Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Adenovirus Infections, Human: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.Adenoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.Adenovirus E1B Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.Adenovirus E3 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.Adenovirus E4 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Adenoviruses, Canine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.Adenovirus E2 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.Mastadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).Adenoviruses, Porcine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.Aviadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Fowl adenovirus A: The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Keratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Adenovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.ConjunctivitisPlasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Atadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Mice, Inbred BALB CCricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Mice, Inbred C57BLKB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Tropism: The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Injections, Intralesional: Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Y-Box-Binding Protein 1: Y-box-binding protein 1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with Y-box PROMOTER REGIONS of MHC CLASS II GENES. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide variety of GENES.Integrin alphaV: An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Deoxycytidine Monophosphate: Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Ganciclovir: An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Siadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE comprising species including viruses of frogs (FROGS AND TOADS) and TURKEYS. The type species is Frog adenovirus.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.E1A-Associated p300 Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).TritiumAntigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Deoxyribonucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) or specific DNA.Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

A recombinant E1-deleted porcine adenovirus-3 as an expression vector. (1/13)

Replication-defective E1-deleted porcine adenoviruses (PAVs) are attractive vectors for vaccination. As a prerequisite for generating PAV-3 vectors containing complete deletion of E1, we transfected VIDO R1 cells (fetal porcine retina cells transformed with E1 region of human adenovirus 5) with a construct containing PAV-3 E1B(large) coding sequences under the control of HCMV promoter. A cell line named VR1BL could be isolated that expressed E1B(large) of PAV-3 and also complemented PAV214 (E1A+E1B(small) deleted). The VR1BL cells could be efficiently transfected with DNA and allowed the rescue and propagation of recombinant PAV507 containing a triple stop codon inserted in the E1B(large) coding sequence. In addition, recombinant PAV227 containing complete deletion of E1 (E1A+E1B(small) + E1B(large)) could be successfully rescued using VR1BL cell line. Recombinant PAV227 replicated as efficiently as wild-type in VR1BL cells but not in VIDO R1 cells, suggesting that E1B(large) was essential for replication of PAV-3. Next, we constructed recombinant PAV219 by inserting green fluorescent (GFP) protein gene flanked by a promoter and a poly(A) in the E1 region of the PAV227 genome. We demonstrated that PAV219 was able to transduce and direct expression of GFP in some human cell lines.  (+info)

Characterization of cis-acting sequences involved in packaging porcine adenovirus type 3. (2/13)

Encapsidation of adenovirus DNA involves specific interactions between cis-acting genomic DNA sequences and trans-acting proteins. The cis-acting packaging domain located near the left inverted terminal repeat is composed of a series of redundant but not functionally equivalent motifs. Such motifs are made up of the consensus sequence 5'-TTTGN(8)CG-3' and 5'-TTTG/A-3' in human adenovirus 5 (HAV-5) and canine adenovirus-2 (CAV-2), respectively. To gain comparative insight into adenovirus encapsidation, we examined the packaging domain of porcine adenovirus-3 (PAV-3). Using deletion mutants, we localized the PAV-3 packaging domain to 319 bp (nt 212 to 531), which contains six cis-acting elements. However, this domain does not contain the consensus motifs identified in HAV-5. In addition, consensus motif found in CAV-2 is present only once in PAV-3. Instead, PAV-3 packaging domain appears to contain AT/GC-rich sequences. The packaging motifs of PAV-3, which are functionally redundant but not equivalent, are located at the left end of the genome.  (+info)

Porcine adenovirus type 3 E1 transcriptional control region contains a bifunctional regulatory element. (3/13)

We identified a bifunctional regulatory element located between nt 374 and 431 upstream of TATA box of porcine adenovirus (PAV) 3 E1A promoter. Deletion of the element dramatically reduced the steady-state level of E1A mRNA, but increased that of E1B, which lies immediately downstream of E1A. The mutant virus displayed defective replication at early times of infection, but replicated nearly as efficiently as wild-type PAV-3 at late times of infection. This defect was complemented with coinfecting wild-type virus in a mixed infection. The results indicated that the upstream activation sequences (UAS) of E1A overlap the upstream repression sequences (URS) of E1B, although both transcription units are transcribed from different promoters.  (+info)

Detection of bovine and porcine adenoviruses for tracing the source of fecal contamination. (4/13)

In this study, a molecular procedure for the detection of adenoviruses of animal origin was developed to evaluate the level of excretion of these viruses by swine and cattle and to design a test to facilitate the tracing of specific sources of environmental viral contamination. Two sets of oligonucleotides were designed, one to detect porcine adenoviruses and the other to detect bovine and ovine adenoviruses. The specificity of the assays was assessed in 31 fecal samples and 12 sewage samples that were collected monthly during a 1-year period. The data also provided information on the environmental prevalence of animal adenoviruses. Porcine adenoviruses were detected in 17 of 24 (70%) pools of swine samples studied, with most isolates being closely related to serotype 3. Bovine adenoviruses were present in 6 of 8 (75%) pools studied, with strains belonging to the genera Mastadenovirus and Atadenovirus and being similar to bovine adenoviruses of types 2, 4, and 7. These sets of primers produced negative results in nested PCR assays when human adenovirus controls and urban-sewage samples were tested. Likewise, the sets of primers previously designed for detection of human adenovirus also produced negative results with animal adenoviruses. These results indicate the importance of further studies to evaluate the usefulness of these tests to trace the source of fecal contamination in water and food and for environmental studies.  (+info)

Viral RNAs detected in virions of porcine adenovirus type 3. (5/13)

It has been demonstrated that cellular and viral RNAs were packaged in the virions of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV 1), members of the Herpesviridae family, both of which are enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses. Here, we provide evidence suggesting that RNAs are packaged in the virions of porcine adenovirus type 3 (PAdV-3), which is a member of the Adenoviridae family, a non-enveloped double-stranded DNA virus. The RNAs packaged in PAdV-3 virions were enriched in the size range of 300-1000 bases long. By reverse transcription (RT) of RNAs isolated from purified PAdV-3 virions, PCR amplification, and DNA sequence analysis of PCR products, we determined the identities of some viral RNAs contained in PAdV-3 virions. The results indicated that the RNAs representing transcripts from E1A, E1B, DNA binding protein (DBP), DNA polymerase (POL), E4 and some of the late genes including pIIIA, pIII, pV, Hexon, 33 K, and fiber were detected from purified PAdV-3 virions. In contrast, we could not detect the RNAs representing transcripts of precursor terminal protein (pTP), 52 kDa, pX, or 100-kDa protein genes in purified virions. Because the transcripts of pIX, IVa2, E3, protease, pVI, pVII, and pVIII overlap with those of other genes in PAdV-3, we could not definitely conclude that RNAs representing these transcripts were packaged in virions although the expected DNA fragments were produced by RT-PCR in the RNAs isolated from purified virions.  (+info)

Porcine adenovirus serotype 3 internalization is independent of CAR and alphavbeta3 or alphavbeta5 integrin. (6/13)

Nonhuman adenoviruses including porcine adenovirus serotype 3 (PAd3) are emerging vectors for gene delivery. PAd3 efficiently transduces human and murine cells in culture, and circumvents preexisting humoral immunity in humans. The coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) serves as a primary receptor and alphavbeta3 or alphavbeta5 integrin as a secondary receptor for several human adenovirus (HAd) subtypes including HAd5. In this study, we deduced the role of CAR, alphavbeta3 or alphavbeta5 integrin in PAd3 internalization. Transduction experiments were conducted in human mammary epithelial (MCF-10A) cells using replication-defective PAd-GFP (PAd3 vector expressing green fluorescent protein [GFP]) and HAd-GFP (HAd5 vector expressing GFP). MCF-10A cells were treated with or without anti-human CAR, or anti-alphavbeta3 or anti-alphavbeta5 integrin antibodies prior to infection with HAd-GFP or PAd-GFP. Significant (P <0.05) inhibition in transduction by HAd-GFP was observed in antibody-treated cells as compared to untreated cells, whereas transduction by PAd-GFP remained to similar levels irrespective of the treatment. To study the adenoviral fiber knob-mediated virus interference, MCF-10A cells were treated with or without the recombinant HAd5 or PAd3 knob followed by infection with HAd-GFP or PAd-GFP. Significant (P <0.05) inhibition was observed only in transduction of the homologous vector. These results suggested that PAd3 internalization was CAR- as well as alphavbeta3 or alphavbeta5 integrin-independent and the primary receptor for HAd5 and PAd3 were distinct. CAR- and alphavbeta3 or alphavbeta5 integrin-independent entry of PAd3 vectors may have implications in targeting cell types that are not efficiently transduced by other adenoviral vectors.  (+info)

A newly identified interaction between IVa2 and pVIII proteins during porcine adenovirus type 3 infection. (7/13)

The adenovirus IVa2 is an intermediate viral gene product that appears to perform multiple essential roles in viral infection. Using IVa2 as bait in the yeast two-hybrid system, we screened selected open reading frames (ORFs) of porcine adenovirus (PAdV)-3 for potential interaction with IVa2. Interestingly, pVIII showed specific interaction with IVa2. The yeast two-hybrid findings were validated by GST pull-down assays, in vitro binding studies employing cell-free coupled transcription-translation products and in vitro co-immunoprecipitations using protein-specific antibodies. Finally, we demonstrated that IVa2 specifically interacts with pVIII during PAdV-3 infection.  (+info)

Porcine adenovirus type 3 E1B large protein downregulates the induction of IL-8. (8/13)

Replication-defective (E1-E3 deleted) adenovirus vector based gene delivery results in the induction of cytokines including IL-8, which may contribute to the development of inflammatory immune responses. Like other adenoviruses, E1 + E3 deleted porcine adenovirus (PAdV) 3 induces the production of IL-8 in infected cells. In contrast, no IL-8 production could be detected in cells infected with wild-type or mutant PAdV-3s containing deletion in E1A + E3 (PAV211) or E1Bsmall + E3 (PAV212). Expression of PAdV-3 E1Blarge inhibited the NF-kappaB dependent transcription of luciferase from IL-8 promoter. Imunofluorescence and electrophoretic mobility shift assays suggested that constitutive expression of PAdV-3 E1Blarge inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and its subsequent binding to DNA. These results suggest that E1Blarge interacts with NF-kappaB to prevent transcription and down regulate proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 production.  (+info)

A generation ago, childhood vaccines werent so controversial. Doctors told parents that vaccines saved lives, and parents listened. But then, a widely publicized but since-retracted study in the Lancet journal linked vaccines with autism, and autism activists like Playboy model Jenny McCarthy ...
A generation ago, childhood vaccines werent so controversial. Doctors told parents that vaccines saved lives, and parents listened. But then, a widely publicized but since-retracted study in the Lancet journal linked vaccines with autism, and autism activists like Playboy model Jenny McCarthy ...
A new Pediatrics study found that nearly 90% of parents to young children vaccinate their children following the CDC recommended schedule. However, some parents still dont feel at ease...
Purpose: One of the key limiting parameters in the penetration and effectiveness of topically applied ocular therapeutics is their mean residence time. Most of an instilled solution clears through drainage, with first-order clearance about 4 times that of bulk tear flow (~5 ul/min). For protein drugs, the problem becomes more acute due to the additional burden of reduced penetrance through the cornea and conjunctiva. Residence time might be increased however by fusing a protein of interest to a mucosal surface binding protein, such as galectin-3 (gal-3). Gal-3 is a small pentameric ocular surface resident protein that cross-links O-type mucins.. Methods: We used Gaussia luciferase (luc) as our test protein, fused at its N-terminus to one or 2 copies of the carbohydrate binding domain of gal-3 (gal). Fusions were expressed in HEK cells and purified by IMAC chromatography, and evaluated mucin binding by ELISA and by their ocular surface half-lives on mouse eyes and rabbit corneas, using luciferase ...
Do you have questions about vaccinations for your children? Dr. Randall Neustaedter addresses choosing vaccines, the adverse side-effects, legal requirements and exemptions, as well as alternative vaccines.
We have received an update from Public Health England with regards to hepatitis A vaccine supply. There is an ongoing global shortage which is impacting on continuity of supply in the UK. Anybody requiring boosters of this vaccination can be safely delayed at the present time. We are currently investigating alternative vaccine options as advised by Public Health England. ...
The monumental 2017 publication, "Arts of Living on a Damaged Planet," invites readers to learn new ways to understand ourselves in the face of unprecedented social and ecological turmoil.. As part of this rethinking, scholars marshal research that upends the most fundamental unit of biological and social analysis - the individual. Building from the work of famed University of Massachusetts Amherst Professor Lynn Margulis, one essay shows the proliferation and importance of nonhuman cells that comprise human bodies. Another essay proposes that evolution depends in part on relationships between species, and not simply individual fitness. And yet another essay argues that collective behavior might best be understood as an emergent process, rather than as a planned outcome.. These growing scientific insights are profound. They suggest that our very existence depends not on individual success, but on a deepening understanding of and attunement to our interrelationships with others - both human and ...
At ABB, we understand the challenges you face in the food and beverage processing industry today. Were focused on providing electrical solutions that address the critical issues in every area of your operation, so you can focus on plant sustainability, cost, quality, flexibility, safety and regulatory challenges across the production cycle. Our family of electrical solutions matches specific application criteria from start to finish inside food processing areas, assuring the quality and reliability of your electrical system throughout your facility, from incoming raw materials through shipping of finished goods. And with the industrys most efficient distribution system, were prepared to meet your ongoing MRO, OEM and construction needs down the road.. ...
We evaluated the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the pork production chain in Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain during 2010. A total of 337 fecal, liver, and meat samples from animals at slaughterhouses were tested for HEV by real-time quantitative PCR. Overall, HEV was higher in Italy (53%) and Spain (39%) than in Czech Republic (7.5%). HEV was detected most frequently in feces in Italy (41%) and Spain (39%) and in liver (5%) and meat (2.5%) in Czech Republic. Of 313 sausages sampled at processing and point of sale, HEV was detected only in Spain (6%). HEV sequencing confirmed only g3 HEV strains. Indicator virus (porcine adenovirus) was ubiquitous in fecal samples and absent in liver samples and was detected in 1 slaughterhouse meat sample. At point of sale, we found porcine adenovirus in sausages (1%-2%). The possible dissemination of HEV and other fecal viruses through pork production demands containment measures ...
Dear AAP Pediatricians, As a physician, scientist, and father of a vaccine-injured child, I have many issues with Offit and Moser�s critique of Dr. Sears vaccine book, particularly its authoritarian tone and content. Offit is certainly entitled to his opinion, but it must be recognized as that. We must stick to the science and recognize the open questions with regards to vaccine safety. Excerpt from Offit and Moser article: {Sears has a poor grasp of the scientific method. "Some studies have been published in recent years that have failed to show statistical proof of a relationship between vaccines and autism," he writes. "However, by the same token, it is also difficult to prove that there is not a connection." Using the scientific method, investigators form the null hypothesis. Good epidemiological studies are powered to reject or not to reject the null hypothesis. However, the scientific method does not allow investigators to accept the null hypothesis. Said another way, scientists can ...
Cells derived from different organisms and tissues have been established and are used in bioresearch and for the production of complex biological products. The cell lines can be grown in labs for extended periods, but changes in the DNA sequence and biological responses of the cells can occur. The changes in the cell lines during culturing or inadvertent mixing or mislabeling cannot be readily identified by their appearance under a microscope. A major issue has continued to plague the scientific community for over 50 years: cell line contamination and misidentification. Human cell lines can be identified by existing multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that target short tandem repeat (STR) markers in DNA that are used as fingerprints for authentication. Methods to authenticate nonhuman cell lines are lacking. Our efforts have focused on developing methods for authentication of important nonhuman cell lines to achieve measurement assurance of their use.
M2.DM.17.4769) A five-year-old boy presents with his mother to your clinic complaining of a fever and rash. His mother says the patient was in his usual state of health until two weeks ago when he developed "strep throat." He was prescribed a ten day treatment with oral amoxicillin by his primary care physician, which he has since completed. The mother reports that he seemed to feel better until two days ago when he began to complain of joint pain and an itchy rash. His mother notes the patient is on an "alternative vaccine schedule." She is nervous because her son attends day-care three days a week, and there has been a recent "viral" outbreak. The patients temperature is 103°F (39.4°C), blood pressure is 99/59 mmHg, pulse is 110/min, and respirations are 20/min with an oxygen saturation of 99% O2 on room air. On physical exam, you note cervical adenopathy, joint swelling, mild peripheral edema, and a diffuse rash (shown in Figure A). Which of the following is the best treatment for this ...
Flaviviruses were proposed to prevent rather than to induce host translation shutoff (36, 37, 40). Several technical aspects might explain this difference from our findings, including the use of nonhuman cells, different DENV serotype 2 strains, and time points p.i. chosen for analysis. Of note, polysome profiles of Huh7 cells infected with the DENV serotype 2 Bangkok strain 16681 (40) revealed in our experiments a similar translation repression to that induced by DENV1 infection (see Fig. 1F for reference), which also correlated with reduced cytopathic effect in Huh7 cells (data not shown). Analyses of human cells early p.i. by polysome profiling identified host cell translation repression as a new feature of flavivirus infection.. Flaviviruses actively block eIF2α-mediated stress response at different levels, supposedly to avoid the associated host translation suppression. First, WNV and DENV inhibit SG formation in nonhuman cells (36). Consistently, we observed that DENV and WNV, as well as ...
Since were on the note of breastfeeding, let me tell you new mommies how important chlorella is for you specifically. Breastfeeding provides your baby with a huge extra load of nutrients and boosts his/her immunity. The exact composition of breast milk changes with each feeding to adapt to your individual babys needs. A study in Japan followed 35 breast-feeding mothers. Eighteen of them took chlorella supplements and were compared to the rest. Breast milk from mothers who supplemented with chlorella had higher concentrations of Immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is an antibody. These antibodies help prevent viruses, bacteria and fungus from creating infections (very important if you are doing an alternative vaccine schedule, or choosing not to vaccinate at this time). IgA, in particular, helps protect the surfaces of the body that are exposed to foreign substances like the nose, digestive tract, eyes, ears, saliva and tears. This is a big advantage to young babies. This same Japanese study showed ...
As acknowledged, biomass has been identified as the most promising alternative for replacing fossil fuel due to its sustainability. Grinding is known...
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes an acute, highly contagious respiratory disease in chickens, which results in significant economic losses in commercial flocks. One of the major hurdles associated with the control of the disease is the continued emergence of new serotypes/variants due to mutation or recombination. This also makes the diagnosis of disease using conventional serological methods difficult. Therefore, there is a need for alternative vaccines and serotyping methods. ^ A multiplex PCR for Massachusetts and Arkansas serotypes of IBV was developed. Two serotype specific PCR products, 1026 bp for Massachusetts and 896 bp for Arkansas were amplified; the detection limits for both were 5 pg of viral RNA. By testing different isolates/serotypes of IBV and other avian bacterial and viral pathogens, the high specificity of the multiplex PCR was demonstrated. In addition, its ability to detect Massachusetts and Arkansas as co-infections was revealed. ^ To explore the potential use of
The vaccine. There are two possible vaccines for Japanese encephalitis. Ideally, they need to be completed a month before you leave. One vaccine requires two doses, with the second dose given 28 days after the first. This vaccine is only suitable for people who are over 18 years of age. The alternative vaccine consists of three doses, and is suitable for people who are over one year of age. The second dose is given after seven days, and the third dose is given 21 days after this. This vaccine needs to be completed at least 10 days before you leave, in case you have an allergic reaction. Both vaccines will require a booster after one year. The Japanese encephalitis vaccine is not suitable for children who are under one year of age.. If there is not enough time to complete a normal course of the vaccine, you may be able to have an accelerated course. This involves two doses being given one week apart, or three doses with a week in between each dose. This still needs to be completed at least 10 ...
Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) and pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) are important candidates for an alternative vaccine against pneumococcal infections. Since these antigens show variability, the use of variants that do not afford broad protection may lead to the selection of vaccine escape bacteria. Epitopes capable of inducing antibodies with broad cross-reactivities should thus be the preferred antigens. In this work, experiments using peptide arrays show that most linear epitopes recognized by antibodies induced in mice against different PspAs were located at the initial 44 amino acids of the mature protein and that antibodies against these linear epitopes did not confer protection against a lethal challenge. Conversely, linear epitopes recognized by antibodies to PspC included the consensus sequences involved in the interaction with human factor H and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Since linear epitopes of PspA were not protective, larger overlapping fragments containing 100 ...
A new blood thinner might be a viable alternative to warfarin (Coumadin), the standard for decades to treat patients with the dangerous heart rhythm disorder kn
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), which is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is among the most important infectious bacteria with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine has been discovered for about a century, and it is considered as a major vaccine for humans. However, some factors, such as its attenuated nature and its inefficacy against the latent form of the disease, have led to the use of alternative vaccines. Multi-epitope subunit vaccines are new-generation vaccines that are being developed in clinical trial phases. For the production of a subunit vaccine, the selection of immunodominant antigens and targeted delivery systems to antigen presenting cells (APCs) are considered as basic parameters. In the present study, we designed the novel multi-epitope ESAT-6:Ag85B:Fcγ2a, which was evaluated completely by various online tools as an optimum vaccine against TB. The early secreted antigenic target of 6 kDa (ESAT-6) and antigen 85B (Ag85B)
The BCG vaccine has been widely available for several decades. It is easy and cheap to produce, and when given to neonates or young children it is effective in preventing severe manifestations of disease such as meningeal tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis. However, in terms of the capacity of the vaccine to protect adult humans it shows a wide range of efficacy, including zero levels of protection. Due to the general realization that BCG is losing its protective effect, particularly in terms of preventing adult-onset tuberculosis, a major effort has been made to try to develop new alternative vaccines. One such candidate, Mtb72F/AS02A, is a polyprotein derived from two known M. tuberculosis antigens adjuvanted with AS02A. Mtb72F/AS02A is a candidate TB vaccine under development for two indications: prevention of primary TB infection in young children in highly endemic areas and as an adjunct to treatment for TB in adolescents and adults ...
Vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new Neospora caninum infections in cattle. A vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recNcMIC3-1-R, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins NcMIC1 and NcMIC3, the rhoptry protein NcROP2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. However, the same vaccine formulation elicited a Th2-type immune response in pregnant mice and did not prevent vertical transmission or disease, neither in dams nor in offspring mice. In this study, an alternative vaccine formulation containing recNcMIC3-1-R emulsified in Freunds incomplete adjuvant, a stimulator of the cellular immunity, was investigated. No protection against vertical transmission and cerebral infection in the pregnant mice and a very limited protective effect in the non-pregnant mice were observed.
Vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new Neospora caninum infections in cattle. A vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recNcMIC3-1-R, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins NcMIC1 and NcMIC3, the rhoptry protein NcROP2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. However, the same vaccine formulation elicited a Th2-type immune response in pregnant mice and did not prevent vertical transmission or disease, neither in dams nor in offspring mice. In this study, an alternative vaccine formulation containing recNcMIC3-1-R emulsified in Freunds incomplete adjuvant, a stimulator of the cellular immunity, was investigated. No protection against vertical transmission and cerebral infection in the pregnant mice and a very limited protective effect in the non-pregnant mice were observed.
Human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) entry requires fusion cofactors on the CD4+ target cell. Fusin, a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor, serves as a cofactor for T cell line-tropic isolates. The chemokines RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β, which suppress infection by macrophage-tropic isolates, selectively inhibited cell fusion mediated by the corresponding envelope glycoproteins (Envs). Recombinant CC CKR5, a G protein-coupled receptor for these chemokines, rendered CD4-expressing nonhuman cells fusion-competent preferentially with macrophage-tropic Envs. CC CKR5 messenger RNA was detected selectively in cell types susceptible to macrophage-tropic isolates. CC CKR5 is thus a fusion cofactor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains. ...
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serotype 14: can cause potentially fatal adenovirus infections. Canine adenovirus 1 (CAdV-1) can lead to death in puppies, or ... Murine mastadenovirus C Ovine mastadenovirus A Ovine mastadenovirus B Porcine mastadenovirus A Porcine mastadenovirus B Porcine ...
Preclinical trials involving injections of adenovirus which contained the Ccna2 gene into infarcted porcine (pig) hearts has ... Li Y, Graham C, Lacy S, Duncan AM, Whyte P (1993). "The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of the ... Faha B, Ewen ME, Tsai LH, Livingston DM, Harlow E (1992). "Interaction between human cyclin A and adenovirus E1A-associated ...
... adenoviruses, canine MeSH B04.280.030.500.350 --- adenoviruses, human MeSH B04.280.030.500.675 --- adenoviruses, porcine MeSH ... adenoviruses, human MeSH B04.909.204.097.500.675 --- adenoviruses, porcine MeSH B04.909.204.097.500.700 --- adenoviruses, ... fowl adenovirus a MeSH B04.909.204.097.500 --- mastadenovirus MeSH B04.909.204.097.500.200 --- adenoviruses, canine MeSH ... porcine MeSH B04.280.640.615 --- polyomavirus MeSH B04.280.640.615.100 --- bk virus MeSH B04.280.640.615.400 --- jc virus MeSH ...
... adenovirus (AdV) and adeno-associated virus (AAV). CRISPRs have been used to cut five to 62 genes at once: pig cells have been ... engineered to inactivate all 62 Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses in the pig genome, which eliminated transinfection from the pig ...
Adenoviridae Bovine adenovirus Porcine Adenovirus, reviewed and published by WikiVet at http://en.wikivet.net/Porcine_ ... Porcine adenovirus (aka pADV 1-5 or pADV A-C) is a member of the adenoviridae family. It causes gastrointestinal disease in ... young pigs and is thought to contribute to multifactorial porcine respiratory diseases complexes. Several strains of the virus ...
Adenoviruses Stanford University - Adenoviruses Adenoviruses General Concepts General information on Adenovirus DNA virus ... Murine mastadenovirus C Ovine mastadenovirus A Ovine mastadenovirus B Porcine mastadenovirus A Porcine mastadenovirus B Porcine ... Tupaia adenovirus (TAV) (Tree shrew adenovirus 1) has been isolated from tree shrews. Otarine adenovirus 1 has been isolated ... In babies, adenoviruses can also cause coughing fits that look almost exactly like whooping cough. Adenoviruses can also cause ...
A study detects that FOXO1 regulates the nuclear localization of p27KIP1 in porcine granulosa cells and impacts cell cycle ... which cause FOXO1-induced apoptosis in the human prostate cancer cell line LAPC4 when FOXO1 adenovirus-mediated overexpression ...
... adenoviruses, hepatitis A, and hepatitis E. They also tried to identify bacteria such as salmonella and escherichia coli (e. ... "Auto-immune polyradiculoneuropathy and a novel IgG biomarker in workers exposed to aerosolized porcine brain". Journal of the ... "An outbreak of neurological autoimmunity with polyradiculoneuropathy in workers exposed to aerosolised porcine neural tissue: a ... "Outbreak of Progressive Inflammatory Neuropathy Following Exposure to Aerosolized Porcine Neural Tissue". Mount Sinai Journal ...
Adenoviruses are also known to cause respiratory infections in horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Equine adenovirus 1 can ... Porcine mastadenovirus A. *Porcine mastadenovirus B. *Porcine mastadenovirus C. *Simian mastadenovirus A ... Main article: Adenovirus vaccine. In the past, US military recruits were vaccinated against two serotypes of adenovirus, with a ... In babies, adenoviruses can also cause coughing fits that look almost exactly like whooping cough. Adenoviruses can also cause ...
Another virus - porcine stool associated virus 4 - has been isolated. It appears to be related to the fur seal virus. Two ... Benson SD, Bamford JK, Bamford DH, Burnett RM (1999). "Viral evolution revealed by bacteriophage PRD1 and human adenovirus coat ... Meehan BM, Creelan JL, McNulty MS, Todd D (1997). "Sequence of porcine circovirus DNA: affinities with plant circoviruses". J ... Phylogenetic analysis of these genes places the adenoviruses (Adenoviridae), bacteriophages (Caudovirales) and the plant and ...
Porcine parvovirus causes a reproductive disease in swine known as SMEDI, which stands for stillbirth, mummification, embryonic ... which only work with a helper virus such as adenovirus. Other viruses that can infect without helper viruses are called as ...
Widen, B. F.; Lowings, J. P.; Belak, S.; Banks, M. (August 1999). "Development of a PCR system for porcine cytomegalovirus ... "Human herpesvirus 7 infection of lymphoid and myeloid cell lines transduced with an adenovirus vector containing the CD4 gene ...
... adenovirus infections, human MeSH C02.256.076.381 --- hepatitis, infectious canine MeSH C02.256.430.400 --- hepatitis b MeSH ... enzootic porcine MeSH C02.782.687.359.500 --- hepatitis a MeSH C02.782.687.359.764 --- poliomyelitis MeSH C02.782.687.359. ... porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome MeSH C02.782.600.550 --- coronaviridae infections MeSH C02.782.600.550.200 --- ...
A phase I clinical trial entailed injecting an adenovirus vector with the human HGF (Ad-hHGF) gene into the coronary vessels ... "Angiogenic and antifibrotic actions of hepatocyte growth factor improve cardiac dysfunction in porcine ischemic cardiomyopathy ...
... mice by helper-dependent adenovirus-based expression of gulonolactone oxidase". Hum. Gene Ther. 19 (12): 1349-58. doi:10.1089/ ... was mapped to human chromosome 8p21 that corresponds to an evolutionarily conserved segment on either porcine chromosome 4 ( ...
Novel ideas in the field include recombinant DNA-based vaccines, such as one made using human adenovirus (a common cold virus) ... and porcine serum. One complication of these blood-derived ingredients is the potential for contamination of the culture with ... "Protection of mice and poultry from lethal H5N1 avian influenza virus through adenovirus-based immunization". Journal of ...
... respiratory syncytial virus and adenoviruses. The name bocavirus is derived from bovine and canine, referring to the two known ... "Co-existence of multiple strains of two novel porcine bocaviruses in the same pig, a previously undescribed phenomenon in ... "Complete coding sequences and phylogenetic analysis of porcine bocavirus". J. Gen. Virol. 92 (Pt 4): 784-8. doi:10.1099/vir. ...
On March 22, 2010, the detection of DNA from porcine circovirus types 1 and 2 within RotaTeq and Rotarix prompted the FDA to ... stating that porcine circovirus types 1 and 2 pose no safety risks in humans and concluded that health risks involved did not ... suspend the use of rotavirus vaccines while conducting an investigation the finding of DNA from porcine circovirus-1 (PCV1) in ...
... and the porcine acanthocephalan parasite Macracanthorynchus hirundinaceus.[8] A useful property of cysteine proteases is the ... Adenain (human adenovirus type 2) CF. C15. Pyroglutamyl-peptidase I (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) ...
Porcine parvovirus causes a reproductive disease in swine known as SMEDI, which stands for stillbirth, mummification, embryonic ... which only work with a helper virus such as adenovirus. Other viruses that can infect without helper viruses are called as ...
What is canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2)? Meaning of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) medical term. What does canine adenovirus ... Looking for online definition of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) in the Medical Dictionary? canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) ... porcine adenovirus types 1-4. cause respiratory disease; type 4 causes diarrhea and/or meningitis. ... adenovirus. (redirected from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2)). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. adenovirus ...
serotype 14: can cause potentially fatal adenovirus infections. Canine adenovirus 1 (CAdV-1) can lead to death in puppies, or ... Murine mastadenovirus C Ovine mastadenovirus A Ovine mastadenovirus B Porcine mastadenovirus A Porcine mastadenovirus B Porcine ...
Canine Adenovirus Pneumonia in 2 puppies- CAV-2 History: Two English Bulldog puppies (1, and 3 weeks old) had trouble breathing ... Canine Adenovirus Pneumonia in 2 puppies- CAV-2. Posted on October 27, 2011 by Brian ... Canine Adenovirus Pneumonia in 2 puppies- CAV-2. History: Two English Bulldog puppies (1, and 3 weeks old) had trouble ... The features of the pneumonia are diagnostic for Canine Adenovirus type 2. This disease affects unvaccinated juvenile dogs and ...
Adenoviridae Bovine adenovirus Porcine Adenovirus, reviewed and published by WikiVet at http://en.wikivet.net/Porcine_ ... Porcine adenovirus (aka pADV 1-5 or pADV A-C) is a member of the adenoviridae family. It causes gastrointestinal disease in ... young pigs and is thought to contribute to multifactorial porcine respiratory diseases complexes. Several strains of the virus ...
51 human adenovirus (HAd), 5 porcine adenovirus (PAV), and 6 ovine adenovirus (OAV) serotypes. Bovine adenoviruses (BAVs) have ... The data also provided information on the environmental prevalence of animal adenoviruses. Porcine adenoviruses were detected ... one to detect porcine adenoviruses and the other to detect bovine and ovine adenoviruses. The specificity of the assays was ... Detection of Bovine and Porcine Adenoviruses for Tracing the Source of Fecal Contamination. Carlos Maluquer de Motes, Pilar ...
Porcine adenovirus. Test code: S0169 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of common serotypes of porcine adenovirus by real ... Porcine adenovirus is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Adenoviridae family. Infection of swine with this virus ... Help ensure that animal groups and populations are free of porcine adenovirus. ... Elazhary, M.A., Dea, S., Mittal, K.R. and Higgins, R. (1985) Prevalence of Antibodies to Swine Influenza Virus, Porcine ...
As a prerequisite for the generation of helper-dependent porcine adenovirus-3 (PAV-3) vectors, two E1-complementing porcine ... Our data demonstrate that E1A proteins of HAV-5 have the capacity to transform foetal porcine retina cells and complement for ... Porcine adenovirus has been proposed as a potential vector for generating novel and effective vaccines for pigs. ... cell lines expressing E1 proteins of human adenovirus-5 (HAV-5) were made. These cell lines could be efficiently transfected ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Adenovirus Hexon Antibody (3G0) [DyLight 488]. Validated: ELISA, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Virus. 100% ... Porcine. Dr. =. Drosophila. Rb. =. Rabbit. Ec. =. E. coli. Rt. =. Rat. Eq. =. Equine. Sh. =. Sheep. ... Home » Adenovirus Hexon » Adenovirus Hexon Antibodies » Adenovirus Hexon Antibody (3G0) [DyLight 488] ... Blogs on Adenovirus Hexon. There are no specific blogs for Adenovirus Hexon, but you can read our latest blog posts. ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Adenovirus Fiber Antibody (4D2) - Azide and BSA Free. Validated: WB. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, ... Porcine. Dr. =. Drosophilia. Rb. =. Rabbit. Ec. =. E. Coli. Rt. =. Rat. Eq. =. Equine. RM. =. Rhesus Macaque. ... Home » Adenovirus Fiber » Adenovirus Fiber Antibodies » Adenovirus Fiber Antibody (4D2) - Azide and BSA Free ... Blogs on Adenovirus Fiber. There are no specific blogs for Adenovirus Fiber, but you can read our latest blog posts. ...
At point of sale, we found porcine adenovirus in sausages (1%-2%). The possible dissemination of HEV and other fecal viruses ... Indicator virus (porcine adenovirus) was ubiquitous in fecal samples and absent in liver samples and was detected in 1 ...
A recombinant replication-defective adenovirus expressing the major epitopes of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) capsid protein ( ... Enhancing mucosal immunity in mice by recombinant adenovirus expressing major epitopes of porcine circovirus-2 capsid protein ... Enhancing mucosal immunity in mice by recombinant adenovirus expressing major epitopes of ...
Porcine adenovirus Primary pig kidney monolayers CpE, IFAT Pseudorabies virus (Aujeszkys disease) PK-15A monolayers CpE, IFAT ... Porcine Teschovirus PTV-1, former PEV-1 Primary pig kidney monolayers CpE, IFAT ... AAHL holds a wide range of primary and continuous cell lines from different species, e.g. bovine, ovine, porcine, equine, ... Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGE) and porcine respiratory corona virus (PRCV) Primary pig kidney monolayers ...
... adenovirus explanation free. What is adenovirus? Meaning of adenovirus medical term. What does adenovirus mean? ... Looking for online definition of adenovirus in the Medical Dictionary? ... porcine adenovirus types 1-4. cause respiratory disease; type 4 causes diarrhea and/or meningitis. ... Related to adenovirus: Canine adenovirus. adenovirus. [ad´ĕ-no-vi″rus] any of a large group of viruses causing disease of the ...
Selected quality suppliers for anti-Coxsackie Adenovirus Receptor antibodies. ... Order monoclonal and polyclonal Coxsackie Adenovirus Receptor antibodies for many applications. ... coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor homolog , rCAR , adenovirus receptor , BCAR , coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor , ... More product categories related to Coxsackie Adenovirus Receptor Antibody * 91 anti-Coxsackie Adenovirus Receptor Primary ...
... was established in December of 1998 following transfection of primary porcine alveolar macrophage cultures with the pSV3neo ... Porcine adenovirus Herpes simplex virus 1 African swine fever virus Pseudorabies virus Vaccinia virus Swine vesicular disease ... These porcine myelomonocytic cell lines may have a wide variety of applications in porcine virology and immunology Ref. ... The parental porcine monomyeloid cell line, 3D4, was established in December of 1998 following transfection of primary porcine ...
Canine adenovirus serotype 1 (strain CLL) (CAdV-1). Loading... Q83457 Fiber protein. Porcine adenovirus A serotype 3 (PAdV-3). ... Canine adenovirus serotype 2 (strain Toronto A 26-61) (CAdV-2). Loading... ...
Read more about Development of a qPCR assay for the quantification of porcine adenoviruses as an MST tool for swine fecal ... PCR JC sewage adenoviruses hepatitis E polyomaviruses JCV adenovirus shellfish fecal contamination HEV water contamination More ... Development of a qPCR assay for the quantification of porcine adenoviruses as an MST tool for swine fecal contamination in the ... Viral pollution in the environment and in shellfish: human adenovirus detection by PCR as an index of human viruses. Language ...
... we tracked vectors derived from the human adenovirus type 5 at whole body, tissue and cellular scales throughout the digestive ... we tracked vectors derived from the human adenovirus type 5 at whole body, tissue and cellular scales throughout the digestive ... Tuboly, T., and Nagy, E. (2001). Construction and characterization of recombinant porcine adenovirus serotype 5 expressing the ... challenge with classical swine fever following oral or subcutaneous vaccination with a recombinant porcine adenovirus. Virus ...
Development of a qPCR assay for the quantification of porcine adenoviruses as an MST tool for swine fecal contamination in the ... adenoviruses JCV water contamination polyomaviruses fecal contamination HEV PCR adenovirus shellfish hepatitis E sewage JC More ... etection of bovine and porcine adenoviruses for tracing the source of fecal contamination. Applied and Environmental ... Albinana-Gimenez, N., Miagostovich, M. P., Calgua, B., Huguet, J. M., Matia, L., & Girones, R.. 2009. Analysis of adenoviruses ...
Bovine adenovirus type 3 internalization is independent of primary receptors of human adenovirus type 5 and porcine adenovirus ... Vectors based on nonhuman Ads originally derived from pig (porcine adenovirus serotype 3; PAd3) or cattle (bovine adenovirus ... Porcine adenovirus-3 as a helper-dependent expression vector. J. Gen. Virol. 1999a;80:2909-2916. [PubMed] ... Porcine adenovirus serotype 3 internalization is independent of CAR and alphavbeta3 or alphavbeta5 integrin. Virology. 2005;332 ...
... porcine, avian, and simian (e.g., SAV) origin. Preferably, the adenovirus of animal origin is a canine adenovirus, more ... In a preferred embodiment, the vector is an adenovirus vector. Adenoviruses are eukaryotic DNA viruses that can be modified to ... or adenoviruses of animal origin (See e.g., WO94/26914). Those adenoviruses of animal origin that can be used within the scope ... Various serotypes of adenovirus exist. Of these serotypes, preference is given, within the scope of the present invention, to ...
Anti-apoptosis in porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus. Virulence. 2016 Jul 3;7(5):610-1. doi: 10.1080/ ... Exploration of New Sites in Adenovirus Hexon for Foreign Peptides Insertion. Open Virol J. 2015 May 29; 9:1-6. ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus envelope (E) protein interacts with mitochondrial proteins and induces ... Development of a DNA-launched replicon as a vaccine for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Virus Res. 2013 ...
Pig (Porcine). Primate. Adenovirus. Chicken. Rabbit. Xenopus laevis. Horse (Equine). Guinea Pig. ... Cow (Bovine), Human, Mouse (Murine), Pig (Porcine), Rat (Rattus) Alternatives Human. (348), Mouse (Murine). (163), Rat (Rattus) ... Pig (Porcine). (10), Dog (Canine). (7), Rabbit. (6), Chicken. (5), Horse (Equine). (5), Xenopus laevis. (4), Guinea Pig. (2), ... Cow (Bovine), Human, Mouse (Murine), Pig (Porcine), Rat (Rattus). Alternatives 348 Human. ...
A Novel Strain of Porcine Adenovirus Detected in Urinary Bladder Urothelial Cell Culture ...
  • The data also provided information on the environmental prevalence of animal adenoviruses. (asm.org)
  • Likewise, the sets of primers previously designed for detection of human adenovirus also produced negative results with animal adenoviruses. (asm.org)
  • Identification of human and animal adenoviruses and polyomaviruses for determination of sources of fecal contamination in the environment. (ub.edu)
  • Distribution of human polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, and hepatitis E virus in the environment and in a drinking-water treatment plant. (ub.edu)