Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
An Ig superfamily transmembrane protein that localizes to junctional complexes that occur between ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and EPTHELIAL CELLS. The protein may play a role in cell-cell adhesion and is the primary site for the attachment of ADENOVIRUSES during infection.
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, the transparent membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye, resulting in symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, burning, discharge, and increased sensitivity to light.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
A vascular disease of the LIVER characterized by the occurrence of multiple blood-filled CYSTS or cavities. The cysts are lined with ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; the cavities lined with hepatic parenchymal cells (HEPATOCYTES). Peliosis hepatis has been associated with use of anabolic steroids (ANABOLIC AGENTS) and certain drugs.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.

Strain variation in adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7a causing acute respiratory disease. (1/452)

In order to determine the suitability of vaccine strains established in the 1960s for a new vaccine, a comprehensive study of strain variation of adenovirus serotype 4 (AV 4) and AV 7 was undertaken. A 1,500-bp region of the hexon gene containing the AV neutralization epitopes from prototype, vaccine, and community-acquired strains and from wild-type strains from military personnel that cause acute respiratory disease (ARD) was sequenced and analyzed. The whole hexon gene from prototype strains, vaccine strains, and selected isolates was sequenced. AV 7 and AV 7a were found to have distinct genotypes, and all vaccine and wild-type strains recovered from 1963 to 1997 had the AV 7a genotype. There was no significant strain variation in the neutralization epitopes of the AV 7a genotype over a 42-year period. The evolution of AV 4 was more complex, with continuous genetic drift punctuated by replacement with a new strain. The current strain of AV 4, which has been in circulation since 1995, is significantly different from the AV 4 prototype and the vaccine strains. Genetic differences were confirmed to be antigenic differences by neutralization tests, which define the new strain as an AV 4 variant. A type-specific PCR for AV 4, AV 7/7a, and AV 21 was developed, and this PCR facilitated the rapid identification of isolates from outbreaks of ARD.  (+info)

Serotyping of adenoviruses on conjunctival scrapings by PCR and sequence analysis. (2/452)

To detect and identify adenovirus (Ad), we investigated hypervariable regions (HVRs) of Ad by using a combination of PCR and direct sequencing (PCR-sequence) method. Primers for nested PCR to amplify the conserved region in the hexon protein containing HVRs were designed based on hexon gene sequences derived from GenBank. These two primer sets amplified a DNA fragment of 7 HVRs from 16 prototypes of Ad, which were divided into five subgenera, including seven serotypes that are the predominant causative agents of acute conjunctivitis in Japan, and from 31 recent conjunctival scraping specimens from patients with adenoviral conjunctivitis. HVR DNA sequences were determined by means of universal sequence primers. Analysis of the predicted amino acid homology of HVRs among Ad prototypes suggested three regions, HVR4, -5, and -7, to be candidates for the neutralization epitopes. The clinical serotype of specimens was determined by the PCR-sequence method with reference to these three HVRs. The serotype determined according to this method was identical to that obtained by culture isolation and the neutralization test (NT) in all scraping samples, whereas the results of this method did not match PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in five samples. It took only three days to detect Ad and to identify the serotype, in contrast to culture isolation-NT, which took at least 2 weeks. These findings indicate that our newly developed PCR-sequence method is applicable for the detection and serotyping of human Ads.  (+info)

Molecular and serological characterization of adenovirus genome type 7h isolated in Japan. (3/452)

In 1996, three adenovirus type 7 (Ad7) strains were isolated from children with fever and upper respiratory diseases in Japan. Restriction endonucleases (REs) analysis and PCR amplification of the E3 7.7 kDa ORF revealed that these strains were genotype Ad7h and closely related to an Argentine Ad7h strain, which has been reported to be highly virulent and so far predominant only in South America. These strains showed weak cross-neutralizing activity and specific haemagglutination-inhibition activity to Ad3 antiserum. The present findings suggest that Ad7h in South America has spread to other parts of the world. Since the seroprevalence to Ad7 in the current Japanese population is very low due to the absence of Ad7 circulation in Japan for decades, Ad7 outbreak as a typical case of re-emerging infectious diseases is a cause for serious concern.  (+info)

Adenoviruses from human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, including two strains that represent new candidate serotypes Ad50 and Ad51 of species B1 and D, respectively. (4/452)

Adenovirus (Ad) isolates from a large number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals were compared serologically and genetically with Ad isolates from immunocompetent patients. Between 1982 and 1994, stool and urine samples from 137 subjects with AIDS hospitalized in The Netherlands yielded 143 Ad strains. Forty additional Ad strains were obtained from 35 HIV-positive patients in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 1992 and 1993. Of these 183 HIV-associated Ad strains, 84% belonged to species D and 3% belonged to species C. These strains were compared with 2,301 Ad strains collected during general diagnostic examinations in The Netherlands from 1973 to 1992. Of the latter strains, 5% belonged to species D and 49% belonged to species C. Two of the Ads isolated from fecal specimens of AIDS patients represent new serotypes: candidate Ad serotype 50 (prototype strain, Wan) of subspecies B1 and candidate Ad serotype 51 (prototype strain, Bom) of species D. The DNA restriction enzyme patterns of strains Wan and Bom differed from the patterns of all established prototypes.  (+info)

Adenovirus infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. (5/452)

We report a 12% incidence of adenovirus infections among 532 recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) from January 1986 through March 1997. The median time from day of stem cell infusion to first positive culture was 41 days. Recipients of allogeneic stem cells, as opposed to autologous stem cell recipients, were more likely to have a culture positive for adenovirus (16% vs. 3%; P<.0001). Pediatric patients were also more likely than adults to have a positive culture (23% vs. 9%; P<.0001). Among stem cell recipients with partially matched related donors, pediatric recipients appear to be at significantly greater risk for infection than adult recipients (P<.001). Positive cultures were associated with evidence of invasion in 64% of cases (41 of 64). A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that isolating adenovirus from more than 1 site correlated with greater risk for invasive infections (P=.002). Invasive infections were associated with poorer chance of survival.  (+info)

Large, persistent epidemic of adenovirus type 4-associated acute respiratory disease in U.S. army trainees. (6/452)

In May 1997, a large, persistent epidemic of adenovirus type 4-associated acute respiratory disease began at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, the largest army basic training center. The epidemic lasted until December and declined when vaccine administration resumed. More than 1,000 male and female trainees were hospitalized; 66.1% of those hospitalized had an adenovirus type 4 isolate.  (+info)

Efficacy of topical cidofovir on multiple adenoviral serotypes in the New Zealand rabbit ocular model. (7/452)

PURPOSE: The goal of the present study was to determine the efficacy of topical 0.5% cidofovir twice daily for 7 days on the replication of multiple adenovirus (Ad) serotypes of subgroup C (Ad1, Ad5, Ad6) in the New Zealand rabbit ocular model. METHODS: In duplicate experiments for each serotype, a total of 20 rabbits (Ad5) or 16 rabbits each (Ad1 and Ad6) were inoculated topically in both eyes, with 1.5 X 10(6) pfu/eye of the appropriate virus. Twenty-four hours later, the rabbits in each serotype group were randomly divided into two topical treatment groups: I, 0.5% cidofovir; II, control vehicle. Treatment was twice daily for 7 days. All eyes were cultured for virus on days 0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14. RESULTS: Compared to the control, treatment with 0.5% cidofovir reduced the following: mean Ad titer (days 1 to 7) for Ad1 (6.3 +/- 20 x 10(1) versus 2.5 +/- 3.9 X 102 pfu/ml; P < 0.0003), Ad5 (3.4 +/-5.8 x 102 versus 1.6 +/- 2.0 x 10(3) pfu/ml; P < 0.000001), and Ad6 (1.2 +/- 5.1 x 10(2) versus 5.5 +/-14 x 10(2) pfu/ml; P = 0.015); reduced Ad-positive eyes/total for Adl [45/128 (35%) versus 84/128 (66%); P = 0.000002], Ad5 [84/160 (53%) versus 131/152 (86%); P < 0.000001], and Ad6 [36/128 (28%) versus 82/128 (64%); P < 0.000001]: and reduced the duration of Ad shedding forAdl (4.9 +/-1.9 versus 9.3 +/- 3.3 days; P < 0.00007), Ad5 (6.4 +/- 2.8 versus 11.5 +/- 2.3 days; P < 0.0001), and Ad6 (4.4 +/- 2.1 versus 8.4 +/- 2.5 days; P < 0.00004). CONCLUSIONS: Topical 0.5% cidofovir twice daily for 7 days demonstrated significant antiviral activity against multiple adenoviral serotypes (Ad1, Ad5, and Ad6) in the New Zealand rabbit ocular model. These in vivo data expand in vitro studies indicating the efficacy of cidofovir against different adenovirus serotypes and support its use in clinical trials.  (+info)

Molecular epidemiology of ocular isolates of adenovirus 8 obtained over nine years. (8/452)

Twenty nine strains of adenovirus 8 have been isolated over nine years in Strasbourg, France, 22 of which were from one private ophthalmologist. To assess a possible relation between these strains, the DNA of adenovirus was analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism using eight different enzymes. Among these, three proved discriminant (Xba I, Bgl II, Eco RI) and made it possible to define 13 genotypes differing from each other by one to three DNA bands. Seven genotypes were unique isolates, while three, representing 16 strains, were isolated over five to eight years. All the genotypes but one were closely related, with 87% homology. All 13 differed from an adenovirus 8 strain from Lyon (homology 68-76%). This study confirmed the stability of adenovirus 8 in a given population.  (+info)

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and fevers in humans. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye), croup, and stomach and intestinal inflammation (gastroenteritis). Adenovirus infections are most common in children, but people of any age can be infected. The viruses spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through contact with contaminated surfaces or objects. There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, and most people recover on their own within a week or two. However, some people may develop more severe illness, particularly those with weakened immune systems. Preventive measures include frequent hand washing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. Some adenoviruses can also cause serious diseases in people with compromised immune systems, such as transplant recipients and people undergoing cancer treatment. There are vaccines available to prevent some types of adenovirus infections in military recruits, who are at higher risk due to close living quarters and stress on the immune system from basic training.

Adenoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by members of the Adenoviridae family of viruses, which are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. These viruses can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. In humans, adenovirus infections can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific type of virus and the age and immune status of the infected individual.

Common manifestations of adenovirus infections in humans include:

1. Respiratory illness: Adenoviruses are a common cause of respiratory tract infections, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and croup. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye) and pharyngoconjunctival fever.
2. Gastrointestinal illness: Some types of adenoviruses can cause diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, particularly in children and immunocompromised individuals.
3. Genitourinary illness: Adenoviruses have been associated with urinary tract infections, hemorrhagic cystitis, and nephritis.
4. Eye infections: Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis is a severe form of conjunctivitis caused by certain adenovirus types.
5. Central nervous system infections: Adenoviruses have been linked to meningitis, encephalitis, and other neurological disorders, although these are rare.

Transmission of adenoviruses typically occurs through respiratory droplets, contaminated surfaces, or contaminated water. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, but supportive care can help alleviate symptoms. In severe cases or in immunocompromised patients, antiviral therapy may be considered.

Adenoviruses, Human: A group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory illnesses, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and croup, in humans. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye), cystitis (bladder infection), and gastroenteritis (stomach and intestinal infection).

Human adenoviruses are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that belong to the family Adenoviridae. There are more than 50 different types of human adenoviruses, which can be classified into seven species (A-G). Different types of adenoviruses tend to cause specific illnesses, such as respiratory or gastrointestinal infections.

Human adenoviruses are highly contagious and can spread through close personal contact, respiratory droplets, or contaminated surfaces. They can also be transmitted through contaminated water sources. Some people may become carriers of the virus and experience no symptoms but still spread the virus to others.

Most human adenovirus infections are mild and resolve on their own within a few days to a week. However, some types of adenoviruses can cause severe illness, particularly in people with weakened immune systems, such as infants, young children, older adults, and individuals with HIV/AIDS or organ transplants.

There are no specific antiviral treatments for human adenovirus infections, but supportive care, such as hydration, rest, and fever reduction, can help manage symptoms. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not sharing personal items like towels or utensils.

Adenoviridae is a family of viruses that includes many species that can cause various types of illnesses in humans and animals. These viruses are non-enveloped, meaning they do not have a lipid membrane, and have an icosahedral symmetry with a diameter of approximately 70-90 nanometers.

The genome of Adenoviridae is composed of double-stranded DNA, which contains linear chromosomes ranging from 26 to 45 kilobases in length. The family is divided into five genera: Mastadenovirus, Aviadenovirus, Atadenovirus, Siadenovirus, and Ichtadenovirus.

Human adenoviruses are classified under the genus Mastadenovirus and can cause a wide range of illnesses, including respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and upper respiratory tract infections. Some serotypes have also been associated with more severe diseases such as hemorrhagic cystitis, hepatitis, and meningoencephalitis.

Adenoviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, fecal-oral route, or by contact with contaminated surfaces. They can also be spread through contaminated water sources. Infections caused by adenoviruses are usually self-limiting, but severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care.

Adenovirus E1A proteins are the early region 1A proteins encoded by adenoviruses, a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections in humans. The E1A proteins play a crucial role in the regulation of the viral life cycle and host cell response. They function as transcriptional regulators, interacting with various cellular proteins to modulate gene expression and promote viral replication.

There are two major E1A protein isoforms, 289R and 243R, which differ in their amino-terminal regions due to alternative splicing of the E1A mRNA. The 289R isoform contains an additional 46 amino acids at its N-terminus compared to the 243R isoform. Both isoforms share conserved regions, including a strong transcriptional activation domain and a binding domain for cellular proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, such as retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and p300/CBP.

The interaction between E1A proteins and pRb is particularly important because it leads to the release of E2F transcription factors, which are essential for the initiation of viral DNA replication. By binding and inactivating pRb, E1A proteins promote the expression of cell cycle-regulated genes that facilitate viral replication in dividing cells.

In summary, adenovirus E1A proteins are multifunctional regulatory proteins involved in the control of viral gene expression and host cell response during adenovirus infection. They manipulate cellular transcription factors and pathways to create a favorable environment for viral replication.

Adenovirus E1B proteins are proteins encoded by the early region 1B (E1B) gene of adenoviruses. There are two main E1B proteins, E1B-55kD and E1B-19kD, which play crucial roles during the viral life cycle and in tumorigenesis.

1. E1B-55kD: This protein is a potent transcriptional repressor that inhibits the expression of host cell genes involved in DNA damage response, apoptosis, and antiviral defense mechanisms. By doing so, it creates a favorable environment for viral replication and evades the host's immune surveillance. E1B-55kD also interacts with p53, a tumor suppressor protein, leading to its degradation and further contributing to oncogenesis.

2. E1B-19kD: This protein is involved in blocking apoptosis or programmed cell death, which would otherwise be triggered by the host's defense mechanisms during viral infection. E1B-19kD forms a complex with another adenoviral protein, E4orf6, and together they inhibit the activity of several pro-apoptotic proteins, thus promoting viral replication and persistence in the host cell.

In summary, Adenovirus E1B proteins are essential for the viral life cycle by counteracting host defense mechanisms, particularly through the inhibition of apoptosis and transcriptional repression. Additionally, their interaction with crucial cellular regulatory proteins like p53 contributes to oncogenic transformation in certain contexts.

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. The E4 proteins of adenoviruses are non-structural proteins encoded by the early region 4 (E4) of the adenovirus genome. These proteins play important roles during the viral life cycle, including regulation of viral transcription, DNA replication, and host cell response.

There are several E4 proteins expressed by adenoviruses, depending on the serotype, but some of the well-characterized ones include E4 ORF6, E4 ORF3, and E4 ORF1/2. These proteins have been shown to interact with various host cell factors and viral proteins to modulate the intracellular environment for efficient viral replication.

For example, E4 ORF6 interacts with the host cell protein p53 to inhibit its transcriptional activity, which helps to prevent premature apoptosis of infected cells. E4 ORF3 is involved in the regulation of viral DNA replication and also interacts with cellular proteins to modulate the host cell cycle. E4 ORF1/2 forms a complex that functions as a helicase during viral DNA replication.

Overall, adenovirus E4 proteins are important regulators of the viral life cycle and play a significant role in the pathogenesis of adenovirus infections.

Adenovirus early proteins refer to the viral proteins that are expressed by adenoviruses during the early phase of their replication cycle. Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that can cause various symptoms, such as respiratory illness, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis.

The adenovirus replication cycle is divided into two phases: the early phase and the late phase. During the early phase, which occurs shortly after the virus infects a host cell, the viral genome is transcribed and translated into early proteins that help to prepare the host cell for viral replication. These early proteins play various roles in regulating the host cell's transcription, translation, and DNA replication machinery, as well as inhibiting the host cell's antiviral response.

There are several different adenovirus early proteins that have been identified, each with its own specific function. For example, E1A is an early protein that acts as a transcriptional activator and helps to activate the expression of other viral genes. E1B is another early protein that functions as a DNA-binding protein and inhibits the host cell's apoptosis (programmed cell death) response.

Overall, adenovirus early proteins are critical for the efficient replication of the virus within host cells, and understanding their functions can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of viral infection and pathogenesis.

The Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) is a transmembrane protein that serves as a receptor for several viruses, including Coxsackieviruses and certain types of Adenoviruses. The "Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein" likely refers to a membrane protein that shares structural or functional similarities with the CAR protein.

The CAR protein is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is widely expressed in various tissues, including the heart, lungs, and nervous system. It plays important roles in cell adhesion, tissue development, and repair, as well as serving as an entry point for certain viruses to infect cells.

The CAR-like membrane protein may have similar functions or structures to the CAR protein, but its specific identity and role are not clearly defined in the medical literature. It is possible that it could be a target for viral infection or play a role in cellular processes, but further research is needed to confirm these possibilities.

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. The E3 region of the adenovirus genome encodes several proteins that play important roles in the virus's life cycle and its interactions with the host cell.

The E3 proteins include:

1. E3-10.4K: This protein helps to prevent the infected cell from undergoing programmed cell death (apoptosis), allowing the virus to continue replicating.
2. E3-14.7K: This protein inhibits the host cell's antiviral response by blocking the activation of certain immune signaling pathways.
3. E3-14.5K: This protein helps to prevent the infected cell from presenting viral antigens on its surface, which would otherwise alert the immune system to the infection.
4. E3-19K: This protein helps to stabilize the virion and protect it from being broken down by host cell enzymes.
5. E3-gp19K: This protein is involved in the transport of newly synthesized viral proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum, where they can be assembled into new virions.
6. E3-RID: This protein helps to protect the virus from being neutralized by antibodies produced by the host's immune system.

Overall, the E3 proteins play important roles in helping the adenovirus evade the host's immune response and establish a successful infection.

A mastadenovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Adenoviridae and the genus Mastadenovirus. These viruses are known to infect mammals, including humans, and can cause a variety of diseases such as respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis.

Human mastadenoviruses are typically associated with mild illnesses, although some strains can cause more severe disease, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. The virus is usually transmitted through respiratory droplets or contact with contaminated surfaces.

Mastadenoviruses are non-enveloped viruses, which means they do not have a lipid membrane surrounding their protein capsid. They contain a double-stranded DNA genome that encodes for several proteins involved in the virus's replication and assembly. The virus replicates in the nucleus of infected cells and can cause cell lysis or transformation, leading to various clinical manifestations.

Overall, mastadenoviruses are a significant cause of human and animal diseases, and understanding their biology and epidemiology is essential for developing effective prevention and treatment strategies.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

An Aviadenovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family *Adenoviridae* and the genus *Aviadenovirus*. These viruses primarily infect avian species, such as birds, and can cause a variety of diseases. The genome of an Aviadenovirus is double-stranded DNA. Some species of Aviadenoviruses have been known to cause respiratory and reproductive problems in poultry, leading to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. It's important to note that Aviadenoviruses are not known to infect or cause disease in humans.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

Adenovirus E1 proteins are the earliest expressed and most critical proteins in the replication cycle of adenoviruses. The "E" stands for "early," indicating that these proteins are produced before the viral DNA begins to replicate. The E1 proteins play a crucial role in regulating the viral life cycle, altering cellular processes to support efficient viral replication, and inhibiting the host's antiviral responses.

The adenovirus E1 proteins are divided into two groups: E1A and E1B.

1. E1A proteins: These proteins are involved in transactivating various viral and cellular promoters, which leads to the expression of early and late viral genes. They also interact with several cellular proteins to alter the host cell cycle, promote cell growth, and inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). E1A proteins are essential for efficient viral replication and can transform cells in culture, contributing to adenovirus-induced tumorigenesis in certain animal models.

2. E1B proteins: These proteins have multiple functions during the viral life cycle. E1B 55kDa protein is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis and contributes to efficient viral replication by preventing premature cell death. It also interacts with several cellular proteins, including tumor suppressor p53, to modulate their functions. The E1B 19kDa protein, on the other hand, is a DNA-binding protein that plays a role in viral mRNA processing and export from the nucleus.

Together, adenovirus E1 proteins are essential for successful viral replication and manipulate host cellular processes to create a favorable environment for viral propagation. Understanding their functions has contributed significantly to our knowledge of viral pathogenesis and cancer biology.

Viral pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by viral infection. It primarily affects the upper and lower respiratory tract, leading to inflammation of the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs. This results in symptoms such as cough, difficulty breathing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Common viruses that can cause pneumonia include influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and adenovirus. Viral pneumonia is often milder than bacterial pneumonia but can still be serious, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and fever reduction, while the body fights off the virus. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, a thin, clear membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye. The condition can cause redness, itching, burning, tearing, discomfort, and a gritty feeling in the eyes. It can also result in a discharge that can be clear, yellow, or greenish.

Conjunctivitis can have various causes, including bacterial or viral infections, allergies, irritants (such as smoke, chlorine, or contact lens solutions), and underlying medical conditions (like dry eye or autoimmune disorders). Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include antibiotics, antihistamines, anti-inflammatory medications, or warm compresses.

It is essential to maintain good hygiene practices, like washing hands frequently and avoiding touching or rubbing the eyes, to prevent spreading conjunctivitis to others. If you suspect you have conjunctivitis, it's recommended that you consult an eye care professional for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Gene transfer techniques, also known as gene therapy, refer to medical procedures where genetic material is introduced into an individual's cells or tissues to treat or prevent diseases. This can be achieved through various methods:

1. **Viral Vectors**: The most common method uses modified viruses, such as adenoviruses, retroviruses, or lentiviruses, to carry the therapeutic gene into the target cells. The virus infects the cell and inserts the new gene into the cell's DNA.

2. **Non-Viral Vectors**: These include methods like electroporation (using electric fields to create pores in the cell membrane), gene guns (shooting gold particles coated with DNA into cells), or liposomes (tiny fatty bubbles that can enclose DNA).

3. **Direct Injection**: In some cases, the therapeutic gene can be directly injected into a specific tissue or organ.

The goal of gene transfer techniques is to supplement or replace a faulty gene with a healthy one, thereby correcting the genetic disorder. However, these techniques are still largely experimental and have their own set of challenges, including potential immune responses, issues with accurate targeting, and risks of mutations or cancer development.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Inclusion bodies, viral are typically described as intracellular inclusions that appear as a result of viral infections. These inclusion bodies consist of aggregates of virus-specific proteins, viral particles, or both, which accumulate inside the host cell's cytoplasm or nucleus during the replication cycle of certain viruses.

The presence of inclusion bodies can sometimes be observed through histological or cytological examination using various staining techniques. Different types of viruses may exhibit distinct morphologies and locations of these inclusion bodies, which can aid in the identification and diagnosis of specific viral infections. However, it is important to note that not all viral infections result in the formation of inclusion bodies, and their presence does not necessarily indicate active viral replication or infection.

Genetic therapy, also known as gene therapy, is a medical intervention that involves the use of genetic material, such as DNA or RNA, to treat or prevent diseases. It works by introducing functional genes into cells to replace missing or faulty ones caused by genetic disorders or mutations. The introduced gene is incorporated into the recipient's genome, allowing for the production of a therapeutic protein that can help manage the disease symptoms or even cure the condition.

There are several approaches to genetic therapy, including:

1. Replacing a faulty gene with a healthy one
2. Inactivating or "silencing" a dysfunctional gene causing a disease
3. Introducing a new gene into the body to help fight off a disease, such as cancer

Genetic therapy holds great promise for treating various genetic disorders, including cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, and certain types of cancer. However, it is still an evolving field with many challenges, such as efficient gene delivery, potential immune responses, and ensuring the safety and long-term effectiveness of the therapy.

Viral conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye (sclera) and the inner surface of the eyelids, caused by a viral infection. The condition is often characterized by redness, watering, gritty or burning sensation in the eyes, and a clear, watery discharge. In some cases, it may also cause swelling of the eyelids and light sensitivity.

The most common viruses that can cause conjunctivitis are adenoviruses, which are responsible for about 65-90% of all viral conjunctivitis cases. Other viruses that can cause the condition include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus (which causes chickenpox and shingles), and picornaviruses.

Viral conjunctivitis is highly contagious and can spread easily through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated surfaces. It typically affects one eye first and then spreads to the other eye within a few days. The condition usually resolves on its own within 1-2 weeks, although in some cases it may take longer to clear up completely.

There is no specific treatment for viral conjunctivitis, and antibiotics are not effective against viral infections. However, cool compresses and artificial tears can help alleviate symptoms such as discomfort and dryness. It is important to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding touching the eyes, to prevent the spread of the virus to others.

Canine adenoviruses are a type of virus that can infect dogs and cause two distinct diseases: Infectious Canine Hepatitis (type 1) and Canine Respiratory Disease Complex (type 2).

Canine adenovirus type 1 primarily affects the liver, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, it can lead to liver failure and death.

Canine adenovirus type 2 mainly causes respiratory infections, including kennel cough, which is characterized by a harsh, hacking cough and nasal discharge. It can also cause pneumonia in some cases.

Both types of canine adenoviruses are highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected dogs or their feces and urine. Vaccination is available to protect against both forms of the virus and is recommended for all dogs.

Gastroenteritis is not a medical condition itself, but rather a symptom-based description of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, primarily involving the stomach and intestines. It's often referred to as "stomach flu," although it's not caused by influenza virus.

Medically, gastroenteritis is defined as an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, usually resulting in symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. This condition can be caused by various factors, including viral (like rotavirus or norovirus), bacterial (such as Salmonella, Shigella, or Escherichia coli), or parasitic infections, food poisoning, allergies, or the use of certain medications.

Gastroenteritis is generally self-limiting and resolves within a few days with proper hydration and rest. However, severe cases may require medical attention to prevent complications like dehydration, which can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Oncogene proteins, viral, are cancer-causing proteins that are encoded by the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of certain viruses. These viral oncogenes can be acquired through infection with retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), and certain types of papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses.

When these viruses infect host cells, they can integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome, leading to the expression of viral oncogenes. These oncogenes may then cause uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in the formation of tumors or cancers. The process by which viruses contribute to cancer development is complex and involves multiple steps, including the alteration of signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Examples of viral oncogenes include the v-src gene found in the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), which causes chicken sarcoma, and the E6 and E7 genes found in human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are associated with cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. Understanding viral oncogenes and their mechanisms of action is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat virus-associated cancers.

Peliosis hepatis is a rare condition characterized by the presence of numerous blood-filled cavities or sinusoids in the liver. These cavities can vary in size and are usually distributed throughout the liver parenchyma. The term "peliosis" comes from the Greek word "pelios," which means "bluish-black."

In peliosis hepatis, these blood-filled spaces can rupture, leading to bleeding into the liver tissue or even into the abdominal cavity. This condition is often asymptomatic but may present with nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, abdominal pain, or liver dysfunction.

Peliosis hepatis has been associated with various conditions, including blood disorders (such as leukemia and lymphoma), use of anabolic steroids, immunosuppressive therapy, chronic infections (such as HIV and tuberculosis), and certain malignancies. In many cases, the cause remains unknown, and the condition is referred to as idiopathic peliosis hepatis.

Diagnosis of peliosis hepatis typically requires imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can demonstrate the presence of multiple, round, blood-filled spaces in the liver. In some cases, a liver biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and evaluate the severity of the condition. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include discontinuation of any offending medications or treatment of any underlying conditions.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or, less commonly, fungi.

RTIs are classified into two categories based on their location: upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). URTIs include infections of the nose, sinuses, throat, and larynx, such as the common cold, flu, laryngitis, and sinusitis. LRTIs involve the lower airways, including the bronchi and lungs, and can be more severe. Examples of LRTIs are pneumonia, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis.

Symptoms of RTIs depend on the location and cause of the infection but may include cough, congestion, runny nose, sore throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Treatment for RTIs varies depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection. For viral infections, treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, while antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial infections.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. The E2 proteins of adenoviruses are involved in the replication of the viral genome. Specifically, E2 consists of three proteins: E2a, E2b, and E2c.

E2a is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that binds to the origin of replication on the viral genome and recruits other viral and cellular proteins necessary for replication. E2b is a DNA polymerase processivity factor that interacts with the viral DNA polymerase and increases its processivity, allowing for efficient synthesis of new viral DNA. E2c is a helicase that unwinds the double-stranded DNA at the replication fork, enabling the synthesis of new strands.

Together, these proteins play a critical role in the replication of adenoviruses and are important targets for the development of antiviral therapies.

An enterovirus is a type of virus that primarily infects the gastrointestinal tract. There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses such as EV-D68 and EV-A71. These viruses are typically spread through close contact with an infected person, or by consuming food or water contaminated with the virus.

While many people infected with enteroviruses may not experience any symptoms, some may develop mild to severe illnesses such as hand, foot and mouth disease, herpangina, meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and paralysis (in case of poliovirus). Infection can occur in people of all ages, but young children are more susceptible to infection and severe illness.

Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently with soap and water, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not sharing food or drinks with someone who is ill. There are also vaccines available to prevent poliovirus infection.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Integrin αV (also known as ITGAV or CD51) is a subunit of a family of heterodimeric transmembrane receptors called integrins, which are involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Integrin αV combines with various β subunits (e.g., β1, β3, β5, β6, and β8) to form distinct integrin heterodimers, such as αVβ1, αVβ3, αVβ5, αVβ6, and αVβ8. These integrins recognize and bind to specific arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequences present in various ECM proteins, such as fibronectin, vitronectin, osteopontin, and collagens. Integrin αV plays crucial roles in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, survival, and angiogenesis, and has been implicated in several pathological processes, including cancer, fibrosis, and inflammation.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

Organophosphonates are a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbon-phosphorus bond. They contain a phosphonic acid group, which consists of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen or nitrogen atoms, with one of those bonds being replaced by a carbon atom.

In a medical context, organophosphonates are commonly used as radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures, such as bone scans. These compounds have the ability to bind to hydroxyapatite, the mineral component of bones, and can be labeled with radioactive isotopes for imaging purposes. They may also be used in therapeutic settings, including as treatments for conditions such as tumor-induced hypercalcemia and Paget's disease of bone.

It is important to note that organophosphonates are distinct from organophosphates, another class of compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to three oxygen or sulfur atoms and one carbon atom. Organophosphates have been widely used as pesticides and chemical warfare agents, and can pose significant health risks due to their toxicity.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A Cytopathic Effect (CPE) is a visible change in the cell or group of cells due to infection by a pathogen, such as a virus. When the cytopathic effect is caused specifically by a viral infection, it is referred to as a "Viral Cytopathic Effect" (VCPE).

The VCPE can include various changes in the cell's morphology, size, and structure, such as rounding, shrinkage, multinucleation, inclusion bodies, and formation of syncytia (multinucleated giant cells). These changes are often used to identify and characterize viruses in laboratory settings.

The VCPE is typically observed under a microscope after the virus has infected cell cultures, and it can help researchers determine the type of virus, the degree of infection, and the effectiveness of antiviral treatments. The severity and timing of the VCPE can vary depending on the specific virus and the type of cells that are infected.

Cytosine is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid molecules DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). The single-letter abbreviation for cytosine is "C."

Cytosine base pairs specifically with guanine through hydrogen bonding, forming a base pair. In DNA, the double helix consists of two complementary strands of nucleotides held together by these base pairs, such that the sequence of one strand determines the sequence of the other. This property is critical for DNA replication and transcription, processes that are essential for life.

Cytosine residues in DNA can undergo spontaneous deamination to form uracil, which can lead to mutations if not corrected by repair mechanisms. In RNA, cytosine can be methylated at the 5-carbon position to form 5-methylcytosine, a modification that plays a role in regulating gene expression and other cellular processes.

Cell transformation, viral refers to the process by which a virus causes normal cells to become cancerous or tumorigenic. This occurs when the genetic material of the virus integrates into the DNA of the host cell and alters its regulation, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Some viruses known to cause cell transformation include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and certain types of herpesviruses.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Adenoviruses, Porcine:

A group of viruses that primarily infect pigs and cause a variety of symptoms, such as respiratory illness, diarrhea, vomiting, and reproductive failure. They belong to the family Adenoviridae and are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. Porcine adenoviruses can be classified into several serotypes, with different serotypes causing different disease manifestations. Some porcine adenoviruses have been associated with economic losses in the swine industry due to their impact on growth and mortality rates. They are primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route and can also be found in contaminated environments. Currently, there are no specific treatments for porcine adenovirus infections, and control measures focus on preventing transmission through good biosecurity practices.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Depsipeptides are a type of naturally occurring or synthetic modified peptides that contain at least one amide bond replaced by an ester bond in their structure. These compounds exhibit diverse biological activities, including antimicrobial, antiviral, and antitumor properties. Some depsipeptides have been developed as pharmaceutical drugs for the treatment of various diseases.

Haplorhini is a term used in the field of primatology and physical anthropology to refer to a parvorder of simian primates, which includes humans, apes (both great and small), and Old World monkeys. The name "Haplorhini" comes from the Greek words "haploos," meaning single or simple, and "rhinos," meaning nose.

The defining characteristic of Haplorhini is the presence of a simple, dry nose, as opposed to the wet, fleshy noses found in other primates, such as New World monkeys and strepsirrhines (which include lemurs and lorises). The nostrils of haplorhines are located close together at the tip of the snout, and they lack the rhinarium or "wet nose" that is present in other primates.

Haplorhini is further divided into two infraorders: Simiiformes (which includes apes and Old World monkeys) and Tarsioidea (which includes tarsiers). These groups are distinguished by various anatomical and behavioral differences, such as the presence or absence of a tail, the structure of the hand and foot, and the degree of sociality.

Overall, Haplorhini is a group of primates that share a number of distinctive features related to their sensory systems, locomotion, and social behavior. Understanding the evolutionary history and diversity of this group is an important area of research in anthropology, biology, and psychology.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

Fowl adenovirus A, also known as Fowl aviadenovirus serotype 1 or Fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (FAdV-A), is a species of DNA virus that belongs to the family Adenoviridae and genus Aviadenovirus. It primarily infects birds, particularly chickens, causing various clinical manifestations such as inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) and hydropericardium syndrome (HPS). The virus is transmitted horizontally through the fecal-oral route and can be found in the environment for extended periods. FAdV-A infection can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to high mortality rates, especially in young chickens.

A transgene is a segment of DNA that has been artificially transferred from one organism to another, typically between different species, to introduce a new trait or characteristic. The term "transgene" specifically refers to the genetic material that has been transferred and has become integrated into the host organism's genome. This technology is often used in genetic engineering and biomedical research, including the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural purposes or the creation of animal models for studying human diseases.

Transgenes can be created using various techniques, such as molecular cloning, where a desired gene is isolated, manipulated, and then inserted into a vector (a small DNA molecule, such as a plasmid) that can efficiently enter the host organism's cells. Once inside the cell, the transgene can integrate into the host genome, allowing for the expression of the new trait in the resulting transgenic organism.

It is important to note that while transgenes can provide valuable insights and benefits in research and agriculture, their use and release into the environment are subjects of ongoing debate due to concerns about potential ecological impacts and human health risks.

Complement fixation tests are a type of laboratory test used in immunology and serology to detect the presence of antibodies in a patient's serum. These tests are based on the principle of complement activation, which is a part of the immune response. The complement system consists of a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body.

In a complement fixation test, the patient's serum is mixed with a known antigen and complement proteins. If the patient has antibodies against the antigen, they will bind to it and activate the complement system. This results in the consumption or "fixation" of the complement proteins, which are no longer available to participate in a secondary reaction.

A second step involves adding a fresh source of complement proteins and a dye-labeled antibody that recognizes a specific component of the complement system. If complement was fixed during the first step, it will not be available for this secondary reaction, and the dye-labeled antibody will remain unbound. Conversely, if no antibodies were present in the patient's serum, the complement proteins would still be available for the second reaction, leading to the binding of the dye-labeled antibody.

The mixture is then examined under a microscope or using a spectrophotometer to determine whether the dye-labeled antibody has bound. If it has not, this indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies specific to the antigen used in the test, and a positive result is recorded.

Complement fixation tests have been widely used for the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, such as syphilis, measles, and influenza. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern serological techniques, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), due to their increased sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

An immunocompromised host refers to an individual who has a weakened or impaired immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and decreased ability to fight off pathogens. This condition can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developed during one's lifetime).

Acquired immunocompromised states may result from various factors such as medical treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunosuppressive drugs), infections (e.g., HIV/AIDS), chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, malnutrition, liver disease), or aging.

Immunocompromised hosts are at a higher risk for developing severe and life-threatening infections due to their reduced immune response. Therefore, they require special consideration when it comes to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

A dependovirus, also known as a dependent adenovirus or satellite adenovirus, is a type of virus that requires the presence of another virus, specifically an adenovirus, to replicate. Dependoviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded DNA genome. They cannot complete their replication cycle without the help of an adenovirus, which provides necessary functions for the dependovirus to replicate.

Dependoviruses are clinically significant because they can cause disease in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. In some cases, dependoviruses may also affect the severity and outcome of adenovirus infections. However, it is important to note that not all adenovirus infections are associated with dependovirus co-infections.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

The nasopharynx is the uppermost part of the pharynx (throat), which is located behind the nose. It is a muscular cavity that serves as a passageway for air and food. The nasopharynx extends from the base of the skull to the lower border of the soft palate, where it continues as the oropharynx. Its primary function is to allow air to flow into the respiratory system through the nostrils while also facilitating the drainage of mucus from the nose into the throat. The nasopharynx contains several important structures, including the adenoids and the opening of the Eustachian tubes, which connect the middle ear to the back of the nasopharynx.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

DNA replication is the biological process by which DNA makes an identical copy of itself during cell division. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows genetic information to be passed down from one generation of cells to the next. During DNA replication, each strand of the double helix serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. This results in the creation of two identical DNA molecules. The enzymes responsible for DNA replication include helicase, which unwinds the double helix, and polymerase, which adds nucleotides to the growing strands.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Oncolytic virotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses genetically modified viruses to selectively infect and destroy cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells unharmed. The virus used in oncolytic virotherapy can replicate inside cancer cells, causing them to rupture and release new viruses that can then infect nearby cancer cells.

The process continues in a cascading manner, leading to the destruction of many cancer cells in the treated area. Additionally, some oncolytic viruses can also stimulate an immune response against cancer cells, further enhancing their therapeutic effect. Oncolytic virotherapy is still an experimental treatment approach and is being studied in clinical trials for various types of cancer.

Oncolytic viruses are a type of viruses that preferentially infect and kill cancer cells, while leaving normal cells relatively unharmed. These viruses can replicate inside the cancer cells, causing them to rupture and ultimately leading to their death. The release of new virus particles from the dead cancer cells allows the infection to spread to nearby cancer cells, resulting in a potential therapeutic effect.

Oncolytic viruses can be genetically modified to enhance their ability to target specific types of cancer cells and to increase their safety and efficacy. They may also be used in combination with other cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, to improve treatment outcomes. Oncolytic virus therapy is a promising area of cancer research, with several clinical trials underway to evaluate its potential benefits for patients with various types of cancer.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Homologous transplantation is a type of transplant surgery where organs or tissues are transferred between two genetically non-identical individuals of the same species. The term "homologous" refers to the similarity in structure and function of the donated organ or tissue to the recipient's own organ or tissue.

For example, a heart transplant from one human to another is an example of homologous transplantation because both organs are hearts and perform the same function. Similarly, a liver transplant, kidney transplant, lung transplant, and other types of organ transplants between individuals of the same species are also considered homologous transplantations.

Homologous transplantation is in contrast to heterologous or xenogeneic transplantation, where organs or tissues are transferred from one species to another, such as a pig heart transplanted into a human. Homologous transplantation is more commonly performed than heterologous transplantation due to the increased risk of rejection and other complications associated with xenogeneic transplants.

Keratoconjunctivitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of both the cornea (the clear, outer layer at the front of the eye) and the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye).

The condition can cause symptoms such as redness, pain, sensitivity to light, watery eyes, and a gritty or burning sensation in the eyes. Keratoconjunctivitis can be caused by various factors, including viral or bacterial infections, allergies, or environmental irritants like dust, smoke, or chemical fumes.

Treatment for keratoconjunctivitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications such as antibiotics, antivirals, or anti-inflammatory agents to reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms. In some cases, artificial tears or lubricants may also be recommended to help keep the eyes moist and comfortable.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Genetic transduction is a process in molecular biology that describes the transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another by a viral vector called a bacteriophage (or phage). In this process, the phage infects one bacterium and incorporates a portion of the bacterial DNA into its own genetic material. When the phage then infects a second bacterium, it can transfer the incorporated bacterial DNA to the new host. This can result in the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of traits such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors between bacteria.

There are two main types of transduction: generalized and specialized. In generalized transduction, any portion of the bacterial genome can be packaged into the phage particle, leading to a random assortment of genetic material being transferred. In specialized transduction, only specific genes near the site where the phage integrates into the bacterial chromosome are consistently transferred.

It's important to note that genetic transduction is not to be confused with transformation or conjugation, which are other mechanisms of HGT in bacteria.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

Protein biosynthesis is the process by which cells generate new proteins. It involves two major steps: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. This RNA copy, or messenger RNA (mRNA), carries the genetic information to the site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. During translation, the mRNA is read by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which bring specific amino acids to the ribosome based on the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA. The ribosome then links these amino acids together in the correct order to form a polypeptide chain, which may then fold into a functional protein. Protein biosynthesis is essential for the growth and maintenance of all living organisms.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Immunosuppression is a state in which the immune system's ability to mount an immune response is reduced, compromised or inhibited. This can be caused by certain medications (such as those used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs), diseases (like HIV/AIDS), or genetic disorders. As a result, the body becomes more susceptible to infections and cancer development. It's important to note that immunosuppression should not be confused with immunity, which refers to the body's ability to resist and fight off infections and diseases.

Adenovirus vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using adenoviruses, which are a type of virus that commonly causes mild respiratory illnesses. These vaccines work by introducing a weakened or harmless form of the adenovirus to the body, which triggers an immune response and enables the body to recognize and fight off the virus if it encounters it in the future.

There are several adenovirus vaccines that have been developed and licensed for use, including those that protect against adenovirus types 4 and 7, which can cause acute respiratory disease in military recruits. Additionally, there are adenovirus vectors being studied as potential vaccine candidates for other diseases, such as COVID-19.

It's important to note that while adenovirus vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in clinical trials, like any medical treatment or prevention strategy, they may carry some risks and side effects. It's always best to consult with a healthcare provider for personalized advice on vaccination and other preventive measures.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure where hematopoietic stem cells (immature cells that give rise to all blood cell types) are transplanted into a patient. This procedure is often used to treat various malignant and non-malignant disorders affecting the hematopoietic system, such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, aplastic anemia, inherited immune deficiency diseases, and certain genetic metabolic disorders.

The transplantation can be autologous (using the patient's own stem cells), allogeneic (using stem cells from a genetically matched donor, usually a sibling or unrelated volunteer), or syngeneic (using stem cells from an identical twin).

The process involves collecting hematopoietic stem cells, most commonly from the peripheral blood or bone marrow. The collected cells are then infused into the patient after the recipient's own hematopoietic system has been ablated (or destroyed) using high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. This allows the donor's stem cells to engraft, reconstitute, and restore the patient's hematopoietic system.

HSCT is a complex and potentially risky procedure with various complications, including graft-versus-host disease, infections, and organ damage. However, it offers the potential for cure or long-term remission in many patients with otherwise fatal diseases.

Cytoplasm is the material within a eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) that lies between the nuclear membrane and the cell membrane. It is composed of an aqueous solution called cytosol, in which various organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles are suspended. Cytoplasm also contains a variety of dissolved nutrients, metabolites, ions, and enzymes that are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and transport. It is where most of the cell's metabolic activities take place, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the cell.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

Fever, also known as pyrexia or febrile response, is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation in core body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) due to a dysregulation of the body's thermoregulatory system. It is often a response to an infection, inflammation, or other underlying medical conditions, and it serves as a part of the immune system's effort to combat the invading pathogens or to repair damaged tissues.

Fevers can be classified based on their magnitude:

* Low-grade fever: 37.5-38°C (99.5-100.4°F)
* Moderate fever: 38-39°C (100.4-102.2°F)
* High-grade or severe fever: above 39°C (102.2°F)

It is important to note that a single elevated temperature reading does not necessarily indicate the presence of a fever, as body temperature can fluctuate throughout the day and can be influenced by various factors such as physical activity, environmental conditions, and the menstrual cycle in females. The diagnosis of fever typically requires the confirmation of an elevated core body temperature on at least two occasions or a consistently high temperature over a period of time.

While fevers are generally considered beneficial in fighting off infections and promoting recovery, extremely high temperatures or prolonged febrile states may necessitate medical intervention to prevent potential complications such as dehydration, seizures, or damage to vital organs.

Viral load refers to the amount or quantity of virus (like HIV, Hepatitis C, SARS-CoV-2) present in an individual's blood or bodily fluids. It is often expressed as the number of virus copies per milliliter of blood or fluid. Monitoring viral load is important in managing and treating certain viral infections, as a higher viral load may indicate increased infectivity, disease progression, or response to treatment.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Helper viruses, also known as "auxiliary" or "satellite" viruses, are defective viruses that depend on the assistance of a second virus, called a helper virus, to complete their replication cycle. They lack certain genes that are essential for replication, and therefore require the helper virus to provide these functions.

Helper viruses are often found in cases of dual infection, where both the helper virus and the dependent virus infect the same cell. The helper virus provides the necessary enzymes and proteins for the helper virus to replicate, package its genome into new virions, and bud off from the host cell.

One example of a helper virus is the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which can serve as a helper virus for hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection. HDV is a defective RNA virus that requires the HBV surface antigen to form an envelope around its nucleocapsid and be transmitted to other cells. In the absence of HBV, HDV cannot replicate or cause disease.

Understanding the role of helper viruses in viral infections is important for developing effective treatments and vaccines against viral diseases.

Defective viruses are viruses that have lost the ability to complete a full replication cycle and produce progeny virions independently. These viruses require the assistance of a helper virus, which provides the necessary functions for replication. Defective viruses can arise due to mutations, deletions, or other genetic changes that result in the loss of essential genes. They are often non-infectious and cannot cause disease on their own, but they may interfere with the replication of the helper virus and modulate the course of infection. Defective viruses can be found in various types of viruses, including retroviruses, bacteriophages, and DNA viruses.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Beta-galactosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-galactosides into monosaccharides. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and mammals. In humans, it plays a role in the breakdown and absorption of certain complex carbohydrates, such as lactose, in the small intestine. Deficiency of this enzyme in humans can lead to a disorder called lactose intolerance. In scientific research, beta-galactosidase is often used as a marker for gene expression and protein localization studies.

... in humans are generally caused by Adenoviruses types B, C, E and F. Spread occurs mainly when an infected ... Adenovirus infection in humans are generally caused by Adenoviruses types B, C, E and F. Although epidemiologic characteristics ... Most adenovirus infections get better without any treatment. After recovery from adenovirus infection, the virus can be carried ... Adenovirus infection is a contagious viral disease, caused by adenoviruses, commonly resulting in a respiratory tract infection ...
"A Case Series of Children with Acute Hepatitis and Human Adenovirus Infection". New England Journal of Medicine. 387 (7): 620- ... Human adenovirus 41 belongs to the Adenoviridae family, and along with human adenovirus 40, is a member of species human ... Human adenovirus 41 (HAdV-F41), is an enteric Adenovirus, a nonenveloped virus with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a ... "Candidate adenoviruses 40 and 41: fastidious adenoviruses from human infant stool". Journal of Medical Virology. 11 (3): 215- ...
... also participates in ATR protein kinase signalling pathways during adenovirus infection. Two transcript variants ... 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi: ... 2005). "Protein arginine methylation during lytic adenovirus infection". Biochem. J. 383 (Pt 2): 259-65. doi:10.1042/BJ20040210 ... Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HNRNPUL1 gene. This gene ...
"Serologic Evidence for Human Infection with Adenovirus-Associated Viruses". JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. ... He was a pioneer in research on adenoviruses and their role in human diseases. The discoveries of adenoviruses by Rowe et al. ( ... Huebner, R. J.; Rowe, W. P.; Lane, W. T. (1962). "Oncogenic Effects in Hamsters of Human Adenovirus Types 12 and 18". ... Hoggan, M. D.; Blacklow, N. R.; Rowe, W. P. (1966). "Studies of small DNA viruses found in various adenovirus preparations: ...
Adenovirus is another group of viruses that targets the mucosal membrane of the human respiratory tract. It usually causes mild ... Lactoferrin can prevent infection of adenovirus since it can interfere with the primary receptors of the virus. HBM ... "Centre for Health Protection, Department of Health - Adenovirus Infection". Retrieved 2023-03-28. Mohandas, ... Human alpha-lactalbumin is a natural protein component of HBM. It can be extracted by chromatography from breast milk. It ...
... implication for adenovirus-mediated gene therapy". Human Gene Therapy. 10 (6): 957-64. doi:10.1089/10430349950018355. PMID ... June 1999). "Production of beta-defensin antimicrobial peptides by the oral mucosa and salivary glands". Infection and Immunity ... "Expression of the peptide antibiotics human beta defensin-1 and human beta defensin-2 in normal human skin". The Journal of ... Hiratsuka T, Nakazato M, Ashitani J, Matsukura S (February 1999). "[A study of human beta-defensin-1 and human beta-defensin-2 ...
Shieh, Wun-Ju (10 September 2021). "Human adenovirus infections in pediatric population - An update on clinico-pathologic ... It may appear similar to herpes simplex type I, acanthamoeba, and fungal infection. Adequate infection control measures should ... a type of adenovirus disease caused by adenoviruses. It typically presents as a conjunctivitis with a sudden onset of a painful ... A type of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in very young children can present with a high fever, sore throat, ear infection, ...
As of May 2022, laboratory testing showed infection with human adenovirus in about three quarters of cases. This serotype has ... 2022-07-13). "A Case Series of Children with Acute Hepatitis and Human Adenovirus Infection". New England Journal of Medicine. ... The leading hypothesis is a link to human adenovirus infection, particularly serotype F41. ... It remained unclear, however, whether human adenovirus 41 was the cause. One possibility is that restrictions imposed during ...
"Oncolytic adenovirus modified with somatostatin motifs for selective infection of neuroendocrine tumor cells". Gene Therapy. 18 ... Human alpha-1-antitrypsin is another protein that has been produced from goats and is used in treating humans with this ... Sato K, Sasaki E (February 2018). "Genetic engineering in nonhuman primates for human disease modeling". Journal of Human ... Mammals are the best model organisms for humans, making ones genetically engineered to resemble serious human diseases ...
As of 2014[update], brincidofovir is in Phase III clinical trials for use in humans against cytomegalovirus and adenovirus. ... which was then picked up by national news sources about a boy with an adenovirus infection following a bone marrow transplant. ... adenovirus, poxvirus, and ebolavirus infections. It has been used off-label for the treatment of monkeypox. ... Brincidofovir is not yet FDA approved for adenovirus or cytomegalovirus due to lack of efficacy in clinical trials. In a trial ...
"Oncolytic adenovirus modified with somatostatin motifs for selective infection of neuroendocrine tumor cells". Gene Therapy. 18 ... The researchers forecast that one day this technique could be used to restore the heartbeat in humans who would otherwise need ... The most common virus used for gene delivery come from adenoviruses as they can carry up to 7.5 kb of foreign DNA and infect a ... Genetically-modified virus explodes cancer cells GM virus shrinks cancer tumours in humans Leja J, Yu D, Nilsson B, Gedda L, ...
Infection by human adenovirus accounts for 65% to 90% of cases of viral conjunctivitis. Adenoviruses are the most common cause ... Bacterial infections, allergies, other irritants, and dryness are also common causes. Both bacterial and viral infections are ... of cases of viral conjunctivitis are caused by adenoviruses. Viral conjunctivitis is often associated with an infection of the ... "Molecular epidemiology of circulating human adenovirus types in acute conjunctivitis cases in Chandigarh, North India". Indian ...
The bacterial infection occurs mainly after a viral infection. Some examples are canine distemper virus, adenovirus type 1 and ... The symptoms of viral infections like canine distemper virus, adenovirus type 1 and 2, parainfluenza virus and feline ... Also an obvious sign of a regular virus infection is that the pet does not respond to the threat of a regular viral infection. ... If the neutrophils are increased, there is a bacterial infection, but if the eosinophils are increased the infection is ...
Viral causes include human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, human parainfluenza viruses, ... The symptoms of CAP are the result of lung infection by microorganisms and the response of the immune system to the infection. ... Viral infections weaken the immune system, making the body more susceptible to bacterial infection, including bacterial ... The most common viral causes are influenza, parainfluenza, human respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus and ...
... and adenovirus 11. AHC can only exist in a human host and is transmitted through human contact with an infected individual or ... There are 57 variants of this virus, that each cause 5-10% of upper respiratory infections in humans. These viruses are some of ... Adenoviruses are a medium-sized variant that are nonenveloped, like Enterovirus 70. They have a double-stranded linear DNA ... Within one to two days of infection, symptoms will begin to become apparent. Enterovirus 70 is a member of the genus of viruses ...
Adenoviruses account for about 10% of acute respiratory infections in children.[citation needed] These viruses are a frequent ... The antifungal efficacy of copper was compared to aluminium on the following organisms that can cause human infections: ... Within six hours, 99.999% of the adenovirus particles were inactivated. Within six hours, 50% of the infectious adenovirus ... Adenovirus is a group of viruses that infect the tissue lining membranes of the respiratory and urinary tracts, eyes, and ...
Adenoviruses, accessed 18/08/2011. Adenovirus Taxonomy 2005 Diagnosis of Adenovirus Infections in Psittacine Birds by DNA in ... The most common serogroups are serogroup 1, 2 and 3. No evidence of transmission from birds to humans has been identified. The ... Adenovirus infection may infect other organs, causing splenitis, inclusion body hepatitis, bronchitis, pulmonary congestion ... Infections are normally subclinical, however clinical disease can occur-especially in young birds as maternal antibody levels ...
"Induction of endogenous genes following infection of human endothelial cells with an E1(-) E4(+) adenovirus gene transfer ... Falk W, Leonard EJ (May 1982). "Chemotaxis of purified human monocytes in vitro: lack of accessory cell requirement". Infection ... "The S100A10 subunit of the annexin A2 heterotetramer facilitates L2-mediated human papillomavirus infection". PLOS ONE. 7 (8): ... In humans, 19 family members are currently known, with most S100 genes (S100A1 to S100A16). Proteins in the S100 gene family ...
... treatment with Ezh1/2 inhibitors reduced infection of multiple viral pathogens, including human cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, ... the site of infection, and whether the infection is primary (initial infection) or recurrent (recurring symptoms). Popular, ... Upon initial infection, herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes acute lytic infection of epithelial cells, usually at either genital ... HSV infection can cause corneal scarring and blindness from herpes keratitis, central nervous system infections, and even death ...
... orf6 and orf6/7 genes for those from human adenovirus HAdV-C5. Serotype Y25 belongs to the species Human mastadenovirus E of ... In 2017, the ChAdOx1 vector was used in a trial for a vaccine candidate against human malaria infection. The researchers ... 13 July 2012). "A novel chimpanzee adenovirus vector with low human seroprevalence: improved systems for vector derivation and ... However, the widespread seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies to common human adenovirus serotypes limits their use. Simian ...
They cause respiratory, intestinal, and eye infections in humans (especially the common cold). When these viruses infect a host ... It was found that in the absence of the E1B-55Kd viral protein, adenovirus caused very rapid apoptosis of infected, p53(+) ... Antibodies to HSV-1 are common in humans, however complications due to herpes infection are somewhat rare. Caution for rare ... There are two main types of virus infection: lytic and lysogenic. Shortly after inserting its DNA, viruses of the lytic cycle ...
Non-LPD that have significant percentages of cases associated with EBV infection (see Epstein-Barr virus infection) include the ... Human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) is associated with four rare lymphoproliferative disorders: 1) a subset of diffuse large B cell ... adenovirus, or toxoplasma. HIV, rubella, and Hepatitis viruses A, B, and C can produce an illness resembling IM. The acute EBV ... Worldwide, EBV infection is associated with 1% to 1.5% of all cancers. The vast majority of these EBV-associated cancers are ...
Human neutrophil defensin-1, -3, and -4 are elevated in nasal aspirates from children with naturally occurring adenovirus ... 4 Are Elevated in Nasal Aspirates from Children with Naturally Occurring Adenovirus Infection," Canadian Respiratory Journal, ... Initially human alpha defensin peptides were isolated from the neutrophils and are thus called human neutrophil peptides. Human ... Human neutrophil peptides are found in human atherosclerotic arteries, inhibit LDL metabolism and fibrinolysis and promote Lp(a ...
Recombinant Adenovirus-Based Vaccine Provides Long-Term Protection for Non-Human Primates from Lethal Ebola Infection". ... It contains a human adenovirus serotype 5 vector (Ad5) with the glycoprotein gene from ZEBOV. Their findings were consistent ... The Ad26.ZEBOV is derived from human adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) expressing the Ebola virus Mayinga variant glycoprotein, ... Vaccines include replication-deficient adenovirus vectors, replication-competent vesicular stomatitis (VSV) and human ...
The unicellular Trypanosomatidae parasites have unnexin genes presumably to aid in their infection of animals including humans ... The even smaller adenovirus has its own "vinnexin", apparently derived from an innexin, to aid its transmission between the ... Kumar, N. M.; Gilula, NB (1986). "Cloning and characterization of human and rat liver cDNAs coding for a gap junction protein ... November 1975). "Cell contacts in human islets of Langerhans". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 41 (5): 841-4. doi:10.1210/jcem-41-5 ...
Data show that HUVEC cells overexpressing T-cadherin after adenovirus infection enter S-phase more rapidly and exhibit ... CDH13 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser. (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... T-cadherin at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CDH13 human gene location in the UCSC ... Re-expression of T-cadherin in human breast cancer cells (MDAMB435) in culture, which originally do not express T-cadherin, ...
... which causes respiratory infections; the human parvovirus B19, an infection that affects children; and the human parainfluenza ... As of 2008, per a pamphlet from the Mayo Clinic the viruses thought to be involved included the adenovirus, ... Persons having the HLA-DR4 type of human leucocyte antigen appear to have a higher risk of PMR. No specific test exists to ... CRP is produced by the liver in response to an injury or infection, and people with polymyalgia rheumatica usually have high ...
In addition, DPPC has been shown to be related to infection of polarized cells by a specific kind of human adenovirus (HAdV-C2 ... However, adsorption is not optimal at human body temperature for DPPC alone, because at 37 °C it is found in a gel phase. The ... This phospholipid is found in a solid/gel phase at 37 °C (at the effective temperature of the human body). Its melting point is ... It also plays an important role in the study of liposomes and human bilayers. Lung surfactant (LS) is a surface-active material ...
The vaccine contained three separate replication-defective vectors based on Human Adenovirus C serotype 5 (HAdV-5). Each of the ... In fact, certain groups of the vaccine recipients were seen to have a higher risk of HIV infection as compared to the placebo ... Study was a Phase IIb clinical trial intended to study the efficacy of an experimental HIV vaccine based on a human adenovirus ... It was hoped that the adenovirus vectors would carry these HIV-1 genes into the cell, and that this would result in the ...
The adenovirus cannot replicate, so does not cause further infection, and instead acts as a vector to transfer the SARS-CoV-2 ... In early April the team were awarded £22 million of funding from the Government of the United Kingdom to run human trials. The ... In 2012 Green moved to the University of Oxford, where she joined the Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics. Here Green expanded ... "Catherine Green - Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics". Retrieved 24 April 2020. "Hear from the Oxford COVID- ...
Cui X, Wen L, Wu Z, Liu N, Yang C, Liu W, Human adenovirus type 7 infection associated with severe and fatal acute lower ... Severe Infections with Human Adenovirus 7d in 2 Adults in Family, Illinois, USA, 2014 On This Page ... Severe Infections with Human Adenovirus 7d in 2 Adults in Family, Illinois, USA, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(4 ... Severe Infections with Human Adenovirus 7d in 2 Adults in Family, Illinois, USA, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(4):730-733. ...
... Persson, David Umeå ... Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) and many other viruses use cell adhesion molecules such as the coxsackievirus and adenovirus ... These findings suggest that HAdVs use distinct cell entry mechanisms at different stages of infection. To initiate infection, ... N-terminal 49 residues of human lactoferrin (hLF) known as human lactoferricin (hLfcin). Lactoferricin (Lfcin) binds to the ...
Adenovirus infection in humans are generally caused by Adenoviruses types B, C, E and F. Spread occurs mainly when an infected ... Adenovirus infection in humans are generally caused by Adenoviruses types B, C, E and F. Although epidemiologic characteristics ... Most adenovirus infections get better without any treatment. After recovery from adenovirus infection, the virus can be carried ... Adenovirus infection is a contagious viral disease, caused by adenoviruses, commonly resulting in a respiratory tract infection ...
Colorized transmission electron micrograph of adenovirus shown along with clinical identification of adenoviruses. ... More than 50 types of immunologically distinct adenoviruses can cause infections in humans. Adenoviruses are relatively ... People with weakened immune systems are at high risk for developing severe illness caused by adenovirus infection. Some people ... CDC is investigating a possible association between pediatric hepatitis and adenovirus infection. Visit CDCs NCIRD site for ...
Humans, Nasopharynx, Pneumococcal Infections, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Virus Replication. in Infection and Immunity. volume. ... This effect was not seen for other adenovirus types. Adenovirus infection did not change the adherence of cells of poorly ... This effect was not seen for other adenovirus types. Adenovirus infection did not change the adherence of cells of poorly ... Adenovirus infection enhances in vitro adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. *Mark. Håkansson, Anders P LU ; Kidd, A ; Wadell ...
... and adenoviruses are now known to be a common cause of asymptomatic respiratory tract infection that produces in vitro ... Adenovirus, a DNA virus, was first isolated in the 1950s in adenoid tissue-derived cell cultures, hence the name. These primary ... The first is lytic infection, which occurs when an adenovirus enters human epithelial cells and continues through an entire ... Adenoviruses are immunogenic and elicit strong innate and adaptive immune responses. Recovery from adenovirus infection is ...
Infection of bronchial epithelial cells by the human adenoviruses A12, B3 and C2 differently regulates the innate antiviral ... Infection of bronchial epithelial cells by the human adenoviruses A12, B3 and C2 differently regulates the innate antiviral ... title = "Infection of bronchial epithelial cells by the human adenoviruses A12, B3 and C2 differently regulates the innate ... Infection of bronchial epithelial cells by the human adenoviruses A12, B3 and C2 differently regulates the innate antiviral ...
Categories: Adenovirus Infections, Human Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
keywords = "Adenovirus Infections, Human, Bacterial Adhesion, Cells, Cultured, Cytokines, Haemophilus influenzae, Humans, ... Aspects on the interaction of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae with human respiratory tract mucosa. In: ... Attachment is increased by viral infection of the epithelial cells. Unlike H. Influenzae, S. pneumoniae induce apoptosis in ... Dive into the research topics of Aspects on the interaction of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae with human ...
There are more than 50 types of immunologically distinct adenoviruses that can cause infections in humans. Adenoviruses most ... There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections.. Adenovirus type 41 commonly causes pediatric acute gastroenteritis, ... While there have been case reports of hepatitis in immunocompromised children with adenovirus type 41 infection, adenovirus ... Case-finding efforts at this hospital identified four additional pediatric patients with hepatitis and adenovirus infection for ...
Cellular DNA synthesis was progressively inhibited, but still appreciable until 8 h post-infection and not completely abolished ... cell cultures infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 exhibited a maximum of virus DNA synthesis around 8 h post-infection as ... Characteristics of a Human Cell Line Transformed by DNA from Human Adenovirus Type 5 F. L. Graham, J. Smiley, W. C. Russell and ... Furukawa T., Tanaka S., Plotkin S. 1975; Restricted growth of human cytomegalovirus in uv-irradiated Wi-38 human fibroblasts. ...
belimumab decreases effects of human papillomavirus vaccine, nonavalent by immunosuppressive effects; risk of infection. Avoid ... adenovirus types 4 and 7 live, oral. Serious - Use Alternative (1)belimumab decreases effects of adenovirus types 4 and 7 live ... infection or make any infection you have worse. Tell your doctor right away if you have any signs of infection (such as sore ... infections (current infections, infections that return), mental/mood problems (such as depression, thoughts of suicide), cancer ...
DNA hybridization for diagnosis of enteric adenovirus infection from directly spotted human fecal specimens. J Clin Microbiol ... Adenovirus. Endemic disease. Adenoviruses are widely recognized causes of respiratory, ocular, and genitourinary infections. ... Infections occur throughout the year with no clear peaks (25). Other serotypes of adenovirus, particularly 31, have also been ... Human rotavirus studies in volunteers: determination of infectious dose and serological response to infection. J Infect Dis ...
There are more than 50 types of immunologically distinct adenoviruses that can cause infections in humans. Adenoviruses most ... There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections.. Adenovirus type 41 commonly causes pediatric acute gastroenteritis, ... While there have been case reports of hepatitis in immunocompromised children with adenovirus type 41 infection, adenovirus ... Case-finding efforts at this hospital identified four additional pediatric patients with hepatitis and adenovirus infection for ...
... most likely acquired as a co-infection with human adenovirus that is usually required as a helper virus to support AAV2 ... We found low levels of adenovirus (HAdV) and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) in 23 of 31 and 16 of 23, respectively, of the cases ... Several recent studies have suggested an association with human adenovirus with this outbreak, a virus not commonly associated ... BACKGROUND: Differentiating between self-resolving viral infections and bacterial infections in children who are febrile is a ...
Aerosols of MS-2, human adenovirus type 1, and avian influenza virus were sampled size-selectively using a non-viable Andersen ... Viral-infections; Humans; Airborne-particles; Survival-rate; Bacterial-cultures; Bacteria; Cell-culture-techniques; Cell- ... The quantification of live viruses (avian influenza virus, swine influenza virus, avian metapneumovirus, human adenovirus type ... We conducted a study by aerosolizing MS-2 suspended in human saliva and found that actual human saliva was much less protective ...
... were performed to determine the time course of gene expression profiles in SiHa cells after infection with an adenovirus- ... Distinctive cell cycle regulatory protein profiles by adenovirus delivery of p53 in human papillomavirus-associated cancer ... Distinctive cell cycle regulatory protein profiles by adenovirus delivery of p53 in human papillomavirus-associated cancer ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen levels were unchanged after Adp53 infection. Only SiHa cells exhibited significant cell ...
The most common causative viruses include rhinovirus, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus and adenovirus.2 ... Infection prevention strategies should be discussed, particularly for children with episodic viral wheeze. Children should be ... Bronchiolitis is an acute infection of the lower respiratory tract that primarily occurs in young infants, and is most common ... If the wheeze is of recent onset, but a concurrent upper respiratory tract infection is present, consider episodic viral wheeze ...
The first human AAV was discovered in 1965 as a contaminant of adenovirus preparations. ... Although the infections are usually subclinical, they can also seriously damage the central nervous system, liver, lymphoid ... Parvoviruses in humans. Parvovirus B19, which is a widespread virus that is pathogenic for humans, is a member of the ... In colonies where the infection is endemic, a majority of rats develop antibodies and become immune by the time they are seven ...
Coinfection with rotavirus, adenovirus, or norovirus was found in 3 (21.4%) HBoV-positive specimens. None of the HBoV-positive ... Human Bocavirus Infection, Peoples Republic of China Cite CITE. Title : Human Bocavirus Infection, Peoples Republic of China ... 2007). Human Bocavirus Infection, Peoples Republic of China. 13(1). Qu, Xiao-Wang et al. "Human Bocavirus Infection, Peoples ... 2007). Human Bocavirus Infection in Children with Gastroenteritis, Brazil. 13(11). Albuquerque, Maria Carolina M. et al. "Human ...
Recombinant Human IFN-beta Protein. Backed by our 100% Guarantee. ... Human. MK Holly, JG Smith Adenovirus infection of human ... Human. P An, MT Sáenz Robl, AM Duray, PG Cantalupo, JM Pipas Human polyomavirus BKV infection of endothelial cells results in ... Human. DP Strange, B Jiyarom, H Sadri-Arde, LH Cazares, TA Kenny, MD Ward, S Verma Paracrine IFN Response Limits ZIKV Infection ... Human. C Good, AI Wells, CB Coyne Type III interferon signaling restricts enterovirus 71 infection of goblet cells Sci Adv, ...
Actual infections with CMV, EBV, HSV, Adenovirus, Coxsackie virus, Toxoplasmosis, HIV and Borellia Burgdorferi were ruled out ... Adenovirus, Coxsackie virus, Toxoplasmosis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A follow-up of at least 6 month was ... A currently occurred infection with Adoenovirus could not be excluded due to slightly elevated Adenovirus-antibodies. ... Adenovirus, Coxsackie virus, Toxoplasmosis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were serologically evaluated. Tissue samples ...
The multi-virus infections involved 6 adenoviruses, 3 respiratory syncytial viruses, 2 parainfluenza viruses, and 1 rhinovirus ... Of the 15 children (5 boys) infected with human coronavirus, the mean age was 3.5 years, and the age range was 1.1 to 5.8 years ... There was a significant difference in H. pylori infection rates (P value=0.008), but not HAV infection rates, between different ... Coronavirus Infections in Pediatric Outpatients with Febrile Respiratory Tract Infections in Hiroshima, Japan, over a 3-Year ...
The reports on human herpes virus (HHV)-6 diseases are increasing.... Other viruses, such as herpesviruses and adenovirus, may ... Of the many infections these patients tend to develop, the only 3 infections commonly seen, for which there exists a vaccine ... viral encephalitis was mainly caused by human herpes virus (HHV)-6, followed by EBV, HSV, JC virus, CMV, VZV in the recipients ... Among the causes of CARV respiratory tract infections, a preponderance of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza ...
The statistical analysis showed that there was no correlation between the onset of the HAdV infection and the origin of the ... The role of human adenoviruses type 41 in acute diarrheal disease in Minas Gerais after rotavirus vaccination. Overview of ... Human adenovirus species F (HAdV-F) type 40 and 41 are commonly associated with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) across the world ... The role of human adenoviruses type 41 in acute diarrheal disease in Minas Gerais after rotavirus vaccination ...
Quantikine Human CXCL11/I-TAC ELISA Kit(DCX110). Sensitivity: 39.7 pg/mL. Validated for Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA ... Species: Human. Sample Types: Plasma. * Effective Apical Infection of Differentiated Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells and ... Induction of Proinflammatory Chemokines by the Highly Pneumotropic Human Adenovirus Type 14p1. Authors: Lam E, Ramke M, ... Species: Human. Sample Types: Serum. * VSIG-3 as a ligand of VISTA inhibits human T-cell function. Authors: Wang J, Wu G, ...
"Human Herpesvirus 6, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr Virus, and Adenovirus Infections After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell ... cytomegalovirus and adenovirus to prevent or treat viral infections post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant.." ... "Safety and clinical efficacy of rapidly-generated trivirus-directed T cells as treatment for Adenovirus, EBV and CMV infections ... "Cytotoxic T lymphocyte therapy with donor T cells prevents and treats adenovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections after ...
Adenovirus Infection: Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis. ... hemorrhagic cystitis and severe disseminated infection of various tissues. Microbiological testing is pivotal in order to make ... ranging from benign and self-limiting upper respiratory illness to life-threatening conjunctival infection in neonates, ... Adenovirus infection encompasses an array of clinical syndromes that can be caused by adenoviruses, ...
... adenovirus, human parainfluenza viruses 1-3 and human meta pneumovirus (13). An aliquot of each specimen was stored in liquid ... Incidence of influenza virus-associated severe acute respiratory infection in Damanhour district, Egypt, 2013 ... The International Emerging Infections Program (IEIP) of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US-CDC) ... Participants with a history of lower respiratory infection were asked if they had sought medical care for themselves or their ...
S. S. Chiu, K. H. Chan, K. W. Chu et al., "Human coronavirus NL63 infection and other coronavirus infections in children ... adenovirus, hMPV, rhinovirus/enterovirus, human coronavirus- (HCoV-) 229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, human bocavirus, ... Single RT-PCR for detection of human metapneumovirus, human coronavirus- (HCoV-) 229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, human ... Z.-F. Yang, C. K. P. Mok, J. S. M. Peiris, and N.-S. Zhong, "Human infection with a novel avian influenza A(H5N6) virus," New ...
  • Adenovirus infection can present as a gastroenteritis with vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain, with or without respiratory symptoms. (
  • Adenovirus gastroenteritis appears similar to diarrhoeal diseases caused by other infections. (
  • Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are a large family of DNA viruses that include more than 100 genotypes divided into seven species (A to G) and induce respiratory tract infections, gastroenteritis, and conjunctivitis. (
  • Control measures for outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis should focus on the removal of an ongoing common source of infection (e.g., an ill food handler or the contamination of a water supply) and on the interruption of person-to-person transmission that can perpetuate an outbreak in a population after the common source has been removed. (
  • The quantification of live viruses (avian influenza virus, swine influenza virus, avian metapneumovirus, human adenovirus type 1, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus) was accomplished by inoculation of appropriate cell culture systems. (
  • Human bocavirus (HBoV) was detected in 14 (2%) of 705 fecal specimens from Brazilian children with gastroenteritis. (
  • Other notable infections caused by adenovirus are those of the respiratory tract (both lower and upper), gastroenteritis , central nervous system infection (CNS), and hemorrhagic cystitis [1]. (
  • Adenovirus pneumonia among immunocompetent adults is still relatively infrequent and therefore attracts considerable attention ( 4 ). (
  • He was given a diagnosis of adenovirus pneumonia, acute heart failure, and respiratory failure that required veno−venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during December 14−19. (
  • Bronchiolitis obliterans is uncommon, but can occur if adenovirus causes pneumonia with prolonged fever, and can result in difficulty breathing. (
  • Streptococcal pharyngitis Streptococci are gram-positive aerobic organisms that cause many disorders, including pharyngitis, pneumonia, wound and skin infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. (
  • Overview of Pneumonia Pneumonia is acute inflammation of the lungs caused by infection. (
  • These include pneumonia and croup , an infection that causes hoarse, barking coughs . (
  • CDC is investigating a possible association between pediatric hepatitis and adenovirus infection. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to notify clinicians and public health authorities of a cluster of children identified with hepatitis and adenovirus infection. (
  • These molecules are rarely expressed on the apical side of polarized epithelial cells, which raises the question of how adenoviruses-and other viruses that engage cell adhesion molecules-enter polarized cells from the apical side to initiate infection. (
  • Paradoxically, these molecules are abundant on the lateral and basolateral side of intact, polarized, epithelial target cells, but absent on the apical side that must be penetrated by incoming viruses to initiate infection. (
  • The present study analyzed the effect of adenovirus on bacterial adherence to human respiratory tract epithelial cells. (
  • The first is lytic infection, which occurs when an adenovirus enters human epithelial cells and continues through an entire replication cycle, which results in cytolysis, cytokine production, and induction of host inflammatory response. (
  • Attachment is increased by viral infection of the epithelial cells. (
  • Recombinant Human IFN‑ beta (Catalog # 8499-IF) exhibits anti-viral activity in HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells infected with encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus. (
  • Measured in anti-viral assays using HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells infected with encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus. (
  • We report characterization of adenovirus strains isolated from 2 adults in the same family who had severe respiratory infections in Illinois, USA, during December 2014. (
  • The virus-infected cells were harvested at various times after infection and analyzed for the ability to bind strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. (
  • Adenovirus (types 1, 2, 3, and 5) commonly causing respiratory tract infections increased the binding of adherent S. pneumoniae strains to the cells. (
  • Adenovirus infection did not change the adherence of cells of poorly adhering strains of S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae. (
  • This study was performed to determine the prevalence, to verify the epidemiological aspects of infection, and to characterize the strains of human adenoviruses (HAdV) detected. (
  • Preschool children with adenovirus colds tend to present with a nasal congestion, runny nose and abdominal pain. (
  • While there have been case reports of hepatitis in immunocompromised children with adenovirus type 41 infection, adenovirus type 41 is not known to be a cause of hepatitis in otherwise healthy children [5, 6]. (
  • Two respiratory specimens were positive for adenovirus by PCR. (
  • A nasal swab specimen obtained at admission to NMH was positive for adenovirus B/E by the GenMarkDx eSensor Respiratory Virus Panel (Genmark Diagnostics, Inc., Carlsbad, CA, USA). (
  • A BAL specimen obtained on December 17 was positive for adenovirus B/E by PCR. (
  • In November 2021, clinicians at a large children's hospital in Alabama notified CDC of five pediatric patients with significant liver injury, including three with acute liver failure, who also tested positive for adenovirus. (
  • Other recently identified pathogens include the enteric adenoviruses, calicivirus, astrovirus, and the Norwalk family of agents. (
  • Adenoviruses, belonging to the group of double-stranded positive (+) sense DNA viruses, are a large group of pathogens responsible for numerous types of human disease [1] [2]. (
  • Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are caused by various pathogens that are often indistinguishable from one another by clinical diagnosis. (
  • The most common viral pathogens recovered from hospitalized patients admitted with CAP include human rhinovirus and influenza . (
  • samples collected or completed thereafter and by Oct 27, 2021, constituted the Rapid Paediatric Infection Diagnosis in Sepsis (RAPIDS) internal validation cohort. (
  • Laboratory Diagnosis of Respiratory Tract Infections in Children - the State of the Art. (
  • Adenovirus infection is seen across all ages and gender, although immunocompromised hosts seem to be at an increased risk compared to the immunocompetent [1]. (
  • In immunocompetent hosts, most adenovirus infections are asymptomatic. (
  • 75% of conjunctivitis cases are due to adenovirus infection. (
  • Neonatal adenovirus infection, despite being rare, is a frequently fatal disease characterized by severe forms of conjunctivitis (as a result of viral transmission from the mother), cyanosis , respiratory failure , fever and a rash in neonates [6]. (
  • Adenovirus types 3 and 7 cause a distinct syndrome of conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and fever (pharyngoconjunctival fever ). (
  • Cases of pediatric hepatitis in children who tested negative for hepatitis viruses A, B, C, D, and E were reported earlier this month in the United Kingdom, including some with adenovirus infection [1]. (
  • This Health Advisory serves to notify US clinicians who may encounter pediatric patients with hepatitis of unknown etiology to consider adenovirus testing and to elicit reporting of such cases to state public health authorities and to CDC. (
  • Clinicians should consider adenovirus testing in pediatric patients with hepatitis of unknown etiology. (
  • As the pediatric population is the age group where adenovirus infections are most prevalent, kindergartens, summer or college camps and schools are the main sites of outbreaks [5]. (
  • Despite the heterogeneity in the pathogenesis of immune defects, common cutaneous manifestations and typical infections can provide clinical clues in diagnosing this pediatric emergency. (
  • Aerosols of MS-2, human adenovirus type 1, and avian influenza virus were sampled size-selectively using a non-viable Andersen impactor. (
  • Among the causes of CARV respiratory tract infections, a preponderance of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus (PIV) are reported, followed by influenza virus and human metapneumovirus (HMPV). (
  • ABSTRACT The epidemiology, seasonality and risk factors for influenza virus infection remains poorly defined in countries such as Egypt. (
  • Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) and many other viruses use cell adhesion molecules such as the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) for attachment to and entry into target cells. (
  • Adenoviruses are medium-sized (90-100 nm), non-enveloped icosohedral viruses with double-stranded DNA. (
  • Viruses are thought to facilitate bacterial infections of the respiratory tract, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. (
  • The increased attachment may be one mechanism by which viruses precondition the respiratory mucosa for bacterial infection. (
  • Adenoviruses are doubled-stranded DNA viruses that spread by close personal contact, respiratory droplets, and fomites [3]. (
  • Adenoassociated viruses (AAV) are also members of the Parvoviridae family that appear to infect humans without causing clinical manifestations. (
  • Other viruses, such as herpesviruses and adenovirus, may also result in respiratory infections. (
  • The statistical analysis showed that there was no correlation between the onset of the HAdV infection and the origin of the samples (inpatients or outpatients) in the two conditions tested: the total of samples tested (p=0.598) and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (p=0.614). (
  • With the emergence of human infections due to the swine-origin influenza A H3N2 variant (H3N2v) virus in North America in 2010 and more recently the avian-origin influenza A H7N9 and H5N6 in China [ 13 - 15 ], it would be important to ascertain the analytical sensitivities of these rapid tests for the novel influenza viruses [ 16 , 17 ]. (
  • Adenoviruses are DNA viruses classified according to 3 major capsid antigens (hexon, penton, and fiber). (
  • Adenovirus infection is a contagious viral disease, caused by adenoviruses, commonly resulting in a respiratory tract infection. (
  • Adenoviruses most commonly cause respiratory illness. (
  • Adenovirus (types 1, 2, 3, and 5) commonly causing respiratory tract infections increased the binding of. (
  • Human adenovirus species F (HAdV-F) type 40 and 41 are commonly associated with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) across the world. (
  • Overview of Viral Respiratory Infections Viral infections commonly affect the upper or lower respiratory tract. (
  • Adenoviruses are commonly acquired by contact with respiratory secretions (including those on fingers of infected people) from an infected person or by contact with a contaminated object (eg, towel, instrument). (
  • This burden is commonly attributed to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), whereby concentrations of maternally derived DENV antibodies become subneutralizing, and infection-enhancing. (
  • A mild eye infection may occur on its own, combined with a sore throat and fever, or as a more severe adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis with a painful red eye, intolerance to light and discharge. (
  • Upon infection with adenovirus, one of three different interactions with the cells may occur. (
  • This infection has been reported to occur worldwide with variable prevalence rates. (
  • Reactivations by human AdV occur especially in children after allogeneic HSCT and a disseminating AdV disease contributes to a high morbidity and mortality Adoptive immunotherapies, e. g. with AdV-specific T cells, are therapeutic options. (
  • Dr. Leen is a co-principal investigator on a clinical trial assessing the safety of adoptively transferred donor-derived virus-specific CTL for the prophylaxis and treatment of adenoviral infections post allogeneic stem cell transplant. (
  • Leen AM, Bollard CM, Myers GD, Rooney CM " Adenoviral infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. . (
  • Adenoviral infections are being increasingly recognized as causes of severe respiratory and other clinical disease in immunocompromised adults. (
  • 500 U/L) who have an unknown etiology for their hepatitis (with or without any adenovirus testing results, independent of the results) since October 1, 2021. (
  • Adenoviruses and herpesviruses are the most frequent and severe causes of opportunistic infections in these immunosuppressed patients. (
  • In some circumstances, a PCR test on blood or respiratory secretions may detect adenovirus DNA. (
  • Attachment and persistence is counterbalanced by antiadhesive as well as bactericidal molecules in secretions such as human milk. (
  • Certain serotypes are associated with distinct clinical manifestations, reflecting preferential infection of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts and conjunctiva. (
  • Species B human adenoviruses are frequent causative agents of acute respiratory disease requiring hospitalization mainly for children but occasionally also for adults. (
  • A live oral vaccine against adenovirus types 4 and 7 was approved for use in this population by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011, and subsequent incidence of acute respiratory disease declined. (
  • Between 1 January and 31 December 2013, we used surveillance data on patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory infection in three Egyptian government hospitals in Damanhour district to estimate the incidence rate of laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza. (
  • This is the first edition of this document for novel coronavirus, an adaption of WHO Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when MERS-CoV infection is suspected publication (2019). (
  • This document is intended for clinicians taking care of hospitalised adult and paediatric patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when 2019-nCoV infection is suspected. (
  • a history of travel to or residence in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in the 14 days prior to symptom onset, or · patient is a health care worker who has been working in an environment where severe acute respiratory infections of unknown etiology are being cared for. (
  • Hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases was established in New Zealand on 30 April 2012. (
  • The easiest way to test this is to just experimentally infect humans with the virus and see how fat they get. (
  • In particular, respiratory infections with human adenovirus 7 (HAdV7) have a well-documented association with severe clinical manifestations, nosocomial transmission, prolonged hospitalizations, pulmonary sequela, and deaths ( 1 − 6 ). (
  • When infections are symptomatic, a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations is possible because most adenoviruses that cause mild disease have affinity for a variety of tissues. (
  • These primary cell cultures were often noted to spontaneously degenerate over time, and adenoviruses are now known to be a common cause of asymptomatic respiratory tract infection that produces in vitro cytolysis in these tissues. (
  • however, most infections are asymptomatic. (
  • Adenovirus is often cultured from the pharynx and stool of asymptomatic children, and most adults have measurable titers of anti-adenovirus antibodies, implying prior infection. (
  • The second is chronic or latent infection, the exact mechanism of which is unknown, which frequently involves asymptomatic infection of lymphoid tissue. (
  • Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae are common causes of respiratory tract infections. (
  • Adenovirus has been associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease and, with regard to infections among military recruits, who were routinely immunized against types 4 and 7 from 1971 until the cessation of vaccine production in 1996. (
  • Adenoviruses are immunogenic and elicit strong innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • Coinfection with rotavirus, adenovirus, or norovirus was found in 3 (21.4%) HBoV-positive specimens. (
  • We have previously shown that species C HAdVs utilize lactoferrin-a common innate immune component secreted to respiratory mucosa-for infection via unknown mechanisms. (
  • These findings suggest that HAdVs use distinct cell entry mechanisms at different stages of infection. (
  • There are 7 human adenovirus species (A to G) and 57 serotypes. (
  • Lactoferricin (Lfcin) binds to the hexon protein on the viral capsid and anchors the virus to an unknown receptor structure of target cells, resulting in infection. (
  • when infection is established, progeny virions released from the basolateral side enter neighboring cells by means of hLF/hLfcin and CAR in parallel. (
  • At a multiplicity of infection of 75 particles per cell, cytopathic effects occurred in 75 to 100% of the cells within 48 h. (
  • Of interest is the role of adenoviruses as viral vectors in vaccination and in gene therapy.For example, in viral vector vaccines against SARS-CoV2, the vector virus is used to deliver RNA encoding SARS-CoV2 spike protein into target cells. (
  • In vitro synthesis of DNA in nuclei isolated from human lung cells infected with herpes simplex type 2 virus. (
  • Distinctive cell cycle regulatory protein profiles by adenovirus delivery of p53 in human papillomavirus-associated cancer cells. (
  • In this study, microarray analyses were performed to determine the time course of gene expression profiles in SiHa cells after infection with an adenovirus-expressing p53 (Adp53). (
  • Melenhorst JJ, Leen AM, Bollard CM, Quigley MF, Price DA, Rooney CM, Brenner MK, Barrett AJ, Heslop HE " Allogeneic virus-specific T cells with HLA alloreactivity do not produce GVHD in human subjects. . (
  • Studies on more than a thousand children suggest that a viral infection may play a role in childhood obesity by increasing both the number and size of fat cells. (
  • METHODS In the context of this work it was at first made an identification and analysis by flow cytometry of AdV-specific T cells in 23 healthy human donors after a 6-hour stimulation of 1 ml of whole blood with AdV antigens (AdV3-hexon protein and AdV3-hexon peptides) and anti human CD28. (
  • At the protein level, however, APOBEC3B is abundantly expressed during HAdV-A12 and -C2 infection and shows a nuclear distribution. (
  • APOBEC3B deaminase activity is detected in total protein extracts upon HAdV-A12 and -C2 infection. (
  • Our results show that HAdV infection triggers the transcriptional upregulation of the antiviral innate effector APOBEC3B. (
  • The occurrence of infections due to HAdV did not coincide with a pattern of seasonal distribution. (
  • The elder brother developed a high fever and was diagnosed with HAdV infection with an immunochromatographic kit for HAdV (IC-kit). (
  • HAdV infection also shows KD-like symptoms such as conjunctival injection, red cracked lips, and cervical lymphadenopathy . (
  • therefore, testing of whole blood could be considered in those without an etiology who tested negative for adenovirus in plasma samples. (
  • Some people infected with adenoviruses, especially those who have weakened immune systems, can have ongoing infections in their tonsils, adenoids, and intestines that do not cause symptoms. (
  • In colonies where the infection is endemic, a majority of rats develop antibodies and become immune by the time they are seven months old. (
  • Further, key uncertainties exist regarding the impact of long-term shifts in birth rates, population-level infection risks, and maternal ages on the DENV immune landscape of newborns and their subsequent risks of severe dengue disease in infancy. (
  • But the infections can be serious or even life threatening to young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems. (
  • We described patterns of empiric antibiotic use in European EDs and characterized appropriateness and consistency of prescribing.MethodsBetween August 2016 and December 2019, febrile children attending EDs in 9 European countries with suspected infection were recruited into the PERFORM (Personalised Risk Assessment in Febrile Illness to Optimise Real-Life Management) study. (
  • Adenovirus infection encompasses an array of clinical syndromes that can be caused by adenoviruses, ranging from benign and self-limiting upper respiratory illness to life-threatening conjunctival infection in neonates, hemorrhagic cystitis and severe disseminated infection of various tissues. (
  • The differentiation of dengue virus (DENV) infection, a major cause of acute febrile illness in tropical regions, from other etiologies, may help prioritize laboratory testing and limit the inappropriate use of antibiotics. (
  • Thymidine kinase-deficient mouse cell cultures infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 exhibited a maximum of virus DNA synthesis around 8 h post-infection as determined by pulse labelling with 3 H-thymidine. (
  • Immunological evidence for a specific DNA polymerase produced after infection by herpes simplex virus. (
  • Thyroid parameters, a white blood cell count and the determination of CRP were done and infection with Borellia Burgdorferi, Cytomegaly virus (CMV) Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Adenovirus, Coxsackie virus, Toxoplasmosis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were serologically evaluated. (
  • In the herpesvirus family, the incidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections as well as cytomegalovirus (CMV) diseases have significantly decreased because of effective prophylaxis. (
  • The reports on human herpes virus (HHV)-6 diseases are increasing. (
  • viral encephalitis was mainly caused by human herpes virus (HHV)-6, followed by EBV, HSV, JC virus, CMV, VZV in the recipients of allo-HSCT. (
  • PCR) is preferred for adenovirus detection and may be performed on respiratory specimens, stool or rectal swabs, or blood. (
  • Admission chest radiographs of 2 adults with severe infections with adenovirus type 7 in family, Illinois, USA, 2014. (
  • They depend on the type of adenovirus, where it enters into the body, and on the age and well-being of the person. (
  • all five that were sequenced had adenovirus type 41 infection identified. (
  • Additionally, ITGAV:ITGB5 functions as an Adenovirus type C receptor during microbial infection . (
  • It tells you which type of infection you have. (
  • In 2016, the Global Burden of Disease Study estimated that globally, around 75 million episodes of diarrhea among children under the age of five-years, were attributable to adenovirus infection. (
  • An external validation cohort was assembled from RNA sequencing gene expression count data from the observational European Childhood Life-threatening Infectious Disease Study (EUCLIDS), which recruited children with severe infection in nine European countries between 2012 and 2016. (
  • Although respiratory infections can be classified by the causative virus (eg, influenza), they are generally classified. (
  • Recovery from adenovirus infection is associated with the development of serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies. (
  • This suggested that adenovirus infection upregulated receptors for S. pneumoniae. (
  • A live vaccine to protect against types 4 and 7 adenoviruses has been used successfully in some military personnel. (
  • I know [the vaccine] has proven efficient and forms a stable immunity," Putin noted, despite there being no published data from early human tests of the vaccine and no late-stage human trials currently underway. (
  • The rush to approve the vaccine has raised concerns from scientists within Russia and abroad, who say that only carefully designed human trials, which include thousands of people, can clearly demonstrate that a vaccine is safe and effective enough for public use. (
  • Early human tests of the Russian vaccine began in mid-June and included 76 participants, but no data from those trials has been released, according to The Associated Press. (
  • While these early trials provide hints about how well a vaccine works, only phase 3 trials, which include thousands to tens of thousands of volunteers, can compare rates of infection between vaccinated and unvaccinated people. (
  • In other words, only phase 3 trials can demonstrate that a vaccine prevents COVID-19 infection. (
  • In the absence of active sentinel surveillance for adenovirus infections, there is no current sense of what the actual burden of adenovirus-associated respiratory disease is in the United States or which are the most prevalent pathogenic types circulating in this country. (
  • Adenovirus infection in humans are generally caused by Adenoviruses types B, C, E and F. Spread occurs mainly when an infected person is in close contact with another person. (
  • More than 50 types of immunologically distinct adenoviruses can cause infections in humans. (
  • This effect was not seen for other adenovirus types. (
  • Case clusters of severe respiratory disease, caused by specific adenoviruses (particularly types 7, 14, and 55), have occurred in healthy adults. (
  • Adenoviruses cause many different types of infections. (
  • AF292371) by use of plicated in other types of infection. (
  • 5] Ideally, SCID can be detected in a newborn before the onset of infections, with one well-documented example by screening of T-cell-receptor excision circles. (
  • Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver that can be caused by viral infections, alcohol use, toxins, medications, and certain other medical conditions. (
  • Bollard CM, Kuehnle I, Leen A, Rooney CM, Heslop HE " Adoptive immunotherapy for posttransplantation viral infections. . (
  • INTRODUCTION Viral infections are often critical complications after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Although the infections are usually subclinical, they can also seriously damage the central nervous system, liver, lymphoid system, and other tissues. (
  • Human adenovirus 7d, a genomic variant with no reported circulation in the United States, was isolated from 2 adults with severe respiratory infections in Illinois. (
  • Moreover, parvovirus B19 can cause aplastic anemia in patients with sickle cell disease, a fifth disease with erythema infectiosum in children, arthropathy in adults, and rare fetal infections. (
  • Most studies done to date on adults have found a connection between exposure to this virus and obesity, and all of the studies done so far on childhood obesity show an increase in prevalence of infection in obese compared to non-obese children. (
  • 4] Skin infections were significantly more prevalent in those with congenital defects in phagocyte number, function, or both, as well as in those with well-defined immunodeficiencies. (
  • This same virus is also easily transmitted among humans, this raises the question as to whether at least some cases of childhood obesity can be considered an infectious disease. (
  • Entre le 1er janvier et le 31 décembre 2013, nous avons utilisé les données de la surveillance des patients hospitalisés pour une infection respiratoire aiguë sévère (IRAS) dans trois hôpitaux publics égyptiens dans le district de Damanhour afin d'estimer le taux d'incidence de la grippe saisonnière confirmée en laboratoire. (
  • Active, prospective, continuous, hospital-based SARI surveillance is useful in supporting pandemic preparedness for emerging influenza A(H7N9) virus infections and seasonal influenza prevention and control. (
  • Most cases are mild and by the age of 10-years, most children have had at least one adenovirus infection. (
  • This is a common and usually mild respiratory infection. (
  • Most respiratory infections cause mild to moderate symptoms. (
  • The genome of adenovirus is well known and can be modified with relative ease to induce lysis or cytotoxicity of a specified cell line without affecting others. (
  • Possessing over60 serotypes, adenovirus is recognized as the etiologic agent of various diverse syndromes. (