Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Adenovirus Infections, Human: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.Adenoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.Adenovirus E1B Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.Adenovirus E3 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.Adenovirus E4 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Adenoviruses, Canine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.Adenovirus E2 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.Mastadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Adenoviruses, Porcine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.Aviadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.Fowl adenovirus A: The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Parvovirus, Canine: A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Keratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Adenovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Coronavirus, Canine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Distemper: A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Hip Dysplasia, Canine: A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.ConjunctivitisVirus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Atadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Tooth Eruption, Ectopic: An abnormality in the direction of a TOOTH ERUPTION.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Tropism: The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Mice, Inbred C57BLTooth, Impacted: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).Injections, Intralesional: Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Tooth, Unerupted: A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Herpesvirus 1, Canid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS virus that causes a disease in newborn puppies.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Venereal Tumors, Veterinary: Tumors most commonly seen on or near the genitalia. They are venereal, most likely transmitted through transplantation of cells by contact. Metastases have been reported. Spontaneous regression may occur.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Y-Box-Binding Protein 1: Y-box-binding protein 1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with Y-box PROMOTER REGIONS of MHC CLASS II GENES. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide variety of GENES.Integrin alphaV: An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Deoxycytidine Monophosphate: Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.TritiumCHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Parvoviridae: A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Ganciclovir: An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Siadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE comprising species including viruses of frogs (FROGS AND TOADS) and TURKEYS. The type species is Frog adenovirus.
(1/44) Cellular uptake and infection by canine parvovirus involves rapid dynamin-regulated clathrin-mediated endocytosis, followed by slower intracellular trafficking.

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a small, nonenveloped virus that is a host range variant of a virus which infected cats and changes in the capsid protein control the ability of the virus to infect canine cells. We used a variety of approaches to define the early stages of cell entry by CPV. Electron microscopy showed that virus particles concentrated within clathrin-coated pits and vesicles early in the uptake process and that the infecting particles were rapidly removed from the cell surface. Overexpression of a dominant interfering mutant of dynamin in the cells altered the trafficking of capsid-containing vesicles. There was a 40% decrease in the number of CPV-infected cells in mutant dynamin-expressing cells, as well as a approximately 40% decrease in the number of cells in S phase of the cell cycle, which is required for virus replication. However, there was also up to 10-fold more binding of CPV to the surface of mutant dynamin-expressing cells than there was to uninduced cells, suggesting an increased receptor retention on the cell surface. In contrast, there was little difference in virus binding, virus infection rate, or cell cycle distribution between induced and uninduced cells expressing wild-type dynamin. CPV particles colocalized with transferrin in perinuclear endosomes but not with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, a marker for fluid-phase endocytosis. Cells treated with nanomolar concentrations of bafilomycin A1 were largely resistant to infection when the drug was added either 30 min before or 90 min after inoculation, suggesting that there was a lag between virus entering the cell by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and escape of the virus from the endosome. High concentrations of CPV particles did not permeabilize canine A72 or mink lung cells to alpha-sarcin, but canine adenovirus type 1 particles permeabilized both cell lines. These data suggest that the CPV entry and infection pathway is complex and involves multiple vesicular components.  (+info)

(2/44) Nedocromil sodium inhibits canine adenovirus bronchiolitis in beagle puppies.

Nedocromil sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to control asthmatic attacks. Our hypothesis is that nedocromil sodium inhibits virus-induced airway inflammation, a common trigger of asthma. We nebulized nedocromil sodium into beagle dogs (n = 10, mean +/- SEM ages: 149 +/- 13 days) before and after inoculation with canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Control dogs (n = 10) received saline aerosols and were either infected with CAV2 (Sal/CAV2, n = 7, mean +/- SEM ages: 140 +/- 11 days) or were not infected (Sal/Sal, n = 3, ages: 143 +/- 0 days). All dogs were anesthetized with choralose (80 mg/kg i.v.), intubated, and mechanically ventilated. Pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed using standard techniques. Pulmonary function tests revealed no significant change between the nedocromil sodium and non-nedocromil-treated groups. The percentage of infected bronchioles was quantitated as the number of inflamed airways of 40 bronchioles examined times 100 for each dog. Nedocromil-treated dogs had significantly (p < 0.05) less mucosal inflammation (mean +/- SEM, 39% +/- 5%), epithelial denudation (36% +/- 5%), and BAL neutrophilia (11 +/- 3) than did Sal/CAV2 dogs (51% +/- 6%, 57% +/- 4%, and 33% +/- 8%, respectively). We concluded that pretreatment with nedocromil sodium aerosols attenuated CAV2-induced airway inflammation in these beagle puppies.  (+info)

(3/44) Canine adenovirus type 2 attachment and internalization: coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor, alternative receptors, and an RGD-independent pathway.

The best-characterized receptors for adenoviruses (Ads) are the coxsackievirus-Ad receptor (CAR) and integrins alpha(v)beta(5) and alpha(v)beta(3), which facilitate entry. The alpha(v) integrins recognize an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif found in some extracellular matrix proteins and in the penton base in most human Ads. Using a canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) vector, we found that CHO cells that express CAR but not wild-type CHO cells are susceptible to CAV-2 transduction. Cells expressing alpha(M)beta(2) integrins or major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules but which do not express CAR were not transduced. Binding assays showed that CAV-2 attaches to a recombinant soluble form of CAR and that Ad type 5 (Ad5) fiber, penton base, and an anti-CAR antibody partially blocked attachment. Using fluorescently labeled CAV-2 particles, we found that in some cells nonpermissive for transduction, inhibition was at the point of internalization and not attachment. The transduction efficiency of CAV-2, which lacks an RGD motif, surprisingly mimicked that of Ad5 when tested in cells selectively expressing alpha(v)beta(5) and alpha(v)beta(3) integrins. Our results demonstrate that CAV-2 transduction is augmented by CAR and possibly by alpha(v)beta(5), though transduction can be CAR and alpha(v)beta(3/5) independent but is alpha(M)beta(2), MHC-I, and RGD independent, demonstrating a transduction mechanism which is distinct from that of Ad2/5.  (+info)

(4/44) Preferential transduction of neurons by canine adenovirus vectors and their efficient retrograde transport in vivo.

In the central nervous system (CNS), there are innate obstacles to the modification of neurons: their relative low abundance versus glia and oligodendrocytes, the inaccessibility of certain target populations, and the volume one can inject safely. Our aim in this study was to characterize the in vivo efficacy of a novel viral vector derived from a canine adenovirus (CAV-2). Here we show that CAV-2 preferentially transduced i) rat olfactory sensory neurons; ii) rodent CNS neurons in vitro and in vivo; and, more clinically relevant, iii) neurons in organotypic slices of human cortical brain. CAV-2 also showed a high disposition for retrograde axonal transport in vivo. We examined the molecular basis of neuronal targeting by CAV-2 and suggest that due to CAR (coxsackie adenovirus receptor) expression on neuronal cells-and not oligodendrocytes, glia, myofibers, and nasal epithelial cells-CAV-2 vectors transduced neurons preferentially in these diverse tissues.  (+info)

(5/44) Generation of E3-deleted canine adenoviruses expressing canine parvovirus capsid by homologous recombination in bacteria.

E3-deleted canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) was generated by homologous recombination in bacterial cells, using an antibiotic resistance marker to facilitate the recovery of recombinants. This marker was flanked by unique restriction endonuclease sites, which allowed its subsequent removal and the insertion of cassettes expressing the canine parvovirus capsid at the E3 locus. Infectious virus was recovered following transfection of canine cells and capsid expression was observed by RT-PCR from one of the virus constructs. A second construct, containing a different promoter, showed delayed growth and genome instability which, based on the size difference between these inserts, suggests a maximum packaging size of 106 to 109% wild-type genome size for CAV-1.  (+info)

(6/44) An adenovirus vector with a chimeric fiber derived from canine adenovirus type 2 displays novel tropism.

Many clinically relevant tissues are refractory to Ad5 transduction because of negligible levels of the primary Ad5 receptor, the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Thus, development of Ad vectors that display CAR-independent tropism could lead directly to therapeutic gain. The Toronto strain of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2) exhibits native tropism that is augmented by, but not fully dependent upon, CAR for cellular transduction. We hypothesized that an Ad5 vector containing the nonhuman CAV2 knob would provide expanded tropism and constructed Ad5Luc1-CK, an E1-deleted Ad5 vector encoding the fiber knob domain from CAV2. Ad5Luc1-CK gene delivery to CAR-deficient cells was augmented up to 30-fold versus the Ad5 control vector, and correlated with increased cell surface binding. Further, we confirmed the importance of cellular integrins to Ad5Luc1-CK transduction. Herein, we present the rationale, design, purification, and characterization of a novel tropism modified, infectivity-enhanced Ad vector.  (+info)

(7/44) Longitudinal study of viruses associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

In this investigation a population of dogs at a rehoming center was monitored over a period of 2 years. Despite regular vaccination of incoming dogs against distemper, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), respiratory disease was endemic. Tissue samples from the respiratory tract as well as paired serum samples were collected for analysis. The development of PCR assays for the detection of CPIV, canine adenovirus types 1 and 2, and canine herpesvirus (CHV) is described. Surprisingly, canine adenovirus was not detected in samples from this population, whereas 19.4% of tracheal and 10.4% of lung samples were positive for CPIV and 12.8% of tracheal and 9.6% of lung samples were positive for CHV. As reported previously, a novel canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) was detected in this population (K. Erles, C. Toomey, H. W. Brooks, and J. Brownlie, Virology 310:216-223, 2003). Infections with CRCoV occurred mostly during the first week of a dog's stay at the kennel, whereas CPIV and CHV were detected at later time points. Furthermore, the evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to CPIV and an immunofluorescence assay for detection of antibodies to CHV is described. This study shows that CPIV is present at kennels despite vaccination. In addition, other agents such as CHV and CRCoV may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine respiratory disease, whereas CAV-2 and canine distemper virus were not present in this population, indicating that their prevalence in the United Kingdom is low due to widespread vaccination of dogs.  (+info)

(8/44) Cloning and expression of canine interferon-alpha genes in Escherichia coli.

We cloned five new subtypes of cDNA encoding canine interferon-alpha (CaIFN-alpha) from a canine epithelial cell line. CaIFN-alphas were divided into two groups by amino acid sequences and a molecular phylogenic tree. Two subtypes of them were expressed in Escherichia coli, and IFN proteins were purified. Recombinant CaIFN-alphas were highly species-specific and showed antiviral activity against Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus and canine adenovirus-1 , but not against canine herpesvirus-1.  (+info)

*  Adenoviridae
Canine adenovirus 2 (CAdV-2) is one of the potential causes of kennel cough. Core vaccines for dogs include attenuated live ... Two types of canine adenoviruses are well known, type 1 and 2. Type 1 causes infectious canine hepatitis, a potentially fatal ... Adenoviruses Stanford University - Adenoviruses Adenoviruses General Concepts General information on Adenovirus DNA virus ... Tupaia adenovirus (TAV) (Tree shrew adenovirus 1) has been isolated from tree shrews. Otarine adenovirus 1 has been isolated ...
*  Mastadenovirus
serotype 14: can cause potentially fatal adenovirus infections. Canine adenovirus 1 (CAdV-1) can lead to death in puppies, or ... Bat mastadenovirus A Bat mastadenovirus B Bovine mastadenovirus A Bovine mastadenovirus B Bovine mastadenovirus C Canine ...
*  Infectious canine hepatitis
... is an acute liver infection in dogs caused by canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1). CAV-1 also causes ... Most combination vaccines for dogs contain a modified canine adenovirus type-2. CAV-2 is one of the causes of respiratory ... infectious canine hepatitis virus, and distemper virus experimental challenges". Vet Ther. 5 (3): 173-86. PMID 15578450. Canine ... unvaccinated dogs. Treatment is symptomatic. Most dogs recover spontaneously without treatment. Prevention is through ...
*  Bat adenovirus TJM
Genomic analysis suggests canine adenoviruses may have originated from bites by vespertilionid bats. Adenovirus genome Chen, LH ... Bat adenovirus TJM genome European Nucleotide Archive: Bat adenovirus TJM Stanford University - Adenoviruses 3D macromolecular ... Bat adenovirus TJM (Bt-AdV-TJM) is a novel species of the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae. It is a double ... The designation TJM refers to the strain as there are several species of Bat adenoviruses in three groups 1, 2, and 3. Bt-AdV- ...
*  Bordetella bronchiseptica
Kennel cough can also be caused by canine adenovirus-2 or canine parainfluenza virus or a combination of pathogens. In rabbits ... It is a serious disease of dogs, pigs, and rabbits, and has been seen in cats, horses, and seals. A PCR test for the pathogen ... It can cause infectious bronchitis in dogs and other animals, but rarely infects humans. Closely related to B. pertussis-the ... Wagener, J. S., R. Sobonya, L. Minnich and L. M. Taussig (1984). Role of canine parainfluenza virus and Bordetella ...
*  Kennel cough
Several intranasal vaccines have been developed that contain canine adenovirus in addition to B bronchiseptica and canine- ... without complications from canine distemper virus (CDV) or canine adenovirus (CAV). This form occurs most regularly in autumn, ... Prevention is by vaccinating for canine adenovirus, distemper, parainfluenza, and Bordetella. In kennels, the best prevention ... This has potentially expanded the vector from currently or recently infected dogs to half the dog population as carriers. To ...
*  Retinal dysplasia
Other causes of retinal dysplasia in dogs include infection with canine adenovirus or canine herpesvirus, or radiation of the ... Most cases of retinal dysplasia in dogs are hereditary. It can involve one or both retinas. Retinal dysplasia can be focal, ...
*  Vaccination of dogs
Generally not recommended, owing to unproven efficacy, are: canine coronavirus, canine adenovirus-1 (which also causes ... canine hepatitis virus or adenovirus-2) and CPV-2 (canine parvovirus). Non-core vaccines are those that are required by only ... Programs supporting regular vaccination of dogs have contributed both to the health of dogs and to the public health. In ... "2011 AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines" (PDF). American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Canine Vaccination Task Force. 2011 ...
*  List of MeSH codes (B04)
... adenoviruses, canine MeSH B04.280.030.500.350 --- adenoviruses, human MeSH B04.280.030.500.675 --- adenoviruses, porcine MeSH ... adenoviruses, canine MeSH B04.909.204.097.500.350 --- adenoviruses, human MeSH B04.909.204.097.500.675 --- adenoviruses, ... canine MeSH B04.820.455.600.650.500.320 --- distemper virus, phocine MeSH B04.820.455.600.650.500.500 --- measles virus MeSH ... canine MeSH B04.909.777.455.600.650.500.320 --- Phocine distemper,distemper virus, phocine MeSH B04.909.777.455.600.650.500.500 ...
*  ATCvet code QI07
... canine parainfluenza virus QI07AD05 Canine distemper virus QI07AD06 Canine distemper virus + canine adenovirus QI07AD07 Canine ... live canine adenovirus + inactivated leptospira QI07AI02 Live canine distemper virus + live canine adenovirus + live canine ... canine reovirus + canine influenza virus QI07AA04 Canine parainfluenza virus QI07AA05 Canine adenovirus QI07AA06 Canine ... canine adenovirus + canine parvovirus QI07AD03 Canine distemper virus + canine parvovirus QI07AD04 Canine distemper virus + ...
*  DA2PPC vaccine
D for canine distemper, A2 for canine adenovirus type 2, which offers cross-protection to canine adenovirus type 1 (the more ... see Canine adenovirus), the first P for canine parvovirus, and the second P for parainfluenza. Because infectious canine ... Also, even if the dog owner is not concerned about adenovirus, coronavirus, parvovirus, or parainfluenza, they should vaccinate ... hepatitis is another name for canine adenovirus type 1, an H is sometimes used instead of A. In DA2PPC, the C indicates canine ...
*  Granulomatous meningoencephalitis
One study searched for viral DNA from canine herpesvirus, canine adenovirus, and canine parvovirus in brain tissue from dogs ... The disease is more common in female toy dogs of young and middle age. It has a rapid onset. The lesions of GME exist mainly in ... GME is likely second only to encephalitis caused by canine distemper virus as the most common cause of inflammatory disease of ... Pug Dog encephalitis (PDE) is an idiopathic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the prosencephalon (forebrain and thalamus ...
*  Black-backed jackal
... s can carry diseases such as rabies, canine parvovirus, canine distemper, canine adenovirus, Ehrlichia canis ... Juliane Kaminski & Sarah Marshall-Pescini (2014). "Chapter 1 - The Social Dog:History and Evolution". The Social Dog:Behavior ... In the western Cape in the early 1900s, dogs bred by crossing foxhounds, lurchers, and borzoi were used. Spring traps with ... In Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffman, M. & MacDonald, D. W., ed., Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs - 2004 Status Survey and ...
*  Dog health
... canine parvovirus, canine distemper, and infectious canine hepatitis (using canine adenovirus type 2 to avoid reaction). The ... Aging in dogs Dog anatomy Senior dog diets Dog odor Hypoallergenic dog food Shaw, SE; Day, MJ; Birtles, RJ; Breitschwerdt, EB ( ... Canine herpesvirus Canine influenza Bacterial diseases in dogs are usually not contagious from dog to dog; instead they are ... canine distemper) CAV-2 (canine hepatitis virus or adenovirus-2) CPV-2 (canine parvovirus) Kennel cough is a respiratory ...
*  Vaccine
Other canine vaccines include canine distemper, canine parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis, adenovirus-2, leptospirosis, ... Where rabies occurs, rabies vaccination of dogs may be required by law. ... bordatella, canine parainfluenza virus, and Lyme disease, among others. Cases of veterinary vaccines used in humans have been ... Crotalus atrox toxoid is used to vaccinate dogs against rattlesnake bites.[citation needed] Protein subunit - rather than ...
*  List of MeSH codes (C02)
... adenovirus infections, human MeSH C02.256.076.381 --- hepatitis, infectious canine MeSH C02.256.430.400 --- hepatitis b MeSH ...
*  Animal virus
Canine distemper virus is closely related to measles virus and is the most important viral disease of dogs. The disease (which ... Many other viruses, including caliciviruses, herpesviruses, adenoviruses and parvoviruses, circulate in marine mammal ... Companion animals such as cats, dogs, and horses, if not vaccinated, can catch serious viral infections. Canine parvovirus 2 is ... The infection resembled canine distemper; the animals died within two weeks of respiratory distress and many aborted pups were ...
*  Human bocavirus
... respiratory syncytial virus and adenoviruses. The name bocavirus is derived from bovine and canine, referring to the two known ... Schwartz D, Green B, Carmichael LE, Parrish CR (October 2002). "The canine minute virus (minute virus of canines) is a distinct ... and the minute virus of canines which infects dogs. Parvoviruses (Latin: small viruses) have a 5 kilobase long single-stranded ... Phylogenetic analysis of swine bocavirus places it with canine minute virus. Incomplete sequences of bocaviruses have been ...
*  PDE6B
Photoreceptors start degeneration at postnatal day 13 until a year after the dog is totally blind. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... of altering the course of retinal degeneration through subretinal injection of recombinant replication defective adenovirus ... "Restoration of vision in the pde6β-deficient dog, a large animal model of rod-cone dystrophy". Molecular Therapy. 20 (11): 2019 ...
*  Diet-induced obesity model
Typically mice, rats, dogs, or non-human primates are used in these models. These animals can then be used to study in vivo ... Certain viruses, specifically the AD-36 adenovirus, have been shown to increase body fat in laboratory animals. Living a ... For example, dogs were used as subjects in a study of the effects of diet-induced obesity on insulin dispersion. In this ... "Dogs". Office of Research Integrity. Retrieved Nov 14, 2016. Kolka, C. M; Harrison, L. N; Lottati, M; Chiu, J. D; Kirkman, E. L ...
*  Sapovirus
... es have been identified in bats, California sea lions, dogs, pigs and mink. Oka, Tomoichiro; Wang, Qiuhong; Katayama, ... or adenovirus) by their typical "Star of David" surface morphology under the electron microscope. However, this has low ... adenovirus, and rotavirus. sapovirus was identified in 21 outbreaks (23 percent), with 66 percent of these occurring in long ...
*  Chlorhexidine
It is commonly used to manage skin infections in dogs. In addition to this, it is an active ingredient in disinfectant products ... Chlorhexidine is ineffective against polioviruses and adenoviruses. The effectiveness against herpes viruses has not yet been ... "Effects of chlorhexidine diacetate and povidone-iodine on wound healing in dogs". Vet Surg. 17 (6): 291-95. doi:10.1111/j.1532- ...
*  Vascular endothelial growth factor A
It was also shown in dogs that delivery of VEGF-A to areas of the heart with little or no blood flow enhanced collateral blood ... phase I assessment of direct intramyocardial administration of an adenovirus vector expressing VEGF121 cDNA to individuals with ... It has been shown that injection of VEGF-A in dogs following severely restricted blood flow to the heart caused an increase in ... collateral blood vessel formation compared to the dogs who did not receive the VEGF-A treatment. ...
*  Polyethylene glycol
Bowman, Lee (4 December 2004). "Study on dogs yields hope in human paralysis treatment". seattlepi.com. Ganji, Mahipal; Docter ... Kreppel, Florian; Kochanek, Stefan (2007). "Modification of Adenovirus Gene Transfer Vectors With Synthetic Polymers: A ...
*  Human nutrition
In 2005 a study found that in addition to bad nutrition, adenovirus may cause obesity. Food portal Health and fitness portal 5 ... because he could cure it in dogs with cod-liver oil. In 1922 McCollum destroyed the vitamin A in cod liver oil but found it ... Whigham, Leah D.; Israel, Barbara A.; Atkinson, Richard L. (2006). "Adipogenic potential of multiple human adenoviruses in vivo ... but dogs also fed protein survived, identifying protein as an essential dietary component.[citation needed] In 1840, Justus ...
*  List of vaccine topics
Adenovirus vaccine Coxsackie B virus vaccine Cytomegalovirus vaccine Dengue vaccine for humans Eastern Equine encephalitis ... "Evaluation of an attenuated strain of Ehrlichia canis as a vaccine for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis". Vaccine. 31 (1): 226-233 ... oral adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine, in U.S. Military recruits". Vaccine. 31 (28): 2963-2971. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine. ... Adenovirus Vaccine Efficacy Trial Consortium (2013). "A phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the ...
Viruses | Free Full-Text | An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors  Viruses | Free Full-Text | An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors
This review updates canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV-2, also known as CAdV-2) biology and gives an overview of the generation ... Preclinical and clinical studies using human derived adenoviruses (HAd) have demonstrated the feasibility of flexible hybrid ... Adenovirus vectors have significant potential for long- or short-term gene transfer. ... This review updates canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV-2, also known as CAdV-2) biology and gives an overview of the generation ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/2/9/2134
A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey  A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey
Canine adenovirus (CAV) type 1 and 2, respectively, cause infectious canine hepatitis and infectious canine laryngotracheitis ... GUR, S e ACAR, A. A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey. J. S. Afr. Vet. ... The aim of this study was to conduct a serological investigation of canine adenovirus infection. For this purpose, serum ... Fourty-two of these dogs (82.3 %) were detected as seropositive. In total, 82 of 94 dogs (87.2 %) were found to be positive for ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1019-91282009000200005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en
A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey  A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey
Canine adenovirus (CAV) type 1 and 2, respectively, cause infectious canine hepatitis and infectious canine laryngotracheitis ... GUR, S y ACAR, A. A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey. J. S. Afr. Vet. ... The aim of this study was to conduct a serological investigation of canine adenovirus infection. For this purpose, serum ... Fourty-two of these dogs (82.3 %) were detected as seropositive. In total, 82 of 94 dogs (87.2 %) were found to be positive for ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1019-91282009000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en
Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) | definition of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) by Medical dictionary  Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) | definition of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) by Medical dictionary
What is canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2)? Meaning of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) medical term. What does canine adenovirus ... Looking for online definition of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) in the Medical Dictionary? canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) ... adenovirus. (redirected from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2)). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. adenovirus ... Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) , definition of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) by Medical dictionary https://medical- ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/canine+adenovirus+type+2+
Canine Adenovirus Pneumonia in 2 puppies- CAV-2 | veterinary pathology  Canine Adenovirus Pneumonia in 2 puppies- CAV-2 | veterinary pathology
Canine Adenovirus Pneumonia in 2 puppies- CAV-2 History: Two English Bulldog puppies (1, and 3 weeks old) had trouble breathing ... The features of the pneumonia are diagnostic for Canine Adenovirus type 2. This disease affects unvaccinated juvenile dogs and ... Canine Adenovirus Pneumonia in 2 puppies- CAV-2. Posted on October 27, 2011 by Brian ... Canine Adenovirus Pneumonia in 2 puppies- CAV-2. History: Two English Bulldog puppies (1, and 3 weeks old) had trouble ...
more infohttps://vetpath.wordpress.com/2011/10/27/canine-adenovirus-pneumonia-in-2-puppies-cav-2/
canine adenovirus type 2 parainfluenza bordetella bronchiseptica vaccine Archives | Helo National | All about Nations and...  canine adenovirus type 2 parainfluenza bordetella bronchiseptica vaccine Archives | Helo National | All about Nations and...
Tagged canine adenovirus type 2 parainfluenza bordetella bronchiseptica vaccine. Home. canine adenovirus type 2 parainfluenza ... Adenovirus 1 in canines causes respiratory infections, targets a number of organs within the physique, and causes infectious ... Dogs Still Freezing To Death Despite Strict New Laws In 2018-What Can We Do? ... Millennials Think About Dogs When Buying Homes More Than Marriage Or Kids ...
more infohttp://helonational.com/tag/canine-adenovirus-type-2-parainfluenza-bordetella-bronchiseptica-vaccine/
Nobivac Intra-Trac3 ADT Dog Vaccine | Jeffers Pet  Nobivac Intra-Trac3 ADT Dog Vaccine | Jeffers Pet
For INTRANASAL use in healthy dogs including pregnant females and healthy puppies. ... Nobivac Intra-Trac3 ADT is for the prevention of Canine Adenovirus Type 2, Parainfluenza, Bordetella Bronchiseptica Vaccine ( ... Nobivac Intra-Trac3 ADT is for the prevention of Canine Adenovirus Type 2, Parainfluenza, Bordetella Bronchiseptica Vaccine ( ... Most dog owners think their dogs only get bordetella when they board their dog. Your dog can get bordetella in back yard from a ...
more infohttps://www.jefferspet.com/products/nobivac-intra-trac3-adt
Mastadenovirus - Wikipedia  Mastadenovirus - Wikipedia
serotype 14: can cause potentially fatal adenovirus infections. Canine adenovirus 1 (CAdV-1) can lead to death in puppies, or ... Bat mastadenovirus A Bat mastadenovirus B Bovine mastadenovirus A Bovine mastadenovirus B Bovine mastadenovirus C Canine ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mastadenovirus
Nobivac Intra-Trac 3 25 Dose  Nobivac Intra-Trac 3 25 Dose
Nobivac Canine is for the vaccination of healthy dogs as an aid in prevention of infectious disease associated with canine ... Protects against Bordetella, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus type 2 *Store at 2° - 7°C (Do not freeze) * ... Nobivac Canine is for the vaccination of healthy dogs as an aid in prevention of infectious disease associated with canine ... adenovirus type 2, canine parainfluenza virus, and Bordetella bronchiseptica infection. ...
more infohttp://www.californiapetpharmacy.com/nobivac-intra-trac3-25ml.html
Univac 5 |  Dog Shots | Dog Vaccines Online | Horse Health USA  Univac 5 | Dog Shots | Dog Vaccines Online | Horse Health USA
... susceptible dogs and puppies as an aid in the reduction of diseases caused by canine distemper, canine adenovirus types 1 and 2 ... Univac 5 dog shot is a modified-live virus for the vaccination of healthy, ... susceptible dogs and puppies as an aid in the reduction of diseases caused by canine distemper, canine adenovirus types 1 and 2 ... Univac 5 dog shot is a modified-live virus for the vaccination of healthy, ...
more infohttp://www.horsehealthusa.com/details/Univac-5/13-541.html
Solo-Jec 9  Solo-Jec 9
Canine Distemper, Canine Adenovirus Type 1 and Type 2, Parainfluenza, Parvovirus and 4 types of lepto: Leptospira Canicola, ... Solo-Jec 9 is a dog vaccine that protects against 9 major diseases: ... infectious canine hepatitis, canine adenovirus type 2, canine parainfluenza and canine parvovirus (CPV). The diluent contains ... Dog > Vaccines > 5 Way: Distemper, Adenovirus, Parainfluenza & Parvo. * Vaccines > Dog Vaccines > 5 Way: Distemper, Adenovirus ...
more infohttp://www.petsupplies4less.com/Solo-Jec-9_p_3638.html
The Serological and Virological Investigation of Canine Adenovirus Infection on the Dogs  The Serological and Virological Investigation of Canine Adenovirus Infection on the Dogs
Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs), Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, ... Two types of Canine adenovirus (CAVs), Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, ... Despite the frequent occurrence of Canine Adenovirus worldwide, in Turkey, the only notified cases of Canine Adenovirus (CAV) ... canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs," Canadian Veterinary Journal, vol. 52, no. 9, pp ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2013/587024/
A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey  A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey
Emery J B, House J A, Brown W R 1978 Cross-protective immunity to canine adeno-virus type-2 by canine adenovirus type-1 ... Canine adenovirus (CAV) type 1 and 2, respectively, cause infectious canine hepatitis and infectious canine laryngotracheitis ... 1. Appel M J 1987 Canine adenovirus type 1 (infectious canine hepatitis virus). In Horzinek M C (ed.) Virus infections of ... immunosorbent assay for the detection of canine antibodies to canine adenoviruses. Laboratory Animal Science 29: 603-609 [ ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200005
A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey  A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey
Emery J B, House J A, Brown W R 1978 Cross-protective immunity to canine adeno-virus type-2 by canine adenovirus type-1 ... Canine adenovirus (CAV) type 1 and 2, respectively, cause infectious canine hepatitis and infectious canine laryngotracheitis ... 1. Appel M J 1987 Canine adenovirus type 1 (infectious canine hepatitis virus). In Horzinek M C (ed.) Virus infections of ... immunosorbent assay for the detection of canine antibodies to canine adenoviruses. Laboratory Animal Science 29: 603-609 [ ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282009000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es
Glomerulonephritis associated with simultaneous canine adenovirus-1 and Dirofilaria immitis infection in a dog.  - Surrey...  Glomerulonephritis associated with simultaneous canine adenovirus-1 and Dirofilaria immitis infection in a dog. - Surrey...
Glomerulonephritis associated with simultaneous canine adenovirus-1 and Dirofilaria immitis infection in a dog. ... Glomerulonephritis associated with simultaneous canine adenovirus-1 and Dirofilaria immitis infection in a dog. J Vet Med B ... Adenoviridae Infections, Animals, Dirofilariasis, Dog Diseases, Dogs, Glomerulonephritis, Hepatitis, Viral, Animal, ... deposition in the mesangium and basement membranes of a 2-year-old dog with canine viral hepatitis and dirofilariasis. The ...
more infohttp://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/826576/
A screening for canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus and carnivore protoparvoviruses in Arctic foxes (|em|Vulpes lagopus|...  A screening for canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus and carnivore protoparvoviruses in Arctic foxes (|em|Vulpes lagopus|...
About the Journal. Polar Research is the peer-reviewed journal of the Norwegian Polar Institute, Norway's central institution for research, environmental monitoring and mapping of the polar regions. Promoting the global exchange of scientific knowledge about the Arctic and Antarctic across disciplinary boundaries, Polar Research was the first all open access polar journal. The journal has been awarded the DOAJ Seal by the Directory of Open Access Journals for its openness and high publishing standards. From the first issue in 1982 to the current volume, all articles are available to readers free of charge. APCs are comparatively low.. ...
more infohttps://polarresearch.net/index.php/polar/article/view/2665/6081
Contrasting Effects of Human, Canine, and Hybrid Adenovirus Vectors on the Phenotypical and Functional Maturation of Human...  Contrasting Effects of Human, Canine, and Hybrid Adenovirus Vectors on the Phenotypical and Functional Maturation of Human...
Contrasting Effects of Human, Canine, and Hybrid Adenovirus Vectors on the Phenotypical and Functional Maturation of Human ... Contrasting Effects of Human, Canine, and Hybrid Adenovirus Vectors on the Phenotypical and Functional Maturation of Human ... Contrasting Effects of Human, Canine, and Hybrid Adenovirus Vectors on the Phenotypical and Functional Maturation of Human ... Contrasting Effects of Human, Canine, and Hybrid Adenovirus Vectors on the Phenotypical and Functional Maturation of Human ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/81/7/3272/article-info
10 x Dog Test Triple - Adenovirus Type-1, Distemper & Influenza - Canine Swab Kits | Home Health UK  10 x Dog Test Triple - Adenovirus Type-1, Distemper & Influenza - Canine Swab Kits | Home Health UK
Adenovirus Type-I & Influenza in dogs Time to expiry: Jan 2019 Ideal for Vets but also suitable for home testing as each pack ... Canine) Tests / Canine (Dog) Distemper Test / 10 x Dog Test Triple - Adenovirus Type-1, Distemper & Influenza - Canine Swab ... Dog (Canine) Tests, Canine (Dog) Distemper Test, Canine Adenovirus & Parainfluenza Tests ... What is Canine Adenovirus Type-1?. Adenovirus 1 is the more severe version of the two kinds of adenovirus known to cause ...
more infohttps://homehealth-uk.com/all-products/10-x-dog-triple-test-canine-distemper-virus-adenovirus-type-1-influenza-home-swab-kits/
5 x Dog Test Triple - Adenovirus Type-1, Distemper & Influenza - Canine Swab Kits | Home Health UK  5 x Dog Test Triple - Adenovirus Type-1, Distemper & Influenza - Canine Swab Kits | Home Health UK
Adenovirus Type-I & Influenza in dogs Time to expiry: Jan 2019 Ideal for Vets but also suitable for home testing as each pack ... Canine) Tests / Canine (Dog) Distemper Test / 5 x Dog Test Triple - Adenovirus Type-1, Distemper & Influenza - Canine Swab Kits ... Dog (Canine) Tests, Canine (Dog) Distemper Test, Canine Adenovirus & Parainfluenza Tests ... What is Canine Adenovirus Type-1?. Adenovirus 1 is the more severe version of the two kinds of adenovirus known to cause ...
more infohttps://homehealth-uk.com/all-products/5-x-dog-triple-test-canine-distemper-virus-adenovirus-type-1-influenza-home-swab-kits/
Impact of adenovirus life cycle progression on the generation of canine helper-dependent vectors.  Impact of adenovirus life cycle progression on the generation of canine helper-dependent vectors.
Helper-dependent adenovirus vectors (HDVs) are safe and efficient tools for gene transfer with high cloning capacity. However, ... Canine adenovirus (Ad) type 2 vectors, holding attractive features to overcome immunogenic concerns and treat neurobiological ... Helper-dependent adenovirus vectors (HDVs) are safe and efficient tools for gene transfer with high cloning capacity. However, ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Impact-adenovirus-life-cycle-progression/25338917.html
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