Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family papillomaviridae, causing mucosal and cutaneous lesions in cats and dogs. Canine oral papillomavirus is the type species.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing abortion and respiratory disease in horses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.

A different intracellular distribution of a single reporter protein is determined at steady state by KKXX or KDEL retrieval signals. (1/424)

To establish the specific contribution to protein topology of KKXX and KDEL retrieval motifs, we have determined by immunogold electron microscopy and cell fractionation the intracellular distribution at steady state of the transmembrane and anchorless versions of human CD8 protein, tagged with KKXX (CD8-E19) and KDEL (CD8-K), respectively, and stably expressed in epithelial rat cells (Martire, G., Mottola, G., Pascale, M. C., Malagolini, N., Turrini, I., Serafini-Cessi, F., Jackson, M. R., and Bonatti, S. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 3541-3547). The CD8-E19 protein is represented by a single form, initially O-glycosylated: only about half of it is located in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas more than 30% of the total is present in the intermediate compartment and cis-Golgi complex. In the latter compartments, CD8-E19 colocalizes with beta-coat protein (COP) (COPI component) and shows the higher density of labeling. Conversely, about 90% of the total CD8-KDEL protein is localized in clusters on the endoplasmic reticulum, where significant co-localization with Sec-23p (COPII component) is observed, and unglycosylated and initially O-glycosylated forms apparently constitute a single pool. Altogether, these results suggest that KKXX and KDEL retrieval motifs have different topological effects on theirs own at steady state: the first results in a specific enrichment in the intermediate compartment and cis-Golgi complex, and the latter dictates residency in the endoplasmic reticulum.  (+info)

The adenovirus type 5 E1b 55K and E4 Orf3 proteins associate in infected cells and affect ND10 components. (2/424)

Three early proteins expressed by adenovirus type 5, E1b 55K, E4 Orf3 and E4 Orf6, are involved in regulating late viral gene expression. It has previously been shown that 55K associates with Orf6. Here we show that 55K also associates with Orf3 and that this interaction is necessary for 55K to localize to the nuclear matrix fraction of the cell. From our data, we infer that the Orf3 and Orf6 interactions with 55K may be mutually exclusive. The Orf3 protein is also known to associate with and cause the reorganization of cell nucleus structures known as ND10 or PODs. Consistent with the observed increase in the biochemical interaction between 55K and Orf3 in the absence of Orf6, the 55K association with Orf3 in ND10 was also found to increase in the absence of Orf6. The most studied cellular component of ND10 is PML, a complex protein present in a range of isoforms, some of which are modified by conjugation to the small ubiquitin-like protein PIC-1. The pattern of PML isoforms was altered in adenovirus-infected cells, in that a number of additional isoform bands appeared in an Orf3-dependent manner, one of which became predominant later in infection. As for ND10 reorganization, neither Orf6 nor 55K was required for this effect. Therefore it is likely that these changes in PML are related to the changes in ND10 structure that occur during infection.  (+info)

Reduced toxicity, attenuated immunogenicity and efficient mediation of human p53 gene expression in vivo by an adenovirus vector with deleted E1-E3 and inactivated E4 by GAL4-TATA promoter replacement. (3/424)

A recombinant adenovirus with deleted E1 and E3, and E4-inactivated by replacing the E4 promoter with a synthetic promoter composed of a minimal TATA box and five consensus yeast GAL4-binding site elements was developed and used to express the human tumor suppresser gene p53. The toxicity and immunogenicity of this vector and vector-mediated p53 gene expression in vivo were studied in immunocompetent C3H and C57BL/6 mice. Expression of the late viral gene product, hexon protein, was observed in C3H and C57BL/6 mice injected with E4 wild-type adenovirus constructs Adv-cmv-beta-Gal (BG), Adv-cmv-hp53 (WT), and empty E1- vector Adv-E4 (EW) 3 to 28 days after injection, but was undetectable in mice treated with E4 modified empty E1- vector Adv-GAL4 (EG) or Adv-cmv-hp53-GAL4 (G4). Expression of the p53 gene was observed in both WT- and G4-injected C3H and C57BL/6 mouse livers from days 3 to 28. Ten weeks after injection, p53 gene expression was still detected in G4-treated C57BL/6 mice at similar levels, but was not detectable in WT-treated mice. Vector-induced liver toxicity was evaluated by analyzing serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT) activities. In all cases, SGOT and SGPT activities were markedly decreased in EG-treated C3H and C57BL/6 mice compared with those in EW-treated mice on days 3, 7 and 14 after injection. In C57BL/6 mice, the total anti-adenoviral CTL activities were two- to three-fold higher in animals treated with EW vector than in those treated with EG vector. These results suggest that inactivation of the E4 promoter efficiently diminished the viral replication and the late viral gene expression, reduced host immune response and consequently reduced toxicity and prolonged the duration of transgene expression in vivo.  (+info)

Rapid construction of adenoviral vectors by lambda phage genetics. (4/424)

Continued improvements of adenoviral vectors require the investigation of novel genome configurations. Since adenovirus can be generated directly by transfecting packaging cell lines with viral genomes isolated from plasmid DNA, it is possible to separate genome construction from virus production. In this way failure to generate a virus is not associated with an inability to generate the desired genome. We have developed a novel lambda-based system that allows rapid modification of the viral genome by double homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. The recombination reaction and newly generated genome may reside in a recombination-deficient bacterial host for enhanced plasmid stability. Furthermore, the process is independent of any restriction endonucleases. The strategy relies on four main steps: (i) homologous recombination between an adenovirus cosmid and a donor plasmid (the donor plasmid carries the desired modification[s] and flanking regions of homology to direct its recombination into the viral genome); (ii) in vivo packaging of the recombinant adenoviral cosmids during a productive lambda infection; (iii) transducing a recombination-deficient E. coli lambda lysogen with the generated lysate (the lysogen inhibits the helper phage used to package the recombinant andenoviral cosmid from productively infecting and destroying the host bacteria); (iv) effectively selecting for the desired double-recombinant cosmid. Approximately 10,000 double-recombinant cosmids are recovered per reaction with essentially all of them being the correct double-recombinant molecule. This system was used to generate quickly and efficiently adenoviral genomes deficient in the E1/E3 and E1/E3/E4 regions. The basis of this technology allows any region of the viral genome to be readily modified for investigation of novel configurations.  (+info)

Unique features of fowl adenovirus 9 gene transcription. (5/424)

We examined the transcriptional organization of fowl adenovirus 9 (FAdV-9) and analyzed temporal transcription profiles of its early and late mRNAs. At least six early and six late transcriptional regions were identified for FAdV-9. Extensive splicing was observed in all FAdV-9 early transcripts examined. Sequence analysis of the cDNAs representing the early proteins identified untranslated leader sequences, precise locations of splice donor and acceptor sites, as well as polyadenylation signals and polyadenylation sites. A unique characteristic, compared to other adenoviruses, was the detection by RT-PCR of multiple transcripts specific for each of five late genes (protein III, pVII, pX, 100K, and fiber), suggesting that FAdV-9 late transcripts undergo more extensive splicing than reported for other adenoviruses.  (+info)

Activation of adenovirus early promoters and lytic phase in differentiated strata of organotypic cultures of human keratinocytes. (6/424)

Human oncolytic adenoviruses have been used in clinical trials targeting cancers of epithelial origin. To gain a better understanding of the infectious cycle of adenovirus in normal human squamous tissues, we examined the viral infection process in organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes. We show that for the infection to occur, wounding of the epithelium is required. In addition, infection appears to initiate at the basal or parabasal cells that express the high-affinity coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor, CAR, whereas the productive phase takes place in differentiated cells. This is due, at least in part, to the differentiation-dependent activation of the E1A and E2A early promoters and E4 promoters. We also show that adenovirus infection triggers a response mediated by the abnormal accumulation of cyclin E and p21cip1 proteins similar to the one previously observed in human papillomavirus-infected tissues. However, the virus seems to be able to overcome it, at least partially.  (+info)

NF-IL6, a member of the C/EBP family, regulates E1A-responsive promoters in the absence of E1A. (7/424)

A cDNA encoding NF-IL6, an interleukin-6 (IL-6)-regulated human nuclear factor of the C/EBP family, is demonstrated to complement the transactivation function of E1A. The endogenous NF-IL6 level varies according to cell type and correlates positively with an IL-6-regulated cellular E1A-substituting activity that was described recently (J.M. Spergel and S. Chen-Kiang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:6472-6476, 1991). When expressed by transfection in cells which contain low levels of NF-IL6 and are incapable of complementing the function of E1A proteins, NF-IL6 also transactivates the E1A-responsive E2ae and E1B promoters, to the same magnitude as E1A. Activation by NF-IL6 is concentration dependent and sequence specific: mutational studies of the E2ae promoter suggest that the promoter-proximal NF-IL6 recognition site functions as a dominant negative regulatory site whereas the promoter-distal NF-IL6 recognition site is positively regulated at low NF-IL6 concentrations and negatively regulated when the NF-IL6 level is high. Consistent with these functions, NF-IL6 alone is sufficient to complement an E1A deletion mutant dl312 in viral infection, when expressed at appropriate concentrations. These results identify NF-IL6 as a sequence-specific cellular nuclear factor which regulates E1A-responsive genes in the absence of E1A.  (+info)

Adenovirus E1A represses the cyclic AMP-induced transcription of the gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in hepatoma cells. (8/424)

Adenovirus infection of hepatoma cells inhibited transcription of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (EC 4.1.1.32) (PEPCK) gene and virtually eliminated transcription of a chimeric gene which contained the PEPCK promoter linked to the structural gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). This effect is due to the viral protein E1A, since adenovirus containing a deletion in the E1A gene did not repress transcription from the PEPCK promoter. Both the 243R and 283R products of the E1A gene were effective. The conserved region 1 (CR-1) domain of E1A was required for this effect. Treatment of hepatoma cells with 8-bromo-cAMP or transfection with plasmids coding for the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, CAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP), or Jun, all potent inducers of PEPCK gene transcription, did not relieve the inhibition caused by E1A. This inhibition does not appear to be mediated by major enhancer elements and in the PEPCK gene since transcription from the PEPCK promoter containing block mutations in binding domains for C/EBP and cAMP regulatory element binding protein (CREB) was also inhibited by E1A. Transcription of chimeric genes containing two copies each of the major cAMP response domains (CRE-1 and P-3) linked to a neutral promoter and fused to the CAT structural gene was stimulated by the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, but this effect was totally inhibited by E1A. The strong repressive effect of E1A on PEPCK gene transcription seems to involve an interruption of an obligatory interaction between factors which bind to the cAMP response element in the PEPCK promoter and the TATA box.  (+info)

Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
The prototype Bf109A first flew in 1935. The later E model was more powerful and better armed and by the summer of 1940 over 500 were in service f.... View full details ...
In this report we present evidence that simian virus 40 T antigen encodes a biological activity that is functionally equivalent to the transforming activity lost by deletion of the E1A p300-binding region. T-antigen constructs from which the pRb-binding region has been deleted are virtually unable to induce foci of transformed cells in a ras cooperation assay in primary baby rat kidney cells. Nevertheless, such a construct can cooperate with an E1A N-terminal deletion mutant, itself devoid of transforming activity, to induce foci in this assay. The heterologous trans-cooperating activity observed between E1A and T-antigen deletion products is as efficient as trans cooperation between mutants expressing individual E1A domains. The cooperating function can be impaired by a deletion near the N terminus of T antigen. Such a deletion impairs neither the p53-binding function nor the activity of the pRb-binding region.. ...
People get rats from lots of different places and they arent always the tamest of rats. There is no point telling someone who has just picked up a couple of unhandled babies that they ought to have looked for a breeder who selects for calm temperament and handles their baby rats daily. First, they probably tried that but didnt want to wait 4-6 months for baby rats from these (frankly rare) breeders who handle daily. Second, its too late!. However, the good news is that for most rats, taming is just a matter of time and patience. While it may not seem easy, it is definitely possible to bring a rat around from a skittish scared baby to a great pet. In fact, some of the nicest adult rats Ive had started out as not very confident babies.. There are different ideas about taming rats. Whatever method you choose, Id suggest that early on (immediately) stop chasing your rats around a cage. The more you chase, the more theyll run and you are encouraging them into a habit of running away from you. ...
Get an answer for Calculate Kc for the system, Ni2+ + Co Ni + Co2+. at 25 C?Ni2+ (aq) + 2e === Ni (s) E = - 0.25 V Co2+ (aq) + 2e === Co (s) E = - 0.28 and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Looking for online definition of adenovirus early region genes in the Medical Dictionary? adenovirus early region genes explanation free. What is adenovirus early region genes? Meaning of adenovirus early region genes medical term. What does adenovirus early region genes mean?
We describe a transgenic mouse line carrying the cre transgene under the control of the adenovirus EIIa promoter that targets expression of the Cre recombinase to the early mouse embryo. To assess the ability of this recombinase to excise loxP-flanked DNA sequences at early stages of development, we bred EIIa-cre transgenic mice to two different mouse lines carrying loxP-flanked target sequences: (i) a strain with a single gene-targeted neomycin resistance gene flanked by 1oxP sites and (ii) a transgenic line carrying multiple transgene copies with internal loxP sites. Mating either of these loxP-carrying mouse lines to EIIa-cre mice resulted in first generation progeny in which the loxP-flanked sequences had been efficiently deleted from all tissues tested, including the germ cells. Interbreeding of these first generation progeny resulted in efficient germ-line transmission of the deletion to subsequent generations. These results demonstrate a method by which loxP-flanked DNA sequences can be ...
To delineate the function of adenovirus early region 4 (E4) gene products, we constructed a set of mutant viruses which carry defined lesions within this coding region. Deletion and insertion mutations within six of seven known E4 coding regions had no measurable effect on virus growth in cultured cells. A variant carrying a deletion within the last coding region (encoding a 34,000-molecular-weight polypeptide) was modestly defective, and a mutant lacking the majority of the E4 region was severely defective for growth. The phenotypes of the two defective mutants are similar and complex. Both display perturbations in DNA replication, translation of the E2A mRNA, accumulation of late viral mRNAs, and host cell shutoff. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Repression of cytochrome P‐450c gene expression by cotransfection with adenovirus E1a DNA. AU - SOGAWA, Kazuhiro. AU - HANDA, Hiroshi. AU - FUJISAWA‐SEHARA, Atsuko. AU - HIROMASA, Takako. AU - YAMANE, Miyuki. AU - FUJII‐KURIYAMA, Yoshiaki. PY - 1989/5. Y1 - 1989/5. N2 - Gene expression of rat cytochrome P‐450c (P‐450c) depends upon inducible enhancers scattered in the 5′‐upstream region of the gene. We show that expression of the P‐450c gene is repressed by contransfection with adenovirus E1a DNA, regardless of the presence or absence of inducers, in a transient expression system of HeLa cells. Since cotransfection of either 13S or 12S E1a cDNA was effective in the repression, the region necessary for repression could be separated from that of transactivation of other adenovirus early genes. Moreover, we investigated the regions responsible for the inhibitory activity using in‐frame deletion mutants lacking internal or external portions of the E1a proteins. The ...
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Definition of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein? Meaning of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein as a legal term. What does Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein mean in law?
Linear simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA molecules of genome length and DNA fragments smaller than genome length when prepared with restriction endonucleases and tested for transforming activity on primary cultures of baby rat kidney cells. The linear molecules of genome length (prepared with endonucleases R-EcoRI, R-BamHI, and R-HpaII or R-HapII), a 74% fragment (EcoRI/HpaII or HapII-A), and a 59% fragment (BamHI/HapII-A) could all transform rat kidney cells with the same efficiency as circular SV40 DNA. All transformed lines tested contained the SV40-specific T-antigen in 90 to 100% of the cells, which was taken as evidence that the transformation was SV40 specific. The DNA fragments with transforming activity contained the entire early region of SV40 DNA. Endo R-HpaI, which introduced one break in the early region, apparently inactivated the transforming capacity of SV40 DNA, since no transformation was observed with any of the three HpaI fragments tested. Attempts were made to rescue infectious ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - An altered subunit configuration associated with the actively transcribed DNA of integrated adenovirus genes. AU - Flint, S. J.. AU - Weintraub, Harold M.. PY - 1977/11. Y1 - 1977/11. N2 - The sensitivity to deoxyribonuclease I (DNAase I) of integrated adenovirus genes that encode mRNA has been compared to the sensitivity of adjacent viral DNA sequences that are not expressed as mRNA in two lines of adenovirus type 5-transformed hamster cells. We determined the concentrations of integrated DNA sequences homologous to different regions of the viral genome before and after mild DNAase I digestion of intact nuclei by measuring the rate of reassociation of restriction endonuclease fragments of labeled adenovirus DNA in the presence of DNA isolated from untreated and digested transformed cell nuclei. The HT14A cell line contains 2.4 copies of the left-hand 35% of the adenovirus type 5 genome per diploid quantity of cell DNA. Integrated sequences that are preferentially sensitive to ...
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Adenovirus Type 9, 0.1 mg. The many different serotypes of human adenoviruses (Ad) are divided into six subgroups, of which all Ad subgroup A and B and two subgroup D Ads can elicit tumors in infected rodents.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Two early mRNA species in adenovirus type 2 transformed rat cells. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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Tangen JM, Fløisand Y, Foss-Abrahamsen J, Haukås E, Næss IA, Skjelbakken T. Overlevelse hos voksne med akutt myelogen leukemi. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2008;128(10):1164-7. Gardin C, Turlure P, Fagot T, Thomas X, Terre C, Contentin N, et…. ...
RNA molecules from nuclear and cytoplasmic polyribosomes of adenovirus-infected HeLa cells were compared by hybridization to analyse the sequence content. Nuclear polyribosomes were released by exposure of intact detergent-washed nuclei to poly(U) and purified. Cytoplasmic polyribosomes were also purified from the same cells. To show that nuclear polyribosomes contain ribosomes linked by mRNA, polyribosomes were labelled with methionine and uridine in the presence of actinomycin D in adenovirus-infected cells. Purified nuclear polyribosomes were treated with EDTA under conditions which dissociate polyribosomes into ribosomes and subunits with a simultaneous release of mRNA, and sedimented. The treatment dissociated these polyribosomes, releasing the mRNA from them. Radiolabelled total RNA from each polyribosome population was fractionated in sucrose gradients into several pools or hybridized to intact adenovirus DNA to select virus-specific RNA. Sucrose-gradient-fractionated pool-3 RNA (about ...
The adenovirus E1B gene products are required for productive infection of human cells and for complete transformation of rodent cells in cooperation with the E1A gene products. Two major, unrelated polypeptides of 55,000 (55K) and 19,000 (19K) daltons are encoded by the E1B region. The 55K protein is required for efficient DNA replication, late mRNA transport to the cytoplasm and shut-off of cellular mRNA transport in productively infected cells. This protein is required for virus-mediated, but not DNA-mediated, transformation of rodent cells. It appears that the 55K protein does not directly contribute to cell transformation, but influences the oncogenicity of adenoviruses when they are inoculated into newborn hamsters. In contrast, the 19K protein is required for adenovirus induced cellular transformation and oncogenicity and localizes to membranes of the nuclear envelope, cytoplasm and the cell surface in transformed cells. This protein affects the efficiency of virus growth in some, but not ...
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Our study is the first report of an RSAd, in which the promoter-based regulation of E1A, approach is used to target the deregulated G1 to S phase in tumor cells. We demonstrated that AdE2F-1RC replicated selectively in tumor cells and not in normal cells expressing high and low levels of E2F-1 protein, respectively. Additionally, in two mouse xenograft models, AdE2F-1RC exhibited significant in vivo therapeutic benefit often equivalent to wild-type adenovirus treatment. These studies validate several design features of AdE2F-1RC.. The wild-type adenovirus dl309 replicated in all of the normal cells tested. We reasoned that normal resting cells would be a good model for AdE2F-1RC toxicity tests, because these cells do not express E2F-1 (44 , 45) and are found in the tumor environment. In contrast to dl309, the replication and CPE of AdE2F-1RC was significantly attenuated in normal cells suggesting that the E2F-1 promoter was not optimally activated. One reason is that the presence of pRb/E2F-1 ...
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This post is about adenovirus infection, a major cause of illness both minor and severe in the United States, especially among children in group settings.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Conserved region 2 of adenovirus E1A has a function distinct from pRb binding required to prevent cell cycle arrest by p16(INK4a) or p27(Kip1). AU - Alevizopoulos, Konstantinos. AU - Sanchez, Belén. AU - Amati, Bruno. PY - 2000/4/13. Y1 - 2000/4/13. N2 - Ectopic expression of the CDK inhibitors (CKIs) p16(INK4a) and p27(Kip1) in Rat1 fibroblasts induces dephosphorylation and activation of Retinoblastoma-family proteins (pRb, p107 and p130), their association with E2F proteins, and cell cycle arrest in G1. The growth-inhibitory action of p16, in particular, is believed to be mediated essentially via pRb activation. The 12S E1A protein of human Adenovirus 5 associates with pRb-family proteins via residues in its Conserved Regions (CR) 1 and 2, in particular through the motif LXCXE in CR2. These interactions are required for E1A to prevent G1 arrest upon co-expression of CKIs. We show here that mutating either of two conserved motifs adjacent to LXCXE in CR2, GFP and SDDEDEE, also ...
Adenovirus has been associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease and, with regard to infections among military recruits, who were routinely immunized against types 4 and 7 from 1971 until the cessation of vaccine production in 1996. Adenovirus became a significant cause of economic cost and morbidity in this setting. A live oral vaccine against adenovirus types 4 and 7 was approved for use in this population by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011, and subsequent incidence of acute respiratory disease declined.. Of interest is the role of adenoviruses as vectors in vaccination and in gene therapy. [1, 2, 3] Adenoviruses can infect various cells, both proliferating and quiescent, and thus hold the promise of targeting many different tissues and diseased cell lines.. The genome of adenovirus is well known and can be modified with relative ease to induce lysis or cytotoxicity of a specified cell line without affecting others.. The virus itself can be engineered to remove its ...
What is the definition of ADENOVIRUS? What is the meaning of ADENOVIRUS? How do you use ADENOVIRUS in a sentence? What are synonyms for ADENOVIRUS?
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells localize in the microcirculation in antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and have been postulated to be activated by donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies triggering their CD16a Fc receptors. However, direct evidence for NK cell CD16a triggering in AMR is lacking. We hypothesized that CD16a-inducible NK cell-selective transcripts would be expressed in human AMR biopsies and would offer evidence for CD16a triggering. METHODS: We stimulated human NK cells through CD16a in vitro, characterized CD16a-inducible transcripts, and studied their expression in human kidney transplant biopsies with AMR and in an extended human cell panel to determine their selectivity ...
13:2; potential epub Adenovirus notions; tenure bhakti 1? On the epub Adenovirus Methods and of this interest, are above under form. 1282 An epub Adenovirus Methods and Protocols: Adenoviruses, Ad study read by Porten - Szubin 1987:187.
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The RAPAd® method of Adenovirus construction, developed by ViraQuest Inc. scientists, has been used by other scientists around the world.. Request Quote ...
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