Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Adenovirus E4 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.Adenovirus E1B Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.Adenovirus E3 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Adenovirus Infections, Human: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.Adenovirus E2 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.Adenoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mastadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).Adenoviruses, Canine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.E1A-Associated p300 Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Adenoviruses, Porcine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Aviadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Fowl adenovirus A: The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Keratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Papillomavirus E7 Proteins: ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Adenovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.PhosphoproteinsTransgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Genes, Retinoblastoma: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.DNA, Concatenated: Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.DNA Tumor Viruses: DNA viruses producing malignant tumors. Of the six major groupings of DNA viruses four contain members which are actually or potentially oncogenic: the Adenoviridae, the Herpesviridae, the Papovaviridae, and the Poxviridae.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Mice, Inbred BALB CGenes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Cell Nucleus Structures: Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.p300-CBP Transcription Factors: A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).ConjunctivitisE2F2 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Atadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.G-Box Binding Factors: A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Rats, Inbred F344Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Tropism: The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.

Development of porcine adenovirus-3 as an expression vector. (1/211)

Porcine adenovirus-3 (PAV-3) was developed as an expression vector using homologous recombination in Escherichia coli BJ 5183. As a prerequisite, the complete genome of PAV-3 was first introduced as a PacI restriction fragment into a bacterial plasmid. The plasmid, when PacI restricted and transfected into swine testicular cells, produces an infectious virus. The potential of this procedure was demonstrated by the construction of several PAV-3 recombinants. Part of the E3 region, which is nonessential for virus replication under cell culture conditions, was identified and deleted from the virus genome. The gene for glycoprotein D (gD) of pseudorabies virus (PRV), which elicits PRV-neutralizing antibodies in pigs, was cloned and expressed from the E3 region of PAV-3. A 50 kDa polypeptide was identified in recombinant PAV-3-infected cell lysates by immunoprecipitation assays using gD-specific monoclonal antibodies. In another experiment, a region between the right inverted terminal repeat and the promoter of the E4 region was used to clone and express the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene under the control of SV40 immediate early promoter. CAT gene expression was observed irrespective of the orientation of the CAT gene. These results indicate that the helper-independent recombinant PAV-3 could be used as an expression vector and has potential as a recombinant vaccine vector in pigs.  (+info)

Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4-induced dephosphorylation inhibits E1A activation of the E2 promoter and E2F-1-mediated transactivation independently of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. (2/211)

Previous studies have shown that the cell cycle-regulated E2F transcription factor is subjected to both positive and negative control by phosphorylation. Here we show that in transient transfection experiments, adenovirus E1A activation of the viral E2 promoter is abrogated by coexpression of the viral E4 open reading frame 4 (E4-ORF4) protein. This effect does not to require the retinoblastoma protein that previously has been shown to regulate E2F activity. The inhibitory activity of E4-ORF4 appears to be specific because E4-ORF4 had little effect on, for example, E4-ORF6/7 transactivation of the E2 promoter. We further show that the repressive effect of E4-ORF4 on E2 transcription works mainly through the E2F DNA-binding sites in the E2 promoter. In agreement with this, we find that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2F-1/DP-1-mediated transactivation. We also show that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2 mRNA expression during virus growth. E4-ORF4 has previously been shown to bind to and activate the cellular protein phosphatase 2A. The inhibitory effect of E4-ORF4 was relieved by okadaic acid, which inhibits protein phosphatase 2A activity, suggesting that E4-ORF4 represses E2 transcription by inducing transcription factor dephosphorylation. Interestingly, E4-ORF4 did not inhibit the transactivation capacity of a Gal4-E2F hybrid protein. Instead, E4-ORF4 expression appears to result in reduced stability of E2F/DNA complexes.  (+info)

Novel role for E4 region genes in protection of adenovirus vectors from lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (3/211)

Target cells infected with adenovirus (Ad) vectors containing intact E3 and E4 regions were found to be relatively resistant to lysis by Ad-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Elements from both the E3 and the E4 regions were required for this effect, leading to the identification of a previously undescribed role for E4 gene products in resistance to cytolysis.  (+info)

Distinct regulation of p53 and p73 activity by adenovirus E1A, E1B, and E4orf6 proteins. (4/211)

Multiple adenovirus (Ad) early proteins have been shown to inhibit transcription activation by p53 and thereby to alter its normal biological functioning. Since these Ad proteins affect the activity of p53 via different mechanisms, we examined whether this inhibition is target gene specific. In addition, we analyzed whether the same Ad early proteins have a comparable effect on transcription activation by the recently identified p53 homologue p73. Our results show that the large E1B proteins very efficiently inhibited the activity of p53 on the Bax, p21(Waf1), cyclin G, and MDM2 reporter constructs but had no effect on the activation of the same reporter constructs by p73, with the exception of some inhibition of the Bax promoter by Ad12 E1B. The repressive effect of the E1A proteins on p53 activity is less than that seen with the large E1B proteins, but the E1A proteins inhibit the activity of both p53 and p73. We could not detect significant inhibition of p53 functions by E4orf6, but a clear repression of the transcription activation by p73 by this Ad early protein was observed. In addition, we found that stable expression of the Ad5 E1A and that of the E1B protein both caused increased p73 protein expression. The large E1B and the E4orf6 proteins together do not target the p73 protein for rapid degradation after adenoviral infection, as has previously been found for the p53 protein, probably because the large E1B protein does not interact with p73. Our results suggest that the p53 and p73 proteins are both inactivated after Ad infection and transformation but via distinct mechanisms.  (+info)

E1(-)E4(+) adenoviral gene transfer vectors function as a "pro-life" signal to promote survival of primary human endothelial cells. (5/211)

Although endothelial cells are quiescent and long-lived in vivo, when they are removed from blood vessels and cultured in vitro they die within days to weeks. In studies of the interaction of E1(-)E4(+) replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) vectors and human endothelium, the cells remained quiescent and were viable for prolonged periods. Evaluation of these cultures showed that E1(-)E4(+) Ad vectors provide an "antiapoptotic" signal that, in association with an increase in the ratio of Bcl2 to Bax levels, induces the endothelial cells to enter a state of "suspended animation," remaining viable for at least 30 days, even in the absence of serum and growth factors. Although the mechanisms initiating these events are unclear, the antiapoptoic signal requires the presence of E4 genes in the vector genome, suggesting that one or more E4 open reading frames of subgroup C Ad initiate a "pro-life" program that modifies cultured endothelial cells to survive for prolonged periods.  (+info)

An arginine-faced amphipathic alpha helix is required for adenovirus type 5 e4orf6 protein function. (6/211)

A region in the carboxy terminus of the protein encoded by open reading frame 6 in early region 4 (E4orf6) of adenovirus type 5 was determined to be required for directing nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein and for efficient virus replication. A peptide encompassing this region, corresponding to amino acids 239 through 255 of the E4orf6 protein, was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The peptide showed evidence of self-interaction and displayed the characteristic spectra of an amphipathic alpha helix in the helix-stabilizing solvent trifluoroethanol. Disrupting the integrity of this alpha helix in the E4orf6 protein by proline substitutions or by removing amino acids 241 through 250 abolished its ability to direct the E1B 55-kDa protein to the nucleus when both proteins were transiently expressed in HeLa cells. Expression of E4orf6 variants that failed to direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein failed to enhance replication of the E4 mutant virus, dl1014, whereas expression of the wild-type E4orf6 protein restored growth of dl1014 to near-wild-type levels. These results suggest that the E4orf6 protein contains an arginine-faced, amphipathic alpha helix that is critical for a functional interaction with the E1B 55-kDa protein in the cell and for the function of the E4orf6 protein during a lytic infection.  (+info)

The role of human TFIIB in transcription start site selection in vitro and in vivo. (7/211)

The general transcription factor TFIIB plays a crucial role in selecting the transcription initiation site in yeast. We have analyzed the human homologs of TFIIB mutants that have previously been shown to affect transcription start site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the distinct mechanisms of transcription start site selection observed in S. cerevisiae and humans, the role of TFIIB in this process is similar. However, unlike their yeast counterparts, the human mutants do not show a severe defect in supporting either basal transcription or transcription stimulated by an acidic activator in vitro. Transient transfection analysis revealed that, in addition to a role in transcription start site selection, human TFIIB residue Arg-66 performs a critical function in vivo that is bypassed in vitro. Furthermore, although correct transcription start site selection is dependent upon an arginine residue at position 66 in human TFIIB, innate function in vivo is determined by the charge of the residue alone. Our observations raise questions as to the evolutionary conservation of TFIIB and uncover an additional function for TFIIB that is required in vivo but can be bypassed in vitro.  (+info)

Generation of an adenovirus vector lacking E1, e2a, E3, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3. (8/211)

Toxicity and immunity associated with adenovirus backbone gene expression is an important hurdle to overcome for successful gene therapy. Recent efforts to improve adenovirus vectors for in vivo use have focused on the sequential deletion of essential early genes. Adenovirus vectors have been constructed with the E1 gene deleted and with this deletion in combination with an E2a, E2b, or E4 deletion. We report here a novel vector (Av4orf3nBg) lacking E1, E2a, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3 (ORF3) and expressing a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. This vector was generated by transfection of a plasmid carrying the full-length vector sequence into A30.S8 cells that express E1 and E2a but not E4. Production was subsequently performed in an E1-, E2a-, and E4-complementing cell line. We demonstrated with C57BL/6 mice that the Av4orf3nBg vector effected gene transfer with an efficiency comparable to that of the Av3nBg (wild-type E4) vector but that the former exhibited a higher level of beta-galactosidase expression. This observation suggests that E4 ORF3 alone is able to enhance RNA levels from the beta-galactosidase gene when the Rous sarcoma virus promoter is used to drive transgene expression in the mouse liver. In addition, we observed less liver toxicity in mice injected with the Av4orf3nBg vector than those injected with the Av3nBg vector at a comparable DNA copy number per cell. This study suggests that the additional deletion of E4 in an E1 and E2a deletion background may be beneficial in decreasing immunogenicity and improving safety and toxicity profiles, as well as increasing transgene capacity and expression for liver-directed gene therapy.  (+info)

*Adenovirus genome

Control protein E3 14.7K protects the virus from host antiviral responses. The control proteins of the E4 transcription unit ... The functions of many adenovirus proteins are known: Structural proteins include capsid proteins II (hexon), III (penton base ... Control protein E1B 19K suppresses apoptosis by mimicking the action of cellular protein Bcl-2. Control protein E1B 55K binds ... "Protein Details for Human adenovirus E". NCBI. Retrieved 2013-01-17. Russell, WC (Jan 2009). "Adenoviruses: update on structure ...

*Papillomaviridae

Glaunsinger BA, Lee SS, Thomas M, Banks L, Javier R (2000). "Interactions of the PDZ-protein MAGI-1 with adenovirus E4-ORF1 and ... In the case of HPV-1, E4 can account for up to 30% of the total protein at the surface of a wart. The E4 protein of many ... Although E4 proteins are expressed at low levels during the early phase of viral infection, expression of E4 increases ... E6 proteins also interact with the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase family) proteins. These proteins, including MAGI ...

*TFDP1

... of transcription factor DRTF1/E2F which is functionally important for recognition by pRb and the adenovirus E4 orf 6/7 protein ... Vidal M, Braun P, Chen E, Boeke JD, Harlow E (1996). "Genetic characterization of a mammalian protein-protein interaction ... Wu CL, Zukerberg LR, Ngwu C, Harlow E, Lees JA (May 1995). "In vivo association of E2F and DP family proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol ... Wu CL, Zukerberg LR, Ngwu C, Harlow E, Lees JA (1995). "In vivo association of E2F and DP family proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 15 ...

*MPDZ

"Multi-PDZ Domain Protein MUPP1 Is a Cellular Target for both Adenovirus E4-ORF1 and High-Risk Papillomavirus Type 18 E6 ... Multiple PDZ domain protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MPDZ gene. MPDZ has been shown to interact with: 5- ... "The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor interacts with the multi-PDZ domain protein-1 (MUPP-1) within the tight junction". J ... "The multi PDZ domain protein MUPP1 as a putative scaffolding protein for organizing signaling complexes in the acrosome of ...

*Adenovirus E1B protein

Weiden, MD; Ginsberg, HS (1994). "Deletion of the E4 region of the genome produces adenovirus concatemers". PNAS. 91 (1): 153- ... Adenovirus E1B protein usually refers to one of two proteins transcribed from the E1B gene of the adenovirus: a 55kDa protein ... These two proteins are needed to block apoptosis in adenovirus-infected cells. E1B proteins work to prevent apoptosis that is ... White, E; Cipriani, R (January 10, 1990). "Role of adenovirus E1B proteins in transformation: altered organization of ...

*Tight junction protein 2

Glaunsinger BA, Weiss RS, Lee SS, Javier R (2001). "Link of the unique oncogenic properties of adenovirus type 9 E4-ORF1 to a ... Tight junction protein ZO-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TJP2 gene. Tight junction proteins (TJPs) belong to a ... Tight junction protein 2 has been shown to interact with Tight junction protein 1, Band 4.1 and Occludin. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "The tight junction protein ZO-1 establishes a link between the transmembrane protein occludin and the actin cytoskeleton". J. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.080 - adenovirus e4 ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.090 - antigens, ... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.100 - adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus ... oncogene protein tpr-met MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045 - adenovirus early proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050 - adenovirus ...

*GABPA

... responsible for expression of the adenovirus E4 gene. Because of its chromosomal localization and ability to form heterodimers ... GA-binding protein alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABPA gene. This gene encodes one of three GA- ... Bannert N, Avots A, Baier M, Serfling E, Kurth R (Feb 1999). "GA-binding protein factors, in concert with the coactivator CREB ... "Entrez Gene: GABPA GA binding protein transcription factor, alpha subunit 60kDa". Vogel JL, Kristie TM (Feb 2000). "The novel ...

*E4F1

Transcription factor E4F1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the E4F1 gene. The zinc finger protein encoded by this gene ... The full-length gene product represses transcription from the E4 promoter in the absence of E1A, while the 50-kDa form acts as ... Fernandes ER, Rooney RJ (1997). "The adenovirus E1A-regulated transcription factor E4F is generated from the human homolog of ... A 50-kDa amino-terminal product is generated from the full-length protein through proteolytic cleavage. The protein is ...

*S100A10

E4(+) adenovirus gene transfer vector". Journal of Virology. 73 (12): 10183-90. PMC 113071 . PMID 10559334. Mai J, Finley RL, ... S100 calcium-binding protein A10 (S100A10), also known as p11, is a protein that is encoded by the S100A10 gene in humans and ... The S100 protein is implicated in exocytosis and endocytosis by reorganization of F-actin. The p11 protein is linked with the ... As a member of the S-100 family, its structure resembles that of the S-100A1 and S-100B proteins. This class of proteins has ...

*HNRPUL1

This protein binds specifically to adenovirus E1B-55kDa oncoprotein. It may play an important role in nucleocytoplasmic RNA ... 26 (7): 1613-8. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000226543.77214.e4. PMID 16690874. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, et al. (2006). "Global, in ... 2005). "Protein arginine methylation during lytic adenovirus infection". Biochem. J. 383 (Pt 2): 259-65. doi:10.1042/BJ20040210 ... HNRPUL1 also participates in ATR protein kinase signalling pathways during adenovirus infection. Two transcript variants ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 --- adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.080 --- adenovirus e4 proteins ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.050 --- adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.090 --- antigens, ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.050 --- adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.090 --- antigens, ... adenovirus early proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.050 --- adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 --- ...

*Genetically modified virus

... such as adenovirus, and modify its genome to have genes that code for immunogenic proteins that can spike the immune systems ... The battery was constructed by genetically engineering different viruses such as, the E4 bacteriophage and the M13 ... This was done by editing the genes of the virus that code for the protein coat. The protein coat is edited to coat itself in ... The viruses that have been modified to have a multifunctional protein coat can be used as a nano-structured cathode with causes ...
Export of adenoviral late mRNA from the nucleus requires the Nxf1/Tap export receptor.: One important function of the human adenovirus E1B 55-kDa protein is ind
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View Notes - 351 E3p key F09 from CHEM 351 at BYU. Chem 351 Name K E. Nielson Practice Exam 3 Show answers clearly/cross out any answers you dont want graded. Draw structures when possible with
Definition of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein? Meaning of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein as a legal term. What does Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein mean in law?
To investigate the role of the E1B/E4-complex in Ad5 replication we generated virus mutants carrying amino acid exchanges (1) in the NES of E1B-55K, E4orf6 and both proteins, (2) in the SUMO1 conjugation site (SCS) of E1B-55K and (3) in the p53- and MRN-interacting domain of E1B-55K. These studies confirm that E1B-55K and presumably the E1B/E4-complex is exported to the cytoplasm via the export receptor CRM1 in infected cells. As opposed to the E4orf6 NES functional inactivation of the corresponding motif in E1B-55K causes an almost complete redistribution of the viral protein from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and its accumulation at the periphery of the viral replication centers. Interestingly, however, this nuclear restriction imposed upon the NES mutant protein is fully compensated by concurrent inactivation of the adjacent SCS. These findings indicate that SUMOylation plays a role in the targeting of E1B-55K to the viral transcription and replication centers and implicate that SUMO1 ...
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This paper presents a novel multiple serial code concatenation (SCC) strategy to combat the error-floor problem in iterated sparse graph-based error correc
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String Concatenation. You can combine two string into a single string by using either the CONCATENATE function or the & operator. Unfortunately, neither of these can be used in an array formula to selectively build up a result string based on other criteria. See String Concatenation For Array Formulas for a VBA function that can be used in an array formula to build a string based on selection criteria. This page last updated: 2-November-2007 ...
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... adenolipomatosis adenolipomatosis ad·e·no·li·po·ma·to·sis (ādn-ō-lĭ-pōmə-tōsĭs) n. A condition marked by the development of multiple adenolipomas.
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Histone H2AX plays a crucial role in molecular and cellular responses to DNA damage and in the maintenance of genome stability. fibroblast and cell lines to carry out comprehensive time-course and dose-response experiments and to show that the expression of several FoxO3a-regulated genes was altered in compared to cells at both basal and irradiated conditions. […]. ...
RFC 5831 GOST R 34.11-94 March 2010 The hash function, defined in GOST R 34.11-94, is used for digital signature systems based on the asymmetric cryptographic algorithm according to GOST R 34.10-2001 (see section 3). 3. Conventions Used in This Document The following notations are used in GOST R 34.11-94: V_all is a set of all finite words in the alphabet V = {0,1}. The words are read from right to left and the alphabet symbols are numbered from right to left (i.e., the rightmost symbol of the word has the number one, the second rightmost symbol has number two, etc.). Vk is a set of all words in alphabet V = {0,1} of length k bits (k=16,64,256). ,A, is the length of a word A belonging to V_all. A,,B is a concatenation of words A, B belonging to V_all. Its length is ,A, + ,B,, where the left ,A, symbols come from the word A, and the right ,B, symbols come from the word B. One can also use the notation A,,B = A * B. A^k is a concatenation of k copies of the word A (A belongs to V_all). ,N,_k is a ...
BNIP3 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein
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Subject: RE: DATAFILE?? The best way to find out is to try it. You will probably find that it depends. If you use a LMT and do uniform extents then it will do it by concatenation. (fill up the first file then move on to the 2nd etc.). If you create an LMT and do automatic extents then it is different. It does it by striping. The first extent goes in the first file, the 2nd in the 2nd file... You can see this by setting up a small test. Jim -----Original Message ...
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The human being adenovirus E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase is well known to promote viral replication by degrading an increasing number of cellular proteins that inhibit the efficient production of viral progeny. vectors. These new and previously undescribed functions of the E4orf6/E1B55K E3 ubiquitin ligase could play an important role ABT-378 in promoting the replication of wild-type viruses. IMPORTANCE During the course of work on the adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins we found very surprisingly that expression of these species was sufficient to permit low levels of replication of an adenovirus vector lacking E1A the central regulator of infection. E1A products uncouple E2F transcription factors from Rb repression complexes thus stimulating viral gene expression and cell and viral DNA synthesis. We found that the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase mimics these functions. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new function for ABT-378 ...
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Hi, Keep getting an error on line 6. I cant seem to solve the concatenation Im trying to get the last column variable into the range. remove dashes from part numbers on DSV base data sheet first...
The last point of interest is the performance of these different functions when applied to a very long input string. As none of these functions uses repeated concatenation they are all linear time. When given ten million strings on this machine the simplest solution takes 0.79s, the functional state machine takes 0.81s, the imperative state machine takes 54s and the solution using String.init takes just 0.38s. Given such a small performance difference, the winning solution in the vast majority of cases is the simplest solution ...
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Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation and interacts with FOXK1/K2, DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 and CtBP1/2 (CtBP) protein complexes. To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. Our results suggest that CtBP-E1A interaction suppresses immortalization and Ras co-operative transformation of primary rodent epithelial cells without significantly influencing the tumorigenic activities of transformed cells in immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. During productive infection, CtBP-E1A ...
I propose that `array_concat` be created as an alias of `array_merge`. The concatenation of an associative array is also consistent with trying to merge the hash maps. For example there is a Stack Overflow question on concatenating two dictionaries that is marked as a duplicate of the function How to merge two Python dictionaries. That is, it is consistent that hash map concatenation is the same as hash map merging ...
View Notes - CH310N_Spring09_HW02-1 from CH 53185 at University of Texas. Sessler CH310N Homework Problem Set 2 Due Thursday February 5th 1 K E Y Please write the first three letters of your last
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Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the adenovirus E1A-associated 300-kD protein (p300) reveals a protein with properties of a transcriptional adaptor ...
Do HEK 293 cells contain functional E1A/E1B? - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Dear all, I wish to do p53 related studies and I was wondering if HEK 293 cells contain fucntional Adenovirus proteins like E1A or E1B?If so,do they inhibit p53 in these cells?Would this affect my readout of p53-reporter based experiments? Thanks!!
Adenovirus genomes are linear, non-segmented double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules that are typically 26-46 Kbp long, containing 23-46 protein-coding genes. The example used for the following description is Human adenovirus E, a mastadenovirus with a 36 Kbp genome containing 38 protein-coding genes. While the precise number and identity of genes varies among adenoviruses, the basic principles of genome organization and the functions of most of the genes described in this article are shared among all adenoviruses. The 38 genes in the Human Adenovirus E genome are organized in 17 transcription units, each containing 1-8 coding sequences. Alternative splicing during processing of the pre-mRNAs produced by each transcription unit enable multiple different mRNAs to be produced from one transcription unit. The E1A, E1B, E2A, E2B, E3, and E4 transcription units are successively transcribed early in the viral reproductive cycle. The proteins coded for by genes within these transcription units are mostly ...
This line was derived from the human embryonic kidney line, 293 in 2001. 293 cells were transfected with the plasmid pVgRXR bearing a Zeocin-resistance selectable marker to obtain 293VgRXR cells. This population was subsequently transfected with the plasmid pEKORF6 containing Ad5 E4 ORF 6 that encodes E4 34K. pEKORF6 is a derivative of the plasmid pIndHydro that contains a hygromycin resistance gene. The vectors contain SV40 viral DNA sequences. The 2V6.11 cell line was originally selected in hygromycin-containing medium and cloned by single-colony isolation with a cloning cylinder. The 2V6.11 cells inducibly express the human adenovirus E4, 34kDa protein (E4 ORF6). 2V6.11 cells exhibit little or no constitutive E4 biologic activity. Induction by ponasterone A, an ecdysone analog, however, results in E4 biologic activity and levels of E4 34kDa protein that are detectable by immunoblotting. These cells can be used as a tool to study the biology of the adenoviral E4 oncoprotein.
Jimenez-Garcia, L. F., Spector, D. L. (1992) Reorganization of the Pre-Messenger-Rna Splicing Apparatus Upon Adenovirus Infection. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3. A322-A322. ISSN 1059-1524 ...
A : U:/TEMP/TEMP/A : U:/TEMP/TEMP/A/Test01.txt, Use of uninitialized value $file in concatenation (.) or string at ... + line 17. D : U:/TEMP/TEMP/D : , C : U:/TEMP/TEMP/C : U:/TEMP/TEMP/C/Test03.txt, Use of uninitialized value $file in concatenation (.) or string at ... + line 17. E : U:/TEMP/TEMP/E : , B : U:/TEMP/TEMP/B : U:/TEMP/TEMP/B/Test02.txt ...
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HEK 293T/17 cells were transformed with adenovirus E1a carrying a temperature sensitive T antigen co-selected with neomycin. Transformation was brought about by the insertion of approximately 4.5 kilobases of viral genome into human chromosome 19.
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Five distinct localization patterns were observed for the adenovirus E1A proteins in the nuclei of infected HeLa cells: diffuse, reticular, nucleolar, punctate, and peripheral. The variable distribution of E1A was correlated with the time postinfection and the cell cycle stage of the host cell at the time of infection. All staining patterns, with the exception of peripheral E1A localization, were associated with the early phase of infection since only the diffuse, reticular, nucleolar, and punctate staining patterns were observed in the presence of hydroxyurea. Because the E1A proteins (12S and 13S) stimulate the expression of the cellular heat shock 70-kilodalton protein (hsp70), we examined the intracellular distribution of hsp70 in the adenovirus-infected cells. Whereas hsp70 was predominantly cytoplasmic in the cells before infection, after adenovirus infection most of the protein was now found within the nucleus. Specifically, hsp70 was found within the nucleoli as well as exhibiting ...
In some virus-infected cells, apoptosis is initiated as a cellular defense mechanism to eliminate infected cells. A number of viruses encode proteins that suppress apoptosis resulting in efficient virus replication and pathogenesis. Human adenovirus E1B 19-kDa protein is one such protein that efficiently suppresses apoptosis manifested during viral infection.25 E1B 19-kDa protein is a functional homologue of the cellular antiapoptosis protein Bcl-2. However, how these proteins interact with other proteins to play a role in cell survival/death pathways remains to be elucidated.. In this study, we used A/J (H-2a) mouse hearts, a well-established model of CVB3-myocarditis, to clone the Nip21 gene. Sequence determination and GenBank search suggested that Nip21 is a member of Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein family.25 Within this family, several human homologues have been reported, such as BNip1 (previously Nip1), BNip2, BNip3, BNip3h, BNip3L, and Nix.25-28⇓⇓⇓ Sequence ...
Adenovirus Type 9, 0.1 mg. The many different serotypes of human adenoviruses (Ad) are divided into six subgroups, of which all Ad subgroup A and B and two subgroup D Ads can elicit tumors in infected rodents.
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 110, no 50, 19976-19977 p.Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published ...
Intrinsic disorder in the common N-terminus of human adenovirus 5 E1B-55K and its related E1BN proteins indicated by studies on E1B- ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
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Find more information on adenovirus vector including adenovirus infection and adenovirus symptoms in Kidspots comprehensive health section.
Doctors Ask: Adenovirus infection is exposed to all segments of the population. Basic manifestations of adenovirus infection The latent (incubation period) is usually 5-7 days. The disease most often begins acutely, from the phenomena of intoxication: slight increase in temperature, rashes in the body, chills, lethargy, headache, loss of appetite, etc.
Save this as ch02_q1.htm. We get the degrees centigrade the user wants to convert by using the prompt() function, and store it inside the degCent variable.. We then do our calculation, which uses the data stored in degCent and converts it to Fahrenheit. The result is assigned to the degFahren variable.. Finally, we write the results to the web page, building it up in a sentence using the concatenation operator +. Note how JavaScript knows in the calculation that degCent is to be treated as a number, but in the document.write() it knows that it should be treated as text for concatenation. So how does it know? Simple, it looks at the context. In the calculation, degCent is surrounded by numbers and numerical only operators, such as * and /. In the document.write(), degCent is surrounded by strings, hence JavaScript assumes the + means concatenate.. ...
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This post is about adenovirus infection, a major cause of illness both minor and severe in the United States, especially among children in group settings.
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Abstract: We study the fundamental issue of decidability of satisfiability over string logics with concatenations and finite-state transducers as atomic operations. Although restricting to one type of operations yields decidability, little is known about the decidability of their combined theory, which is especially relevant when analysing security vulnerabilities of dynamic web pages in a more realistic browser model. On the one hand, word equations (string logic with concatenations) cannot precisely capture sanitisation functions (e.g. htmlescape) and implicit browser transductions (e.g. innerHTML mutations). On the other hand, transducers suffer from the reverse problem of being able to model sanitisation functions and browser transductions, but not string concatenations. Naively combining word equations and transducers easily leads to an undecidable logic. Our main contribution is to show that the "straight-line fragment" of the logic is decidable (complexity ranges from PSPACE to EXPSPACE). ...
There are many stages in the development of a new drug for viral infection and such processes are even further complicated for adenovirus by the fact that there are at least 51 serotypes, forming six distinct groups (A-F), with different degree of infectivity. This review attempts to address the importance of developing pharmaceuticals for adenovirus and also review recent development in drug discovery for adenovirus, including newer strategies such as microRNA approaches. Different drug screening strategies will also be discussed.
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Implementation advice: This method can be coded so as to create a new String object without allocating new memory to hold a copy of the character sequence. Instead, the string can share the memory used by the string buffer. Any subsequent operation that alters the content or capacity of the string buffer must then make a copy of the internal buffer at that time. This strategy is effective for reducing the amount of memory allocated by a string concatenation operation when it is implemented using a string buffer ...
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Adenovirus E4 Proteins - MeSH - NCBIAdenovirus E4 Proteins - MeSH - NCBI

... and ProteinsProteinsNeoplasm ProteinsOncogene ProteinsOncogene Proteins, ViralAdenovirus Early ProteinsAdenovirus E4 Proteins ... and ProteinsProteinsViral ProteinsOncogene Proteins, ViralAdenovirus Early ProteinsAdenovirus E4 Proteins ... Adenovirus E4 Proteins. Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates ... All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryBiological FactorsAntigensAntigens, ViralAdenovirus Early ProteinsAdenovirus E4 ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh?Db=mesh&Cmd=DetailsSearch&Term=%22Adenovirus+E4+Proteins%22%5BMeSH+Terms%5D

Relocalization of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex by the adenovirus E4 ORF3 protein is required for viral replication<...Relocalization of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex by the adenovirus E4 ORF3 protein is required for viral replication<...

Evans JD, Hearing P. Relocalization of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex by the adenovirus E4 ORF3 protein is required for viral ... Relocalization of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex by the adenovirus E4 ORF3 protein is required for viral replication. In: Journal ... Evans, JD & Hearing, P 2005, Relocalization of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex by the adenovirus E4 ORF3 protein is required for ... Relocalization of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex by the adenovirus E4 ORF3 protein is required for viral replication. / Evans, ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/relocalization-of-the-mre11-rad50-nbs1-complex-by-the-adenovirus-

The adenovirus E4 11 k protein binds and relocalizes the cytoplasmic P-body component Ddx6 to aggresomes. - Semantic ScholarThe adenovirus E4 11 k protein binds and relocalizes the cytoplasmic P-body component Ddx6 to aggresomes. - Semantic Scholar

We have identified a new set of proteins relocalized by 11 k: at least five protein components of cytoplasmic mRNA processing ... One of these p-body proteins, RNA helicase Ddx6, binds 11 k, suggesting a mechanism for relocalization. Because p-bodies are ... 11 k restructures both the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells by relocalizing specific host cell target proteins, most ... It is likely that in many cases relocalization inactivates target proteins to produce 11 ks effects, although the mechanism ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-adenovirus-E4-11-k-protein-binds-and-the-P-body-Greer-Hearing/84432f4cdf2ff7c7aca085c176cffc9a26d6cf06

The adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein stimulates SUMOylation of general transcription factor TFII-I to direct proteasomal degradation ...The adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein stimulates SUMOylation of general transcription factor TFII-I to direct proteasomal degradation ...

The adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein stimulates SUMOylation of general transcription factor TFII-I to direct proteasomal degradation ... The human adenovirus (Ad) early region 4 open reading frame 3 (E4-ORF3) protein forms unique inclusions throughout the nuclei ... 2016) The adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein stimulates SUMOylation of general transcription factor TFII-I to direct proteasomal ... Among the proteins most abundantly modified in an E4-ORF3-dependent manner was the general transcription factor II-I (TFII-I). ...
more infohttp://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/76688/

Adenovirus type 9 E4 open reading frame 1 encodes a transforming protein required for the production of mammary tumors in rats....Adenovirus type 9 E4 open reading frame 1 encodes a transforming protein required for the production of mammary tumors in rats....

... the Ad9 E4 ORF1 protein was required for initiation of mammary oncogenesis in vivo, as E4 ORF1 mutant viruses failed while E4 ... of virus-induced mammary tumors expressed the E4 ORF1 protein. Taken together, the facts that the Ad9 E4 ORF1 protein exhibits ... Adenovirus type 9 E4 open reading frame 1 encodes a transforming protein required for the production of mammary tumors in rats. ... Adenovirus type 9 E4 open reading frame 1 encodes a transforming protein required for the production of mammary tumors in rats. ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/68/6/3917?ijkey=ba793c441f41c76fe32fd21f61f3fdd00c6bb3e4&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Frontiers in Bioscience: A virtual library of medicineFrontiers in Bioscience: A virtual library of medicine

Functions of the adenovirus E4 proteins and their impact on viral vectors. Matthew D. Weitzman. [Frontiers In Bioscience, ... Functional protein-protein interaction of drug metabolizing enzymes. Yuji Ishii, Shuso Takeda, Hideyuki Yamada, Kazuta Oguri. [ ... Molecular properties of mammalian proteins that interact with cGMP: protein kinases, cation channels, phosphodiesterases, and ... CCN proteins and cancer: two to tango. Anne-Marie Bleau, Nathalie Planque and, Bernard Perbal. [Frontiers In Bioscience, ...
more infohttps://www.bioscience.org/landmark/10l/2005

Reich NC[au] - PubMed - NCBIReich NC[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Adenovirus E4 ORF3 protein inhibits the interferon-mediated antiviral response.. Ullman AJ, Reich NC, Hearing P. ... Involvement of protein phosphatase 2A in the interleukin-3-stimulated Jak2-Stat5 signaling pathway. ... Interferon regulatory factor 3 and CREB-binding protein/p300 are subunits of double-stranded RNA-activated transcription factor ... Determinants for the interaction between Janus kinase 2 and protein phosphatase 2A. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Reich+NC%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Gene Therapy Vectors Based on Adeno-Associated Virus Type 1 | Journal of VirologyGene Therapy Vectors Based on Adeno-Associated Virus Type 1 | Journal of Virology

The 84-31 cell line constitutively expresses adenovirus E4 proteins and has been described previously (7). AAV-1 (ATCC VR-645) ... which are subclones of 293 cells that stably express adenovirus E4 proteins, which render them permissive for AAV transduction ... The Rep open reading frames encode four proteins with molecular masses of 78, 68, 52, and 40 kDa. These proteins function ... 1997) Adeno-associated virus Rep proteins target DNA sequences to a unique locus in the human genome. J. Virol. 71:7951-7959. ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/73/5/3994?ijkey=285f5eba20f7b60858703b8522fed05fa14d6520&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Frontiers | Importance of Promyelocytic Leukema Protein (PML) for Kaposis Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Replication |...Frontiers | Importance of Promyelocytic Leukema Protein (PML) for Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Replication |...

In the reactivation phase, the expression dynamics of KSHV immediate-early or early lytic proteins such as RTA, K9 (vIRF1), K5 ... In the reactivation phase, the expression dynamics of KSHV immediate-early or early lytic proteins such as RTA, K9 (vIRF1), K5 ... Many DNA virus replication-related proteins are associated with promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), a component of nuclear ... Many DNA virus replication-related proteins are associated with promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), a component of nuclear ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02324/full

An E2F-responsive Replication-selective Adenovirus Targeted to the Defective Cell Cycle in Cancer Cells | Cancer ResearchAn E2F-responsive Replication-selective Adenovirus Targeted to the Defective Cell Cycle in Cancer Cells | Cancer Research

Induction of the cellular E2F-1 promoter by the adenovirus E4 protein. J. Virol., 74: 2084-2093, 2000. ... replication-competent adenovirus vectors overexpressing the adenovirus death protein. J. Virol., 74: 6147-6155, 2000. ... This is because free E2F-1 is recruited to the E2 promoter by the E4-6/7 protein (47) . Thus, the dual regulation of E1A and E2 ... 3 The abbreviations used are: RSAd, replication-selective adenovirus; pRb, retinoblastoma protein; NHLF, normal human lung ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/62/12/3438

A secreted Salmonella protein with homology to an avirulence determinant of plant pathogenic bacteria | PNASA secreted Salmonella protein with homology to an avirulence determinant of plant pathogenic bacteria | PNAS

An 18 aa epitope of adenovirus protein E4-6/7, which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody M45 (18), was fused to the C ... This protein shares sequence homology with YopJ, a target of a type III protein secretion system of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ... Thus, proteins from 100, 20, and 5,000 microliters of culture supernatants were loaded to visualize the Sip proteins, plasmid ... 2). YopJ is a protein of unknown function that is secreted via a type III protein secretion system encoded in a large virulence ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/94/18/9887?ijkey=22dd6acf75eba30a488611ab7d7a39d2a0988cad&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cell cycle regulation of PML modification and ND10 composition | Journal of Cell ScienceCell cycle regulation of PML modification and ND10 composition | Journal of Cell Science

1999). The adenovirus type 5 E1b 55K and E4 Orf3 proteins associate in infected cells and affect ND10 components. J. Gen. Virol ... 1995). Targeting of adenovirus E1a and E4-orf3 proteins to nuclear matrix associated PML bodies. J. Cell Biol 131, 45-56. ... Both proteins are conjugated to the ubiquitin-like protein SUMO-1 during interphase, but they become de-conjugated during ... Interferon-modulated expression of genes encoding the nuclear-dot-associated proteins Sp100 and promyelocytic leukemia protein ...
more infohttps://jcs.biologists.org/content/112/24/4581?ijkey=5baaff23a429a8235ef2045ba45243f106ff99f5&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

E2F1-specific induction of apoptosis and p53 accumulation, which is blocked by Mdm2 -- Kowalik et al. 9 (2): 113 -- Cell Growth...E2F1-specific induction of apoptosis and p53 accumulation, which is blocked by Mdm2 -- Kowalik et al. 9 (2): 113 -- Cell Growth...

Induction of the Cellular E2F-1 Promoter by the Adenovirus E4-6/7 Protein. J. Virol., March 1, 2000; 74(5): 2084 - 2093. [ ... Regulation of E2F1 by BRCT Domain-Containing Protein TopBP1. Mol. Cell. Biol., May 1, 2003; 23(9): 3287 - 3304. [Abstract] [ ... Adenovirus-mediated E2F-1 Gene Transfer Inhibits MDM2 Expression and Efficiently Induces Apoptosis in MDM2-overexpressing Tumor ... CD95/Fas Signaling in T Lymphocytes Induces the Cell Cycle Control Protein p21cip-1/WAF-1, Which Promotes Apoptosis. J. Immunol ...
more infohttp://cgd.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/9/2/113

Dynamics of HIV Latency and Reactivation in a Primary CD4+ T Cell Model | proLékaře.czDynamics of HIV Latency and Reactivation in a Primary CD4+ T Cell Model | proLékaře.cz

The Human Adenovirus E4-ORF1 Protein Subverts Discs Large 1 to Mediate Membrane Recruitment and Dysregulation of ... Článek The Human Adenovirus E4-ORF1 Protein Subverts Discs Large 1 to Mediate Membrane Recruitment and Dysregulation of ... C and the histone-containing supernatant was collected and protein concentration was measured using Qubit Protein Assay (Life ... 5B). As previously reported, AZA [24]-[26] alone, or IL-7 [27] had no discernible or minimal effects on viral protein ...
more infohttps://www.prolekare.cz/casopisy/plos-pathogens/2014-5/dynamics-of-hiv-latency-and-reactivation-in-a-primary-cd4-t-cell-model-53541

The PhoP-Dependent ncRNA Mcr7 Modulates the TAT Secretion System in | proLékaře.czThe PhoP-Dependent ncRNA Mcr7 Modulates the TAT Secretion System in | proLékaře.cz

The Human Adenovirus E4-ORF1 Protein Subverts Discs Large 1 to Mediate Membrane Recruitment and Dysregulation of ... Článek The Human Adenovirus E4-ORF1 Protein Subverts Discs Large 1 to Mediate Membrane Recruitment and Dysregulation of ... Protein samples were quantified using the RC DC protein assay (BioRad) and equal amounts of protein preparations were loaded ... Pelleted proteins were rinsed with cold acetone and then resuspended in 150 mM TrisHCl pH 8. Protein integrity and absence of ...
more infohttps://www.prolekare.cz/casopisy/plos-pathogens/2014-5/the-phop-dependent-ncrna-mcr7-modulates-the-tat-secretion-system-in-54070

Cold viruses point the way to new cancer therapies - Salk Institute for Biological StudiesCold viruses point the way to new cancer therapies - Salk Institute for Biological Studies

OSheas team studied E4-ORF3, a cancer-causing protein encoded by adenovirus, which prevents the p53 tumor suppressor protein ... Similarly, by inactivating p53, the E4-ORF3 protein enables adenovirus replication in infected human cells to go unchecked. ... Adenovirus, a type of cold virus, has developed molecular tools-proteins-that allow it to hijack a cells molecular machinery, ... Two years ago, OShea discovered that E4-ORF3 clears the way for adenovirus to proliferate by deactivating genes that help the ...
more infohttp://www.salk.edu/news-release/cold-viruses-point-the-way-to-new-cancer-therapies/

Rabbit Polyclonal to RHO.Rabbit Polyclonal to RHO.

... the adenovirus E4-ORF6 proteins degrades p53; HPV E7 suppresses p53 transcriptional activity; KSHV vIRF1 reduces p53 ... The p53 protein level was decreased by SVCV N protein A series of. ... Thus, our results claim that seafood p53 is certainly modulated by SVCV P and N proteins in two distinctive systems, which ... Through some experiments, buy Lenvatinib we show that SVCV N protein degraded and sure host p53 through suppressing the K63- ...
more infohttp://www.bioentryplus.com/?tag=rabbit-polyclonal-to-rho

Forschung | Universitätsklinikum UlmForschung | Universitätsklinikum Ulm

Impact of adenovirus E4-ORF3 oligomerization and protein localization on cellular gene expression. Viruses 7(5): 2428-49. ... This protein forms a complex with the large tegument protein pUL48 and thus may act in complex to target capsids to the vAC and ... Zheng, Y., Stamminger, T., Hearing, P. (2016). E2F/Rb family of proteins mediate interferon induced repression of adenovirus ... Both envelope protein complexes contain the essential viral proteins gH and gL, which are assumed to contribute to virus ...
more infohttps://www.uniklinik-ulm.de/virologie/forschung.html

CRM1-dependent, but not ARE-mediated, nuclear export of IFN-α1 mRNA | Journal of Cell ScienceCRM1-dependent, but not ARE-mediated, nuclear export of IFN-α1 mRNA | Journal of Cell Science

Flint, S. J. and Gonzalez, R. A. (2003). Regulation of mRNA protection by the adenovirus E1B 55-kDa and E4 Orf6 proteins. Curr ... The human subgroup C adenoviral E1B 55-kDa and E4 Orf6 proteins have been implicated in the induction of selective export of ... a protein involved in nuclear export of proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 29742-29751. ... α1 transcript levels in the presence of Rev proteins to those in the absence of Rev proteins were determined. ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/117/11/2259

Secondary Antibody Gallery - Jackson ImmunoResearchSecondary Antibody Gallery - Jackson ImmunoResearch

protein in vivo. Hep-2 cells expressing transiently the adenovirus-5 E4-ORF3 protein were analyzed by indirect ... In order to elucidate the physiology of this tissue, it has been stained with probes for three different proteins: calretinin, ... A skin biopsy of finger, 100µm section, immunostained for pan-neuronal marker, protein gene product 9.5, localized with Cy3 ( ... confocal photomicrograph of an astrocyte from a rabbit optic nerve labeled with monoclonal glial fibrillary acidic protein ...
more infohttps://www.jacksonimmuno.com/technical/gallery

18th Annual Georgia College Student Research Conference | Georgia College Student Research Events18th Annual Georgia College Student Research Conference | Georgia College Student Research Events

Initial Studies in the Interaction Between the Cellular Ddx6 and Adenovirus E4 orf3 Proteins ... Narrowing Down the Respective Binding Sites of Adenovirus E4orf3 and Cellular Ddx6 Proteins ...
more infohttps://kb.gcsu.edu/src/2015/

Small ubiquitin-related modifier 3Small ubiquitin-related modifier 3

These findings demonstrated a role for the human adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein as a regulator of ubiquitin-like modifications and ... Proteomic analysis of ubiquitin-like posttranslational modifications induced by the adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein.. ... Adenovirus E4-ORF3 targets PIAS3 and together with E1B-55K remodels SUMO2/SUMO3 Interactions in the nucleus and at virus genome ... Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Targets PIAS3 and Together with E1B-55K Remodels SUMO Interactions in the Nucleus and at Virus Genome ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/P55854

The differential role of HTRA1 in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cell line proliferation | SpringerLinkThe differential role of HTRA1 in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cell line proliferation | SpringerLink

The E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins are the primary proteins responsible for cell... ... Glaunsinger BA, Lee SS, Thomas M, Banks L, Javier R. Interactions of the PDZ-protein MAGI-1 with adenovirus E4-ORF1 and high- ... Furthermore, the E6 protein from high-risk HPVs can interact with the PDZ (PSD-90/Dlg/ZO-1) domains of cellular proteins, ... Nicolaides L, Davy C, Raj K, Kranjec C, Banks L, Doorbar J. Stabilization of HPV16 E6 protein by PDZ proteins, and potential ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12885-016-2873-1

Patent US7635680 - Attenuation of reperfusion injury - Google PatentsPatent US7635680 - Attenuation of reperfusion injury - Google Patents

Modified annexin proteins, including a homodimer of human annexin V, are provided. Methods for their use, such as to prevent ... Ob protein derivatives having prolonged half-life. WO1998001563A2. Jul 3, 1997. Jan 15, 1998. Branton Philip E. Adenovirus e4 ... "fusion proteins". A "fusion protein" refers to a first protein having attached one or more additional proteins. The protein can ... The recombinant annexin protein coupled to PEG can be annexin V protein or another annexin protein. In one embodiment, the ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US7635680?dq=6,411,947
  • These proteins are the first examples of putative targets of type III secretion systems in animal and plant pathogenic bacteria that share sequence similarity. (pnas.org)
  • They may therefore constitute a novel family of effector proteins with related functions in the cross-talk of these pathogens with their hosts. (pnas.org)
  • Although there is remarkable conservation among the components of this protein secretion apparatus across bacterial species, the effector proteins that travel through this secretory pathway are much less conserved, particularly among plant and animal bacterial pathogens. (pnas.org)
  • Our data suggest that AvrRxv, AvrA, and YopJ belong to a novel family of secreted effector proteins that might serve analogous functions in the cross-talk between pathogenic bacteria and their plant or animal hosts. (pnas.org)
  • Viral effector proteins that are known to antagonize PML-NBs are shown in the left part of the figure. (uniklinik-ulm.de)
  • These include mechanisms to respond to the low pH of the stomach and other compartments ( 1 ), various sensory and regulatory systems ( 2 ), as well as a complex protein secretion apparatus that can deliver effector molecules into host cells to modulate host cellular functions ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • A specialized type III protein secretion system capable of translocating bacterial proteins into host cells has emerged as a central factor in the interaction between a variety of mammalian and plant pathogenic bacteria with their hosts. (pnas.org)
  • This system directs the translocation of several bacterial proteins into the host cell ( 4 ), which activate host cell signaling pathways, leading to a variety of responses, such as reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, cytokine production, and the induction of programmed cell death in macrophages ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Moreover, our research revealed that specific viral proteins (pp71 and IE1 of HCMV) are able to antagonize this cellular silencing mechanism (Fig. 1). (uniklinik-ulm.de)
  • Here we describe the identification and characterization of a S. typhimurium protein, termed AvrA, which is secreted and translocated into the host cell via the invasion-associated type III system. (pnas.org)
  • It doesn't resemble any known proteins that assemble polymers or that function in cellular tumor suppressor pathways," he says. (salk.edu)
  • This protein is poorly expressed in some cancers, suggesting a tumor suppressor role. (springer.com)
  • The E4 region of human adenovirus type 9 (Ad9) transforms established rat embryo fibroblasts and encodes an essential determinant for the production of estrogen-dependent mammary tumors in rats. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, the E4 ORF1 sequences from human Ad5 and Ad12 lacked the transforming potential exhibited by Ad9 E4 ORF1. (asm.org)
  • Overproduction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein reduced the expression level of the co-transfected IFN- α 1 gene. (biologists.org)
  • Modified annexin proteins, including a homodimer of human annexin V, are provided. (google.com)
  • The encoded protein is covalently conjugated to other proteins via a post-translation modification known as sumoylation. (nih.gov)
  • SUMO-2/3 modification near protein-coding gene promoters occurs in order to maintain host immune-related gene unaltered during viral reactivation. (nih.gov)
  • PHD3 SUMOylation occurs at a cluster of four lysines at the C-terminal end of the protein. (nih.gov)
  • Testing of the seven Ad9 E4 open reading frames (ORFs) individually for transformation of the established rat embryo fibroblast cell line CREF indicated that only Ad9 E4 ORF1 possessed a significant ability to generate transformed foci on these cells. (asm.org)
  • Recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors can integrate into tissue culture cells at chromosome 19 if the Rep proteins are supplied in trans ( 1 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • In the reactivation phase, the expression dynamics of KSHV immediate-early or early lytic proteins such as RTA, K9 (vIRF1), K5, K3, ORF59, and K8 (K-bZIP) were comparable between wild-type, control BC3, and BC3-PML KO cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ad E2F-1 RC virus replicated as efficiently as the wild-type adenovirus and caused extensive cell killing in a panel of tumor cells in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example in the well-characterized Onyx-015 (C1-1042) adenovirus (10) , the E1B 55 kDa gene is deleted so that the virus replicates in p53 -deficient tumor cells and not in normal cells, which contain wild-type p53 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • The experience of p53 needs tight limitations towards the cells stabilization as well as the protein degree of p53 is normally low in regular cells [5C (bioentryplus.com)
  • But without knowing the structure of the proteins they use to attack cells, we were at a loss for how these tiny weapons win out over much larger tumor suppressors. (salk.edu)
  • The type III secretion system of Salmonella typhimurium directs the translocation of proteins into host cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Does not seem to be involved in protein degradation and may function as an antagonist of ubiquitin in the degradation process. (nih.gov)
  • Cell lines derived from Ad9 E4 ORF1-transformed foci expressed the 14-kDa Ad9 E4 ORF1 protein and formed colonies in soft agar. (asm.org)
  • 1999 ). Specific destruction of kinetochore protein CENP-C and disruption of cell division by herpes simplex virus immediate-early protein Vmw110. (biologists.org)
  • Unlike the innate and adaptive part of the immune system, that require pathogen-induced signaling cascades in order to be switched on, these so-called intrinsic immune mechanisms are mediated by cellular proteins that are constitutively expressed and active before a pathogen enters the cell, thus serving as a front-line defense. (uniklinik-ulm.de)
  • The E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins are the primary proteins responsible for cell homeostasis alteration and immortalization. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, the E6 protein from high-risk HPVs can interact with the PDZ (PSD-90/Dlg/ZO-1) domains of cellular proteins, triggering cell transformation. (springer.com)
  • Ubiquitin-like protein which can be covalently attached to target lysines either as a monomer or as a lysine-linked polymer. (nih.gov)
  • They achieve this by a number of mechanisms, including direct lysis, apoptosis, expression of toxic proteins, autophagy and shut-down of protein synthesis, as well as the induction of anti-tumoral immunity. (mdpi.com)
  • Taken together, the facts that the Ad9 E4 ORF1 protein exhibits transforming potential in culture and is required by Ad9 to produce mammary tumors in animals suggest that Ad9 E4 ORF1 is a new viral oncoprotein. (asm.org)
  • E4orf6 plays an important role in the transportation of cellular and viral mRNAs and is known as an oncogene product of adenovirus. (rupress.org)
  • Both proteins are conjugated to the ubiquitin-like protein SUMO-1 during interphase, but they become de-conjugated during mitosis and an isoform of PML of distinct electrophoretic mobility appears. (biologists.org)
  • Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct proteins have been described. (nih.gov)
  • Adenovirus type 9 E4 open reading frame 1 encodes a transforming protein required for the production of mammary tumors in rats. (asm.org)
  • In animal studies, different dosing regimens of Ad E2F-1 RC administered to flank xenografts of ovarian and lung cancers led to a significant therapeutic advantage often surpassing that seen in animals treated with the wild-type adenovirus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent studies suggest that most avirulence factors from plant pathogenic bacteria are presented to the host via type III protein secretion systems (reviewed in ref. 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • A skin biopsy of finger, 100µm section, immunostained for pan-neuronal marker, protein gene product 9.5, localized with Cy3 (red and yellow) and basement membrane marker, type IV collagen, with Cy2 (green). (jacksonimmuno.com)