - Besch, H. R.. AU - Jones, L. R.. AU - Watanabe, A. M.. PY - 1978/1/1. Y1 - 1978/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017841068&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0017841068&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0017841068. VL - 20. JO - Pharmacologist. JF - Pharmacologist. SN - 0031-7004. IS - 3. ER - ...
In cultured intact LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells, a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue, ATP gamma S, inhibits AVP-stimulated cAMP formation. In LLC-PK1 membranes, several ATP analogues inhibit basal, GTP-, forskolin-, and AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The rank order potency of inhibition by ATP analogues suggests that a P2y type of ATP receptor is involved in this inhibition. The compound ATP gamma S inhibits agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in solubilized and in isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and quinacrine pretreated membranes, suggesting that ATP gamma S inhibition occurs independent of AVP and A1 adenosine receptors and of phospholipase A2 activity. The ATP gamma S inhibition of AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity is not affected by pertussis toxin but is attenuated by GDP beta S, suggesting a possible role for a pertussis toxin insensitive G protein in the inhibition. Exposure of intact LLC-PK cells to ATP gamma S results in a significant ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Spermine inhibition of basal and stimulated adenylate cyclase is mediated by the inhibitory GTP-binding protein (Gi). by Carlo Clô et al.
Adenylate cyclase type 5 (EC 4.6.1.1) (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 5) (Adenylate cyclase type V) (Adenylyl cyclase 5) (Ca(2+)-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase ...
It was assumed through most of the last century that cAMP signaling within mammalian cells proceeded mainly, if not exclusively, through activation of PKA (Kuo and Greengard, 1969). More recently, it has been appreciated that at least three major cAMP-dependent signaling pathways exist in rodent and human cells. A large number of molecular biological and pharmacological investigations have been devoted to parsing the relative contributions of PKA, Epac, and now NCS in cAMP-dependent signaling in mammalian, especially neuroendocrine, cells. These investigations have been fraught with the twin difficulties of establishing both (1) that a particular pathway is, in fact, cAMP-dependent and (2) that the pathway, if cAMP-dependent, relies on either canonical (PKA-dependent) or noncanonical (cAMP sensors other than PKA) signaling. Obviously, reagents for selective stimulation or inhibition of the various isoforms of adenylate cyclase have become increasingly central to these efforts. There is a ...
Because it is the only cell in the human body designed to leave the confines of the body, sperm genes echo those of unicellular life forms. An example is the sperm adenylate cyclase that produces cAMP. The sperm adenylate cyclase gene in homology studies bears the most resemblance to the adenylate cyclase found in cyanobacteria. One way to think about the human genome is that it contains the memory of unicellular life. When the gametes are made, that genetic memory becomes expressed, and genes that are actually most similar to genes found in other unicellular organisms begin to be expressed in the testes, says John Herr at the University of Virginia. We call this the ancestral gene program that is activated during sperm production. (Herr has developed two commercial home tests for male infertility, Sperm Check Fertility and Sperm Check Vasectomy, using biomarkers that are unique to the final stage of sperm development in the testes ...
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Since PAM is a potent inhibitor of AC enzyme activity, it was next investigated if the translocation of PAM from the ER to the plasma membrane results in an inhibition of AC activity. Serum-treatment of HeLa cells reduced the intracellular cAMP accumulation (Fig. 19a). Additionally, serum-treatment decreased Gas- and forskolin-stimulated AC activity to 56.7% and 64.7%, respectively, as compared to untreated cells (Fig. 19b). The observed decrease in AC activity was not due to a change in the AC isoform expression or due to an increased AC expression since no changes in the mRNA expression of AC isoforms was detected (Fig. 19c). To determine if the decrease in stimulated AC activity was mediated by PAM, the amount of endogenous PAM was decreased, employing antisense oligonucleotides against PAM as previously described in Scholich et al., 2001. As shown in Fig. 19d, in HeLa cells treated with antisense ODN the amount of PAM, as determined by Western Blot analysis, was decreased as compared to ...
Nine membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase isoforms catalyze the production of the second messenger cyclic AMPs (cAMP) in response to various stimuli. Reduction of adenylyl cyclase activity has well-documented benefits, including for heart disease and pain. These roles have inspired an attempt to develop isoform selective adenylyl cyclase inhibitors. The lack of true selectivity currently limits exploration of functions and/or treatment of dysfunctions involving adenylyl cyclase/cAMP signaling. The present study demonstrated that a panel of inhibitors described as AC5-selective actually does not discriminate between AC5 and AC6. Likewise, the putative AC1-selective inhibitor, NB001 [5-[[2-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)ethyl]amino]-1-pentanol], does not directly target AC1 to reduce cAMP levels. These results lead to a discussion regarding the need to reinterpret literature using AC5/6-selective molecules.. See article at J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2013, 347:265-275.. ...
Background: The two enzyme families involved in the spatiotemporal control of intracellular cAMP are adenylyl cyclases (AC) which account for its synthesis and phosphodiesterases (PDE) which account for its degradation. In adult cardiomyocytes, AC5 and AC6, and PDE3 and PDE4 are the major isoforms of these two enzyme families, respectively. In addition to their role in modulating cardiac contractile function, AC5 and AC6 are differentially regulated in response to different cardiac stress. However the role of each cyclase in cardioprotection is still controversial. Dynamic inter-regulation between ACs and PDEs has never been investigated yet. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of AC5 and AC6 overexpression on submembrane PDE3 related cAMP hydrolysis in response to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation.. Methods and Results: Mice with cardiac specific overexperssion of AC5 (AC5Tg) and AC6 (AC6Tg) were produced. The spatiotemporal dynamics of cAMP were determined on both AC5Tg and AC6Tg ...
Gene Information This gene encodes a member of the family of adenylate cyclases which are membrane-associated enzymes that catalyze the formation of the secondary messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Mouse studies show that adenylate cyclase 4 along with adenylate cyclases 2 and 3 is expressed in olfactory cilia suggesting that several different adenylate cyclases may couple to olfactory receptors and that there may be multiple receptor-mediated mechanisms for the generation of cAMP signals. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq Nov 2010]. ...
integral component of plasma membrane, adenylate cyclase activity, adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, axon midline choice point recognition, cAMP biosynthetic process, retinal ganglion cell axon guidance
There are ten isozymes of adenylyl cyclases in mammals, adenylyl cyclase type I-X, (ADCY I-X); In mammals adenylyl cyclase plays an important role in signal transduction pathways in which cAMP is a secondary messenger[12]. ADCY I-IX all share a general structure; They are composed of two trans-membrane regions (M1, M2) which are composed of six membrane-spanning helices and function to keep the enzyme anchored in the membrane, and two cytoplasmic regions (C1, C2) which can be further sub divided (C1a, C1b, C2a, C2b) and are responsible for all catalytic activity, and regulation by G-proteins and forskolin[12]. In solution, the C1a and C2a domains can form heterodimers with each other, either in the same or different enzymes, or they can form homodimers with their identical units on different enzymes[3]. The C1b domain is very large (≈15 kDa) with many regulatory sites, and has a variable structure across isozymes; while the C2b domain is nearly non-existent in many isozymes, and has yet to be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of gentamicin treatment on adenylate cyclase and Na+,K+-ATPase activities in renal tissues of rats. AU - Queener, S. F.. AU - Luft, F. C.. AU - Hamel, F. G.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - Gentamicin (20 mg/kg) treatment of male rats reduced Na+,K+-ATPase activity by 32% in renal cortical plasma membranes. In contrast, adenylate cyclase stimulation by isoproterenol or a guanyl nucleotide or both was enhanced by as much as twofold in glomeruli and in plasma membranes of gentamicin-treated rats. These effects of gentamicin are suggested to be related to the changes in renal phospholipid metabolism produced by the drug.. AB - Gentamicin (20 mg/kg) treatment of male rats reduced Na+,K+-ATPase activity by 32% in renal cortical plasma membranes. In contrast, adenylate cyclase stimulation by isoproterenol or a guanyl nucleotide or both was enhanced by as much as twofold in glomeruli and in plasma membranes of ...
Glucocorticoids and adrenergic stimulation are both thought to control the development of beta-adrenergic receptors/responses. In the current study, rats were exposed to dexamethasone or terbutaline during late gestation and the development of beta-binding capabilities and adenylate cyclase activity evaluated in membrane preparations from kidney and lung. Prenatal dexamethasone exposure produced postnatal adrenergic hyperreactivity of kidney adenylate cyclase; the effect resulted from increases in the enzyme itself, as both basal adenylate cyclase and forskolin-stimulation of the enzyme were also increased by dexamethasone. Similarly, prenatal terbutaline exposure evoked increases in basal, isoproterenol-stimulated and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the kidney. In the lung, dexamethasone produced an initial postnatal deficit in basal asenylate cyclase and deficient responsiveness to isoproterenol, but the deficit resolved shortly after birth. Terbutaline selectively promoted the ...
The effect of exogenously added adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis (strain 114) has been investigated in Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor, chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and several other cells. A partially purified adenylate cyclase was found not to enter cells but, nevertheless, produced large amounts of cAMP in the medium. We could show that this resulted from release of ATP (and not larger molecules). The ATP released by the cells could be (1) directly measured and was replenished after each change of medium; (2) was reciprocally related to the cAMP produced; and (3) was competed for by ATPases present in added serum or by hexokinase and, less effectively, by exoenzymes on the cell surface. The extent of ATP leakage varied widely between different cell lines, being marked in CHO and Y-1 adrenal cells but negligible in transformed lymphocyte lines. The uncertainty of the origin of cAMP found in media of cultured cells requires separate analysis of cell and medium cAMP and an assessment of ATP ...
The enzyme soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is directly stimulated by bicarbonate (HCO3−) to produce the signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Because sAC and sAC‐related enzymes are found throughout phyla from cyanobacteria to mammals and they regulate cell physiology in response to internal and external changes in pH, CO2, and HCO3−, sAC is deemed an evolutionarily conserved acid‐base sensor. Previously, sAC has been reported in dogfish shark and round ray gill cells, where they sense and counteract blood alkalosis by regulating the activity of V‐type H+‐ ATPase. Here, we report the presence of sAC protein in gill, rectal gland, cornea, intestine, white muscle, and heart of leopard shark Triakis semifasciata. Co‐expression of sAC with transmembrane adenylyl cyclases supports the presence of cAMP signaling microdomains. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry on tissue sections, and western blots and cAMP‐activity assays on nucleus‐enriched fractions demonstrate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ontogeny of the adenylate cyclase system in the pulmonary vascular smooth muscle of the fetal lamb. AU - Shaul, P. W.. AU - Muntz, K. H.. AU - DeBeltz, D.. AU - Buja, L. M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1991/1. Y1 - 1991/1. N2 - Ther enzyme adenylate cyclase (AC) plays a critical role in regulation of vasodilatation in the devel-oping pulmonary circulation. We characterizaed the ontogeney of the function of the AC system in the pulmonary vascular smooth muscle (VSM) of fetal ambs during the third trimester. Basal (non stimulated) AC activity and activioty with targeted stimulation of the components of the AC system were determined in pulmonary VSM plasma membranes from fetal lambs at 110-115 days (F-1) and 125-135 days of gestation (F-2) with term being 144 ± 3 days) and from pregnant ewes (adult) for comparison. We assessed β-adrenergic recepto-mediated activityu so that we could perform parallel studies of the VSM receptor binding ...
The peptide somatostatin-14 (SRIF) acts in the mammalian retina through its distinct receptors (sst1-5). Scarce information is available on SRIF function in the retina, including the elucidation of transduction pathways mediating SRIF action. We have investigated SRIF and SRIF receptor modulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity in both wild type (WT) retinas and sst1 or sst2 knock-out (KO) retinas which are known to over-express sst2 or sst1 receptors, respectively. In WT retinas, application of SRIF compounds does not affect forskolin-stimulated AC activity. In contrast, activation of sst1 or sst2 receptors inhibits AC in the presence of sst2 or sst1 receptor antagonists, respectively. Results from sst1 KO retinas demonstrate that either SRIF or octreotide, pertussis toxin-dependently inhibit AC activity. In contrast, in sst2 KO retinas, neither SRIF nor CH-275, an sst1 receptor agonist, are found to influence AC activity. As revealed by immunoblotting experiments, in sst1 KO retinas, levels ...
Adrenocorticotropin/α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (ACTH/MSH)-like peptides modulate adenylate cyclase activity in rat brain slices: evidence for an ACTH/MSH receptor-coupled ...
Adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary), also known as ADCYAP1, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: ADCYAP1 adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary)| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adenylate cyclases in yeast; A comparison of the genes from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces. AU - Yamawaki-Kataoka, Yuriko. AU - Tamaoki, Tatsuya. AU - Choe, Hye-Ryun. AU - Tanaka, Hideho. AU - Kotaoka, Tohru. PY - 1989/8/1. Y1 - 1989/8/1. M3 - Article. SP - 5693. EP - 5697. JO - Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. JF - Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. ER - ...
The aim of this perforated-patch study was to test the effect of isoproterenol on the membrane potential in mPFC (medial prefrontal cortex) pyramidal neurons. Isoproterenol depolarized the membrane potential recorded from the soma. This effect was absent in the presence of metoprolol, suggesting the involvement of β1-adrenergic receptors. The adenylate cyclase activator forskolin also depolarized the membrane potential. Moreover, the effect of isoproterenol was abolished by the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ 22536. This suggested that adenylate cyclase was involved in mediating the effect of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist. The isoproterenol-induced depolarization persisted after inhibition of protein kinase A with H-89. The effect of β-adrenergic receptor activation on the membrane potential was dependent on Ih channels because it was abolished in the presence of the Ih channel inhibitor ZD 7288. Dendritic recordings were also performed. In the dendritic segments between 100 μm and 150 ...
Recently Peeters and colleagues (2006) discovered a mechanism in yeast by which the G alfa protein Gpa2 activates PKA through two kelch-repeat proteins, Krh1 and Krh2, bypassing adenylate cyclase stimulation. Hence, Gpa2 regulates PKA activity via two distinct pathways: through stimulation of adenylate cyclase and through inhibition of the Krh proteins. We investigated if the C. glabrata homologues of ScKrh1 and ScKrh2 can complement the respective deletion mutants of S. cerevisiae. By measuring the trehalose content of the respective deletions mutants, transformed with CgKrh1 and CgKrh2 cloned into pBEVY-vectors, after 12, 24 and 48 hours, we showed that ChKrh1 and ChKrh2 can complement the function of ScKrh1 and ScKrh2. We will also investigate the expression of STRE-controlled genes and the formation of pseudohyphae in these transformed deletion mutants ...
RecName: Full=Adenylate cyclase type 3; EC=4.6.1.1;AltName: Full=Adenylate cyclase type III; Short=AC-III;AltName: Full=ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 3;AltName: Full=Adenylyl cyclase 3; Short=AC3;AltName: Full=Adenylate cyclase, olfactive type ...
METHODS AND RESULTS We examined the beta-adrenergic receptor-responsive adenylyl cyclase pathway in hearts from pigs subjected to volume-overload hypertrophy with circulatory congestion. Nine pigs underwent initial pharmacological and hemodynamic studies, and, 5 weeks after aortocaval fistula placement, when signs of circulatory congestion were evident, these measurements were repeated. Biochemical analyses of plasma and myocardium from these animals and seven normal animals were compared. Experimental animals showed signs of circulatory congestion (tachypnea, weight gain, pulmonary rales) within 3-4 weeks of fistula placement. Necropsy showed ascites and biventricular cardiac hypertrophy, but no fibrosis or inflammation was present on histological inspection. Heart rate responsiveness to beta AR stimulation was blunted, with ED50, for isoproterenol increased 133% (p less than 0.001) after development of circulatory congestion. Biochemical analyses of the beta AR-responsive adenylyl cyclase ...
Amphetamine has complex behavioral actions in the rat that depend upon the release of dopamine in striatal and mesolimbic brain regions. To explore a possible role of the dopamine-sensitive cAMP second-messenger system in mediating these effects, we examined the effects of in vivo amphetamine treatments on the D1 receptor-coupled adenylate cyclase system in membranes from striatal and mesolimbic rat brain regions. The results show that amphetamine produces a regional, dose- and time- dependent down-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. Intermediate and high doses of amphetamine (2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg, respectively), but not a low dose (1.0 mg/kg), resulted in a decrease in the apparent Vmax and/or an increase in the apparent Ka for the selective D1 partial agonist, SKF38393, in striatal membranes 30 min after amphetamine treatment. Treatment of rats with 7.5 mg/kg amphetamine for 30 and 60 min, but not 10 min, similarly resulted in a down-regulation of D1- mediated adenylate cyclase activity in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of forskolin binding to rat brain membranes. AU - Seamon, K. B.. AU - Vaillancourt, Richard. AU - Daly, J. W.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - High affinity binding sites for [3H]forskolin have been identified in rat brain membranes. These sites have a K(d) of 15 nM and a B(max) of about 200 fmol/mg protein. The binding of [3H]forskolin to those high affinity sites in rat brain membranes is increased about two-fold by addition of MgCl2 or MnCl2. Smaller increases are observed in the presence of calcium, sodium, or potassium. The binding of [3H]forskolin is also increased in the presence of NaF or GppNHp, agents that are known to activate adenylate cyclase through the stimulatory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N(s)). The increase in [3H]forskolin binding in the presence of NaF or GppNHp is due to an increase in the number of binding sites with no change in the apparent K(d) for the binding sites. The NaF- and GppNHp-stimulated binding requires the presence of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of forskolin binding to rat brain membranes. AU - Seamon, K. B.. AU - Vaillancourt, R.. AU - Daly, J. W.. PY - 1985/12/1. Y1 - 1985/12/1. N2 - High affinity binding sites for [3H]forskolin have been identified in rat brain membranes. These sites have a K(d) of 15 nM and a B(max) of about 200 fmol/mg protein. The binding of [3H]forskolin to those high affinity sites in rat brain membranes is increased about two-fold by addition of MgCl2 or MnCl2. Smaller increases are observed in the presence of calcium, sodium, or potassium. The binding of [3H]forskolin is also increased in the presence of NaF or GppNHp, agents that are known to activate adenylate cyclase through the stimulatory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N(s)). The increase in [3H]forskolin binding in the presence of NaF or GppNHp is due to an increase in the number of binding sites with no change in the apparent K(d) for the binding sites. The NaF- and GppNHp-stimulated binding requires the presence of ...
Although CD99 has been known to be critical for leukocyte transmigration for over a decade (Schenkel et al., 2002; Bixel et al., 2004, 2010; Lou et al., 2007; Dufour et al., 2008), the mechanism has remained completely unknown. Here, we report that homophilic engagement of endothelial CD99 recruits membrane from the LBRC to sites of leukocyte-endothelial contact to facilitate the passage of leukocytes through the endothelial junctions. This engagement of endothelial CD99 (Fig. 10 e, #1) signals through sAC (Fig. 10 e, #2) to activate PKA (Fig. 1 e, #3), which works through a yet-to-be-defined mechanism (Fig. 10 e, #4) to induce LBRC membrane trafficking (Fig. 10 e, #5). Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD99 and sAC are held together in a signaling complex with ezrin and PKA and that this interaction is dependent on a lysine-rich juxtamembrane region in the cytoplasmic tail of CD99. These findings represent the first description of the immediate downstream signaling mechanisms of CD99, as well as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 5 Hydroxytryptamine-induced tachyphylaxis of the molluscan heart and concomitant desensitization of adenylate cyclase. AU - Higgins, W. J.. PY - 1977/12/1. Y1 - 1977/12/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017707535&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0017707535&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 915059. AN - SCOPUS:0017707535. VL - 3. SP - 293. EP - 302. JO - Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction. JF - Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction. SN - 1079-9893. IS - 4. ER - ...
A novel neuropeptide which stimulates adenylate cyclase in rat anterior pituitary cell cultures was isolated from ovine hypothalamic tissues. Its amino acid sequence was revealed as: His-Ser-Asp-Gly-Ile-Phe-Thr-Asp-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Arg-Tyr-Arg-Lys-Gln- Met-Ala- Val-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Ala-Ala-Val-Leu-Gly-Lys …
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The objective of this study was to determine whether mechanical force generated by airflow can stimulate the MOE using EOG recordings and to directly assess the role of cAMP signaling using AC3−/− mice. Since the CNG responds to both cAMP and cGMP, the fact that CNG−/− mice lack fluid-generated airflow responses cannot be taken as direct evidence for a role of cAMP signaling. The drug MDL 12330A cannot be used to implicate adenylyl cyclase activity in the airflow response because it is not specific to adenylyl cyclases (Rampe et al., 1987; Gadea et al., 1999) and it did not inhibit EOG responses caused by airflow or odorants in our study.. We discovered that airflow stimulates the MOE with progressively higher EOG responses as airflow increased. This sensitivity to airflow was desensitized by prior increases in cAMP caused by odorants or by a combination of forskolin and IBMX suggesting that odorant and airflow sensitivity may both depend on cAMP signaling. Indeed, the MOE from ...
Under the category of Biological Process, BiNGO identified genes associated with GO terms related to chromatin remodeling (21 genes), negative regulation of transcription by glucose (seven genes), and regulation of adenylate cyclase activity (six genes) (Figure 5C). Of the genes involved in chromatin remodeling, eight were components of the SAGA complex, and four were components of the Set3 complex. As stated above, it is well established that the Set3p complex plays a role in modulating the transcription of stress-responsive genes in response to LatA (Rentas et al. 2012). Whether the SAGA complex, through its histone modification activity, might also play a role in modulating transcription in response to LatA, remains to be determined.. Perhaps the most surprising enrichments were those involving glucose-mediated signaling. Of the genes enriched in the negative regulation of transcription by glucose and regulation of adenylate cyclase activity categories, the majority comprised members of ...
11/2017 There have been some unexpected changes to the OpenWetWare platform, affecting the formatting of the Banta Lab Website. We are currently working on addressing these issues. A new website is under development and should be launched soon. 10/2017 The Banta Lab is pleased to welcome another new graduate student into the lab group. Nadim Massad has joined the research group this semester. 9/2017 A paper entitled Block V RTX domain of adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis: A conformationally dynamic scaffold for protein engineering applications by Bulutoglu and Banta was published in Toxins as an Invited Review for the Special Issue: Adenylate Cyclase (CyaA) Toxin 9/2017 A paper entitled Catch and release: Engineered allosterically-regulated β-roll peptides enable on/off biomolecular recognition by Bulutoglu, Dooley, Szilvay, Blenner and Banta was published in ACS Synthetic Biology. 9/2017 A paper entitled Block V RTX domain of adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis: A ...
11/2017 There have been some unexpected changes to the OpenWetWare platform, affecting the formatting of the Banta Lab Website. We are currently working on addressing these issues. A new website is under development and should be launched soon. 10/2017 The Banta Lab is pleased to welcome another new graduate student into the lab group. Nadim Massad has joined the research group this semester. 9/2017 A paper entitled Block V RTX domain of adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis: A conformationally dynamic scaffold for protein engineering applications by Bulutoglu and Banta was published in Toxins as an Invited Review for the Special Issue: Adenylate Cyclase (CyaA) Toxin 9/2017 A paper entitled Catch and release: Engineered allosterically-regulated β-roll peptides enable on/off biomolecular recognition by Bulutoglu, Dooley, Szilvay, Blenner and Banta was published in ACS Synthetic Biology. 9/2017 A paper entitled Block V RTX domain of adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis: A ...
We have shown that the heart expresses two distinct forms of adenylylcyclase mRNA, types V and VI. In this study we have characterized the expression of these two mRNA species in heart failure generated by overdrive pacing at a rate of 240 beats/min. After 4 wk, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and heart rate increased significantly with the appearance of signs of heart failure, i.e., edema, ascites, and exercise intolerance. Basal as well as forskolin-stimulated adenylylcyclase activities decreased significantly, which was accompanied by a reduction in the steady state mRNA levels of adenylylcyclase types V and VI. These data suggest that in this model of cardiomyopathy, the downregulation of adenylylcyclase catalytic activity results, at least in part, from a reduction in the steady state levels of types V and VI adenylylcyclase mRNA levels.. ...
Background: Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) represent a diverse family of enzymes responsible for the generation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a key intracellular second messenger. The Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated AC1 and AC8 isoforms as well as the calcium-inhibited AC5 isoform are abundantly expressed within limbic regions of the central nervous system. This study examines the contribution of these AC isoforms to emotional behavior. Methods: Male and female AC1/8 double knockout mice (DKO) and AC5 knockout mice (AC5KO) were examined on a series of standard laboratory assays of emotionality. Mice were also assayed for hippocampal cell proliferation and for changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus, three forebrain structures involved in the regulation of mood and affect. Results: The AC5KO mice showed striking anxiolytic and antidepressant phenotypes on standard behavioral assays. In contrast, AC1/8 DKO mice were hypoactive, ...
In several neurological disorders including cerebral ischaemia, glutamate has been implicated as a neurotoxic agent in the mechanisms leading to neuronal cell death. The role of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), the 41-amino acid peptide, which activates the HPA axis in response to stressful stimuli, remains controversial. In this study, we report that CRH in low physiological concentrations (2 pm), prevented glutamate-induced neurotoxicity via receptor-mediated mechanisms when administered to organotypic hippocampal cultures both during and after the glutamate-induced insult. Detailed investigations on the mechanisms mediating this neuroprotective effect showed that activation of the adenylate cyclase pathway and induction of MAP kinase phosphorylation mediate the CRH action. In addition we showed that CRH can inhibit the phosphorylation of JNK/SAPK by glutamate. Most importantly, we showed that CRH can afford neuroprotection against neurotoxicity up to 12 h following the insult, ...
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is among the most aggressive of all cancers in the United States. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) is a second messenger that regulates the proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. Cyclic AMP is formed from cytosolic ATP by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase (AC). In the presence of forskolin, a transmembrane AC activator, the proliferation and migration of pancreatic cells have been inhibited. Since the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of activated adenylyl cyclase are little understood, we investigated the downstream mediators implicated in the AC/cyclic AMP pathway. With this purpose, we overexpressed AC1 in the human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (HPAC) cell line, and through the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 and the exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP (EPAC) inhibitor ESI-09, we assessed the effector involved upon the treatment with forskolin. In a previous study, we showed that PKA alone mediates the inhibitory ...
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Plays a role in the perception of pain and in opiate-mediated analgesia. Plays a role in developing analgesic tolerance to morphine. ...
Dive into the research topics of Long-term effect of forskolin on the activation of adenylyl cyclase in astrocytes. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Feigin, M. E., Malbon, C. C. (2008) OSTM1 regulates beta-catenin/Lef1 interaction and is required for Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Cell Signal, 20 (5). 949-957 . Feramisco, J., Sullivan, N., Kamata, T., Barsagi, D., Welch, W., Gross, M., Sweet, R., Rosenberg, M., Sathe, G., Fasano, O., Goldfarb, M., Wigler, M. H., Nitecki, D., Clark, R., Arnheim, N., McCormick, F. (1985) Microinjection of Ras Oncogene Proteins and Inhibitory Antibodies Specific for the Ras Oncogene Proteins into Living Normal and Transformed-Cells. Federation Proceedings, 44 (5). p. 1768. ISSN 0014-9446 Field, J., Broek, D., Kataoka, T., Wigler, M. H. (1987) Guanine nucleotide activation of, and competition between, RAS proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular & Cellular Biology, 7 (6). pp. 2128-2133. Field, J., Xu, H. P., Michaeli, T., Ballester, R., Sass, P., Wigler, M. H., Colicelli, J. (1990) Mutations of the adenylyl cyclase gene that block RAS function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Science, 247 (4941). pp. 464-7. ...
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Soluble adenylyl cyclase measures and responds to pH changes in coral cells, but whether it can help the animals withstand ocean acidification is not yet known.. 0 Comments. ...
In the present study, the baseline LVEDP of the working heart was higher in the tail-suspended rats compared with the control, while a blunted response to ISO in all parameters measured in the working heart, isolated cardiomyocytes and skinned fibers was identified in tail-suspended rats. Thus, the decrease in ISO sensitivity with tail-suspension was associated with changes in the β-AR signaling pathway at the level of the individual cardiomyocyte.. Stimulation of β-AR by ISO activates Gs, which in turn activates adenylate cyclase and increases the formation of cAMP within cardiomyocytes. Elevated levels of cAMP increase activation of PKA, which phosphorylates intracellular targets, including L-type Ca2+ channels, ryanodine receptor (RyR), PLB, cTnI and myosin-binding protein C (MyBPC). Therefore, the upstream components in the β-AR signal transduction pathway include β-AR, Gs, adenylate cyclase, cAMP and PKA. The downstream components are the targeting proteins of PKA.. Forskolin, a direct ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY2 adenylyl cyclase 2 (brain)". "Adenylate cyclase type 2". UniProt Consortium. Retrieved 28 May 2014. Stengel ... It belongs to the adenylyl cyclase class-3 or guanylyl cyclase family because it contains two guanylate cyclase domains. ADCY2 ... "Adenylate Cyclase 2 (Brain)". Weizmann Institute of Science. Retrieved 28 May 2014. Xu W, Cohen-Woods S, Chen Q, Noor A, Knight ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (Mar 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ...
Howlett, A. C.; Fleming, R. M. (1 November 1984). "Cannabinoid inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Pharmacology of the response in ...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)Edit. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is ...
Haga, T; Ross, EM; Anderson, HJ; Gilman, AG (1977). "Adenylate cyclase permanently uncoupled from hormone receptors in a novel ... Haga, T; Haga, K; Gilman, AG (1977). "Hydrodynamic properties of the beta-adrenergic receptor and adenylate cyclase from wild ... Gilman, AG (1984). "G proteins and dual control of adenylate cyclase". Cell. 36 (3): 577-9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(84)90336-2. ... Sternweis, PC; Northup, JK; Smigel, MD; Gilman, AG (1981). "The regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. Purification and ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY3 adenylate cyclase 3". "Gene Cards: ADCY3 Gene". Retrieved 2012-12-30. Human ADCY3 genome location and ADCY3 ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (Mar 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ... Adenylyl cyclase type 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY3 gene. This gene encodes adenylyl cyclase 3, which ... Haber N, Stengel D, Defer N, Roeckel N, Mattei MG, Hanoune J (Jul 1994). "Chromosomal mapping of human adenylyl cyclase genes ...
1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 ... "Entrez Gene: ADCY6 adenylate cyclase 6". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Human ADCY6 genome location and ADCY6 gene ... Adenylyl cyclase type 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY6 gene. This gene encodes adenylyl cyclase 6, which ... 1998). "Molecular diversity of adenylyl cyclases in human and rat myometrium. Correlation with global adenylyl cyclase activity ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY9 adenylate cyclase 9". Human ADCY9 genome location and ADCY9 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 ... Adenylyl cyclase type 9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY9 gene. Adenylyl cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme ... Cumbay MG, Watts VJ (2004). "Novel regulatory properties of human type 9 adenylate cyclase". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 310 (1): ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY7 adenylate cyclase 7". Human ADCY7 genome location and ADCY7 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase activation in IL-10 up-regulation in human monocytes by gp41 ... The product of this gene is a member of the adenylyl cyclase class-4/guanylyl cyclase enzyme family that is characterized by ... Yan SZ, Tang WJ (2002). "Construction of soluble adenylyl cyclase from human membrane-bound type 7 adenylyl cyclase". G Protein ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY5 adenylate cyclase 5". Salim S, Sinnarajah S, Kehrl JH, Dessauer CW (May 2003). "Identification of RGS2 and ... Wang SC, Lai HL, Chiu YT, Ou R, Huang CL, Chern Y (2007). "Regulation of type V adenylate cyclase by Ric8a, a guanine ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ... Adenylyl cyclase type 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY5 gene. ADCY5 has been shown to interact with RGS2. ...
"Entrez Gene: ADCY8 adenylate cyclase 8 (brain)". Human ADCY3 genome location and ADCY3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (Mar 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ... Adenylyl cyclase type 8 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADCY8 gene. Adenylyl cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme ... Parma J, Stengel D, Gannage MH, Poyard M, Barouki R, Hanoune J (Aug 1991). "Sequence of a human brain adenylyl cyclase partial ...
Brandt DR, Ross EM (January 1985). "GTPase activity of the stimulatory GTP-binding regulatory protein of adenylate cyclase, Gs ... "Purification of the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... individual subunits of the G protein complex were first identified in 1980 when the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase ... Tang WJ, Gilman AG (December 1991). "Type-specific regulation of adenylyl cyclase by G protein beta gamma subunits". Science. ...
Another toxin that inhibits the immune response is the adenylate cyclase toxin. This toxin has an intrinsic adenylate cyclase ... The toxin, known as pertussis toxin (or PTx), inhibits G protein coupling that regulates an adenylate cyclase-mediated ... Sebo, Peter; Osicka, Radim; Masin, Jiri (2014-08-04). "Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin relevance for pertussis vaccines". ... Its virulence factors include pertussis toxin, adenylate cyclase toxin, filamentous hæmagglutinin, pertactin, fimbria, and ...
Edema factor is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cyclic AMP ( ... The complexation of adenylate cyclase with calmodulin removes calmodulin from stimulating calcium-triggered signaling, thus ...
... diverse biological actions of adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 and is positively coupled to adenylate cyclase. ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor also known as PAC1, is a protein that in humans is encoded ... "Entrez Gene: ADCYAP1R1 adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary) receptor type I". Ogi K, Miyamoto Y, Masuda Y, ... Miampamba M, Germano PM, Arli S, Wong HH, Scott D, Taché Y, Pisegna JR (May 2002). "Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase- ...
It does so by inhibiting the enzyme adenylate cyclase. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to 3 ... "Yeast mating pheromone alpha factor inhibits adenylate cyclase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... Zhang G, Liu Y, Ruoho AE, Hurley JH (March 1997). "Structure of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic core". Nature. 386 (6622): 247- ...
August 1984). "Reconstitution of a hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase system. The pure beta-adrenergic receptor and guanine ... May DC, Ross EM, Gilman AG, Smigel MD (December 1985). "Reconstitution of catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity ... activates hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase. More than one type of G protein co-exist in the same tissue. For example, in ... The alpha subunit of a stimulatory G protein activated by receptors for stimulatory hormones could stimulate adenylyl cyclase, ...
Guanylyl imidodiphosphate is a potent stimulator of adenylate cyclase. It is often used in studies of protein synthesis. ...
Bifunctional hemolysin/adenylate cyclase is a protein that in B. pertussis (the bacteria that causes whooping cough) is encoded ... Carbonetti NH, Artamonova GV, Andreasen C, Bushar N (May 2005). "Pertussis toxin and adenylate cyclase toxin provide a one-two ... This protein in turn is cleaved into a calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase (cyaA-ACD) and hemolysin. Both are virulence ... Ladant D, Ullmann A (April 1999). "Bordatella pertussis adenylate cyclase: a toxin with multiple talents". Trends Microbiol. 7 ...
The cya gene encodes adenylate cyclase, which produces cAMP. In a cya mutant, the absence of cAMP makes the expression of the ... which influences the activity of adenylate cyclase. (In addition, glucose transport also leads to direct inhibition of the ...
... activates adenylate cyclase in the absence of ligand. GPR3 is expressed in mammalian oocytes where it maintains meiotic ... 1995). "Molecular cloning of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that constitutively activates adenylate cyclase". Biochem. J ... "Molecular cloning of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that constitutively activates adenylate cyclase". Biochem. J. 309 (Pt ...
One of the most important of the regulated toxins is adenylate cyclase toxin, which aids in the evasion of innate immunity. The ... Fiser R, Masín J, Basler M, Krusek J, Spuláková V, Konopásek I, Sebo P (2007). "Third activity of Bordetella adenylate cyclase ... Gray MC, Donato GM, Jones FR, Kim T, Hewlett EL (2004). "Newly secreted adenylate cyclase toxin is responsible for intoxication ... Hewlett EL, Donato GM, Gray MC (2006). "Macrophage cytotoxicity produced by adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis: ...
Adenylate cyclase is inhibited by agonists of adenylate cyclase inhibitory G (Gi)-protein-coupled receptors. Liver adenylate ... Adenylate cyclase is activated by a range of signaling molecules through the activation of adenylate cyclase stimulatory G (Gs ... This occurs through inhibition of the cAMP-producing enzyme, adenylate cyclase, as a side-effect of glucose transport into the ... cyclase responds more strongly to glucagon, and muscle adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to adrenaline. cAMP ...
... this protein is a stimulatory regulator of adenylate cyclase. Cells containing this mutant form of the Gs protein will continue ...
"Entrez Gene: CAP1 CAP, adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (yeast)". Hubberstey, A; Yu G; Loewith R; Lakusta C; Young D (Jun ... Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAP1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... Yu G, Swiston J, Young D (1994). "Comparison of human CAP and CAP2, homologs of the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated proteins ... 2004). "Crystal structure of the actin binding domain of the cyclase-associated protein". Biochemistry. 43 (33): 10628-41. doi: ...
... a process regulator related to adenylate cyclase proteins; a profilin with a molecular weight of approximately 14 kDa that is ...
H2 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gs. It is a potent stimulant of cAMP production, which leads to ...
The M2 and M4 subtypes are Gi/Go-coupled; they decrease intracellular levels of cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Their ...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 27 (pro-inflammatory). Eicosanoid receptor Formyl peptide receptor Lipoxin ...
Epinephrine binds to a receptor protein that activates adenylate cyclase. The latter enzyme causes the formation of cyclic AMP ...
"Entrez Gene: CAP2 CAP, adenylate cyclase-associated protein, 2 (yeast)". Human CAP2 genome location and CAP2 gene details page ... Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAP2 gene. This gene was identified by its ... Shibata R, Mori T, Du W, Chuma M, Gotoh M, Shimazu M, Ueda M, Hirohashi S, Sakamoto M (Sep 2006). "Overexpression of cyclase- ... However, the protein appears to be able to interact with adenylyl cyclase-associated protein and actin. CAP2 has been shown to ...
... influence these targets by releasing from their axon terminals the neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase ...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ...
activation of adenylate cyclase activity. • dopamine receptor signaling pathway. • conditioned taste aversion. • cerebral ... adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. ... adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway. • regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic ...
Glucagon activates adenylate cyclase through a seven transmembrane receptor coupled to Gs which, in turn, activates adenylate ... cyclase to increase intracellular concentrations of cAMP. cAMP binds to and releases an active form of protein kinase A (PKA). ...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ...
... which result in a decrease in the concentration of the second messenger molecule cAMP through inhibition of adenylate cyclase.[ ...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ...
... is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator, leading to a drop in blood pressure. It also causes contraction of non-vascular smooth muscle in the bronchus and gut, increases vascular permeability and is also involved in the mechanism of pain.[4] Bradykinin also causes natriuresis, contributing to the drop in blood pressure. Bradykinin raises internal calcium levels in neocortical astrocytes causing them to release glutamate, though this finding has only been confirmed in-vitro.[5] Bradykinin is also thought to be the cause of the dry cough in some patients on widely prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor drugs. It is thought that bradykinin is converted to inactive metabolites by ACE, therefore inhibition of this enzyme leads to increased levels of bradykinin, which causes a dry cough via bronchoconstriction. In severe cases, the elevation of bradykinin may result in angioedema, a medical emergency.[6] People of African descent have up to 5x increased risk of ACE ...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ...
... the receptor undergoes conformation changes that stimulate the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, which leads to an increase in ...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ...
Adenylate cyclase. *cAMP. *3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase A. cGMP:. *Transducin ...
This integral membrane protein stimulates adenylate cyclase activity in the presence of adenosine. This protein also interacts ... is mediated by G proteins that activate adenylyl cyclase. It is abundant in basal ganglia, vasculature and platelets and it is ...
Extracellular adenylate cyclase ...
adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion ...
negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. • adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway ... GALR1 inhibits adenylyl cyclase via a G protein of the GI/GO family. GALR1 is widely expressed in the brain and spinal cord, as ...
adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • activation of adenylate cyclase activity. • ... positive regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. • negative regulation of blood pressure. • positive regulation of ...
... signaling and short circuit current in the intestinal epithelia by inhibiting the expression of adenylate cyclase.". J. Biol. ...
"Antagonism of histamine-activated adenylate cyclase in brain by D-lysergic acid diethylamide". Proceedings of the National ...
InChI=1S/C38H63N7O8/c1-7-23(5)31(36(50)42-29(38(52)53)20-22(3)4)43-34(48)28(21-25-14-16-26(46)17-15-25)41-35(49)30-13-11-19-45(30)37(51)32(24(6)8-2)44-33(47)27(40)12-9-10-18-39/h14-17,22-24,27-32,46H,7-13,18-21,39-40H2,1-6H3,(H,41,49)(H,42,50)(H,43,48)(H,44,47)(H,52,53)/t23-,24-,27-,28-,29-,30-,31-,32-/m0/ ...
In doing so, the downstream effects of the G protein signal transduction pathway is disrupted by activating adenylate cyclase. ... Carbonetti, N. H. (2010). "Pertussis toxin and adenylate cyclase toxin: Key virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis and cell ...
adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration ... Characterization of alpha 12 and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by alpha z". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (4): 1734-41. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
... is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide) in the sequence cysteine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glutamine-asparagine-cysteine-proline-leucine-glycine-amide (Cys - Tyr - Ile - Gln - Asn - Cys - Pro - Leu - Gly - NH2, or CYIQNCPLG-NH2); its C-terminus has been converted to a primary amide and a disulfide bridge joins the cysteine moieties.[116] Oxytocin has a molecular mass of 1007 Da, and one international unit (IU) of oxytocin is the equivalent of about 2 μg of pure peptide. While the structure of oxytocin is highly conserved in placental mammals, a novel structure of oxytocin was recently reported in marmosets, tamarins, and other new world primates. Genomic sequencing of the gene for oxytocin revealed a single in-frame mutation (thymine for cytosine) which results in a single amino acid substitution at the 8-position (proline for leucine).[117] Since this original Lee et al. paper, two other laboratories have confirmed Pro8-OT and documented additional oxytocin structural variants in ...
adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • ...
This sends a signal to increase adenylate cyclase activity, which leads to increased synthesis of cyclic adenosine ... Activators of soluble guanylate cyclase[edit]. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the intracellular receptor for NO. As of ... Nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase pathway[edit]. In normal conditions, the vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase ... where it increases the activity of the enzyme soluble guanylate cyclase, leading to increased formation of cyclic guanosine ...
... and their endogenous ligands neuropeptides B and w enhance cortisol secretion by activating adenylate cyclase- and ...
adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • modulation of chemical synaptic transmission. ...
Extracellular adenylate cyclase ...
Adenylate cyclase. *Adonitol. *Aidréanailín Adrenaline, epinephrine. *Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). *Aequorin. * ...
positive regulation of adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathway. • regulation of signal transduction by ...
... replaced ATP as the substrate for adenylate cyclase, implying that adenylate cyclase was inactivated by phosphorylation caused ... In a standard assay system using rat adipocyte plasma membrane as the source of adenylate cyclase, the FR inhibited adenylate ... The mechanism of action of FR on inhibition of adenylate cyclase appears to be related to the phosphorylation of certain ... Action of feedback regulator on adenylate cyclase. R J Ho and E W Sutherland ...
"Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: a unique combination of a pore-forming moiety with a cell-invading adenylate cyclase enzyme ... Antobodies against adenylate cyclase toxin are also present in the serum of humans infected with B. pertussis. Adenylate ... Genetically detoxified adenylate cyclase toxin also serves in promoting the Th1/Th17 response, acting as an adjuvant. Adenylate ... also produce adenylate cyclase toxin. It is a toxin secreted by the bacteria to influence the host immune system. Adenylate ...
Extracellular adenylate cyclase is an adenylate cyclase produced by Bordetella pertussis. Kessin RH, Franke J (April 1986). " ... Ladant D, Brezin C, Alonso JM, Crenon I, Guiso N (December 1986). "Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase. Purification, ... "Secreted adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis: calmodulin requirements and partial purification of two forms". J. ...
Guanylate_cyc; Adenylate and Guanylate cyclase catalytic domain. pfam16214. Location:259 → 376. AC_N; Adenylyl cyclase N- ... adenylate cyclase 9. See related. Ensembl:ENSCVAG00000003552 Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. MODEL. Organism. ... adcy9 adenylate cyclase 9 [ Cyprinodon variegatus (sheepshead minnow) ] Gene ID: 107095220, updated on 13-Oct-2018 ... XM_015391219.1 → XP_015246705.1 adenylate cyclase type 9. Related. ENSCVAP00000021468.1, ENSCVAT00000011721.1. Conserved ...
Treatment of the adenylate cyclase with cholera toxin caused a decrease of 96% in the rate constant of the turn-off reaction. ... The regulatory GTPase cycle of turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase.. Cassel D, Levkovitz H, Selinger Z. ... It has recently been suggested that adenylate cyclase activity is controlled by a regulatory cycle consisting of two reactions ... a hormone induced formation of the active adenylate cyclase-GTP complex, and a subsequent turn-off reaction in which hydrolysis ...
We evaluated the effects of ischemic injury on the myocardial adenylate cyclase system, 5 h after ligation of the left anterior ... Salomon Y, Londos C, Rodbell M (1974) A highly sensitive adenylate cyclase assay. Anal Biochem 58:541-548Google Scholar ... We evaluated the effects of ischemic injury on the myocardial adenylate cyclase system, 5 h after ligation of the left anterior ... Harden TK (1983) Agonist-induced desensitization of the β-adrenergic receptor-linked to adenylate cyclase. Pharmacol Rev 35:5- ...
In: Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide-PACAP. Springer, Cham, pp 757-766CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Lezak KR, Roelke E, Harris OM, Choi I, Edwards S, Gick N et al (2014) Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP ... Miles OW, Thrailkill EA, Linden AK, May V, Bouton ME, Hammack SE (2017) Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide in the ... May V, Lutz E, MacKenzie C, Schutz KC, Dozark K, Braas KM (2010) Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PAC ...
IPR000274. Adenylate_cyclase_1. IPR024686. Adenylate_cyclase_1_CS. IPR024685. Adenylate_cyclase_1_N. ... IPR000274. Adenylate_cyclase_1. IPR024686. Adenylate_cyclase_1_CS. IPR024685. Adenylate_cyclase_1_N. ... PS01092. ADENYLATE_CYCLASE_1_1. 1 hit. PS01093. ADENYLATE_CYCLASE_1_2. 1 hit. ... PS01092. ADENYLATE_CYCLASE_1_1. 1 hit. PS01093. ADENYLATE_CYCLASE_1_2. 1 hit. ...
Adenylate cyclase of Escherichia coli K12 has been purified 17,000-fold to near homogeneity from a 5-fold overproducing strain ... Purification and characterization of adenylate cyclase from Escherichia coli K12.. Yang J.K., Epstein W. ...
Browse our Adenylate Cyclase 1 Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Adenylate Cyclase 1 Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ...
Gene Ontology Term: adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway. GO ID. GO:0007188 Aspect. ... adenylate cyclase-modulating GPCR signaling pathway, G protein signaling, coupled to cAMP nucleotide second messenger, G ... GPCR signaling pathway via modulation of adenylate cyclase activity View GO Annotations in other species in AmiGO ... where the pathway proceeds through activation or inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity and a subsequent change in the ...
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
... adenylate cyclase explanation free. What is adenylate cyclase? Meaning of adenylate cyclase medical term. What does adenylate ... Looking for online definition of adenylate cyclase in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to adenylate cyclase: cyclic AMP, Phospholipase C, Protein kinase A. adenylate cyclase. [ah-den´ĭ-lāt si´clās] an ... adenylate cyclase. (ə-dĕn′əl-ĭt, ăd′n-ĭl′ĭt) also adenyl cyclase. (ə-dĕn′əl, ăd′n-ĭl). n.. An enzyme that catalyzes the ...
Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6. ... Adenylyl Cyclase; Cyclase, Adenyl; Cyclase, Adenylate; Cyclase, Adenylyl; Adenyl Cyclase; ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing) ... Adenylate Cyclase (Adenylyl Cyclase). Subscribe to New Research on Adenylate Cyclase An enzyme of the lyase class that ... lacking adenylate cyclase activity. ". 08/29/2008 - "CaM serves as the activator of CyaA, a 188-kDa adenylyl cyclase toxin ...
... produced by adenylate cyclase A (ACA), as a chemoattractant (2). Secreted cAMP produced by the adenylate cyclases ACG and ACR ... Involvement of Adenylate Cyclases and RegA.. To investigate how c-di-GMP increases PKA activity, we first tested the effect of ... Adenylate cyclase A acting on PKA mediates induction of stalk formation by cyclic diguanylate at the Dictyostelium organizer. ... Rescue of dgca− culmination by a light-activated adenylate cyclase. (A) Two plates each of dgca− and dgca−/ACAt::mPAC cells ...
Adenylate Cyclase and cAMP Signaling[edit]. Cyclic adenine monophosphate (cAMP) is a secondary messenger used in intercellular ... Structural Biochemistry/Cell Signaling Pathways/Adenylate Cyclase and cAMP Signaling. From Wikibooks, open books for an open ... When a signal is first transducted inside the cell, an enzyme called adenylyl cyclase is activated which converts ATP to cAMP. ... The synthesis of cAMP from ATP is done by adenylyl cyclases located in the plasma membrane. The understanding of this signaling ...
Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide * Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, ... Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide * Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, ... Perspectives on pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the neuroendocrine, endocrine, and nervous ...
... which encodes a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase, has been determined. EF is part of the tripartite protein exotoxin of B ... Nucleotide sequence of the Bacillus anthracis edema factor gene (cya): a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase Gene. 1988 Dec ... B. anthracis EF was not related to the Escherichia coli or yeast adenylate cyclases, but was related to the Bordetella ... which encodes a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase, has been determined. EF is part of the tripartite protein exotoxin of B ...
ATP receptor regulation of adenylate cyclase and protein kinase C activity in cultured renal LLC-PK1 cells.. R J Anderson, R ... The effect of P2y purinoceptors to inhibit AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity may be mediated, at least in part, by a ... The ATP gamma S inhibition of AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity is not affected by pertussis toxin but is attenuated by ... In LLC-PK1 membranes, several ATP analogues inhibit basal, GTP-, forskolin-, and AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in a ...
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide as a neurotransmitter in the canine ileal circular muscle. Download Prime PubMed ... Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Peptide as a Neurotransmitter in the Canine Ileal Circular Muscle. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide as a neurotransmitter in the canine ileal circular muscle. J Pharmacol Exp Ther ... "Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Peptide as a Neurotransmitter in the Canine Ileal Circular Muscle." The Journal of ...
STC1 interference on calcitonin family of receptors signaling during osteoblastogenesis via adenylate cyclase inhibition.. [ ...
Activation and inhibition of adenylate cyclase by hormones. Biochemical Society Transactions, 10 (6). pp. 496-498. ISSN 0300- ... SERGEI BRAUN, AVIVA M. TOLKOVSKY, MICHAEL L. STEER, HENRY A. LESTER, ALEXANDER LEVITZKI; Activation and inhibition of adenylate ... cyclase by hormones. Biochem Soc Trans 1 December 1982; 10 (6): 496-498. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0100496. ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway pathways, according to ... Antibodies for proteins involved in adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway pathways; according to ...
1994) Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) mRNA in the rat neocortex. Neurosci Lett 171:121-124. ... 1992) Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP): discovery and current status of research. Regul Pept 37:287- ... 1998) Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide stimulates both c-fos gene expression and cell survival in rat ... The PAC1-R is positively coupled to both adenylate cyclase (AC) and phospholipase C (PLC). The events downstream of AC and PLC ...
Mutations in adenylate cyclase or RAS2 which decrease the level of cAMP in the cell moderate the snf1 phenotype. In contrast, a ... Deletion of SNF1 affects the nutrient response of yeast and resembles mutations which activate the adenylate cyclase pathway.. ... Deletion of SNF1 affects the nutrient response of yeast and resembles mutations which activate the adenylate cyclase pathway.. ... Deletion of SNF1 affects the nutrient response of yeast and resembles mutations which activate the adenylate cyclase pathway.. ...
... where the pathway proceeds through inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity and a subsequent decrease in the concentration of cy ... QuickView for G-protein signaling, adenylate cyclase inhibiting pathway (biogroup) *NextBio Summary ... There were no clinical trials for G-protein signaling, adenylate cyclase inhibiting pathway ... There were no matches for G-protein signaling, adenylate cyclase inhibiting pathway ...
1992) Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP): discovery and current status of research. Regul Pept 37:287- ... 2000) Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and its receptors: from structure to functions. Pharmacol Rev 52:269- ... 1995) Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide stimulates neurite growth in PC12 cells. Peptides 16:927-932. ... In many cell types, cAMP production often results from activation of adenylate cyclase by the Gαs subunit of heterotrimeric G- ...
The git2 gene, also known as cyr1, encodes adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP into the second messenger cAMP as ... The git1, git3, git5, git7, git8 and git10 genes act upstream of adenylate cyclase, presumably encoding an adenylate cyclase ... In mammalian cells, adenylate cyclase enzymatic activity is regulated by heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G ... Therefore, git3 and git5 appear to act either in concert with or independently from gpa2 (git8) to regulate adenylate cyclase ...
Renal Adenylate Cyclase Responsiveness and the Hyperparathyroidism of Chronic Renal Failure. I. G. Lewin, S. E. Papapoulos, G. ... Renal Adenylate Cyclase Responsiveness and the Hyperparathyroidism of Chronic Renal Failure. I. G. Lewin, S. E. Papapoulos, G. ... Renal Adenylate Cyclase Responsiveness and the Hyperparathyroidism of Chronic Renal Failure Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Effect of age and posture on human lymphocyte adenylate cyclase activity. Scott L. Mader, Alan S. Robbins, Laurence Z. ... Effect of age and posture on human lymphocyte adenylate cyclase activity. Scott L. Mader, Alan S. Robbins, Laurence Z. ... Effect of age and posture on human lymphocyte adenylate cyclase activity Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... 1. A number of age-related changes have been reported in the catecholamine-adrenoceptor-adenylate cyclase system. Most of the ...
  • The activation of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) systems in the BNST mediates many consequences of chronic stressor exposure that may engage in part downstream corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling. (springer.com)
  • Braas KM, Rossignol TM, Girard BM, May V, Parsons RL (2004) Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) decreases neuronal somatostatin immunoreactivity in cultured guinea-pig parasympathetic cardiac ganglia. (springer.com)
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP)1-27, PACAP1-38, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) initiated dose-dependent contractions of canine ileal circular muscle after intra-arterial injection in vivo or ex vivo. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We now demonstrate that neurons regulate glial glutamate turnover via pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we report that gradients of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a neuropeptide widely expressed in the developing nervous system, induce marked attraction of Xenopus growth cones in vitro . (jneurosci.org)
  • Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-the secretin-glucagon family of neuropeptides. (frontiersin.org)
  • Results confirmed for the first time that doxycycline specially targeted pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP (show ADCYAP1 ELISA Kits )) receptor type 1 ( PAC1 ) imitating PACAP (show ADCYAP1 ELISA Kits )(30-37) and acted as an enhancer by facilitating the subsequent ligand binding and the activation of PAC1 . (antibodies-online.com)
  • We reported recently that the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) protect CD4 + T cells against Ag-induced apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of Fas ligand (FasL). (jimmunol.org)
  • Although the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been implicated in the regulation of several immune responses, its target receptors and signaling mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated in immune cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Conversely, activation of adenylate cyclase by either forskolin or Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) completely reversed mGluR-LTD in WT and Fmr1 KO. (frontiersin.org)
  • It has been observed that pituitary-adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) rescued DAergic neurons from neurodegeneration and improved motor alterations induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) in rat parkinsonian models. (biologists.org)
  • Pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP): another novel target for treatment of primary headaches? (springermedizin.de)
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the prefrontal cortex. (deepdyve.com)
  • Gilmartin, Marieke R. 2018-05-01 00:00:00 A genetic polymorphism within the gene encoding the pituitary adenylate cyclase- activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor type I (PAC1R) has recently been associated with hyper-reactivity to threat-related cues in women, but not men, with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (deepdyve.com)
  • Demonstration of specific binding sites for pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in rat astrocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that has vast functions, ranging from behavioral, to endocrine, cardiovascular, and cellular, in which often these effects are biphasic. (uvm.edu)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide (PACAP). (uscnk.com)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide (PACAP) and analogues was observed. (uscnk.com)
  • Matrices listed below were spiked with certain level of recombinant Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide (PACAP) and the recovery rates were calculated by comparing the measured value to the expected amount of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide (PACAP) in samples. (uscnk.com)
  • Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide (PACAP) were tested 20 times on one plate, respectively. (uscnk.com)
  • Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide (PACAP) were tested on 3 different plates, 8 replicates in each plate. (uscnk.com)
  • The linearity of the kit was assayed by testing samples spiked with appropriate concentration of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide (PACAP) and their serial dilutions. (uscnk.com)
  • The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide (PACAP). (uscnk.com)
  • Standards or samples are then added to the appropriate microtiter plate wells with a biotin-conjugated antibody specific to Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide (PACAP). (uscnk.com)
  • After TMB substrate solution is added, only those wells that contain Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide (PACAP), biotin-conjugated antibody and enzyme-conjugated Avidin will exhibit a change in color. (uscnk.com)
  • The involvement of transmitters in the hyperthermic effect of centrally administered pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP-38) was studied. (elsevier.com)
  • title=Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) with 27 residues. (enacademic.com)
  • title=Structure of the human pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene. (enacademic.com)
  • Adenylate cyclase toxin is a virulence factor produced by some members of the genus Bordetella. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella parapertussis, also able to cause pertussis-like symptoms, also produce adenylate cyclase toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis is a 1706 amino acid residue long protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extracellular adenylate cyclase is an adenylate cyclase produced by Bordetella pertussis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. anthracis EF was not related to the Escherichia coli or yeast adenylate cyclases, but was related to the Bordetella pertussis calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. (nih.gov)
  • Abstract The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis. (cuni.cz)
  • Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) binds the α M β 2 integrin (CD11b/CD18, Mac-1, or CR3) of myeloid phagocytes and delivers into their cytosol an adenylate cyclase (AC) enzyme that converts ATP into the key signaling molecule cAMP. (prolekare.cz)
  • Ross, P.J., Lavelle, E.C., Mills, K.H.G. and A.P. Boyd `Adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis synergises with lipopolysaccharide to promote innate IL-10 production and enhance the induction of Th2 and regulatory T cells? (tcd.ie)
  • Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) from Bordetella pertussis can subvert host immune responses allowing bacterial colonization. (tcd.ie)
  • Boyd, A.P., Ross, P.J., Conroy, H., Mahon, N Lavelle, E.C.and Mills, K.H.G. `Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates innate and adaptive immune responses: distinct roles for acylation and enzymatic activity in immunomodulation and cell death? (tcd.ie)
  • Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis belongs to the repeat in toxin family of pore-forming toxins, which require posttranslational acylation to lyse eukaryotic cells. (tcd.ie)
  • The adenylate cyclase gene of Bordetella pertussis: Molecular cloning and transcriptional analysis. (openrepository.com)
  • Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) penetrates the cytoplasmic membrane of phagocytes and employs two distinct conformers to exert its multiple activities. (pasteur.fr)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide as a neurotransmitter in the canine ileal circular muscle. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Zurück zum Zitat Vollesen ALH, Amin FM, Ashina M. Targeted pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide therapies for migraine. (springermedizin.de)
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide is a peptide similar to vasoactive intestinal peptide . (enacademic.com)
  • The mechanism of action of FR on inhibition of adenylate cyclase appears to be related to the phosphorylation of certain membrane components. (pnas.org)
  • subunits were also demonstrated to be involved in activation or inhibition of adenylate cyclase (see review ref. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, both inhibition of adenylate cyclase A (ACA) with SQ22536 and incubation of a temperature-sensitive ACA mutant at the restrictive temperature prevented c-di-GMP-induced cAMP synthesis as well as c-di-GMP-induced stalk gene transcription. (pnas.org)
  • Cannabinoid inhibition of adenylate cyclase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The inhibition of adenylate cyclase was specific for psychoactive cannabinoids, since cannabinol and cannabidiol produced minimal or no response. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Rapid kinetics of alpha 2-adrenergic inhibition of adenylate cyclase. (cellml.org)
  • Home / Exposures / Thomsen, Neubig, 1989 / Rapid kinetics of alpha 2-adrenergic inhibition of adenylate cyclase. (cellml.org)
  • An enzymatically inactive adenylate cyclase toxoid (CyaA-AC-) has then been abundantly used as an efficient antigen delivery tool over the past 20 years. (cuni.cz)
  • The secreted adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA, ACT, or AC-Hly) plays a key role in virulence of Bordetellae . (prolekare.cz)
  • The adenylate cyclase activity of CyaA was necessary for its modulatory effects on murine innate immune cells. (tcd.ie)
  • The wild-type acylated toxin (A-CyaA) and nonacylated CyaA (NA-CyaA), but not CyaA with an inactive adenylate cyclase domain (iAC-CyaA), enhanced TLR-ligand-induced IL-10 and inhibited IL-12, TNF-, and CCL3 production by macrophages and DC. (tcd.ie)
  • The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is one of the major virulence factors of , the causative agent of whooping cough. (pasteur.fr)
  • The ±-isoprenaline subsensitivity of cardiac adenylate cyclase can, thus, be attributed to a defective enzymatic system and not to a reduction in the number of beta-adrenoceptors implying that the internal components of the system were more sensitive to acute ischemia than the outward oriented hormone receptors. (springer.com)
  • G proteins dissociate into GTP-bound alpha subunits-activating adenylyl cyclase, retinal phosphodiesterase, phospholipase C, and ion channels-and a complex of beta and gamma subunits, selectively activating certain forms of adenylate cyclase following interaction with the cell receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effects of sub-chronic in vivo chlorpyrifos exposure on muscarinic receptors and adenylate cyclase of rat striatum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The compound ATP gamma S inhibits agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in solubilized and in isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and quinacrine pretreated membranes, suggesting that ATP gamma S inhibition occurs independent of AVP and A1 adenosine receptors and of phospholipase A2 activity. (jci.org)
  • To determine a mechanism of the decreased effect of DA-1 agonists on sodium transport, DA-1 receptors in renal proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) were studied by radioligand binding and by adenylate cyclase (AC) determinations. (jci.org)
  • PACAP1-27 and VIP also release NO. The functional potency differences between PACAP1-27 and VIP suggest PAC1 receptors mediate all responses, likely through the stimulation of adenylate cyclase. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • STC1 interference on calcitonin family of receptors signaling during osteoblastogenesis via adenylate cyclase inhibition. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The membrane-bound adenylyl cyclases (ACs) represent one of the major families of effector enzymes for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP38) is a potent neuropeptide that acts through G-protein-coupled receptors. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In the liver, where beta-adrenergic receptors and responsiveness decline after birth, terbutaline and dexamethasone had much smaller effects on adenylate cyclase. (rti.org)
  • Catecholamine receptors positively coupled to adenylate cyclase (AC) have been shown to undergo rapid desensitization after excessive stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cholinergic activation of cardiac muscarinic receptors reduces heart rate and contractile activity due in part to the activation of the inhibitory G protein G i , which inhibits adenylate cyclase and the subsequent production of cAMP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Because opiate receptors like muscarinic receptors are also coupled to adenylate cyclase through the inhibitory G protein G i , a coincident parallel direct effect of morphine could add significantly to that mediated indirectly through its activation of the vagus nerve. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These data indicate the presence of only ANF-R2 (low-Mr) receptors in platelets and suggest that these receptors may be coupled to the adenylate cyclase system. (portlandpress.com)
  • Using the osteoblast-like cell line ROS 17/2.8, which possesses receptors for both PTH and glucocorticoids, we investigated which component of the complex hormone receptor-guanine nucleotide regulatory unit-adenylate cyclase was affected by dexamethasone treatment. (biochemj.org)
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and its receptors: from structure to functions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and its receptors: 20 years after the discovery. (semanticscholar.org)
  • G-proteins, or guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, serve to couple receptors to membrane-bound enzymes such as adenylate cyclase. (cellml.org)
  • Mediated by adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 receptors, this polypeptide stimulates adenylate cyclase and subsequently increases the cAMP level in target cells. (enacademic.com)
  • Braas KM, May V, Harakall SA, Hardwick JC, Parsons RL (1998) Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide expression and modulation of neuronal excitability in guinea pig cardiac ganglia. (springer.com)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 8 Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide 1 (Pituitary) Receptor Type I (ADCYAP1R1) ELISA Kits from 5 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide 1 (Pituitary) Receptor Type I Antibodies (39) and Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide 1 (Pituitary) Receptor Type I Proteins (6) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A total of 57 Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide 1 (Pituitary) Receptor Type I products are currently listed. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The results suggested that sympathetic nerve innervation may be responsible for Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (show ADCYAP1 ELISA Kits )-regulated hematopoiesis in bone marrow, mainly via PAC1 . (antibodies-online.com)
  • Defective insulin secretion during total parenteral nutrition in rat and its normalization by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 27. (lu.se)
  • Zurück zum Zitat Miyata A, Jiang L, Dahl RD et al (1990) Isolation of a neuropeptide corresponding to the N-terminal 27 residues of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide with 38 residues (PACAP38). (springermedizin.de)
  • Zurück zum Zitat Amin FM, Winther Schytz H. Transport of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide across the blood-brain barrier: implications for migraine. (springermedizin.de)
  • Adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary) , also known as ADCYAP1 , is a human gene . (enacademic.com)
  • PBB_Summary section_title = summary_text = This gene encodes adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1. (enacademic.com)
  • Adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 is not only a hypophysiotropic hormone, but also functions as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. (enacademic.com)
  • title=Primary structure and characterization of the precursor to human pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide. (enacademic.com)
  • When a signal is first transducted inside the cell, an enzyme called adenylyl cyclase is activated which converts ATP to cAMP. (wikibooks.org)
  • Thus, mEGF inhibited hCG-activated adenylate cyclase in MA-10 cells and in rat luteal cells but had no effect on the forskolin-activated enzyme in MA-10 cells or the isoproterenol-activated enzyme in rat luteal cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An important eukaryotic signal transduction pathway involves the regulation of the effector enzyme adenylate cyclase, which produces the second messenger, cAMP. (biologists.org)
  • This multifuctional protein binds the α M β 2 integrin (CD11b/CD18, CR3 or Mac-1) of myeloid phagocytic cells and delivers into their cytosol a calmodulin-activated adenylate cyclase enzyme that ablates bactericidal capacities of phagocytes by uncontrolled conversion of cytosolic ATP to the key signaling molecule cAMP [1] - [5] . (prolekare.cz)
  • The toxin is a 1706 residues-long protein, in which a calmodulin-activated adenylate cyclase (AC) enzyme domain of ∼400 N-terminal residues is fused to a ∼1300 residue-long RTX (Repeats in ToXin) cytolysin moiety [11] . (prolekare.cz)
  • MBS456935 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Adenylate Cyclase 10, Soluble (ADCY10) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • The other conformer conducts extracellular calcium ions across cytoplasmic membrane of cells, relocates into lipid rafts, translocates the adenylate cyclase enzyme (AC) domain into cells and converts cytosolic ATP to cAMP. (pasteur.fr)
  • Darfler FJ, Mahan LC, Koachman AM, Insel PA (1982) Stimulation by forskolin of intact S49 lymphoma cells involves the nucleotide regulatory protein of adenylate cyclase. (springer.com)
  • The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a G protein-coupled receptor binding to its physiological ligand, where the pathway proceeds through activation or inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity and a subsequent change in the concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP). (yeastgenome.org)
  • Adenylate cyclase is intimately linked to the receptor-G protein machinery on the cytoplasmic face of cell membrane, which generates the second messenger, cAMP, when stimulated by an extracellular message in the form of receptor binding of a hormone or other ligand, light, or odours. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ATP receptor regulation of adenylate cyclase and protein kinase C activity in cultured renal LLC-PK1 cells. (jci.org)
  • The ATP gamma S inhibition of AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity is not affected by pertussis toxin but is attenuated by GDP beta S, suggesting a possible role for a pertussis toxin insensitive G protein in the inhibition. (jci.org)
  • However, neither of two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and H-7) prevents ATP gamma S inhibition of AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, suggesting that this inhibition occurs by a protein kinase C independent mechanism. (jci.org)
  • The effect of P2y purinoceptors to inhibit AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity may be mediated, at least in part, by a pertussis toxin insensitive G protein. (jci.org)
  • Glucose repression of fbp1 transcription of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is partially regulated by adenylate cyclase activation by a G protein alpha subunit encoded by gpa2 (git8). (genetics.org)
  • Western blot of rat cortex lysate showing specific immunolabeling of the ~160k adenylate cyclase III protein. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Adenylate cyclase 2. (genetex.com)
  • this effect was abolished by blockade of either adenylate cyclase or protein kinase A (PKA). (frontiersin.org)
  • The infection of a mammalian host by a microorganism can be prevented or treated through the disruption of the C. albicans homologue of adenylate cyclase-associated protein gene. (patentgenius.com)
  • Salmonella typhimurium deletion mutants lacking adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP receptor protein are avirulent and immunogenic. (asm.org)
  • Book chapter explains how glucagon activates two distinct signal transduction systems in hepatocytes, which leads to the desensitization of G-protein-regulated adenylate cyclase, the phosphorylation and inactivation of Gi-2 and the phosphorylation and stimulation of a specific cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Deficient activity of the adenylate cyclase stimulatory coupling protein (N 8 ) has been demonstrated in many patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type I (PHP) who have Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy and multiple hormone resistance. (elsevier.com)
  • Since an abnormality in the activity of the related adenylate cyclase inhibitory coupling protein (N i ) could influence hormone responsiveness, we measured pertussistoxincatalyzed [ 32 P]ADP ribosylation of the 40, 000-dalton α-subunit of N i (N i α) in erythrocyte membranes from patients with PHP and normal subjects. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Deficient activity of the adenylate cyclase stimulatory coupling protein (N8) has been demonstrated in many patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type I (PHP) who have Albright{\textquoteright}s hereditary osteodystrophy and multiple hormone resistance. (elsevier.com)
  • The cause of tip-specific stalk formation has been unclear, but we show here that the more widely produced stalk-inducing signal cyclic diguanylate activates cAMP synthesis by adenylate cyclase A, which is specifically expressed at the apical tip. (pnas.org)
  • We previously reported that cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), synthesized by diguanylate cyclase A (DgcA), induces stalk formation. (pnas.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the family of adenylate cyclases, which are membrane-associated enzymes that catalyze the formation of the secondary messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). (genetex.com)
  • In response to PTH, isoproterenol or forskolin, a compound that is supposed to act directly on the catalytic unit, cyclic AMP production by intact cells and adenylate cyclase activity in purified plasma membrane were markedly increased by dexamethasone. (biochemj.org)
  • We have investigated the intercommunication of the functional state of cyclic nucleotides (CN) system and morphofunctional states of lung and heart tissues and influence on these states of lipid peroxidation processes and adenylate cyclase system activity under development in organism of the hypoxic states of different genesis. (begellhouse.com)
  • Forskolin (Fsk) is a naturally occurring diterpene isolated from Coleus forskholii , directly activates adenylyl cyclase (AC) through its catalytic subunit to increase intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) [1] . (medchemexpress.com)
  • The two pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAPs), 3 PACAP27 and PACAP38, are neuropeptides that belong to the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) family ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • abstract = "We studied the effects of chymotrypsin on turkey erythrocyte membrane adenylate cyclase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • The inhibitory effect of ANF on adenylate cyclase was also dependent on the presence of guanine nucleotides and was attenuated by amiloride and pertussis toxin. (portlandpress.com)
  • Nielsen, ME, Pearson, JW & Bjerregaard, HF 1995, ' Inhibitory effect of lithium on adenylate cyclase in salt (NaCl) transporting epithelia ', Medical science research , bind 23, s. 177-179. (ruc.dk)
  • The regulatory GTPase cycle of turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase. (nih.gov)
  • There was a marked increase in forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the upright posture in both elderly and young subjects. (clinsci.org)
  • 4. These data suggest that enhanced forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity occurs after 10 min of upright posture in both elderly and young subjects, and may be relevant to immediate blood pressure regulation. (clinsci.org)
  • In control heart, basal, isoproterenol-stimulated and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase showed distinct developmental spikes of activity that were unrelated to changes in receptor binding sites, but that instead corresponded temporally to periods of sympathetic neuronal activation. (rti.org)
  • It was concluded that dissociation of two or more components of the adenylate cyclase complex was occurring on the column and that the maintenance of the complex was essential for the high-activity state of the catalytic unit. (biochemj.org)
  • 3. The theory of frontal analysis (or steady-state gel filtration), applied to the study of the interacting components of the adenylate cyclase complex is discussed, and activity profiles are predicted. (biochemj.org)
  • In the present work, reactions of particular components of the adenylate cyclase signaling system (ACSS) were estimated, i.e., concentration of cAMP and activities of transmembrane adenylate cyclase (tAC) and soluble adenylate cyclase (sAC) in these zones after different times post inoculation (5, 15, 120, and 360 min). (springer.com)
  • Stimulation of adenylate cyclases produce cAMP form ATP in response to the activation of GPCRs by various hormones, neurotransmitters and other regulatory molecules. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The stimulation of adenylate cyclases starts with interactions with GPCRs mediated signals initiated by Gs and Gi heterotrimeric G-proteins. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • A factor [the feedback regulator (FR)] formed by adipocytes after the stimulation of a cAMP raising hormone has been found to be a potent inhibitor of membrane-bound adenylate cyclase [EC 4.6.1.1. (pnas.org)
  • All these antagonists were more potent toward the dopaminethan the serotonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • On the other hand, ANF-(103-126)-peptide was the least potent and inhibited the adenylate cyclase activity by about 30% (Ki approximately 10 nM). (portlandpress.com)
  • Forskolin is a potent adenylate cyclase activator, with IC 50 and EC 50 of 41 nM and 0.5 μM for type I adenylyl cyclase , respectively. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Discovery of Selective Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase 1 Receptor (PAC1R) Antagonist Peptides Potent in a Maxadilan/PACAP38-Induced Increase in Blood Flow Pharmacodynamic Model. (painresearchforum.org)
  • Adenylate cyclase converts ATP into the second messenger cAMP as part of many eukaryotic signal transduction pathways. (genetics.org)
  • From our findings and other reports (please see the article), it is likely that isoproterenol can not initiate nitric oxide (NO) production by vascular endothelium of other species except for rat and that adenylyl cyclase-mediated signal transduction within endothelium of other species differs from that of rat. (asahq.org)
  • Adenylate cyclase activities in the basal state and under stimulation with NaF, forskolin, Gpp(NH)p, ±-isoprenaline and VIP were all markedly and similarly reduced, being only about 30% of comparable activities in membranes from control areas. (springer.com)
  • In LLC-PK1 membranes, several ATP analogues inhibit basal, GTP-, forskolin-, and AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent manner. (jci.org)
  • In the current study, rats were exposed to a beta-agonist (terbutaline) or a glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) during late gestation, and the development of adenylate cyclase activity and beta-receptor binding was evaluated in membranes prepared from the heart and liver. (rti.org)
  • The analog possessed 4-5% the potency of glucagon in stimulating adenylate cyclase with 90% maximal stimulation and possessed 30% the potency of glucagon in competing for glucagon-specific receptor sites in hepatic plasma membranes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effect of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) on adenylate cyclase activity was studied in rat platelet membranes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Adenylate cyclase in plasma membranes was inhibited by micromolar concentrations of delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and by levonantradol and desacetyllevonantradol. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Whereas NaF, guanosine 5′-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate and Mn/ stimulated adenylate cyclase activity were similarly enhanced in membranes isolated from glucocorticoid-treated cells, the activity of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide regulatory unit, as assessed by reconstitution into membranes from the CYC- clone, which is genetically devoid of this component, was not altered. (biochemj.org)
  • 1. Preincubation of luteal membranes with human choriogonadotropin results in the formation of an activated state of adenylate cyclase which is not reversed by washing and which is limited only by the absence of guanine nucleotides, whereas preincubation with GTP yields only a partially activated adenylate cyclase which requires the presence of both GTP and human choriogonadotropin during assay to demonstrate maximal activity. (mysciencework.com)
  • 8. The results indicate that stable activation states of adenylate cyclase can be induced by preincubation of luteal membranes in vitro with human choriogonadotropin or p[NH]ppG, and that in the presence of p[NH]ppG the hormone may accelerate events subsequent to guanine nucleotide binding. (mysciencework.com)
  • The git2 gene, also known as cyr1, encodes adenylate cyclase. (genetics.org)
  • Luteolytic hormones are calcium-mediated, guanine nucleotide antagonists of gonadotropin-sensitive adenylate cyclase. (elsevier.com)
  • Possible mechanisms for the effects of cannabinoid drugs on adenylate cyclase activity are discussed. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Immunofluorescence of cultured rat neurons and glia showing strong staining of neuronal cilia using our anti-Adenylate Cyclase III Antibody (red) and axonal and dendritic staining of Alpha II Spectrin Antibody (Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Western Blot: Adenylate Cyclase 3 Antibody - Western blot of rat olfactory epithelium (OE) and frontal cortex (FC). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human ovarian cancer, using Adenylate cyclase 2(GTX101360) antibody at 1:250 dilution. (genetex.com)
  • Adenylate Cyclase 5 antibody LS-C402867 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to Adenylate Cyclase 5 (ADCY5) from human. (lsbio.com)
  • Mutation of the AC6 catalytic domain phenocopies AC6 knockdown, demonstrating that loss of adenylate cyclase activity is responsible for the phenotype. (asm.org)
  • Since forskolin is thought to act directly on the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase, and since forskolin can protect against the effect of proteolysis with chymotrypsin, the site involved may be on the catalytic unit itself. (elsevier.com)
  • 1. Sepharose 6B gel-filtration analysis of soluble adenylate cyclase from bovine corpus luteum is described. (biochemj.org)
  • Activation of adenylate cyclase in bovine corpus-luteum membra. (mysciencework.com)
  • Conversely, the maximal effects of serotonin and l -isoproterenol (a pure beta adrenergic agonist) on adenylate cyclase activity in homogenates of the cerebral cortex were strictly additive. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The maximum cyclase activation by isoproterenol and the maximum inhibition by carbachol were similarly unaltered by morphine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • After nonselective beta-blockade by propranolol the adenylate cyclase stimulator forskolin caused a myocardial potassium uptake of similar magnitude to that of isoproterenol before beta-blockade. (ahajournals.org)
  • The number of beta 2-adrenoceptors and the response of adenylate cyclase (AC) to isoproterenol were slightly decreased in lymphoma cells. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Proteolysis with chymotrypsin led to a concentration- and time-dependent increase in activation of adenylate cyclase by isoproterenol + guanine nucleotides, and fluoride, and to a decrease in activation by forskolin. (elsevier.com)
  • Purification and characterization of adenylate cyclase from Escherichia coli K12. (uniprot.org)
  • Adenylate cyclase of Escherichia coli K12 has been purified 17,000-fold to near homogeneity from a 5-fold overproducing strain. (uniprot.org)
  • Using the high inter-species homology of mammalian AC isoforms, nine Adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms, encoded by separate genes, have been identified until today. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Human adenylate cyclase genes comprise of 11 to 26 exons, which are distributed over 16 to 430kb. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Therefore these 'upstream' git genes appear to encode a glucose-induced adenylate cyclase activation pathway. (biologists.org)
  • The bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei contains transcripts of at least four genes showing partial sequence homology to the genes for eucaryotic adenylate and guanylate cyclases (S. Alexandre, P. Paindavoine, P. Tebabi, A. Pays, S. Halleux, M. Steinert, and E. Pays, Mol. (asm.org)
  • We show here that ESAG 4-related glycoproteins of about 150 kDa can be found in the trypanosome membrane, that they are detected, by light and electron gold immunocytochemistry, only at the surface of the flagellum, and that the products of at least two of these genes, ESAG 4 and GRESAG 4.1, can complement a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant for adenylate cyclase. (asm.org)
  • In mammalian cells, adenylate cyclase enzymatic activity is regulated by heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). (genetics.org)
  • In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adenylate cyclase enzymatic activity is regulated by monomeric, guanine nucleotide-binding Ras proteins. (genetics.org)
  • The involvement of GTPase activity and of hormone-promoted guanine nucleotide exchange in the modulation of luteal adenylate cyclase activity is discussed. (mysciencework.com)
  • The increase in cytosolic Ca2+ inhibits adenylate cyclase activity by blocking GTP-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase. (elsevier.com)
  • A gene from the variant surface glycoprotein expression site encodes one of several transmembrane adenylate cyclases located on the flagellum of Trypanosoma brucei. (asm.org)
  • The activity of intracellular adenylate cyclase is usually estimated by measuring the accumulation of cAMP in the presence of inhibitors of phosphodiesterases [22]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • De Lean A, Stadel JM, Lefkowitz RJ (1980) A ternary complex model explains the agonist-specific binding properties of the adenylate cyclase-coupled beta-adrenergic receptor. (springer.com)
  • Harden TK (1983) Agonist-induced desensitization of the β -adrenergic receptor-linked to adenylate cyclase. (springer.com)
  • All but LSD were ineffective on the beta adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase in C6 glioma cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A ternary complex model explains the agonist-specific binding properties of the adenylate cyclase-coupled beta-adrenergic receptor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Therefore, git3 and git5 appear to act either in concert with or independently from gpa2 (git8) to regulate adenylate cyclase activity. (genetics.org)
  • Here we report that a subset of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (ACs) in the trypanosome flagellum regulate social motility. (asm.org)
  • Assays of cAMP on a strain carrying a mutation in the git6 gene, which acts downstream of adenylate cyclase, indicate that git6 may function to feedback regulate adenylate cyclase activity. (biologists.org)
  • The adenylate cyclase toxin, along with several other B. pertussis virulence factors, undergo a phase shift between states of expression and repression. (openrepository.com)
  • In a standard assay system using rat adipocyte plasma membrane as the source of adenylate cyclase, the FR inhibited adenylate cyclase by lowering the Vmax without affecting the apparent Km for ATP (0.3-0.6 mM). (pnas.org)
  • The synthesis of cAMP from ATP is done by adenylyl cyclases located in the plasma membrane. (wikibooks.org)
  • Morphine failed to alter basal or maximally stimulated (forskolin plus MnCl 2 ) adenylate cyclase activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, long-term exposure to drugs that inhibit adenylate cyclase, including muscarinic agonists and opioids, can result in enhanced basal adenylate cyclase activity and enhanced cyclase activity in response to stimulatory agents such as norepinephrine ( Thomas and Hoffman, 1987 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In last several years, new members of particulate and soluble adenylate cyclase family have been identified and significant progress is made in understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the regulation of these families of enzymes. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • title=A novel peptide which stimulates adenylate cyclase: molecular cloning and characterization of the ovine and human cDNAs. (enacademic.com)
  • Activation of neuronal adenylate cyclase antagonizes isoflurane inhibition of locomotion in C. elegans. (asahq.org)
  • We evaluated the effects of ischemic injury on the myocardial adenylate cyclase system, 5 h after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary in 5 anesthetized dogs. (springer.com)
  • Catecholamine-induced myocardial potassium uptake mediated by beta 1-adrenoceptors and adenylate cyclase activation in the pig. (ahajournals.org)
  • We conclude that a myocardial potassium uptake ensues during beta 1-adrenoceptor stimulation and adenylate cyclase activation. (ahajournals.org)