Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.
Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
DNA viruses producing malignant tumors. Of the six major groupings of DNA viruses four contain members which are actually or potentially oncogenic: the Adenoviridae, the Herpesviridae, the Papovaviridae, and the Poxviridae.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.
A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.

Development of porcine adenovirus-3 as an expression vector. (1/211)

Porcine adenovirus-3 (PAV-3) was developed as an expression vector using homologous recombination in Escherichia coli BJ 5183. As a prerequisite, the complete genome of PAV-3 was first introduced as a PacI restriction fragment into a bacterial plasmid. The plasmid, when PacI restricted and transfected into swine testicular cells, produces an infectious virus. The potential of this procedure was demonstrated by the construction of several PAV-3 recombinants. Part of the E3 region, which is nonessential for virus replication under cell culture conditions, was identified and deleted from the virus genome. The gene for glycoprotein D (gD) of pseudorabies virus (PRV), which elicits PRV-neutralizing antibodies in pigs, was cloned and expressed from the E3 region of PAV-3. A 50 kDa polypeptide was identified in recombinant PAV-3-infected cell lysates by immunoprecipitation assays using gD-specific monoclonal antibodies. In another experiment, a region between the right inverted terminal repeat and the promoter of the E4 region was used to clone and express the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene under the control of SV40 immediate early promoter. CAT gene expression was observed irrespective of the orientation of the CAT gene. These results indicate that the helper-independent recombinant PAV-3 could be used as an expression vector and has potential as a recombinant vaccine vector in pigs.  (+info)

Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4-induced dephosphorylation inhibits E1A activation of the E2 promoter and E2F-1-mediated transactivation independently of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. (2/211)

Previous studies have shown that the cell cycle-regulated E2F transcription factor is subjected to both positive and negative control by phosphorylation. Here we show that in transient transfection experiments, adenovirus E1A activation of the viral E2 promoter is abrogated by coexpression of the viral E4 open reading frame 4 (E4-ORF4) protein. This effect does not to require the retinoblastoma protein that previously has been shown to regulate E2F activity. The inhibitory activity of E4-ORF4 appears to be specific because E4-ORF4 had little effect on, for example, E4-ORF6/7 transactivation of the E2 promoter. We further show that the repressive effect of E4-ORF4 on E2 transcription works mainly through the E2F DNA-binding sites in the E2 promoter. In agreement with this, we find that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2F-1/DP-1-mediated transactivation. We also show that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2 mRNA expression during virus growth. E4-ORF4 has previously been shown to bind to and activate the cellular protein phosphatase 2A. The inhibitory effect of E4-ORF4 was relieved by okadaic acid, which inhibits protein phosphatase 2A activity, suggesting that E4-ORF4 represses E2 transcription by inducing transcription factor dephosphorylation. Interestingly, E4-ORF4 did not inhibit the transactivation capacity of a Gal4-E2F hybrid protein. Instead, E4-ORF4 expression appears to result in reduced stability of E2F/DNA complexes.  (+info)

Novel role for E4 region genes in protection of adenovirus vectors from lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (3/211)

Target cells infected with adenovirus (Ad) vectors containing intact E3 and E4 regions were found to be relatively resistant to lysis by Ad-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Elements from both the E3 and the E4 regions were required for this effect, leading to the identification of a previously undescribed role for E4 gene products in resistance to cytolysis.  (+info)

Distinct regulation of p53 and p73 activity by adenovirus E1A, E1B, and E4orf6 proteins. (4/211)

Multiple adenovirus (Ad) early proteins have been shown to inhibit transcription activation by p53 and thereby to alter its normal biological functioning. Since these Ad proteins affect the activity of p53 via different mechanisms, we examined whether this inhibition is target gene specific. In addition, we analyzed whether the same Ad early proteins have a comparable effect on transcription activation by the recently identified p53 homologue p73. Our results show that the large E1B proteins very efficiently inhibited the activity of p53 on the Bax, p21(Waf1), cyclin G, and MDM2 reporter constructs but had no effect on the activation of the same reporter constructs by p73, with the exception of some inhibition of the Bax promoter by Ad12 E1B. The repressive effect of the E1A proteins on p53 activity is less than that seen with the large E1B proteins, but the E1A proteins inhibit the activity of both p53 and p73. We could not detect significant inhibition of p53 functions by E4orf6, but a clear repression of the transcription activation by p73 by this Ad early protein was observed. In addition, we found that stable expression of the Ad5 E1A and that of the E1B protein both caused increased p73 protein expression. The large E1B and the E4orf6 proteins together do not target the p73 protein for rapid degradation after adenoviral infection, as has previously been found for the p53 protein, probably because the large E1B protein does not interact with p73. Our results suggest that the p53 and p73 proteins are both inactivated after Ad infection and transformation but via distinct mechanisms.  (+info)

E1(-)E4(+) adenoviral gene transfer vectors function as a "pro-life" signal to promote survival of primary human endothelial cells. (5/211)

Although endothelial cells are quiescent and long-lived in vivo, when they are removed from blood vessels and cultured in vitro they die within days to weeks. In studies of the interaction of E1(-)E4(+) replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) vectors and human endothelium, the cells remained quiescent and were viable for prolonged periods. Evaluation of these cultures showed that E1(-)E4(+) Ad vectors provide an "antiapoptotic" signal that, in association with an increase in the ratio of Bcl2 to Bax levels, induces the endothelial cells to enter a state of "suspended animation," remaining viable for at least 30 days, even in the absence of serum and growth factors. Although the mechanisms initiating these events are unclear, the antiapoptoic signal requires the presence of E4 genes in the vector genome, suggesting that one or more E4 open reading frames of subgroup C Ad initiate a "pro-life" program that modifies cultured endothelial cells to survive for prolonged periods.  (+info)

An arginine-faced amphipathic alpha helix is required for adenovirus type 5 e4orf6 protein function. (6/211)

A region in the carboxy terminus of the protein encoded by open reading frame 6 in early region 4 (E4orf6) of adenovirus type 5 was determined to be required for directing nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein and for efficient virus replication. A peptide encompassing this region, corresponding to amino acids 239 through 255 of the E4orf6 protein, was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The peptide showed evidence of self-interaction and displayed the characteristic spectra of an amphipathic alpha helix in the helix-stabilizing solvent trifluoroethanol. Disrupting the integrity of this alpha helix in the E4orf6 protein by proline substitutions or by removing amino acids 241 through 250 abolished its ability to direct the E1B 55-kDa protein to the nucleus when both proteins were transiently expressed in HeLa cells. Expression of E4orf6 variants that failed to direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein failed to enhance replication of the E4 mutant virus, dl1014, whereas expression of the wild-type E4orf6 protein restored growth of dl1014 to near-wild-type levels. These results suggest that the E4orf6 protein contains an arginine-faced, amphipathic alpha helix that is critical for a functional interaction with the E1B 55-kDa protein in the cell and for the function of the E4orf6 protein during a lytic infection.  (+info)

The role of human TFIIB in transcription start site selection in vitro and in vivo. (7/211)

The general transcription factor TFIIB plays a crucial role in selecting the transcription initiation site in yeast. We have analyzed the human homologs of TFIIB mutants that have previously been shown to affect transcription start site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the distinct mechanisms of transcription start site selection observed in S. cerevisiae and humans, the role of TFIIB in this process is similar. However, unlike their yeast counterparts, the human mutants do not show a severe defect in supporting either basal transcription or transcription stimulated by an acidic activator in vitro. Transient transfection analysis revealed that, in addition to a role in transcription start site selection, human TFIIB residue Arg-66 performs a critical function in vivo that is bypassed in vitro. Furthermore, although correct transcription start site selection is dependent upon an arginine residue at position 66 in human TFIIB, innate function in vivo is determined by the charge of the residue alone. Our observations raise questions as to the evolutionary conservation of TFIIB and uncover an additional function for TFIIB that is required in vivo but can be bypassed in vitro.  (+info)

Generation of an adenovirus vector lacking E1, e2a, E3, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3. (8/211)

Toxicity and immunity associated with adenovirus backbone gene expression is an important hurdle to overcome for successful gene therapy. Recent efforts to improve adenovirus vectors for in vivo use have focused on the sequential deletion of essential early genes. Adenovirus vectors have been constructed with the E1 gene deleted and with this deletion in combination with an E2a, E2b, or E4 deletion. We report here a novel vector (Av4orf3nBg) lacking E1, E2a, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3 (ORF3) and expressing a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. This vector was generated by transfection of a plasmid carrying the full-length vector sequence into A30.S8 cells that express E1 and E2a but not E4. Production was subsequently performed in an E1-, E2a-, and E4-complementing cell line. We demonstrated with C57BL/6 mice that the Av4orf3nBg vector effected gene transfer with an efficiency comparable to that of the Av3nBg (wild-type E4) vector but that the former exhibited a higher level of beta-galactosidase expression. This observation suggests that E4 ORF3 alone is able to enhance RNA levels from the beta-galactosidase gene when the Rous sarcoma virus promoter is used to drive transgene expression in the mouse liver. In addition, we observed less liver toxicity in mice injected with the Av4orf3nBg vector than those injected with the Av3nBg vector at a comparable DNA copy number per cell. This study suggests that the additional deletion of E4 in an E1 and E2a deletion background may be beneficial in decreasing immunogenicity and improving safety and toxicity profiles, as well as increasing transgene capacity and expression for liver-directed gene therapy.  (+info)

Weve identified a spliced transcript which has sequences in the HCMV UL29 and UL28 open up reading frames. with this prediction both spliced and unspliced UL29/28 transcript was within RNA isolated from polysomes. FLAG-tagged proteins in the UL29/28 locus gathered within nuclear viral replication centers through the early stage of infection. Later after infection it had been within the cytoplasm aswell and the proteins was present and resistant to proteinase treatment in partly purified arrangements of viral Pentagastrin contaminants. Disruption from the UL29/28 locus by mutation led to a 10-fold reduction in the degrees of DNA replication plus a similar. Continue Reading. ...
Use of uninitialized value in concatenation (.) or string at Bugzilla/Search.pm line 1588. at Bugzilla/Search.pm line 1588 Bugzilla::Search::_cc_nonchanged(...) called at Bugzilla/Search.pm line 1172 Bugzilla::Search::do_search_function(...) called at Bugzilla/Search.pm line 968 Bugzilla::Search::init(...) called at Bugzilla/Search.pm line 414 Bugzilla::Search::new(...) called at buglist.cgi line ...
View Notes - 351 E3p key F09 from CHEM 351 at BYU. Chem 351 Name K E. Nielson Practice Exam 3 Show answers clearly/cross out any answers you dont want graded. Draw structures when possible with
concatenation of words for multi-word phrases as single tags, which you might still see some of in a traditional corpus (in the mefi frequency tables youll see this some because I treat internal hyphenation as part of a word instead of breaking on it) but not at the same sort of this is normal rate as with our tagging system ...
Definition of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein? Meaning of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein as a legal term. What does Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein mean in law?
Vectors derived from human adenovirus type 5, which typically lack the E1A and E1B genes, induce robust innate immune responses that limit their therapeutic efficacy. mutant-infected cells in the absence or presence of exogenous IFN. Both the concentration of viral genomes detected during the late phase and the numbers of viral replication centers formed were strongly reduced in IFN-treated cells in the absence of the E1B protein, despite production of similar quantities of viral replication proteins. These defects could not be attributed to degradation of entering viral genomes, induction of apoptosis, or failure to reorganize components of PML nuclear bodies. Nor was assembly of Nutlin 3a the E1B- and E4 Orf6 protein- E3 ubiquitin ligase required to prevent inhibition of viral replication by IFN. However, by using RT-PCR, the E1B 55 kDa protein was demonstrated to be a potent repressor of expression of IFN-inducible genes in IFN-treated cells. We propose that a primary function of the ...
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To investigate the role of the E1B/E4-complex in Ad5 replication we generated virus mutants carrying amino acid exchanges (1) in the NES of E1B-55K, E4orf6 and both proteins, (2) in the SUMO1 conjugation site (SCS) of E1B-55K and (3) in the p53- and MRN-interacting domain of E1B-55K. These studies confirm that E1B-55K and presumably the E1B/E4-complex is exported to the cytoplasm via the export receptor CRM1 in infected cells. As opposed to the E4orf6 NES functional inactivation of the corresponding motif in E1B-55K causes an almost complete redistribution of the viral protein from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and its accumulation at the periphery of the viral replication centers. Interestingly, however, this nuclear restriction imposed upon the NES mutant protein is fully compensated by concurrent inactivation of the adjacent SCS. These findings indicate that SUMOylation plays a role in the targeting of E1B-55K to the viral transcription and replication centers and implicate that SUMO1 ...
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Recombinant BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 1 (BNIP1) Protein (GST tag). Species: Human. Source: Wheat germ. Order product ABIN1346798.
This paper presents a novel multiple serial code concatenation (SCC) strategy to combat the error-floor problem in iterated sparse graph-based error correc
Reaktivität: Fledermaus, Rind (Kuh), Hund and more. 114 verschiedene BNIP3L Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
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String Concatenation. You can combine two string into a single string by using either the CONCATENATE function or the & operator. Unfortunately, neither of these can be used in an array formula to selectively build up a result string based on other criteria. See String Concatenation For Array Formulas for a VBA function that can be used in an array formula to build a string based on selection criteria. This page last updated: 2-November-2007 ...
The Solaris Volume Manager Administration Guide provides instructions on using Solaris Volume Manager to manage disk storage, including creating, modifying, and using RAID-0 (concatenation and stripe) volumes, RAID-1 (mirror) volumes, RAID-5 volumes, and soft partitions.
為了解豬生殖與呼吸綜合症病毒ORF3蛋白之表現及性質,本研究將台灣分離株MD-001之ORF3基因構築於真核綠色螢光蛋白表現載體,以便追蹤ORF3綠色螢光融合蛋白的表現。結果顯示實驗組之ORF3綠色螢光蛋白只出現在細胞質,並有聚集在細胞一端的情況;而控制組之綠色螢光蛋白則均勻分佈於整個細胞。此外,實驗組表現之綠色螢光的細胞數量雖然不多,但其表現細胞卻多呈圓形化。以西方轉漬法可確認綠色螢光蛋白在控制組細胞內的表現,但是不管在細胞內或培養的上清液中皆無法偵測到ORF3綠色螢光蛋白。為瞭解此結果是否與表現量過低有關,進一步分析兩組細胞表現的綠色螢光蛋白mRNA,發現實驗組與控制組的基因表現量無明顯差異。未來需要設計不同實驗釐清上述現象是否為ORF3蛋白可能具有細胞毒性相關特性或是與綠色螢光蛋白融合所致
Adenolipomatosis definition. adenolipomatosis adenolipomatosis ad·e·no·li·po·ma·to·sis (ādn-ō-lĭ-pōmə-tōsĭs) n. A condition marked by the development of multiple adenolipomas.
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遺伝子「C1orf127」の詳細情報です。J-GLOBAL 科学技術総合リンクセンターは研究者、文献、特許などの情報をつなぐことで、異分野の知や意外な発見などを支援する新しいサービスです。またJST内外の良質なコンテンツへ案内いたします。
遺伝子「C2orf42」の詳細情報です。J-GLOBAL 科学技術総合リンクセンターは研究者、文献、特許などの情報をつなぐことで、異分野の知や意外な発見などを支援する新しいサービスです。またJST内外の良質なコンテンツへ案内いたします。
The adenovirus E1B gene products are required for productive infection of human cells and for complete transformation of rodent cells in cooperation with the E1A gene products. Two major, unrelated polypeptides of 55,000 (55K) and 19,000 (19K) daltons are encoded by the E1B region. The 55K protein is required for efficient DNA replication, late mRNA transport to the cytoplasm and shut-off of cellular mRNA transport in productively infected cells. This protein is required for virus-mediated, but not DNA-mediated, transformation of rodent cells. It appears that the 55K protein does not directly contribute to cell transformation, but influences the oncogenicity of adenoviruses when they are inoculated into newborn hamsters. In contrast, the 19K protein is required for adenovirus induced cellular transformation and oncogenicity and localizes to membranes of the nuclear envelope, cytoplasm and the cell surface in transformed cells. This protein affects the efficiency of virus growth in some, but not ...
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RFC 5831 GOST R 34.11-94 March 2010 The hash function, defined in GOST R 34.11-94, is used for digital signature systems based on the asymmetric cryptographic algorithm according to GOST R 34.10-2001 (see section 3). 3. Conventions Used in This Document The following notations are used in GOST R 34.11-94: V_all is a set of all finite words in the alphabet V = {0,1}. The words are read from right to left and the alphabet symbols are numbered from right to left (i.e., the rightmost symbol of the word has the number one, the second rightmost symbol has number two, etc.). Vk is a set of all words in alphabet V = {0,1} of length k bits (k=16,64,256). ,A, is the length of a word A belonging to V_all. A,,B is a concatenation of words A, B belonging to V_all. Its length is ,A, + ,B,, where the left ,A, symbols come from the word A, and the right ,B, symbols come from the word B. One can also use the notation A,,B = A * B. A^k is a concatenation of k copies of the word A (A belongs to V_all). ,N,_k is a ...
Anatomie perifern ho nervov ho syst mu, smyslov ch org n a k e - Rastislav Druga, Milo Grim, Karel Smetana, . Nakladatelstv p edev m l ka sk literatury, internetov knihkupectv L ka sk kompas
Subject: RE: DATAFILE?? The best way to find out is to try it. You will probably find that it depends. If you use a LMT and do uniform extents then it will do it by concatenation. (fill up the first file then move on to the 2nd etc.). If you create an LMT and do automatic extents then it is different. It does it by striping. The first extent goes in the first file, the 2nd in the 2nd file... You can see this by setting up a small test. Jim -----Original Message ...
Part I and Part II Somewhere in between all of that driving I had to ask myself what are you doing? While I believe in hard work, Im also a firm believer that life shouldnt be hard work. Theres a difference between a challenge and an uphill battle. Facing challenges in order to attain goals…
Part I and Part II Somewhere in between all of that driving I had to ask myself what are you doing? While I believe in hard work, Im also a firm believer that life shouldnt be hard work. Theres a difference between a challenge and an uphill battle. Facing challenges in order to attain goals…
Dünyaca bilinen yayınevlerinin özellikle teknik kitaplar konusunda yıllardır sürdürmüş olduğu ithalatı ile muhtelif konularda binlerce kitap stoklarında mevcuttur. Ayrıca, İngilizce üniversite ders kitapları, uygulama, el ve referans kitaplarının satışı ile hizmet vermektedir. 2004 yılının Ağustosunda www.caglayan.com sitesinin yayınına başlamış ve hızla büyüyen ilgi ile geliştirilmektedir ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The adenovirus E4 11k protein binds and relocalizes the cytoplasmic P-body component Ddx6 to aggresomes. AU - Greer, Amy E.. AU - Hearing, Patrick. AU - Ketner, Gary W. PY - 2011/8/15. Y1 - 2011/8/15. N2 - The adenovirus E4 11k protein, product of E4 ORF3, is required in infection for processes including normal accumulation of viral late mRNAs. 11. k restructures both the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells by relocalizing specific host cell target proteins, most strikingly components of nuclear PML oncogenic domains. It is likely that in many cases relocalization inactivates target proteins to produce 11. ks effects, although the mechanism and targets for stimulation of late mRNA accumulation is unknown. We have identified a new set of proteins relocalized by 11. k: at least five protein components of cytoplasmic mRNA processing bodies (p-bodies) are found in 11. k-induced cytoplasmic aggresomes, sites where proteins are inactivated or destroyed. One of these p-body ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conserved region 2 of adenovirus E1A has a function distinct from pRb binding required to prevent cell cycle arrest by p16(INK4a) or p27(Kip1). AU - Alevizopoulos, Konstantinos. AU - Sanchez, Belén. AU - Amati, Bruno. PY - 2000/4/13. Y1 - 2000/4/13. N2 - Ectopic expression of the CDK inhibitors (CKIs) p16(INK4a) and p27(Kip1) in Rat1 fibroblasts induces dephosphorylation and activation of Retinoblastoma-family proteins (pRb, p107 and p130), their association with E2F proteins, and cell cycle arrest in G1. The growth-inhibitory action of p16, in particular, is believed to be mediated essentially via pRb activation. The 12S E1A protein of human Adenovirus 5 associates with pRb-family proteins via residues in its Conserved Regions (CR) 1 and 2, in particular through the motif LXCXE in CR2. These interactions are required for E1A to prevent G1 arrest upon co-expression of CKIs. We show here that mutating either of two conserved motifs adjacent to LXCXE in CR2, GFP and SDDEDEE, also ...
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Hi, Keep getting an error on line 6. I cant seem to solve the concatenation Im trying to get the last column variable into the range. remove dashes from part numbers on DSV base data sheet first...
The last point of interest is the performance of these different functions when applied to a very long input string. As none of these functions uses repeated concatenation they are all linear time. When given ten million strings on this machine the simplest solution takes 0.79s, the functional state machine takes 0.81s, the imperative state machine takes 54s and the solution using String.init takes just 0.38s. Given such a small performance difference, the winning solution in the vast majority of cases is the simplest solution ...
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Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation and interacts with FOXK1/K2, DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 and CtBP1/2 (CtBP) protein complexes. To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. Our results suggest that CtBP-E1A interaction suppresses immortalization and Ras co-operative transformation of primary rodent epithelial cells without significantly influencing the tumorigenic activities of transformed cells in immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. During productive infection, CtBP-E1A ...
Background Human Adenoviruses (HAdVs) cause a wide array of illnesses in all age groups. They particularly cause frequent morbidity among children. In China, human adenovirus types 3, 4, 7, 11, 14, 21, and 55 have caused at least seven outbreaks since 2000. However, limited st...
Note that this file is a concatenation of more than one RFC.] RFC: 791 INTERNET PROTOCOL DARPA INTERNET PROGRAM PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION September 1981 prepared for Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Information Processing Techniques Office 1400 Wilson Boulevard Arlington, Virginia 22209 by Information Sciences Institute University of Southern California 4676 Admiralty Way Marina del Rey, California 90291 September 1981 Internet Protocol TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE ........................................................ iii 1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................... 1 1.1 Motivation .................................................... 1 1.2 Scope ......................................................... 1 1.3 Interfaces .................................................... 1 1.4 Operation ..................................................... 2 2. OVERVIEW ......................................................... 5 2.1 Relation to Other Protocols ...
I propose that `array_concat` be created as an alias of `array_merge`. The concatenation of an associative array is also consistent with trying to merge the hash maps. For example there is a Stack Overflow question on concatenating two dictionaries that is marked as a duplicate of the function How to merge two Python dictionaries. That is, it is consistent that hash map concatenation is the same as hash map merging ...
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View Notes - CH310N_Spring09_HW02-1 from CH 53185 at University of Texas. Sessler CH310N Homework Problem Set 2 Due Thursday February 5th 1 K E Y Please write the first three letters of your last
Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the adenovirus E1A-associated 300-kD protein (p300) reveals a protein with properties of a transcriptional adaptor ...
Extending Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) over Synchronous Optical NETwork/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SONET/SDH) with virtual concatenation, high order and low order payloads ...
Looking for online definition of adenovirus early region genes in the Medical Dictionary? adenovirus early region genes explanation free. What is adenovirus early region genes? Meaning of adenovirus early region genes medical term. What does adenovirus early region genes mean?
Adenovirus genomes are linear, non-segmented double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules that are typically 26-46 Kbp long, containing 23-46 protein-coding genes. The example used for the following description is Human adenovirus E, a mastadenovirus with a 36 Kbp genome containing 38 protein-coding genes. While the precise number and identity of genes varies among adenoviruses, the basic principles of genome organization and the functions of most of the genes described in this article are shared among all adenoviruses. The 38 genes in the Human Adenovirus E genome are organized in 17 transcription units, each containing 1-8 coding sequences. Alternative splicing during processing of the pre-mRNAs produced by each transcription unit enable multiple different mRNAs to be produced from one transcription unit. The E1A, E1B, E2A, E2B, E3, and E4 transcription units are successively transcribed early in the viral reproductive cycle. The proteins coded for by genes within these transcription units are mostly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Repression of cytochrome P‐450c gene expression by cotransfection with adenovirus E1a DNA. AU - SOGAWA, Kazuhiro. AU - HANDA, Hiroshi. AU - FUJISAWA‐SEHARA, Atsuko. AU - HIROMASA, Takako. AU - YAMANE, Miyuki. AU - FUJII‐KURIYAMA, Yoshiaki. PY - 1989/5. Y1 - 1989/5. N2 - Gene expression of rat cytochrome P‐450c (P‐450c) depends upon inducible enhancers scattered in the 5′‐upstream region of the gene. We show that expression of the P‐450c gene is repressed by contransfection with adenovirus E1a DNA, regardless of the presence or absence of inducers, in a transient expression system of HeLa cells. Since cotransfection of either 13S or 12S E1a cDNA was effective in the repression, the region necessary for repression could be separated from that of transactivation of other adenovirus early genes. Moreover, we investigated the regions responsible for the inhibitory activity using in‐frame deletion mutants lacking internal or external portions of the E1a proteins. The ...
This line was derived from the human embryonic kidney line, 293 in 2001. 293 cells were transfected with the plasmid pVgRXR bearing a Zeocin-resistance selectable marker to obtain 293VgRXR cells. This population was subsequently transfected with the plasmid pEKORF6 containing Ad5 E4 ORF 6 that encodes E4 34K. pEKORF6 is a derivative of the plasmid pIndHydro that contains a hygromycin resistance gene. The vectors contain SV40 viral DNA sequences. The 2V6.11 cell line was originally selected in hygromycin-containing medium and cloned by single-colony isolation with a cloning cylinder. The 2V6.11 cells inducibly express the human adenovirus E4, 34kDa protein (E4 ORF6). 2V6.11 cells exhibit little or no constitutive E4 biologic activity. Induction by ponasterone A, an ecdysone analog, however, results in E4 biologic activity and levels of E4 34kDa protein that are detectable by immunoblotting. These cells can be used as a tool to study the biology of the adenoviral E4 oncoprotein.
A : U:/TEMP/TEMP/A : U:/TEMP/TEMP/A/Test01.txt, Use of uninitialized value $file in concatenation (.) or string at ... + line 17. D : U:/TEMP/TEMP/D : , C : U:/TEMP/TEMP/C : U:/TEMP/TEMP/C/Test03.txt, Use of uninitialized value $file in concatenation (.) or string at ... + line 17. E : U:/TEMP/TEMP/E : , B : U:/TEMP/TEMP/B : U:/TEMP/TEMP/B/Test02.txt ...
NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) - Researchers from China and the US will sequence 100 human adenoviruses, including ones that cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, and ocular diseases, under a partnership announced today.
Premade Human MIR1538 Adenovirus (NR_031719), ready-to-use and available with your choice of HA tag, His tag, GFP reporter or untagged.
HEK 293T/17 cells were transformed with adenovirus E1a carrying a temperature sensitive T antigen co-selected with neomycin. Transformation was brought about by the insertion of approximately 4.5 kilobases of viral genome into human chromosome 19.
Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kd interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) regulates hypoxia-induced neural precursor cell death. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. 68:1326-1338. 2009 ...
The data sources in which the ORF has been identified. Click on the button to display all the original IDs in a pop-up. See the data sources section of the advanced documentation for more details regarding the information related to the data sources and the original ORF IDs. ...
Glaunsinger BA, Lee SS, Thomas M, Banks L, Javier R (November 2000). "Interactions of the PDZ-protein MAGI-1 with adenovirus E4 ... In the case of HPV-1, E4 can account for up to 30% of the total protein at the surface of a wart. The E4 protein of many ... Although E4 proteins are expressed at low levels during the early phase of viral infection, expression of E4 increases ... E6 proteins also interact with the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase family) proteins. These proteins, including MAGI ...
"Multi-PDZ Domain Protein MUPP1 Is a Cellular Target for both Adenovirus E4-ORF1 and High-Risk Papillomavirus Type 18 E6 ... Multiple PDZ domain protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MPDZ gene. MPDZ has been shown to interact with: 5- ... "The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor interacts with the multi-PDZ domain protein-1 (MUPP-1) within the tight junction". J ... "The multi PDZ domain protein MUPP1 as a putative scaffolding protein for organizing signaling complexes in the acrosome of ...
... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.080 - adenovirus e4 ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.090 - antigens, ... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.100 - adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus ... oncogene protein tpr-met MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045 - adenovirus early proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050 - adenovirus ...
... and matrix protein 1 (M1), creating a vaccine candidate named ChAdOx1 NP+M1. ChAdOx1 has been derived from a simian adenovirus ... ChAd) serotype Y25 engineered by λ red recombination to exchange the native E4 orf4, orf6 and orf6/7 genes for those from human ... The vector is a chimpanzee adenovirus modified to avoid its replication. Adenoviruses are effective vectors for inducing and ... Simian adenoviruses do not suffer from the same disadvantages. Therefore, investigators have tested new vaccines using the ...
... responsible for expression of the adenovirus E4 gene. Because of its chromosomal localization and ability to form heterodimers ... GA-binding protein alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABPA gene. This gene encodes one of three GA- ... Bannert N, Avots A, Baier M, Serfling E, Kurth R (Feb 1999). "GA-binding protein factors, in concert with the coactivator CREB ... "Entrez Gene: GABPA GA binding protein transcription factor, alpha subunit 60kDa". Vogel JL, Kristie TM (Feb 2000). "The novel ...
... of transcription factor DRTF1/E2F which is functionally important for recognition by pRb and the adenovirus E4 orf 6/7 protein ... Vidal M, Braun P, Chen E, Boeke JD, Harlow E (1996). "Genetic characterization of a mammalian protein-protein interaction ... Wu CL, Zukerberg LR, Ngwu C, Harlow E, Lees JA (May 1995). "In vivo association of E2F and DP family proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol ... Wu CL, Zukerberg LR, Ngwu C, Harlow E, Lees JA (1995). "In vivo association of E2F and DP family proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 15 ...
Control protein E3 14.7K protects the virus from host antiviral responses. The control proteins of the E4 transcription unit ... The functions of many adenovirus proteins are known: Structural proteins include capsid proteins II (hexon), III (penton base ... Control protein E1B 19K suppresses apoptosis by mimicking the action of cellular protein Bcl-2. Control protein E1B 55K binds ... Adenoviruses. Fundamentals of Molecular Virology (2 ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. "Protein Details for Human adenovirus E". ...
Transcription factor E4F1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the E4F1 gene. The zinc finger protein encoded by this gene ... The full-length gene product represses transcription from the E4 promoter in the absence of E1A, while the 50-kDa form acts as ... Fernandes ER, Rooney RJ (1997). "The adenovirus E1A-regulated transcription factor E4F is generated from the human homolog of ... A 50-kDa amino-terminal product is generated from the full-length protein through proteolytic cleavage. The protein is ...
Glaunsinger BA, Weiss RS, Lee SS, Javier R (2001). "Link of the unique oncogenic properties of adenovirus type 9 E4-ORF1 to a ... Tight junction protein ZO-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TJP2 gene. Tight junction proteins (TJPs) belong to a ... Tight junction protein 2 has been shown to interact with tight junction protein 1, band 4.1, occludin and USP53. GRCh38: ... "The tight junction protein ZO-1 establishes a link between the transmembrane protein occludin and the actin cytoskeleton". J. ...
Higginbotham, Jennifer M.; O'Shea, Clodagh C. (15 October 2015). Imperiale, M. J. (ed.). "Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Targets PIAS3 and ... "Adenovirus Overrides Cellular Checkpoints for Protein Translation". Cell Cycle. 4 (7): 883-888. doi:10.4161/cc.4.7.1791. PMID ... "Visualizing viral protein structures in cells using genetic probes for correlated light and electron microscopy". Methods. 90: ...
E4(+) adenovirus gene transfer vector". Journal of Virology. 73 (12): 10183-90. doi:10.1128/JVI.73.12.10183-10190.1999. PMC ... S100 calcium-binding protein A10 (S100A10), also known as p11, is a protein that is encoded by the S100A10 gene in humans and ... The S100 protein is implicated in exocytosis and endocytosis by reorganization of F-actin. The p11 protein is linked with the ... As a member of the S-100 family, its structure resembles that of the S-100A1 and S-100B proteins. This class of proteins has ...
This protein binds specifically to adenovirus E1B-55kDa oncoprotein. It may play an important role in nucleocytoplasmic RNA ... 26 (7): 1613-8. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000226543.77214.e4. PMID 16690874. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, et al. (2006). "Global, in ... 2005). "Protein arginine methylation during lytic adenovirus infection". Biochem. J. 383 (Pt 2): 259-65. doi:10.1042/BJ20040210 ... HNRPUL1 also participates in ATR protein kinase signalling pathways during adenovirus infection. Two transcript variants ...
This study was conducted with the hopes of discovering another protein that could replace FACT if it is absent in the cell. ... 71 (2): 284-293.e4. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2018.06.020. PMID 30029006. LeRoy G, Oksuz O, Descostes N, Aoi Y, Ganai RA, Kara HO, ... a factor required for transcription of the adenovirus EIV promoter, binds to an element involved in EIa-dependent activation ... In 2003, Reinberg worked with a team to review the types of proteins that alter the structure and function of chromatin. In ...
... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.050 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.090 - antigens, polyomavirus ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.050 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.090 - antigens, polyomavirus ... adenovirus early proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.050 - adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 - ...
... such as adenovirus, and modify its genome to have genes that code for immunogenic proteins that can spike the immune systems ... While both the E4 and M13 viruses can infect and replicate within their bacterial host, it unclear if they retain this capacity ... This was done by editing the genes of the virus that code for the protein coat. The protein coat is edited to coat itself in ... The viruses that have been modified to have a multifunctional protein coat can be used as a nano-structured cathode with causes ...
"Enhanced tumor suppression by a p14ARF/p53 bicistronic adenovirus through increased p53 protein translation and stability". ... 27 (17): 2652-2660.e4. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.07.033. PMC 5788810. PMID 28844647. Shearin AL, Hedan B, Cadieu E, Erich SA, ... When a mutation occurs in protein p16, it prevents the protein kinase of CDK4, which results in the inactivation of the tumor ... These exons are used to create two proteins named p16 and p14ARF. Protein p16, created by exon 1α and exon 2, is responsible ...
... (STING), also known as transmembrane protein 173 (TMEM173) and MPYS/MITA/ERIS is a protein that ... Adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, HSV-1 and HSV-2, as well as the negative-stranded RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV ... 23 (3): 297-301.e4. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2018.01.006. PMC 7104992. PMID 29478775. Jin L, Getahun A, Knowles HM, Mogan J, Akerlund ... STING has also been shown to colocalize with autophagy proteins, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and ...
The E6/E7 proteins inactivate two tumor suppressor proteins, p53 (inactivated by E6) and pRb (inactivated by E7).[14] The viral ... E4, E5, E6, and E7) open-reading frames (ORF), two late (L1 and L2) ORFs, and a non-coding long control region (LCR).[97] After ... Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus. Rotavirus. Norovirus. Astrovirus. Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA ... E6 produces a protein (also called E6) that binds to and inactivates a protein in the host cell called p53. Normally, p53 acts ...
... and ProteinsProteinsNeoplasm ProteinsOncogene ProteinsOncogene Proteins, ViralAdenovirus Early ProteinsAdenovirus E4 Proteins ... and ProteinsProteinsViral ProteinsOncogene Proteins, ViralAdenovirus Early ProteinsAdenovirus E4 Proteins ... Adenovirus E4 Proteins. Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates ... All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryBiological FactorsAntigensAntigens, ViralAdenovirus Early ProteinsAdenovirus E4 ...
Interacting domains of E2F1, DP1, and the adenovirus E4 protein. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Interacting domains of E2F1, DP1, and the adenovirus E4 protein.. W D Cress, J R Nevins ... Previous experiments have shown that the adenovirus E4 19-kDa protein facilitates the formation of a stable E2F dimer on the ... We also find that the adenovirus E4 protein interacts with the DP1 hydrophobic heptad repeat domain, but we could not detect a ...
The adenovirus E4-6/7 protein transactivates the E2 promoter by inducing dimerization of a heteromeric E2F complex.. S Obert, R ... The adenovirus E4-6/7 protein transactivates the E2 promoter by inducing dimerization of a heteromeric E2F complex. ... The adenovirus E4-6/7 protein transactivates the E2 promoter by inducing dimerization of a heteromeric E2F complex. ... The adenovirus E4-6/7 protein transactivates the E2 promoter by inducing dimerization of a heteromeric E2F complex. ...
... the Ad9 E4 ORF1 protein was required for initiation of mammary oncogenesis in vivo, as E4 ORF1 mutant viruses failed while E4 ... of virus-induced mammary tumors expressed the E4 ORF1 protein. Taken together, the facts that the Ad9 E4 ORF1 protein exhibits ... Adenovirus type 9 E4 open reading frame 1 encodes a transforming protein required for the production of mammary tumors in rats. ... Adenovirus type 9 E4 open reading frame 1 encodes a transforming protein required for the production of mammary tumors in rats. ...
Three early proteins expressed by adenovirus type 5, E1b 55K, E4 Orf3 and E4 Orf6, are involved in regulating late viral gene ... Leppard, K.N. and Everett, R.D. (1999) The adenovirus type 5 E1b 55K and E4 Orf3 proteins associate in infected cells and ... The adenovirus type 5 E1b 55K and E4 Orf3 proteins associate in infected cells and affect ND10 components ... The Orf3 protein is also known to associate with and cause the reorganization of cell nucleus structures known as ND10 or PODs ...
N2 - The adenovirus E4 11k protein, product of E4 ORF3, is required in infection for processes including normal accumulation of ... AB - The adenovirus E4 11k protein, product of E4 ORF3, is required in infection for processes including normal accumulation of ... The adenovirus E4 11k protein, product of E4 ORF3, is required in infection for processes including normal accumulation of ... abstract = "The adenovirus E4 11k protein, product of E4 ORF3, is required in infection for processes including normal ...
E4 Orf3 and E4 Orf6, are involved in regulating late viral gene expression. It has previously been shown that 55K associates ... The Orf3 protein is also known to associate with and cause the reorganization of cell nucleus structures known as ND10 or PODs ... The most studied cellular component of ND10 is PML, a complex protein present in a range of isoforms, some of which are ... modified by conjugation to the small ubiquitin-like protein PIC-1. The pattern of PML isoforms was altered in adenovirus- ...
Browse our Adenovirus-9 E4 Orf1 Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Adenovirus-9 E4 Orf1 Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... We offer Adenovirus-9 E4 Orf1 Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA. Each Adenovirus-9 E4 Orf1 Antibody is ... Our Adenovirus-9 E4 Orf1 Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Virus. Use the list below to choose the ...
We have identified a new set of proteins relocalized by 11 k: at least five protein components of cytoplasmic mRNA processing ... One of these p-body proteins, RNA helicase Ddx6, binds 11 k, suggesting a mechanism for relocalization. Because p-bodies are ... 11 k restructures both the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells by relocalizing specific host cell target proteins, most ... It is likely that in many cases relocalization inactivates target proteins to produce 11 ks effects, although the mechanism ...
Evans JD, Hearing P. Relocalization of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex by the adenovirus E4 ORF3 protein is required for viral ... Relocalization of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex by the adenovirus E4 ORF3 protein is required for viral replication. In: Journal ... Evans, JD & Hearing, P 2005, Relocalization of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex by the adenovirus E4 ORF3 protein is required for ... Relocalization of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex by the adenovirus E4 ORF3 protein is required for viral replication. / Evans, ...
jats:title>ABSTRACT Human adenovirus type 9 exclusively elicits mammary tumors in experimental animals, ... Protein subunit, Immunoprecipitation, DLG1, biology.protein, Phosphoprotein, Plasma protein binding. , Transformation and ... Protein subunit, Immunoprecipitation, DLG1, biology.protein, Phosphoprotein, Plasma protein binding. , Transformation and ... jats:title,ABSTRACT,/jats:title, ,jats:p,Human adenovirus type 9 exclusively elicits mammary tumors in experimental animals, ...
The adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein stimulates SUMOylation of general transcription factor TFII-I to direct proteasomal degradation ... The human adenovirus (Ad) early region 4 open reading frame 3 (E4-ORF3) protein forms unique inclusions throughout the nuclei ... 2016) The adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein stimulates SUMOylation of general transcription factor TFII-I to direct proteasomal ... Among the proteins most abundantly modified in an E4-ORF3-dependent manner was the general transcription factor II-I (TFII-I). ...
Roles for the E4 orf6, orf3, and E1B 55-kilodalton proteins in cell cycle-independent adenovirus replication. ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Roles for the E4 orf6, orf3, and E1B 55-kilodalton proteins in cell cycle- ...
E4 Orf3 and E4 Orf6, which interact with each other and with components of the nucleus to regulate mRNA processing and export, ... This effect depended upon the two proteins being able to interact. However, the association of 55K with ND10, which persists ... which are sites of localization of the promyelocytic leukaemia protein, and then moves, dependent upon its interaction with ... Human adenovirus serotype 5 encodes three proteins, E1b 55K, ... Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4 protein autoregulates E4 ...
The F-box protein is one of the four components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) complex, which mediates ubiquitination ... On the other hand, F-box proteins can be used in the defense response by the host. This review describes the role of F-box ... of proteins targeted for degradation by the proteasome, playing an essential role in many cellular processes. Several ... proteins and the use of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in virus-host interactions. ...
... deleted in E1 and E4, and contained human OTC cDNA. It was infused into … ... The vector used for this trial was based on human adenovirus type 5, ... Adenovirus E1 Proteins / genetics * Adenovirus E4 Proteins / genetics * Adolescent * Genetic Therapy* * Genetic Vectors / ... The vector used for this trial was based on human adenovirus type 5, deleted in E1 and E4, and contained human OTC cDNA. It was ...
Adenovirus E4 ORF3 protein inhibits the interferon-mediated antiviral response.. Ullman AJ, Reich NC, Hearing P. ... Involvement of protein phosphatase 2A in the interleukin-3-stimulated Jak2-Stat5 signaling pathway. ... Interferon regulatory factor 3 and CREB-binding protein/p300 are subunits of double-stranded RNA-activated transcription factor ... Determinants for the interaction between Janus kinase 2 and protein phosphatase 2A. ...
Recent studies have revealed protective effects of Ad36, a human adenovirus, and its E4orf1 protein on glucose disposal, which ... Oncogene Proteins, Viral / metabolism* * Oncogene Proteins, Viral / therapeutic use Substances * E4 protein, Adenovirus 9 ... Insulin sparing action of adenovirus 36 and its E4orf1 protein J Diabetes Complications. Mar-Apr 2013;27(2):191-9. doi: 10.1016 ... Recent studies have revealed protective effects of Ad36, a human adenovirus, and its E4orf1 protein on glucose disposal, which ...
In addition, because E4 proteins are cytotoxic (38), CRAds that feature targeted expression of E4 should provide a level of ... In these adenoviruses, the E4 region (AdΔ24TyrE4) or both E1 and E4 regions (Ad2xTyr) were controlled by a synthetic tyrosinase ... accounting for the high E4 protein level from AdTyrΔ24. (3) The hTyr2E/P is not responsive to E1A, resulting in the loss of E4 ... The activity of the hTyr2E/P promoter from the adenovirus E4 region and in the context of replicating adenoviruses is ...
Adenovirus early genes. E1B, E2A, E2B, E3, E4, some virion proteins. 111 ... Determined both by direct DNA binding and by protein-protein interactions. Affects replication, gene expression, and cell cycle ... Inhibition of interferon mediated protein synthesis shut-off.. Expression of viion associated host shutoff protein which causes ... Promiscuous transactivators (E4). Some have both repressive and activation activity (Large T, ICP4). Some are brought in with ...
Impact of Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Oligomerization and Protein Localization on Cellular Gene Expression ...
Functions of the adenovirus E4 proteins and their impact on viral vectors. Matthew D. Weitzman. [Frontiers In Bioscience, ... Functional protein-protein interaction of drug metabolizing enzymes. Yuji Ishii, Shuso Takeda, Hideyuki Yamada, Kazuta Oguri. [ ... Molecular properties of mammalian proteins that interact with cGMP: protein kinases, cation channels, phosphodiesterases, and ... CCN proteins and cancer: two to tango. Anne-Marie Bleau, Nathalie Planque and, Bernard Perbal. [Frontiers In Bioscience, ...
... and is not destabilized in the presence of the adenovirus proteins E1B-55 kDa and E4-34 kDa/E4orf6 (12) . To express such a ... Adenovirus type 5 expresses proteins that regulate the activity and stability of the tumor suppressor p53. The adenovirus E1B- ... König C., Roth J., Dobbelstein M. Adenovirus type 5 E4orf3 protein relieves p53 inhibition by E1B-55- kilodalton protein. J. ... The large E1B protein together with the E4orf6 protein target p53 for active degradation in adenovirus infected cells. Oncogene ...
In addition, E2F1 can interact with positive modulators such as DP1 and DP2, as well as the adenovirus E4 protein (11, 12, 33 ... Interacting domains of E2F1, DP1, and the adenovirus E4 protein.J. Virol. 68 1994 4213 4219 ... A case in point that is notable is the adenovirus E1A protein. Similarly, cyclins D and E, which inactivate the Rb protein by ... Prohibitin protein has a certain degree of similarity to the 14-3-3 class of adapter proteins and may be functioning as an ...
Mutant adenovirus type 9 E4 ORF1 genes define three protein regions required for transformation of CREF cells. J Virol 1997;71: ... A new crucial protein interaction element that targets the adenovirus E4-ORF1 oncoprotein to membrane vesicles. J Virol 2007;81 ... Selective PDZ protein-dependent stimulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by the adenovirus E4-ORF1 oncoprotein. Oncogene ... The human adenovirus E4-ORF1 protein subverts discs large 1 to mediate membrane recruitment and dysregulation of ...
In the reactivation phase, the expression dynamics of KSHV immediate-early or early lytic proteins such as RTA, K9 (vIRF1), K5 ... In the reactivation phase, the expression dynamics of KSHV immediate-early or early lytic proteins such as RTA, K9 (vIRF1), K5 ... Many DNA virus replication-related proteins are associated with promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), a component of nuclear ... Many DNA virus replication-related proteins are associated with promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), a component of nuclear ...
Amyloidosis and female protein in the Syrian hamster. Concurrent regulation by sex hormones. Coe, J.E., Ross, M.J. J. Exp. Med ... Human adenovirus type 9-induced rat mammary tumors. Javier, R., Raska, K., Macdonald, G.J., Shenk, T. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed] ... Agostilben 4-[(E)-4-(4- hydroxyphenyl)hex-3-en-3.... Synonyms: Apstil, Tampovagan, Stilbestrol, Stilbene Estrogen, ... Analysis of S-100 protein positive folliculo-stellate cells in rat pituitary tissues. Lloyd, R.V., Mailloux, J. Am. J. Pathol. ...
OSheas team focused their efforts on E4-ORF3 - a cancer-causing protein encoded by adenovirus. This protein is known to ... When p53 is inactivated, the E4-ORF3 protein enables adenovirus replication in infected human cells to go unchecked. ... OShea had previously discovered that E4-ORF3 clears the way for adenovirus to proliferate by deactivating genes that help the ... But E4-ORF3 is the viruss Swiss army knife - it assembles into something that is highly versatile. It has the ability to build ...
The adenovirus type 5 E1b 55K and E4 Orf3 proteins associate in infected cells and affect ND10 components. J. Gen. Virol. 80: ... Roles for the E4 orf6, orf3, and E1B 55-kilodalton proteins in cell cycle-independent adenovirus replication. J. Virol. 73:7474 ... Targeting of adenovirus E1A and E4-ORF3 proteins to nuclear matrix-associated PML bodies. J. Cell Biol. 131:45-56. ... the E1B 55-kDa protein also interacts with the E4 Orf3 protein during the early phase of infection, and these two proteins ...
  • For example, cancer cells in which the tumor suppressor proteins p53 or pRb are inactivated were reported to be permissive for efficient replication of adenoviruses that are mutated in the E1B55K or E1A genes that encode p53- or pRb-inactivating proteins, respectively ( 7 -9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This protein is known to prevent the p53 tumour suppressor protein from binding to its target genes. (eurasiareview.com)
  • O'Shea had previously discovered that E4-ORF3 clears the way for adenovirus to proliferate by deactivating genes that help the cell defend itself against the virus. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Adenovirus genomes are linear, non-segmented double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules that are typically 26-46 Kbp long, containing 23-46 protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The example used for the following description is Human adenovirus E, a mastadenovirus with a 36 Kbp genome containing 38 protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the precise number and identity of genes varies among adenoviruses, the basic principles of genome organization and the functions of most of the genes described in this article are shared among all adenoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 38 genes in the Human adenovirus E genome are organized in 17 transcription units, each containing 1-8 coding sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins coded for by genes within these transcription units are mostly involved in regulation of viral transcription, in replication of viral DNA, and in suppression of the host response to infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The names, locations, and properties of the 38 protein-coding genes in the Human Adenovirus E genome are given in the following table. (wikipedia.org)
  • Control protein E1A activates transcription of a number of viral genes as well as genes of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Control protein E1B 55K binds to and inactivates the transcriptional regulator p53, thus blocking transcription of genes normally activated by p53 and contributing to the suppression of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heterologous genes are cloned in place of E1, E3 and E4 c. (brainscape.com)
  • LoxP sites are recognised by cre-recombinase to excise adenovirus genes c. (brainscape.com)
  • The insert sizes are smaller than normal adenovirus vectors due to the removal of immunogenic genes d. (brainscape.com)
  • Our laboratory studies tumor suppressor genes and the normal functions of the proteins they encode. (dana-farber.org)
  • 1996 ). Interferon-modulated expression of genes encoding the nuclear-dot-associated proteins Sp100 and promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML). (biologists.org)
  • 4. The vector according to claim 2 wherein said adenovirus sequences further comprise functional deletions in one or more adenovirus genes selected from the group consisting of: the E2a gene, the E4 gene, the late genes L1 through L5, and the intermediate genes IX and IV a . (google.com)
  • 8. The vector according to claim 5 wherein said reporter gene is selected from the group consisting of the genes encoding β-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase and green fluorescent protein. (google.com)
  • O'Shea's team studied E4-ORF3, a cancer-causing protein encoded by adenovirus, which prevents the p53 tumor suppressor protein from binding to its target genes. (salk.edu)
  • Human adenovirus early region 4 open reading frame 1 genes encode growth-transforming proteins that may be distantly related to dUTP pyrophosphatase enzymes. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • For example, adenoviruses transfer genes to a broad spectrum of cell types, and gene transfer is not dependent on active cell division. (pnas.org)
  • The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. (curehunter.com)
  • This TTSS secretes a set of SPI2-encoded proteins in vitro and translocates Salmonella serovar Typhimurium translocated effectors (STE) that are encoded by genes outside of SPI2 into host cells. (asm.org)
  • Further genes in SPI2 are clustered within a group of genes for secreted proteins and their chaperones. (asm.org)
  • The invention also includes constructs useful for screening of agents which interact with proteins or genes in the hypoxia-inducible pathway or are jointly translated under hypoxia and animal models useful for monitoring a variety of hypoxic conditions in a non-invasive manner. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These consist of a sensor protein that, upon reception of specific signal(s), activates its cognate transcription factor resulting in transcriptional regulation of a defined set of genes. (prolekare.cz)
  • We designed a FasL-armed PRRA, called AdIU3, by placing adenoviral E1a and E4 genes, FasL cDNA, and E1b gene under the control of two individual PSES enhancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Berkner, "Development of Adenovirus Vectors for the Expression of Heterologous Genes," BioTechniques 6(7): 616-629, 1988. (patentgenius.com)
  • Adenoviruses have been extensively studied in the field of gene regulation, since their genes are subjected to a tightly controlled temporal expression during the virus lifetime. (dissertations.se)
  • Genes for the major structural proteins (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of these, the ability of adenoviruses to efficiently infect and deliver genes to a range of cells and to be generated to high titres has led to their widespread application. (bmj.com)
  • 4 They have been modified by deletion of the E1 region, which encodes proteins that regulate expression of the other early genes (as well as the late virus structural proteins), thereby rendering virus replication defective. (bmj.com)
  • The absence of the E4 Orf3 protein increased expression of several p53-responsive genes when the E1B protein was also absent from infected cells. (princeton.edu)
  • It is targeted for proteasomal degradation by the action of a virus-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase that contains the viral E1B 55-kDa and E4 Orf6 proteins, while the E4 Orf3 protein has been reported to block its ability to stimulate expression of p53-dependent genes. (princeton.edu)
  • The E2 proteins provide the machinery for viral DNA replication and transcription of late genes. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • To accommodate larger recombinant genes (up to 8 Kb), 1st generation adenoviruses are both E1 and E3 deleted (E1/E3), since the E3 region is not essential for in vitro viral growth. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • The adenovirus vector is able to deliver genes with 100% efficiency to a wide selection of cell types including dividing and non-dividing cells, primary cells, or cell lines. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • This experience points to the limitations of animal studies in predicting human responses, the steep toxicity curve for replication defective adenovirus vectors, substantial subject-to-subject variation in host responses to systemically administered vectors, and the need for further study of the immune response to these vectors. (nih.gov)
  • Adenovirus vectors have a lower titre than Adeno-associated vectors b. (brainscape.com)
  • What is false about adenovirus expression vectors? (brainscape.com)
  • Several features of adenovirus biology have made such viruses the vectors of choice for certain of these applications. (pnas.org)
  • Fifth, some of the new vectors contain a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene incorporated into the adenoviral backbone, allowing direct observation of the efficiency of transfection and infection, processes that have been difficult to follow with adenoviruses in the past. (pnas.org)
  • With our vectors, Ad.COX·MK and Ad.MK·COX, using two different heterologous promoters to control E1A and E4 expression, we showed enhanced viral replication specificity when compared with Ad.COX·COX or Ad.MK·MK, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a s.c. xenograft tumor model, there was no significant difference in the antineoplastic efficacy of the double heterologous promoter-controlled vectors when compared with our unrestricted replication-competent control adenovirus or vectors with only E1A transcriptionally driven by a heterologous promoter. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, replication-competent adenoviral vectors promise to be more efficient gene delivery vehicles than their replication-deficient counterparts ( 4 ), and they are also associated with a higher risk for adverse effects, especially due to the lack of an established effective therapy for serious, disseminated adenovirus infection ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The commonly used first generation recombinant adenovirus vectors are based on adenovirus type 5, which causes mild respiratory infection in humans. (bmj.com)
  • In practice this has not always been the case and studies in rodents, primates, and humans have provided variable results, highlighting the need for a more detailed understanding of the natural history of adenovirus infection in humans and questioning the value of animal models in determining the safety of virus vectors. (bmj.com)
  • In this review we will consider the nature of adenovirus toxicity and the development of improved adenovirus vectors. (bmj.com)
  • What's toxic about adenovirus vectors? (bmj.com)
  • As a strategy for stimulating immunity against EBV for the treatment of EBV-associated tumors, we have genetically engineered dendritic cells (DC) to express EBV antigens, such as latent membrane protein 2B (LMP2B), using recombinant adenovirus vectors. (unifg.it)
  • The transfection of expression vectors for the E4orf3 proteins of Ad4 and Ad12 did not alter the localization of Mre11 complex users. (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • Nuclear export of the E1B 55-kDa and E4 34-kDa adenoviral oncoproteins mediated by a rev-like signal sequence. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The adenoviral oncoproteins E1B-55 kDa and E4orf6 inactivate and destabilize the tumor suppressor protein p53, thereby contributing to malignant transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This replacement leaves p53 transcriptionally active but renders the modified protein, termed p53mt24-28, completely resistant to inhibition and degradation by adenoviral oncoproteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, a targeted expression of the viral E1A gene products had a greater effect on restricted adenoviral replication than that of the E4 region. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Like the E1 gene products, the adenoviral E4 gene region is expressed early after infection and is an essential component of the viral life cycle. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Presented are ways to address the problem of replication competent adenovirus in adenoviral production for use with, for example, gene therapy. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Impact of the adenoviral E4 Orf3 protein on the activity and posttranslational modification of p53. (princeton.edu)
  • Our lab has shown that the adenoviral E1B55K/E4orf6 complex and E4orf3 proteins inactivate MRN. (escholarship.org)
  • The work presented in this thesis provides evidence that the DNA damage response proteins negatively affect the adenoviral lifecycle at multiple stages. (escholarship.org)
  • Adenovirus type 9 E4 open reading frame 1 encodes a transforming protein required for the production of mammary tumors in rats. (asm.org)
  • The E4 region of human adenovirus type 9 (Ad9) transforms established rat embryo fibroblasts and encodes an essential determinant for the production of estrogen-dependent mammary tumors in rats. (asm.org)
  • Human adenovirus serotype 5 encodes three proteins, E1b 55K, E4 Orf3 and E4 Orf6, which interact with each other and with components of the nucleus to regulate mRNA processing and export, viral DNA replication and p53-dependent apoptosis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • the E3 region encodes proteins involved in evading host immunity and is dispensable for viral production per se . (pnas.org)
  • This gene encodes one of three GA-binding protein transcription factor subunits which functions as a DNA-binding subunit. (wikidoc.org)
  • A typical DNA virus encodes for a few key regulatory proteins that modify the host cell biosynthetic machinery to achieve a selective viral gene statement. (dissertations.se)
  • Adenovirus, however, encodes histone-like proteins that associate with its genome resulting in a confined DNA-protein condensate (core). (princeton.edu)
  • The first transcriptional region 4 (E4) of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) encodes gene products that modulate splicing apoptosis transcription DNA replication and repair pathways. (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • The first area 4 (E4) of adenovirus type 5 (Advertisement5) is vital for efficient trojan creation and encodes six gene items some of that are not required for Neratinib development in cultured cells (analyzed in personal references 22 and 36). (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • Recent experiments demonstrate that a family of related proteins constitute the E2F transcription factor activity and that the interaction of two of these gene products, E2F1 and DP1, generates a heterodimer with DNA binding and transcriptional activating capacity. (asm.org)
  • Blockage by adenovirus E4orf6 of transcriptional activation by the p53 tumor suppressor. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We recently observed that prohibitin, a potential tumor suppressor protein, binds to the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and represses E2F transcriptional activity. (asm.org)
  • It has been demonstrated that the Rb family proteins bind to a moiety within the transcriptional activation region of E2Fs, effectively repressing their activity ( 21 , 25 , 44 ). (asm.org)
  • Nuclear factor interleukin-3-regulated protein (NFIL3, also known as E4BP4) was first identified as a transcriptional repressor capable of binding an activating transcription factor (ATF) DNA consensus sequence site in the adenovirus E4 promoter [ PMID: 1620116 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • We show that Hesx1 is a promoter-specific transcriptional repressor with a minimal 36 amino acid repression domain which can mediate promoter-specific repression by suppressing the activity of homeodomain-containing activator proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Less attention has been paid to post-transcriptional blocks which prevent completion of the viral replication cycle, thus limiting expression of viral proteins, de novo production of viral particles and cytopathogenesis. (prolekare.cz)
  • In the β-cell, GK activity is largely regulated by transcriptional mechanisms ( 1 , 2 ), whereas in the liver, GK activity is also acutely regulated by its binding to the GK regulatory protein (GKRP), localized within the nucleus ( 11 , 12 , 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In our system, transcriptional targeting of solitary viral E1A resulted in 50% enhanced restricted vector replication when compared with an unrestricted replication-competent adenovirus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The full-length gene product represses transcription from the E4 promoter in the absence of E1A, while the 50-kDa form acts as a transcriptional activator in its presence. (abnova.com)
  • In the absence of this E1B protein, the p53 transcriptional program is not induced, and it has been reported that the viral E4 Orf3 protein inactivates p53 (C. Soria, F. E. Estermann, K. C. Espantman, and C. C. O'Shea, Nature 466:1076-1081, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature09307 ). (princeton.edu)
  • We have described a live recombinant adenovirus vaccine prototype that produces abundant HPV16 L1 protein from the adenovirus major late transcriptional unit and directs the assembly of HPV16 VLPs in tissue culture. (asm.org)
  • To explore the applicability of the live rAd platform to other pathogens, we constructed replication-competent adenovirus recombinants that make novel use of the high-level gene expression characteristic of the adenovirus major late transcriptional unit (MLTU) to produce papillomavirus L1 proteins ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • One amino acid change in the receptor-binding domain of fiber and 6 amino acid pattern is the result of a mutation of the Bam HI restriction variations in E4 ORF 6/7 were identified between 2 site at 0.93 map units of the genome. (cdc.gov)
  • provide evidence that the rapid divergence of Ad7d to a Particularly interesting were the distinctive patterns of cir- novel genome type Ad7l could have been due to viral culating genome types during the Ad7 epidemic in Korea strategies involving multiple sequence changes in E4. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic variations between the Ad7d and Ad7l genome types have been studied by analyzing the sequences of hexon, E3, fiber, and E4 ORF 6/7 peptides. (cdc.gov)
  • The p53 protein is referred to as the 'guardian of the genome', as it normally suppresses tumours by causing cells with DNA damage to self-destruct. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Adenovirus DNA replication begins at each end of the viral DNA, using the TP protein (rather than RNA) as a primer, so the viral DNA polymerase replicates every base of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of the most commonly used human adenovirus (serotype 5) consists of a linear, 36-kb, double-stranded DNA molecule. (pnas.org)
  • The bornavirus-derived human protein EBLN1 promotes efficient cell cycle transit, microtubule organisation and genome stability. (abcam.com)
  • Nucleosome maps of the human cytomegalovirus genome reveal a temporal switch in chromatin organization linked to a major IE protein. (arizona.edu)
  • The genome of the avian adenovirus Chicken Embryo Lethal Orphan (CELO) has two terminal regions without detectable homology in mammalian adenoviruses that are left without annotation in the initial analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since adenoviruses have been a rich source of new insights into molecular cell biology and practical applications of CELO as gene a delivery vector are being considered, this genome appeared worth revisiting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The analysis of the sequence revealed that the central portion of the 43.8 kb long, double-stranded, linear DNA genome is organized similar to mammalian adenoviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, p53 being a transcription aspect transcripts the HCMV L44 proteins required for trojan replication, and 21 binding sites of p53 have already been within the trojan genome [18]. (bioentryplus.com)
  • The entire adenovirus genome is a linear, double-stranded DNA of approximately 36Kb. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • 2005. Genome concatenation contributes to the late gene expression defect of an adenovirus E4 mutant. (miamioh.edu)
  • Fowl Adenovirus (FAdV) belongs to the family Adenoviridae and genus Aviadenovirus divided into 5 species (FAdV-A to FAdV-E) based on their restriction enzyme digestion pattern and into 12 serotypes on the base of cross neutralization test [3] [4]. (scirp.org)
  • The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it. (nih.gov)
  • Since our previous experiments have shown that mutations within the E2F1 hydrophobic heptad repeat element abolish the E4-mediated transcription enhancement in transfection assays, we conclude that the E4 protein likely interacts with the E2F1-DP1 heterodimer by directly binding to the DP1 product. (asm.org)
  • Among the proteins most abundantly modified in an E4-ORF3-dependent manner was the general transcription factor II-I (TFII-I). Analysis of Ad-infected cells revealed that E4-ORF3 induces TFII-I relocalization and SUMOylation early during infection. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Our results characterize a novel mechanism of TFII-I regulation by Ad and highlight how a viral protein can modulate a critical cellular transcription factor during infection. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4 protein autoregulates E4 transcription by inhibiting E1A transactivation of the E4 promoter. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The L1-L5 transcription units are transcribed later in the viral reproductive cycle, and code mostly for proteins that make up components of the viral capsid or are involved in assembly of the capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three proteins coded for by the E2A and E2B transcription units are all involved in replication of viral DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The control proteins of the E4 transcription unit are involved in regulating transcription of viral DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral transcription units are conventionally referred to as early (E1, E2, E3, and E4) and late, depending on their temporal expression relative to the onset of viral DNA replication ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The high density and complexity of the viral transcription units poses problems for recombinant manipulation, which therefore is usually restricted to specific regions, particularly E1, E2A, E3, and E4. (pnas.org)
  • This subunit also shares identity with a subunit constituting the transcription factor E4TF1, responsible for expression of the adenovirus E4 gene. (wikidoc.org)
  • Following adenovirus infection, E1A is the first viral gene product to be expressed, and is required for the efficient transcription of all other viral early gene regions ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lee, S. Hee, K. Caviness, E. R. Albright, J-H. Lee, C. B. Gelbmann, M. Rak, F. Goodrum, and R. F. Kalejta, 'Long and Short Isoforms of the Human Cytomegalovirus UL138 Protein Silence IE Transcription and Promote Latency. (arizona.edu)
  • Hai T, Hartman MG. The molecular biology and nomenclature of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors: ATF proteins and homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • Hai T, Liu F, Coukos WJ, Green MR. Transcription factor ATF cDNA clones: an extensive family of leucine zipper proteins able to selectively form DNA-binding heterodimers. (springer.com)
  • Transcription factors 1: bZIP proteins. (springer.com)
  • The zinc finger protein encoded by this gene is one of several cellular transcription factors whose DNA-binding activities are regulated through the action of adenovirus E1A. (abnova.com)
  • There approximately two phases of adenovirus transcription, namely early and late phases, which occur before and after replication. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • Chromosomal location and tissue expression of the gene encoding the adenovirus E1A-regulated transcription factor E4F in humans and mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Deletions from the E4 area create a number of serious phenotypes including flaws in viral mRNA deposition transcription splicing past due proteins synthesis web host cell shutoff and viral DNA replication. (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • The pattern of PML isoforms was altered in adenovirus-infected cells, in that a number of additional isoform bands appeared in an Orf3-dependent manner, one of which became predominant later in infection. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The adenovirus E4 11k protein, product of E4 ORF3, is required in infection for processes including normal accumulation of viral late mRNAs. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrated that the E4 ORF3 protein effects the relocalization of both PML and MRN proteins to similar structures within the nucleus at early times after infection. (elsevier.com)
  • At later stages of infection, components of the MRN complex disperse within the nucleus, Nbs1 is found within viral replication centers, Rad50 remains localized with E4 ORF3, and Mre11 is degraded. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, we explored the relationship between E4-ORF3 and TFII-I. We found that Ad infection or ectopic E4-ORF3 expression leads to SUMOylation of TFII-I that precedes a rapid decline in TFII-I protein levels. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Interestingly, we found that E4-ORF3 modulation of TFII-I occurs in diverse cell types but only E4-ORF3 of Ad species C regulates TFII-I, providing critical insight into the mechanism by which E4-ORF3 targets TFII-I. Finally, we show that E4-ORF3 stimulates the activity of a TFII-I-repressed viral promoter during infection. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Previous studies have shown that, during wild-type infection, 55K associates initially with structures termed ND10, which are sites of localization of the promyelocytic leukaemia protein, and then moves, dependent upon its interaction with Orf6, to the establishing virus replication centres. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Resistance to virus infection conferred by the interferon-induced promyelocytic leukemia protein. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Expression of adenovirus type 5 E4 Orf2 protein during lytic infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A study conducted by researchers at the University Of Pittsburgh School Of Medicine suggests that eye infection caused by adenoviruses can be effectively treated by gamma globulin. (medindia.net)
  • Taken with previous findings on the effects of infection by herpes simplex virus and adenovirus on ND10 structure and PML modification, these results suggest that the many factors which have been shown to modify ND10 structure may do so by interaction with the biochemical mechanisms that act on ND10 components during the cell cycle. (biologists.org)
  • Finally, we describe a putative triglyceride lipase (merged ORF-18/19) with additional domains, which can be expected to have specific roles during the infection of birds, since they are unique to avian adenoviruses and Marek's disease-like viruses, a group of pathogenic avian herpesviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It belongs to the family Parvoviridae and is placed in the genus Dependovirus , because productive infection by AAV occurs only in the presence of a helper virus, either adenovirus or herpesvirus. (asm.org)
  • Infection with adenovirus lacking the E4 region is less productive than wild type Ad5 infection and fails to inactivate MRN, which results in activation of the DNA damage response and concatemerization of viral genomes. (escholarship.org)
  • Figure 1: Ad infection has the potential to activate DNA repair proteins. (miamioh.edu)
  • CD8(+) T lymphocytes from HLA-A2.1(+), EBV-seropositive healthy donors were cultured with autologous DC infected with recombinant adenovirus vector AdEGFP, encoding an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), or AdLMP2B at a multiplicity of infection of 250. (unifg.it)
  • The adenovirus type 5 E1B-55K oncoprotein actively shuttles in virus-infected cells, whereas transport of E4orf6 is mediated by a CRM1-independent mechanism. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • E4orf6 plays an important role in the transportation of cellular and viral mRNAs and is known as an oncogene product of adenovirus. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we show that E4orf6 interacts with pp32/leucine-rich acidic nuclear protein (LANP). (rupress.org)
  • Die lytischen Aktivitäten des E1B-Proteins werden zumindest teilweise im Komplex mit dem viralen Protein E4orf6 vermittelt. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Soweit bekannt fördert der E1B-55K/E4orf6-Komplex (E1B/E4-Komplex) den nukleozytoplasmatischen Transport viraler mRNAs und fördert somit die Synthese viraler Kapsidproteine bzw. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Die vorliegende Arbeit befasste sich mit Untersuchungen zur Funktion der E1B-55K- und E4orf6-Proteine in der Regulation des produktiven Replikationszyklus von Ad5, und insbesondere mit Fragestellungen zur Regulation des viralen mRNA-Transports durch den E1B/E4-Komplex. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Im Unterschied zu E4orf6 führen Mutationen im E1B-NES zu einer fast vollständigen Restriktion des viralen Proteins im Zellkern, wo das virale Protein an der Peripherie der sog. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Trotz der deutlich veränderten Lokalisation des E1B-55K-Proteins haben Mutationen im E4orf6- und/oder E1B-NES sowie im E1B-SKM keinen negativen Einfluss auf die zytoplasmatische Akkumulation viraler Transkripte, Synthese später Strukturproteine, Produktion von Nachkommenviren und den proteasomalen Abbau von MRN. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Obwohl die molekulare Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse noch unklar ist, zeigen die Untersuchungen dieser Arbeit, dass der nukleäre Export von E1B-55K und E4orf6 auch über die CRM1-unabhängigen RNA-Exportrezeptoren HuR und/oder TAP/NXF1 gesteuert wird, da sowohl die HuR-Liganden pp32 und APRIL als auch das TAP/NXF1-Adaptorprotein Aly/REF1 an den E1B/E4-Komplex binden. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • We concluded that the viral proteins E1B55K, E4orf6, and E4orf3, promote viral DNA replication by inactivating the MRN complex. (escholarship.org)
  • Analyses of infections with serotypes Ad4 and Ad12 demonstrated that this degradation of Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 proteins is usually a conserved feature of the E1b55K/E4orf6 complex. (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • The appearance of E4orf6 and E1b55K leads to the proteasome-mediated degradation of Mre11 Neratinib complicated associates (6 35 The E4orf3 proteins can redistribute Mre11 Rad50 and Nbs1 off their regular diffuse nuclear localization into huge nuclear and cytoplasmic DUSP10 accumulations during attacks and transfections (35). (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • Three early proteins expressed by adenovirus type 5, E1b 55K, E4 Orf3 and E4 Orf6, are involved in regulating late viral gene expression. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Several of the functions of the human adenovirus type 5 E1B 55kDa protein are fulfilled via the virus-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase it forms with the viral E4 Orf6 protein and several cellular proteins. (princeton.edu)
  • The most studied cellular component of ND10 is PML, a complex protein present in a range of isoforms, some of which are modified by conjugation to the small ubiquitin-like protein PIC-1. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The tumorigenic potential of E4-ORF1, as well as its ability to oncogenically stimulate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), depends on a carboxyl-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) that mediates interactions with several different membrane-associated cellular PDZ proteins, including MUPP1, PATJ, MAGI-1, ZO-2, and Dlg1. (openaire.eu)
  • We recently identified additional cellular targets of E4-ORF3 and found that E4-ORF3 stimulates ubiquitin-like modification of 41 cellular proteins involved in a wide variety of processes. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The F-box protein is one of the four components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) complex, which mediates ubiquitination of proteins targeted for degradation by the proteasome, playing an essential role in many cellular processes. (mdpi.com)
  • The key that opened that box was revealing the interactions between small DNA tumour virus proteins and cellular tumour suppressor complexes. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Horng Ou, a postdoctoral researcher in O'Shea's laboratory, explains the properties of E4-ORF3: 'It doesn't resemble any known proteins that assemble polymers or that function in cellular tumour suppressor pathways. (eurasiareview.com)
  • It doesn't resemble any known proteins that assemble polymers or that function in cellular tumor suppressor pathways," he says. (medindia.net)
  • A functional domain on the NS2 with characteristics of a nuclear export signal was mapped: it interacts with cellular nucleoporins, can functionally replace the effector domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‐1) Rev protein and mediates rapid nuclear export when cross‐linked to a reporter protein. (embopress.org)
  • Unlike the innate and adaptive part of the immune system, that require pathogen-induced signaling cascades in order to be switched on, these so-called intrinsic immune mechanisms are mediated by cellular proteins that are constitutively expressed and active before a pathogen enters the cell, thus serving as a front-line defense. (uniklinik-ulm.de)
  • PML-NBs are dot-like structures of the cell nucleus, that are defined by the distinct accumulation of specific cellular proteins like PML, hDaxx, Sp100 and ATRX (Fig. 1). (uniklinik-ulm.de)
  • During the last ten years our laboratory could show, that these proteins act as cellular restriction factors by inducing a silencing of viral gene expression. (uniklinik-ulm.de)
  • Moreover, our research revealed that specific viral proteins (pp71 and IE1 of HCMV) are able to antagonize this cellular silencing mechanism (Fig. 1). (uniklinik-ulm.de)
  • Control protein E1B 19K suppresses apoptosis by mimicking the action of cellular protein Bcl-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the E6 protein from high-risk HPVs can interact with the PDZ (PSD-90/Dlg/ZO-1) domains of cellular proteins, triggering cell transformation. (springer.com)
  • Adenovirus, a type of cold virus, has developed molecular tools-proteins-that allow it to hijack a cell's molecular machinery, including large cellular machines involved in growth, replication and cancer suppression. (salk.edu)
  • Salk researchers discovered that a small protein produced by cold viruses disables large cellular machines involved in growth, replication and cancer. (salk.edu)
  • In this form, E4-ORF3 largely ignores its cellular targets. (salk.edu)
  • To test this theory, they genetically fused E4-ORF3 polymer mutants to lamin, a cellular protein that assembles intermediate filaments that provide stability and strength to cells. (salk.edu)
  • The tumorigenic potential of Ad9 E4 Orf1 depends on a carboxyl-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif that mediates interactions with several different membrane-associated cellular proteins such as MUPP1, PATJ, MAGI-1, ZO-2 and Dlg1. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • It has been suggested that Ad9 E4 Orf1 may have evolved from an ancestral cellular dUTP pyrophosphatase. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Protein-protein interactions organize the localization, clustering, signal transduction, and degradation of cellular proteins and are therefore implicated in numerous biological functions. (xenbase.org)
  • IMPORTANCE: The tumor suppressor p53, a master regulator of cellular responses to stress, is inactivated and destroyed in cells infected by species C human adenoviruses, such as type 5. (princeton.edu)
  • The induction of a strong cellular response by the recombinant indicates that live adenovirus recombinants have potential as vaccines for those agents. (asm.org)
  • Adenovirus (Ad) has been shown to inactivate the cellular DNA damage response by targeting the sensor for DNA damage, the MRN complex (composed of Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1). (escholarship.org)
  • Ad E4 mutants lack these critical regulatory proteins and therefore activate cellular DDR signal transduction cascades, including activation of ATM and ATR kinases, that in turn trigger signal transduction cascades that regulate apoptosis, DNA repair and cell cycle arrest. (miamioh.edu)
  • 2012. Differential activation of cellular DNA damage responses by replication-defective and replication-competent adenovirus mutants. (miamioh.edu)
  • 2007. The cellular Mre11 protein interferes with adenovirus E4 mutant DNA replication. (miamioh.edu)
  • The mechanism by which E4orf3 accomplishes the dramatic changes in nuclear architecture and the consequences of mislocalization of cellular proteins remain unclear. (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • Previous experiments have shown that the adenovirus E4 19-kDa protein facilitates the formation of a stable E2F dimer on the adenovirus E2 promoter. (asm.org)
  • We now show that coexpression of the E2F1 and DP1 products in transfected SAOS-2 cells, together with the E4 product, generates a multicomponent complex with specificity to the adenovirus E2 promoter. (asm.org)
  • As a consequence of the ability of E4 to dimerize, we propose that the stable complex formed on the two E2F sites within the E2 promoter is composed of two E2F1-DP1 heterodimers held together by an E4 dimer. (asm.org)
  • The adenovirus E4-6/7 protein transactivates the E2 promoter by inducing dimerization of a heteromeric E2F complex. (asm.org)
  • In these adenoviruses, the E4 region (AdΔ24TyrE4) or both E1 and E4 regions (Ad2xTyr) were controlled by a synthetic tyrosinase enhancer/promoter (Tyr2E/P) specific for melanocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In our current study, we developed oncolytic adenoviruses which preferentially lyse pancreatic and colon cancer cells by replacing viral E1 and/or E4 promoter with the tumor/tissue-specific promoters, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), midkine (MK), or the cell cycle-dependent promoter, E2F1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the second set, the viral E4 promoter was substituted by these heterologous promoters and the viral E1A promoter was substituted by the ubiquitously active cytomegalovirus-IE promoter. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the third set, we substituted the viral E1A and E4 promoters with the COX-2, MK, or E2F1 promoter, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 4. The method according to claim 1, wherein said precursor molecule comprises an adenovirus E2 region under the control of an inducible promoter. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Evans, JD & Hearing, P 2005, ' Relocalization of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex by the adenovirus E4 ORF3 protein is required for viral replication ', Journal of Virology , vol. 79, no. 10, pp. 6207-6215. (elsevier.com)
  • Using a yeast two-hybrid assay system, we find that the E2F1 hydrophobic heptad repeat (E2F1 amino acid residues 206 to 283) allows interaction with a corresponding domain of the DP1 protein (amino acids 196 to 245). (asm.org)
  • The F-box domain is a protein structural motif of about 50 amino acids that mediates protein-protein interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • The functional specificity of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex depends on the variable substrate recognition component. (genecards.org)
  • We offer Adenovirus-9 E4 Orf1 Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Adenovirus-9 E4 Orf1 Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Virus. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Adenovirus-9 E4 Orf1 polyclonal antibodies. (novusbio.com)
  • Fourth and importantly, in productive infections, host cells are lysed and release their progeny, but the viruses are usually eliminated in a few days by antibodies to the capsid proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For the assay, various dilutions of antibodies pre-incubated with moi of 100 for adenovirus and 1000 for AAV reporter viruses for 1 hour at 37 C, is added to 90% confluent cell cultures. (upenn.edu)
  • Although the precise physiological role of this phosphorylation remains unknown, it is expected that phosphorylation of SR proteins affects their protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions, intracellular localization and trafficking, and alternative splicing of pre-mRNA ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • To counteract this mechanism of host interference, Ad produces regulatory proteins that inhibit DDR proteins by regulating their localization and stability. (miamioh.edu)
  • One of these p-body proteins, RNA helicase Ddx6, binds 11. (elsevier.com)
  • Greer, AE, Hearing, P & Ketner, GW 2011, ' The adenovirus E4 11k protein binds and relocalizes the cytoplasmic P-body component Ddx6 to aggresomes ', Virology , vol. 417, no. 1, pp. 161-168. (elsevier.com)
  • The recent finding that PIC1/SUMO-1, a small ubiquitin-like protein, is covalently linked to the RanGAP1 protein of the nuclear pore complex and also binds PML in yeast cells led us to determine whether PML is covalently modified by PIC1/SUMO-1 and whether the same is true for Sp100. (rupress.org)
  • The researchers theorized that when E4-ORF3 assembles into a polymer, however, it binds to tumor suppressor targets far more aggressively. (salk.edu)
  • This review describes the role of F-box proteins and the use of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in virus-host interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • Besides the F-box domain, other domains and motifs related to protein-protein interactions are usually present in the C -terminal region of FBPs, such as leucine rich repeats (LRR), WD40 repeats (WD), Kelch repeats, proline-rich and others. (mdpi.com)
  • This dominant negative activity of HESX1(R160C) is mediated by the Hesx1 repression domain, supporting the idea that the repression domain is implicated in interactions between homeodomain proteins. (biologists.org)
  • A, schematic representation of the identification of interactions between the collection of PDZ domains and a protein of interest (POI) using a yeast two-hybrid assay. (xenbase.org)
  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The pathway maps illustrate protein interactions and regulation to provide a comprehensive picture of signaling and disease processes. (bio-rad.com)
  • For this study we further analyzed the interactions of E4 proteins from different adenovirus serotypes with the Mre11 complex. (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • Testing of the seven Ad9 E4 open reading frames (ORFs) individually for transformation of the established rat embryo fibroblast cell line CREF indicated that only Ad9 E4 ORF1 possessed a significant ability to generate transformed foci on these cells. (asm.org)
  • 11. k restructures both the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells by relocalizing specific host cell target proteins, most strikingly components of nuclear PML oncogenic domains. (elsevier.com)
  • The importance of viral regulation of the MRN complex is underscored by the complementation of E4 mutant viruses in cells that lack Mre11 or Nbs1 activity. (elsevier.com)
  • The human adenovirus (Ad) early region 4 open reading frame 3 (E4-ORF3) protein forms unique inclusions throughout the nuclei of infected cells and inhibits the antiviral Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 DNA repair complex through relocalization. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Analysis of adenovirus early region 4-encoded polypeptides synthesized in productively infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We have generated novel conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds) targeted to melanoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The properties of these CRAds were compared with wild-type adenovirus (Adwt) and our previous CRAd with a targeted E1A CRII mutation (AdTyrΔ24) in submerged cultures of melanoma cells and nonmelanoma control cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, it is controversial whether adenoviruses with a deletion in the E1B-55 kDa-coding region might selectively replicate in cells with a mutation or deletion of the p53 gene and, therefore, represent a tool in cancer therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Surprisingly, even strong overexpression of p53 or p53mt24-28 allowed the virus to replicate as efficiently as in the absence of p53 proteins, both in tumor cells and in primary endothelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vitro data indicate that the E4ORF1 peptide derived from human adenovirus 36 (Ad36) interacts with cells from adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver to enhance glucose disposal, independent of proximal insulin signaling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the reactivation phase, the expression dynamics of KSHV immediate-early or early lytic proteins such as RTA, K9 (vIRF1), K5, K3, ORF59, and K8 (K-bZIP) were comparable between wild-type, control BC3, and BC3-PML KO cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • But without knowing the structure of the proteins they use to attack cells, we were at a loss for how these tiny weapons win out over much larger tumour suppressors. (eurasiareview.com)
  • When p53 is inactivated, the E4-ORF3 protein enables adenovirus replication in infected human cells to go unchecked. (eurasiareview.com)
  • E4-ORF3 self-assembles inside cells into a disordered, web-like structure that captures and inactivates different tumor suppressor protein complexes. (medindia.net)
  • We found an immune reaction of PML and Sp100 proteins with a PIC1/SUMO-1-specific monoclonal antibody by immunoblotting when using cell extracts prepared from stably transfected cells inducibly expressing one isoform of each protein as well as from nontransfected cells. (rupress.org)
  • For example, it may be possible to develop a drug that mimics the behavior of a certain tumor suppressor protein, or to design strategies for killing only those cells in which a particular tumor suppressor protein has been inactivated, thus sparing normal cells.We are currently concentrating on the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL), the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRB), and the p53-like protein p73. (dana-farber.org)
  • The second and more widely used method involves homologous recombination in mammalian cells capable of complementing defective adenoviruses ("packaging lines") ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Homologous recombination results in a defective adenovirus that can replicate in the packaging line (e.g., 293 or 911 cells) supplying the missing gene products (e.g. (pnas.org)
  • Hep-2 cells expressing transiently the adenovirus-5 E4-ORF3 protein were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence using a primary PML monoclonal Ab. (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • The type III secretion system of Salmonella typhimurium directs the translocation of proteins into host cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • This study delivered FasL in prostate cancer cells using an improved prostate-restricted replicative adenovirus (PRRA), thereby improving the antitumor effect while decreasing systemic toxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Oncolytic adenoviruses are potent chemosensitizers, particularly in cells with functional p53 ( 1 ), and have shown encouraging antineoplastic activity in clinical trials in combination with chemotherapy ( 2 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Many levels in adenovirus replication may be regulated to generate conditionally replication-competent adenoviruses targeting tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gelonin, a New Inhibitor of Protein Synthesis, Nontoxic to Intact Cells," Journal of Biological Chemistry 255(14): 6947-6953, 1980. (patentgenius.com)
  • It was envisaged that the inability of these recombinant adenoviruses to replicate efficiently would prevent the production of unwanted viral proteins by infected cells, thus limiting both direct adenovirus toxicity and possible harmful consequences of antiadenovirus immune responses. (bmj.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells also contain other proteins that release pieces of DNA from histones so that their genetic information can be used. (elifesciences.org)
  • This flexibility allows the information in the genomes of Archaea to be easily accessed, so, unlike in eukaryotes, archaeal cells may not need other proteins to release the DNA from the histones. (elifesciences.org)
  • Packaging cells having no overlapping sequences with a selected vector are suited for large-scale production of recombinant adenoviruses. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We therefore used immunoaffinity purification and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of lysates of normal human cells infected in parallel with HAdV-C5 and E1B 55kDa protein-null mutant viruses to identify specifically E1B 55kDa-associated proteins. (princeton.edu)
  • As the latter protein disrupts nuclear Pml bodies, sites at which p53 is modified, we used mass spectrometry to catalogue the posttranscriptional modifications of the p53 population that accumulates when neither the E1B 55-kDa nor the E4 Orf3 protein is made in infected cells. (princeton.edu)
  • The comparisons reported here of the posttranslational modifications and activities of p53 populations that accumulate in infected normal human cells in the absence of both mechanisms of inactivation or of only the E3 ligase revealed little impact of the E4 Orf3 protein. (princeton.edu)
  • These observations indicate that E4 Orf3-dependent disruption of Pml bodies does not have a major effect on the pattern of p53 posttranslational modifications in adenovirus-infected cells. (princeton.edu)
  • By examining the pathways upstream and downstream of Bmi1, hence the molecular pathways that regulate self-renewal, his laboratory found that USP16, a protein that dampens Bmi1 signals, causes a stem cell defect in various stem cells in Down's syndrome, including neural stem cells. (stanford.edu)
  • The experience of p53 needs tight limitations towards the cells stabilization as well as the protein degree of p53 is normally low in regular cells [5C7]. (bioentryplus.com)
  • Most of the E3 proteins are involved in modulating the immune response of infected cells. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • There are many advantages to using an adenovirus to introduce genetic material into host cells. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • 0.01), In summary, autologous mature DC genetically modified with an adenovirus encoding EBV antigens stimulate the generation of EBV-specific CD8(+) effector T cells in vitro, supporting the potential application of EBV-based adenovirus vector vaccination for the immunotherapy of the EBV-associated malignancies. (unifg.it)
  • Adenovirus vector-based purging of multiple myeloma cells. (harvard.edu)
  • In contrast, the E4 ORF1 sequences from human Ad5 and Ad12 lacked the transforming potential exhibited by Ad9 E4 ORF1. (asm.org)
  • The vector used for this trial was based on human adenovirus type 5, deleted in E1 and E4, and contained human OTC cDNA. (nih.gov)
  • Recent studies have revealed protective effects of Ad36, a human adenovirus, and its E4orf1 protein on glucose disposal, which may be creatively harnessed to develop novel anti-diabetic agents. (nih.gov)
  • To this end, in vitro studies have described E4ORF1, a 125-amino acid peptide derived from human adenovirus 36 (Ad36), that upregulates glucose uptake in adipocytes and their progenitors and myoblasts and reduces glucose release from hepatocytes ( 5 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Overproduction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein reduced the expression level of the co-transfected IFN- α 1 gene. (biologists.org)
  • John Wiley & Sons, Inc. "Protein Details for Human adenovirus E". NCBI. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modified annexin proteins, including a homodimer of human annexin V, are provided. (google.com)
  • Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) contain linear, double-stranded DNA with an average genomic length of 35 kbp. (cdc.gov)
  • The many different serotypes of human adenoviruses (Ad) are divided into six subgroups, of which all Ad subgroup A and B and two subgroup D Ads can elicit tumors in infected rodents. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Human adenovirus type 9-induced rat mammary tumors. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Li, G., M. Rak, C. C. Nguyen, M. Umashankar, F. D. Goodrum, and J. P. Kamil, 'An epistatic relationship between the viral protein kinase UL97 and the UL133-UL138 latency locus during the human cytomegalovirus lytic cycle. (arizona.edu)
  • Caviness, K., L. Cicchini, M. Rak, M. Umashankar, and F. Goodrum, 'Complex expression of the UL136 gene of human cytomegalovirus results in multiple protein isoforms with unique roles in replication. (arizona.edu)
  • Compared to mammalian and, in particular, human adenoviruses of the genus Mastadenovirus , which have been studied extensively over the years (reviewed in [ 3 ]), relatively little information is available on avian adenoviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bouvard V, Storey A, Pim D et al (1994) Characterization of the human papillomavirus E2 protein: evidence of trans-activation and trans-repression in cervical keratinocytes. (springer.com)
  • Conrad M, Bubb VJ, Schlegel R (1993) The human papillomavirus type 6 and 16 E5 proteins are membrane-associated proteins which associated with the 16-kilodalton pore-forming protein. (springer.com)
  • The human apoCs (ie, apoC1, apoC2, and apoC3) are often portrayed as members of 1 consistent protein family because of their similar distributions among lipoprotein classes, their low molecular weights, and coincident purification. (tudelft.nl)
  • The human apoCs are protein constituents of chylomicrons, VLDL, and HDL. (tudelft.nl)
  • Human E4F1 partial ORF ( NP_004415.2, 685 a.a. - 784 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (abnova.com)
  • Normal human cell proteins that interact with the adenovirus type 5 E1B 55kDa protein. (princeton.edu)
  • Mechanics of Viral Chromatin Reveals the Pressurization of Human Adenovirus. (princeton.edu)
  • Wild-type adenoviruses, including human adenovirus type 5, are associated with a number of mild disorders, such as respiratory infections in the elderly or children. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • The prime receptor for human adenoviruses is the Coxsackie/Adenovirus Receptor (CAR). (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • Using mutants of E1B55K, we found that degradation of MRN requires distinct domains of E1B55K and promotes viral late protein synthesis. (escholarship.org)
  • 1996 ). PIC1, a novel ubiquitin-like protein which interacts with the PML component of a multiprotein complex that is disrupted in acute promyelocytic leukaemia. (biologists.org)
  • 1996 ). Adenovirus replication is coupled with the dynamic properties of the PML nuclear structure. (biologists.org)
  • In contrast, both proteins did not react when synthesized in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • Recombinant adenoviruses currently are used for a variety of purposes, including gene transfer in vitro , vaccination in vivo , and gene therapy ( 1 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • SRPK1 was the first SR protein kinase to be cloned, on the basis of its ability to phosphorylate SR proteins in vitro ( 8 , 9 ), and two other structurally related kinases, SRPK2 and SRPK3, also have been shown to phosphorylate SR proteins ( 16 , 31 ). (asm.org)
  • However, under certain in vitro conditions, a TTSS can also secrete proteins into a culture medium. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, growth conditions were defined that trigger the secretion of SPI2 substrate proteins in vitro ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • We were interested in analyzing the secretion of STE proteins and other putative substrate proteins of the TTSS of SPI2 under in vitro conditions. (asm.org)
  • In vitro experiments indicated that GKRP was able to increase both GK protein and enzymatic activity levels, suggesting that another role for GKRP is to stabilize and/or protect GK. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We also find that the adenovirus E4 protein interacts with the DP1 hydrophobic heptad repeat domain, but we could not detect a direct interaction between E2F1 and E4. (asm.org)
  • 2015) The TRIM-FLMN protein TRIM45 directly interacts with RACK1 and negatively regulates PKC-mediated signaling pathway. (phosphosite.org)
  • result suggests fiber and E4 ORF 6/7 peptides participate in the evolution of Ad7. (cdc.gov)
  • Fiber and E4 ORF 6/7 peptides were chosen for study because of close proximity to a mutation site at 0.93 map units, and hexon and E3 peptides were chosen because of their reported genetic heterogeneities. (cdc.gov)
  • B, Coomassie-stained protein gel after pull-down assay on Caco2 and HEK 293T cell extracts using E6 or E6δTQL peptides as affinity reagents. (xenbase.org)
  • B, Coomassie-stained protein gel after pull-down assay on Caco-2 cell extracts using Vangl2 or Vangl2δTSV peptides as affinity reagents. (xenbase.org)
  • Regulated splicing of adenovirus type 5 E4 transcripts and regulated cytoplasmic accumulation of E4 mRNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • First, wild-type adenoviruses (Adwt) are nononcogenic in humans. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Adenovirus type 5 expresses proteins that regulate the activity and stability of the tumor suppressor p53. (aacrjournals.org)
  • they believe that if the properties of a specific type of cold virus, the adenovirus, can be mimicked, then new cancer therapies can be developed. (eurasiareview.com)
  • A single injection of a type of virus known as adenoviruses can help give up the habit of drinking, a study indicates. (medindia.net)
  • Type III secretion systems (TTSS) are complex molecular machines found in a large number of gram-negative pathogens that mediate, in a contact-dependent manner, the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm into a eukaryotic host cell ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • A skin biopsy of finger, 100µm section, immunostained for pan-neuronal marker, protein gene product 9.5, localized with Cy3 (red and yellow) and basement membrane marker, type IV collagen, with Cy2 (green). (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • Fas is a 45k Daltons type I membrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor superfamily of receptors ( 3 - 5 ), and FasL is a 40k Daltons type II membrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family ( 6 , 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Further, we identified a cluster of three putative type-1-transmembrane glycoproteins with IG-like domains (ORF-9, ORF-10, ORF-11) which are good candidates to substitute for the missing immunomodulatory functions of mammalian adenoviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The death in the USA of an 18 year old with ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency after intrahepatic arterial injection of an adenovirus vector carrying a wild-type version of the defective enzyme has precipitated a flurry of reports and congressional hearings focusing on the ethics of such trials and on the very nature of clinical research itself. (bmj.com)
  • Live adenovirus vaccines have been used by the United States military for decades to prevent adenovirus type 4 (Ad4)- and Ad7-induced severe upper respiratory disease in recruits ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • section specifies the position and type of each DNA-binding domain present within the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • GA-binding protein alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABPA gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • In addition, the Ad9 E4 ORF1 protein was required for initiation of mammary oncogenesis in vivo, as E4 ORF1 mutant viruses failed while E4 ORF2 and ORF3 mutant viruses succeeded in eliciting mammary tumors in animals. (asm.org)
  • Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly attack the tissue linings of the respiratory tract, eyes, intestines and urinary tract. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Cell lines derived from Ad9 E4 ORF1-transformed foci expressed the 14-kDa Ad9 E4 ORF1 protein and formed colonies in soft agar. (asm.org)
  • A role for Ad9 E4 ORF1 in tumor maintenance was suggested by the fact that 100% of virus-induced mammary tumors expressed the E4 ORF1 protein. (asm.org)
  • Taken together, the facts that the Ad9 E4 ORF1 protein exhibits transforming potential in culture and is required by Ad9 to produce mammary tumors in animals suggest that Ad9 E4 ORF1 is a new viral oncoprotein. (asm.org)
  • Each Adenovirus-9 E4 Orf1 Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Ad-9 E4 Orf1 antibody was raised against a 16 amino acid peptide near the carboxy terminus of the Ad-9 E4 Orf1. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This antibody reacts to Ad-9 E4 Orf1. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • We also show that E4-ORF3 is required for ubiquitination of TFII-I and subsequent proteasomal degradation. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The SCF E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex participates in the recognition and recruitment of target proteins for ubiquitination and degradation by the ubiquitin 26S proteasome system (UPS). (mdpi.com)
  • Core component of multiple SCF-like ECS (Elongin-Cullin 2/5-SOCS-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, which mediate the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins. (genecards.org)
  • Seems to be involved in proteosomal degradation of p53/TP53 stimulated by adenovirus E1B-55 kDa protein. (genecards.org)
  • These results illustrate the importance of nuclear organization in virus growth and suggest that E4 ORF3 regulates activities in both PML nuclear bodies and the MRN complex to stimulate the viral replication program. (elsevier.com)
  • Adenovirus 5 (Ad5) E4ORF1 has been shown to bind to MYC in the nucleus to activate glycolytic targets that promote a Warburg-like shift to anaerobic glycolysis that converts glucose into nucleotides for viral replication ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Many DNA virus replication-related proteins are associated with promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), a component of nuclear domain 10 (ND10), which has been investigated for its potential involvement in viral replication. (frontiersin.org)
  • p53 is utilized by buy Lenvatinib individual cytomegalovirus (HCMV), respiratory syncytial trojan (RSV), adenovirus, encephalomyocarditis trojan (EMCV), and parainfluenza trojan to market viral replication [13, 18C20]. (bioentryplus.com)
  • Protein export requires a specific nuclear export signal (NES), which functions independently of surrounding peptide sequences and can confer the ability to be transported out of the nucleus on another protein to which it is fused. (embopress.org)
  • The present invention provides a hybrid vector construct which comprises a portion of an adenovirus, 5' and 3' ITR sequences from an AAV, and a selected transgene. (google.com)
  • 3. The vector according to claim 2 wherein said adenovirus sequences further comprise a functional deletion in the E1 gene. (google.com)
  • Among the most broadly distributed protein interaction domains, PSD95 -disc large-zonula occludens (PDZ) domains are usually able to bind carboxy-terminal sequences of their partners. (xenbase.org)
  • The term ATF was first used in 1987 to refer to a putative polypeptide with the activity to bind to the sites on the adenovirus E2, E3, and E4 promoters with sequences similar to the consensus TGACGT(C/A)(G/A) (Lee et al. (springer.com)
  • The isolated recombinant nucleic acid molecule is based on or derived from an adenovirus, has at least one functional encapsidation signal and at least one functional Inverted Terminal Repeat, and lacks overlapping sequences with the nucleic acid of the cell. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Otherwise, the overlapping sequences would enable homologous recombination leading to replication competent adenovirus in the primary cell into which the isolated recombinant nucleic acid molecule is to be transferred. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Adenovirus replication is controlled by the relocalization or modification of nuclear protein complexes, including promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear domains and the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) DNA damage machinery. (elsevier.com)
  • Targeting of adenovirus E1A and E4-ORF3 proteins to nuclear matrix-associated PML bodies. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Nuclear trafficking of STAT proteins visualized by live cell imaging. (nih.gov)
  • Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), a component of nuclear domain 10 (ND10), PML oncogenic domain (POD) or PML nuclear bodies (PML-NB), has tumor suppressive and antiviral defense activities. (frontiersin.org)
  • The influenza virus NS2 protein, which had no previously assigned function, was shown to mediate the nuclear export of virion RNAs by acting as an adaptor between viral ribonucleoprotein complexes and the nuclear export machinery of the cell. (embopress.org)
  • We propose a model by which NEP acts as a protein adaptor molecule bridging viral ribonucleoproteins and the nuclear pore complex. (embopress.org)
  • The karyopherin chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) mediates the nuclear export of a variety of protein and RNA substrates. (biologists.org)
  • PML and Sp100 proteins are associated with nuclear domains, known as nuclear dots (NDs). (rupress.org)
  • 1999 ). SUMO-1 modification of the acute promyelocytic leukaemia protein PML: implications for nuclear organisation. (biologists.org)
  • Serine-arginine-rich (SR) proteins are a family of non-small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (non-snRNP) splicing factors that are highly conserved throughout the eukaryotes. (asm.org)
  • Protein phosphatase 1 and phosphatase 1 nuclear targeting subunit-dependent regulation of DNA-dependent protein kinase and non-homologous end joining. (abcam.com)
  • The predominant component of PODs/ND10 is the PML protein and upon E4orf3 manifestation PML is definitely redistributed into nuclear track-like constructions (7 10 A subset of the Mre11 complex localizes to PODs/ND10 (24 25 39 and the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 proteins will also be redistributed into track structures upon manifestation of the Ad5 E4orf3 protein (35). (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • Thus, active p53 does not inhibit the growth of adenovirus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Excess of APOC1 protein does inhibit the hepatic clearance of VLDL remnant particles, whereas excess of apoE leads to a hampered extra-hepatic lipolysis of VLDL triglyceride. (tudelft.nl)
  • Ad early regulatory proteins from E4 inhibit the DNA damage sensor complex, which is composed of the Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1 proteins. (miamioh.edu)
  • Our laboratory established that when oxygen is available, pVHL targets for destruction another protein called hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). (dana-farber.org)
  • As SRPK-dependent herpes simplex virus (HSV) splicing and SRPK-mediated phosphorylation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein have been reported ( 4 , 25 , 33 ), it is reasonable to expect that SR proteins and SRPK might be suitable targets for therapeutic modulation of various viral infections. (asm.org)
  • These features are used by the viral regulatory protein Rep during AAV replication to process the double-stranded intermediates. (asm.org)
  • Over 280,000 products but you can't find the right antibody for your protein or application? (acris-antibodies.com)
  • A fluorescent confocal photomicrograph of an astrocyte from a rabbit optic nerve labeled with monoclonal glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody in conjunction with Cy3 conjugated anti-mouse IgG (H+L). (jacksonimmuno.com)
  • It is likely that in many cases relocalization inactivates target proteins to produce 11. (elsevier.com)
  • Purification and Propeties of a Second Antiviral Protein from Phytolacca americana which inactivates Eukaryotic Ribosomes," Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 200(2): 418-425, 1980. (patentgenius.com)
  • Potential advantages of a full cDNA versus a mini-gene include: maintaining structural-functional protein domains, evading protein misfolding, and avoiding novel epitopes that could be immunogenic. (plos.org)
  • He was a medical oncology clinical fellow at Dana-Farber and a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Dr. David Livingston, where he began his studies of tumor suppressor proteins. (dana-farber.org)
  • The long-term goal of this work is to lay the foundation for the development of new anticancer therapies based on the functions of specific tumor suppressor proteins. (dana-farber.org)
  • This protein is poorly expressed in some cancers, suggesting a tumor suppressor role. (springer.com)
  • Cytoplasmic gene expression and replication, so viral core has to carry all necessary proteins. (brainscape.com)
  • Recombinant adenoviruses provide a versatile system for gene expression studies and therapeutic applications. (pnas.org)
  • Adenovirus (Ad) has been extensively studied as a model for eukaryotic molecular biology and gene expression, and it is also an important vector for gene expression and gene therapy. (miamioh.edu)
  • 2003. Adenovirus E4-34kDa requires active proteasomes to promote late gene expression. (miamioh.edu)
  • It is a member of the genus Aviadenovirus and also referred to as Fowl Adenovirus 1 (FAdV-1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • These considerations have led to the development of conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAds) for cancer therapy ( 5 , 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1998 ). The promyelocytic leukaemia gene product (PML) forms stable complexes with the retinoblastoma protein. (biologists.org)
  • Ad genomes are linear DNA molecules with attached terminal proteins. (miamioh.edu)
  • These activities interfere with E4 mutant viral DNA replication by mechanisms that are not yet understood, and result in end-to-end ligation of viral genomes when they are "repaired" to form concatemers. (miamioh.edu)
  • The immunization of macaques induced vigorous humoral responses to adenovirus capsid and nonstructural proteins, although, surprisingly, not against HPV L1. (asm.org)
  • Two HPV vaccines have been licensed: Gardasil and Cervarix, which both contain HPV16 and HPV 18 virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of recombinant L1, the HPV major capsid protein. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, gene transfer of full-length dysferlin protein in dysferlin deficient mice resulted in expression levels sufficient to correct functional deficits in the diaphragm and importantly in skeletal muscle membrane repair. (plos.org)
  • In these mice the plasma lipid levels are positively correlated with the relative amount of APOE 3-Leiden protein on the VLDL particle. (tudelft.nl)
  • The E4 gene products are involved in the metabolism of virus messenger RNA and provide functions that promote virus DNA replication and shut-off of host protein synthesis. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • Studies in recent years have identified E2F as an important downstream target of the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of growth regulatory proteins, and it appears that Rb exerts its growth regulatory function at least in part by regulating E2F activity ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Hepatic GK activity is acutely controlled by the action of the GK regulatory protein (GKRP). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The vast majority of transport receptors are members of a conserved family of homologous proteins known as importins or exportins, and collectively known as karyopherins (reviewed by Conti and Izaurralde, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • Herein we show for the first time in vivo that homologous recombination following AAV5.DYSF gene transfer leads to the production of full length transcript and protein. (plos.org)