Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.Adenovirus E4 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Adenovirus E1B Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.Adenovirus E3 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).Adenovirus Infections, Human: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.Adenoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Adenovirus E2 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein: An Ig superfamily transmembrane protein that localizes to junctional complexes that occur between ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and EPTHELIAL CELLS. The protein may play a role in cell-cell adhesion and is the primary site for the attachment of ADENOVIRUSES during infection.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Adenoviruses, Canine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.Mastadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Adenoviruses, Porcine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.Aviadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.Fowl adenovirus A: The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.E1A-Associated p300 Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Keratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Adenovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.ConjunctivitisE2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Papillomavirus E7 Proteins: ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.Mice, Inbred BALB CCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Atadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.PhosphoproteinsAntibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Mice, Inbred C57BLDown-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Tropism: The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Retinoblastoma: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.Injections, Intralesional: Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.DNA Tumor Viruses: DNA viruses producing malignant tumors. Of the six major groupings of DNA viruses four contain members which are actually or potentially oncogenic: the Adenoviridae, the Herpesviridae, the Papovaviridae, and the Poxviridae.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.DNA, Concatenated: Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Cell Nucleus Structures: Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.p300-CBP Transcription Factors: A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.E2F2 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
... the adenovirus type 5 E1 gene was used to immortalize the HEK 293 cell line). Artificial expression of key proteins required ... from testing toxicity of compounds or drugs to production of eukaryotic proteins. While immortalized cell lines often originate ... Introduction of a viral gene that partially deregulates the cell cycle (e.g., ...
"The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of the retinoblastoma gene family and physically interacts ... G1/S-specific cyclin-E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNE1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ... This protein was found to associate with, and be involved in, the phosphorylation of NPAT protein (nuclear protein mapped to ... "The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of the retinoblastoma gene family and physically interacts ...
... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.100 - adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus ... gene products, rex MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.480 - gene products, tax (gene) MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.650 - oncogene protein ... adenovirus E1 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050.100 - adenovirus E1A proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050.110 - ... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus ...
"Induction of endogenous genes following infection of human endothelial cells with an E1(-) E4(+) adenovirus gene transfer ... S100 calcium-binding protein A10 (S100A10), also known as p11, is a protein that is encoded by the S100A10 gene in humans and ... "Entrez Gene: S100A10 S100 calcium binding protein A10". Rosack J (2006). "Protein Discovery May Lead To New Psychiatric Drugs ... "Nerve growth factor induces the genes for two proteins related to a family of calcium-binding proteins in PC12 cells". ...
"Relief of YY1 transcriptional repression by adenovirus E1A is mediated by E1A-associated protein p300". Genes & Development. 9 ... Park K, Atchison ML (Nov 1991). "Isolation of a candidate repressor/activator, NF-E1 (YY-1, delta), that binds to the ... "Relief of YY1 transcriptional repression by adenovirus E1A is mediated by E1A-associated protein p300". Genes & Development. 9 ... YY1 (Yin Yang 1) is a transcriptional repressor protein in humans that is encoded by the YY1 gene. YY1 is a ubiquitously ...
Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. The UBC9 protein ... In a second step, an E1 activating complex binds to SUMO at its di-glycine and passes it on to the E2 protein Ubc9, where it ... Hateboer G, Hijmans EM, Nooij JB, Schlenker S, Jentsch S, Bernards R (1996). "mUBC9, a novel adenovirus E1A-interacting protein ... The protein UBC9 encoded by the UBE2I gene has been shown to be targeted by multiple viruses, including HIV and HPV. It has ...
They are also used by the biotechnology industry to produce therapeutic proteins and viruses for gene therapy. HEK 293 cells ... they can be used to propagate adenoviral vectors in which these genes (typically, E1 and E3) are deleted, such as AdEasy. An ... and could be preferentially transformed by adenovirus. Adenoviruses transform neuronal lineage cells much more efficiently than ... Depending on various conditions, the gene expression of HEK 293 cells may vary. The following proteins of interest (among many ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of Ser/Thr protein kinases. This protein ... and adenovirus E1A-associated p33 kinase". Nature. 353 (6340): 174-7. doi:10.1038/353174a0. PMID 1653904. "Entrez Gene: CDK2 ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, CDK2AP1, CDKN1B CDKN3, CEBPA, Cyclin A1, Cyclin E1, Flap ... This protein associates with and is regulated by the regulatory subunits of the complex including cyclin E or A. Cyclin E binds ...
Human ATF3 genome location and ATF3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ATF3 protein, human at the US National ... "Altered AP-1/ATF complexes in adenovirus-E1-transformed cells due to EIA-dependent induction of ATF3". Oncogene. 12 (5): 1025- ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-3 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF3 gene. Activating ... It is possible that alternative splicing of the ATF3 gene may be physiologically important in the regulation of target genes. ...
Berkowitz, S.A., Philo, J.S. Monitoring the Homogeneity of Adenovirus Preparations (a Gene Therapy Delivery System) Using ... By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... 277(31): e1-e2. ... One protein being investigated at the time was hemoglobin. It ... Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ...
Berkowitz, S.A., Philo, J.S. Monitoring the Homogeneity of Adenovirus Preparations (a Gene Therapy Delivery System) Using ... Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... Howlett, G.J., Minton, A.P., Rivas, G. Analytical Ultracentrifugation for the Study of Protein Association and Assembly. ...
"The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of the retinoblastoma gene family and physically interacts ... Retinoblastoma-like protein 2 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, BRF1 C-Raf, Cyclin E1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, HDAC1, ... Retinoblastoma-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBL2 gene. ... "The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of the retinoblastoma gene family and physically interacts ...
The expressed genes or the proteins they encode can be analyzed to evaluate splicing components and their effects via a variety ... 32 (4): 757.e1-757.e11. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.12.013. Rajan, P.; Elliott, DJ; Robson, CN; Leung, HY (Aug 2009). " ... RNA splicing was discovered in the late 1970s through the study of adenoviruses that invade mammals and replicate inside them. ... A minigene is a minimal gene fragment that includes an exon and the control regions necessary for the gene to express itself in ...
This small putative gene exists only in a few papillomavirus types. The gene is not known to be expressed as a protein and does ... Encodes a protein that binds to the viral origin of replication in the long control region of the viral genome. E1 uses ATP to ... Glaunsinger BA, Lee SS, Thomas M, Banks L, Javier R (2000). "Interactions of the PDZ-protein MAGI-1 with adenovirus E4-ORF1 and ... E6 proteins also interact with the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase family) proteins. These proteins, including MAGI ...
This list included 140 genes and included regulatory proteins for myelopoiesis and leukemogenesis (e.g. SHIP-1AICDA, ETS1, ... 202 (5): 466.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2010.01.057. PMID 20452491. Hu YL, Fong S, Largman C, Shen WF (Sep 2010). "HOXA9 ... and adenoviruses, another virus expressing miR-155-like miRNA in chickens is the oncogenic MDV-1 whose non-oncogenic relative ... the protein-encoding mRNA for the transcriptional regulator Pu.1-protein, elevation of Pu.1 protein predisposes defective IgG1 ...
Egg protein is present in influenza and yellow fever vaccines as they are prepared using chicken eggs. Other proteins may be ... Complex plants such as tobacco, potato, tomato, and banana can have genes inserted that cause them to produce vaccines usable ... Hulst MM, Westra DF, Wensvoort G, Moormann RJ (1993). "Glycoprotein E1 of hog cholera virus expressed in insect cells protects ... Other canine vaccines include canine distemper, canine parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis, adenovirus-2, leptospirosis, ...
American Journal of Public Health 103(9):e1-e1 (in press).. *Friedman, M. Reuel, Kutz, Steven, Buttram, Mance, Wei, Chongyi, ... The frequency of gene reassortment among human pathogens is less clear than it is the among plant or animal species but of ... Notably, participants immune to the common cold virus adenovirus type 5 had a higher risk of HIV infection. The vaccine was ... or measles virus may stimulate the production of proteins suppressing HIV replication, including the β-chemokines, CD8+ cell ...
Tsai LH, Harlow E, Meyerson M (septiembre de 1991). «Isolation of the human cdk2 gene that encodes the cyclin A- and adenovirus ... de 1999). «Regulation of cyclin A-Cdk2 by SCF component Skp1 and F-box protein Skp2». Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 19 (1): ... Ciclina E1[21]​[8]​[22]​[23]​[24]​[25]​. *SKP2[26]​[27]​[28]​ ... a b «Entrez Gene: CDK2 cyclin-dependent kinase 2». *↑ Berthet C, Aleem E, Coppola V, Tessarollo L, Kaldis P (octubre de 2003). ...
The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... This assay is used to disrupt gene function by creating an intragenic gene fusion. When an APAF-1 gene trap is introduced into ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.[95] Some ... these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor-suppressing proteins.[74] These tumor-suppressing proteins regulate the ...
"A gene for a novel zinc-finger protein expressed in differentiated epithelial cells and transiently in certain mesenchymal ... "Oncogene expression cloning by retroviral transduction of adenovirus E1A-immortalized rat kidney RK3E cells: transformation of ... "Gene. 611: 27-37. doi:10.1016/J.GENE.2017.02.025. PMC 5391259. PMID 28237823.. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link). .mw- ... and is encoded by the KLF4 gene.[10] The KLF4 gene is conserved in chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, chicken, ...
S6K1 in db/db mice with the use of an adenovirus vector encoding S6K1 shRNA resulted in down-regulation of SREBP-1c gene ... SREBP-2 regulates the genes of cholesterol metabolism.. Function[edit]. SREB proteins are indirectly required for cholesterol ... a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene". Cell ... proteins. However, in contrast to E-box-binding HLH proteins, an arginine residue is replaced with tyrosine making them capable ...
"Entrez Gene: CDKN2C cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4)". مؤرشف من الأصل في 05 ديسمبر 2010.. الوسيط , ... negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • ... Schreiber M, Muller WJ, Singh G, Graham FL (1999). "Comparison of the effectiveness of adenovirus vectors expressing cyclin ... Blais A, Labrie Y, Pouliot F, Lachance Y, Labrie C (July 1998). "Structure of the gene encoding the human cyclin-dependent ...
Egg protein is present in influenza and yellow fever vaccines as they are prepared using chicken eggs. Other proteins may be ... Complex plants such as tobacco, potato, tomato, and banana can have genes inserted that cause them to produce vaccines usable ... Other canine vaccines include canine distemper, canine parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis, adenovirus-2, leptospirosis, ... "Glycoprotein E1 of hog cholera virus expressed in insect cells protects swine from hog cholera". Journal of Virology. 67 (9): ...
... these proteins are responsible for the replication of the virus.[59] E1 is a highly conserved protein in the virus, E1 is in ... Human Gene Therapy. 15 (5): 421-31. doi:10.1089/10430340460745757. PMID 15144573.. ... Its protein makeup allows it to target four types of HPV. Gardasil contains inactive L1 proteins from four different HPV ... One such method is a vaccine based on the minor capsid protein L2, which is highly conserved across HPV genotypes.[180] Efforts ...
E1-E7 early genes, L1-L2 late genes: capsid) ... The E6/E7 proteins inactivate two tumor suppressor proteins, ... Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus. Rotavirus. Norovirus. Astrovirus. Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA ... E6 produces a protein (also called E6) that binds to and inactivates a protein in the host cell called p53. Normally, p53 acts ... E6 also has a close relationship with the cellular protein E6-associated protein (E6-AP), which is involved in the ubiquitin ...
Entry of adenoviruses into the host cell involves two sets of interactions between the virus and the host cell. Most of the action occurs at the vertices. Entry into the host cell is initiated by the knob domain of the fiber protein binding to the cell receptor. The two currently established receptors are: CD46 for the group B human ...
Adenovirus genomes are linear, non-segmented double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules that are typically 26-46 Kbp long, containing 23-46 protein-coding genes. The example used for the following description is Human adenovirus E, a mastadenovirus with a 36 Kbp genome containing 38 protein-coding genes. While the ...
Human embryonic kidney cells 293, also often referred to as HEK 293, HEK-293, 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells, are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in tissue culture. HEK 293 cells have been widely used in cell biology research for many years, because of their ...
Orofaringe, just darrièr la boca. La paret anteriora es la basa de lenga e la vallècula; la paret laterala es formada per l'arc palatofaringi, l'arc palatoglós e per l'amigdala palatina. La paret superiora es formada per l'uvula (campaneta) e lo paladar ...
Adenovirus genomes are linear, non-segmented double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules that are typically 26-46 Kbp long, containing 23-46 protein-coding genes. The example used for the following description is Human adenovirus E, a mastadenovirus with a 36 Kbp genome containing 38 protein-coding genes. While the ...
Orofaringe, just darrièr la boca. La paret anteriora es la basa de lenga e la vallècula; la paret laterala es formada per l'arc palatofaringi, l'arc palatoglós e per l'amigdala palatina. La paret superiora es formada per l'uvula (campaneta) e lo paladar ...
Adenovirus genomes are linear, non-segmented double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules that are typically 26-46 Kbp long, containing 23-46 protein-coding genes. The example used for the following description is Human adenovirus E, a mastadenovirus with a 36 Kbp genome containing 38 protein-coding genes. While the ...
Adenovirus genomes are linear, non-segmented double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules that are typically 26-46 Kbp long, containing 23-46 protein-coding genes. The example used for the following description is Human adenovirus E, a mastadenovirus with a 36 Kbp genome containing 38 protein-coding genes. While the ...
Unlike traditional vaccines, in which attenuated or killed virus/bacteria is used to generate an immune response, viral immunotherapy uses genetically engineered viruses to present a specific antigen to the immune system. That antigen could be from any species of virus/bacteria or even human disease antigens, for example ...
Entry of adenoviruses into the host cell involves two sets of interactions between the virus and the host cell. Most of the action occurs at the vertices. Entry into the host cell is initiated by the knob domain of the fiber protein binding to the cell receptor. The two currently established receptors are: CD46 for the group B human ...
Orofaringe, just darrièr la boca. La paret anteriora es la basa de lenga e la vallècula; la paret laterala es formada per l'arc palatofaringi, l'arc palatoglós e per l'amigdala palatina. La paret superiora es formada per l'uvula (campaneta) e lo paladar ...
Addgene is a non-profit plasmid repository. Addgene facilitates the exchange of genetic material between laboratories by offering plasmids and their associated cloning data to not-for-profit laboratories around the world. Addgene provides a free online database of plasmid cloning information and references, including lists of commonly used vector backbones, popular lentiviral plasmids and ...
Adenovirus genomes are linear, non-segmented double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules that are typically 26-46 Kbp long, containing 23-46 protein-coding genes. The example used for the following description is Human adenovirus E, a mastadenovirus with a 36 Kbp genome containing 38 protein-coding genes. While the ...
... study of gene therapy. The vector used for this trial was based on human adenovirus type 5, deleted in E1 and E4, and contained ... Adenovirus E1 Proteins / genetics * Adenovirus E4 Proteins / genetics * Adolescent * Genetic Therapy* * Genetic Vectors / ... study of gene therapy. The vector used for this trial was based on human adenovirus type 5, deleted in E1 and E4, and contained ... Approximately 18 h. following gene transfer the subject was noted to have altered mental status and jaundice--clinical signs ...
... gene and the 11.6 kDa adenovirus death protein (ADP) gene with potential oncolytic activity. Upon intratumoral administration ... Deletion of the E1, E2b and E3 genes from Ad5 prevents anti-adenovirus immune responses. MUC1, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA ... adenovirus B7-1 A gene-viral vector complex comprised of an adenovirus vector and B7-1 gene targeting the CD80 antigen. ... Deletion of early genes E1 and E2b in Ad5 potentially circumvents pre-existing anti-adenovirus immunity and is capable of ...
911 cells (human cells that express the adenoviral E1 genes) were infected with adenovirus vectors as indicated (MOI = 5). ... Adenovirus type 5 expresses proteins that regulate the activity and stability of the tumor suppressor p53. The adenovirus E1B- ... Replication of adenovirus vectors expressing p53 in E1-transformed cells. 911 cells were infected with adenovirus vectors as ... König C., Roth J., Dobbelstein M. Adenovirus type 5 E4orf3 protein relieves p53 inhibition by E1B-55- kilodalton protein. J. ...
Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been widely used in clinical trials because it expresses inserted transgenes robustly and ... adenovirus vector persists despite deletion of the preterminal protein. J Gene Med 2:250-259CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Production and characterization of improved adenovirus vectors with the E1, E2b, and E3 genes deleted. J Virol 72:926-933PubMed ... Anti-tumor immunotherapy despite immunity to adenovirus using a novel adenoviral vector Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA. ...
E1-, E2a-, and E3-represent the deletions of these genes from the adenovirus genome. The insertion of the human GKRP expression ... The resulting proteins, and/or the viral capsid proteins necessary for transduction, may directly affect host cell functions or ... Addison CL, Graham FL: Human adenovirus vectors for gene transfer into mammalian cells. Adv Pharmacol 40:137-204, 1997. ... 29.1 ± 0.3; P , 0.05). Therefore, it seems that increasing GKRP protein levels allows increased GK protein and activity levels ...
E1, E2, E4, and E5; and a late region with two genes, L1 (major capsid protein) and L2 (minor capsid protein) [17]. These ... HPV is a double-stranded nonenveloped DNA adenovirus, which belongs to a large family of more than 130 genotypes [19, 20]. The ... investigators similarly demonstrated that human sperm could transfer the E6/E7 genes and the L1 major capsid protein to oocytes ... with gene expression resulting in developing blastocysts [48]. Following expression of the E6/E7 genes, increased DNA ...
Additionally, E1/E3-deleted adenoviruses do express adenoviral proteins encoded within their genomes (Yang et al., 1994a,b). ... Gene therapy of cystic fibrosis lung disease using E1 deleted adenoviruses: A phase I trial. Hum. Gene Ther. 1994;5(4):501-519. ... the replication cycle can be divided into three phases of gene expression: immediate early (E1 genes), early (E1-E4 genes), and ... Gene Ther. 1994a;1(6):385-394. [PubMed]. *Bout A, Perricaudet M, et al. Lung gene therapy: In vivo adenovirus-mediated gene ...
Aggarwal, N. and Mittal, S. K. (2000). Sequence analyses of porcine adenovirus type 3 E1 region, pIX, and pIVa2 genes. ... E1) proteins and isolation of E1 expressing cell lines. Virology 295:108-118.. ... Gene Ther. 6:215-226.. Bangari, D. S. and Mittal, S. K. (2006). Development of nonhuman adenoviruses as vaccine vectors. ... Bovine adenovirus type 3 internalization is independent of primary receptors of human adenovirus type 5 and porcine adenovirus ...
... the Merck rAD5 vector is missing only one adenovirus protein (E1) and thus expresses more viral genes than other adenovirus ... Neutralizing antibodies to adenovirus serotype 5 vaccine vectors are directed primarily against the adenovirus hexon protein. J ... lacks both the E1 and E3 protein. Minimizing the number of viral genes in a vaccine vector helps strip the virus of its natural ... Adenovirus vector-based vaccines for human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Hum. Gene Ther. 16:149-156. ...
a. The LTR and E1 protein. b. The ITR and packing signal. c. At least one LTR and an ITR. d. E1, E3 and E4 ... LoxP sites are recognised by cre-recombinase to excise adenovirus genes. c. The insert sizes are smaller than normal adenovirus ... b. Heterologous genes are cloned in place of E1, E3 and E4. c. They do not elicit a T cell response and are therefore expressed ... What is a feature of the gutless adenovirus expression vector?. a. Cre-recombinase inserts heterologous genes into the ITR. b. ...
... the mutations in the E1 genes, which do not affect function of the proteins, were introduced to facilitate cloning [22]). In ... Adenovirus terminal protein mediates both nuclear matrix association and efficient transcription of adenovirus DNA.Genes Dev. 4 ... An adenovirus vector deleted for the preterminal protein gene elicits reduced inflammation in mouse ears.J. Virol. 73 1999 1046 ... Adenoviruses containing lethal in-frame insertion mutant alleles of the preterminal protein (pTP) gene were constructed with ...
The genomic E1 region from nucleotides 501 to 4105 of adenovirus type 5 (encompassing the E1A gene region and the E1B and IX ... β-galactosidase gene, or genes encoding fluorescent proteins (green fluorescent protein, red fluorescent protein etc.). ... Examples of the reporter genes are luciferase gene or genes encoding fluorescent proteins (GFP, RFP, etc). Luminescence or ... For example, HYPR-ADP-Ad contains the Adenovirus Death protein (ADP) gene which can specifically be expressed in the tumor ...
We have constructed a novel oncolytic adenovirus, Ad5-gfa2(B)3-E1, for treatment of these tumors. In this construct, the E1 ... Cancer gene therapy, GFAP, Glioma, Oncolytic adenovirus, Tissue-specific promoter Persistent URL. dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgm.1110, ... Targeting malignant gliomas with a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-selective oncolytic adenovirus. Journal of Gene ... In Ad5-gfa2(B)3-E1, the E3 region was deleted to create space for future insertion of heterologous therapeutic genes. ...
1993) Selective effects on adenovirus late gene expression of deleting the E1b 55K protein. J. Gen. Virol. 74:575-582. ... 1997) Isolation and characterization of packaging cell lines that coexpress the adenovirus E1, DNA polymerase, and preterminal ... 1999) Role of the type 5 adenovirus gene encoding the early region 1B 55-kDa protein in pulmonary pathogenesis. Proc. Natl. ... Adenovirus mutagenesis.The adenovirus genome was modified by gap repair and two-step gene replacement as described by Gagnebin ...
The tools are derived from a novel tumor suppressor gene which encodes a protein referred to hereinafter as the ... The tools are derived from a novel tumor suppressor gene which encodes a protein referred to hereinafter as the "EDG1" protein ... Replication deficient recombinant adenovirus lacks the E1 coding sequences necessary for viral replication. This function is ... An isolated EDG1 protein or a protein which is functional equivalent said EDG1 protein, wherein said EDG1 protein comprises SEQ ...
... adenovirus-mediated transfer of human acid-alpha-glucosidase gene into glycogen storage disease type II knockout mice were ... The persistence of the protein also correlated with long-term correction of pathologic intramuscular glycogen accumulations in ... Human Gene Therapy, 12(8), 955-65. Ding EY, et al. Long-term Efficacy After [E1-, Polymerase-] Adenovirus-mediated Transfer of ... TY - JOUR T1 - Long-term efficacy after [E1-, polymerase-] adenovirus-mediated transfer of human acid-alpha-glucosidase gene ...
Other hybrid vectors form a polycation conjugate and incorporate an AAV rep gene in a single particle. These hybrid virus ... The present invention provides a hybrid vector construct which comprises a portion of an adenovirus, 5 and 3 ITR sequences ... The relevance of including an E1 deleted adenovirus here is to document that the level of adenovirus E1 proteins expressed in ... the adenovirus sequence may contain deletions of the E1 genes and the E3 gene, or of the E1, E2a and E3 genes, or of the E1 and ...
The latter is known to express adenovirus early region genes E1A and E1B and complement E1-deleted, replication-defective ... Helper plasmids encode gag/pol and the rev-responsive element (pCgp), rev protein (pCMV-rev2), and the heterologous VSV-G ... Gene Ther. 14:1287-1296.. 17.) Cornetta, K, L Matheson, and C. Ballas. 2005. Retroviral Vector Production in the National Gene ... A Stable Producer Cell Line for the Manufacture of a Lentiviral Vector for Gene Therapy of Parkinsons Disease. Hum. Gene Ther ...
Generx is biologically engineered using an E1-region deleted, replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5 vector to deliver the ... The CMV promoter is capable of driving high levels of transgene protein expression in transfected cells for up to approximately ... gene-based bio-therapeutics for the treatment of up to an estimated 1.2 million patients in the U.S. who have late-stage ... supported by research showing that transient ischemia may enhance gene transfer to heart cells; and (2) a more comprehensively ...
"The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of the retinoblastoma gene family and physically interacts ... G1/S-specific cyclin-E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNE1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ... This protein was found to associate with, and be involved in, the phosphorylation of NPAT protein (nuclear protein mapped to ... "The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of the retinoblastoma gene family and physically interacts ...
... the adenovirus type 5 E1 gene was used to immortalize the HEK 293 cell line). Artificial expression of key proteins required ... from testing toxicity of compounds or drugs to production of eukaryotic proteins. While immortalized cell lines often originate ... Introduction of a viral gene that partially deregulates the cell cycle (e.g., ...
The present invention resides in use of a recombinant adenovirus of animal origin containing a heterologous DNA sequence for ... 2. The adenovirus according to claim 1, wherein the gene encodes a protein selected from the group consisting of an enzyme, a ... 5. The adenovirus according to claim 1, wherein its genome lacks the E1 region. 6. The adenovirus according to claim 5, ... E1. Infection of Human Cells with Adenoviruses of Canine Origin. This example demonstrates the capacity of adenoviruses of ...
HEK-293A is a recombinant cell line with an insertion of adenovirus E1 gene, so that E1 protein (early expression protein) is ... Trans E1 component requirements for maximal replication of E1-defective recombinant adenovirus. Virology248:406-419. ... Detection of human adenovirus by real-time PCR.For adenovirus analysis by real-time PCR, samples were further concentrated by ... In spite of the higher concentration of adenoviruses detected at the mouth of the river, adenoviruses were found more ...
Gene sequence · Gene therapy · Gene transfer · Genetic complementation · Genetic transduction · Human · Human adenovirus · ... Adenovirus E1B Proteins · Adenoviruses, Human · Animals · Antibodies, Viral · Cell Line · Cells, Cultured · Dendritic Cells · ... pivotal for complementation of fully E1-lacking Ad35 vector on PER.C6 cells. After stable insertion of the 55K sequence into ... Replication-deficient human adenovirus type 35 vectors for gene transfer and vaccination: Efficient human cell infection and ...
Humoral response after administration of E1 deleted adenoviruses: immune privilege of the subretinal space. Hum Gene Ther 7: ... Features of CEP2 90 The CEP290 gene spans over 85kb, 52 exons and encodes a protein of 2,472 amino acids. This large gene has a ... Of the eighteen genes identified, the centrosomal protein 290 (C EP290) gene is the most frequently mutated and accounts for ... Due to the large size of this gene and protein, some researchers hypothesize that replacing half of the gene or replacing ...
  • The CEA immunogenicity and in vivo anti-tumor effects of repeated immunizations with Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA compared with those observed with current generation Ad5 [E1-]-CEA were tested in Ad5 pre-immunized mice. (springer.com)
  • Gene therapy can be applied to illnesses of either genetic or environmental etiologies, and its technology also allows for in vivo experiments to explore the function of particular genes of interest. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For many years it has been virtually impossible to transfer genes into brain cells either to study or manipulate molecular, cellular, or, in vivo , behavioral processes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For these reasons, adenoviruses have already been used for in vivo gene transfer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Conclusions: This report demonstrates for the first time that: (1) a protective epitope of the conserved RSV fusion protein can be mimicked by synthetic peptides: and (2) immunisations with these mimotopes induced specific anti-RSV neutralising antibodies and reduced vital load in vivo. (tudelft.nl)
  • The minicircle DNA delivery gene transfer system provides an alternative method to establish an osteoporosis-related model is particularly useful to study the efficacy of various pharmacological inhibitors in vivo . (jove.com)
  • Recombinant adenoviruses currently are used for a variety of purposes, including gene transfer in vitro , vaccination in vivo , and gene therapy ( 1 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • In vitro analysis of virus-associated RNA I (VAI RNA): inhibition of the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR by VAI RNA mutants correlates with the in vivo phenotype and the structural integrity of the central domain. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Adenoviral vectors have provided effective methods for in vivo gene delivery in therapeutic applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Its accessibility and specific anatomical and biological properties make the skin a very interesting organ for in vivo and ex vivo gene therapy approaches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study proved that the novel oncolytic virus (SG400-E2F/IL-15) exhibits an enhanced anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo , representing an experimental basis for breast cancer "virus-gene" therapy. (bioscirep.org)
  • The complementary defects approach, where cellular defects complement viral defects, requires a detailed understanding of the function of both the viral genes and the cellular pathways defective in cancer. (asm.org)
  • Although several laboratories have produced stable packaging cell lines containing certain viral genes ( 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ), development of such lines is time consuming. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • However, the transcription of the remaining viral genes resulted in early innate host cytokine transcription and adverse immune reactions. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • the E1bCencoded proteins blocks apoptosis because of induction of cell bicycling by the Advertisement E1a gene item, as well alongside the E1a, E3 and E4 gene items modulate mobile transcriptional equipment to transcribe mostly viral genes and evade web host innate immune system responses. (bostonscienceandengineeringlectures.com)
  • Abstract- As distal targets and mediators of signal transduction pathways, activator protein-1 (AP-1), c-Jun, and c-Fos are among the primary regulators of genes involved in cell function, proliferation, and differentiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Other reasons for these failures include the genetic variability of the viral envelope proteins, which allows the virus to escape neutralizing antibodies, and the difficulty in identifying immunogens and immunization platforms that consistently induce antibodies that can neutralize several HIV clades ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • In the present study, we showed that DCs that have been modified to express the livin α gene could provide stable presentation of livin epitopes and could induce T-cell activation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It is not known whether AP-1 proteins are sufficient to induce phenotypic changes or whether they must act in concert with other effectors. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results support the notion of first immunizations of infants with an adjuvanted CS protein vaccine, followed by a booster Ad35.CS/Ad26.CS vaccine at a later age, to induce lasting protection against malaria for which the Th1 response and immune memory is required. (asm.org)
  • Numerous growth factors have been utilized in attempts to induce therapeutic angiogenesis by gene transfer or as recombinant proteins, with mixed results in clinical trials to date. (ahajournals.org)
  • Much concern has focused on the direct toxic effects of adenoviruses, particularly as intravenous administration of the virus can induce acute liver injury, as shown in animal models. (bmj.com)
  • Adenovirus vector vaccines induce CMI responses and have emerged as a leading candidate to be used as a treatment vaccine delivery platform. (sbirsource.com)
  • Approximately 18 h. following gene transfer the subject was noted to have altered mental status and jaundice--clinical signs not seen in any of the first 17 subjects in this study. (nih.gov)
  • Subsequently, his clinical course was marked by systemic inflammatory response syndrome, biochemically detectable disseminated intravascular coagulation, and multiple organ system failure, leading to death 98 h following gene transfer. (nih.gov)
  • Lentiviral vectors are currently being evaluated for safety, with a view to removing all nonessential regulatory genes to facilitate and accelerate approval for clinical trials. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As a result, investigators are using them as gene delivery vehicles in clinical applications ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ). (bioprocessintl.com)
  • As Angionetics advances forward with its plan to operate as a company independent of Taxus Cardium, it will focus on the clinical and commercial development of angiogenic, gene-based bio-therapeutics for the treatment of up to an estimated 1.2 million patients in the U.S. who have late-stage coronary artery disease and refractory angina, as well as other medical conditions due to myocardial ischemia. (medindia.net)
  • The death in the USA of an 18 year old with ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency after intrahepatic arterial injection of an adenovirus vector carrying a wild-type version of the defective enzyme has precipitated a flurry of reports and congressional hearings focusing on the ethics of such trials and on the very nature of clinical research itself. (bmj.com)
  • While approaches using synthetic vectors are being developed, 3 the most efficient gene delivery systems appropriate for clinical application which are currently available are based on virus vectors. (bmj.com)
  • Viable and biologically active clinical grade CCL21 gene-modified DC can be generated from cryopreserved PBMC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adenovirus (Advertisement) based gene transfer vectors continue being the platform of preference for a growing quantity of clinical tests worldwide. (bostonscienceandengineeringlectures.com)
  • In preparation for a phase I clinical trial using a combined cytotoxic/immunotherapeutic strategy with adenoviruses (Ad) expressing Flt3L (Ad-Flt3L) and thymidine kinase (Ad-TK) to treat glioblastoma (GBM), we tested the hypothesis that Ad-TK+GCV would be the optimal tumor-killing agent in relation to efficacy and safety when compared with other proapoptotic approaches. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This study will further develop pre-clinical information and lead to clinical trials of a new drug (Ads [E1-, E2b-]-CEA) to treat cancers which have carcinoembryonic antigen on their surface. (sbirsource.com)
  • Material and methods: An 8-mer solid- phase (TG resin) library was screened with a neutralising and protective RSV fusion protein specific monoclonal antibodies (Mab-19). (tudelft.nl)
  • The presence of serum anti-makorin 1 (MKRN1) antibodies (s-MKRN1-Abs) was examined by Western blotting using bacterially expressed MKRN1 protein. (statescale.tk)
  • First-generation, E1-deleted adenoviral vectors (E1-AV) can transduce the vascular endothelium with high efficiency, but their use is limited by the resulting acute endothelial injury and the long-term development of intimal hyperplasia. (nihr.ac.uk)