Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Adenovirus Infections, Human: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.Adenoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Adenovirus E1B Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Adenovirus E3 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.Adenovirus E4 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Adenoviruses, Canine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Lambdapapillomavirus: A genus of DNA viruses in the family papillomaviridae, causing mucosal and cutaneous lesions in cats and dogs. Canine oral papillomavirus is the type species.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Adenovirus E2 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.Herpesvirus 1, Suid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.Mastadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Adenoviruses, Porcine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.Herpesvirus 1, Equid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing abortion and respiratory disease in horses.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Aviadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Fowl adenovirus A: The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Keratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Adenovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.PhosphoproteinsPapillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.ConjunctivitisTumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Atadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.

A different intracellular distribution of a single reporter protein is determined at steady state by KKXX or KDEL retrieval signals. (1/424)

To establish the specific contribution to protein topology of KKXX and KDEL retrieval motifs, we have determined by immunogold electron microscopy and cell fractionation the intracellular distribution at steady state of the transmembrane and anchorless versions of human CD8 protein, tagged with KKXX (CD8-E19) and KDEL (CD8-K), respectively, and stably expressed in epithelial rat cells (Martire, G., Mottola, G., Pascale, M. C., Malagolini, N., Turrini, I., Serafini-Cessi, F., Jackson, M. R., and Bonatti, S. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 3541-3547). The CD8-E19 protein is represented by a single form, initially O-glycosylated: only about half of it is located in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas more than 30% of the total is present in the intermediate compartment and cis-Golgi complex. In the latter compartments, CD8-E19 colocalizes with beta-coat protein (COP) (COPI component) and shows the higher density of labeling. Conversely, about 90% of the total CD8-KDEL protein is localized in clusters on the endoplasmic reticulum, where significant co-localization with Sec-23p (COPII component) is observed, and unglycosylated and initially O-glycosylated forms apparently constitute a single pool. Altogether, these results suggest that KKXX and KDEL retrieval motifs have different topological effects on theirs own at steady state: the first results in a specific enrichment in the intermediate compartment and cis-Golgi complex, and the latter dictates residency in the endoplasmic reticulum.  (+info)

The adenovirus type 5 E1b 55K and E4 Orf3 proteins associate in infected cells and affect ND10 components. (2/424)

Three early proteins expressed by adenovirus type 5, E1b 55K, E4 Orf3 and E4 Orf6, are involved in regulating late viral gene expression. It has previously been shown that 55K associates with Orf6. Here we show that 55K also associates with Orf3 and that this interaction is necessary for 55K to localize to the nuclear matrix fraction of the cell. From our data, we infer that the Orf3 and Orf6 interactions with 55K may be mutually exclusive. The Orf3 protein is also known to associate with and cause the reorganization of cell nucleus structures known as ND10 or PODs. Consistent with the observed increase in the biochemical interaction between 55K and Orf3 in the absence of Orf6, the 55K association with Orf3 in ND10 was also found to increase in the absence of Orf6. The most studied cellular component of ND10 is PML, a complex protein present in a range of isoforms, some of which are modified by conjugation to the small ubiquitin-like protein PIC-1. The pattern of PML isoforms was altered in adenovirus-infected cells, in that a number of additional isoform bands appeared in an Orf3-dependent manner, one of which became predominant later in infection. As for ND10 reorganization, neither Orf6 nor 55K was required for this effect. Therefore it is likely that these changes in PML are related to the changes in ND10 structure that occur during infection.  (+info)

Reduced toxicity, attenuated immunogenicity and efficient mediation of human p53 gene expression in vivo by an adenovirus vector with deleted E1-E3 and inactivated E4 by GAL4-TATA promoter replacement. (3/424)

A recombinant adenovirus with deleted E1 and E3, and E4-inactivated by replacing the E4 promoter with a synthetic promoter composed of a minimal TATA box and five consensus yeast GAL4-binding site elements was developed and used to express the human tumor suppresser gene p53. The toxicity and immunogenicity of this vector and vector-mediated p53 gene expression in vivo were studied in immunocompetent C3H and C57BL/6 mice. Expression of the late viral gene product, hexon protein, was observed in C3H and C57BL/6 mice injected with E4 wild-type adenovirus constructs Adv-cmv-beta-Gal (BG), Adv-cmv-hp53 (WT), and empty E1- vector Adv-E4 (EW) 3 to 28 days after injection, but was undetectable in mice treated with E4 modified empty E1- vector Adv-GAL4 (EG) or Adv-cmv-hp53-GAL4 (G4). Expression of the p53 gene was observed in both WT- and G4-injected C3H and C57BL/6 mouse livers from days 3 to 28. Ten weeks after injection, p53 gene expression was still detected in G4-treated C57BL/6 mice at similar levels, but was not detectable in WT-treated mice. Vector-induced liver toxicity was evaluated by analyzing serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT) activities. In all cases, SGOT and SGPT activities were markedly decreased in EG-treated C3H and C57BL/6 mice compared with those in EW-treated mice on days 3, 7 and 14 after injection. In C57BL/6 mice, the total anti-adenoviral CTL activities were two- to three-fold higher in animals treated with EW vector than in those treated with EG vector. These results suggest that inactivation of the E4 promoter efficiently diminished the viral replication and the late viral gene expression, reduced host immune response and consequently reduced toxicity and prolonged the duration of transgene expression in vivo.  (+info)

Rapid construction of adenoviral vectors by lambda phage genetics. (4/424)

Continued improvements of adenoviral vectors require the investigation of novel genome configurations. Since adenovirus can be generated directly by transfecting packaging cell lines with viral genomes isolated from plasmid DNA, it is possible to separate genome construction from virus production. In this way failure to generate a virus is not associated with an inability to generate the desired genome. We have developed a novel lambda-based system that allows rapid modification of the viral genome by double homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. The recombination reaction and newly generated genome may reside in a recombination-deficient bacterial host for enhanced plasmid stability. Furthermore, the process is independent of any restriction endonucleases. The strategy relies on four main steps: (i) homologous recombination between an adenovirus cosmid and a donor plasmid (the donor plasmid carries the desired modification[s] and flanking regions of homology to direct its recombination into the viral genome); (ii) in vivo packaging of the recombinant adenoviral cosmids during a productive lambda infection; (iii) transducing a recombination-deficient E. coli lambda lysogen with the generated lysate (the lysogen inhibits the helper phage used to package the recombinant andenoviral cosmid from productively infecting and destroying the host bacteria); (iv) effectively selecting for the desired double-recombinant cosmid. Approximately 10,000 double-recombinant cosmids are recovered per reaction with essentially all of them being the correct double-recombinant molecule. This system was used to generate quickly and efficiently adenoviral genomes deficient in the E1/E3 and E1/E3/E4 regions. The basis of this technology allows any region of the viral genome to be readily modified for investigation of novel configurations.  (+info)

Unique features of fowl adenovirus 9 gene transcription. (5/424)

We examined the transcriptional organization of fowl adenovirus 9 (FAdV-9) and analyzed temporal transcription profiles of its early and late mRNAs. At least six early and six late transcriptional regions were identified for FAdV-9. Extensive splicing was observed in all FAdV-9 early transcripts examined. Sequence analysis of the cDNAs representing the early proteins identified untranslated leader sequences, precise locations of splice donor and acceptor sites, as well as polyadenylation signals and polyadenylation sites. A unique characteristic, compared to other adenoviruses, was the detection by RT-PCR of multiple transcripts specific for each of five late genes (protein III, pVII, pX, 100K, and fiber), suggesting that FAdV-9 late transcripts undergo more extensive splicing than reported for other adenoviruses.  (+info)

Activation of adenovirus early promoters and lytic phase in differentiated strata of organotypic cultures of human keratinocytes. (6/424)

Human oncolytic adenoviruses have been used in clinical trials targeting cancers of epithelial origin. To gain a better understanding of the infectious cycle of adenovirus in normal human squamous tissues, we examined the viral infection process in organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes. We show that for the infection to occur, wounding of the epithelium is required. In addition, infection appears to initiate at the basal or parabasal cells that express the high-affinity coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor, CAR, whereas the productive phase takes place in differentiated cells. This is due, at least in part, to the differentiation-dependent activation of the E1A and E2A early promoters and E4 promoters. We also show that adenovirus infection triggers a response mediated by the abnormal accumulation of cyclin E and p21cip1 proteins similar to the one previously observed in human papillomavirus-infected tissues. However, the virus seems to be able to overcome it, at least partially.  (+info)

NF-IL6, a member of the C/EBP family, regulates E1A-responsive promoters in the absence of E1A. (7/424)

A cDNA encoding NF-IL6, an interleukin-6 (IL-6)-regulated human nuclear factor of the C/EBP family, is demonstrated to complement the transactivation function of E1A. The endogenous NF-IL6 level varies according to cell type and correlates positively with an IL-6-regulated cellular E1A-substituting activity that was described recently (J.M. Spergel and S. Chen-Kiang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:6472-6476, 1991). When expressed by transfection in cells which contain low levels of NF-IL6 and are incapable of complementing the function of E1A proteins, NF-IL6 also transactivates the E1A-responsive E2ae and E1B promoters, to the same magnitude as E1A. Activation by NF-IL6 is concentration dependent and sequence specific: mutational studies of the E2ae promoter suggest that the promoter-proximal NF-IL6 recognition site functions as a dominant negative regulatory site whereas the promoter-distal NF-IL6 recognition site is positively regulated at low NF-IL6 concentrations and negatively regulated when the NF-IL6 level is high. Consistent with these functions, NF-IL6 alone is sufficient to complement an E1A deletion mutant dl312 in viral infection, when expressed at appropriate concentrations. These results identify NF-IL6 as a sequence-specific cellular nuclear factor which regulates E1A-responsive genes in the absence of E1A.  (+info)

Adenovirus E1A represses the cyclic AMP-induced transcription of the gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in hepatoma cells. (8/424)

Adenovirus infection of hepatoma cells inhibited transcription of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (EC 4.1.1.32) (PEPCK) gene and virtually eliminated transcription of a chimeric gene which contained the PEPCK promoter linked to the structural gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). This effect is due to the viral protein E1A, since adenovirus containing a deletion in the E1A gene did not repress transcription from the PEPCK promoter. Both the 243R and 283R products of the E1A gene were effective. The conserved region 1 (CR-1) domain of E1A was required for this effect. Treatment of hepatoma cells with 8-bromo-cAMP or transfection with plasmids coding for the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, CAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP), or Jun, all potent inducers of PEPCK gene transcription, did not relieve the inhibition caused by E1A. This inhibition does not appear to be mediated by major enhancer elements and in the PEPCK gene since transcription from the PEPCK promoter containing block mutations in binding domains for C/EBP and cAMP regulatory element binding protein (CREB) was also inhibited by E1A. Transcription of chimeric genes containing two copies each of the major cAMP response domains (CRE-1 and P-3) linked to a neutral promoter and fused to the CAT structural gene was stimulated by the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, but this effect was totally inhibited by E1A. The strong repressive effect of E1A on PEPCK gene transcription seems to involve an interruption of an obligatory interaction between factors which bind to the cAMP response element in the PEPCK promoter and the TATA box.  (+info)

Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
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We describe a transgenic mouse line carrying the cre transgene under the control of the adenovirus EIIa promoter that targets expression of the Cre recombinase to the early mouse embryo. To assess the ability of this recombinase to excise loxP-flanked DNA sequences at early stages of development, we bred EIIa-cre transgenic mice to two different mouse lines carrying loxP-flanked target sequences: (i) a strain with a single gene-targeted neomycin resistance gene flanked by 1oxP sites and (ii) a transgenic line carrying multiple transgene copies with internal loxP sites. Mating either of these loxP-carrying mouse lines to EIIa-cre mice resulted in first generation progeny in which the loxP-flanked sequences had been efficiently deleted from all tissues tested, including the germ cells. Interbreeding of these first generation progeny resulted in efficient germ-line transmission of the deletion to subsequent generations. These results demonstrate a method by which loxP-flanked DNA sequences can be ...
To delineate the function of adenovirus early region 4 (E4) gene products, we constructed a set of mutant viruses which carry defined lesions within this coding region. Deletion and insertion mutations within six of seven known E4 coding regions had no measurable effect on virus growth in cultured cells. A variant carrying a deletion within the last coding region (encoding a 34,000-molecular-weight polypeptide) was modestly defective, and a mutant lacking the majority of the E4 region was severely defective for growth. The phenotypes of the two defective mutants are similar and complex. Both display perturbations in DNA replication, translation of the E2A mRNA, accumulation of late viral mRNAs, and host cell shutoff. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Repression of cytochrome P‐450c gene expression by cotransfection with adenovirus E1a DNA. AU - SOGAWA, Kazuhiro. AU - HANDA, Hiroshi. AU - FUJISAWA‐SEHARA, Atsuko. AU - HIROMASA, Takako. AU - YAMANE, Miyuki. AU - FUJII‐KURIYAMA, Yoshiaki. PY - 1989/5. Y1 - 1989/5. N2 - Gene expression of rat cytochrome P‐450c (P‐450c) depends upon inducible enhancers scattered in the 5′‐upstream region of the gene. We show that expression of the P‐450c gene is repressed by contransfection with adenovirus E1a DNA, regardless of the presence or absence of inducers, in a transient expression system of HeLa cells. Since cotransfection of either 13S or 12S E1a cDNA was effective in the repression, the region necessary for repression could be separated from that of transactivation of other adenovirus early genes. Moreover, we investigated the regions responsible for the inhibitory activity using in‐frame deletion mutants lacking internal or external portions of the E1a proteins. The ...
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Adenovirus Type 9, 0.1 mg. The many different serotypes of human adenoviruses (Ad) are divided into six subgroups, of which all Ad subgroup A and B and two subgroup D Ads can elicit tumors in infected rodents.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Two early mRNA species in adenovirus type 2 transformed rat cells. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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Tangen JM, Fløisand Y, Foss-Abrahamsen J, Haukås E, Næss IA, Skjelbakken T. Overlevelse hos voksne med akutt myelogen leukemi. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2008;128(10):1164-7. Gardin C, Turlure P, Fagot T, Thomas X, Terre C, Contentin N, et…. ...
RNA molecules from nuclear and cytoplasmic polyribosomes of adenovirus-infected HeLa cells were compared by hybridization to analyse the sequence content. Nuclear polyribosomes were released by exposure of intact detergent-washed nuclei to poly(U) and purified. Cytoplasmic polyribosomes were also purified from the same cells. To show that nuclear polyribosomes contain ribosomes linked by mRNA, polyribosomes were labelled with methionine and uridine in the presence of actinomycin D in adenovirus-infected cells. Purified nuclear polyribosomes were treated with EDTA under conditions which dissociate polyribosomes into ribosomes and subunits with a simultaneous release of mRNA, and sedimented. The treatment dissociated these polyribosomes, releasing the mRNA from them. Radiolabelled total RNA from each polyribosome population was fractionated in sucrose gradients into several pools or hybridized to intact adenovirus DNA to select virus-specific RNA. Sucrose-gradient-fractionated pool-3 RNA (about ...
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Our study is the first report of an RSAd, in which the "promoter-based regulation of E1A," approach is used to target the deregulated G1 to S phase in tumor cells. We demonstrated that AdE2F-1RC replicated selectively in tumor cells and not in normal cells expressing high and low levels of E2F-1 protein, respectively. Additionally, in two mouse xenograft models, AdE2F-1RC exhibited significant in vivo therapeutic benefit often equivalent to wild-type adenovirus treatment. These studies validate several design features of AdE2F-1RC.. The wild-type adenovirus dl309 replicated in all of the normal cells tested. We reasoned that normal resting cells would be a good model for AdE2F-1RC toxicity tests, because these cells do not express E2F-1 (44 , 45) and are found in the tumor environment. In contrast to dl309, the replication and CPE of AdE2F-1RC was significantly attenuated in normal cells suggesting that the E2F-1 promoter was not optimally activated. One reason is that the presence of pRb/E2F-1 ...
This post is about adenovirus infection, a major cause of illness both minor and severe in the United States, especially among children in group settings.
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Adenovirus has been associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease and, with regard to infections among military recruits, who were routinely immunized against types 4 and 7 from 1971 until the cessation of vaccine production in 1996. Adenovirus became a significant cause of economic cost and morbidity in this setting. A live oral vaccine against adenovirus types 4 and 7 was approved for use in this population by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011, and subsequent incidence of acute respiratory disease declined.. Of interest is the role of adenoviruses as vectors in vaccination and in gene therapy. [1, 2, 3] Adenoviruses can infect various cells, both proliferating and quiescent, and thus hold the promise of targeting many different tissues and diseased cell lines.. The genome of adenovirus is well known and can be modified with relative ease to induce lysis or cytotoxicity of a specified cell line without affecting others.. The virus itself can be engineered to remove its ...
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells localize in the microcirculation in antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and have been postulated to be activated by donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies triggering their CD16a Fc receptors. However, direct evidence for NK cell CD16a triggering in AMR is lacking. We hypothesized that CD16a-inducible NK cell-selective transcripts would be expressed in human AMR biopsies and would offer evidence for CD16a triggering. METHODS: We stimulated human NK cells through CD16a in vitro, characterized CD16a-inducible transcripts, and studied their expression in human kidney transplant biopsies with AMR and in an extended human cell panel to determine their selectivity ...
13:2; potential epub Adenovirus notions; tenure bhakti 1? On the epub Adenovirus Methods and of this interest, are above under form. 1282 An epub Adenovirus Methods and Protocols: Adenoviruses, Ad study read by Porten - Szubin 1987:187.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The adenovirus E4 11k protein binds and relocalizes the cytoplasmic P-body component Ddx6 to aggresomes. AU - Greer, Amy E.. AU - Hearing, Patrick. AU - Ketner, Gary W. PY - 2011/8/15. Y1 - 2011/8/15. N2 - The adenovirus E4 11k protein, product of E4 ORF3, is required in infection for processes including normal accumulation of viral late mRNAs. 11. k restructures both the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells by relocalizing specific host cell target proteins, most strikingly components of nuclear PML oncogenic domains. It is likely that in many cases relocalization inactivates target proteins to produce 11. ks effects, although the mechanism and targets for stimulation of late mRNA accumulation is unknown. We have identified a new set of proteins relocalized by 11. k: at least five protein components of cytoplasmic mRNA processing bodies (p-bodies) are found in 11. k-induced cytoplasmic aggresomes, sites where proteins are inactivated or destroyed. One of these p-body ...
There are many stages in the development of a new drug for viral infection and such processes are even further complicated for adenovirus by the fact that there are at least 51 serotypes, forming six distinct groups (A-F), with different degree of infectivity. This review attempts to address the importance of developing pharmaceuticals for adenovirus and also review recent development in drug discovery for adenovirus, including newer strategies such as microRNA approaches. Different drug screening strategies will also be discussed.
Adenoviruses commonly infect humans, causing colds, flu-like symptoms and sometimes even death, but now UC San Francisco researchers have discovered that a new species of adenovirus can spread from primate to primate, and ...
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Abstract In addition to the comparison of the Gibbs negentropy ηG = ∫ Π ln Π to the Shannon negentropy ηs = ∑ EiΠi ln(EiΠi), discussed in the cited paper, a comparison of the former to ηs′=ηs−∑E i lnE i the decrease in uncertainty, is of general interest from an... mehr ...
Adenovirus infection generally may lead to common cold, pneumonia and pharyngitis.There are few types of adenoviruses. Specifically, adenoviruses types 8,19 and 37 will lead to keratoconjunctivitis mostly in adult.
In one mode of adenovirus infection (called lytic infection because it destroys large numbers of cells), adenoviruses kill healthy cells and replicate up to 1 million new viruses per cell killed, of which 1 to 5 percent are infectious. People with this kind of infection feel sick. In chronic or latent infection, a much smaller number of viruses are released, and healthy cells can multiply more rapidly than they are destroyed. People who have this kind of infection do not exhibit symptoms. Children who have normal immune systems usually experience only minor symptoms when infected with adenovirus. The course of infection tends to be more serious in children who are immunocompromised, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or those who have a disease that disrupts normal immune response (e.g. human immunodeficiency syndrome [HIV]). In such children, the virus more often affects organs such as the lungs, liver, and kidneys, and the risk of fatality increases. Symptoms common to respiratory illnesses ...
Doctors Ask: Adenovirus infection is exposed to all segments of the population. Basic manifestations of adenovirus infection The latent (incubation period) is usually 5-7 days. The disease most often begins acutely, from the phenomena of intoxication: slight increase in temperature, rashes in the body, chills, lethargy, headache, loss of appetite, etc.
Berget, S.M., Sharp, P.A. (1977) A spliced sequence at the 5′-terminus of adenovirus late mRNA. Brookhaven Symp Biol, 29:332-44.. Berk, A.J., Sharp, P.A. (1977) Sizing and mapping of early adenovirus mRNAs by gel electrophoresis of S1 endonuclease-digested hybrids. Cell 12(3): 721-32.. Chow, L.T., Roberts, J.M., Lewis, J.B., Broker, T.R. (1977) A map of cytoplasmic RNA transcripts from lytic adenovirus type 2, determined by electron microscopy of RNA:DNA hybrids. Cell, 11(4): 819-36.. Gibbs, W.W. (2003) The unseen genome: gems among the junk. Scientific American 289(5):26-33.. Hooks, K. B., Delneri, D. & Grifths-Jones, S. (2014) Intron evolution in Saccharomycetaceae. Genome Biol. Evol. 6, 2543-2556.. Kabat, J.L., Barberan-Soler, S., McKenna, P., Clawson, H., Farrer, T., and Zahler, A.M. (2006) Intronic Alternative Splicing Regulators Identified by Comparative Genomics in Nematodes. PLoS Computational Biology 2(7):734-747.. Kiss, T. and Filipowicz, W. (1995) Genes and Development ...
What is the difference between Adenovirus and Retrovirus? Adenovirus is a virus type without an envelope whereas retroviruses are virus type with an envelope...
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... oncogene protein tpr-met MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045 - adenovirus early proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050 - adenovirus ... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.060 - adenovirus e2 ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.320 - fusion proteins, ...
The early genes are responsible for expressing mainly non-structural, regulatory proteins. The goal of these proteins is ... replication of the adenovirus genome can occur. A terminal protein that is covalently bound to the 5' end of the adenovirus ... DNA replication separates the early and late phases. Once the early genes have liberated adequate virus proteins, replication ... The adenovirus life cycle is separated by the DNA replication process into two phases: an early and a late phase. In both ...
Yew, P.; Berk, A. (1992). "Inhibition of p53 transactivation required for transformation by adenovirus early 1B protein". ... and the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein trimer. CAR is necessary for adenovirus infection. Although expressed widely ... For adenovirus replication to occur, the host cell must be induced into S phase by viral proteins interfering with cell cycle ... E1B proteins produced by adenoviruses protect the infected cell by binding to and degrading the p53 transcription factors, ...
Histone acetyltransferase p300 also known as p300 HAT or E1A-associated protein p300 (where E1A = adenovirus early region 1A) ... "Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the adenovirus E1A-associated 300-kD protein (p300) reveals a protein with ... "cAMP-response-element-binding-protein-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional co-activators of early growth response ... This gene encodes the adenovirus E1A-associated cellular p300 transcriptional co-activator protein. EP300 is closely related to ...
... proteins. It has been considered an oncogene. It can behave as a tumour suppressor gene. "Introduction To Ad5 E1A". "Adenovirus ... Adenovirus early region 1A (E1a or E1A) is a gene expressed during adenovirus replication to produce a variety of (E1A) ... The Adenovirus 5 E1A page Molecular Genetics of the Adenovirus E1A Oncoproteins P03255 (E1A_ADE05). ... ". "Adenovirus-5 E1A: paradox and paradigm". Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 3 (6): 441-52. Jun 2002. doi:10.1038/nrm827. PMID 12042766 ...
The adenovirus E1B protein (55K) prevents p53 from regulating genes by binding to the site on p53 which binds to the genome.[32 ... The adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) is an oncoprotein which binds to Rb and can stimulate transcription and transform cells.[ ... DNA oncoviruses typically impair two families of tumor suppressor proteins: tumor proteins p53 and the retinoblastoma proteins ... the HPV protein E6 binds to a cellular protein called the E6-associated protein (E6-AP, also known as UBE3A), forming a complex ...
... regulating the protein, p73 in cervical cancer patients, using Adenovirus early region 1A, a tumor suppressor gene, the ... The research team led by Somasundaram and Phillipe Marin of INSERM validated the earlier findings and proposed a new ... Das, Sanjeev; Nama, Srikanth; Antony, Sini; Somasundaram, Kumaravel (2005). "p73β-expressing recombinant adenovirus: a ... "IGF2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) promotes glioma cell migration by enhancing the translation of RELA/p65". Oncotarget. 8 (25 ...
The early genes are responsible for expressing mainly non-structural, regulatory proteins. The goal of these proteins is ... Adenoviruses Stanford University - Adenoviruses Adenoviruses General Concepts General information on Adenovirus DNA virus ... DNA replication separates the early and late phases. Once the early genes have liberated adequate virus proteins, replication ... Tupaia adenovirus (TAV) (Tree shrew adenovirus 1) has been isolated from tree shrews. Otarine adenovirus 1 has been isolated ...
The functions of many adenovirus proteins are known: Structural proteins include capsid proteins II (hexon), III (penton base ... The E1A, E1B, E2A, E2B, E3, and E4 transcription units are successively transcribed early in the viral reproductive cycle. The ... Control protein E1B 19K suppresses apoptosis by mimicking the action of cellular protein Bcl-2. Control protein E1B 55K binds ... "Protein Details for Human adenovirus E". NCBI. Retrieved 2013-01-17. Russell, WC (Jan 2009). "Adenoviruses: update on structure ...
Using adenovirus-expressing SFRP1, impaired the canonical Wnt/Fzd pathway in the early phase of ischemia and as a result ... the SFRP1 netrin-related motif is also found in a range of other proteins that is thought to mediate protein-protein ... Loss of SFRP1 protein expression is associated with poor overall survival (OS) in patients with early breast cancer (pT1 ... Secreted frizzled-related protein 1, also known as SFRP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SFRP1 gene. Secreted ...
He earned his PhD from Uppsala University in 1986 for research investigating how the E19 protein of adenoviruses modulates the ... Pääbo is known as one of the founders of paleogenetics, a discipline that uses the methods of genetics to study early humans ... How the E19 protein of adenoviruses modulates the immune system (PhD thesis). Uppsala University. ISBN 9155419216. OCLC ...
pRb is one of the targets of the oncogenic human papilloma virus protein E7, and human adenovirus protein E1A. By binding to ... footprinting experiments obtained on Cdc2 and B-myb promoters demonstrated E2F DNA binding site occupation during G0 and early ... Most E2F have a pocket protein binding domain. Pocket proteins such as pRB and related proteins p107 and p130, can bind to E2F ... Homo sapiens E2F1 mRNA or E2F1 protein sequences from NCBI protein and nucleotide database. X-ray crystallographic analysis has ...
These two VA RNA genes are distinct genes in the adenovirus genome. VA RNAI is the major species with VA RNAII expressed at a ... VAI stimulates the translation of both early and late viral genes including E3 and hexon. VAII does not stimulate translation. ... VAI RNA functions as a decoy RNA for the double stranded RNA activated protein kinase R which would otherwise phosphorylate ... The VA (viral associated) RNA is a type of non-coding RNA found in adenovirus. It plays a role in regulating translation. There ...
... utilizing a form of Adenovirus to carry a replacement gene coding for the p53 protein. 2016: A genome is sequenced in outer ... in 1986 by Walter Gilbert that neither DNA nor protein would be required in such a primitive system as that of a very early ... "protein foreign to a unicellular organism." These two scientist were able to replicate proteins such as HGH, Erythropoietin and ... The most influential early theories of heredity were that of Hippocrates and Aristotle. Hippocrates' theory (possibly based on ...
"Adenovirus early region 1B 58,000-dalton tumor antigen is physically associated with an early region 4 25,000-dalton protein in ... Adenovirus E1B protein usually refers to one of two proteins transcribed from the E1B gene of the adenovirus: a 55kDa protein ... These two proteins are needed to block apoptosis in adenovirus-infected cells. E1B proteins work to prevent apoptosis that is ... White, E; Cipriani, R (January 10, 1990). "Role of adenovirus E1B proteins in transformation: altered organization of ...
Puri S, Bachert C, Fimmel CJ, Linstedt AD (2003). "Cycling of early Golgi proteins via the cell surface and endosomes upon ... Kladney RD, Tollefson AE, Wold WS, Fimmel CJ (2002). "Upregulation of the Golgi protein GP73 by adenovirus infection requires ... Golgi membrane protein 1 (GOLM1) also known as Golgi phosphoprotein 2 or Golgi membrane protein GP73 is a protein that in ... The protein encoded by this gene is a type II Golgi transmembrane protein. It processes protein synthesized in the rough ...
The Adenovirus produces five primary transcripts early in its infectious cycle, prior to viral DNA replication, and an ... Most of the activator proteins that bind to ISEs and ESEs are members of the SR protein family. Such proteins contain RNA ... When the RNA attached to that protein is isolated and cloned, it reveals the target sequences for that protein. Another method ... Females produce the master sex determination protein Sex lethal (Sxl). The Sxl protein is a splicing repressor that binds to an ...
Adenoviruses are a commonly utilized vector for this purpose. Much research has focused on the use of adenoviruses that cannot ... As p53 protein levels are usually kept low, one could block its degradation and allow large amounts of p53 to accumulate, thus ... Early clinical trials typically enroll a very small number of patients, and the purpose is to identify major safety issues and ... On average, 95% of the participants in these early trials receive no benefit, but all are exposed to the risk of adverse ...
He discovered two of the proteins required for adenoviruses to transform cells, and also other proteins that usurp the infected ... They also emerged as a vehicle for human gene therapy Also in the early 1960s, Green and others showed that human adenoviruses ... Lillie, J. W.; Loewenstein, P. M.; Green, M. R.; Green, M. (1987). "Functional domains of adenovirus type 5 E1a proteins". Cell ... Virology, 428 Loewenstein, P. M.; Green, M. (2011). "Expression of the Adenovirus Early Gene 1A Transcription-Repression Domain ...
... adenovirus early proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.050 --- adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 --- adenovirus e2 ... proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 --- adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.080 --- adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D23.050. ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.050 --- adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.090 --- antigens, ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.050 --- adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.090 --- antigens, ...
Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXADR gene. The protein encoded by ... "Coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is essential for early embryonic cardiac development". Journal of Cell Science. 118 ( ... "Entrez Gene: CXADR coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor". "Protein sequence of human CXADR (Uniprot ID: P78310)". Cardiac ... Law LK, Davidson BL (Jan 2002). "Adenovirus serotype 30 fiber does not mediate transduction via the coxsackie-adenovirus ...
A vital part of the normal mechanism of HSV-1, the ICP34.5 protein has been proposed to condition post-mitotic cells for viral ... The earlier and greater expression of US11 (also involved in overcoming PKR-mediated responses) largely overcomes the reduction ... Clinical trials Including phase III : See Talimogene laherparepvec Virotherapy Oncolytic virus Oncolytic adenovirus Herpes ... It also has a deletion of the gene encoding ICP47, a protein that inhibits antigen presentation, and an insertion of a gene ...
Transcription of early genes (E genes) by host RNA pol II: these proteins optimize the cellular milieu for viral replication, ... serotype 14: can cause potentially fatal adenovirus infections. Canine adenovirus 1 (CAdV-1) can lead to death in puppies, or ... Expression of L4-22K and L4-33K causes early to late switch. Transcription of late genes (L genes) by host RNA pol II, mostly ... The genome codes for 40 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral ...
Protein coding genes can be expressed using viral vectors, commonly to study the function of the particular protein. Viral ... "Impact of Preexisting Adenovirus Vector Immunity on Immunogenicity and Protection Conferred with an Adenovirus-Based H5N1 ... In one of the early gene therapy trials in 1999 this led to the death of Jesse Gelsinger, who was treated using an adenoviral ... Adenoviruses are being actively developed as vaccines. Retroviruses are one of the mainstays of current gene therapy approaches ...
Li Y, Graham C, Lacy S, Duncan AM, Whyte P (Dec 1993). "The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of ... are expressed in the early phases of the cell cycle". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... Retinoblastoma-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBL2 gene. Retinoblastoma-like protein 2 has been ... Li Y, Graham C, Lacy S, Duncan AM, Whyte P (Dec 1993). "The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of ...
TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ... For example, one study used the adenovirus TATA promoter sequence (5'-CGCTATAAAAGGGC-3') as a model binding sequence and found ... "Correlation of UGT1A1 TATA-box polymorphism and jaundice in breastfed newborns-early presentation of Gilbert's syndrome". The ... "TATA-binding protein recognition and bending of a consensus promoter are protein species dependent". Biochemistry. 47 (27): ...
Like other mastadenovirus members, BAdV-3 genome is composed of early, intermediate and late regions. The seven late regions ( ... THE ROLE OF BOVINE ADENOVIRUS-3 PROTEIN V (pV) IN VIRUS REPLICATION. ... Protein analysis revealed that deletion of pV from BAdV-3 genome decreased viral late proteins expression such as pX, 100K and ... Analysis of BAdV-3 pV protein sequence by protein analysis program "PredictProtein" predicted potential motifs act as nuclear ...
Transcription of early genes (E genes) by host RNA pol II: these proteins optimize the cellular milieu for viral replication, ... serotype 14: can cause potentially fatal adenovirus infections. Canine adenovirus 1 (CAdV-1) can lead to death in puppies, or ... Expression of L4-22K and L4-33K causes early to late switch. Transcription of late genes (L genes) by host RNA pol II, mostly ... The genome codes for 40 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral ...
Search for novel adenovirus proteins responsible for pathogenicity and the manipulation of animal cells. Project Report. OTKA. ... Characterisation of the fiber gene and partial sequence of the early region 4 of bovine adenovirus 2: Short communication. Acta ... Molecular characterization of a lizard adenovirus reveals the first atadenovirus with two fiber genes and the first adenovirus ... Doszpoly, Andor and Harrach, Balázs and Benkő, Mária (2014) Complete genome analysis of the sturgeon adenovirus. In: 11th ...
Mettifogo, E., L.F. Nuñez, S.H. Santander Parra, C.S. Astolfi-Ferreira, and A.J.P. Ferreira, "Fowl adenovirus Group I as a ... as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access). ... DNA encoding the hexon-associated protein pVI and hexon", Archives of virology, vol. 141, no. 9, pp. 1759-1765, 1996. ... Asthana, M., V.K. Singh, R. Kumar, and R. Chandra, "Isolation, cloning and In silico study of hexon gene of fowl adenovirus 4 ( ...
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are ... E29 Protein, Adenovirus; E29 Proteins, Adenovirus; Early Proteins, Adenovirus; Protein, Adenovirus E19; Protein, Adenovirus E29 ... Proteins, Adenovirus E19; Proteins, Adenovirus E29; Adenovirus E19 Proteins; Adenovirus E29 Proteins; Adenovirus Early Region ... Neoplasm Proteins: 2*Oncogene Proteins: 1748*Viral Oncogene Proteins: 10*Adenovirus Early Proteins: 2*Adenovirus E3 Proteins: 2 ...
... early region 1A (E1A) protein and both the mouse retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and the mouse pRb-related protein, p107. ... Interactions between MAV-1 E1A and mouse pRb or mouse p107 proteins were examined in infected cell ly … ... We demonstrated functional associations between mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) ... Interaction of mouse adenovirus type 1 early region 1A protein with cellular proteins pRb and p107 Virology. 1996 Oct 1;224(1): ...
... of a therapeutic vaccine regimen with recombinant DNA and adenovirus expressing L523S protein in patients with early stage non- ... Immunogenicity Of Sequential Administration Of Recombinant DNA And Adenovirus Expressing L523S Protein In Patients With Early ... To provide initial evidence as to whether CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses specific for L523S protein can be elicited by two ...
This study presents an approach for inhibiting p53-deficient tumor cell growth by using protein-based E4orf4 ... protein is a novel cell death factor that selectively induces p53-independent apoptosis in cancer cells, but not in normal ... Adenovirus early region 4 open reading frame 4 (E4orf4) protein is a novel cell death factor that selectively induces p53- ... Cytotoxicity of a recombinant fusion protein of adenovirus early region 4 open reading frame 4 (E4orf4) and human epidermal ...
Sequence analysis of bovine adenovirus type 3 early region 3 and fibre protein genes * ... Sequence analysis of bovine adenovirus type 3 early region 3 and fibre protein genes, Page 1 of 1 ... Characteristics of a Human Cell Line Transformed by DNA from Human Adenovirus Type 5 F. L. Graham, J. Smiley, W. C. Russell and ...
Early viral proteins in HeLa cells infected with adenovirus type 5 host range mutants. In: Virology. 1980 ; Vol. 103, No. 2. pp ... Early viral proteins in HeLa cells infected with adenovirus type 5 host range mutants. Virology. 1980 Jun;103(2):475-492. https ... Early viral proteins in HeLa cells infected with adenovirus type 5 host range mutants. / Ross, Susan R.; Levine, Arnold J.; ... Ross, SR, Levine, AJ, Galos, RS, Williams, J & Shenk, T 1980, Early viral proteins in HeLa cells infected with adenovirus type ...
To determine the requirements for the individual Ad2 E1B proteins during the transformation of rodent cells, viral mutants were ... E1B proteins. Point mutations generating stop codons very early in the coding sequences were constructed to prevent the ... Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA ... Studies with a third mutant virus, pm2022, which contains a stop codon after the second codon of the 495R protein, suggest that ...
... This procedure facilitated the detection of six early viral-induced polypeptides, designated EP1 through EP6 (early protein), ... Detection of adenovirus type 2-induced early polypeptides using cycloheximide pretreatment to enhance viral protein synthesis ... Since CH pretreatment appears to increase the levels of early viral proteins, it may be a useful procedure to assist their ...
Effect of adenoviral early genes and the host immune system on in vivo pancreatic gene transfer in the mouse. Pancreas. 1997 ... "Adenovirus E2 Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Adenovirus E2 Proteins" was a major or ... "Adenovirus E2 Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication. ...
An immunodominant domain in adenovirus type 2 early region 1A proteins.. Tsukamoto AS, Ferguson B, Rosenberg M, Weissman IL, ... Genetic mapping of a major site of phosphorylation in adenovirus type 2 E1A proteins. ...
Adenovirus core protein VII protects the viral genome from a DNA damage response at early times after infection. ... E2F/Rb Family Proteins Mediate Interferon Induced Repression of Adenovirus Immediate Early Transcription to Promote Persistent ... Cellular proteins PML and Daxx mediate an innate antiviral defense antagonized by the adenovirus E4 ORF3 protein. ... Characterization of Empty adenovirus particles assembled in the absence of a functional adenovirus IVa2 protein. ...
Adenovirus type 12 early region 1 proteins: a study of their subcellular localization and protein-protein interactions. J Gen ... C-terminal-binding protein interacting protein binds directly to adenovirus early region 1A through its N-terminal region and ... Control of p53 expression by adenovirus 12 early region 1A and early region 1B 54K proteins. Virology. 1996 Apr 01; 218(1):23- ... Consequences of disruption of the interaction between p53 and the larger adenovirus early region 1B protein in adenovirus E1 ...
Association of adenovirus early-region 1A proteins with cellular polypeptides. Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:1579-1589. ... The Derlin family proteins are ER transmembrane proteins that are important for targeting certain misfolded proteins from the ... The ER protein disulfide isomerase or other protein disulfide isomerase-like proteins can cause conformational changes in VP1 ... Adenovirus protein VI mediates membrane disruption following capsid disassembly. J. Virol. 79:1992-2000. ...
Acylation of the 176R (19-kilodalton) early region 1B protein of human adenovirus type 5. J. Virol. 61: 3227-3234. ... Single-molecule microscopy reveals plasma membrane microdomains created by protein-protein networks that exclude or trap ... Alternatively, CD2 cysteines may perhaps help establishing protein-protein interaction with raft-resident molecules, although ... and that other proteins or protein complexes mediate the CD2-Lck interaction at the membrane-proximal level and help directing ...
1999) Role of the type 5 adenovirus gene encoding the early region 1B 55-kDa protein in pulmonary pathogenesis. Proc. Natl. ... 1992) Inhibition of p53 transactivation required for transformation by adenovirus early 1B protein. Nature 357:82-85. ... 2000) Tumor-specific, replication-competent adenovirus vectors overexpressing the adenovirus death protein. J. Virol. 74:6147- ... 1993) Selective effects on adenovirus late gene expression of deleting the E1b 55K protein. J. Gen. Virol. 74:575-582. ...
H. Esche, M. Reuther and K. Schughart (1984) Early and late proteins of adenovirus type 12: translation. mapping with RNA ... K. Schughart, E. Bause and H. Esche (1985) Structure and expression of adenovirus type 12 E1B 58K protein. in infected and ... K. Schughart, B. von Wilcken-Bergmann and H. Esche (1987) Expression of adenovirus type 12 E1b 58-kDa protein. in Escherichia ... Publications from earlier years. W. Kramer, K. Schughart and H.-J. Fritz (1982) Directed mutagenesis of DNA cloned in ...
Yew, P.; Berk, A. (1992). "Inhibition of p53 transactivation required for transformation by adenovirus early 1B protein". ... and the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein trimer. CAR is necessary for adenovirus infection. Although expressed widely ... For adenovirus replication to occur, the host cell must be induced into S phase by viral proteins interfering with cell cycle ... E1B proteins produced by adenoviruses protect the infected cell by binding to and degrading the p53 transcription factors, ...
S.R. Ross, S.J. Flint, and A.J. Levine, Identification of the adenovirus early proteins and their genomic map positions. ... P.A. Peterson, and L. Rask, HLA-DR transplantation antigen chain is a member of the same protein superfamily as the ... J. Hérissé, G. Courtois, and F. Galivert, Nucleotide sequence of the EcoRI D fragment of adenovirus 2-genome. Nucleic Acids Res ... Transplantation antigens are encoded by eight exons that correlate with protein domains. Cell 25: 683-692 (1981)PubMedCrossRef ...
1988) Two regions of the adenovirus early region 1A proteins are required for transformation. J. Virol. 62:257-265. ... This is reminiscent of the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein, which also targets the RB family of proteins. Like TAg, adenovirus E1A ... 1992) Adenovirus E1A makes two distinct contacts with the retinoblastoma protein. J. Virol. 66:4606-4611. ... 1993) Independent regions of adenovirus E1A are required for binding to and dissociation of E2F-protein complexes. Mol. Cell. ...
We are currently employing proteomic techniques to identify novel adenovirus early region-binding proteins in adenovirus- ... Consequences of disruption of the interaction between p53 and the larger adenovirus early region 1B protein in adenovirus E1 ... i) the role of adenovirus early region proteins in viral replication and cellular transformation. ... He is also interested in how the cellular proteins targeted by adenovirus function to control fundamental cellular pathways. ...
The role of human adenovirus early region 3 proteins (gp19K, 10.4K, 14.5K, and 14.7K) in a murine pneumonia model. J Virol 1996 ... Macrophage delivery of adenovirus to hypoxic areas of human prostate tumors. *. Delivery of a GFP-expressing adenovirus to ... Plasmid construction and adenoviruses. The techniques for constructing HRE-regulated E1A/B plasmids and adenoviruses (CMV-AdV5- ... upregulated E1A protein, and released multiple copies of adenovirus. The virus then infected neighboring cells but only ...
  • A 55 kDa protein indicating pV was detected by Western blot using anti-pV sera at 24 to 48 hours post-infection in BAdV-3 infected cells, and the same sized protein was detected in pV expressing plasmid transfected cells. (usask.ca)
  • Raue, R. and M. Hess, "Hexon based PCRs combined with restriction enzyme analysis for rapid detection and differentiation of fowl adenoviruses and egg drop syndrome virus", Journal of virological methods, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 211-217, 1998. (ajouronline.com)
  • Subsequent binding of the penton protein to host integrin entry receptors mediates internalization into the host cell by clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the virus and fiber shedding. (wikipedia.org)
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