Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family papillomaviridae, causing mucosal and cutaneous lesions in cats and dogs. Canine oral papillomavirus is the type species.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing abortion and respiratory disease in horses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the addition of a phosphate group, usually on serine, threonine or tyrosine residues, which can play a role in their regulation, function, interaction with other molecules, and localization within the cell.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, the transparent membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye, resulting in symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, burning, discharge, and increased sensitivity to light.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.

A different intracellular distribution of a single reporter protein is determined at steady state by KKXX or KDEL retrieval signals. (1/424)

To establish the specific contribution to protein topology of KKXX and KDEL retrieval motifs, we have determined by immunogold electron microscopy and cell fractionation the intracellular distribution at steady state of the transmembrane and anchorless versions of human CD8 protein, tagged with KKXX (CD8-E19) and KDEL (CD8-K), respectively, and stably expressed in epithelial rat cells (Martire, G., Mottola, G., Pascale, M. C., Malagolini, N., Turrini, I., Serafini-Cessi, F., Jackson, M. R., and Bonatti, S. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 3541-3547). The CD8-E19 protein is represented by a single form, initially O-glycosylated: only about half of it is located in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas more than 30% of the total is present in the intermediate compartment and cis-Golgi complex. In the latter compartments, CD8-E19 colocalizes with beta-coat protein (COP) (COPI component) and shows the higher density of labeling. Conversely, about 90% of the total CD8-KDEL protein is localized in clusters on the endoplasmic reticulum, where significant co-localization with Sec-23p (COPII component) is observed, and unglycosylated and initially O-glycosylated forms apparently constitute a single pool. Altogether, these results suggest that KKXX and KDEL retrieval motifs have different topological effects on theirs own at steady state: the first results in a specific enrichment in the intermediate compartment and cis-Golgi complex, and the latter dictates residency in the endoplasmic reticulum.  (+info)

The adenovirus type 5 E1b 55K and E4 Orf3 proteins associate in infected cells and affect ND10 components. (2/424)

Three early proteins expressed by adenovirus type 5, E1b 55K, E4 Orf3 and E4 Orf6, are involved in regulating late viral gene expression. It has previously been shown that 55K associates with Orf6. Here we show that 55K also associates with Orf3 and that this interaction is necessary for 55K to localize to the nuclear matrix fraction of the cell. From our data, we infer that the Orf3 and Orf6 interactions with 55K may be mutually exclusive. The Orf3 protein is also known to associate with and cause the reorganization of cell nucleus structures known as ND10 or PODs. Consistent with the observed increase in the biochemical interaction between 55K and Orf3 in the absence of Orf6, the 55K association with Orf3 in ND10 was also found to increase in the absence of Orf6. The most studied cellular component of ND10 is PML, a complex protein present in a range of isoforms, some of which are modified by conjugation to the small ubiquitin-like protein PIC-1. The pattern of PML isoforms was altered in adenovirus-infected cells, in that a number of additional isoform bands appeared in an Orf3-dependent manner, one of which became predominant later in infection. As for ND10 reorganization, neither Orf6 nor 55K was required for this effect. Therefore it is likely that these changes in PML are related to the changes in ND10 structure that occur during infection.  (+info)

Reduced toxicity, attenuated immunogenicity and efficient mediation of human p53 gene expression in vivo by an adenovirus vector with deleted E1-E3 and inactivated E4 by GAL4-TATA promoter replacement. (3/424)

A recombinant adenovirus with deleted E1 and E3, and E4-inactivated by replacing the E4 promoter with a synthetic promoter composed of a minimal TATA box and five consensus yeast GAL4-binding site elements was developed and used to express the human tumor suppresser gene p53. The toxicity and immunogenicity of this vector and vector-mediated p53 gene expression in vivo were studied in immunocompetent C3H and C57BL/6 mice. Expression of the late viral gene product, hexon protein, was observed in C3H and C57BL/6 mice injected with E4 wild-type adenovirus constructs Adv-cmv-beta-Gal (BG), Adv-cmv-hp53 (WT), and empty E1- vector Adv-E4 (EW) 3 to 28 days after injection, but was undetectable in mice treated with E4 modified empty E1- vector Adv-GAL4 (EG) or Adv-cmv-hp53-GAL4 (G4). Expression of the p53 gene was observed in both WT- and G4-injected C3H and C57BL/6 mouse livers from days 3 to 28. Ten weeks after injection, p53 gene expression was still detected in G4-treated C57BL/6 mice at similar levels, but was not detectable in WT-treated mice. Vector-induced liver toxicity was evaluated by analyzing serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT) activities. In all cases, SGOT and SGPT activities were markedly decreased in EG-treated C3H and C57BL/6 mice compared with those in EW-treated mice on days 3, 7 and 14 after injection. In C57BL/6 mice, the total anti-adenoviral CTL activities were two- to three-fold higher in animals treated with EW vector than in those treated with EG vector. These results suggest that inactivation of the E4 promoter efficiently diminished the viral replication and the late viral gene expression, reduced host immune response and consequently reduced toxicity and prolonged the duration of transgene expression in vivo.  (+info)

Rapid construction of adenoviral vectors by lambda phage genetics. (4/424)

Continued improvements of adenoviral vectors require the investigation of novel genome configurations. Since adenovirus can be generated directly by transfecting packaging cell lines with viral genomes isolated from plasmid DNA, it is possible to separate genome construction from virus production. In this way failure to generate a virus is not associated with an inability to generate the desired genome. We have developed a novel lambda-based system that allows rapid modification of the viral genome by double homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. The recombination reaction and newly generated genome may reside in a recombination-deficient bacterial host for enhanced plasmid stability. Furthermore, the process is independent of any restriction endonucleases. The strategy relies on four main steps: (i) homologous recombination between an adenovirus cosmid and a donor plasmid (the donor plasmid carries the desired modification[s] and flanking regions of homology to direct its recombination into the viral genome); (ii) in vivo packaging of the recombinant adenoviral cosmids during a productive lambda infection; (iii) transducing a recombination-deficient E. coli lambda lysogen with the generated lysate (the lysogen inhibits the helper phage used to package the recombinant andenoviral cosmid from productively infecting and destroying the host bacteria); (iv) effectively selecting for the desired double-recombinant cosmid. Approximately 10,000 double-recombinant cosmids are recovered per reaction with essentially all of them being the correct double-recombinant molecule. This system was used to generate quickly and efficiently adenoviral genomes deficient in the E1/E3 and E1/E3/E4 regions. The basis of this technology allows any region of the viral genome to be readily modified for investigation of novel configurations.  (+info)

Unique features of fowl adenovirus 9 gene transcription. (5/424)

We examined the transcriptional organization of fowl adenovirus 9 (FAdV-9) and analyzed temporal transcription profiles of its early and late mRNAs. At least six early and six late transcriptional regions were identified for FAdV-9. Extensive splicing was observed in all FAdV-9 early transcripts examined. Sequence analysis of the cDNAs representing the early proteins identified untranslated leader sequences, precise locations of splice donor and acceptor sites, as well as polyadenylation signals and polyadenylation sites. A unique characteristic, compared to other adenoviruses, was the detection by RT-PCR of multiple transcripts specific for each of five late genes (protein III, pVII, pX, 100K, and fiber), suggesting that FAdV-9 late transcripts undergo more extensive splicing than reported for other adenoviruses.  (+info)

Activation of adenovirus early promoters and lytic phase in differentiated strata of organotypic cultures of human keratinocytes. (6/424)

Human oncolytic adenoviruses have been used in clinical trials targeting cancers of epithelial origin. To gain a better understanding of the infectious cycle of adenovirus in normal human squamous tissues, we examined the viral infection process in organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes. We show that for the infection to occur, wounding of the epithelium is required. In addition, infection appears to initiate at the basal or parabasal cells that express the high-affinity coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor, CAR, whereas the productive phase takes place in differentiated cells. This is due, at least in part, to the differentiation-dependent activation of the E1A and E2A early promoters and E4 promoters. We also show that adenovirus infection triggers a response mediated by the abnormal accumulation of cyclin E and p21cip1 proteins similar to the one previously observed in human papillomavirus-infected tissues. However, the virus seems to be able to overcome it, at least partially.  (+info)

NF-IL6, a member of the C/EBP family, regulates E1A-responsive promoters in the absence of E1A. (7/424)

A cDNA encoding NF-IL6, an interleukin-6 (IL-6)-regulated human nuclear factor of the C/EBP family, is demonstrated to complement the transactivation function of E1A. The endogenous NF-IL6 level varies according to cell type and correlates positively with an IL-6-regulated cellular E1A-substituting activity that was described recently (J.M. Spergel and S. Chen-Kiang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:6472-6476, 1991). When expressed by transfection in cells which contain low levels of NF-IL6 and are incapable of complementing the function of E1A proteins, NF-IL6 also transactivates the E1A-responsive E2ae and E1B promoters, to the same magnitude as E1A. Activation by NF-IL6 is concentration dependent and sequence specific: mutational studies of the E2ae promoter suggest that the promoter-proximal NF-IL6 recognition site functions as a dominant negative regulatory site whereas the promoter-distal NF-IL6 recognition site is positively regulated at low NF-IL6 concentrations and negatively regulated when the NF-IL6 level is high. Consistent with these functions, NF-IL6 alone is sufficient to complement an E1A deletion mutant dl312 in viral infection, when expressed at appropriate concentrations. These results identify NF-IL6 as a sequence-specific cellular nuclear factor which regulates E1A-responsive genes in the absence of E1A.  (+info)

Adenovirus E1A represses the cyclic AMP-induced transcription of the gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in hepatoma cells. (8/424)

Adenovirus infection of hepatoma cells inhibited transcription of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (EC (PEPCK) gene and virtually eliminated transcription of a chimeric gene which contained the PEPCK promoter linked to the structural gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). This effect is due to the viral protein E1A, since adenovirus containing a deletion in the E1A gene did not repress transcription from the PEPCK promoter. Both the 243R and 283R products of the E1A gene were effective. The conserved region 1 (CR-1) domain of E1A was required for this effect. Treatment of hepatoma cells with 8-bromo-cAMP or transfection with plasmids coding for the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, CAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP), or Jun, all potent inducers of PEPCK gene transcription, did not relieve the inhibition caused by E1A. This inhibition does not appear to be mediated by major enhancer elements and in the PEPCK gene since transcription from the PEPCK promoter containing block mutations in binding domains for C/EBP and cAMP regulatory element binding protein (CREB) was also inhibited by E1A. Transcription of chimeric genes containing two copies each of the major cAMP response domains (CRE-1 and P-3) linked to a neutral promoter and fused to the CAT structural gene was stimulated by the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, but this effect was totally inhibited by E1A. The strong repressive effect of E1A on PEPCK gene transcription seems to involve an interruption of an obligatory interaction between factors which bind to the cAMP response element in the PEPCK promoter and the TATA box.  (+info)

Adenovirus early proteins refer to the viral proteins that are expressed by adenoviruses during the early phase of their replication cycle. Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that can cause various symptoms, such as respiratory illness, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis.

The adenovirus replication cycle is divided into two phases: the early phase and the late phase. During the early phase, which occurs shortly after the virus infects a host cell, the viral genome is transcribed and translated into early proteins that help to prepare the host cell for viral replication. These early proteins play various roles in regulating the host cell's transcription, translation, and DNA replication machinery, as well as inhibiting the host cell's antiviral response.

There are several different adenovirus early proteins that have been identified, each with its own specific function. For example, E1A is an early protein that acts as a transcriptional activator and helps to activate the expression of other viral genes. E1B is another early protein that functions as a DNA-binding protein and inhibits the host cell's apoptosis (programmed cell death) response.

Overall, adenovirus early proteins are critical for the efficient replication of the virus within host cells, and understanding their functions can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of viral infection and pathogenesis.

Adenoviruses, Human: A group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory illnesses, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and croup, in humans. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye), cystitis (bladder infection), and gastroenteritis (stomach and intestinal infection).

Human adenoviruses are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that belong to the family Adenoviridae. There are more than 50 different types of human adenoviruses, which can be classified into seven species (A-G). Different types of adenoviruses tend to cause specific illnesses, such as respiratory or gastrointestinal infections.

Human adenoviruses are highly contagious and can spread through close personal contact, respiratory droplets, or contaminated surfaces. They can also be transmitted through contaminated water sources. Some people may become carriers of the virus and experience no symptoms but still spread the virus to others.

Most human adenovirus infections are mild and resolve on their own within a few days to a week. However, some types of adenoviruses can cause severe illness, particularly in people with weakened immune systems, such as infants, young children, older adults, and individuals with HIV/AIDS or organ transplants.

There are no specific antiviral treatments for human adenovirus infections, but supportive care, such as hydration, rest, and fever reduction, can help manage symptoms. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not sharing personal items like towels or utensils.

Adenoviridae is a family of viruses that includes many species that can cause various types of illnesses in humans and animals. These viruses are non-enveloped, meaning they do not have a lipid membrane, and have an icosahedral symmetry with a diameter of approximately 70-90 nanometers.

The genome of Adenoviridae is composed of double-stranded DNA, which contains linear chromosomes ranging from 26 to 45 kilobases in length. The family is divided into five genera: Mastadenovirus, Aviadenovirus, Atadenovirus, Siadenovirus, and Ichtadenovirus.

Human adenoviruses are classified under the genus Mastadenovirus and can cause a wide range of illnesses, including respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and upper respiratory tract infections. Some serotypes have also been associated with more severe diseases such as hemorrhagic cystitis, hepatitis, and meningoencephalitis.

Adenoviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, fecal-oral route, or by contact with contaminated surfaces. They can also be spread through contaminated water sources. Infections caused by adenoviruses are usually self-limiting, but severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care.

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and fevers in humans. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye), croup, and stomach and intestinal inflammation (gastroenteritis). Adenovirus infections are most common in children, but people of any age can be infected. The viruses spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through contact with contaminated surfaces or objects. There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, and most people recover on their own within a week or two. However, some people may develop more severe illness, particularly those with weakened immune systems. Preventive measures include frequent hand washing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. Some adenoviruses can also cause serious diseases in people with compromised immune systems, such as transplant recipients and people undergoing cancer treatment. There are vaccines available to prevent some types of adenovirus infections in military recruits, who are at higher risk due to close living quarters and stress on the immune system from basic training.

Adenovirus E1A proteins are the early region 1A proteins encoded by adenoviruses, a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections in humans. The E1A proteins play a crucial role in the regulation of the viral life cycle and host cell response. They function as transcriptional regulators, interacting with various cellular proteins to modulate gene expression and promote viral replication.

There are two major E1A protein isoforms, 289R and 243R, which differ in their amino-terminal regions due to alternative splicing of the E1A mRNA. The 289R isoform contains an additional 46 amino acids at its N-terminus compared to the 243R isoform. Both isoforms share conserved regions, including a strong transcriptional activation domain and a binding domain for cellular proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, such as retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and p300/CBP.

The interaction between E1A proteins and pRb is particularly important because it leads to the release of E2F transcription factors, which are essential for the initiation of viral DNA replication. By binding and inactivating pRb, E1A proteins promote the expression of cell cycle-regulated genes that facilitate viral replication in dividing cells.

In summary, adenovirus E1A proteins are multifunctional regulatory proteins involved in the control of viral gene expression and host cell response during adenovirus infection. They manipulate cellular transcription factors and pathways to create a favorable environment for viral replication.

Adenoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by members of the Adenoviridae family of viruses, which are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. These viruses can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. In humans, adenovirus infections can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific type of virus and the age and immune status of the infected individual.

Common manifestations of adenovirus infections in humans include:

1. Respiratory illness: Adenoviruses are a common cause of respiratory tract infections, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and croup. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye) and pharyngoconjunctival fever.
2. Gastrointestinal illness: Some types of adenoviruses can cause diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, particularly in children and immunocompromised individuals.
3. Genitourinary illness: Adenoviruses have been associated with urinary tract infections, hemorrhagic cystitis, and nephritis.
4. Eye infections: Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis is a severe form of conjunctivitis caused by certain adenovirus types.
5. Central nervous system infections: Adenoviruses have been linked to meningitis, encephalitis, and other neurological disorders, although these are rare.

Transmission of adenoviruses typically occurs through respiratory droplets, contaminated surfaces, or contaminated water. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, but supportive care can help alleviate symptoms. In severe cases or in immunocompromised patients, antiviral therapy may be considered.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Adenovirus E1B proteins are proteins encoded by the early region 1B (E1B) gene of adenoviruses. There are two main E1B proteins, E1B-55kD and E1B-19kD, which play crucial roles during the viral life cycle and in tumorigenesis.

1. E1B-55kD: This protein is a potent transcriptional repressor that inhibits the expression of host cell genes involved in DNA damage response, apoptosis, and antiviral defense mechanisms. By doing so, it creates a favorable environment for viral replication and evades the host's immune surveillance. E1B-55kD also interacts with p53, a tumor suppressor protein, leading to its degradation and further contributing to oncogenesis.

2. E1B-19kD: This protein is involved in blocking apoptosis or programmed cell death, which would otherwise be triggered by the host's defense mechanisms during viral infection. E1B-19kD forms a complex with another adenoviral protein, E4orf6, and together they inhibit the activity of several pro-apoptotic proteins, thus promoting viral replication and persistence in the host cell.

In summary, Adenovirus E1B proteins are essential for the viral life cycle by counteracting host defense mechanisms, particularly through the inhibition of apoptosis and transcriptional repression. Additionally, their interaction with crucial cellular regulatory proteins like p53 contributes to oncogenic transformation in certain contexts.

Immediate-early proteins (IEPs) are a class of regulatory proteins that play a crucial role in the early stages of gene expression in viral infection and cellular stress responses. These proteins are synthesized rapidly, without the need for new protein synthesis, after the induction of immediate-early genes (IEGs).

In the context of viral infection, IEPs are often the first proteins produced by the virus upon entry into the host cell. They function as transcription factors that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the expression of early and late viral genes required for replication and packaging of the viral genome.

IEPs can also be involved in modulating host cell signaling pathways, altering cell cycle progression, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death). Dysregulation of IEPs has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

It is important to note that the term "immediate-early proteins" is primarily used in the context of viral infection, while in other contexts such as cellular stress responses or oncogene activation, these proteins may be referred to by different names, such as "early response genes" or "transcription factors."

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. The E3 region of the adenovirus genome encodes several proteins that play important roles in the virus's life cycle and its interactions with the host cell.

The E3 proteins include:

1. E3-10.4K: This protein helps to prevent the infected cell from undergoing programmed cell death (apoptosis), allowing the virus to continue replicating.
2. E3-14.7K: This protein inhibits the host cell's antiviral response by blocking the activation of certain immune signaling pathways.
3. E3-14.5K: This protein helps to prevent the infected cell from presenting viral antigens on its surface, which would otherwise alert the immune system to the infection.
4. E3-19K: This protein helps to stabilize the virion and protect it from being broken down by host cell enzymes.
5. E3-gp19K: This protein is involved in the transport of newly synthesized viral proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum, where they can be assembled into new virions.
6. E3-RID: This protein helps to protect the virus from being neutralized by antibodies produced by the host's immune system.

Overall, the E3 proteins play important roles in helping the adenovirus evade the host's immune response and establish a successful infection.

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. The E4 proteins of adenoviruses are non-structural proteins encoded by the early region 4 (E4) of the adenovirus genome. These proteins play important roles during the viral life cycle, including regulation of viral transcription, DNA replication, and host cell response.

There are several E4 proteins expressed by adenoviruses, depending on the serotype, but some of the well-characterized ones include E4 ORF6, E4 ORF3, and E4 ORF1/2. These proteins have been shown to interact with various host cell factors and viral proteins to modulate the intracellular environment for efficient viral replication.

For example, E4 ORF6 interacts with the host cell protein p53 to inhibit its transcriptional activity, which helps to prevent premature apoptosis of infected cells. E4 ORF3 is involved in the regulation of viral DNA replication and also interacts with cellular proteins to modulate the host cell cycle. E4 ORF1/2 forms a complex that functions as a helicase during viral DNA replication.

Overall, adenovirus E4 proteins are important regulators of the viral life cycle and play a significant role in the pathogenesis of adenovirus infections.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Adenovirus E1 proteins are the earliest expressed and most critical proteins in the replication cycle of adenoviruses. The "E" stands for "early," indicating that these proteins are produced before the viral DNA begins to replicate. The E1 proteins play a crucial role in regulating the viral life cycle, altering cellular processes to support efficient viral replication, and inhibiting the host's antiviral responses.

The adenovirus E1 proteins are divided into two groups: E1A and E1B.

1. E1A proteins: These proteins are involved in transactivating various viral and cellular promoters, which leads to the expression of early and late viral genes. They also interact with several cellular proteins to alter the host cell cycle, promote cell growth, and inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). E1A proteins are essential for efficient viral replication and can transform cells in culture, contributing to adenovirus-induced tumorigenesis in certain animal models.

2. E1B proteins: These proteins have multiple functions during the viral life cycle. E1B 55kDa protein is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis and contributes to efficient viral replication by preventing premature cell death. It also interacts with several cellular proteins, including tumor suppressor p53, to modulate their functions. The E1B 19kDa protein, on the other hand, is a DNA-binding protein that plays a role in viral mRNA processing and export from the nucleus.

Together, adenovirus E1 proteins are essential for successful viral replication and manipulate host cellular processes to create a favorable environment for viral propagation. Understanding their functions has contributed significantly to our knowledge of viral pathogenesis and cancer biology.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Canine adenoviruses are a type of virus that can infect dogs and cause two distinct diseases: Infectious Canine Hepatitis (type 1) and Canine Respiratory Disease Complex (type 2).

Canine adenovirus type 1 primarily affects the liver, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, it can lead to liver failure and death.

Canine adenovirus type 2 mainly causes respiratory infections, including kennel cough, which is characterized by a harsh, hacking cough and nasal discharge. It can also cause pneumonia in some cases.

Both types of canine adenoviruses are highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected dogs or their feces and urine. Vaccination is available to protect against both forms of the virus and is recommended for all dogs.

Polyomavirus is a type of double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the family Polyomaviridae. These viruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with an icosahedral symmetry. They have a relatively simple structure and contain a circular genome.

Polyomaviruses are known to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. In humans, polyomaviruses can cause asymptomatic infections or lead to the development of various diseases, depending on the age and immune status of the host.

There are several types of human polyomaviruses, including:

* JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV), which can cause severe disease in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients. JCV is associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare but often fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, while BKV can cause nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis.
* Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), which is associated with Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare but aggressive form of skin cancer.
* Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSV), which is associated with trichodysplasia spinulosa, a rare skin disorder that affects immunocompromised individuals.

Polyomaviruses are typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected bodily fluids. Once inside the host, they can establish latency in various tissues and organs, where they may remain dormant for long periods of time before reactivating under certain conditions, such as immunosuppression.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. There are currently no vaccines available to prevent polyomavirus infections, although research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against some of the more pathogenic human polyomaviruses.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but as far as I'm aware, there is no medical definition for "Lambdapapillomavirus." The term "papillomavirus" refers to a group of viruses that cause warts and papillomas in various animals, including humans. There are many different types of papillomaviruses, each with their own specific name, such as HPV (Human Papillomavirus) or BPV (Bovine Papillomavirus). As of now, I couldn't find any research or information that specifically refers to a "Lambdapapillomavirus." It is possible that it may be a term that is used in error or a typo. If you have more context or details, I'd be happy to try and help further.

Oncogene proteins, viral, are cancer-causing proteins that are encoded by the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of certain viruses. These viral oncogenes can be acquired through infection with retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), and certain types of papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses.

When these viruses infect host cells, they can integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome, leading to the expression of viral oncogenes. These oncogenes may then cause uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in the formation of tumors or cancers. The process by which viruses contribute to cancer development is complex and involves multiple steps, including the alteration of signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Examples of viral oncogenes include the v-src gene found in the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), which causes chicken sarcoma, and the E6 and E7 genes found in human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are associated with cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. Understanding viral oncogenes and their mechanisms of action is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat virus-associated cancers.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens refer to specific proteins expressed by polyomaviruses that can induce cellular transformation and lead to the development of cancer. These antigens are called large T antigen (T-Ag) and small t antigen (t-Ag). They manipulate key cellular processes, such as cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation.

The large T antigen is a multifunctional protein that plays a crucial role in viral replication and transformation. It has several domains with different functions:

1. Origin binding domain (OBD): Binds to the viral origin of replication, initiating DNA synthesis.
2. Helicase domain: Unwinds double-stranded DNA during replication.
3. DNA binding domain: Binds to specific DNA sequences and acts as a transcriptional regulator.
4. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding domain: Recruits PP1 to promote viral DNA replication and inhibit host cell defense mechanisms.
5. p53-binding domain: Binds and inactivates the tumor suppressor protein p53, promoting cell cycle progression and preventing apoptosis.
6. Rb-binding domain: Binds to and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), leading to deregulation of the cell cycle and uncontrolled cell growth.

The small t antigen shares a common N-terminal region with large T antigen but lacks some functional domains, such as the OBD and helicase domain. Small t antigen can also bind to and inactivate PP1 and pRb, contributing to transformation. However, its primary role is to stabilize large T antigen by preventing its proteasomal degradation.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens are associated with various human cancers, such as Merkel cell carcinoma (caused by Merkel cell polyomavirus) and some forms of brain tumors, sarcomas, and lymphomas (associated with simian virus 40).

Antigens are substances that trigger an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies. Antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules found on the surface of cells or viruses.

Viral antigens are antigens that are present on the surface of viruses. When a virus infects a cell, it may display viral antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This can alert the immune system to the presence of the virus and trigger an immune response.

Tumor antigens are antigens that are present on the surface of cancer cells. These antigens may be unique to the cancer cells, or they may be similar to antigens found on normal cells. Tumor antigens can be recognized by the immune system as foreign, leading to an immune response against the cancer cells.

It is important to note that not all viral infections lead to cancer, and not all tumors are caused by viruses. However, some viruses have been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancer. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with an increased risk of cervical, anal, and oral cancers. In these cases, the virus may introduce viral antigens into the cells it infects, leading to an altered presentation of tumor antigens on the surface of the infected cells. This can potentially trigger an immune response against both the viral antigens and the tumor antigens, which may help to prevent or slow the growth of the cancer.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. The E2 proteins of adenoviruses are involved in the replication of the viral genome. Specifically, E2 consists of three proteins: E2a, E2b, and E2c.

E2a is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that binds to the origin of replication on the viral genome and recruits other viral and cellular proteins necessary for replication. E2b is a DNA polymerase processivity factor that interacts with the viral DNA polymerase and increases its processivity, allowing for efficient synthesis of new viral DNA. E2c is a helicase that unwinds the double-stranded DNA at the replication fork, enabling the synthesis of new strands.

Together, these proteins play a critical role in the replication of adenoviruses and are important targets for the development of antiviral therapies.

Herpesvirus 1, Suid (Suid Herpesvirus 1 or SHV-1), also known as Pseudorabies Virus (PrV), is a species of the genus Varicellovirus in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae of the family Herpesviridae. It is a double-stranded DNA virus that primarily infects members of the Suidae family, including domestic pigs and wild boars. The virus can cause a range of symptoms known as Aujeszky's disease in these animals, which may include respiratory distress, neurological issues, and reproductive failures.

SHV-1 is highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their secretions, as well as through aerosol transmission. Although it does not typically infect humans, there have been rare cases of human infection, usually resulting from exposure to infected pigs or their tissues. In these instances, the virus may cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological issues.

SHV-1 is an important pathogen in the swine industry and has significant economic implications due to its impact on animal health and production. Vaccination programs are widely used to control the spread of the virus and protect susceptible pig populations.

A mastadenovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Adenoviridae and the genus Mastadenovirus. These viruses are known to infect mammals, including humans, and can cause a variety of diseases such as respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis.

Human mastadenoviruses are typically associated with mild illnesses, although some strains can cause more severe disease, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. The virus is usually transmitted through respiratory droplets or contact with contaminated surfaces.

Mastadenoviruses are non-enveloped viruses, which means they do not have a lipid membrane surrounding their protein capsid. They contain a double-stranded DNA genome that encodes for several proteins involved in the virus's replication and assembly. The virus replicates in the nucleus of infected cells and can cause cell lysis or transformation, leading to various clinical manifestations.

Overall, mastadenoviruses are a significant cause of human and animal diseases, and understanding their biology and epidemiology is essential for developing effective prevention and treatment strategies.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a type of herpesvirus that can cause infection in humans. It is characterized by the enlargement of infected cells (cytomegaly) and is typically transmitted through close contact with an infected person, such as through saliva, urine, breast milk, or sexual contact.

CMV infection can also be acquired through organ transplantation, blood transfusions, or during pregnancy from mother to fetus. While many people infected with CMV experience no symptoms, it can cause serious complications in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing cancer treatment or those who have HIV/AIDS.

In newborns, congenital CMV infection can lead to hearing loss, vision problems, and developmental delays. Pregnant women who become infected with CMV for the first time during pregnancy are at higher risk of transmitting the virus to their unborn child. There is no cure for CMV, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the risk of complications in severe cases.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. It is a DNA virus that has been extensively studied in laboratory settings due to its ability to transform cells and cause tumors in animals. In fact, SV40 was discovered as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines that were prepared using rhesus monkey kidney cells in the 1950s and 1960s.

SV40 is not typically associated with human disease, but there has been some concern that exposure to the virus through contaminated vaccines or other means could increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as mesothelioma and brain tumors. However, most studies have failed to find a consistent link between SV40 infection and cancer in humans.

The medical community generally agrees that SV40 is not a significant public health threat, but researchers continue to study the virus to better understand its biology and potential impact on human health.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Adenoviruses, Porcine:

A group of viruses that primarily infect pigs and cause a variety of symptoms, such as respiratory illness, diarrhea, vomiting, and reproductive failure. They belong to the family Adenoviridae and are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. Porcine adenoviruses can be classified into several serotypes, with different serotypes causing different disease manifestations. Some porcine adenoviruses have been associated with economic losses in the swine industry due to their impact on growth and mortality rates. They are primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route and can also be found in contaminated environments. Currently, there are no specific treatments for porcine adenovirus infections, and control measures focus on preventing transmission through good biosecurity practices.

Herpesvirus 1, Equid (EHV-1) is a DNA virus belonging to the family Herpesviridae and subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. It is a species-specific virus that primarily infects horses, donkeys, and mules. The virus is also known as equine abortion virus, equine rhinitis virus type A, and equine herpesvirus 1.

EHV-1 can cause a range of clinical signs in infected animals, including respiratory disease, abortion in pregnant mares, and neurological disorders. The virus is primarily spread through direct contact with infected animals or their respiratory secretions, and it can also be spread through contaminated objects such as tack and feed buckets.

Once an animal is infected with EHV-1, the virus becomes latent in the nervous system and may reactivate later, causing recurrent disease. There is no cure for EHV-1 infection, but vaccines are available to help reduce the severity of clinical signs and prevent the spread of the virus.

The JC (John Cunningham) virus, also known as human polyomavirus 2 (HPyV-2), is a type of double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Polyomaviridae family. It is named after the initials of the patient in whom it was first identified.

JC virus is a ubiquitous virus, meaning that it is commonly found in the general population worldwide. Most people get infected with JC virus during childhood and do not experience any symptoms. After the initial infection, the virus remains dormant in the kidneys and other organs of the body.

However, in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who have undergone organ transplantation, JC virus can reactivate and cause a serious brain infection called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is a rare but often fatal disease that affects the white matter of the brain, causing cognitive decline, weakness, and paralysis.

There is currently no cure for PML, and treatment is focused on managing the underlying immune deficiency and controlling the symptoms of the disease.

An Aviadenovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family *Adenoviridae* and the genus *Aviadenovirus*. These viruses primarily infect avian species, such as birds, and can cause a variety of diseases. The genome of an Aviadenovirus is double-stranded DNA. Some species of Aviadenoviruses have been known to cause respiratory and reproductive problems in poultry, leading to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. It's important to note that Aviadenoviruses are not known to infect or cause disease in humans.

Genetic therapy, also known as gene therapy, is a medical intervention that involves the use of genetic material, such as DNA or RNA, to treat or prevent diseases. It works by introducing functional genes into cells to replace missing or faulty ones caused by genetic disorders or mutations. The introduced gene is incorporated into the recipient's genome, allowing for the production of a therapeutic protein that can help manage the disease symptoms or even cure the condition.

There are several approaches to genetic therapy, including:

1. Replacing a faulty gene with a healthy one
2. Inactivating or "silencing" a dysfunctional gene causing a disease
3. Introducing a new gene into the body to help fight off a disease, such as cancer

Genetic therapy holds great promise for treating various genetic disorders, including cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, and certain types of cancer. However, it is still an evolving field with many challenges, such as efficient gene delivery, potential immune responses, and ensuring the safety and long-term effectiveness of the therapy.

DNA replication is the biological process by which DNA makes an identical copy of itself during cell division. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows genetic information to be passed down from one generation of cells to the next. During DNA replication, each strand of the double helix serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. This results in the creation of two identical DNA molecules. The enzymes responsible for DNA replication include helicase, which unwinds the double helix, and polymerase, which adds nucleotides to the growing strands.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Fowl adenovirus A, also known as Fowl aviadenovirus serotype 1 or Fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (FAdV-A), is a species of DNA virus that belongs to the family Adenoviridae and genus Aviadenovirus. It primarily infects birds, particularly chickens, causing various clinical manifestations such as inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) and hydropericardium syndrome (HPS). The virus is transmitted horizontally through the fecal-oral route and can be found in the environment for extended periods. FAdV-A infection can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to high mortality rates, especially in young chickens.

Gene transfer techniques, also known as gene therapy, refer to medical procedures where genetic material is introduced into an individual's cells or tissues to treat or prevent diseases. This can be achieved through various methods:

1. **Viral Vectors**: The most common method uses modified viruses, such as adenoviruses, retroviruses, or lentiviruses, to carry the therapeutic gene into the target cells. The virus infects the cell and inserts the new gene into the cell's DNA.

2. **Non-Viral Vectors**: These include methods like electroporation (using electric fields to create pores in the cell membrane), gene guns (shooting gold particles coated with DNA into cells), or liposomes (tiny fatty bubbles that can enclose DNA).

3. **Direct Injection**: In some cases, the therapeutic gene can be directly injected into a specific tissue or organ.

The goal of gene transfer techniques is to supplement or replace a faulty gene with a healthy one, thereby correcting the genetic disorder. However, these techniques are still largely experimental and have their own set of challenges, including potential immune responses, issues with accurate targeting, and risks of mutations or cancer development.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 1, Human" (also known as Human Herpesvirus 1 or HHV-1):

Herpesvirus 1, Human is a type of herpesvirus that primarily causes infection in humans. It is also commonly referred to as human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) or oral herpes. This virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected saliva, skin, or mucous membranes.

After initial infection, the virus typically remains dormant in the body's nerve cells and may reactivate later, causing recurrent symptoms. The most common manifestation of HHV-1 infection is oral herpes, characterized by cold sores or fever blisters around the mouth and lips. In some cases, HHV-1 can also cause other conditions such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and keratitis (inflammation of the eye's cornea).

There is no cure for HHV-1 infection, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the severity and frequency of recurrent outbreaks.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Simplexvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. This genus contains two species: Human alphaherpesvirus 1 (also known as HSV-1 or herpes simplex virus type 1) and Human alphaherpesvirus 2 (also known as HSV-2 or herpes simplex virus type 2). These viruses are responsible for causing various medical conditions, most commonly oral and genital herpes. They are characterized by their ability to establish lifelong latency in the nervous system and reactivate periodically to cause recurrent symptoms.

Cell transformation, viral refers to the process by which a virus causes normal cells to become cancerous or tumorigenic. This occurs when the genetic material of the virus integrates into the DNA of the host cell and alters its regulation, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Some viruses known to cause cell transformation include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and certain types of herpesviruses.

Peptide biosynthesis is the process by which cells synthesize peptides, short chains of amino acids. This process is mediated by enzymes called peptide synthetases, which catalyze the formation of peptide bonds between individual amino acids to create a longer chain. Peptide biosynthesis typically occurs through one of two pathways: ribosomal or non-ribosomal.

Ribosomal peptide biosynthesis involves the use of the cell's translational machinery, including the ribosome and transfer RNAs (tRNAs), to synthesize peptides from a messenger RNA (mRNA) template. This process is highly regulated and typically results in the production of small, linear peptides that are further modified by enzymes to create bioactive molecules such as hormones or neurotransmitters.

Non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (NRPS), on the other hand, is a more complex process that involves large multifunctional enzyme complexes called non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). These enzymes are capable of synthesizing a wide variety of structurally diverse peptides, including cyclic and branched peptides, as well as those containing non-proteinogenic amino acids. NRPSs typically consist of multiple modules, each responsible for adding a single amino acid to the growing peptide chain. The modular nature of NRPS systems allows for great diversity in the types of peptides that can be synthesized, making them important sources of bioactive molecules with potential therapeutic applications.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Vaccinia virus is a large, complex DNA virus that belongs to the Poxviridae family. It is the virus used in the production of the smallpox vaccine. The vaccinia virus is not identical to the variola virus, which causes smallpox, but it is closely related and provides cross-protection against smallpox infection.

The vaccinia virus has a unique replication cycle that occurs entirely in the cytoplasm of infected cells, rather than in the nucleus like many other DNA viruses. This allows the virus to evade host cell defenses and efficiently produce new virions. The virus causes the formation of pocks or lesions on the skin, which contain large numbers of virus particles that can be transmitted to others through close contact.

Vaccinia virus has also been used as a vector for the delivery of genes encoding therapeutic proteins, vaccines against other infectious diseases, and cancer therapies. However, the use of vaccinia virus as a vector is limited by its potential to cause adverse reactions in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems or certain skin conditions.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Oncolytic virotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses genetically modified viruses to selectively infect and destroy cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells unharmed. The virus used in oncolytic virotherapy can replicate inside cancer cells, causing them to rupture and release new viruses that can then infect nearby cancer cells.

The process continues in a cascading manner, leading to the destruction of many cancer cells in the treated area. Additionally, some oncolytic viruses can also stimulate an immune response against cancer cells, further enhancing their therapeutic effect. Oncolytic virotherapy is still an experimental treatment approach and is being studied in clinical trials for various types of cancer.

Protein biosynthesis is the process by which cells generate new proteins. It involves two major steps: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. This RNA copy, or messenger RNA (mRNA), carries the genetic information to the site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. During translation, the mRNA is read by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which bring specific amino acids to the ribosome based on the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA. The ribosome then links these amino acids together in the correct order to form a polypeptide chain, which may then fold into a functional protein. Protein biosynthesis is essential for the growth and maintenance of all living organisms.

Oncolytic viruses are a type of viruses that preferentially infect and kill cancer cells, while leaving normal cells relatively unharmed. These viruses can replicate inside the cancer cells, causing them to rupture and ultimately leading to their death. The release of new virus particles from the dead cancer cells allows the infection to spread to nearby cancer cells, resulting in a potential therapeutic effect.

Oncolytic viruses can be genetically modified to enhance their ability to target specific types of cancer cells and to increase their safety and efficacy. They may also be used in combination with other cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, to improve treatment outcomes. Oncolytic virus therapy is a promising area of cancer research, with several clinical trials underway to evaluate its potential benefits for patients with various types of cancer.

Keratoconjunctivitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of both the cornea (the clear, outer layer at the front of the eye) and the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye).

The condition can cause symptoms such as redness, pain, sensitivity to light, watery eyes, and a gritty or burning sensation in the eyes. Keratoconjunctivitis can be caused by various factors, including viral or bacterial infections, allergies, or environmental irritants like dust, smoke, or chemical fumes.

Treatment for keratoconjunctivitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications such as antibiotics, antivirals, or anti-inflammatory agents to reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms. In some cases, artificial tears or lubricants may also be recommended to help keep the eyes moist and comfortable.

Genetic transduction is a process in molecular biology that describes the transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another by a viral vector called a bacteriophage (or phage). In this process, the phage infects one bacterium and incorporates a portion of the bacterial DNA into its own genetic material. When the phage then infects a second bacterium, it can transfer the incorporated bacterial DNA to the new host. This can result in the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of traits such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors between bacteria.

There are two main types of transduction: generalized and specialized. In generalized transduction, any portion of the bacterial genome can be packaged into the phage particle, leading to a random assortment of genetic material being transferred. In specialized transduction, only specific genes near the site where the phage integrates into the bacterial chromosome are consistently transferred.

It's important to note that genetic transduction is not to be confused with transformation or conjugation, which are other mechanisms of HGT in bacteria.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Trans-activators are proteins that increase the transcriptional activity of a gene or a set of genes. They do this by binding to specific DNA sequences and interacting with the transcription machinery, thereby enhancing the recruitment and assembly of the complexes needed for transcription. In some cases, trans-activators can also modulate the chromatin structure to make the template more accessible to the transcription machinery.

In the context of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection, the term "trans-activator" is often used specifically to refer to the Tat protein. The Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication of HIV by activating the transcription of the viral genome. It does this by binding to a specific RNA structure called the Trans-Activation Response Element (TAR) located at the 5' end of all nascent HIV transcripts, and recruiting cellular cofactors that enhance the processivity and efficiency of RNA polymerase II, leading to increased viral gene expression.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Cycloheximide is an antibiotic that is primarily used in laboratory settings to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. It is derived from the actinobacteria species Streptomyces griseus. In medical terms, it is not used as a therapeutic drug in humans due to its significant side effects, including liver toxicity and potential neurotoxicity. However, it remains a valuable tool in research for studying protein function and cellular processes.

The antibiotic works by binding to the 60S subunit of the ribosome, thereby preventing the transfer RNA (tRNA) from delivering amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain during translation. This inhibition of protein synthesis can be lethal to cells, making cycloheximide a useful tool in studying cellular responses to protein depletion or misregulation.

In summary, while cycloheximide has significant research applications due to its ability to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, it is not used as a therapeutic drug in humans because of its toxic side effects.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

Viral conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye (sclera) and the inner surface of the eyelids, caused by a viral infection. The condition is often characterized by redness, watering, gritty or burning sensation in the eyes, and a clear, watery discharge. In some cases, it may also cause swelling of the eyelids and light sensitivity.

The most common viruses that can cause conjunctivitis are adenoviruses, which are responsible for about 65-90% of all viral conjunctivitis cases. Other viruses that can cause the condition include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus (which causes chickenpox and shingles), and picornaviruses.

Viral conjunctivitis is highly contagious and can spread easily through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated surfaces. It typically affects one eye first and then spreads to the other eye within a few days. The condition usually resolves on its own within 1-2 weeks, although in some cases it may take longer to clear up completely.

There is no specific treatment for viral conjunctivitis, and antibiotics are not effective against viral infections. However, cool compresses and artificial tears can help alleviate symptoms such as discomfort and dryness. It is important to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding touching the eyes, to prevent the spread of the virus to others.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

Cytoplasm is the material within a eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) that lies between the nuclear membrane and the cell membrane. It is composed of an aqueous solution called cytosol, in which various organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles are suspended. Cytoplasm also contains a variety of dissolved nutrients, metabolites, ions, and enzymes that are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and transport. It is where most of the cell's metabolic activities take place, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the cell.

Adenovirus vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using adenoviruses, which are a type of virus that commonly causes mild respiratory illnesses. These vaccines work by introducing a weakened or harmless form of the adenovirus to the body, which triggers an immune response and enables the body to recognize and fight off the virus if it encounters it in the future.

There are several adenovirus vaccines that have been developed and licensed for use, including those that protect against adenovirus types 4 and 7, which can cause acute respiratory disease in military recruits. Additionally, there are adenovirus vectors being studied as potential vaccine candidates for other diseases, such as COVID-19.

It's important to note that while adenovirus vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in clinical trials, like any medical treatment or prevention strategy, they may carry some risks and side effects. It's always best to consult with a healthcare provider for personalized advice on vaccination and other preventive measures.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 4, Human" (Epstein-Barr Virus)

"Herpesvirus 4, Human," also known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a member of the Herpesviridae family and is one of the most common human viruses. It is primarily transmitted through saliva and is often referred to as the "kissing disease."

EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), also known as glandular fever, which is characterized by symptoms such as fatigue, sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. The virus can also cause other diseases, including certain types of cancer, such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Once a person becomes infected with EBV, the virus remains in the body for the rest of their life, residing in certain white blood cells called B lymphocytes. In most people, the virus remains dormant and does not cause any further symptoms. However, in some individuals, the virus may reactivate, leading to recurrent or persistent symptoms.

EBV infection is diagnosed through various tests, including blood tests that detect antibodies against the virus or direct detection of the virus itself through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. There is no cure for EBV infection, and treatment is generally supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms and managing complications. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and not sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or drinking glasses.

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Coliphages are viruses that infect and replicate within certain species of bacteria that belong to the coliform group, particularly Escherichia coli (E. coli). These viruses are commonly found in water and soil environments and are frequently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water quality testing. Coliphages are not harmful to humans or animals, but their presence in water can suggest the potential presence of pathogenic bacteria or other microorganisms that may pose a health risk. There are two main types of coliphages: F-specific RNA coliphages and somatic (or non-F specific) DNA coliphages.

Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified by the addition of a phosphate group (-PO3H2) onto specific amino acid residues, most commonly serine, threonine, or tyrosine. This process is known as phosphorylation and is mediated by enzymes called kinases. Phosphoproteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, metabolism, and gene expression. The addition or removal of a phosphate group can activate or inhibit the function of a protein, thereby serving as a switch to control its activity. Phosphoproteins can be detected and quantified using techniques such as Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunofluorescence.

Papillomaviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that primarily infect the epithelial cells of mammals, birds, and reptiles. The name "papillomavirus" comes from the Latin word "papilla," which means nipple or small projection, reflecting the characteristic wart-like growths (papillomas) that these viruses can cause in infected host tissues.

The family Papillomaviridae includes more than 200 distinct papillomavirus types, with each type being defined by its specific DNA sequence. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are the most well-studied members of this family, are associated with a range of diseases, from benign warts and lesions to malignant cancers such as cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers.

Papillomaviruses have a circular, double-stranded DNA genome that is approximately 8 kbp in size. The viral genome encodes several early (E) proteins involved in viral replication and oncogenesis, as well as late (L) proteins that form the viral capsid. The life cycle of papillomaviruses is tightly linked to the differentiation program of their host epithelial cells, with productive infection occurring primarily in the differentiated layers of the epithelium.

In summary, Papillomaviridae is a family of DNA viruses that infect epithelial cells and can cause a variety of benign and malignant diseases. Human papillomaviruses are a significant public health concern due to their association with several cancer types.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

A transgene is a segment of DNA that has been artificially transferred from one organism to another, typically between different species, to introduce a new trait or characteristic. The term "transgene" specifically refers to the genetic material that has been transferred and has become integrated into the host organism's genome. This technology is often used in genetic engineering and biomedical research, including the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural purposes or the creation of animal models for studying human diseases.

Transgenes can be created using various techniques, such as molecular cloning, where a desired gene is isolated, manipulated, and then inserted into a vector (a small DNA molecule, such as a plasmid) that can efficiently enter the host organism's cells. Once inside the cell, the transgene can integrate into the host genome, allowing for the expression of the new trait in the resulting transgenic organism.

It is important to note that while transgenes can provide valuable insights and benefits in research and agriculture, their use and release into the environment are subjects of ongoing debate due to concerns about potential ecological impacts and human health risks.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

Repressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein in molecular biology that suppress the transcription of specific genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) by binding to DNA. They function as part of gene regulation processes, often working in conjunction with an operator region and a promoter region within the DNA molecule. Repressor proteins can be activated or deactivated by various signals, allowing for precise control over gene expression in response to changing cellular conditions.

There are two main types of repressor proteins:

1. DNA-binding repressors: These directly bind to specific DNA sequences (operator regions) near the target gene and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene into mRNA.
2. Allosteric repressors: These bind to effector molecules, which then cause a conformational change in the repressor protein, enabling it to bind to DNA and inhibit transcription.

Repressor proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress response, by controlling gene expression patterns in cells.

Papillomavirus infections are a group of diseases caused by various types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These viruses infect the skin and mucous membranes, and can cause benign growths such as warts or papillomas, as well as malignant growths like cervical cancer.

There are more than 100 different types of HPVs, and they can be classified into low-risk and high-risk types based on their potential to cause cancer. Low-risk HPV types, such as HPV-6 and HPV-11, commonly cause benign genital warts and respiratory papillomas. High-risk HPV types, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, are associated with an increased risk of developing cancer, including cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers.

HPV infections are typically transmitted through sexual contact, and most sexually active individuals will acquire at least one HPV infection during their lifetime. In many cases, the immune system is able to clear the virus without any symptoms or long-term consequences. However, persistent high-risk HPV infections can lead to the development of cancer over time.

Prevention measures for HPV infections include vaccination against high-risk HPV types, safe sex practices, and regular screening for cervical cancer in women. The HPV vaccine is recommended for both boys and girls aged 11-12 years old, and can also be given to older individuals up to age 45 who have not previously been vaccinated or who have not completed the full series of shots.

Ubiquitin-protein ligases, also known as E3 ubiquitin ligases, are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the ubiquitination process. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification where ubiquitin molecules are attached to specific target proteins, marking them for degradation by the proteasome or for other regulatory functions.

Ubiquitin-protein ligases catalyze the final step in this process by binding to both the ubiquitin protein and the target protein, facilitating the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to the target protein. There are several different types of ubiquitin-protein ligases, each with their own specificity for particular target proteins and regulatory functions.

Ubiquitin-protein ligases have been implicated in various cellular processes such as protein degradation, DNA repair, signal transduction, and regulation of the cell cycle. Dysregulation of ubiquitination has been associated with several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory responses. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligases is an important area of research in biology and medicine.

A Cytopathic Effect (CPE) is a visible change in the cell or group of cells due to infection by a pathogen, such as a virus. When the cytopathic effect is caused specifically by a viral infection, it is referred to as a "Viral Cytopathic Effect" (VCPE).

The VCPE can include various changes in the cell's morphology, size, and structure, such as rounding, shrinkage, multinucleation, inclusion bodies, and formation of syncytia (multinucleated giant cells). These changes are often used to identify and characterize viruses in laboratory settings.

The VCPE is typically observed under a microscope after the virus has infected cell cultures, and it can help researchers determine the type of virus, the degree of infection, and the effectiveness of antiviral treatments. The severity and timing of the VCPE can vary depending on the specific virus and the type of cells that are infected.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Helper viruses, also known as "auxiliary" or "satellite" viruses, are defective viruses that depend on the assistance of a second virus, called a helper virus, to complete their replication cycle. They lack certain genes that are essential for replication, and therefore require the helper virus to provide these functions.

Helper viruses are often found in cases of dual infection, where both the helper virus and the dependent virus infect the same cell. The helper virus provides the necessary enzymes and proteins for the helper virus to replicate, package its genome into new virions, and bud off from the host cell.

One example of a helper virus is the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which can serve as a helper virus for hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection. HDV is a defective RNA virus that requires the HBV surface antigen to form an envelope around its nucleocapsid and be transmitted to other cells. In the absence of HBV, HDV cannot replicate or cause disease.

Understanding the role of helper viruses in viral infections is important for developing effective treatments and vaccines against viral diseases.

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

Defective viruses are viruses that have lost the ability to complete a full replication cycle and produce progeny virions independently. These viruses require the assistance of a helper virus, which provides the necessary functions for replication. Defective viruses can arise due to mutations, deletions, or other genetic changes that result in the loss of essential genes. They are often non-infectious and cannot cause disease on their own, but they may interfere with the replication of the helper virus and modulate the course of infection. Defective viruses can be found in various types of viruses, including retroviruses, bacteriophages, and DNA viruses.

Beta-galactosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-galactosides into monosaccharides. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and mammals. In humans, it plays a role in the breakdown and absorption of certain complex carbohydrates, such as lactose, in the small intestine. Deficiency of this enzyme in humans can lead to a disorder called lactose intolerance. In scientific research, beta-galactosidase is often used as a marker for gene expression and protein localization studies.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

An enterovirus is a type of virus that primarily infects the gastrointestinal tract. There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses such as EV-D68 and EV-A71. These viruses are typically spread through close contact with an infected person, or by consuming food or water contaminated with the virus.

While many people infected with enteroviruses may not experience any symptoms, some may develop mild to severe illnesses such as hand, foot and mouth disease, herpangina, meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and paralysis (in case of poliovirus). Infection can occur in people of all ages, but young children are more susceptible to infection and severe illness.

Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently with soap and water, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not sharing food or drinks with someone who is ill. There are also vaccines available to prevent poliovirus infection.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, a thin, clear membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye. The condition can cause redness, itching, burning, tearing, discomfort, and a gritty feeling in the eyes. It can also result in a discharge that can be clear, yellow, or greenish.

Conjunctivitis can have various causes, including bacterial or viral infections, allergies, irritants (such as smoke, chlorine, or contact lens solutions), and underlying medical conditions (like dry eye or autoimmune disorders). Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include antibiotics, antihistamines, anti-inflammatory medications, or warm compresses.

It is essential to maintain good hygiene practices, like washing hands frequently and avoiding touching or rubbing the eyes, to prevent spreading conjunctivitis to others. If you suspect you have conjunctivitis, it's recommended that you consult an eye care professional for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Atadenovirus is a genus of viruses in the family *Parvoviridae*, which infect a wide range of animals including reptiles, birds, and mammals. These viruses are non-enveloped, meaning they do not have a lipid membrane, and have a single-stranded DNA genome. Atadenoviruses can cause various diseases in their hosts, depending on the specific species of the virus and the animal it infects. Some atadenoviruses have been associated with gastrointestinal illnesses, respiratory infections, and liver disease in animals. However, more research is needed to fully understand the impact of atadenovirus infections in various animal populations.

Yew, P.; Berk, A. (1992). "Inhibition of p53 transactivation required for transformation by adenovirus early 1B protein". ... and the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein trimer. CAR is necessary for adenovirus infection. Although expressed widely ... For adenovirus replication to occur, the host cell must be induced into S phase by viral proteins interfering with cell cycle ... E1B proteins produced by adenoviruses protect the infected cell by binding to and degrading the p53 transcription factors, ...
... (E1A) is a gene expressed during adenovirus replication to produce a variety of E1A proteins. It is ... The adenovirus early region 1A gene is translated to produce E1A proteins by using the host cell's molecular machinery. Early ... Early proteins typically encode non-structural proteins that are necessary for replication, whereas late structural proteins ... The adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) 289R protein is composed of 289 amino acids, with four conserved regions: CR1 (42-80), CR2 ...
... oncogene protein tpr-met MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045 - adenovirus early proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050 - adenovirus ... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.060 - adenovirus e2 ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.320 - fusion proteins, ...
Dorner, A. A. (1 August 2005). "Coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is essential for early embryonic cardiac development ... CAR (coxsackie and adenovirus receptor) also belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, same like JAM proteins. CAR is ... Some of TJ proteins act as a scaffolds, that connect integral proteins with the actin in a cytoskeleton. Others have an ability ... TJ proteins could be divided in different groups according to their function or localization in tight junction. TJ proteins are ...
DNA replication separates the early and late phases. Once the early genes have liberated adequate virus proteins, replication ... Tupaia adenovirus (TAV) (tree shrew adenovirus 1) has been isolated from tree shrews. Otarine adenovirus 1 has been isolated ... The early genes are responsible for expressing mainly non-structural, regulatory proteins. The goal of these proteins is ... A terminal protein that is covalently bound to the 5' end of the adenovirus genome acts as a primer for replication. The viral ...
"Adenovirus early region 1B 58,000-dalton tumor antigen is physically associated with an early region 4 25,000-dalton protein in ... Adenovirus E1B protein usually refers to one of two proteins transcribed from the E1B gene of the adenovirus: a 55kDa protein ... These two proteins are needed to block apoptosis in adenovirus-infected cells. E1B proteins work to prevent apoptosis that is ... White, E; Cipriani, R (January 10, 1990). "Role of adenovirus E1B proteins in transformation: altered organization of ...
Histone acetyltransferase p300 also known as p300 HAT or E1A-associated protein p300 (where E1A = adenovirus early region 1A) ... "Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the adenovirus E1A-associated 300-kD protein (p300) reveals a protein with ... "cAMP-response-element-binding-protein-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional co-activators of early growth response ... This gene encodes the adenovirus E1A-associated cellular p300 transcriptional co-activator protein. EP300 is closely related to ...
Early region 4 open-reading-frame 4 (E4orf4) is an adenovirus protein of 14kDa which regulates growth in all stages of the ... This protein binds to anti-apoptotic proteins resulting in these proteins' inhibition. As a p53 inducible gene, NOXA is ... NS1 is considered a regulatory protein due to its activity in transcription, translation, and protein-protein interactions, ... This protein, also known as viral protein 3 (VP3) was isolated from chickens, and has been shown to cause PCD in transformed ...
... regulating the protein, p73 in cervical cancer patients, using Adenovirus early region 1A, a tumor suppressor gene, the ... The research team led by Somasundaram and Phillipe Marin of INSERM validated the earlier findings and proposed a new ... Das, Sanjeev; Nama, Srikanth; Antony, Sini; Somasundaram, Kumaravel (2005). "p73β-expressing recombinant adenovirus: a ... "IGF2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) promotes glioma cell migration by enhancing the translation of RELA/p65". Oncotarget. 8 (25 ...
... and E4 transcription units are successively transcribed early in the viral reproductive cycle. The proteins coded for by genes ... The functions of many adenovirus proteins are known: Structural proteins include capsid proteins II (hexon), III (penton base ... Control protein E1B 19K suppresses apoptosis by mimicking the action of cellular protein Bcl-2. Control protein E1B 55K binds ... "Protein Details for Human adenovirus E". NCBI. Retrieved 2013-01-17. Russell, WC (Jan 2009). "Adenoviruses: update on structure ...
Using adenovirus-expressing SFRP1, impaired the canonical Wnt/Fzd pathway in the early phase of ischemia and as a result ... the SFRP1 netrin-related motif is also found in a range of other proteins that is thought to mediate protein-protein ... Loss of SFRP1 protein expression is associated with poor overall survival (OS) in patients with early breast cancer (pT1 ... Secreted frizzled-related protein 1, also known as SFRP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SFRP1 gene. Secreted ...
Pääbo earned his Ph.D. from Uppsala University in 1986 for research investigating how the E19 protein of adenoviruses modulates ... Pääbo is known as one of the founders of paleogenetics, a discipline that uses genetics to study early humans and other ancient ... Identifitseerin end rootslastega, aga mul on eriline suhe Eestiga) Pääbo, Svante (1986). How the E19 protein of adenoviruses ...
The regimen is a combination of an adenovirus vector vaccine engineered against multiple global strains of HIV, and a protein ... The first phase I trial of the candidate vaccine in Africa was launched early in 1999 with Ugandan volunteers. The study ... The foremost issue facing the recombinant adenovirus that was used is the high prevalence of the adenovirus-specific antibodies ... Env is a protein on the HIV surface that enables to infect cells. Env extends from the surface of the HIV virus particle. The ...
The adenovirus E1B protein (55K) prevents p53 from regulating genes by binding to the site on p53 which binds to the genome. In ... The adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) is an oncoprotein which binds to Rb and can stimulate transcription and transform cells. ... HPV instead degrades p53: the HPV protein E6 binds to a cellular protein called the E6-associated protein (E6-AP, also known as ... DNA oncoviruses typically impair two families of tumor suppressor proteins: tumor proteins p53 and the retinoblastoma proteins ...
pRb is one of the targets of the oncogenic human papilloma virus protein E7, and human adenovirus protein E1A. By binding to ... footprinting experiments obtained on Cdc2 and B-myb promoters demonstrated E2F DNA binding site occupation during G0 and early ... Most E2F have a pocket protein binding domain. Pocket proteins such as pRB and related proteins p107 and p130, can bind to E2F ... Homo sapiens E2F1 mRNA or E2F1 protein sequences from NCBI protein and nucleotide database. X-ray crystallographic analysis has ...
In Polyomavirus, the early proteins are T antigens. The late proteins make up the virus capsid. In Polyomaviruses, they are ... In Adenoviruses, it consists of two transcription units, IVa2 and IX. The late class consists primarily of structural proteins ... immediate-early 2) early and 3) late, and some refer to these same classes as 1) early 2) intermediate and 3) late. The former ... The early proteins produced in Papillomaviruses and Polyomaviruses regulate the cell cycle and activate DNA replication. In ...
... is currently being evaluated in early clinical trials with several delivery vectors including AAV and Adenovirus. The natural ... They contain instructions for making proteins. If genes do not produce the right proteins in a correct way, a child can develop ... Adenoviruses have also been investigated in the clinic for the treatment of Osteoarthritis, however, since adenoviruses are ... have been evaluated as both protein or gene therapy injections and were either abandoned (as in the case of the protein) or did ...
It was hoped that the adenovirus vectors would carry these HIV-1 genes into the cell, and that this would result in the ... Enrollment in the South African arm of the trial began in early 2007 and ended in September 2007. Candidates for enrollment ... Each of the three vectors expressed a single gene encoding a protein from the HIV virus: gag, pol, or nef. ... The vaccine contained three separate replication-defective vectors based on Human Adenovirus C serotype 5 (HAdV-5). ...
... an external protein that enables the virus to enter cells, is responsible for the immune system response. In early April the ... The adenovirus cannot replicate, so does not cause further infection, and instead acts as a vector to transfer the SARS-CoV-2 ... Vialard, J E; Gilbert, C S; Green, C M; Lowndes, N F (1 October 1998). "The budding yeast Rad9 checkpoint protein is subjected ... The team started research in January 2020, and managed to identify a chimpanzee adenovirus vector (ChAdOx) that generated a ...
These two VA RNA genes are distinct genes in the adenovirus genome. VA RNAI is the major species with VA RNAII expressed at a ... VAI stimulates the translation of both early and late viral genes including E3 and hexon. VAII does not stimulate translation. ... VAI RNA functions as a decoy RNA for the double stranded RNA activated protein kinase R which would otherwise phosphorylate ... The VA (viral associated) RNA is a type of non-coding RNA found in adenovirus. It plays a role in regulating translation. There ...
He discovered two of the proteins required for adenoviruses to transform cells, and also other proteins that usurp the infected ... They also emerged as a vehicle for human gene therapy Also in the early 1960s, Green and others showed that human adenoviruses ... Lillie, J. W.; Loewenstein, P. M.; Green, M. R.; Green, M. (1987). "Functional domains of adenovirus type 5 E1a proteins". Cell ... Virology, 428 Loewenstein, P. M.; Green, M. (2011). "Expression of the Adenovirus Early Gene 1A Transcription-Repression Domain ...
The c-fos protein contains a "leucine zipper" that allows it to form a heterodimer with jun, another oncogene. In 1988, Sassone ... Early research on transcription During his time as a postdoc, working under the mentorship of Pierre Chambon at IGBCM in 1980, ... Sassone-Corsi studied transcriptional elements and identified the promoter sequence of the adenovirus major late gene, which ... Oncogenes which encode for nuclear proteins include, fos, jun, and p53, just to name a few. As a nuclear oncogene, fos is able ...
The company's platform includes Chimpanzee Adenovirus Oxford (ChAdOx) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), two viral vectors ... In early 2020, Vaccitech and the University of Oxford co-invented a vaccine for COVID-19 using the ChAdOx platform.[citation ... expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein." Several subjects needed prophylactic paracetamol to minimize their adverse reactions ... randomised controlled trial in five trial sites in the UK of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) ...
The Adenovirus produces five primary transcripts early in its infectious cycle, prior to viral DNA replication, and an ... Most of the activator proteins that bind to ISEs and ESEs are members of the SR protein family. Such proteins contain RNA ... When the RNA attached to that protein is isolated and cloned, it reveals the target sequences for that protein. Another method ... Females produce the master sex determination protein Sex lethal (Sxl). The Sxl protein is a splicing repressor that binds to an ...
Puri S, Bachert C, Fimmel CJ, Linstedt AD (September 2002). "Cycling of early Golgi proteins via the cell surface and endosomes ... Kladney RD, Tollefson AE, Wold WS, Fimmel CJ (September 2002). "Upregulation of the Golgi protein GP73 by adenovirus infection ... Golgi membrane protein 1 (GOLM1) also known as Golgi phosphoprotein 2 or Golgi membrane protein GP73 is a protein that in ... The protein encoded by this gene is a type II Golgi transmembrane protein. It processes protein synthesized in the rough ...
"Protective efficacy of adenovirus/protein vaccines against SIV challenges in rhesus monkeys". Science. 349 (6245): 320-324. ... Her early research focussed on whether HIV could infect other cells in the body than just T cells, including cells in the brain ... Schuitemaker demonstrated the efficacy of the adenovirus/protein vaccines against simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus ... Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, Schuitemaker announced Johnson & Johnson's ambition to develop a vaccine against the unknown ...
"C-terminal-binding protein interacting protein binds directly to adenovirus early region 1A through its N-terminal region and ... The CtBP1 protein was originally identified as a human protein that bound a PLDLS motif in the C-terminus of adenovirus E1A ... C-terminal-binding protein 1 also known as CtBP1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTBP1 gene. CtBP1 is one of two ... 1993). "A region in the C-terminus of adenovirus 2/5 E1a protein is required for association with a cellular phosphoprotein and ...
"Antibodies to gap-junctional protein selectively disrupt junctional communication in the early amphibian embryo". Nature. 311 ( ... The even smaller adenovirus has its own "vinnexin", apparently derived from an innexin, to aid its transmission between the ... One connexin protein has four transmembrane domains Six connexin proteins create one connexon channel (hemichannel). When ... Beyer EC, Paul DL, Goodenough DA (1987). "Connexin43: a protein from rat heart homologous to a gap junction protein from liver ...
... adenovirus early proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.050 - adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 - adenovirus e2 proteins ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062 - antigens, viral, tumor MeSH ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23. - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23. - antigens, polyomavirus ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.050 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.090 - antigens, polyomavirus ...
The vaccine consists of a DNA plasmid encoding the E and PrM proteins which make up the outer protein coat of the Zika virus ... Another vaccine platform makes use of Adenovirus as a vector and phase 1 studies will be complete in 2019. Adenoviruses have ... Initial results at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and at other hospitals involved in the early clinical trials were ... Based on a previous platform used to develop a West Nile virus vaccine, the DNA vaccine is designed to assemble protein ...
Yew, P.; Berk, A. (1992). "Inhibition of p53 transactivation required for transformation by adenovirus early 1B protein". ... and the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein trimer. CAR is necessary for adenovirus infection. Although expressed widely ... For adenovirus replication to occur, the host cell must be induced into S phase by viral proteins interfering with cell cycle ... E1B proteins produced by adenoviruses protect the infected cell by binding to and degrading the p53 transcription factors, ...
Whyte P, Ruley HE, Harlow E. Two regions of the adenovirus early region 1A proteins are required for transformation. J Virol ... Detection of adenovirus E1A DNA by PCR, mRNA by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, and protein by immunofluorescence staining and ... Repression of insulin gene expression by adenovirus type 5 E1a proteins. Mol Cell Biol 1987;7:1164-1170. ... Localization of latent adenovirus 5 E1A DNA in human lungs and lymph nodes by PCR in situ. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157: ...
The E4 region of human adenoviruses encodes a set of proteins that can regulate early gene expression for viral RNA export and ... Induction of the cellular E2F-1 promoter by the adenovirus E4-6/7 protein. J Virol. 2000;74:2084-93. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... The E4-6/7 protein functionally compensates for the loss of E1A expression in adenovirus infection. J Virol. 2000;74:5819-24. ... Roles for the E4 orf6, orf3, and E1B 55-kilodalton proteins in cell cycle-independent adenovirus replication. J Virol. 1999;73: ...
The Promotion of Genomic Instability in Human Fibroblasts by Adenovirus 12 Early Region 1B 55K Protein in the Absence of Viral ... Structural determinants within the adenovirus early region 1A protein spacer region necessary for tumourigenesis. ... Spotlight on protein modification crosstalk during DNA repair Nature Communications 12: 6313 (2021). M-P Sanchez-Bailon M-P, S- ... Protein kinase Msk1 physically and functionally interacts with the KMT2A/MLL1 methyltransferase complex and contributes to the ...
This review will address epigenetic regulation in members of the polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, human papillomaviruses, ... effects on cellular transcription and histone modifications was also analyzed using the adenovirus early regulatory protein E1A ... the virus particle adenovirus DNA is associated with a viral protein called protein VII which is a basic histone-like protein ( ... Our understanding of the epigenetic role of adenovirus protein VII was recently extended in a publication combining ...
Adenovirus Protein VII Functions Throughout Early Phase and Interacts with Cellular Proteins SET and pp32, 79 Journal of ... Adenovirus Type 5 DNA-Protein Complexes from Formaldehyde Cross-Linked Cells Early After Infection, 312 Virology 204 (2003) ( ... Adenovirus Protein VII Condenses DNA, Represses Transcription, and Associates with Transcriptional Activator E1A, 78 Journal of ...
Adenovirus 12 Early Region 1B 19K Protein. Adenovirus E1B 19K Protein. Adenovirus E1B Protein. E1B Protein, Adenovirus. E1B ... Adenovirus E1B Protein E1B Protein, Adenovirus E1B Proteins, Adenovirus Adenovirus E1B 19K Protein - Narrower Concept UI. ... Adenovirus 12 Early Region 1B 19K Protein - Narrower Concept UI. M0026554. Preferred term. Adenovirus 12 Early Region 1B 19K ... to search ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS 1985-92. History Note:. 93; ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEIN was SY to ADENOVIRUS EARLY REGION ...
Adenovirus early region 4 34-kilodalton protein directs the nuclear localization of the early region 1B 55-kilodalton protein ... Goodrum, F. D., and D. A. Ornelles, The early region 1B 55-kilodalton oncoprotein of adenovirus relieves growth restrictions ... and E1B 55-kilodalton proteins in cell cycle-independent adenovirus replication., J Virol, vol. 73, issue 9, pp. 7474-88, 1999 ... Petrucelli, A., M. Umashankar, P. Zagallo, M. Rak, and F. Goodrum, Interactions between proteins encoded within the human ...
Adenovirus Early Proteins [D12.776.964.700.045] * Adenovirus E1 Proteins [D12.776.964.700.045.050] * Adenovirus E1A Proteins [ ... Adenovirus 12 Early Region 1B 19K Protein Adenovirus E1B 19K Protein Adenovirus E1B Protein Registry Number. 0. Previous ... use ADENOVIRUS EARLY PROTEINS (NM) to search ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS 1985-92. History Note. 93; ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEIN was SY ... Proteins [D12.776] * Immediate-Early Proteins [D12.776.460] * Adenovirus E1 Proteins [D12.776.460.050] * Adenovirus E1A ...
Adenovirus (AdV) encodes proteins from the early E4 region which are necessary for productive infection. Some cellular ... Adenovirus encodes early gene products from the E4 genomic region that are known to alter host response pathways and promote ... We found that the viral polymerase components large protein L and accessory protein C are necessary for engagement with ... We used an integrated proteomics approach to quantitate protein abundance and protein associations with viral DNA during virus ...
2). S.C. injection of Ad5.S1 and Ad5.S1N resulted in significantly increased S1-specific IgG endpoint titers as early as 2 ... Adenovirus-Vectored SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Expressing S1-N Fusion Protein. View ORCID ProfileMuhammad S. Khan, Eun Kim, Alex ... Adenovirus-Vectored SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Expressing S1-N Fusion Protein Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... To produce E1/E3 deleted replication-deficient human type 5 adenovirus expressing SARS- CoV-2-S1 protein, we generated pAd/SARS ...
... that the immune systems response to spike proteins was slightly diminished when there was strong immune memory for adenovirus ... in which the gene to be incorporated into adenovirus type 5. Adenovirus, which is a DNA virus , is a completely different kind ... Early study of Covid-19 vaccine developed in China sees mixed results ... Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine: a dose-escalation, open- ...
... of the 72,000-da early protein of adenovirus type 5 in mouse cells constitutively expressing an immediate early protein of ... Protein kinase and ATP-binding activity associated with the 72-kdalton single-stranded DNA-binding protein from early region 2A ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein expressed by an adenovirus vector is phosphorylated and ... Mitochondrial precursor protein. Effects of 70-kilodalton heat shock protein on polypeptide folding, aggregation, and import ...
The role of human adenovirus early region 3 proteins (gp19K, 10·4K, 14·5K and 14·7K) in a murine pneumonia model. Journal of ... Characteristics of a Human Cell Line Transformed by DNA from Human Adenovirus Type 5 F. L. Graham, J. Smiley, W. C. Russell and ... Clark M. A., Conway T. M., Shorr R. G. L., Crooke S. T. 1987; Identification and isolation of a mammalian protein which is ... Steiner H., Hultmark D., Engstrom A., Bennich H., Boman H. G. 1981; Sequence and specificity of two antibacterial proteins ...
Earliest. J:40271 Buyse IM, et al., The retinoblastoma protein binds to RIZ, a zinc-finger protein that shares an epitope with ... the adenovirus E1A protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 May 9;92(10):4467-71 ... protein coding gene. Chr4:142833961-142939565 (-). 129S1/SvImJ MGP_129S1SvImJ_G0029065. protein coding gene. Chr4:146300091- ... protein coding gene. Chr4:155880415-155990701 (-). DBA/2J MGP_DBA2J_G0028877. protein coding gene. Chr4:140276827-140383920 (-) ...
The best PSP was selected to construct a prostate-specific oncolytic adenovirus (CRAD) by controlling the adenoviral E1 region ... such as conditional replication adenovirus (CRAD)) are developed to specifically target prostate without (or with minimal) ... The adenovirus early region 1 (E1) gene, which comprises E1a and E1b, encodes the viral early proteins that are necessary for ... The design of a prostate-specific conditional replication-competent adenovirus AdPSAE1. The native Ad5 early region 1 (E1) gene ...
... of human TMEM173 protein (exact sequence is proprietary). Clone: STING1/8129R. Gene ID: 340061 ... Stimulator of interferon genes protein derived from Recombinant fragment (around aa190-290) ... protein E7 and adenovirus early E1A protein (PubMed:26405230). Such oncoproteins prevent the ability to sense cytosolic DNA ( ... TMEM17 (transmembrane protein 173) is a 379 amino acid protein encoded by a gene mapping to human chromosome 5. With 181 ...
Immunostaining revealed that the virus expressed the early protein E1A in the infected tumor cells at this time (Fig. 3A). Two ... a second-generation oncolytic adenovirus that is derived from human adenovirus serum type 5 and targets tumor cells with an ... To examine the relevance of the virus-mediated effect on immunity to tumor-specific T-cell response, we used the OVA protein as ... In a recent phase I clinical trial based on our long-term effort to develop oncolytic adenoviruses for cancer therapy, an ...
Adenovirus Early Proteins Adenoviruses, Human/*genetics Animals Cell Division *Cell Transformation, Viral Cells, Cultured ... organism description , virus , adenovirus. organs, tissues, organelles, cell types and functions , cell types and functions , ... 53:742-750, 1985), in which the 12S E1A protein is required for the complete induction of the cellular DNA replication ... Viral Genetic Vectors Immunoassay Kidney/cytology Liver/cytology Myocardium/cytology Oncogene Proteins, Viral/*genetics Rats ...
Stargardt-like macular degeneration (STGD3) is an early onset autosomal prominent macular ... The multidomain-containing cellular protein BS69 interacts with adenovirus E1A and several. The multidomain-containing cellular ... protein BS69 interacts with adenovirus E1A and several other viral and cellular factors and acts as a transcription repressor. ... Furthermore BS69 forms a complicated with both p53 and p400 a nuclear proteins implicated in mobile senescence (Chan induces ...
It also exhaustively introduces the concrete mechanism of invading GC cells and the viral genome composition of adenovirus and ... It also exhaustively introduces the concrete mechanism of invading GC cells and the viral genome composition of adenovirus and ... Due to the unobvious early symptoms and the influence of some adverse factors such as tumor heterogeneity and low ... Due to the unobvious early symptoms and the influence of some adverse factors such as tumor heterogeneity and low ...
We conclude that the association and altered regulation of IRS proteins by Ad5E1A contribute to the adenovirus-transformed ... Prolonged expression of Ad5E1A13S is required for the observed dramatic increase in the levels of IRS-4 mRNA and protein in ... binding protein. IRS-4 interacts with both the transcriptional activation domain (conserved region 3) and the N-terminal region ... has been identified as a novel adenovirus 5 early region 1A (Ad5E1A)- ...
AZD1222 is a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. This technology has yet to be used ... While another study participant also reported neurological symptoms earlier this summer, the patient was later diagnosed with ... in an FDA-approved vaccine; however, it has been widely tested in early phase trials for a variety of viruses, such as Ebola ...
N2 - It is well established that the human subgroup C adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1B 55 kDa protein can regulate the activity and ... An early function of the adenoviral E1B 55 kDa protein is required for the nuclear relocalization of the cellular p53 protein ... An early function of the adenoviral E1B 55 kDa protein is required for the nuclear relocalization of the cellular p53 protein ... An early function of the adenoviral E1B 55 kDa protein is required for the nuclear relocalization of the cellular p53 protein ...
Defective cardiovascular development and elevated cyclin E and Notch proteins in mice lacking the Fbw-7 F-box protein. Proc. ... Construction of adenovirus vector through Cre-lox recombination. J. Virol. 71:1842-1849. View this article via: PubMed Google ... Adenoviral infections. Early passage HUVECs, HUAECs, and HMVECs were trypsinized. 1 × 106 to 3 × 106 cells in 2 ml EGM-2 ... and bound proteins were eluted in protein sample buffer. Streptavidin-purified and total cell lysates were separated on SDS- ...
Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) is an 80-kD serum protein with homology to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Its receptor, ... However, in earlier stages of the disease the mutant frequency in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was lower than in healthy controls ... We constructed recombinant adenoviruses Ad.CMVble and Ad.RSVble harboring the bleomycin resistance Sh ble gene under the ... Here we have investigated the differential roles of protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in the ...
His early research includes seminal work done in 1989, demonstrating the importance of cell cycle proteins in the functioning ... The transforming gene products of these viruses, such as the E1A oncoproteins of adenovirus 5, led to the identification of ... Decoy Damaged DNA Discovers New Gene Repair Protein. A synthetic DNA structure was used as bait to capture nuclear proteins, ... Early on, while following his fathers research, he became interested in the link between the effect of toxic waste on the ...
The vaccine makes use of an adenovirus as a vector to specific the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the find out about ... Early Promise for COVID Vaccine Taken as Tablet. May 7, 2022. lexutor ... Early Promise for COVID Vaccine Taken as Tablet. ...
The vaccination with recombinant protein and ade- novirus expressing A2 provided the best results, unsurpassed to superior ... For it never alarms earlier an eruption erectile dysfunction pumps buy. That is why I explored how a billing combination ... cure resistant-associated proteins (MRPs), and bosom cancer resistant protein (BCRP). Ensure that these critical events occur, ... The fact that protein and DNA adducts formed aside 4-hydroxynonenal are on numerous occasions detected in ordinary cells ...
  • CAR is necessary for adenovirus infection. (
  • The present report concerns the role of adenovirus infection in inducing this transformation in an animal model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (
  • These human observations are supported by experiments in guinea pigs, where, in the absence of actively replicating virus but the presence of E1A DNA, adenovirus infection resulted in excess lung inflammation following a single exposure to cigarette smoke 7 , and increased parenchymal and airway wall inflammation with greater emphysematous destruction after chronic exposure 8 . (
  • Adenovirus Type 5 DNA-Protein Complexes from Formaldehyde Cross-Linked Cells Early After Infection , 312 Virology 204 (2003) (with David Spector, Nicholas Baird & Daniel Engel). (
  • Adenovirus (AdV) encodes proteins from the early E4 region which are necessary for productive infection. (
  • Microbial infection) Antiviral activity is antagonized by oncoproteins, such as papillomavirus (HPV) protein E7 and adenovirus early E1A protein (PubMed:26405230). (
  • We conclude that the association and altered regulation of IRS proteins by Ad5E1A contribute to the adenovirus-transformed phenotype and modulates viral infection in an Akt-dependent manner. (
  • Rather, the localization of p53 to E1B containing nuclear sites observed during infection by Ad5 was prevented by mutations that impair interaction of the E1B protein with p53 and/or with the E4 Orf6 protein. (
  • Understanding the interaction patterns between a particular virus and human proteins plays a crucial role in unveiling the underlying mechanism of viral infection and pathogenesis. (
  • Virus infection involves several types of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between the virus and its host. (
  • The Conserved region 3 (CR3) portion of the human adenovirus (HAdV) 5 E1A protein functions as a potent transcriptional activator that induces expression of viral early genes during infection. (
  • Recombinant protein expression of interest is detectable from 24 hours post infection. (
  • For most serotypes, adenovirus infection is mediated by the high-affinity binding of the fiber-knob region to a receptor of target cell, named as the coxsackie-Ad receptor (CAR), which mainly determines the viral tropism [44]. (
  • Infection process of adenovirus. (
  • The vaccine developed by the Gamaleya Institute in Moscow with assistance from Russia's Defense Ministry uses a different virus -- the common cold-causing adenovirus -- that's been modified to carry genes for the "spike" protein that coats the coronavirus, as a way to prime the body to recognize if a real COVID-19 infection comes along. (
  • Meanwhile, in an interview with India Today, Dr Randeep Guleria said that nasal vaccines are preferable since they are easy to administer and give mucosal immunity that protects one from the early part of the infection. (
  • The activity of the adenovirus major late promoter is substantially Increased as the infection proceeds from the early to late phase. (
  • To gain insight into the regulation of this promoter, we analyzed protein-DNA interactions by in vivo DMS and DNasel footprinting during the course of adenovirus infection. (
  • Little or no protein interaction at promoter sequences was detected early (5 hr) after infection but strong interactions at the major late transcription factor (MLTF/USF) binding site and at the TATA box were evident late (12 hr) after infection. (
  • Nuclear extracts prepared from uninfected cells as well as cells harvested at 5 and 12 hr after infection contained similar levels of MLTF/USF footprint activity, therefore the lack of a detectable interaction early after infection is not due to reduced levels of the factor early in the viral growth cycle. (
  • Meningoencephalitis and neonatal sepsis can also be caused by infection with adenovirus, enterovirus, or coxsackievirus. (
  • Human adenovirus type 34 (HAdV-34) infection is a recognized cause of transplant-associated hemorrhagic cystitis and, in rare cases, tubulointerstitial nephritis. (
  • This represses adenovirus production by 99.99999 -100% during an AAV manufacturing run, while increasing rAAV yield, packaging efficiency and infectivity compared to both Ad5 helper plasmid or wild-type adenovirus. (
  • To prevent infected cell lysis, recombinant replication deficiency virus has been developed as a gene delivery tool to replace wild-type adenovirus (recombinant AdV in "application" part). (
  • In addition, since many people have immunity to adenovirus type 5 itself, 'I think that the immune system reacts not with SARS-CoV-2 but with adenovirus type 5 and the effectiveness of the vaccine may be lost. (
  • mRNA-1273 is a vaccine that uses a different approach from Ad5-nCoV, in which mRNA that expresses spike proteins is directly administered to the body to target immunity. (
  • One of the predominant vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2, AZD1222 is a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. (
  • While another study participant also reported neurological symptoms earlier this summer, the patient was later diagnosed with multiple sclerosis which was found to be unrelated to vaccine administration (Feuerstein 2020). (
  • The vaccine makes use of an adenovirus as a vector to specific the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the find out about authors defined. (
  • The lab is applying its adenovirus vaccine expertise against SARS-CoV-2, utilizing a modified chimpanzee virus as a vaccine delivery vehicle to induce an immune response. (
  • The laboratory developed an adenovirus-based vaccine against rabies virus that can provide rapid immunity following a single administration. (
  • Enhanced humoral HIV-1-specific immune responses generated from recombinant rhabdoviral-based vaccine vectors co-expressing HIV-1 proteins and IL-2. (
  • While Russian officials have said large-scale production of the vaccine wasn't scheduled until September, Deputy Prime Minister Tatyana Golikova said vaccination of doctors could start as early as this month. (
  • That's a similar technology as vaccines being developed by China's CanSino Biologics and Britain's Oxford University and AstraZeneca - but unlike those companies, Russian scientists haven't published any scientific information about how the vaccine has performed in animal tests or in early-stage human studies. (
  • Bharat Biotech's nasal vaccine is a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus vectored vaccine with a pre-fusion stabilized spike protein. (
  • The government had earlier said that this nasal vaccine can catapult mass vaccination during pandemics and endemics. (
  • Five serious adverse events were reported, of which two were in the vaccine group (pyrexia and transverse myelitis) and three were in the control group (autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, increased C- reactive protein and myelitis). (
  • 2 This was fol owed by other COVID-19 - ideal y through an active surveil ance system - in order vaccines that utilized various platforms, including an to determine whether the event is truly associated with a adenovirus vector-based vaccine, an inactivated vaccine vaccine or vaccination. (
  • 3 and a protein subunit vaccine. (
  • citation needed] The most commonly used group of adenoviruses is serotype 5 (Ad5), whose binding to host cells is initiated by interactions between the cellular coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), and the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein trimer. (
  • In particular, adenovirus serotype 7 (Ad7) has been associated with the most severe, often fatal, disease in children ( 4 - 7 ). (
  • Top panel: a simplified map of the adenovirus serotype 5 genome showing the early genes (E1-E4) and the region from which the major late transcript is produced. (
  • Adenovirus Protein VII Functions Throughout Early Phase and Interacts with Cellular Proteins SET and pp32 , 79 Journal of Virology 2474 (2005) (with Yuming Xue, David Ornelles, Judy Lieberman & Daniel Engel). (
  • Rak, M. A., J. Buehler, S. Zeltzer, J. Reitsma, B. Molina, S. Terhune, and F. Goodrum, 'Human Cytomegalovirus UL135 Interacts with Host Adaptor Proteins To Regulate Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Reactivation from Latency. (
  • We find that A3A interacts with the chaperonin-containing TCP-1 (CCT) complex, a cellular machine that assists in protein folding and function. (
  • The multidomain-containing cellular protein BS69 interacts with adenovirus E1A and several other viral and cellular factors and acts as a transcription repressor. (
  • Adenovirus 5 E1A is responsible for increased expression of insulin receptor substrate 4 in established adenovirus 5-transformed cell lines and interacts with IRS components activating the PI3 kinase/Akt signalling pathway. (
  • To understand the molecular basis of observed regional shifts in the genome types of adenovirus type 7 (Ad7) isolated in Korea during nationwide outbreaks from 1995 to 2000, the genetic variabilities of Ad7d and Ad7l were studied by sequence analysis of hexon, fiber, E3, and E4 open reading frame (ORF) 6/7 peptides. (
  • Ad7d was identified as early as 1980 in Beijing and was subsequently replaced by Ad7b, which then became the predominant genome type in China through the 1990s ( 5 ). (
  • Previously, sequence variations among the different genome types of Ad7 strains have been observed at 2 variable regions of the hexon gene and in a 14.9-kDa protein encoded by an ORF in the E3 region ( 6 , 14 ). (
  • It also exhaustively introduces the concrete mechanism of invading GC cells and the viral genome composition of adenovirus and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). (
  • The adenoviral vectors provided by Genemedi are based on human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5), which is replication-incompetent (-E1/-E3) and can't be integrated into host genome, guaranteeing the security for subsequent operations. (
  • Schematic of the adenovirus genome and adenovirus-based vectors. (
  • Without integration into host genome, adenovirus genome remains in an episomal state, which guarantees the low risk of mutation (Fig. 8). (
  • The recombinant genome consists essentially of Ad5 sequences, with the exception of the transforming early region 1 (E1) which is derived from Ad12. (
  • Guinea pig primary peripheral lung epithelial cells (PLECs) transfected with adenovirus E1A (E1A-PLECs) were compared to guinea pig normal lung fibroblasts (NLFs) transfected with E1A (E1A-NLFs). (
  • Case-control studies have shown that the E1A DNA from group C adenoviruses is present in greater amounts in the lungs of patients with COPD than in controls with normal lung function matched for age, sex and smoking history 5 , and that the excess inflammation in the lungs of smokers with severe emphysema is associated with increased numbers of alveolar epithelial cells expressing E1A 6 . (
  • Furthermore, E1A DNA and protein persisted in epithelial cells in the lungs of these animals 9 . (
  • 53:742-750, 1985), in which the 12S E1A protein is required for the complete induction of the cellular DNA replication machinery in the quiescent human epithelial cells in which adenoviruses normally replicate. (
  • Viruses encode gene products that manipulate host proteins to redirect cellular processes or subvert antiviral immune responses. (
  • Some cellular antiviral proteins are known to be targeted by AdV E4 gene products, resulting in their degradation or mislocalization. (
  • An unusual cellular factor potentiates protein-DNA complex assembly between Oct-1 and Vmw65. (
  • It is well established that the human subgroup C adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1B 55 kDa protein can regulate the activity and concentration of the cellular tumor suppressor, p53. (
  • The transforming gene products of these viruses, such as the E1A oncoproteins of adenovirus 5, led to the identification of cellular factor p60, known as cyclin A. This research was the first demonstration of a physical link between cellular transformation and the cell cycle, thereby paving the way for the melding of these two areas of research. (
  • However, experimental approaches to unravel PPIs are limited by several factors, including the cost and time required, the generation, cultivation and purification of appropriate virus strains, the availability of recombinantly expressed proteins, generation of knock in or overexpression cell lines, availability of antibodies and cellular model systems. (
  • The ubiquitously expressed E4F protein was originally identified as an E1A-regulated cellular transcription factor required for adenovirus replication. (
  • A number of PSPs have been defined over the years that include, but not limited to, promoters of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), probasin (PB), mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV LTR), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), and prostatic steroid-binding protein C3. (
  • Due to the unobvious early symptoms and the influence of some adverse factors such as tumor heterogeneity and low immunogenicity, patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) cannot benefit significantly from treatments such as radical surgical resection, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. (
  • His early research includes seminal work done in 1989, demonstrating the importance of cell cycle proteins in the functioning of DNA tumor viruses. (
  • These data show that tumor induction by adenovirus virions is not determined only by the gene products of the transforming region. (
  • A simian adenoviral vector termed adenovirus C68 (AdC68) was generated as a molecular clone to express the glycoprotein of rabies virus. (
  • Recombinant adenovirus (Adenovirus), a replication-defective adenoviral vector system, is widely used for gene delivery in most cell types. (
  • E1-deleted (including E1a-deleted) adenoviruses are replication defective and are commonly used as viral vectors to carry therapeutic genes for gene therapy. (
  • Transduction results of various Adenovirus vectors. (
  • AdCox2Lluc is a CRAd targeted against oesophageal adenocarcinoma by placing the early genes under the control of a Cox-2 promoter (adenoviruses have two early genes, E1A and E1B, that are essential for replication). (
  • The adenovirus without E1/E3 can express all of the other genes in the viral backbone and hence induces immunogenic responses, while rAAV does not have any of the AAV genes, thus no immunogenicity from viral protein. (
  • It is ' Ad5-nCoV ' in which the gene to be incorporated into adenovirus type 5. (
  • Because of this concern, many research groups have forgotten the adoption of adenovirus type 5. (
  • About half of the subjects already had strong immunity to adenovirus type 5. (
  • However, these side effects are within the range that can be predicted by vaccination using adenovirus type 5. (
  • In fact, people with high antibody levels against adenovirus type 5 tended to have fewer side effects. (
  • However, the research team also reported that the immune system's response to spike proteins was slightly diminished when there was strong immune memory for adenovirus type 5. (
  • 1278\1278\BAD35103.1\Human adenovirus type 4\Human adenovirus type 4 gene for fiber protein, complete cds,isolate:1998-4439. (
  • 1278\1278\BAD35104.1\Human adenovirus type 4\Human adenovirus type 4 gene for fiber protein, complete cds,isolate:TC-18040. (
  • 1278\1278\BAD35105.1\Human adenovirus type 4\Human adenovirus type 4 gene for fiber protein, complete cds,isolate:TC-18465. (
  • 884\684\AAN64737.1\Human adenovirus type 4\Human adenovirus type 4 early region 3, complete sequence. (
  • 1205\321\AAN64738.1\Human adenovirus type 4\Human adenovirus type 4 early region 3, complete sequence. (
  • 1791\633\AAN64739.1\Human adenovirus type 4\Human adenovirus type 4 early region 3, complete sequence. (
  • 2297\525\AAN64740.1\Human adenovirus type 4\Human adenovirus type 4 early region 3, complete sequence. (
  • Adenovirus infections do not normally cause hepatitis in healthy children suggesting that a completely new type of adenovirus might have been introduced into the human population. (
  • This review will address epigenetic regulation in members of the polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, human papillomaviruses, hepatitis B, and herpes viruses. (
  • Hale, A. E., D. Collins-McMillen, E. M. Lenarcic, S. Igarashi, J. P. Kamil, F. Goodrum, and N. J. Moorman, 'FOXO transcription factors activate alternative major immediate early promoters to induce human cytomegalovirus reactivation. (
  • Kim, J. Heon, D. Collins-McMillen, J. C. Buehler, F. D. Goodrum, and A. D. Yurochko, 'Human Cytomegalovirus Requires Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling To Enter and Initiate the Early Steps in the Establishment of Latency in CD34+ Human Progenitor Cells. (
  • Lee, S. Hee, K. Caviness, E. R. Albright, J-H. Lee, C. B. Gelbmann, M. Rak, F. Goodrum, and R. F. Kalejta, 'Long and Short Isoforms of the Human Cytomegalovirus UL138 Protein Silence IE Transcription and Promote Latency. (
  • TMEM17 (transmembrane protein 173) is a 379 amino acid protein encoded by a gene mapping to human chromosome 5. (
  • Prolonged expression of Ad5E1A13S is required for the observed dramatic increase in the levels of IRS-4 mRNA and protein in Ad5E1-transformed human cell lines. (
  • These results indicate that the E1B protein fulfills an early function that correlates efficient entry into the late phase with the localization of E1B and p53 in the nucleus of Ad5-infected normal human cells. (
  • However, the task of predicting protein-protein interactions between a new virus and human cells is extremely challenging due to scarce data on virus-human interactions and fast mutation rates of most viruses. (
  • We developed a multitask transfer learning approach that exploits the information of around 24 million protein sequences and the interaction patterns from the human interactome to counter the problem of small training datasets. (
  • Additionally, we employ an additional objective which aims to maximize the probability of observing human protein-protein interactions. (
  • This additional task objective acts as a regularizer and also allows to incorporate domain knowledge to inform the virus-human protein-protein interaction prediction model. (
  • Experimental results show that our proposed model works effectively for both virus-human and bacteria-human protein-protein interaction prediction tasks. (
  • In this work, we cast the problem of predicting virus-human protein interactions as a binary classification problem and focus specifically on emerging viruses that has limited experimentally verified interaction data. (
  • Adenovirus (AdV) is a member of the family Adenoviridae, whose name derives from their initial isolation from human adenoids in 1953 [42]. (
  • The adenovirus early region 1 (E1) gene, which comprises E1a and E1b, encodes the viral early proteins that are necessary for adenoviral replication and the consequent oncolysis of permissive host cells. (
  • The idea behind this study is to place the Ad5 E1 region in cis complementation (i.e., use E1 as a transgene) back into an E1-deleted, replication-defective adenovirus under the control of a prostate-specific promoter (PSP). (
  • Beal AM, Anikeeva N, Varma R, Cameron TO, Norris PJ, Dustin ML, Sykulev Y. Protein kinase C theta regulates stability of the peripheral adhesion ring junction and contributes to the sensitivity of target cell lysis by CTL. (
  • cdc2 protein kinase is complexed with both cyclin A and B: Evidence for proteolytic inactivation of MPF. (
  • Its activation is tightly controlled by numerous other signaling proteins including protein kinase C (PKC), Sab/SH3BP, and caveolin-1. (
  • Adenovirus, which is a DNA virus , is a completely different kind of virus from SARS-CoV-2, which is an RNA virus , but SARS-CoV- The spike protein of 2 is produced and immunity is acquired by using this as an antigen. (
  • For adenovirus replication to occur, the host cell must be induced into S phase by viral proteins interfering with cell cycle proteins. (
  • Adenovirus infections might cause the acute hepatitis in children observed. (
  • Adenovirus varieties have been explored extensively as a viral vector for gene therapy and also as an oncolytic virus. (
  • Of the many different viruses being explored for oncolytic potential, an adenovirus was the first to be approved by a regulatory agency, the genetically modified H101 strain. (
  • To overcome this obstacle, conditional oncolytic viruses (such as conditional replication adenovirus (CRAD)) are developed to specifically target prostate without (or with minimal) systemic toxicity due to viral self-replication. (
  • The best PSP was selected to construct a prostate-specific oncolytic adenovirus (CRAD) by controlling the adenoviral E1 region. (
  • Thus, E1 protein expression will be confined strictly to the prostate tissues and render this a conditional oncolytic virus (CRAD) within the prostate. (
  • These results indicate that DNA replication participates in the regulation of adenovirus late gene expression by facilitating the binding of a transcription factor to the major late promoter. (
  • These molecules are fusion proteins that are made up of an antibody raised against the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein, fused to a natural ligand for a cell-surface receptor. (
  • Production of antibodies against spike proteins was confirmed 14 days after vaccination, and a significant increase in antibody levels could be confirmed in 105 out of 108 patients by 28 days after administration. (
  • Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression. (
  • We've engineered supremely tight regulation of the adenoviral late region, which is wholly responsible for producing adenovirus structural proteins. (
  • Genemedi has launched a comprehensive adenovirus production service, including a variety of different adenoviral expression systems used for gene over-expression and shRNA mediated gene down-regulation, which may also allow researchers to produce adenoviruses by themselves as they need. (
  • citation needed] A conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd) with a 24 base pair deletion in the retinoblastoma-binding domain of the E1A protein (Ad5- Δ24E3), is unable to silence retinoblastoma, and therefore unable to induce S-phase in host cells. (
  • It is postulated that this intermediate phenotype may play a major role in the remodelling of the airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with persistence of adenovirus E1A DNA. (
  • In the study, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis occurred appropriately in 93.3% of cases, with 0.36 of 1000 infants developing early-onset GBS disease. (
  • Physical mapping of temperature-sensitive mutations of adenoviruses. (
  • E1A-PLECs and E1A-NLFs positive for E1A DNA, mRNA and protein expressed cytokeratin and vimentin but not smooth muscle α-actin. (
  • E1A is critical to start viral replication by promoting transcription from rep gene promoters, P5 and P19, and facilitate viral replication by activating the early adenovirus promoters. (
  • The adenoviral E1A gene is responsible for inactivation of several proteins, including retinoblastoma, allowing entry into S-phase. (
  • however, it has been widely tested in early phase trials for a variety of viruses, such as Ebola virus. (
  • The early phase provides all the adenoviral help needed for high fidelity, high titre AAV manufacture. (
  • The late phase leads to adenovirus contamination. (
  • Adenovirus transcription is a two-phase event, early and late, occurring before and after viral DNA replication, respectively (Figure. (
  • Consistent with these observations, we found that E4F localizes to the mitotic spindle during the M phase of early embryos. (
  • The vaccination with recombinant protein and ade- novirus expressing A2 provided the best results, unsurpassed to superior granuloma doggedness and elimination of parasites in hepatic biopsies, as confirmed around real span PCR (Polimerase Chain Reply) scrutiny [Grimaldi et al. (
  • Adenovirus packaging by Genemedi shows almost 100% gene delivery in most cell types in the recombinant protein expression system both in vivo and in vitro. (
  • Over the ensuing decades, Group B Streptococcus (GBS) replaced S aureus as the most common gram-positive organism causing early-onset sepsis. (
  • We developed vaccines expressing the SARS -CoV-2 spike or nucleocapsid protein. (
  • CAR receptor-fiber-knob adenovirus interaction and internalization process [46]. (
  • To assess the immunogenicity of FomA, ICR mice were vaccinated with UV-inactivated-E. coli over-expressing FomA or a negative GFP control protein [E. coli BL21(DE3) FomA or GFP] for 9 weeks. (
  • With intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis rates of 93.3%, 0.36 of 1000 infants developed early-onset GBS disease. (
  • It was initially proposed that an adenovirus mutant lacking the E1B55kDa gene, dl1520 (ONYX-015), could replicate selectively in p53 deficient cells. (
  • Consistently the levels of Bmi1 a member of the group transcription repressor which negatively regulates the expression of (Park messenger RNA levels were affected by BS69-shRNA we collected total RNA from adenovirus-infected IMR90 cells and carried out both semiquantitative and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). (
  • Narita induces early senescence in IMR90 cells. (
  • The steady-state concentrations of p53 were significantly higher in cells infected by the E1B 55 kDa null mutant Hr6 or three mutants carrying small insertions in the E1B 55 kDa protein coding sequence than in Ad5-infected cells. (
  • Adenovirus has the ability to infect dividing, quiescent cells, stem cells, and primary cells, allowing genetic materials to be delivered to a highly diverse range of cell types and tissues. (
  • Selected results of Adenovirus transduction in the adult rat cardiac cells (A), eyes (B), neuron cells (C). (
  • Microinjection of the ras oncogene protein into PC12 cells induces morphological differentiation. (
  • Adenovirus Protein VII Condenses DNA, Represses Transcription, and Associates with Transcriptional Activator E1A , 78 Journal of Virology 6459 (2004) (with Yvette Osheim, Yuming Xue, Margaret Emanuel, Peter Lewis, Alex Bankovich, Ann Beyer & Daniel Engel). (
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed in order to examine nuclear factor (NF)-κB and activator protein (AP)-1 binding activities. (
  • To validate our conclusions and the efficacy of nuclear separation, we used protein localization through a combination of transformations and immunofluorescence. (
  • Short peptides added to the C-terminal end of the coat protein successfully altered viral tropism. (
  • The addition of larger peptides to the C-terminus is not viable because it reduces adenovirus integrity, possibly due to an effect on fiber trimerisation. (
  • This site falls at the 3´ end of the open reading frame (ORF) 6/7 peptides of the early region 4 (E4) (unpub. (
  • Using mass spectrometric analysis insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS-4) has been identified as a novel adenovirus 5 early region 1A (Ad5E1A)-binding protein. (
  • Early on, while following his father's research, he became interested in the link between the effect of toxic waste on the environment and the increasing cancer rates in the Campania region in Italy. (
  • Using TESSA™ technology, full early region expression, which provides all the help needed for AAV production, is still enabled, but the late region gene expression is turned off, meaning there is no adenoviral structural protein production. (
  • Middle panel: general structure of an early region 1 (E1)-deleted Ad vector. (
  • Instead of using hand-crafted protein features, we utilize statistically rich protein representations learned by a deep language modeling approach from a massive source of protein sequences. (
  • The fiber protein also contains an HI-loop structure, which can tolerate peptide insertions of up to 100 residues without any negative effects on adenovirus integrity. (
  • Hexon and penton structures form the capsid of AdV, and fiber protein mediates the binding of the virion to the cell surface and is a major determinant of viral tropism. (
  • Interval from onset of limb weakness until reporting to CDC during 2018 ranged from 18 to 36 days, with confirmed and probable cases reported earlier than non-AFM cases. (
  • Prompt recognition of signs and symptoms, early specimen collection, and complete and rapid reporting will expedite public health investigations and research studies to elucidate the recent epidemiology of AFM and subsequently inform treatment and prevention recommendations. (
  • Trends in the epidemiology of early-onset sepsis show a decreasing incidence of GBS disease. (
  • From NCBI Gene: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. (
  • Early-onset sepsis is 10 to 20 times more likely to occur in premature, very low birthweight infants. (
  • Most cases occur in children during late summer and early fall. (
  • Our data indicated that this induction of p21Cip1 protein expression by BS69-shRNA was mainly due to enhanced transcription of gene. (
  • After IPTG induction, the over-expressed FomA-6×HN fusion protein at approximately 40 kDa molecular weight was detected by SDS-PAGE with coomassie blue staining ( Fig. 2A). (