Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing five different PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. In addition to playing a role as a regulator of the FAS RECEPTOR activity this subtype interacts via its PDZ and FERM domains with a variety of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PROTEINS and CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.
Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
DNA viruses producing malignant tumors. Of the six major groupings of DNA viruses four contain members which are actually or potentially oncogenic: the Adenoviridae, the Herpesviridae, the Papovaviridae, and the Poxviridae.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.

Development of porcine adenovirus-3 as an expression vector. (1/211)

Porcine adenovirus-3 (PAV-3) was developed as an expression vector using homologous recombination in Escherichia coli BJ 5183. As a prerequisite, the complete genome of PAV-3 was first introduced as a PacI restriction fragment into a bacterial plasmid. The plasmid, when PacI restricted and transfected into swine testicular cells, produces an infectious virus. The potential of this procedure was demonstrated by the construction of several PAV-3 recombinants. Part of the E3 region, which is nonessential for virus replication under cell culture conditions, was identified and deleted from the virus genome. The gene for glycoprotein D (gD) of pseudorabies virus (PRV), which elicits PRV-neutralizing antibodies in pigs, was cloned and expressed from the E3 region of PAV-3. A 50 kDa polypeptide was identified in recombinant PAV-3-infected cell lysates by immunoprecipitation assays using gD-specific monoclonal antibodies. In another experiment, a region between the right inverted terminal repeat and the promoter of the E4 region was used to clone and express the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene under the control of SV40 immediate early promoter. CAT gene expression was observed irrespective of the orientation of the CAT gene. These results indicate that the helper-independent recombinant PAV-3 could be used as an expression vector and has potential as a recombinant vaccine vector in pigs.  (+info)

Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4-induced dephosphorylation inhibits E1A activation of the E2 promoter and E2F-1-mediated transactivation independently of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. (2/211)

Previous studies have shown that the cell cycle-regulated E2F transcription factor is subjected to both positive and negative control by phosphorylation. Here we show that in transient transfection experiments, adenovirus E1A activation of the viral E2 promoter is abrogated by coexpression of the viral E4 open reading frame 4 (E4-ORF4) protein. This effect does not to require the retinoblastoma protein that previously has been shown to regulate E2F activity. The inhibitory activity of E4-ORF4 appears to be specific because E4-ORF4 had little effect on, for example, E4-ORF6/7 transactivation of the E2 promoter. We further show that the repressive effect of E4-ORF4 on E2 transcription works mainly through the E2F DNA-binding sites in the E2 promoter. In agreement with this, we find that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2F-1/DP-1-mediated transactivation. We also show that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2 mRNA expression during virus growth. E4-ORF4 has previously been shown to bind to and activate the cellular protein phosphatase 2A. The inhibitory effect of E4-ORF4 was relieved by okadaic acid, which inhibits protein phosphatase 2A activity, suggesting that E4-ORF4 represses E2 transcription by inducing transcription factor dephosphorylation. Interestingly, E4-ORF4 did not inhibit the transactivation capacity of a Gal4-E2F hybrid protein. Instead, E4-ORF4 expression appears to result in reduced stability of E2F/DNA complexes.  (+info)

Novel role for E4 region genes in protection of adenovirus vectors from lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (3/211)

Target cells infected with adenovirus (Ad) vectors containing intact E3 and E4 regions were found to be relatively resistant to lysis by Ad-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Elements from both the E3 and the E4 regions were required for this effect, leading to the identification of a previously undescribed role for E4 gene products in resistance to cytolysis.  (+info)

Distinct regulation of p53 and p73 activity by adenovirus E1A, E1B, and E4orf6 proteins. (4/211)

Multiple adenovirus (Ad) early proteins have been shown to inhibit transcription activation by p53 and thereby to alter its normal biological functioning. Since these Ad proteins affect the activity of p53 via different mechanisms, we examined whether this inhibition is target gene specific. In addition, we analyzed whether the same Ad early proteins have a comparable effect on transcription activation by the recently identified p53 homologue p73. Our results show that the large E1B proteins very efficiently inhibited the activity of p53 on the Bax, p21(Waf1), cyclin G, and MDM2 reporter constructs but had no effect on the activation of the same reporter constructs by p73, with the exception of some inhibition of the Bax promoter by Ad12 E1B. The repressive effect of the E1A proteins on p53 activity is less than that seen with the large E1B proteins, but the E1A proteins inhibit the activity of both p53 and p73. We could not detect significant inhibition of p53 functions by E4orf6, but a clear repression of the transcription activation by p73 by this Ad early protein was observed. In addition, we found that stable expression of the Ad5 E1A and that of the E1B protein both caused increased p73 protein expression. The large E1B and the E4orf6 proteins together do not target the p73 protein for rapid degradation after adenoviral infection, as has previously been found for the p53 protein, probably because the large E1B protein does not interact with p73. Our results suggest that the p53 and p73 proteins are both inactivated after Ad infection and transformation but via distinct mechanisms.  (+info)

E1(-)E4(+) adenoviral gene transfer vectors function as a "pro-life" signal to promote survival of primary human endothelial cells. (5/211)

Although endothelial cells are quiescent and long-lived in vivo, when they are removed from blood vessels and cultured in vitro they die within days to weeks. In studies of the interaction of E1(-)E4(+) replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) vectors and human endothelium, the cells remained quiescent and were viable for prolonged periods. Evaluation of these cultures showed that E1(-)E4(+) Ad vectors provide an "antiapoptotic" signal that, in association with an increase in the ratio of Bcl2 to Bax levels, induces the endothelial cells to enter a state of "suspended animation," remaining viable for at least 30 days, even in the absence of serum and growth factors. Although the mechanisms initiating these events are unclear, the antiapoptoic signal requires the presence of E4 genes in the vector genome, suggesting that one or more E4 open reading frames of subgroup C Ad initiate a "pro-life" program that modifies cultured endothelial cells to survive for prolonged periods.  (+info)

An arginine-faced amphipathic alpha helix is required for adenovirus type 5 e4orf6 protein function. (6/211)

A region in the carboxy terminus of the protein encoded by open reading frame 6 in early region 4 (E4orf6) of adenovirus type 5 was determined to be required for directing nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein and for efficient virus replication. A peptide encompassing this region, corresponding to amino acids 239 through 255 of the E4orf6 protein, was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The peptide showed evidence of self-interaction and displayed the characteristic spectra of an amphipathic alpha helix in the helix-stabilizing solvent trifluoroethanol. Disrupting the integrity of this alpha helix in the E4orf6 protein by proline substitutions or by removing amino acids 241 through 250 abolished its ability to direct the E1B 55-kDa protein to the nucleus when both proteins were transiently expressed in HeLa cells. Expression of E4orf6 variants that failed to direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein failed to enhance replication of the E4 mutant virus, dl1014, whereas expression of the wild-type E4orf6 protein restored growth of dl1014 to near-wild-type levels. These results suggest that the E4orf6 protein contains an arginine-faced, amphipathic alpha helix that is critical for a functional interaction with the E1B 55-kDa protein in the cell and for the function of the E4orf6 protein during a lytic infection.  (+info)

The role of human TFIIB in transcription start site selection in vitro and in vivo. (7/211)

The general transcription factor TFIIB plays a crucial role in selecting the transcription initiation site in yeast. We have analyzed the human homologs of TFIIB mutants that have previously been shown to affect transcription start site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the distinct mechanisms of transcription start site selection observed in S. cerevisiae and humans, the role of TFIIB in this process is similar. However, unlike their yeast counterparts, the human mutants do not show a severe defect in supporting either basal transcription or transcription stimulated by an acidic activator in vitro. Transient transfection analysis revealed that, in addition to a role in transcription start site selection, human TFIIB residue Arg-66 performs a critical function in vivo that is bypassed in vitro. Furthermore, although correct transcription start site selection is dependent upon an arginine residue at position 66 in human TFIIB, innate function in vivo is determined by the charge of the residue alone. Our observations raise questions as to the evolutionary conservation of TFIIB and uncover an additional function for TFIIB that is required in vivo but can be bypassed in vitro.  (+info)

Generation of an adenovirus vector lacking E1, e2a, E3, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3. (8/211)

Toxicity and immunity associated with adenovirus backbone gene expression is an important hurdle to overcome for successful gene therapy. Recent efforts to improve adenovirus vectors for in vivo use have focused on the sequential deletion of essential early genes. Adenovirus vectors have been constructed with the E1 gene deleted and with this deletion in combination with an E2a, E2b, or E4 deletion. We report here a novel vector (Av4orf3nBg) lacking E1, E2a, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3 (ORF3) and expressing a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. This vector was generated by transfection of a plasmid carrying the full-length vector sequence into A30.S8 cells that express E1 and E2a but not E4. Production was subsequently performed in an E1-, E2a-, and E4-complementing cell line. We demonstrated with C57BL/6 mice that the Av4orf3nBg vector effected gene transfer with an efficiency comparable to that of the Av3nBg (wild-type E4) vector but that the former exhibited a higher level of beta-galactosidase expression. This observation suggests that E4 ORF3 alone is able to enhance RNA levels from the beta-galactosidase gene when the Rous sarcoma virus promoter is used to drive transgene expression in the mouse liver. In addition, we observed less liver toxicity in mice injected with the Av4orf3nBg vector than those injected with the Av3nBg vector at a comparable DNA copy number per cell. This study suggests that the additional deletion of E4 in an E1 and E2a deletion background may be beneficial in decreasing immunogenicity and improving safety and toxicity profiles, as well as increasing transgene capacity and expression for liver-directed gene therapy.  (+info)

Weve identified a spliced transcript which has sequences in the HCMV UL29 and UL28 open up reading frames. with this prediction both spliced and unspliced UL29/28 transcript was within RNA isolated from polysomes. FLAG-tagged proteins in the UL29/28 locus gathered within nuclear viral replication centers through the early stage of infection. Later after infection it had been within the cytoplasm aswell and the proteins was present and resistant to proteinase treatment in partly purified arrangements of viral Pentagastrin contaminants. Disruption from the UL29/28 locus by mutation led to a 10-fold reduction in the degrees of DNA replication plus a similar. Continue Reading. ...
Use of uninitialized value in concatenation (.) or string at Bugzilla/ line 1588. at Bugzilla/ line 1588 Bugzilla::Search::_cc_nonchanged(...) called at Bugzilla/ line 1172 Bugzilla::Search::do_search_function(...) called at Bugzilla/ line 968 Bugzilla::Search::init(...) called at Bugzilla/ line 414 Bugzilla::Search::new(...) called at buglist.cgi line ...
View Notes - 351 E3p key F09 from CHEM 351 at BYU. Chem 351 Name K E. Nielson Practice Exam 3 Show answers clearly/cross out any answers you dont want graded. Draw structures when possible with
concatenation of words for multi-word phrases as single tags, which you might still see some of in a traditional corpus (in the mefi frequency tables youll see this some because I treat internal hyphenation as part of a word instead of breaking on it) but not at the same sort of this is normal rate as with our tagging system ...
Definition of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein? Meaning of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein as a legal term. What does Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein mean in law?
Vectors derived from human adenovirus type 5, which typically lack the E1A and E1B genes, induce robust innate immune responses that limit their therapeutic efficacy. mutant-infected cells in the absence or presence of exogenous IFN. Both the concentration of viral genomes detected during the late phase and the numbers of viral replication centers formed were strongly reduced in IFN-treated cells in the absence of the E1B protein, despite production of similar quantities of viral replication proteins. These defects could not be attributed to degradation of entering viral genomes, induction of apoptosis, or failure to reorganize components of PML nuclear bodies. Nor was assembly of Nutlin 3a the E1B- and E4 Orf6 protein- E3 ubiquitin ligase required to prevent inhibition of viral replication by IFN. However, by using RT-PCR, the E1B 55 kDa protein was demonstrated to be a potent repressor of expression of IFN-inducible genes in IFN-treated cells. We propose that a primary function of the ...
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To investigate the role of the E1B/E4-complex in Ad5 replication we generated virus mutants carrying amino acid exchanges (1) in the NES of E1B-55K, E4orf6 and both proteins, (2) in the SUMO1 conjugation site (SCS) of E1B-55K and (3) in the p53- and MRN-interacting domain of E1B-55K. These studies confirm that E1B-55K and presumably the E1B/E4-complex is exported to the cytoplasm via the export receptor CRM1 in infected cells. As opposed to the E4orf6 NES functional inactivation of the corresponding motif in E1B-55K causes an almost complete redistribution of the viral protein from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and its accumulation at the periphery of the viral replication centers. Interestingly, however, this nuclear restriction imposed upon the NES mutant protein is fully compensated by concurrent inactivation of the adjacent SCS. These findings indicate that SUMOylation plays a role in the targeting of E1B-55K to the viral transcription and replication centers and implicate that SUMO1 ...
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Recombinant BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 1 (BNIP1) Protein (GST tag). Species: Human. Source: Wheat germ. Order product ABIN1346798.
This paper presents a novel multiple serial code concatenation (SCC) strategy to combat the error-floor problem in iterated sparse graph-based error correc
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String Concatenation. You can combine two string into a single string by using either the CONCATENATE function or the & operator. Unfortunately, neither of these can be used in an array formula to selectively build up a result string based on other criteria. See String Concatenation For Array Formulas for a VBA function that can be used in an array formula to build a string based on selection criteria. This page last updated: 2-November-2007 ...
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The Solaris Volume Manager Administration Guide provides instructions on using Solaris Volume Manager to manage disk storage, including creating, modifying, and using RAID-0 (concatenation and stripe) volumes, RAID-1 (mirror) volumes, RAID-5 volumes, and soft partitions.
Adenolipomatosis definition. adenolipomatosis adenolipomatosis ad·e·no·li·po·ma·to·sis (ādn-ō-lĭ-pōmə-tōsĭs) n. A condition marked by the development of multiple adenolipomas.
遺伝子「C2orf42」の詳細情報です。J-GLOBAL 科学技術総合リンクセンターは研究者、文献、特許などの情報をつなぐことで、異分野の知や意外な発見などを支援する新しいサービスです。またJST内外の良質なコンテンツへ案内いたします。
遺伝子「C1orf127」の詳細情報です。J-GLOBAL 科学技術総合リンクセンターは研究者、文献、特許などの情報をつなぐことで、異分野の知や意外な発見などを支援する新しいサービスです。またJST内外の良質なコンテンツへ案内いたします。
The adenovirus E1B gene products are required for productive infection of human cells and for complete transformation of rodent cells in cooperation with the E1A gene products. Two major, unrelated polypeptides of 55,000 (55K) and 19,000 (19K) daltons are encoded by the E1B region. The 55K protein is required for efficient DNA replication, late mRNA transport to the cytoplasm and shut-off of cellular mRNA transport in productively infected cells. This protein is required for virus-mediated, but not DNA-mediated, transformation of rodent cells. It appears that the 55K protein does not directly contribute to cell transformation, but influences the oncogenicity of adenoviruses when they are inoculated into newborn hamsters. In contrast, the 19K protein is required for adenovirus induced cellular transformation and oncogenicity and localizes to membranes of the nuclear envelope, cytoplasm and the cell surface in transformed cells. This protein affects the efficiency of virus growth in some, but not ...
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RFC 5831 GOST R 34.11-94 March 2010 The hash function, defined in GOST R 34.11-94, is used for digital signature systems based on the asymmetric cryptographic algorithm according to GOST R 34.10-2001 (see section 3). 3. Conventions Used in This Document The following notations are used in GOST R 34.11-94: V_all is a set of all finite words in the alphabet V = {0,1}. The words are read from right to left and the alphabet symbols are numbered from right to left (i.e., the rightmost symbol of the word has the number one, the second rightmost symbol has number two, etc.). Vk is a set of all words in alphabet V = {0,1} of length k bits (k=16,64,256). ,A, is the length of a word A belonging to V_all. A,,B is a concatenation of words A, B belonging to V_all. Its length is ,A, + ,B,, where the left ,A, symbols come from the word A, and the right ,B, symbols come from the word B. One can also use the notation A,,B = A * B. A^k is a concatenation of k copies of the word A (A belongs to V_all). ,N,_k is a ...
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Subject: RE: DATAFILE?? The best way to find out is to try it. You will probably find that it depends. If you use a LMT and do uniform extents then it will do it by concatenation. (fill up the first file then move on to the 2nd etc.). If you create an LMT and do automatic extents then it is different. It does it by striping. The first extent goes in the first file, the 2nd in the 2nd file... You can see this by setting up a small test. Jim -----Original Message ...
Part I and Part II Somewhere in between all of that driving I had to ask myself what are you doing? While I believe in hard work, Im also a firm believer that life shouldnt be hard work. Theres a difference between a challenge and an uphill battle. Facing challenges in order to attain goals…
Part I and Part II Somewhere in between all of that driving I had to ask myself what are you doing? While I believe in hard work, Im also a firm believer that life shouldnt be hard work. Theres a difference between a challenge and an uphill battle. Facing challenges in order to attain goals…
Dünyaca bilinen yayınevlerinin özellikle teknik kitaplar konusunda yıllardır sürdürmüş olduğu ithalatı ile muhtelif konularda binlerce kitap stoklarında mevcuttur. Ayrıca, İngilizce üniversite ders kitapları, uygulama, el ve referans kitaplarının satışı ile hizmet vermektedir. 2004 yılının Ağustosunda sitesinin yayınına başlamış ve hızla büyüyen ilgi ile geliştirilmektedir ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The adenovirus E4 11k protein binds and relocalizes the cytoplasmic P-body component Ddx6 to aggresomes. AU - Greer, Amy E.. AU - Hearing, Patrick. AU - Ketner, Gary W. PY - 2011/8/15. Y1 - 2011/8/15. N2 - The adenovirus E4 11k protein, product of E4 ORF3, is required in infection for processes including normal accumulation of viral late mRNAs. 11. k restructures both the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells by relocalizing specific host cell target proteins, most strikingly components of nuclear PML oncogenic domains. It is likely that in many cases relocalization inactivates target proteins to produce 11. ks effects, although the mechanism and targets for stimulation of late mRNA accumulation is unknown. We have identified a new set of proteins relocalized by 11. k: at least five protein components of cytoplasmic mRNA processing bodies (p-bodies) are found in 11. k-induced cytoplasmic aggresomes, sites where proteins are inactivated or destroyed. One of these p-body ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conserved region 2 of adenovirus E1A has a function distinct from pRb binding required to prevent cell cycle arrest by p16(INK4a) or p27(Kip1). AU - Alevizopoulos, Konstantinos. AU - Sanchez, Belén. AU - Amati, Bruno. PY - 2000/4/13. Y1 - 2000/4/13. N2 - Ectopic expression of the CDK inhibitors (CKIs) p16(INK4a) and p27(Kip1) in Rat1 fibroblasts induces dephosphorylation and activation of Retinoblastoma-family proteins (pRb, p107 and p130), their association with E2F proteins, and cell cycle arrest in G1. The growth-inhibitory action of p16, in particular, is believed to be mediated essentially via pRb activation. The 12S E1A protein of human Adenovirus 5 associates with pRb-family proteins via residues in its Conserved Regions (CR) 1 and 2, in particular through the motif LXCXE in CR2. These interactions are required for E1A to prevent G1 arrest upon co-expression of CKIs. We show here that mutating either of two conserved motifs adjacent to LXCXE in CR2, GFP and SDDEDEE, also ...
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M popelav edou podsadu a okrov r ov , dlouh pes ky. B icho i cel spodn st t la je b l . Vousky sm uj hodn kup edu a d vaj tak charakteristick tvar um ku. Zvl tnost jsou ochlupen chodidla. Barevn mutace nejsou zn my.
Hi, Keep getting an error on line 6. I cant seem to solve the concatenation Im trying to get the last column variable into the range. remove dashes from part numbers on DSV base data sheet first...
The last point of interest is the performance of these different functions when applied to a very long input string. As none of these functions uses repeated concatenation they are all linear time. When given ten million strings on this machine the simplest solution takes 0.79s, the functional state machine takes 0.81s, the imperative state machine takes 54s and the solution using String.init takes just 0.38s. Given such a small performance difference, the winning solution in the vast majority of cases is the simplest solution ...
Ste skúsení domáci majstri? Potom sa vám bude hodiť táto sada s veľkým počtom rôznych nástrojov, ako sú rôzne druhy klieští, stranových a nástrčkových kľúčov alebo nástavcov. 1x kombinované kliešte: 7 1x kliešte s dlhými čeľusťami: 6 1x kliešte s posuvným kĺbom: 10 2x skrutkovač: (-)(+)6 x 100 1x rukoväť pre zakladacie kľúče 8x otvorený stranový kľúč: 6 x 7, 8 x 9, 10 x 11, 12 x 13, 14 x 17, 18 x 19, 20 x 22, 24 x 27 mm 1x nôž 18 mm s 3 čepeľami 1x meracie pásmo 5MX16FT 16x zakladacie kľúče... ...
Sağlık Bilişimi , Sağlık Aktüel , Dijital Hastane , OHSAD. İnovatürk Danışmanlık Eğitim ve Tanıtım Hizmetleri Tic. Ltd. Şti. © ...
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Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation and interacts with FOXK1/K2, DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 and CtBP1/2 (CtBP) protein complexes. To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. Our results suggest that CtBP-E1A interaction suppresses immortalization and Ras co-operative transformation of primary rodent epithelial cells without significantly influencing the tumorigenic activities of transformed cells in immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. During productive infection, CtBP-E1A ...
Background Human Adenoviruses (HAdVs) cause a wide array of illnesses in all age groups. They particularly cause frequent morbidity among children. In China, human adenovirus types 3, 4, 7, 11, 14, 21, and 55 have caused at least seven outbreaks since 2000. However, limited st...
Note that this file is a concatenation of more than one RFC.] RFC: 791 INTERNET PROTOCOL DARPA INTERNET PROGRAM PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION September 1981 prepared for Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Information Processing Techniques Office 1400 Wilson Boulevard Arlington, Virginia 22209 by Information Sciences Institute University of Southern California 4676 Admiralty Way Marina del Rey, California 90291 September 1981 Internet Protocol TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE ........................................................ iii 1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................... 1 1.1 Motivation .................................................... 1 1.2 Scope ......................................................... 1 1.3 Interfaces .................................................... 1 1.4 Operation ..................................................... 2 2. OVERVIEW ......................................................... 5 2.1 Relation to Other Protocols ...
I propose that `array_concat` be created as an alias of `array_merge`. The concatenation of an associative array is also consistent with trying to merge the hash maps. For example there is a Stack Overflow question on concatenating two dictionaries that is marked as a duplicate of the function How to merge two Python dictionaries. That is, it is consistent that hash map concatenation is the same as hash map merging ...
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View Notes - CH310N_Spring09_HW02-1 from CH 53185 at University of Texas. Sessler CH310N Homework Problem Set 2 Due Thursday February 5th 1 K E Y Please write the first three letters of your last
Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the adenovirus E1A-associated 300-kD protein (p300) reveals a protein with properties of a transcriptional adaptor ...
Extending Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) over Synchronous Optical NETwork/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SONET/SDH) with virtual concatenation, high order and low order payloads ...
Looking for online definition of adenovirus early region genes in the Medical Dictionary? adenovirus early region genes explanation free. What is adenovirus early region genes? Meaning of adenovirus early region genes medical term. What does adenovirus early region genes mean?
Adenovirus genomes are linear, non-segmented double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules that are typically 26-46 Kbp long, containing 23-46 protein-coding genes. The example used for the following description is Human adenovirus E, a mastadenovirus with a 36 Kbp genome containing 38 protein-coding genes. While the precise number and identity of genes varies among adenoviruses, the basic principles of genome organization and the functions of most of the genes described in this article are shared among all adenoviruses. The 38 genes in the Human Adenovirus E genome are organized in 17 transcription units, each containing 1-8 coding sequences. Alternative splicing during processing of the pre-mRNAs produced by each transcription unit enable multiple different mRNAs to be produced from one transcription unit. The E1A, E1B, E2A, E2B, E3, and E4 transcription units are successively transcribed early in the viral reproductive cycle. The proteins coded for by genes within these transcription units are mostly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Repression of cytochrome P‐450c gene expression by cotransfection with adenovirus E1a DNA. AU - SOGAWA, Kazuhiro. AU - HANDA, Hiroshi. AU - FUJISAWA‐SEHARA, Atsuko. AU - HIROMASA, Takako. AU - YAMANE, Miyuki. AU - FUJII‐KURIYAMA, Yoshiaki. PY - 1989/5. Y1 - 1989/5. N2 - Gene expression of rat cytochrome P‐450c (P‐450c) depends upon inducible enhancers scattered in the 5′‐upstream region of the gene. We show that expression of the P‐450c gene is repressed by contransfection with adenovirus E1a DNA, regardless of the presence or absence of inducers, in a transient expression system of HeLa cells. Since cotransfection of either 13S or 12S E1a cDNA was effective in the repression, the region necessary for repression could be separated from that of transactivation of other adenovirus early genes. Moreover, we investigated the regions responsible for the inhibitory activity using in‐frame deletion mutants lacking internal or external portions of the E1a proteins. The ...
This line was derived from the human embryonic kidney line, 293 in 2001. 293 cells were transfected with the plasmid pVgRXR bearing a Zeocin-resistance selectable marker to obtain 293VgRXR cells. This population was subsequently transfected with the plasmid pEKORF6 containing Ad5 E4 ORF 6 that encodes E4 34K. pEKORF6 is a derivative of the plasmid pIndHydro that contains a hygromycin resistance gene. The vectors contain SV40 viral DNA sequences. The 2V6.11 cell line was originally selected in hygromycin-containing medium and cloned by single-colony isolation with a cloning cylinder. The 2V6.11 cells inducibly express the human adenovirus E4, 34kDa protein (E4 ORF6). 2V6.11 cells exhibit little or no constitutive E4 biologic activity. Induction by ponasterone A, an ecdysone analog, however, results in E4 biologic activity and levels of E4 34kDa protein that are detectable by immunoblotting. These cells can be used as a tool to study the biology of the adenoviral E4 oncoprotein.
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A : U:/TEMP/TEMP/A : U:/TEMP/TEMP/A/Test01.txt, Use of uninitialized value $file in concatenation (.) or string at ... + line 17. D : U:/TEMP/TEMP/D : , C : U:/TEMP/TEMP/C : U:/TEMP/TEMP/C/Test03.txt, Use of uninitialized value $file in concatenation (.) or string at ... + line 17. E : U:/TEMP/TEMP/E : , B : U:/TEMP/TEMP/B : U:/TEMP/TEMP/B/Test02.txt ...
NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) - Researchers from China and the US will sequence 100 human adenoviruses, including ones that cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, and ocular diseases, under a partnership announced today.
Premade Human MIR1538 Adenovirus (NR_031719), ready-to-use and available with your choice of HA tag, His tag, GFP reporter or untagged.
HEK 293T/17 cells were transformed with adenovirus E1a carrying a temperature sensitive T antigen co-selected with neomycin. Transformation was brought about by the insertion of approximately 4.5 kilobases of viral genome into human chromosome 19.
Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kd interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) regulates hypoxia-induced neural precursor cell death. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. 68:1326-1338. 2009 ...
I am new to ChaCha20. From the RFC -- The inputs to ChaCha20 are: o A 256-bit key, treated as a concatenation of eight 32-bit little- endian integers. o A 96-bit nonce, treated as a ...
The data sources in which the ORF has been identified. Click on the button to display all the original IDs in a pop-up. See the data sources section of the advanced documentation for more details regarding the information related to the data sources and the original ORF IDs. ...
Weiden, MD; Ginsberg, HS (1994). "Deletion of the E4 region of the genome produces adenovirus concatemers". PNAS. 91 (1): 153- ... Adenovirus E1B protein usually refers to one of two proteins transcribed from the E1B gene of the adenovirus: a 55kDa protein ... These two proteins are needed to block apoptosis in adenovirus-infected cells. E1B proteins work to prevent apoptosis that is ... White, E; Cipriani, R (January 10, 1990). "Role of adenovirus E1B proteins in transformation: altered organization of ...
Control protein E3 14.7K protects the virus from host antiviral responses. The control proteins of the E4 transcription unit ... The functions of many adenovirus proteins are known: Structural proteins include capsid proteins II (hexon), III (penton base ... "Protein Details for Human adenovirus E". NCBI. Retrieved 2013-01-17. Russell, WC (Jan 2009). "Adenoviruses: update on structure ... Control protein E1B 19K suppresses apoptosis by mimicking the action of cellular protein Bcl-2. Control protein E1B 55K binds ...
Glaunsinger BA, Lee SS, Thomas M, Banks L, Javier R (November 2000). "Interactions of the PDZ-protein MAGI-1 with adenovirus E4 ... In the case of HPV-1, E4 can account for up to 30% of the total protein at the surface of a wart. The E4 protein of many ... Although E4 proteins are expressed at low levels during the early phase of viral infection, expression of E4 increases ... E6 proteins also interact with the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase family) proteins. These proteins, including MAGI ...
"Multi-PDZ Domain Protein MUPP1 Is a Cellular Target for both Adenovirus E4-ORF1 and High-Risk Papillomavirus Type 18 E6 ... Multiple PDZ domain protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MPDZ gene. MPDZ has been shown to interact with: 5- ... "The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor interacts with the multi-PDZ domain protein-1 (MUPP-1) within the tight junction". J ... "The multi PDZ domain protein MUPP1 as a putative scaffolding protein for organizing signaling complexes in the acrosome of ...
Glaunsinger BA, Weiss RS, Lee SS, Javier R (2001). "Link of the unique oncogenic properties of adenovirus type 9 E4-ORF1 to a ... Tight junction protein ZO-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TJP2 gene. Tight junction proteins (TJPs) belong to a ... Tight junction protein 2 has been shown to interact with tight junction protein 1, band 4.1, occludin and USP53. GRCh38: ... "The tight junction protein ZO-1 establishes a link between the transmembrane protein occludin and the actin cytoskeleton". J. ...
... of transcription factor DRTF1/E2F which is functionally important for recognition by pRb and the adenovirus E4 orf 6/7 protein ... Vidal M, Braun P, Chen E, Boeke JD, Harlow E (1996). "Genetic characterization of a mammalian protein-protein interaction ... Wu CL, Zukerberg LR, Ngwu C, Harlow E, Lees JA (May 1995). "In vivo association of E2F and DP family proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol ... Wu CL, Zukerberg LR, Ngwu C, Harlow E, Lees JA (1995). "In vivo association of E2F and DP family proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 15 ...
... responsible for expression of the adenovirus E4 gene. Because of its chromosomal localization and ability to form heterodimers ... GA-binding protein alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABPA gene. This gene encodes one of three GA- ... Bannert N, Avots A, Baier M, Serfling E, Kurth R (Feb 1999). "GA-binding protein factors, in concert with the coactivator CREB ... "Entrez Gene: GABPA GA binding protein transcription factor, alpha subunit 60kDa". Vogel JL, Kristie TM (Feb 2000). "The novel ...
... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.080 - adenovirus e4 ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.090 - antigens, ... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.100 - adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus ... oncogene protein tpr-met MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045 - adenovirus early proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050 - adenovirus ...
... with a genome deleted of the entire E1 and E3 regions and the native E4 region replaced with the E4 orf6 of human adenovirus 5 ... on a novel replication defective Gorilla Adenovirus and encodes for SARS-COV-2 full length prefusion stabilized Spike protein. ... More specifically, the vector used is the simian group C adenovirus GRAd32, isolated from a captive gorilla, ... April 2021). "Immunogenicity of a new gorilla adenovirus vaccine candidate for COVID-19". Molecular Therapy. 29 (8): 2412-2423 ...
The vector is a chimpanzee adenovirus modified to avoid its replication. Adenoviruses are effective vectors for inducing and ... and matrix protein 1 (M1), creating a vaccine candidate named ChAdOx1 NP+M1. ChAdOx1 has been derived from a chimpanzee ... adenovirus (ChAd) serotype Y25 engineered by λ red recombination to exchange the native E4 orf4, orf6 and orf6/7 genes for ... Simian adenoviruses do not suffer from the same disadvantages. Therefore, investigators have tested new vaccines using the ...
Transcription factor E4F1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the E4F1 gene. The zinc finger protein encoded by this gene ... The full-length gene product represses transcription from the E4 promoter in the absence of E1A, while the 50-kDa form acts as ... Fernandes ER, Rooney RJ (1997). "The adenovirus E1A-regulated transcription factor E4F is generated from the human homolog of ... A 50-kDa amino-terminal product is generated from the full-length protein through proteolytic cleavage. The protein is ...
Higginbotham, Jennifer M.; O'Shea, Clodagh C. (15 October 2015). Imperiale, M. J. (ed.). "Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Targets PIAS3 and ... "Adenovirus Overrides Cellular Checkpoints for Protein Translation". Cell Cycle. 4 (7): 883-888. doi:10.4161/cc.4.7.1791. PMID ... "Visualizing viral protein structures in cells using genetic probes for correlated light and electron microscopy". Methods. 90: ...
E4(+) adenovirus gene transfer vector". Journal of Virology. 73 (12): 10183-90. doi:10.1128/JVI.73.12.10183-10190.1999. PMC ... S100 calcium-binding protein A10 (S100A10), also known as p11, is a protein that is encoded by the S100A10 gene in humans and ... The S100 protein is implicated in exocytosis and endocytosis by reorganization of F-actin. The p11 protein is linked with the ... As a member of the S-100 family, its structure resembles that of the S-100A1 and S-100B proteins. This class of proteins has ...
This protein binds specifically to adenovirus E1B-55kDa oncoprotein. It may play an important role in nucleocytoplasmic RNA ... 26 (7): 1613-8. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000226543.77214.e4. PMID 16690874. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, et al. (2006). "Global, in ... 2005). "Protein arginine methylation during lytic adenovirus infection". Biochem. J. 383 (Pt 2): 259-65. doi:10.1042/BJ20040210 ... HNRPUL1 also participates in ATR protein kinase signalling pathways during adenovirus infection. Two transcript variants ...
... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23. - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23. - antigens, polyomavirus ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.050 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.090 - antigens, polyomavirus ... adenovirus early proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.050 - adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 - ...
... such as adenovirus, and modify its genome to have genes that code for immunogenic proteins that can spike the immune systems ... While both the E4 and M13 viruses can infect and replicate within their bacterial host, it unclear if they retain this capacity ... This was done by editing the genes of the virus that code for the protein coat. The protein coat is edited to coat itself in ... The most common virus used for gene delivery come from adenoviruses as they can carry up to 7.5 kb of foreign DNA and infect a ...
"Enhanced tumor suppression by a p14ARF/p53 bicistronic adenovirus through increased p53 protein translation and stability". ... 27 (17): 2652-2660.e4. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.07.033. PMC 5788810. PMID 28844647. Shearin AL, Hedan B, Cadieu E, Erich SA, ... When a mutation occurs in protein p16, it prevents the protein kinase of CDK4, which results in the inactivation of the tumor ... These exons are used to create two proteins named p16 and p14ARF. Protein p16, created by exon 1α and exon 2, is responsible ...
... (STING), also known as transmembrane protein 173 (TMEM173) and MPYS/MITA/ERIS is a protein that ... Adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, HSV-1 and HSV-2, as well as the negative-stranded RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV ... 23 (3): 297-301.e4. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2018.01.006. PMC 7104992. PMID 29478775. Jin L, Getahun A, Knowles HM, Mogan J, Akerlund ... STING has also been shown to colocalize with autophagy proteins, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and ...
... adenovirus, plasmids, and naked DNA and/or protein compounds. In 2008, Hochedlinger et al. used an adenovirus to transport the ... 25 (6): 737-753.e4. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2019.10.002. PMC 6900749. PMID 31708402. Quality of induced pluripotent stem cells is ... The adenovirus is unique from other vectors like viruses and retroviruses because it does not incorporate any of its own genes ... Plasmids, adenoviruses, and transposon vectors have all been explored, but these often come with the tradeoff of lower ...
99 (3): E4. doi:10.1542/peds.99.3.e4. PMID 9099769. Clark, DA; Kidd, IM; Collingham, KE; Tarlow, M; Ayeni, T; Riordan, A; ... Some research has shown that syncytia formation in betaherpesviruses can vary based on the type of envelop protein expressed by ... "Human herpesvirus 7 infection of lymphoid and myeloid cell lines transduced with an adenovirus vector containing the CD4 gene ... This information indicates that CXCR4 and CCR5 are not essential receptor proteins for HHV-7 infection. The trademark ...
These include using a different variants or novel creations of the Cas protein, using an altogether different effector protein ... 81 (20): 4333-4345.e4. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2021.08.008. PMID 34480847. S2CID 237417317. Bravo JP, Liu MS, Hibshman GN, ... adenovirus (AdV), and adeno-associated virus (AAV). Efficiency of CRISPR-Cas9 has been found to greatly increase when various ... Novel variations of Cas9 proteins that increase specificity include effector proteins with comparable efficiency and ...
... induction of apoptosis by adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) early region 4 ORF 4 (E4orf4) correlates with accumulation of E4orf4 in the ... Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4 protein autoregulates E4 transcription by inhibiting E1A transactivation of the E4 promoter ... Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4 protein autoregulates E4 transcription by inhibiting E1A transactivation of the E4 promoter ... The adenovirus E4-ORF4 splicing enhancer protein interacts with a subset of phosphorylated SR proteins. EMBO J. ...
We use a novel adenovirus mu... Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Targets PIAS3 and Together with E1B-55K Remodels SUMO Interactions in the ... Adenovirus overrides cellular checkpoints for protein translation. × I am not author of this publication. ... homogeneous viral proteins or viral protein complexes. Once viral proteins or complexes are separated fro... ... The structural basis for the multiple and dominant functions of adenovirus oncoproteins has remained elusive. E4-ORF3 forms a ...
Adenovirus early region 4 34-kilodalton protein directs the nuclear localization of the early region 1B 55-kilodalton protein ... Goodrum, F. D., and D. A. Ornelles, Roles for the E4 orf6, orf3, and E1B 55-kilodalton proteins in cell cycle-independent ... Huntoon, K. M., Y. Wang, C. A. Eppolito, K. W. Barbour, F. G. Berger, P. A. Shrikant, and H. Baumann, The acute phase protein ... Campos, S. K., New structural model of adenoviral cement proteins is not yet concrete., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol. 111, ...
Seroreactive regions of the proteins derived from the E4, E6, E7 (two regions) and LI (three regions) open reading frames could ... In the case of the E4 open reading frame, the same region identified by immunoscreening was also found when synthetic ... Antisera raised against different HPV-16 fusion proteins were used for screening of the phage clones and the reacting peptides ... Using an approach to predict receptor-like regions within the respective proteins, five of the seven regions were also ...
Bridges, R. (2015) Identification of Ubiquitin-like Post-translational Modifications Induced by the Adenovirus E4-orf3 Protein ... Proteomic analysis of ubiquitin-like posttranslational modifications induced by the adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein. Journal of ...
Adenovirus E4 Protein. Adenovirus E4F Protein. E4 Protein, Adenovirus. E4 Proteins, Adenovirus. E4F Protein, Adenovirus. ... to search ADENOVIRUS E4 PROTEINS & ADENOVIRUS E4F 1985-92. History Note:. 93; ADENOVIRUS E4 PROTEIN was SY to ADENOVIRUS EARLY ... Adenovirus E4 Proteins - Preferred Concept UI. M0026564. Scope note. Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. ... Adenovirus E4 Proteins Entry term(s). Adenovirus E4 Protein E4 Protein, Adenovirus E4 Proteins, Adenovirus ...
Development of Cell Lines Capable of Complementing E1, E4, and Protein IX Defective Adenovirus Type 5 Mutants Academic Article ... Time-resolved immunofluorometric assay of p53 protein Academic Article * Time-resolved immunofluorometric assay of p53 protein. ... Solid-phase radioimmunoassay with protein-A-bearing Staphylococcus aureus cells used to assay a protein (ferritin) and a hapten ... ELISA-detected p53 protein accumulation is a prognostic factor in a large cohort of breast cancer patients. Conference Paper ...
This applies to the adenovirus vector with which Gelsinger was injected, since adenovirus antibodies are frequently found in ... The genome is divided into two main regions expressing four early (E1, E2, E3, E4) and five late (L1, L2, L3, L4, L5) genes. ... However, this is not the end of the story, for the vector can also, of course, introduce genes for other proteins that could ... Adenovirus vectors are depleted of their E1 region, which is essential for reproduction and may also be deprived of the E3 and ...
Human adenovirus early region 4 open reading frame 1 genes encode growth-transforming proteins that may be distantly related to ... the purified Ad protein lacks dUTPase activity (84). Instead, E4-ORF1 seems to indirectly increase dNTP levels by activating ... The R1 protein exhibits a long half-life (~20 h), thus R1 protein levels remain relatively constant throughout the cell cycle. ... Adenovirus (Ads). Adenoviruses are non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus of infected cells. ...
Such posttranscriptional regulation of viral and cellular gene expression in infected cells requires viral E1B and E4 proteins ... Such posttranscriptional regulation of viral and cellular gene expression in infected cells requires viral E1B and E4 proteins ... Such posttranscriptional regulation of viral and cellular gene expression in infected cells requires viral E1B and E4 proteins ... Such posttranscriptional regulation of viral and cellular gene expression in infected cells requires viral E1B and E4 proteins ...
... we co-expressed three avian virus proteins together with the fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) Fiber-2 protein, infectious ... The adenoviral genes required for proper AAV packaging are provided in the pHelper plasmid (E2A, E4 and VA RNA) or in the 293 ... The capsid protein VP60 of the RHDV represents the most important antigenic protein. To develop a recombinant bivalent vaccine ... Whereas Vif proteins from primate lentiviruses like HIV-1 make the most of the transcription issue CBFβ as a non-canonical ...
E4-ORF4 is a viral protein that binds the cellular protein phosphatase IIA (PP2A) and controls Serine/Arginine (SR)-rich ... Regulation of human adenovirus alternative RNA splicing by the adenoviral L4-33K and L4-22K proteins. ... protein activity by inducing SR protein dephosphorylation. The L4-33K, and most likely also the L4-22K protein, are highly ... Adenovirus makes extensive use of alternative RNA splicing to produce a complex set of spliced viral mRNAs. Studies aimed at ...
Besson S, Vragniau C, Vassal-Stermann E , Dagher MC and Fender P. The Adenovirus Dodecahedron : Beyond the Platonic Story. ... Binding Mechanism Elucidation of the Acute Respiratory Disease Causing Agent Adenovirus of Serotype 7 to Desmoglein-2. Viruses ... Fender P. Recombinant adenoviruses and adenovirus penton vectors : from DNA transfer to direct protein delivery into cell. ( ... Controlled transgene expression by E1-E4-defective adenovirus vectors harbouring a "tet-on" switch system. J Gene Med. 2002 Nov ...
... whereas the fiber protein and some E3- and E4-related proteins shared moderate similarity, and only the large E3 protein, which ... encoding proteins V and IX). Ovine adenovirus 8 shows the closest relationship to ovine adenovirus 6. These two viruses seem to ... We study the evolution of eleven linear motifs in the Mastadenovirus E1A protein, a hub of virus-host protein-protein ... Most of the encoded proteins shared high sequence similarity with those of known bat adenovirus C strains detected in different ...
Our research group and others have shown that this 114-residue product of early region E4 of human adenoviruses termed E4orf4 ... Human adenovirus E4orf4 protein is toxic in human tumor cells. toxicity. * Post author By cellsignaling ... Human adenovirus E4orf4 protein is toxic in human tumor cells. toxicity results from the inhibition of B55-specific PP2A ... Galectin 3 is one of the more extensively studied members of this family and is a 30 kDa protein. Due to a Cterminal ...
All these processes involve the participation of cellular proteins, mitochondrial proteins, and virus specific proteins. This ... Others modulate the permeability transition pore and either prevent or induce the release of the apoptotic proteins from the ... hijack the host mitochondrial proteins to function fully inside the host cell. ... Some viruses encode the Bcl2 homologues to counter the proapoptotic functions of the cellular and mitochondrial proteins. ...
A 50-kDa amino-terminal product is generated from the full-length protein through proteolytic cleavage. The protein is ... The full-length gene product represses transcription from the E4 promoter in the absence of E1A, while the 50-kDa form acts as ... is one of several cellular transcription factors whose DNA-binding activities are regulated through the action of adenovirus ... Alternative splicing results in multiple transcripts encoding different proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014] ...
E3 and E4. The results show that synthesis of the early adenoviral protein ssDNA binding protein (DBP) and the capsid proteins ... VRC Ad5 Vaccine: Decreased Adenovirus Protein Synthesis & Vector-Specific Immunity A new paper from scientists at the Vaccine ... In contrast, the VRC Ad5 vector has the E1, E3 and E4 genes deleted. In the paper, the researchers compare adenoviral protein ... There were no significant changes in either CD4 or CD8 T cell responses to the adenovirus E2A protein. Echoing several other ...
Furthermore, they provide a new framework for investigating the molecular functions of viral early proteins and information ... These findings establish that the impact of adenovirus infection on host cell programs is far greater than appreciated hitherto ... encode several proteins that can perturb cellular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis, as well as ... despite widespread efforts to develop adenoviruses for therapeutic applications. We used two-color hybridization and ...
The adenoviral genes required for proper AAV packaging are provided in the pHelper plasmid (E2A, E4 and VA RNA) or in the 293 ... AAV Helper Free System produces recombinant AAV containing your gene of interest without the need to use a helper adenovirus. ... Antigen: a specific protein sequence *Additional lab advice: Cloning capacity of expression vector = 1.7 kb ... Protocol information: pHelper plasmid contains required E2A, E4, and VA RNA adenoviral genes; eliminates the need for a helper ...
Induction of endogenous genes following infection of human endothelial cells with an E1(-) E4(+) adenovirus gene transfer ... The identified cDNAs included signaling molecules (lymphoid blast crisis [ LBC], guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha type ... Induction of endogenous genes following infection of human endothelial cells with an E1(-) E4(+) adenovirus gene transfer ... Recombinant adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors are effective at transferring exogenous genes to a variety of cells and ...
The adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) proteins were described originally as immortalizing oncoproteins that altered ... Surprisingly, the 243-amino-acid form of adenovirus-5 E1A was found subsequently to reverse-transform many human tumour cells. ... proteins were described originally as immortalizing oncoproteins that altered transcription in rodent cells, but surprisingly, ... Cell transformation by the adenovirus oncogenes E1 and E4. *W. Ip, T. Dobner ...
The study involves two GMOs: (i) A replication-incompetent adenovirus (GAd20 with deletions of the viral E1, E3 and E4 coding ... group C adenovirus viral vector construct engineered to express three proteins from the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) ... The study involves two GMOs: (i) A replication-incompetent adenovirus (GAd20 with deletions of the viral E1, E3 and E4 coding ... Genes of the human Parainfluenza virus fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins; gene of the human Respiratory ...
Analyses of melanoma-targeted oncolytic adenoviruses with tyrosinase enhancer/ promoter - driven E1A, E4, or both in submerged ... Human chaperone proteins abrogate inhibition of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E1 helicase by the HPV E2 protein. Mol. Cell. ... Analyses of melanoma-targeted oncolytic adenoviruses with tyrosinase enhancer/ promoter - driven E1A, E4, or both in submerged ... Inducible E7 proteins of high-risk and low-risk HPVs promote S phase re-entry in post-mitotic differentiated keratinocytes in ...
In other examples, the proteins include a furin cleavage site and a prostate tissue-specific binding domain which functionally ... In some examples, the proteins include a prostate-specific protease cleavage site and can further include a prostate-tissue- ... but is not necessarily free of all of the E2 and E4 DNA sequences, and DNA sequences encoding adenoviral proteins transcribed ... The DNA segment serves as a substrate for homologous recombination with a modified or mutated adenovirus, and may encompass, ...
Crazy bulks incredible tri-protein isnt "just another protein powder. Главные свойства sp super tren 200: ▻набор качественной ... Testoprime è fatto per gli uomini che vogliono più energia, costruire muscoli più velocemente, migliorare il loro umore o ... tiêm adenovirus tái Queste sostanze sono ugualmente inserite nella lista antidoping della WADA, per cui utilizzare sostanze di ... Irsutismo idiopatico o periferico: è una forma di irsutismo abbastanza frequente, soprattutto in alcune aree geografiche e tra ...
... which matched the lower induction of beclin-1 and BCL-2/adenovirus E1B-interacting protein-3 (Bnip3) and the lack of ... Per confermare inserimenti o cancellazioni di voci è necessario confermare con il tasto SALVA/INSERISCI in fondo alla pagina * ... which matched the lower induction of beclin-1 and BCL-2/adenovirus E1B-interacting protein-3 (Bnip3) and the lack of ... Si ricorda che il superamento dei valori soglia (almeno 2 su 3) è requisito necessario ma non sufficiente al conseguimento ...
b h Expression levels of the proteins b, c, f, the cell viability d, e, g, and the relative MDR1 promoter activity h of the VCR ... resistant HCT 8 cells infected by recombinant adenovirus expressing HA tagged constitutively active Akt Ad Akt myr b and e or ...

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