Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family papillomaviridae, causing mucosal and cutaneous lesions in cats and dogs. Canine oral papillomavirus is the type species.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing abortion and respiratory disease in horses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.

A different intracellular distribution of a single reporter protein is determined at steady state by KKXX or KDEL retrieval signals. (1/424)

To establish the specific contribution to protein topology of KKXX and KDEL retrieval motifs, we have determined by immunogold electron microscopy and cell fractionation the intracellular distribution at steady state of the transmembrane and anchorless versions of human CD8 protein, tagged with KKXX (CD8-E19) and KDEL (CD8-K), respectively, and stably expressed in epithelial rat cells (Martire, G., Mottola, G., Pascale, M. C., Malagolini, N., Turrini, I., Serafini-Cessi, F., Jackson, M. R., and Bonatti, S. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 3541-3547). The CD8-E19 protein is represented by a single form, initially O-glycosylated: only about half of it is located in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas more than 30% of the total is present in the intermediate compartment and cis-Golgi complex. In the latter compartments, CD8-E19 colocalizes with beta-coat protein (COP) (COPI component) and shows the higher density of labeling. Conversely, about 90% of the total CD8-KDEL protein is localized in clusters on the endoplasmic reticulum, where significant co-localization with Sec-23p (COPII component) is observed, and unglycosylated and initially O-glycosylated forms apparently constitute a single pool. Altogether, these results suggest that KKXX and KDEL retrieval motifs have different topological effects on theirs own at steady state: the first results in a specific enrichment in the intermediate compartment and cis-Golgi complex, and the latter dictates residency in the endoplasmic reticulum.  (+info)

The adenovirus type 5 E1b 55K and E4 Orf3 proteins associate in infected cells and affect ND10 components. (2/424)

Three early proteins expressed by adenovirus type 5, E1b 55K, E4 Orf3 and E4 Orf6, are involved in regulating late viral gene expression. It has previously been shown that 55K associates with Orf6. Here we show that 55K also associates with Orf3 and that this interaction is necessary for 55K to localize to the nuclear matrix fraction of the cell. From our data, we infer that the Orf3 and Orf6 interactions with 55K may be mutually exclusive. The Orf3 protein is also known to associate with and cause the reorganization of cell nucleus structures known as ND10 or PODs. Consistent with the observed increase in the biochemical interaction between 55K and Orf3 in the absence of Orf6, the 55K association with Orf3 in ND10 was also found to increase in the absence of Orf6. The most studied cellular component of ND10 is PML, a complex protein present in a range of isoforms, some of which are modified by conjugation to the small ubiquitin-like protein PIC-1. The pattern of PML isoforms was altered in adenovirus-infected cells, in that a number of additional isoform bands appeared in an Orf3-dependent manner, one of which became predominant later in infection. As for ND10 reorganization, neither Orf6 nor 55K was required for this effect. Therefore it is likely that these changes in PML are related to the changes in ND10 structure that occur during infection.  (+info)

Reduced toxicity, attenuated immunogenicity and efficient mediation of human p53 gene expression in vivo by an adenovirus vector with deleted E1-E3 and inactivated E4 by GAL4-TATA promoter replacement. (3/424)

A recombinant adenovirus with deleted E1 and E3, and E4-inactivated by replacing the E4 promoter with a synthetic promoter composed of a minimal TATA box and five consensus yeast GAL4-binding site elements was developed and used to express the human tumor suppresser gene p53. The toxicity and immunogenicity of this vector and vector-mediated p53 gene expression in vivo were studied in immunocompetent C3H and C57BL/6 mice. Expression of the late viral gene product, hexon protein, was observed in C3H and C57BL/6 mice injected with E4 wild-type adenovirus constructs Adv-cmv-beta-Gal (BG), Adv-cmv-hp53 (WT), and empty E1- vector Adv-E4 (EW) 3 to 28 days after injection, but was undetectable in mice treated with E4 modified empty E1- vector Adv-GAL4 (EG) or Adv-cmv-hp53-GAL4 (G4). Expression of the p53 gene was observed in both WT- and G4-injected C3H and C57BL/6 mouse livers from days 3 to 28. Ten weeks after injection, p53 gene expression was still detected in G4-treated C57BL/6 mice at similar levels, but was not detectable in WT-treated mice. Vector-induced liver toxicity was evaluated by analyzing serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT) activities. In all cases, SGOT and SGPT activities were markedly decreased in EG-treated C3H and C57BL/6 mice compared with those in EW-treated mice on days 3, 7 and 14 after injection. In C57BL/6 mice, the total anti-adenoviral CTL activities were two- to three-fold higher in animals treated with EW vector than in those treated with EG vector. These results suggest that inactivation of the E4 promoter efficiently diminished the viral replication and the late viral gene expression, reduced host immune response and consequently reduced toxicity and prolonged the duration of transgene expression in vivo.  (+info)

Rapid construction of adenoviral vectors by lambda phage genetics. (4/424)

Continued improvements of adenoviral vectors require the investigation of novel genome configurations. Since adenovirus can be generated directly by transfecting packaging cell lines with viral genomes isolated from plasmid DNA, it is possible to separate genome construction from virus production. In this way failure to generate a virus is not associated with an inability to generate the desired genome. We have developed a novel lambda-based system that allows rapid modification of the viral genome by double homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. The recombination reaction and newly generated genome may reside in a recombination-deficient bacterial host for enhanced plasmid stability. Furthermore, the process is independent of any restriction endonucleases. The strategy relies on four main steps: (i) homologous recombination between an adenovirus cosmid and a donor plasmid (the donor plasmid carries the desired modification[s] and flanking regions of homology to direct its recombination into the viral genome); (ii) in vivo packaging of the recombinant adenoviral cosmids during a productive lambda infection; (iii) transducing a recombination-deficient E. coli lambda lysogen with the generated lysate (the lysogen inhibits the helper phage used to package the recombinant andenoviral cosmid from productively infecting and destroying the host bacteria); (iv) effectively selecting for the desired double-recombinant cosmid. Approximately 10,000 double-recombinant cosmids are recovered per reaction with essentially all of them being the correct double-recombinant molecule. This system was used to generate quickly and efficiently adenoviral genomes deficient in the E1/E3 and E1/E3/E4 regions. The basis of this technology allows any region of the viral genome to be readily modified for investigation of novel configurations.  (+info)

Unique features of fowl adenovirus 9 gene transcription. (5/424)

We examined the transcriptional organization of fowl adenovirus 9 (FAdV-9) and analyzed temporal transcription profiles of its early and late mRNAs. At least six early and six late transcriptional regions were identified for FAdV-9. Extensive splicing was observed in all FAdV-9 early transcripts examined. Sequence analysis of the cDNAs representing the early proteins identified untranslated leader sequences, precise locations of splice donor and acceptor sites, as well as polyadenylation signals and polyadenylation sites. A unique characteristic, compared to other adenoviruses, was the detection by RT-PCR of multiple transcripts specific for each of five late genes (protein III, pVII, pX, 100K, and fiber), suggesting that FAdV-9 late transcripts undergo more extensive splicing than reported for other adenoviruses.  (+info)

Activation of adenovirus early promoters and lytic phase in differentiated strata of organotypic cultures of human keratinocytes. (6/424)

Human oncolytic adenoviruses have been used in clinical trials targeting cancers of epithelial origin. To gain a better understanding of the infectious cycle of adenovirus in normal human squamous tissues, we examined the viral infection process in organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes. We show that for the infection to occur, wounding of the epithelium is required. In addition, infection appears to initiate at the basal or parabasal cells that express the high-affinity coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor, CAR, whereas the productive phase takes place in differentiated cells. This is due, at least in part, to the differentiation-dependent activation of the E1A and E2A early promoters and E4 promoters. We also show that adenovirus infection triggers a response mediated by the abnormal accumulation of cyclin E and p21cip1 proteins similar to the one previously observed in human papillomavirus-infected tissues. However, the virus seems to be able to overcome it, at least partially.  (+info)

NF-IL6, a member of the C/EBP family, regulates E1A-responsive promoters in the absence of E1A. (7/424)

A cDNA encoding NF-IL6, an interleukin-6 (IL-6)-regulated human nuclear factor of the C/EBP family, is demonstrated to complement the transactivation function of E1A. The endogenous NF-IL6 level varies according to cell type and correlates positively with an IL-6-regulated cellular E1A-substituting activity that was described recently (J.M. Spergel and S. Chen-Kiang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:6472-6476, 1991). When expressed by transfection in cells which contain low levels of NF-IL6 and are incapable of complementing the function of E1A proteins, NF-IL6 also transactivates the E1A-responsive E2ae and E1B promoters, to the same magnitude as E1A. Activation by NF-IL6 is concentration dependent and sequence specific: mutational studies of the E2ae promoter suggest that the promoter-proximal NF-IL6 recognition site functions as a dominant negative regulatory site whereas the promoter-distal NF-IL6 recognition site is positively regulated at low NF-IL6 concentrations and negatively regulated when the NF-IL6 level is high. Consistent with these functions, NF-IL6 alone is sufficient to complement an E1A deletion mutant dl312 in viral infection, when expressed at appropriate concentrations. These results identify NF-IL6 as a sequence-specific cellular nuclear factor which regulates E1A-responsive genes in the absence of E1A.  (+info)

Adenovirus E1A represses the cyclic AMP-induced transcription of the gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in hepatoma cells. (8/424)

Adenovirus infection of hepatoma cells inhibited transcription of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (EC (PEPCK) gene and virtually eliminated transcription of a chimeric gene which contained the PEPCK promoter linked to the structural gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). This effect is due to the viral protein E1A, since adenovirus containing a deletion in the E1A gene did not repress transcription from the PEPCK promoter. Both the 243R and 283R products of the E1A gene were effective. The conserved region 1 (CR-1) domain of E1A was required for this effect. Treatment of hepatoma cells with 8-bromo-cAMP or transfection with plasmids coding for the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, CAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP), or Jun, all potent inducers of PEPCK gene transcription, did not relieve the inhibition caused by E1A. This inhibition does not appear to be mediated by major enhancer elements and in the PEPCK gene since transcription from the PEPCK promoter containing block mutations in binding domains for C/EBP and cAMP regulatory element binding protein (CREB) was also inhibited by E1A. Transcription of chimeric genes containing two copies each of the major cAMP response domains (CRE-1 and P-3) linked to a neutral promoter and fused to the CAT structural gene was stimulated by the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, but this effect was totally inhibited by E1A. The strong repressive effect of E1A on PEPCK gene transcription seems to involve an interruption of an obligatory interaction between factors which bind to the cAMP response element in the PEPCK promoter and the TATA box.  (+info)

Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
In this report we present evidence that simian virus 40 T antigen encodes a biological activity that is functionally equivalent to the transforming activity lost by deletion of the E1A p300-binding region. T-antigen constructs from which the pRb-binding region has been deleted are virtually unable to induce foci of transformed cells in a ras cooperation assay in primary baby rat kidney cells. Nevertheless, such a construct can cooperate with an E1A N-terminal deletion mutant, itself devoid of transforming activity, to induce foci in this assay. The heterologous trans-cooperating activity observed between E1A and T-antigen deletion products is as efficient as trans cooperation between mutants expressing individual E1A domains. The cooperating function can be impaired by a deletion near the N terminus of T antigen. Such a deletion impairs neither the p53-binding function nor the activity of the pRb-binding region.. ...
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We describe a transgenic mouse line carrying the cre transgene under the control of the adenovirus EIIa promoter that targets expression of the Cre recombinase to the early mouse embryo. To assess the ability of this recombinase to excise loxP-flanked DNA sequences at early stages of development, we bred EIIa-cre transgenic mice to two different mouse lines carrying loxP-flanked target sequences: (i) a strain with a single gene-targeted neomycin resistance gene flanked by 1oxP sites and (ii) a transgenic line carrying multiple transgene copies with internal loxP sites. Mating either of these loxP-carrying mouse lines to EIIa-cre mice resulted in first generation progeny in which the loxP-flanked sequences had been efficiently deleted from all tissues tested, including the germ cells. Interbreeding of these first generation progeny resulted in efficient germ-line transmission of the deletion to subsequent generations. These results demonstrate a method by which loxP-flanked DNA sequences can be ...
To delineate the function of adenovirus early region 4 (E4) gene products, we constructed a set of mutant viruses which carry defined lesions within this coding region. Deletion and insertion mutations within six of seven known E4 coding regions had no measurable effect on virus growth in cultured cells. A variant carrying a deletion within the last coding region (encoding a 34,000-molecular-weight polypeptide) was modestly defective, and a mutant lacking the majority of the E4 region was severely defective for growth. The phenotypes of the two defective mutants are similar and complex. Both display perturbations in DNA replication, translation of the E2A mRNA, accumulation of late viral mRNAs, and host cell shutoff. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Repression of cytochrome P‐450c gene expression by cotransfection with adenovirus E1a DNA. AU - SOGAWA, Kazuhiro. AU - HANDA, Hiroshi. AU - FUJISAWA‐SEHARA, Atsuko. AU - HIROMASA, Takako. AU - YAMANE, Miyuki. AU - FUJII‐KURIYAMA, Yoshiaki. PY - 1989/5. Y1 - 1989/5. N2 - Gene expression of rat cytochrome P‐450c (P‐450c) depends upon inducible enhancers scattered in the 5′‐upstream region of the gene. We show that expression of the P‐450c gene is repressed by contransfection with adenovirus E1a DNA, regardless of the presence or absence of inducers, in a transient expression system of HeLa cells. Since cotransfection of either 13S or 12S E1a cDNA was effective in the repression, the region necessary for repression could be separated from that of transactivation of other adenovirus early genes. Moreover, we investigated the regions responsible for the inhibitory activity using in‐frame deletion mutants lacking internal or external portions of the E1a proteins. The ...
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Definition of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein? Meaning of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein as a legal term. What does Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein mean in law?
Linear simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA molecules of genome length and DNA fragments smaller than genome length when prepared with restriction endonucleases and tested for transforming activity on primary cultures of baby rat kidney cells. The linear molecules of genome length (prepared with endonucleases R-EcoRI, R-BamHI, and R-HpaII or R-HapII), a 74% fragment (EcoRI/HpaII or HapII-A), and a 59% fragment (BamHI/HapII-A) could all transform rat kidney cells with the same efficiency as circular SV40 DNA. All transformed lines tested contained the SV40-specific T-antigen in 90 to 100% of the cells, which was taken as evidence that the transformation was SV40 specific. The DNA fragments with transforming activity contained the entire early region of SV40 DNA. Endo R-HpaI, which introduced one break in the early region, apparently inactivated the transforming capacity of SV40 DNA, since no transformation was observed with any of the three HpaI fragments tested. Attempts were made to rescue infectious ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - An altered subunit configuration associated with the actively transcribed DNA of integrated adenovirus genes. AU - Flint, S. J.. AU - Weintraub, Harold M.. PY - 1977/11. Y1 - 1977/11. N2 - The sensitivity to deoxyribonuclease I (DNAase I) of integrated adenovirus genes that encode mRNA has been compared to the sensitivity of adjacent viral DNA sequences that are not expressed as mRNA in two lines of adenovirus type 5-transformed hamster cells. We determined the concentrations of integrated DNA sequences homologous to different regions of the viral genome before and after mild DNAase I digestion of intact nuclei by measuring the rate of reassociation of restriction endonuclease fragments of labeled adenovirus DNA in the presence of DNA isolated from untreated and digested transformed cell nuclei. The HT14A cell line contains 2.4 copies of the left-hand 35% of the adenovirus type 5 genome per diploid quantity of cell DNA. Integrated sequences that are preferentially sensitive to ...
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Adenovirus Type 9, 0.1 mg. The many different serotypes of human adenoviruses (Ad) are divided into six subgroups, of which all Ad subgroup A and B and two subgroup D Ads can elicit tumors in infected rodents.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Two early mRNA species in adenovirus type 2 transformed rat cells. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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Tangen JM, Fløisand Y, Foss-Abrahamsen J, Haukås E, Næss IA, Skjelbakken T. Overlevelse hos voksne med akutt myelogen leukemi. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2008;128(10):1164-7. Gardin C, Turlure P, Fagot T, Thomas X, Terre C, Contentin N, et…. ...
RNA molecules from nuclear and cytoplasmic polyribosomes of adenovirus-infected HeLa cells were compared by hybridization to analyse the sequence content. Nuclear polyribosomes were released by exposure of intact detergent-washed nuclei to poly(U) and purified. Cytoplasmic polyribosomes were also purified from the same cells. To show that nuclear polyribosomes contain ribosomes linked by mRNA, polyribosomes were labelled with methionine and uridine in the presence of actinomycin D in adenovirus-infected cells. Purified nuclear polyribosomes were treated with EDTA under conditions which dissociate polyribosomes into ribosomes and subunits with a simultaneous release of mRNA, and sedimented. The treatment dissociated these polyribosomes, releasing the mRNA from them. Radiolabelled total RNA from each polyribosome population was fractionated in sucrose gradients into several pools or hybridized to intact adenovirus DNA to select virus-specific RNA. Sucrose-gradient-fractionated pool-3 RNA (about ...
The adenovirus E1B gene products are required for productive infection of human cells and for complete transformation of rodent cells in cooperation with the E1A gene products. Two major, unrelated polypeptides of 55,000 (55K) and 19,000 (19K) daltons are encoded by the E1B region. The 55K protein is required for efficient DNA replication, late mRNA transport to the cytoplasm and shut-off of cellular mRNA transport in productively infected cells. This protein is required for virus-mediated, but not DNA-mediated, transformation of rodent cells. It appears that the 55K protein does not directly contribute to cell transformation, but influences the oncogenicity of adenoviruses when they are inoculated into newborn hamsters. In contrast, the 19K protein is required for adenovirus induced cellular transformation and oncogenicity and localizes to membranes of the nuclear envelope, cytoplasm and the cell surface in transformed cells. This protein affects the efficiency of virus growth in some, but not ...
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Our study is the first report of an RSAd, in which the promoter-based regulation of E1A, approach is used to target the deregulated G1 to S phase in tumor cells. We demonstrated that AdE2F-1RC replicated selectively in tumor cells and not in normal cells expressing high and low levels of E2F-1 protein, respectively. Additionally, in two mouse xenograft models, AdE2F-1RC exhibited significant in vivo therapeutic benefit often equivalent to wild-type adenovirus treatment. These studies validate several design features of AdE2F-1RC.. The wild-type adenovirus dl309 replicated in all of the normal cells tested. We reasoned that normal resting cells would be a good model for AdE2F-1RC toxicity tests, because these cells do not express E2F-1 (44 , 45) and are found in the tumor environment. In contrast to dl309, the replication and CPE of AdE2F-1RC was significantly attenuated in normal cells suggesting that the E2F-1 promoter was not optimally activated. One reason is that the presence of pRb/E2F-1 ...
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This post is about adenovirus infection, a major cause of illness both minor and severe in the United States, especially among children in group settings.
101721 - Circunferência escrotal e medidas morfométricas em cordeiros da raça Santa Inês e F1 Santa Inês X Dorper - Scrotal circumference and morphometric measurements in lambs Santa Inês and F1 Dorper x Santa Inês | . La primera comunidad veterinaria de habla hispana con presencia en Espa a y Am rica del Sur.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Conserved region 2 of adenovirus E1A has a function distinct from pRb binding required to prevent cell cycle arrest by p16(INK4a) or p27(Kip1). AU - Alevizopoulos, Konstantinos. AU - Sanchez, Belén. AU - Amati, Bruno. PY - 2000/4/13. Y1 - 2000/4/13. N2 - Ectopic expression of the CDK inhibitors (CKIs) p16(INK4a) and p27(Kip1) in Rat1 fibroblasts induces dephosphorylation and activation of Retinoblastoma-family proteins (pRb, p107 and p130), their association with E2F proteins, and cell cycle arrest in G1. The growth-inhibitory action of p16, in particular, is believed to be mediated essentially via pRb activation. The 12S E1A protein of human Adenovirus 5 associates with pRb-family proteins via residues in its Conserved Regions (CR) 1 and 2, in particular through the motif LXCXE in CR2. These interactions are required for E1A to prevent G1 arrest upon co-expression of CKIs. We show here that mutating either of two conserved motifs adjacent to LXCXE in CR2, GFP and SDDEDEE, also ...
Adenovirus has been associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease and, with regard to infections among military recruits, who were routinely immunized against types 4 and 7 from 1971 until the cessation of vaccine production in 1996. Adenovirus became a significant cause of economic cost and morbidity in this setting. A live oral vaccine against adenovirus types 4 and 7 was approved for use in this population by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011, and subsequent incidence of acute respiratory disease declined.. Of interest is the role of adenoviruses as vectors in vaccination and in gene therapy. [1, 2, 3] Adenoviruses can infect various cells, both proliferating and quiescent, and thus hold the promise of targeting many different tissues and diseased cell lines.. The genome of adenovirus is well known and can be modified with relative ease to induce lysis or cytotoxicity of a specified cell line without affecting others.. The virus itself can be engineered to remove its ...
What is the definition of ADENOVIRUS? What is the meaning of ADENOVIRUS? How do you use ADENOVIRUS in a sentence? What are synonyms for ADENOVIRUS?
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells localize in the microcirculation in antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and have been postulated to be activated by donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies triggering their CD16a Fc receptors. However, direct evidence for NK cell CD16a triggering in AMR is lacking. We hypothesized that CD16a-inducible NK cell-selective transcripts would be expressed in human AMR biopsies and would offer evidence for CD16a triggering. METHODS: We stimulated human NK cells through CD16a in vitro, characterized CD16a-inducible transcripts, and studied their expression in human kidney transplant biopsies with AMR and in an extended human cell panel to determine their selectivity ...
13:2; potential epub Adenovirus notions; tenure bhakti 1? On the epub Adenovirus Methods and of this interest, are above under form. 1282 An epub Adenovirus Methods and Protocols: Adenoviruses, Ad study read by Porten - Szubin 1987:187.
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The RAPAd® method of Adenovirus construction, developed by ViraQuest Inc. scientists, has been used by other scientists around the world.. Request Quote ...
U n i S e t . _ _ i n i t _ _ def __init__(self, node): Constructor. = node.attrib[NAME_A] self.fpi = node.attrib.get(FPI_A, None ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Adenovirus infections in heart transplantation. AU - Florescu, Diana F.. AU - Kwon, Joong Y.. AU - Dumitru, Ioana. PY - 2013/7. Y1 - 2013/7. N2 - Adenovirus infections have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. The clinical significance of adenovirus disease in heart transplantation is not well-defined; in particular, the significance of adenovirus identification in myocardium remains unclear. Although severe adenovirus disease has been described in heart transplant recipients, adenovirus infections seem to be more frequently associated with increased risk of adverse cardiac events, such as rejection, ventricular dysfunction, coronary vasculopathy, need for retransplantation, and graft loss because of death. Cidofovir is currently considered the standard of treatment for adenovirus disease not responding to reduction of immunosuppression.. AB - Adenovirus infections have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The adenovirus E4 11k protein binds and relocalizes the cytoplasmic P-body component Ddx6 to aggresomes. AU - Greer, Amy E.. AU - Hearing, Patrick. AU - Ketner, Gary W. PY - 2011/8/15. Y1 - 2011/8/15. N2 - The adenovirus E4 11k protein, product of E4 ORF3, is required in infection for processes including normal accumulation of viral late mRNAs. 11. k restructures both the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells by relocalizing specific host cell target proteins, most strikingly components of nuclear PML oncogenic domains. It is likely that in many cases relocalization inactivates target proteins to produce 11. ks effects, although the mechanism and targets for stimulation of late mRNA accumulation is unknown. We have identified a new set of proteins relocalized by 11. k: at least five protein components of cytoplasmic mRNA processing bodies (p-bodies) are found in 11. k-induced cytoplasmic aggresomes, sites where proteins are inactivated or destroyed. One of these p-body ...
There are many stages in the development of a new drug for viral infection and such processes are even further complicated for adenovirus by the fact that there are at least 51 serotypes, forming six distinct groups (A-F), with different degree of infectivity. This review attempts to address the importance of developing pharmaceuticals for adenovirus and also review recent development in drug discovery for adenovirus, including newer strategies such as microRNA approaches. Different drug screening strategies will also be discussed.
Adenoviruses commonly infect humans, causing colds, flu-like symptoms and sometimes even death, but now UC San Francisco researchers have discovered that a new species of adenovirus can spread from primate to primate, and ...
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Abstract In addition to the comparison of the Gibbs negentropy ηG = ∫ Π ln Π to the Shannon negentropy ηs = ∑ EiΠi ln(EiΠi), discussed in the cited paper, a comparison of the former to ηs′=ηs−∑E i lnE i the decrease in uncertainty, is of general interest from an... mehr ...
... oncogene protein tpr-met MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045 - adenovirus early proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050 - adenovirus ... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.060 - adenovirus e2 ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.320 - fusion proteins, ...
Dorner, A. A. (1 August 2005). "Coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is essential for early embryonic cardiac development ... CAR (coxsackie and adenovirus receptor) also belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, same like JAM proteins. CAR is ... Some of TJ proteins act as a scaffolds, that connect integral proteins with the actin in a cytoskeleton. Others have an ability ... TJ proteins could be divided in different groups according to their function or localization in tight junction. TJ proteins are ...
Histone acetyltransferase p300 also known as p300 HAT or E1A-associated protein p300 (where E1A = adenovirus early region 1A) ... "Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the adenovirus E1A-associated 300-kD protein (p300) reveals a protein with ... "cAMP-response-element-binding-protein-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional co-activators of early growth response ... This gene encodes the adenovirus E1A-associated cellular p300 transcriptional co-activator protein. EP300 is closely related to ...
The early genes are responsible for expressing mainly non-structural, regulatory proteins. The goal of these proteins is ... replication of the adenovirus genome can occur. A terminal protein that is covalently bound to the 5' end of the adenovirus ... DNA replication separates the early and late phases. Once the early genes have liberated adequate virus proteins, replication ... The adenovirus life cycle is separated by the DNA replication process into two phases: an early and a late phase. In both ...
The early genes are responsible for expressing mainly non-structural, regulatory proteins. The goal of these proteins is ... Adenoviruses Stanford University-Adenoviruses Adenoviruses General Concepts General information on Adenovirus DNA virus ... DNA replication separates the early and late phases. Once the early genes have liberated adequate virus proteins, replication ... Tupaia adenovirus (TAV) (tree shrew adenovirus 1) has been isolated from tree shrews. Otarine adenovirus 1 has been isolated ...
Yew, P.; Berk, A. (1992). "Inhibition of p53 transactivation required for transformation by adenovirus early 1B protein". ... and the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein trimer. CAR is necessary for adenovirus infection. Although expressed widely ... For adenovirus replication to occur, the host cell must be induced into S phase by viral proteins interfering with cell cycle ... E1B proteins produced by adenoviruses protect the infected cell by binding to and degrading the p53 transcription factors, ...
... (E1A) is a gene expressed during adenovirus replication to produce a variety of E1A proteins. It is ... The adenovirus early region 1A gene is translated to produce E1A proteins by using the host cell's molecular machinery. Early ... Early proteins typically encode non-structural proteins that are necessary for replication, whereas late structural proteins ... The adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) 289R protein is composed of 289 amino acids, with four conserved regions: CR1 (42-80), CR2 ...
Early region 4 open-reading-frame 4 (E4orf4) is an adenovirus protein of 14kDa which regulates growth in all stages of the ... This protein binds to anti-apoptotic proteins resulting in these proteins' inhibition. As a p53 inducible gene, NOXA is ... NS1 is considered a regulatory protein due to its activity in transcription, translation, and protein-protein interactions, ... This protein, also known as viral protein 3 (VP3) was isolated from chickens, and has been shown to cause PCD in transformed ...
... regulating the protein, p73 in cervical cancer patients, using Adenovirus early region 1A, a tumor suppressor gene, the ... The research team led by Somasundaram and Phillipe Marin of INSERM validated the earlier findings and proposed a new ... Das, Sanjeev; Nama, Srikanth; Antony, Sini; Somasundaram, Kumaravel (2005). "p73β-expressing recombinant adenovirus: a ... "IGF2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) promotes glioma cell migration by enhancing the translation of RELA/p65". Oncotarget. 8 (25 ...
The adenovirus E1B protein (55K) prevents p53 from regulating genes by binding to the site on p53 which binds to the genome.[32 ... The adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) is an oncoprotein which binds to Rb and can stimulate transcription and transform cells.[ ... DNA oncoviruses typically impair two families of tumor suppressor proteins: tumor proteins p53 and the retinoblastoma proteins ... the HPV protein E6 binds to a cellular protein called the E6-associated protein (E6-AP, also known as UBE3A), forming a complex ...
The functions of many adenovirus proteins are known: Structural proteins include capsid proteins II (hexon), III (penton base ... The E1A, E1B, E2A, E2B, E3, and E4 transcription units are successively transcribed early in the viral reproductive cycle. The ... Control protein E1B 19K suppresses apoptosis by mimicking the action of cellular protein Bcl-2. Control protein E1B 55K binds ... Adenoviruses. Fundamentals of Molecular Virology (2 ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. "Protein Details for Human adenovirus E". ...
Using adenovirus-expressing SFRP1, impaired the canonical Wnt/Fzd pathway in the early phase of ischemia and as a result ... the SFRP1 netrin-related motif is also found in a range of other proteins that is thought to mediate protein-protein ... Loss of SFRP1 protein expression is associated with poor overall survival (OS) in patients with early breast cancer (pT1 ... Secreted frizzled-related protein 1, also known as SFRP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SFRP1 gene. Secreted ...
He earned his PhD from Uppsala University in 1986 for research investigating how the E19 protein of adenoviruses modulates the ... Pääbo is known as one of the founders of paleogenetics, a discipline that uses the methods of genetics to study early humans ... How the E19 protein of adenoviruses modulates the immune system (PhD thesis). Uppsala University. ISBN 9155419216. OCLC ...
The regimen is a combination of an adenovirus vector vaccine engineered against multiple global strains of HIV, and a protein ... The first phase I trial of the candidate vaccine in Africa was launched early in 1999 with Ugandan volunteers. The study ... The foremost issue facing the recombinant adenovirus that was used is the high prevalence of the adenovirus-specific antibodies ... Adenoviruses are among the main causes of upper respiratory tract ailments such as the common cold. Because the vaccine ...
pRb is one of the targets of the oncogenic human papilloma virus protein E7, and human adenovirus protein E1A. By binding to ... footprinting experiments obtained on Cdc2 and B-myb promoters demonstrated E2F DNA binding site occupation during G0 and early ... Most E2F have a pocket protein binding domain. Pocket proteins such as pRB and related proteins p107 and p130, can bind to E2F ... Homo sapiens E2F1 mRNA or E2F1 protein sequences from NCBI protein and nucleotide database. X-ray crystallographic analysis has ...
In Polyomavirus, the early proteins are T antigens. The late proteins make up the virus capsid. In Polyomaviruses, they are ... In Adenoviruses, it consists of two transcription units, IVa2 and IX. The late class consists primarily of structural proteins ... immediate-early 2) early and 3) late, and some refer to these same classes as 1) early 2) intermediate and 3) late. The former ... The early proteins produced in Papillomaviruses and Polyomaviruses regulate the cell cycle and activate DNA replication. In ...
It was hoped that the adenovirus vectors would carry these HIV-1 genes into the cell, and that this would result in the ... Enrollment in the South African arm of the trial began in early 2007 and ended in September 2007. Candidates for enrollment ... Each of the three vectors expressed a single gene encoding a protein from the HIV virus: gag, pol, or nef. ... The vaccine contained three separate replication-defective vectors based on Human Adenovirus C serotype 5 (HAdV-5). ...
... an external protein that enables the virus to enter cells, is responsible for the immune system response. In early April the ... The adenovirus cannot replicate, so does not cause further infection, and instead acts as a vector to transfer the SARS-CoV-2 ... Vialard, J E; Gilbert, C S; Green, C M; Lowndes, N F (1998-10-01). "The budding yeast Rad9 checkpoint protein is subjected to ... The team started research in January 2020, and managed to identify a chimpanzee adenovirus vector (ChAdOx) that generated a ...
These two VA RNA genes are distinct genes in the adenovirus genome. VA RNAI is the major species with VA RNAII expressed at a ... VAI stimulates the translation of both early and late viral genes including E3 and hexon. VAII does not stimulate translation. ... VAI RNA functions as a decoy RNA for the double stranded RNA activated protein kinase R which would otherwise phosphorylate ... The VA (viral associated) RNA is a type of non-coding RNA found in adenovirus. It plays a role in regulating translation. There ...
The Adenovirus produces five primary transcripts early in its infectious cycle, prior to viral DNA replication, and an ... Most of the activator proteins that bind to ISEs and ESEs are members of the SR protein family. Such proteins contain RNA ... When the RNA attached to that protein is isolated and cloned, it reveals the target sequences for that protein. Another method ... Females produce the master sex determination protein Sex lethal (Sxl). The Sxl protein is a splicing repressor that binds to an ...
Adenoviruses are a commonly utilized vector for this purpose. Much research has focused on the use of adenoviruses that cannot ... As p53 protein levels are usually kept low, one could block its degradation and allow large amounts of p53 to accumulate, thus ... Early clinical trials typically enroll a very small number of patients, and the purpose is to identify major safety issues and ... On average, 95% of the participants in these early trials receive no benefit, but all are exposed to the risk of adverse ...
He discovered two of the proteins required for adenoviruses to transform cells, and also other proteins that usurp the infected ... They also emerged as a vehicle for human gene therapy Also in the early 1960s, Green and others showed that human adenoviruses ... Lillie, J. W.; Loewenstein, P. M.; Green, M. R.; Green, M. (1987). "Functional domains of adenovirus type 5 E1a proteins". Cell ... Virology, 428 Loewenstein, P. M.; Green, M. (2011). "Expression of the Adenovirus Early Gene 1A Transcription-Repression Domain ...
Puri S, Bachert C, Fimmel CJ, Linstedt AD (September 2002). "Cycling of early Golgi proteins via the cell surface and endosomes ... Kladney RD, Tollefson AE, Wold WS, Fimmel CJ (September 2002). "Upregulation of the Golgi protein GP73 by adenovirus infection ... Golgi membrane protein 1 (GOLM1) also known as Golgi phosphoprotein 2 or Golgi membrane protein GP73 is a protein that in ... The protein encoded by this gene is a type II Golgi transmembrane protein. It processes protein synthesized in the rough ...
"C-terminal-binding protein interacting protein binds directly to adenovirus early region 1A through its N-terminal region and ... The CtBP1 protein was originally identified as a human protein that bound a PLDLS motif in the C-terminus of adenovirus E1A ... C-terminal-binding protein 1 also known as CtBP1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTBP1 gene. CtBP1 is one of two ... 1993). "A region in the C-terminus of adenovirus 2/5 E1a protein is required for association with a cellular phosphoprotein and ...
"Protective efficacy of adenovirus/protein vaccines against SIV challenges in rhesus monkeys". Science. 349 (6245): 320-324. ... Her early research focussed on whether HIV could infect other cells in the body than just T cells, including cells in the brain ... Schuitemaker demonstrated the efficacy of the adenovirus/protein vaccines against simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus ... Early in the corona pandemic, Schuitemaker announced Johnson & Johnson's ambition to develop a vaccine against the unknown ...
In early 2020, Vaccitech and the University of Oxford co-invented a vaccine for COVID-19 using the ChAdOx platform. Phase 3 ... The company's platform includes Chimpanzee Adenovirus Oxford (ChAdOx) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), two viral vectors ... expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein." Several subjects needed prophylactic paracetamol to minimize their adverse reactions ... randomised controlled trial in five trial sites in the UK of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) ...
... adenovirus early proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.050 - adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 - adenovirus e2 proteins ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062 - antigens, viral, tumor MeSH ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23. - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23. - antigens, polyomavirus ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.050 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.090 - antigens, polyomavirus ...
The vaccine consists of a DNA plasmid encoding the E and PrM proteins which make up the outer protein coat of the Zika virus ... Another vaccine platform makes use of Adenovirus as a vector and phase 1 studies will be complete in 2019. Adenoviruses have ... Initial results at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and at other hospitals involved in the early clinical trials were ... Based on a previous platform used to develop a West Nile virus vaccine, the DNA vaccine is designed to assemble protein ...
... (CAR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXADR gene. The protein encoded by ... "Coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is essential for early embryonic cardiac development". Journal of Cell Science. 118 ( ... "Protein sequence of human CXADR (Uniprot ID: P78310)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Archived from ... Law LK, Davidson BL (Jan 2002). "Adenovirus serotype 30 fiber does not mediate transduction via the coxsackie-adenovirus ...
A first case of the COVID-19 was confirmed in Buenos Aires on 3 March, in a 43-year-old man who had arrived two days earlier ... The antibodies were obtained by injecting a recombinant protein of SARS-CoV-2 in these animals, with in vitro testings ... Regarding the circulation of respiratory viruses, adenovirus, parainfluenza, influenza B and influenza A predominated as of ... Fernández had been previously received the full vaccination against the virus earlier on the same year. During the first week ...
TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ... For example, one study used the adenovirus TATA promoter sequence (5'-CGCTATAAAAGGGC-3') as a model binding sequence and found ... "Correlation of UGT1A1 TATA-box polymorphism and jaundice in breastfed newborns-early presentation of Gilbert's syndrome". The ... "TATA-binding protein recognition and bending of a consensus promoter are protein species dependent". Biochemistry. 47 (27): ...
... the adenovirus E1A proteins bind to the retinoblastoma gene product". Nature. 334 (6178): 124-9. Bibcode:1988Natur.334..124W. ... Founding and early years[edit]. The institution took root as The Biological Laboratory in 1890, a summer program for the ... See early DNALC annual reports: 1985: [10]; and 1988: [11]. For the educational milieu at the time hands-on learning caught on ... A.D. Hershey and Martha Chase, "Independent Functions of Viral Protein and Nucleic Acid in Growth of Bacteriophage," J. General ...
This creates a protein which works differently from the original version.[3] This is now used in genetic engineering. ... "Earlier it was believed that genes evolve mainly through the accumulation of small discrete changes in the genetic material. ... Roberts and Sharp independently found out that the genes in adenovirus (which causes the common cold), were split into segments ... It used to be thought that each gene on DNA coded for a single protein in a continuous strip. ...
The protein encoded by these early sequences, T-antigen, also plays a key role in viral proliferation,[11] directing the ... Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus. Rotavirus. Norovirus. Astrovirus. Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA ... A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes ( ... Immunohistochemical detection of JC virus protein (stained brown) in a brain biopsy (glial cells demonstrating progressive ...
The earliest recorded artificial induction of immunity in humans was by variolation or inoculation, which is the controlled ... even death from this procedure because the human body sometimes recognizes antibodies from other animals as foreign proteins.[ ... it had been demonstrated some years earlier by Benjamin Jesty, who had not publicized his discovery.[11] In 1798, Jenner ... "Empiricism and the Life Sciences in Early Modern Thought". The University of Sydney. ...
Egg protein is present in influenza and yellow fever vaccines, because they are made using chicken eggs. Vaccines may also ... These are added to help the immune system respond earlier, and more strongly, to the vaccine. They allow a lower dose of the ... adenovirus-2, leptospirosis, bordatella, canine parainfluenza virus, and Lyme disease. ... contain other proteins.. *Formaldehyde is used to kill bacteria for certain vaccines. It is also used to kill unwanted viruses ...
In the early days of vaccine manufacture, significant variations in the efficacy of different batches of the same vaccine were ... Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA (July 1997). "A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation ... essential adapter proteins in TLR signaling), they were still able to induce inflammatory responses, increase T cell activation ...
The vaccines are safe.[2] This includes their use in people with HIV/AIDS.[2] An earlier vaccine that is no longer used was ... Four reassortant rotaviruses express one of the outer capsid, VP7, proteins (serotypes G1, G2, G3, or G4) from the human ... The fifth reassortant virus expresses the attachment protein VP4, (type P1A), from the human rotavirus parent strain and the ... candidate made of the P2-VP8 fusion protein, which is currently undergoing development and trials in South Africa. Rotavirus ...
The team took the spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 and put it on an adenovirus. Then they injected that virus into test patients. ... "Trial drug can significantly block early stages of COVID-19 in engineered human tissues". Eurekalert. Retrieved April 5, 2020. ... Adenovirus vaccines[change , change source]. The adenovirus is the virus that causes the common cold.[1] It does not harm the ... This vaccine uses an adenovirus that has the spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 on it. Then the immune system learns to recognize ...
In fission yeast this complex contains argonaute, a chromodomain protein Chp1, and a protein called Tas3 of unknown function.[ ... Another early observation of RNAi came from a study of the fungus Neurospora crassa,[192] although it was not immediately ... adenovirus[150] and measles virus.[151] The other strategy is to block the initial viral entries by targeting the host cell ... This ancestral RNAi system probably contained at least one dicer-like protein, one argonaute, one PIWI protein, and an RNA- ...
When early aphthous ulcers are biopsied, the histologic appearance shows a dense inflammatory infiltrate, 80% of which is made ... adenovirus, and cytomegalovirus.[5] Some people with aphthous stomatitis may show herpes virus within the epithelium of the ... Persons with aphthous stomatitis also have circulating lymphocytes which react with peptides 91-105 of heat shock protein 65-60 ... Early lesions have a central zone of ulceration covered by a fibrinous membrane. In the connective tissue deep to the ulcer ...
The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... Early alterations include: *Cell shrinkage and rounding occur because of the retraction lamellipodia and the breakdown of the ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.[104] Some ... these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor-suppressing proteins.[83] These tumor-suppressing proteins regulate the ...
The viral capsid of a parvovirus is made up of two to four proteins, known as VP1-4 that form an icosahedral symmetry that is ... which only work with a helper virus such as adenovirus. Other viruses that can infect without helper viruses are called as ... "Early steps in cell infection by parvoviruses: host-specific differences in cell receptor binding but similar endosomal ... The mutation affects capsid proteins of feline parvovirus giving it the ability to infect dogs.[13] Both forms of the virus are ...
This process is aided by clathrin proteins. Once inside an early endosome, the endosome and the viral envelope fuse and the RNA ... Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus. Rotavirus. Norovirus. Astrovirus. Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA ... Structural proteins made by the hepatitis C virus include Core protein, E1 and E2; nonstructural proteins include NS2, NS3, ... The Alternate Reading Frame Protein/F-Protein, the Double-Frameshift Protein, and Others". Seminars in Liver Disease. 25 (1): ...
When these small RNAs are combined with the protein factors, they make RNA-protein complexes called snRNPs (small nuclear ribon ... Chow, L. T.; Roberts, J. M.; Lewis, J. B.; Broker, T. R. (1977). "A map of cytoplasmic RNA transcripts from lytic adenovirus ... or early (E) complex in mammals.[14][15] The commitment complex is an ATP-independent complex that commits the pre-mRNA to the ... but this process may be mediated through protein-protein interactions and/or base pairing interactions between U2 snRNA and U6 ...
In "The Cutter Incident" (see Cutter Laboratories incident), Offit describes fallout relating to an early poliovirus vaccine ... Brown KA, Offit PA (1998). "Rotavirus-specific proteins are detected in murine macrophages in both intestinal and ...
Researchers have discovered an abzyme that can destroy the protein gp120 CD4 binding site. This protein is common to all HIV ... Other vaccine trials continue worldwide including a mosaic vaccine using an adenovirus 26 vector[9] as well as a newer ... Active infection occurs in most cells, while latent infection occurs in much fewer cells 1, 2 and at very early stages of HIV ... Ferrantelli F; Cafaro A; Ensoli B (December 2004). "Nonstructural HIV proteins as targets for prophylactic or therapeutic ...
... mice by helper-dependent adenovirus-based expression of gulonolactone oxidase". Hum. Gene Ther. 19 (12): 1349-58. doi:10.1089/ ... so that it stopped producing GULO may have been of benefit to early primates by increasing uric acid levels and enhancing ... proteins. L-gulonolactone oxidase (EC is an enzyme that produces vitamin C, but is non-functional in Haplorrhini ( ... may have been a critical preadaptation which markedly enhanced the survival of early man with a G6PD deficiency living in a ...
Between early 2013 and early 2017, 916 lab-confirmed human cases of H7N9 were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO).[ ... Flu viruses attach to host cells via the hemagluttinin proteins on their envelope. These hemagluttinin proteins bind to sialic ... Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus. Rotavirus. Norovirus. Astrovirus. Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA ... In the four years from early 2013 to early 2017, 916 lab-confirmed human cases of H7N9 were reported to WHO.[12] ...
Sharp showed that protein coding adenovirus genes contained DNA sequences that were not present in the mature mRNA.[2][3] ... inspired a blossoming of R-loop research in the early 2000s that continues to this day.[12] ... RNaseH enzymes are the primary proteins responsible for the dissolution of R-loops, acting to degrade the RNA moiety in order ... After their discovery in adenovirus, introns were found in a number of eukaryotic genes such as the eukaryotic ovalbumin gene ( ...
The foremost issue facing the rAd5 adenovirus that was used is the high prevalence of the adenovirus-specific antibodies as a ... Biosantech has developed a novel vaccine called Tat Oyi, which aims at the tat protein. It is reported that the company's HIV ... The first phase I trial of the candidate vaccine in Africa was launched early in 1999 with Ugandan volunteers. The study ... Adenoviruses are among the main causes of upper respiratory tract ailments such as the common cold. Because the vaccine ...
Protein productionEdit. Main article: Expression vector. Another major use of plasmids is to make large amounts of proteins. In ... The term's early usage included any bacterial genetic material that exists extrachromosomally for at least part of its ... adenoviruses, and polyomaviruses, but some are plasmids. Other examples include aberrant chromosomal fragments, such as double ... Plasmids may also be used for gene transfer as a potential treatment in gene therapy so that it may express the protein that is ...
"The retinoblastoma protein binds to RIZ, a zinc-finger protein that shares an epitope with the adenovirus E1A protein". Proc. ... If both alleles of this gene are mutated early in life, the protein is inactivated and results in development of retinoblastoma ... The retinoblastoma protein (protein name abbreviated pRb; gene name abbreviated RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that ... protein binding. • androgen receptor binding. • identical protein binding. • enzyme binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding ...
... the plant could begin production as early as 2011 and be ready for full production as early as 2012, with an annual output of ... One approach to applying this tactic was reported in 2013 where a hemagglutinin protein microarray was used to examine the ... "Protection of mice and poultry from lethal H5N1 avian influenza virus through adenovirus-based immunization". J. Virol. 80 (4 ... "A recent NIAID-supported Phase II clinical trial of a vaccine produced by Protein Sciences Corporation using this strategy ...
... viral protein synthesis, possible assembly of viral proteins, then viral genome replication mediated by early or regulatory ... I: dsDNA viruses (e.g. Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, Poxviruses). *II: ssDNA viruses (+ strand or "sense") DNA (e.g. ... The same protein may act as the subunit of both the pentamers and hexamers or they may be composed of different proteins.[81]. ... These proteins go on to become either new virions within the cell, helper proteins, which help assembly of new virions, or ...
The earliest infections of humans by H5N1 coincided with an epizootic (an epidemic in nonhumans) of H5N1 influenza in Hong ... Of particular concern is elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, a protein associated with tissue destruction at sites ... "Protection of Mice and Poultry from Lethal H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus through Adenovirus-Based Immunization". J. Virol. 80 (4 ... The N in H5N1 stands for "Neuraminidase", the protein depicted in this ribbon diagram. ...
When diagnosed early, oral, head and neck cancers can be treated more easily and the chances of survival increase tremendously ... Gendicine is a gene therapy that employs an adenovirus to deliver the tumor suppressor gene p53 to cells. It was approved in ... HPV can induce tumor by several mechanisms: E6 and E7 oncogenic proteins. Disruption of tumor suppressor genes. High-level DNA ... The difficulty in swallowing can lead to a person to choke on their food in the early stages of digestion and interfere with ...
The earliest record of an epidemic caused by hepatitis B virus was made by Lurman in 1885.[104] An outbreak of smallpox ... Thomas, Bruce (2002). Production of Therapeutic Proteins in Plants. p. 4. ISBN 9781601072542. Archived from the original on 28 ... Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus. Rotavirus. Norovirus. Astrovirus. Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA ... However, early in an infection, this antigen may not be present and it may be undetectable later in the infection as it is ...
1887-1942: Early historyEdit. The company sold medicated plasters such as Johnson & Johnson's Black Perfect Taffeta Court ... The vaccine uses an replication-incompetent human adenovirus.[112]. In July 2020, Johnson & Johnson pledged to deliver up to ... which targets both CD19 and CD3 proteins in treating B-cell malignant tumours. This could net MacroGenics up to $700 million.[ ... In the early 1990s, the marketing departments of Cilag and Janssen Pharmaceutica joined to form Janssen-Cilag. The non- ...
HEV has three open reading frames (ORFs) encoding two polyproteins (O1 and O2 protein). ORF2 encodes three capsid proteins ... the earliest known epidemic of hepatitis E occurred in 1955 in New Delhi,[9] but the virus was not isolated until 1983, by ... Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus. Rotavirus. Norovirus. Astrovirus. Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA ... Geldanamycin blocks the transport of HEV239 capsid protein, but not the binding/entry of the truncated capsid protein, which ...
E1A protein has both transforming and trans-activating activities. Induces the disassembly of the E2F1 transcription factor ... Interaction with RBX1 and CUL1 inhibits ubiquitination of the proteins targeted by SCF(FBXW7) ubiquitin ligase complex, and may ... would arrest the cell proliferation and direct its death but this effect is counteracted by the viral protein E1B-55K. ... Isoform early E1A 32 kDa protein and isoform early E1A 26 kDa protein interact (via N-terminus) with CUL1 and E3 ubiquitin ...
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are ... E29 Protein, Adenovirus; E29 Proteins, Adenovirus; Early Proteins, Adenovirus; Protein, Adenovirus E19; Protein, Adenovirus E29 ... Proteins, Adenovirus E19; Proteins, Adenovirus E29; Adenovirus E19 Proteins; Adenovirus E29 Proteins; Adenovirus Early Region ... Neoplasm Proteins: 2*Oncogene Proteins: 1748*Viral Oncogene Proteins: 10*Adenovirus Early Proteins: 2*Adenovirus E3 Proteins: 2 ...
... early region 1A (E1A) protein and both the mouse retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and the mouse pRb-related protein, p107. ... Interactions between MAV-1 E1A and mouse pRb or mouse p107 proteins were examined in infected cell ly … ... We demonstrated functional associations between mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) ... Interaction of mouse adenovirus type 1 early region 1A protein with cellular proteins pRb and p107 Virology. 1996 Oct 1;224(1): ...
... of a therapeutic vaccine regimen with recombinant DNA and adenovirus expressing L523S protein in patients with early stage non- ... Immunogenicity Of Sequential Administration Of Recombinant DNA And Adenovirus Expressing L523S Protein In Patients With Early ... To provide initial evidence as to whether CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses specific for L523S protein can be elicited by two ...
This study presents an approach for inhibiting p53-deficient tumor cell growth by using protein-based E4orf4 ... protein is a novel cell death factor that selectively induces p53-independent apoptosis in cancer cells, but not in normal ... Adenovirus early region 4 open reading frame 4 (E4orf4) protein is a novel cell death factor that selectively induces p53- ... Cytotoxicity of a recombinant fusion protein of adenovirus early region 4 open reading frame 4 (E4orf4) and human epidermal ...
Sequence analysis of bovine adenovirus type 3 early region 3 and fibre protein genes * ... Sequence analysis of bovine adenovirus type 3 early region 3 and fibre protein genes, Page 1 of 1 ... Characteristics of a Human Cell Line Transformed by DNA from Human Adenovirus Type 5 F. L. Graham, J. Smiley, W. C. Russell and ...
To determine the requirements for the individual Ad2 E1B proteins during the transformation of rodent cells, viral mutants were ... E1B proteins. Point mutations generating stop codons very early in the coding sequences were constructed to prevent the ... Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA ... Studies with a third mutant virus, pm2022, which contains a stop codon after the second codon of the 495R protein, suggest that ...
Early viral proteins in HeLa cells infected with adenovirus type 5 host range mutants. In: Virology. 1980 ; Vol. 103, No. 2. pp ... Early viral proteins in HeLa cells infected with adenovirus type 5 host range mutants. Virology. 1980 Jun;103(2):475-492. https ... Early viral proteins in HeLa cells infected with adenovirus type 5 host range mutants. / Ross, Susan R.; Levine, Arnold J.; ... Ross, SR, Levine, AJ, Galos, RS, Williams, J & Shenk, T 1980, Early viral proteins in HeLa cells infected with adenovirus type ...
Localization of the adenovirus early region 1B 55-kilodalton protein during lytic infection: Association with nuclear viral ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Localization of the adenovirus early region 1B 55-kilodalton protein during lytic ... Association with nuclear viral inclusions requires the early region 4 34-kilodalton protein. Together they form a unique ...
... This procedure facilitated the detection of six early viral-induced polypeptides, designated EP1 through EP6 (early protein), ... Detection of adenovirus type 2-induced early polypeptides using cycloheximide pretreatment to enhance viral protein synthesis ... Since CH pretreatment appears to increase the levels of early viral proteins, it may be a useful procedure to assist their ...
Effect of adenoviral early genes and the host immune system on in vivo pancreatic gene transfer in the mouse. Pancreas. 1997 ... "Adenovirus E2 Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Adenovirus E2 Proteins" was a major or ... "Adenovirus E2 Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication. ...
The second exon-encoded region of E1A is conserved across all E1A isoforms except for the 55 residues protein, which has a ... the first encoding 185 amino acids in the 289 residues adenovirus 5 E1A, while the second exon encodes 104 residues. ... Adenovirus Early 1A proteins (E1A) are crucial for initiation of the viral life cycle after infection. The E1A gene is encoded ... the first comprehensive insight into the contributions of the C-terminus of E1A to the replicative fitness of human adenovirus ...
Adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) is a gene expressed during adenovirus replication to produce a variety of E1A proteins. It is ... The adenovirus early region 1A gene is translated to produce E1A proteins by using the host cells molecular machinery. Early ... Early proteins typically encode non-structural proteins that are necessary for replication, whereas late structural proteins ... The adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) 289R protein is composed of 289 amino acids, with four conserved regions: CR1 (42-80), CR2 ...
An immunodominant domain in adenovirus type 2 early region 1A proteins.. Tsukamoto AS, Ferguson B, Rosenberg M, Weissman IL, ... Genetic mapping of a major site of phosphorylation in adenovirus type 2 E1A proteins. ...
... and ProteinsProteinsNeoplasm ProteinsOncogene ProteinsOncogene Proteins, ViralAdenovirus Early ProteinsAdenovirus E4 Proteins ... and ProteinsProteinsViral ProteinsOncogene Proteins, ViralAdenovirus Early ProteinsAdenovirus E4 Proteins ... Adenovirus E4 Proteins. Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates ... All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryBiological FactorsAntigensAntigens, ViralAdenovirus Early ProteinsAdenovirus E4 ...
Yew, P.; Berk, A. (1992). "Inhibition of p53 transactivation required for transformation by adenovirus early 1B protein". ... and the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein trimer. CAR is necessary for adenovirus infection. Although expressed widely ... For adenovirus replication to occur, the host cell must be induced into S phase by viral proteins interfering with cell cycle ... E1B proteins produced by adenoviruses protect the infected cell by binding to and degrading the p53 transcription factors, ...
1999) Role of the type 5 adenovirus gene encoding the early region 1B 55-kDa protein in pulmonary pathogenesis. Proc. Natl. ... 1992) Inhibition of p53 transactivation required for transformation by adenovirus early 1B protein. Nature 357:82-85. ... 2000) Tumor-specific, replication-competent adenovirus vectors overexpressing the adenovirus death protein. J. Virol. 74:6147- ... 1993) Selective effects on adenovirus late gene expression of deleting the E1b 55K protein. J. Gen. Virol. 74:575-582. ...
Adenovirus type 12 early region 1 proteins: a study of their subcellular localization and protein-protein interactions. J Gen ... C-terminal-binding protein interacting protein binds directly to adenovirus early region 1A through its N-terminal region and ... Control of p53 expression by adenovirus 12 early region 1A and early region 1B 54K proteins. Virology. 1996 Apr 01; 218(1):23- ... Consequences of disruption of the interaction between p53 and the larger adenovirus early region 1B protein in adenovirus E1 ...
Association of adenovirus early-region 1A proteins with cellular polypeptides. Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:1579-1589. ... The Derlin family proteins are ER transmembrane proteins that are important for targeting certain misfolded proteins from the ... The ER protein disulfide isomerase or other protein disulfide isomerase-like proteins can cause conformational changes in VP1 ... Adenovirus protein VI mediates membrane disruption following capsid disassembly. J. Virol. 79:1992-2000. ...
Acylation of the 176R (19-kilodalton) early region 1B protein of human adenovirus type 5. J. Virol. 61: 3227-3234. ... Single-molecule microscopy reveals plasma membrane microdomains created by protein-protein networks that exclude or trap ... Alternatively, CD2 cysteines may perhaps help establishing protein-protein interaction with raft-resident molecules, although ... and that other proteins or protein complexes mediate the CD2-Lck interaction at the membrane-proximal level and help directing ...
The role of human adenovirus early region 3 proteins (gp19K, 10.4K, 14.5K, and 14.7K) in a murine pneumonia model. J Virol 1996 ... Macrophage delivery of adenovirus to hypoxic areas of human prostate tumors. *. Delivery of a GFP-expressing adenovirus to ... Plasmid construction and adenoviruses. The techniques for constructing HRE-regulated E1A/B plasmids and adenoviruses (CMV-AdV5- ... upregulated E1A protein, and released multiple copies of adenovirus. The virus then infected neighboring cells but only ...
H. Esche, M. Reuther and K. Schughart (1984) Early and late proteins of adenovirus type 12: translation. mapping with RNA ... K. Schughart, E. Bause and H. Esche (1985) Structure and expression of adenovirus type 12 E1B 58K protein. in infected and ... K. Schughart, B. von Wilcken-Bergmann and H. Esche (1987) Expression of adenovirus type 12 E1b 58-kDa protein. in Escherichia ... Publications from earlier years. W. Kramer, K. Schughart and H.-J. Fritz (1982) Directed mutagenesis of DNA cloned in ...
... (AdVs) are non‐enveloped DNA virusesthat can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations including respiratory, ... Tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulates expression of adenovirus early region 3 proteins: implications for viral persistence. ... 1998) The coxsackievirus‐adenovirus receptor protein can function as a cellular attachment protein for adenovirus serotypes ... 2014) Adenovirus Death Protein (ADP) is required for lytic infection of human lymphocytes. Journal of Virology 88: 903-912. ...
S.R. Ross, S.J. Flint, and A.J. Levine, Identification of the adenovirus early proteins and their genomic map positions. ... P.A. Peterson, and L. Rask, HLA-DR transplantation antigen chain is a member of the same protein superfamily as the ... J. Hérissé, G. Courtois, and F. Galivert, Nucleotide sequence of the EcoRI D fragment of adenovirus 2-genome. Nucleic Acids Res ... Transplantation antigens are encoded by eight exons that correlate with protein domains. Cell 25: 683-692 (1981)PubMedCrossRef ...
1988) Two regions of the adenovirus early region 1A proteins are required for transformation. J. Virol. 62:257-265. ... This is reminiscent of the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein, which also targets the RB family of proteins. Like TAg, adenovirus E1A ... 1992) Adenovirus E1A makes two distinct contacts with the retinoblastoma protein. J. Virol. 66:4606-4611. ... 1993) Independent regions of adenovirus E1A are required for binding to and dissociation of E2F-protein complexes. Mol. Cell. ...
We are currently employing proteomic techniques to identify novel adenovirus early region-binding proteins in adenovirus- ... Consequences of disruption of the interaction between p53 and the larger adenovirus early region 1B protein in adenovirus E1 ... i) the role of adenovirus early region proteins in viral replication and cellular transformation. ... He is also interested in how the cellular proteins targeted by adenovirus function to control fundamental cellular pathways. ...
Complex Effect of Adenovirus Early Region Proteins on Innate Immune System. Inflammation & Allergy - Drug Targets (Discontinued ... Abstract: Cytochrome P450s comprise a superfamily of heme-thiolate proteins named for the spectral absorbance peak of their ... Cytochrome P450s comprise a superfamily of heme-thiolate proteins named for the spectral absorbance peak of their carbon- ... Therapies for Hepatitis C Infection: Targeting the Non-Structural Proteins of HCV. Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Infective ...
25 Animal data suggest that adenovirus 36 induces early adipocyte inflammation via monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), ... IRH was common; one-third of children in our cohort had an IRH by age 5 years and ,40% by early middle age. Early-childhood IRH ... Because there were no age × early-childhood IRH or gender × early-childhood IRH interactions on adulthood outcomes, all ... Differences in BMI between those with and without early-childhood IRH became apparent in early adulthood, indicating that ...
1985) Monoclonal antibodies specific for adenovirus early region 1A proteins: extensive heterogeneity in early region 1A ... 1993) The adenovirus E1A-associated 130kD protein is encoded by a member of the retinoblastoma gene family and physically ... 1992) Interaction between human cyclin A and adenovirus E1A-associated p107 protein. Science 255:87-90. ... After washing, proteins bound to glutathione-agarose were separated by SDS-PAGE, and35S-labeled proteins were visualized by ...
Adenovirus early region 4 34-kilodalton protein directs the nuclear localization of the early region 1B 55-kilodalton protein ... Adenovirus early region 4 34-kilodalton protein directs the nuclear localization of the early region 1B 55-kilodalton protein ... The early region 1B 55-kilodalton oncoprotein of adenovirus relieves growth restrictions imposed on viral replication by the ... The early region 1B 55-kilodalton oncoprotein of adenovirus relieves growth restrictions imposed on viral replication by the ...
  • The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. (
  • Effect of adenoviral early genes and the host immune system on in vivo pancreatic gene transfer in the mouse. (
  • This is in contrast to late proteins which are produced from late phase genes. (
  • Adenovirus protein regulation of viral genes has been studied in adenovirus type-5, or Ad5. (
  • AdCox2Lluc is a CRAd targeted against oesophageal adenocarcinoma by placing the early genes under the control of a Cox-2 promoter (adenoviruses have two early genes, E1A and E1B, that are essential for replication). (
  • To permit rational targeting of colon tumors, we have developed replicating adenoviruses that express the viral E1B and E2 genes from promoters controlled by the Tcf4 transcription factor. (
  • To achieve a productive infection, the viral genome has to be delivered to the nucleus, where early genes are expressed, followed by DNA replication, late protein expression, and virion assembly. (
  • In this approach, macrophages were cotransduced with a hypoxia-regulated E1A/B construct and an E1A-dependent oncolytic adenovirus, whose proliferation is restricted to prostate tumor cells using prostate-specific promoter elements from the TARP, PSA, and PMSA genes. (
  • p53 and pRB are well-established tumor suppressor proteins, and their corresponding genes are commonly lost or mutated in human cancer. (
  • We exploited the ability of the adenovirus early region 1 A protein (E1A) oncogene to force the reentry into the cell cycle of terminally differentiated cells in order to identify and characterize genes whose expression is upregulated in this process. (
  • A subset of these genes was activated through a retinoblastoma protein/E2 viral promoter required factor-independent (pRb/E2F-independent) mechanism and was overexpressed in a fraction of human cancers. (
  • Human adenovirus early region 4 open reading frame 1 genes encode growth-transforming proteins that may be distantly related to dUTP pyrophosphatase enzymes. (
  • Schematic diagram of the linear adenovirus genome, showing Early genes (E) and Late genes (L). (
  • The invention also includes constructs useful for screening of agents which interact with proteins or genes in the hypoxia-inducible pathway or are jointly translated under hypoxia and animal models useful for monitoring a variety of hypoxic conditions in a non-invasive manner. (
  • What adenovirus protein or proteins regulate early transcription of the viral genes and modulate the cell cycle? (
  • This combination of high-throughput sequencing and protein identification technologies allows detection of genes and proteins. (
  • We show that this approach can also be used to highlight genes and proteins undergoing dynamic changes in post-transcriptional protein stability. (
  • Genes for the major structural proteins (e.g. (
  • Plasmids containing region Ela only or a plasmid carrying mutations in the genes for major Elb proteins all transformed primary cells with an efficiency of approximately 5% of wild type. (
  • Z protein, encoded by viral BZLF1 gene, is a potent transactivator of multiple viral and cellular genes critical for switching from latent to lytic cycle. (
  • Abstract- As distal targets and mediators of signal transduction pathways, activator protein-1 (AP-1), c-Jun, and c-Fos are among the primary regulators of genes involved in cell function, proliferation, and differentiation. (
  • The HCMV major IE (MIE) genes UL123 (IE1) and UL122 (IE2) play critical roles in predisposing the cellular environment to infection and also act as transactivators to induce early gene transcription. (
  • Many early genes encode proteins required for viral DNA synthesis [19] - [21] . (
  • however, the continued accumulation of a subset of genes (i.e., early-late) is enhanced by the onset of viral DNA synthesis [22] . (
  • Following viral DNA replication, late viral genes, which mainly encode structural proteins, start to transcribe and ultimately lead to the assembly and release of infectious particles. (
  • Target genes of homeodomain proteins. (
  • Of these, the ability of adenoviruses to efficiently infect and deliver genes to a range of cells and to be generated to high titres has led to their widespread application. (
  • 4 They have been modified by deletion of the E1 region, which encodes proteins that regulate expression of the other early genes (as well as the late virus structural proteins), thereby rendering virus replication defective. (
  • Studies with a third mutant virus, pm2022, which contains a stop codon after the second codon of the 495R protein, suggest that very low levels of 495R protein activity are sufficient for a productive infection and significant transforming activity. (
  • Several classes of adenovirus type 5 host range mutants have been isolated, These mutants replicate in Ads-transformed human embryonic kidney cells (293 cells) but at low multiplicities of infection fail to replicate in HeLa cells. (
  • At low multiplicities of infection most group I mutants failed to produce detectable levels of virus proteins derived from regions E1, E2, or E3 of the viral genome. (
  • Adenovirus Early 1A proteins (E1A) are crucial for initiation of the viral life cycle after infection. (
  • Almost an hour after viral infection, the virus undergoes transcription to form a primary gene E1A which undergoes alternative splicing, a regulated process where multiple protein isoforms are encoded by a primary gene via exons, parts of exons or introns being differentially joined or skipped. (
  • CAR is necessary for adenovirus infection. (
  • In this report, we characterized several early events during BKV infection in primary human renal proximal tubule epithelial (RPTE) cells, which are natural host cells for BKV. (
  • Our results demonstrate that BKV infection in RPTE cells involves an acidic environment relatively early during entry, followed by transport along the microtubule network to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (
  • A dominant negative form of Derlin-1, an ER protein required for retro-translocation of certain misfolded proteins, inhibited BKV infection. (
  • BKV infection is ubiquitous in the human population and occurs during early childhood ( 24 ). (
  • Early diagnosis of AdVs infections is critical for patient management and infection control measurements. (
  • Adenovirus species C can establish a latent infection in lymphocytes of the tonsils and adenoid tissue. (
  • 2011). These studies have also determined that the adenovirus E1B55K-binding protein, E1B-AP5 (also known as hnRNPUL1) is an integral component of ATR signalling pathways activated during infection (Blackford et al . (
  • In order to determine to what extent adenovirus targets the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway during infection we also employ proteomic techniques in order to identify those proteins whose expression is affected significantly by adenovirus infection or during the process of adenovirus-mediated cellular transformation. (
  • Adenovirus cement proteins play crucial roles in virion assembly, disassembly, cell entry, and infection. (
  • Surprisingly, the endogenous MKRN1 protein underwent proteasomal degradation during the prolonged HAdV-5 infection. (
  • Hence, we propose that the MKRN1 is a novel antiviral protein and that HAdV-5 infection counteracts its antiviral activity. (
  • The pattern of PML isoforms was altered in adenovirus-infected cells, in that a number of additional isoform bands appeared in an Orf3-dependent manner, one of which became predominant later in infection. (
  • instead, adenoviruses seem to be able to linger around in what seems to be a low-level active infection, without doing any particular harm. (
  • There was no evidence for an increased prevalence of infection with a closely related adenovirus, adenovirus 18, or another enteric virus, Echovirus 11, among coeliac disease subjects. (
  • 1 Central to ongoing efforts to develop highly effective vaccines against malaria infection, disease, or transmission is the production of recombinant proteins for use as subunit vaccines. (
  • Upon in vivo challenge with mouse adenovirus 1 (MAV-1), mice lacking TRIM21 succumb to fatal viral infection within 7 days [ 5 ]. (
  • What type of specimen would be most appropriate for detection of adenovirus types 40 and 41 infection in this patient? (
  • Thus vaccines to combat FMDV infection have been developed to generate antibodies against the capsid proteins. (
  • The first lentiviral vectors were derived from human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) but were pseudotyped by using the envelope glycoproteins from other viruses such as the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G), a fusion protein used to improve infection efficiency. (
  • There are many stages in the development of a new drug for viral infection and such processes are even further complicated for adenovirus by the fact that there are at least 51 serotypes, forming six distinct groups (A-F), with different degree of infectivity. (
  • Infection by adenovirus starts with the binding of fibers to a specific receptor on the cell surface. (
  • Finally, we describe a putative triglyceride lipase (merged ORF-18/19) with additional domains, which can be expected to have specific roles during the infection of birds, since they are unique to avian adenoviruses and Marek's disease-like viruses, a group of pathogenic avian herpesviruses. (
  • The adenovirus Y4 open-reading-frame 4 (Y4orf4) protein regulates the progression of viral infection and when expressed individually it induces nonclassical apoptosis in transformed cells. (
  • We have investigated the contribution of each of the two adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) major early region lb (Elb) proteins in cell transformation and in lytic infection. (
  • Even if not the body might remember the enemy and recognize it early on during the infection instead of days or weeks later when it's too late. (
  • What is adenovirus infection? (
  • How can I treat an adenovirus infection? (
  • If you have an adenovirus infection of the eye (s), there is no known anti-viral product available. (
  • What are symptoms of adenovirus infection? (
  • Anyone had adenovirus infection and done ok? (
  • What are the tests for adenovirus infection? (
  • What sort of problem is an adenovirus infection? (
  • Does adenovirus infection usually cause many symptoms? (
  • What is the definition or description of: Adenovirus infection? (
  • Can a child get adenovirus infection twice in a month, or would it be the same infection getting a relapse? (
  • Adenovirus infection most often involves upper respiratory tract causing common cold and sore throat ( pharyngitis or tonsillitis ). (
  • The commonly used first generation recombinant adenovirus vectors are based on adenovirus type 5, which causes mild respiratory infection in humans. (
  • In practice this has not always been the case and studies in rodents, primates, and humans have provided variable results, highlighting the need for a more detailed understanding of the natural history of adenovirus infection in humans and questioning the value of animal models in determining the safety of virus vectors. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus ensures B cell survival by uniquely modulating apoptosis at early and late times after infection. (
  • Kayamba V, Monze M, Asombang AW, Zyambo K, Kelly P. Serological response to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen is associated with gastric cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zambian adults: a case-control study. (
  • Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. (
  • Adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) is a gene expressed during adenovirus replication to produce a variety of E1A proteins. (
  • During viral replication, adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) is a gene that is expressed. (
  • Early proteins are produced after the virus enters the host cell, but before replication. (
  • Early proteins typically encode non-structural proteins that are necessary for replication, whereas late structural proteins typically function to initiate gene expression. (
  • The E1A gene refers to the gene that encodes E1A proteins specifically involved in adenovirus replication. (
  • For adenovirus replication to occur, the host cell must be induced into S phase by viral proteins interfering with cell cycle proteins. (
  • Both the α-fetoprotein and prostate-specific antigen promoters have been used to regulate E1A expression in replicating adenoviruses, resulting in a 100-fold selectivity of virus replication for cells with the relevant defects ( 16 , 30 , 43 ). (
  • and the noncoding control region, which contains promoter elements for both the early and late regions and the origin of DNA replication ( 5 ). (
  • When such cotransduced cells reach an area of extreme hypoxia, the E1A/B proteins are expressed, thereby activating replication of the adenovirus. (
  • This novel delivery system employs 3 levels of tumor specificity: the natural "homing" of macrophages to hypoxic tumor areas, hypoxia-induced proliferation of the therapeutic adenovirus in host macrophages, and targeted replication of oncolytic virus in prostate tumor cells. (
  • i) the role of adenovirus early region proteins in viral replication and cellular transformation. (
  • We anticipate that this approach will help identify proteins that function in DNA damage response pathways or anti-viral/stress response pathways and that are targeted by adenovirus in order to facilitate viral replication and/or promote adenovirus-mediated cellular transformation. (
  • Additional cyclin E-cdk2 substrates likely include modulators of transcription factors ( 21 ), as well as components of the DNA replication complex such as the single-stranded DNA binding replication protein A and DNA polymerase α ( 71 ). (
  • Replication-deficient adenoviruses are among the most frequently used vectors for human gene therapy. (
  • Adenovirus 5 (Ad5) E4ORF1 has been shown to bind to MYC in the nucleus to activate glycolytic targets that promote a Warburg-like shift to anaerobic glycolysis that converts glucose into nucleotides for viral replication ( 10 ). (
  • Adenoviruses possess a linear dsDNA genome and are able to replicate in the nucleus of vertebrate cells using the host's replication machinery. (
  • Based on the Ad5 genome, we have generated three types of telomerase-specific replication-competent oncolytic adenoviruses: OBP-301 (Telomelysin), green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing OBP-401 (TelomeScan), and tumor suppressor p53-armed OBP-702. (
  • 7. As a general rule all DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus, except the Pox viruses which replicate in the cytoplasm We will use Adenoviruses as a model system for understanding replication of DNA viruses in general Most DNA viruses are naked (see model of soccer ball), with 12 blue penton bases on the vertices and 20 yellow hexons on the rest of the face. (
  • This sets up the general replication scheme: first of enzymes to help the virus replicate (early stage), then double-stranded DNA replication (semi-conservative mode) begins (late stage), followed by translation of structural proteins, such as the penton and hexon precursors. (
  • Vidarabine specifically inhibits adenovirus type 11 replication without obvious cytotoxicity in vitro. (
  • Vidarabine acts less on the synthesis of early proteins but rather on those after DNA replication. (
  • We show that a ubiquitous immune protein called TRIM21 intercepts virions immediately after they enter the cytosol and exposes their genomes to nucleic acid sensors, thereby activating immune transcription pathways before genome replication commences. (
  • AZD1222 was cocreated by the University of Oxford and its company, Vaccitech, through a replication-deficient chimpanzee viral vector based on a weakened version of adenovirus, a common cold virus, which causes infections in chimpanzees. (
  • This surprising result suggests that the basic properties of the replication cycle are similar in both groups whereas they encode a completely different set of proteins for host interaction. (
  • The adenovirus life cycle is separated, by the DNA replication process, into two phases: an early and a late phase. (
  • To enable gene transcription, DNA replication, DNA DNA and restoration recombination in the eukaryotic cell, several proteins elements must get gain access to to the genome that can be firmly loaded in chromatin. (
  • Caviness, K., L. Cicchini, M. Rak, M. Umashankar, and F. Goodrum, 'Complex expression of the UL136 gene of human cytomegalovirus results in multiple protein isoforms with unique roles in replication. (
  • Cytoplasmic gene expression and replication, so viral core has to carry all necessary proteins. (
  • Production of adenovirus vectors and their use as a delivery system for influenza vaccines. (
  • Development of nonhuman adenoviruses as vaccine vectors. (
  • Recently, high-resolution structures of recombinant HAdV5 vectors have been determined using cryo-EM ( 11 ) and X-ray methods ( 12 ) that revealed the structures and organization of some of the cement proteins. (
  • Recombinant forms of adenovirus are used as gene delivery vectors. (
  • In addition to the physical barriers that protect the brain (bone and three layers of meninges), the earliest gene delivery systems, the retroviral vectors, require cell division to integrate the transgenes into their genomes to express any transgenes. (
  • Impact of adenovirus life cycle progression on the generation of canine helper-dependent vectors. (
  • Helper-dependent adenovirus vectors (HDVs) are safe and efficient tools for gene transfer with high cloning capacity. (
  • Canine adenovirus (Ad) type 2 vectors, holding attractive features to overcome immunogenic concerns and treat neurobiological disorders, were the focus of this work. (
  • In this review we will consider the nature of adenovirus toxicity and the development of improved adenovirus vectors. (
  • What's toxic about adenovirus vectors? (
  • In the present study, we tested by the hypothesis that the Th1 immune response to CS protein, in particular the CD8 + T-cell response, which is needed for strong and lasting malaria immunity, is boosted to sustainable levels vectors adenovirus and 26 with an homologous insert 35 (Ad35.CS/Ad26.CS). (
  • The E1A gene is encoded at the left end of the viral genome and consists of two exons, the first encoding 185 amino acids in the 289 residues adenovirus 5 E1A, while the second exon encodes 104 residues. (
  • Based on cryo-electron microscopy analysis of BKV-like particles ( 26 ) and the crystal structures of mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) and SV40 ( 51 , 52 ), the BKV major capsid protein VP1 forms the outer shell of the capsid, with the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 forming a bridge linking the VP1 shell and the viral genome. (
  • To understand the molecular basis of observed regional shifts in the genome types of adenovirus type 7 (Ad7) isolated in Korea during nationwide outbreaks from 1995 to 2000, the genetic variabilities of Ad7d and Ad7l were studied by sequence analysis of hexon, fiber, E3, and E4 open reading frame (ORF) 6/7 peptides. (
  • Ad7d was identified as early as 1980 in Beijing and was subsequently replaced by Ad7b, which then became the predominant genome type in China through the 1990s ( 5 ). (
  • Previously, sequence variations among the different genome types of Ad7 strains have been observed at 2 variable regions of the hexon gene and in a 14.9-kDa protein encoded by an ORF in the E3 region ( 6 , 14 ). (
  • The uncoupling between high-number genome copies of adenoviruses detected by real-time PCR and the absence of infectivity detected by tissue culture suggests that genome-based detection methods are inadequate for direct assessment of human health risk. (
  • Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae ) are medium-sized (90-100 nm ), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome. (
  • The adenovirus genome is linear, non-segmented double-stranded (ds) DNA that is between 26 and 48 Kbp . (
  • An interesting feature of this viral genome is that it has a terminal 55 kDa protein associated with each of the 5' ends of the linear dsDNA. (
  • A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self-assemble to generate "empty capsid" particles which share many features with the intact virus but lack the ribonucleic acid genome and are therefore non-infectious. (
  • Within the virus particle, a single copy of the genome is enclosed within a roughly spherical protein shell (capsid) which is about 30 nm in diameter. (
  • Inside the capsid are the virion protease which plays a vital role in the assembly of the virion and the double-strand DNA genome associated with five polypeptides (terminal protein (TP), V, VII, Mu and IVa2). (
  • The genome of the avian adenovirus Chicken Embryo Lethal Orphan (CELO) has two terminal regions without detectable homology in mammalian adenoviruses that are left without annotation in the initial analysis. (
  • Since adenoviruses have been a rich source of new insights into molecular cell biology and practical applications of CELO as gene a delivery vector are being considered, this genome appeared worth revisiting. (
  • The analysis of the sequence revealed that the central portion of the 43.8 kb long, double-stranded, linear DNA genome is organized similar to mammalian adenoviruses. (
  • Adenoviruses are medium-sized (90-100 nm), nonenveloped (naked) icosahedral viruses composed of a nucleocapsid and a double-stranded linear DNA genome. (
  • As a result, treatment with the adenovirus will require readministration in a growing cell population although the absence of integration into the host cell's genome should prevent the type of cancer seen in the SCID trials. (
  • Genome organisation of adenoviruses. (
  • Nucleosome maps of the human cytomegalovirus genome reveal a temporal switch in chromatin organization linked to a major IE protein. (
  • 14 Shuttle plasmids were cotransfected into CRE8 cells (expressing Cre recombinase) with E1- and E3-deleted adenovirus-5 genome DNA (Ψ5). (
  • Adenovirus, a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the family Adenoviridae , is a possible candidate as an index virus. (
  • This study presents an approach for inhibiting p53-deficient tumor cell growth by using protein-based E4orf4 that had been genetically fused to epidermal growth factor (EGF) to ensure selective targeting of EGF receptor-overexpressing tumor cells. (
  • Two strategies have been pursued to develop replicating adenoviruses that target tumor cells. (
  • Earlier results of a preliminary nature have suggested that the inhibition of Hsp70 synthesis in tumor cells may either sensitize them to chemotherapy or commit them to apoptosis ( 19 , 27 , 28 ). (
  • The human adenovirus E4orf4 protein is toxic in both human tumor cells and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • With regards to cellular translation of the host cell, it has been concluded that adenovirus selectively inhibits cellular translation via displacement of MAP kinase-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (Mnk1), an eukaryotic translation initiation factor. (
  • While adenovirus likely blocks cellular translation in this way, it does not affect the translation of its own viral mRNAs. (
  • These conserved domains are responsible for the protein-protein interaction and the regulation of cell cycling and cellular responses. (
  • The most commonly used group of adenoviruses is serotype 5 (Ad5), whose binding to host cells is initiated by interactions between the cellular coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), and the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein trimer. (
  • These results indicate that BKV early entry and disassembly are highly regulated processes involving multiple cellular components. (
  • The early life cycle of BKV starts with the binding of VP1 to the cellular receptors. (
  • First, like cellular DnaJ proteins, SV40 TAg can bind specifically to a member of the Hsp70 family of heat shock proteins ( 36 ). (
  • He is also interested in how the cellular proteins targeted by adenovirus function to control fundamental cellular pathways. (
  • Unlike the innate and adaptive part of the immune system, that require pathogen-induced signaling cascades in order to be switched on, these so-called intrinsic immune mechanisms are mediated by cellular proteins that are constitutively expressed and active before a pathogen enters the cell, thus serving as a front-line defense. (
  • PML-NBs are dot-like structures of the cell nucleus, that are defined by the distinct accumulation of specific cellular proteins like PML, hDaxx, Sp100 and ATRX (Fig. 1). (
  • During the last ten years our laboratory could show, that these proteins act as cellular restriction factors by inducing a silencing of viral gene expression. (
  • Moreover, our research revealed that specific viral proteins (pp71 and IE1 of HCMV) are able to antagonize this cellular silencing mechanism (Fig. 1). (
  • Several cellular proteins form stable complexes with the proteins encoded by the adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) gene in extracts derived from adenovirus infected or transformed cells. (
  • Our studies show that the cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase MKRN1 is a novel pVII interacting protein in HAdV-5 infected cells. (
  • The most studied cellular component of ND10 is PML, a complex protein present in a range of isoforms, some of which are modified by conjugation to the small ubiquitin-like protein PIC-1. (
  • E4orf6 plays an important role in the transportation of cellular and viral mRNAs and is known as an oncogene product of adenovirus. (
  • The tumorigenic potential of Ad9 E4 Orf1 depends on a carboxyl-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif that mediates interactions with several different membrane-associated cellular proteins such as MUPP1, PATJ, MAGI-1, ZO-2 and Dlg1. (
  • Early growth response (EGR) transcription factors link initial cytoplasmic events to long-term alterations of cellular gene expression and are induced by various stimuli. (
  • Under normal conditions, Hsp70 proteins function as ATP-dependent molecular chaperones by assisting the folding of newly synthesized polypeptides, the assembly of multiprotein complexes, and the transport of proteins across cellular membranes ( 9 - 12 ). (
  • With the help of cellular microtubules the virus is transported to the nuclear pore complex whereby the adenovirus particle disassembles. (
  • Within the framework of the disease, Elizabeth4orf4 contributes to temporal legislation of the progression of viral illness by downregulating early viral gene appearance (1C4), inducing Pazopanib(GW-786034) manufacture hypophosphorylation of numerous viral and Pazopanib(GW-786034) manufacture cellular proteins (4,5), facilitating alternate splicing of adenovirus mRNAs (5), and regulating protein translation through an connection with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway (6). (
  • This may indicate that cellular proteins are expressed in HEK cells that are functionally homologous to the 58-kDa Elb protein. (
  • Depletion of cellular polyamines by inhibiting ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) with α-difluoromethylornithine not only induced p53 but also increased NDRG1 transcription as indicated by induction of the NDRG1 promoter activity and increased levels of NDRG1 mRNA and protein, all of which were prevented by using specific p53 siRNA and in cells with a targeted deletion of p53. (
  • Adenoviruses can cause a variety of clinical manifestations because of high number of serotypes and their wide cell tropism. (
  • An oral attenuated live adenovirus vaccine against serotypes 4 and 7 is available for US militaries to prevent respiratory disease. (
  • The many different serotypes of human adenoviruses (Ad) are divided into six subgroups, of which all Ad subgroup A and B and two subgroup D Ads can elicit tumors in infected rodents. (
  • CD46 for the group B human adenovirus serotypes and the coxsackievirus adenovirus receptor (CAR) for all other serotypes. (
  • 6. Adenoviruses encompass 49 serotypes or six subgroups (A-F). In humans, they infect cells in tissues at the portal of entry. (
  • There are at least 51 human Adenovirus serotypes which are classified into six groups (A to F) based on their biochemical, immunological and morphological criteria. (
  • 35 S] methionine-labeled polypeptides synthesized by adenovirus type 2-infected cells have been analyzed by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. (
  • Mutant virus pm1722 contains a point mutation that terminates translation of the 175R protein after three amino acids. (
  • These two proteins share almost the same internal sequences as shown in the figure except for the 46 internal amino acids unique to the 289 protein which is as a result of the differential splicing. (
  • The adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) 289R protein is composed of 289 amino acids, with four conserved regions: CR1 (42-80), CR2 (115-137), CR3 (145-191), CR4 (240-289). (
  • Human recombinant protein fragment corresponding to amino acids 112-457 of human ZBTB17 produced in E.coli. (
  • This was consistent with an upregulation of the Ad polymerase and pre-terminal protein and led to higher and earlier expression of structural proteins. (
  • p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. (
  • section specifies the position(s) and type(s) of zinc fingers within the protein. (
  • We demonstrated functional associations between mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) early region 1A (E1A) protein and both the mouse retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and the mouse pRb-related protein, p107. (
  • Interactions between MAV-1 E1A and mouse pRb or mouse p107 proteins were examined in infected cell lysates using a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line infected with wild-type and mutant MAV-1 viruses. (
  • CR1 delta and CR2 delta E1A proteins were less effective at reducing the number of flat, enlarged cells induced by pRb expression than were the CR3 delta or wild-type E1A proteins. (
  • An immunodominant domain in adenovirus type 2 early region 1A proteins. (
  • Genetic mapping of a major site of phosphorylation in adenovirus type 2 E1A proteins. (
  • Cell surface molecule CD2 is a 45- to 58-kDa type I integral protein expressed on virtually all T lineage and NK cells ( 1 ). (
  • Dechecchi MC , Tamanini A , Bonizzato A and Cabrini G (2000) Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans are involved in adenovirus Type 5 and 2‐Host cell interactions. (
  • Bovine adenovirus type 3 internalization is independent of primary receptors of human adenovirus type 5 and porcine adenovirus type 3. (
  • Three early proteins expressed by adenovirus type 5, E1b 55K, E4 Orf3 and E4 Orf6, are involved in regulating late viral gene expression. (
  • Background: The human adenovirus type 5 early region 1A (E1A) gene encodes proteins that are potent regulators of transcription. (
  • Human adenovirus type 9-induced rat mammary tumors. (
  • Adenovirus type 9 E4 open reading frame 1 encodes a transforming protein required for the production of mammary tumors in rats. (
  • Antibody Responses to Haemophilus influenzae Type b and Diphtheria Toxin Induced by Conjugates of Oligosaccharides of the Type b Capsule with the Nontoxic Protein CRM",Infect. (
  • Immunization of 2-month-old infants with protein-coupled oligosaccharides derived from the capsule of Haemophilus influenzae type b",J. Pediatrics,107:346-351,(1985). (
  • Immunogens Consisting of Oligosaccharides from the Capsule of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Coupled to Diphtheria Toxoid or the Toxin Protein CRM197",J. Clin. (
  • Effect of immunity to the carrier protein on antibody responses to Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines", Vaccine,11(1):546-551, (1993). (
  • Further, we identified a cluster of three putative type-1-transmembrane glycoproteins with IG-like domains (ORF-9, ORF-10, ORF-11) which are good candidates to substitute for the missing immunomodulatory functions of mammalian adenoviruses. (
  • initiation codon, transformed primary baby rat kidney (BRK) cells with an efficiency of about half of that of a wild type Ad5 El plasmid, whereas a plasmid with a mutation in the gene for the 58-kDa Elb protein transformed the same primary cells with only one-third of the wild type efficiency. (
  • Isolation and characterization of deletion mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the gene encoding immediate-early regulatory protein ICP4. (
  • The death in the USA of an 18 year old with ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency after intrahepatic arterial injection of an adenovirus vector carrying a wild-type version of the defective enzyme has precipitated a flurry of reports and congressional hearings focusing on the ethics of such trials and on the very nature of clinical research itself. (
  • The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf4 Protein Targets Two Phosphatase Regulators of the Hippo Signaling Pathway. (
  • Interaction of adenovirus type 5 E4orf4 with the nuclear pore subunit Nup205 is required for proper viral gene expression. (
  • Interaction with RBX1 and CUL1 inhibits ubiquitination of the proteins targeted by SCF(FBXW7) ubiquitin ligase complex, and may be linked to unregulated host cell proliferation. (
  • Adenovirus likely displaces Mnk1 from eIF4G and inhibits eIF4E phosphorylation, both of which are important components of the eIF4a translation initiation complex in cells. (
  • Since E1B 55K binds to and inhibits the p53 protein ( 33 , 42 ), it was proposed that E1B 55K-deficient viruses would only replicate in p53 mutant cells ( 3 ). (
  • Adenovirus E4-ORF4 induced dephosphorylation inhibits E1A activation of the E2 promoter and E2F-1 mediated transactivation independently of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. (
  • There are many different strains of adenoviruses, over 40 for humans alone, and they tend to have different lifestyles and infect different tissues in different ways. (
  • For example, adenoviruses do not cause cancer in humans but are instead responsible for colds, conjunctivitis and other acute illnesses. (
  • A distinct disulfide bond isomerization and cleavage pattern of the major capsid protein VP1 was observed, which was also influenced by alterations in pH and disruption of trafficking to the ER. (
  • We have significantly revised the recent cryoelectron microscopy models for proteins IIIa and IX and show that both are located on the capsid exterior. (
  • Together, the cement proteins exclusively stabilize the hexon shell, thus rendering penton vertices the weakest links of the adenovirus capsid. (
  • We describe, for the first time to our knowledge, the structure of protein VI, a key membrane-lytic molecule, and unveil its associations with VIII and core protein V, which together glue peripentonal hexons beneath the vertex region and connect them to the rest of the capsid on the interior. (
  • On the basis of this knowledge and the limited coding potential of parvovirus genomes together with the known size of parvovirus capsid proteins it was thought that parvoviruses might be monogenic. (
  • Interestingly, the E3L protein rescued the translational defect but did not stimulate viral capsid mRNA accumulation observed with VA RNA. (
  • Both pentons and hexons are known as capsomers and form the capsid which encloses the nucleic acid as discussed by Dr. Amedee For Adenovirus, there are 252 capsomers 12 on the vertices and 240 on the faces. (
  • What adenovirus protein comprises the majority of capsomeres making up the virus capsid? (
  • The virion also has a unique "spike" or fiber associated with each penton base of the capsid (see picture below) that aids in attachment to the host cell via the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor on the surface of the host cell (see figure 1). (
  • Adenovirus early region 4 open reading frame 4 (E4orf4) protein is a novel cell death factor that selectively induces p53-independent apoptosis in cancer cells, but not in normal human cells. (
  • It was initially proposed that an adenovirus mutant lacking the E1B55kDa gene, dl1520 (ONYX-015), could replicate selectively in p53 deficient cells. (
  • We describe a new cell-based method that selectively targets an oncolytic adenovirus to hypoxic areas of prostate tumors. (
  • An E1B 55 kDa gene-deleted adenovirus, Onyx-015, which reportedly selectively replicates in and lyses p53-deficient cells, was administered by a single intratumoral injection to a total of 22 patients with recurrent head and neck cancer. (
  • Hai T, Liu F, Coukos WJ, Green MR. Transcription factor ATF cDNA clones: an extensive family of leucine zipper proteins able to selectively form DNA-binding heterodimers. (
  • 2002) Adenovirus infections following allogeneic stem cell transplantation: incidence and outcome in relation to graft manipulation, immunosuppression, and immune recovery. (
  • Compared to mammalian and, in particular, human adenoviruses of the genus Mastadenovirus , which have been studied extensively over the years (reviewed in [ 3 ]), relatively little information is available on avian adenoviruses. (
  • He is particularly interested in how adenovirus oncoproteins modulate the function of host cell proteins to regulate chromatin, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and DNA damage pathways. (
  • The goal of this review is to highlight the importance of these alternative death programs and to present the adenovirus E4orf4 protein (Early region 4 open reading frame 4), as a unique molecular tool to identify key regulators of these pathways in cancer cells. (
  • A collection of articles that focus on an array of different scientific topics such as pathways, cancer, transmembrane proteins. (
  • Several key signaling pathways are now known to be regulated by the cilium, and numerous G-protein coupled receptors, channels and transcription factors specifically localize to the cilium [ 2 ]. (
  • However, the important E1A, E1B, E3 and E4 regions, mainly responsible for host cell interaction and immune modulation/evasion in mammalian adenoviruses, could not be identified. (
  • Instead, two unique terminal regions of about 6 kb and 12 kb rich in open reading frames with no homologs in mammalian adenoviruses could be found. (
  • In this regard, merozoite proteins involved in RBC invasion have traditionally been targeted via the induction of growth inhibitory antibodies, 3 however historical candidate antigens have suffered from substantial levels of polymorphism and redundancy, leading to non-protective or strain-specific vaccine-induced antibody responses. (
  • A system of genetically determined antigens (proteins) located on the surface of the erythrocyte. (
  • Adenoviruses (AdVs) are non‐enveloped DNA viruses that can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations including respiratory, gastrointestinal and ocular, as well as hepatic, renal and disseminated diseases. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2007) Acute respiratory disease associated with adenovirus serotype 14 - four states, 2006-2007. (
  • Adenoviruses cause acute respiratory, ocular, and enteric diseases, with significant health concerns for immunocompromised individuals. (
  • Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are large (∼150 nm in diameter, 150-MDa) nonenveloped double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses that cause respiratory, ocular, and enteric diseases ( 1 ). (
  • An ongoing clinical trial led by Oxford University investigating a potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine against the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reported encouraging early results, according to investigators. (
  • Human adenoviruses have been implicated as infectious agents which are responsible for numerous diseases, including respiratory tract infections, ocular and gastrointestinal tract disorders [ 1 ]. (
  • Adenoviruses are primarily spread via respiratory droplets, however they can also be spread by fecal routes as well. (
  • Most infections with adenovirus result in infections of the upper respiratory tract. (
  • You J, Croyle JL, Nishimura A, Ozato K, Howley PM. Interaction of the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein with Brd4 tethers the viral DNA to host mitotic chromosomes. (
  • Work in our lab established that the APC/C subunits APC5 and APC7 possess within their primary sequence CBP and p300 protein-protein interaction domains that are evolutionarily conserved in adenovirus E1A (Turnell et al . (
  • the interaction enhances ATF7 -mediated viral transactivation activity which requires the zinc binding domains of both proteins (By similarity). (
  • this interaction stimulates the acetylation of RB1 by recruiting EP300 and RB1 into a multimeric-protein complex (PubMed:11433299). (
  • Biochemical and molecular genetic explorations have defined a single tyrosine phosphorylation site and, in a dimeric partner molecule, an Src homology 2 (SH2) phosphotyrosine-binding domain, a DNA interaction domain, and a number of protein-protein interaction domains (with receptors, other transcription factors, the transcription machinery, and perhaps a tyrosine phosphatase). (
  • Lower panel: Protein interaction domains in the STATs listed at the left. (
  • E1A does not bind DNA directly, but is recruited to target promoters by the interaction with sequence specific DNA binding proteins. (
  • This is followed by a secondary interaction, where a motif in the penton base protein interacts with an integrin molecule. (
  • It is the co-receptor interaction that stimulates entry of the adenovirus. (
  • We have started to elucidate the nature of the pUL79-RNAP II interaction, finding that pUL79 does not alter the protein levels of RNAP II or its recruitment to viral promoters. (
  • The transcriptional co-activator proteins p300 and CBP stimulate adenovirus E1A conserved region 1 transactivation independent of a direct interaction. (
  • Previous studies indicated that most of this toxicity is dependent on an interaction of E4orf4 protein with the B55 class of regulatory subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and in yeast with the B55 homolog Cdc55. (
  • Adenoviruses are medium-sized DNA viruses that often establish long-term persistent infections. (
  • A combination of conjunctivitis and tonsilitis is particularly common with adenovirus infections. (
  • Most people recover from adenovirus infections by themselves, but people with immunodeficiency sometimes die of adenovirus infections, and-rarely-even previously healthy people can die of these infections. (
  • How long adenovirus (optical infections) can survive on a enviroment surface and still infective? (
  • The environmental factors triggering and driving the autoimmunity in T1D are poorly defined, but the disease has been associated with viral infections ( 12 ), diet in early childhood ( 13 ), and reduced diversity of gut microbiota ( 14 ). (
  • This increase in TP53, in turn, would arrest the cell proliferation and direct its death but this effect is counteracted by the viral protein E1B-55K. (
  • By integrating reverse transcription, padlock probes, and rolling circle amplification, we were able to detect and differentiate between viral RNA (vRNA) and complementary RNA (cRNA) molecules, and to detect viral protein within the same cell. (
  • Taken together, these data are compatible with the hypothesis that a viral protein may play a role in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease, perhaps by virtue of immunological cross reactivity between antigenic determinants shared by the viral protein and alpha-gliadins. (
  • The higher viral protein content in HDV-producing cells was also consistent with an increased activation of autophagy and cell death, in which earlier cell death compromised volumetric productivity. (
  • Li, G., M. Rak, C. C. Nguyen, M. Umashankar, F. D. Goodrum, and J. P. Kamil, 'An epistatic relationship between the viral protein kinase UL97 and the UL133-UL138 latency locus during the human cytomegalovirus lytic cycle. (
  • Of the many different viruses being explored for oncolytic potential, an adenovirus was the first to be approved by a regulatory agency, the genetically modified H101 strain. (
  • So something keeps the protein sequence similar among similar viruses - it's strongly selected - but between subgroups it can diverge quite widely. (
  • Adenoviruses represent the largest known nonenveloped viruses. (
  • [2] Vidarabine acts directly on the DNA polymerase of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and double-strand DNA viruses, including human adenoviruses. (
  • Unfortunately, almost all viruses utilize a strategy of encapsidation, comprising a protein shell that protects their genomes and impedes them from being sensed or degraded. (
  • Adenoviruses represent the largest nonenveloped viruses, because they are the maximum size able to be transported through the endosome (i.e. envelope fusion is not necessary). (
  • These two mechanisms differ in their biology and epidemiology: direct tumor viruses must have at least one virus copy in every tumor cell expressing at least one protein or RNA that is causing the cell to become cancerous. (
  • Involvement of microtubules in cytopathic effects of animal viruses: early proteins of adenovirus and herpesvirus inhibit formation of microtubular paracrystals in HeLa-S3 cells. (
  • Short peptides added to the C-terminal end of the coat protein successfully altered viral tropism. (
  • The addition of larger peptides to the C-terminus is not viable because it reduces adenovirus integrity, possibly due to an effect on fiber trimerisation. (
  • This site falls at the 3´ end of the open reading frame (ORF) 6/7 peptides of the early region 4 (E4) (unpub. (
  • In the present study sera from coeliac disease patients from the United Kingdom and the United States were assayed for neutralising antibody to Ad12 as evidence of past exposure to that virus and for antibody to synthetic peptides of A-gliadin from the region of shared sequence with the Ad12 E1b protein. (
  • Self amd Foreign 60-Kilodalton Heat Shock Protein T Cell Epitope Peptides Serve As Immunogenic Carriers for a T Cell-Independent Sugar Antigen", J. Immunol. (
  • The majority of work on adenovirus transcription has focused on human adenovirus, specifically Ad2 and Ad5. (
  • The mutant virus dl1520, a double mutant unable to synthesize the 495R protein, was also extremely defective for the transformation of CREF cells in virion- and viral DNA-mediated assays. (
  • In this study, we determined the crystal structures of all cement proteins in the context of the entire virion and, in the process, revised the existing cement protein structures and their locations. (
  • Based on a refined crystal structure of the adenovirus virion at 3.8-Å resolution, we have determined the structures of all of the cement proteins (IIIa, VI, VIII, and IX) and their organization in two distinct layers. (
  • Two of these virion proteins, matrix (MA) and virion protein R (VPR), are used to transport the cDNA/integrase complex (also called preintegration complex) across the nuclear membrane in the absence of mitosis. (
  • Regulation of the synthesis of Sindbis virus-specified RNA: role of the virion core protein. (
  • These proteins are functionally important for growth of adenoviruses. (
  • In papers III and IV, we tested the ability of various plant and animal virus encoded RNAi/miRNA and IFN suppressor proteins to functionally substitute for the HAdV-5 VA RNAI. (
  • Only a few of these proteins have been functionally characterized so far. (
  • However, it is still unclear in most cases whether these receptors interact with rafts through lipid-based amino acid modifications or whether raft insertion is driven by protein-protein interactions. (
  • Adenovirus receptors and their implications in gene delivery. (
  • GnRHRs are G-protein-coupled receptors that act via G q/11 to activate PLC (phospholipase C), leading to an Ins(1,4,5) P 3 -mediated mobilization of Ca 2+ and consequent activation of calmodulin. (
  • An alternative solution, which is less dependent on a complete understanding of virus biology, is to use transcriptional defects in tumors to regulate the expression of early viral proteins. (
  • Our results demonstrate that recombinant adenovirus is useful to regulate heterologous and endogenous EGR target gene expression, and suggest that EGR transcription factors can autoregulate themselves. (
  • Several viral proteins including EBNA1, LMP1 and LMP2 are active to maintain and regulate this latent state. (
  • IIIa, hexon, penton base) as well as crucial functional proteins (e.g. (
  • Adenoviruses were detected by real-time PCR in ∼16% of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 10 2 to 10 4 genomes per liter. (
  • This study presents the first quantitative measurement of human adenovirus genomes in urban rivers and their statistical relationship to fecal indicator bacteria and coliphages. (
  • Lentiviruses are a subclass of retroviruses whose genomes contain additional viral proteins. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • To determine the requirements for the individual Ad2 E1B proteins during the transformation of rodent cells, viral mutants were constructed with genetic lesions disrupting the coding sequence of either the 175 amino acid residue (175R) or the 495 amino acid residue (495R) E1B proteins. (
  • The N terminus of TAg shares sequence homology with the J domain of the DnaJ (heat shock protein 40 [Hsp40]) family of molecular chaperones ( 20 ). (
  • First, more than one protein may be coded from the same DNA sequence by using different reading frames (Sanger et al . (
  • We also found that the Cul3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex alter the precursor pVII protein stability via binding to the propeptide sequence. (
  • The various types of human (and some other) adenoviruses are grouped into subgroups A through F, based on sequence similarity. (
  • This in turn can activate the protein phosphatase calcineurin, causing it to dephosphorylate NFATs (nuclear factors of activated T-cells), exposing a nuclear localization sequence and thereby causing NFAT translocation to the nucleus [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • We previously noted a region of amino acid sequence homology between A-gliadin, a major alpha-gliadin component known to activate coeliac disease, and the early region E1b protein of human adenovirus serotype 12 (Ad12), an adenovirus isolated from the human intestinal tract. (
  • Additional studies documented that a region of A-gliadin that shares amino acid sequence homology with the adenovirus 12 E1b protein could be recognised as an antigenic determinant in active coeliac disease patients. (
  • ORF-1 is the only sequence in the terminal regions which has homologs in mastadenoviruses (ORF-1 of early region 4). (
  • The penton base interacts with the surface protein av integrins which stimulate the entry of the virus into the cell via endocyctosis. (
  • Cytochrome P450s comprise a superfamily of heme-thiolate proteins named for the spectral absorbance peak of their carbon-monoxide-bound species at 450 nm. (
  • Identification of proteins by tandem mass spectrometry requires a reference protein database, but these are only available for model species. (
  • Here we demonstrate that, for a non-model species, the sequencing of expressed mRNA can generate a protein database for mass spectrometry-based identification. (
  • This is called the CAR (coxsackie-adenovirus receptor). (
  • It was envisaged that the inability of these recombinant adenoviruses to replicate efficiently would prevent the production of unwanted viral proteins by infected cells, thus limiting both direct adenovirus toxicity and possible harmful consequences of antiadenovirus immune responses. (
  • However, human adenoviruses don't replicate well, if at all, in mice, so it's not really a very good model, and so I wasn't very distressed by that observation. (
  • Adenoviruses also replicate in the intestine, where they may persist for months and are usually not pathogenic. (
  • Because Onyx-015 lacks this protein, it is unable to replicate efficiently in cells with functional p53 because it cannot inactivate p53. (
  • Genetic analysis of B55alpha/Cdc55 protein phosphatase 2A subunits: association with the adenovirus E4orf4 protein. (
  • Structure- and modeling-based identification of the adenovirus E4orf4 binding site in the protein phosphatase 2A B55α subunit. (
  • Adenovirus protein E4orf4 induces premature APCCdc20 activation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a protein phosphatase 2A-dependent mechanism. (
  • The adenovirus E4orf4 protein induces G2/M arrest and cell death by blocking protein phosphatase 2A activity regulated by the B55 subunit. (
  • What do such diverse molecules as DNA, actin, retinoblastoma protein and protein kinase Cα all have in common? (
  • Oncoviruses have been important not only in epidemiology, but also in investigations of cell cycle control mechanisms such as the Retinoblastoma protein. (
  • These molecules are fusion proteins that are made up of an antibody raised against the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein, fused to a natural ligand for a cell-surface receptor. (
  • Over 280,000 products but you can't find the right antibody for your protein or application? (
  • Oligosaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccines Induce and Prime for Oligoclonal IgC Antibody Responses to the Haemophilus influenzae by Capsular Polysaccharide in Human Infants",J. Exp. (
  • Blood samples were taken to detect adenovirus DNA and neutralizing antibody to adenovirus. (
  • Twenty-one of the 22 patients treated showed an increase in neutralizing antibody to adenovirus. (
  • Each VP1 pentamer also interacts with an internal VP2 or VP3 protein via hydrophobic interactions ( 51 ). (
  • these interactions inhibit RBX1 - CUL1 -dependent elongation reaction of ubiquitin chains and attenuate ubiquitination of SCF( FBXW7 ) target proteins (PubMed:19679664). (
  • Entry of adenoviruses into the host cell involves two sets of interactions between the virus and the host cell. (
  • In vitro data indicate that the E4ORF1 peptide derived from human adenovirus 36 (Ad36) interacts with cells from adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver to enhance glucose disposal, independent of proximal insulin signaling. (
  • Here, we show that E4orf6 interacts with pp32/leucine-rich acidic nuclear protein (LANP). (
  • Clinical response to adenoviruses ranges from none to severe (e.g., with serotype 14). (
  • Hai T, Hartman MG. The molecular biology and nomenclature of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors: ATF proteins and homeostasis. (
  • Transcription factors 1: bZIP proteins. (
  • This gene encodes a zinc finger protein involved in the regulation of c-myc. (
  • The NDRG1 (N- myc downregulated gene-1) gene encodes a growth-related protein, and its transcription can be induced in response to stress. (
  • The adenoviral E1A gene is responsible for inactivation of several proteins, including retinoblastoma, allowing entry into S-phase. (
  • Adenoviruses are very stable and highly resistant to inactivation at room temperature. (
  • While p107 and p130 inactivation likely contributes to TAg-mediated transformation (see below), there is little evidence that these proteins are tumor suppressors. (
  • Adenovirus varieties have been explored extensively as a viral vector for gene therapy and also as an oncolytic virus. (
  • hi Fujiwara Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is widely and frequently used as a virus vector in cancer gene therapy and oncolytic virotherapy. (
  • Has been shown to bind to the promoters of adenovirus major late protein and cyclin D1 and activate transcription. (
  • The term ATF was first used in 1987 to refer to a putative polypeptide with the activity to bind to the sites on the adenovirus E2, E3, and E4 promoters with sequences similar to the consensus TGACGT(C/A)(G/A) (Lee et al. (
  • As a measure of p107/MAV-1 E1A complex formation in MAV-1-infected cells, we used mobility shift assays to examine cell extracts for the presence of p107-containing E2F protein-DNA complexes. (
  • Adenovirus vector-based purging of multiple myeloma cells. (
  • E1A encodes two major proteins in Ad5, translated after alternative splicing of the viral DNA transcript, that are able to cause a variety of different effects in mammalian cells. (
  • In Ad5-infected cells, E1A translation was hypothesized to involve the Ad5 L4 100-kDa protein. (
  • A conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd) with a 24 base pair deletion in the retinoblastoma-binding domain of the E1A protein (Ad5- Δ24E3), is unable to silence retinoblastoma, and therefore unable to induce S-phase in host cells. (
  • We have previously demonstrated that the N-terminal J domain of TAg affects the RB-related proteins by perturbing the phosphorylation status of p107 and p130 and promoting the degradation of p130 and that this domain is required for transformation of cells that express either p107 or p130. (
  • We are currently employing proteomic techniques to identify novel adenovirus early region-binding proteins in adenovirus-infected and adenovirus-transformed cells. (
  • The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multicomponent E3 ubiquitin ligase that, by targeting protein substrates for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation through ubiquitylation, coordinates the temporal progression of eukaryotic cells through mitosis and the subsequent G1 phase of the cell cycle. (
  • STATs (signal transducers and activators of transcription) are a family of latent cytoplasmic proteins that are activated to participate in gene control when cells encounter various extracellular polypeptides. (
  • 1977). Second, RNA splicing in eukaryotic cells creates the potential for coding different proteins from single DNA sequences as well as for proteins whose sequences are not colinear with the DNA. (
  • In this thesis we have investigated the functional significance of the pVII protein and VA RNAI in HAdV-5 infected cells. (
  • MKRN1 expression reduced the pVII protein accumulation in virus-infected cells and affected infectious virus formation. (
  • Our results revealed that the Vaccinia virus E3L protein was able to partially substitute for the HAdV-5 VA RNAI functions in virus-infected cells. (
  • IGF-1 enhanced survival, migration, and growth of cells from biologically early lesions, but not from biologically late primary or metastatic lesions. (
  • Early melanoma cells were activated by IGF-1 to phosphorylate Erk1 and -2 of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. (
  • Late primary and metastatic melanoma cells did not respond to growth stimulation by IGF-1 because of a constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and a higher level of stabilized β-catenin. (
  • These studies demonstrate that fibroblast-derived growth factors from the tumor environment can provide the malignant cells with a positive feedback through multiple mechanisms but that this stimulation is required only for cells from early and not late stages of tumor progression. (
  • RGP cells represent a biologically early stage of melanoma. (
  • In the present paper, we review recent work in this area, placing emphasis on the regulation of transcription, and showing how mathematical modelling of GnRH effects on two effectors [ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) and NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells)] reveals the potential for genuine frequency decoding as an emergent feature of the GnRH signalling network, rather than an intrinsic feature of a given protein or pathway within it. (
  • All cells constitutively express a 70-kDa heat shock cognate protein (Hsc70, also known as Hsp73), which is highly homologous to Hsp70 ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • Under various stress conditions, the accumulation of the inducible Hsp70 enhances the ability of stressed cells to cope with increased concentrations of unfolded/denatured proteins ( 13 , 14 ). (
  • Vidarabine combined with acidic protein bound polysaccharide (APBP) show synergistic effects on the plaque formation of HSV-1 in Vero cells. (
  • The normal function of this protein is to bind to and inactivate p53 protein in infected cells. (
  • The final product, which is administered intradermally (between the layers of the skin), comprises patient-derived dendritic cells genetically modified with an adenovirus to produce parts of the HER2 protein. (
  • We use human cells infected with human adenovirus as a complex and dynamic model to demonstrate the robustness of this approach. (
  • Kim, J. Heon, D. Collins-McMillen, J. C. Buehler, F. D. Goodrum, and A. D. Yurochko, 'Human Cytomegalovirus Requires Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling To Enter and Initiate the Early Steps in the Establishment of Latency in CD34+ Human Progenitor Cells. (
  • By using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, we show that overexpression of AP-1 proteins directly causes coinduction of gene expression of an adhesion molecule, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and a chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), in human vascular endothelial cells (ECs). (
  • 16 The adenoviruses were plaque-purified, amplified, and titered in 293 cells. (
  • Although intestinal epithelial stem cells are not currently studied ex vivo, and no unique in vivo markers are available, they can be labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine during early postnatal life or in regenerative mucosa after injury induced by irradiation ( 31 ). (
  • They know the 'messenger' in the vaccine can deliver a coding to the cells to make it do something, or trick it into making a certain protein. (
  • That's the beauty of the mnra vaccines, they send a message to the cell, encoding it to make proteins (which is basically your immune system) the vaccine tricks your cells in putting up a defense against the virus before you get it. (
  • Northern blot hybridization indicated that SAOS-2 cells express mRNA encoding a range of bone proteins, including decorin, osteonectin, and bone sialoprotein. (
  • Evaluation of Cross-Reactive Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses among Human, Bovine and Porcine Adenoviruses. (
  • Bovine adenoviral vector-based H5N1 influenza vaccine overcomes exceptionally high levels of pre-existing immunity against human adenovirus. (