Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the addition of a phosphate group, usually on serine, threonine or tyrosine residues, which can play a role in their regulation, function, interaction with other molecules, and localization within the cell.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.
Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
DNA viruses producing malignant tumors. Of the six major groupings of DNA viruses four contain members which are actually or potentially oncogenic: the Adenoviridae, the Herpesviridae, the Papovaviridae, and the Poxviridae.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.
A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, the transparent membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye, resulting in symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, burning, discharge, and increased sensitivity to light.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.

Development of porcine adenovirus-3 as an expression vector. (1/211)

Porcine adenovirus-3 (PAV-3) was developed as an expression vector using homologous recombination in Escherichia coli BJ 5183. As a prerequisite, the complete genome of PAV-3 was first introduced as a PacI restriction fragment into a bacterial plasmid. The plasmid, when PacI restricted and transfected into swine testicular cells, produces an infectious virus. The potential of this procedure was demonstrated by the construction of several PAV-3 recombinants. Part of the E3 region, which is nonessential for virus replication under cell culture conditions, was identified and deleted from the virus genome. The gene for glycoprotein D (gD) of pseudorabies virus (PRV), which elicits PRV-neutralizing antibodies in pigs, was cloned and expressed from the E3 region of PAV-3. A 50 kDa polypeptide was identified in recombinant PAV-3-infected cell lysates by immunoprecipitation assays using gD-specific monoclonal antibodies. In another experiment, a region between the right inverted terminal repeat and the promoter of the E4 region was used to clone and express the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene under the control of SV40 immediate early promoter. CAT gene expression was observed irrespective of the orientation of the CAT gene. These results indicate that the helper-independent recombinant PAV-3 could be used as an expression vector and has potential as a recombinant vaccine vector in pigs.  (+info)

Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4-induced dephosphorylation inhibits E1A activation of the E2 promoter and E2F-1-mediated transactivation independently of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. (2/211)

Previous studies have shown that the cell cycle-regulated E2F transcription factor is subjected to both positive and negative control by phosphorylation. Here we show that in transient transfection experiments, adenovirus E1A activation of the viral E2 promoter is abrogated by coexpression of the viral E4 open reading frame 4 (E4-ORF4) protein. This effect does not to require the retinoblastoma protein that previously has been shown to regulate E2F activity. The inhibitory activity of E4-ORF4 appears to be specific because E4-ORF4 had little effect on, for example, E4-ORF6/7 transactivation of the E2 promoter. We further show that the repressive effect of E4-ORF4 on E2 transcription works mainly through the E2F DNA-binding sites in the E2 promoter. In agreement with this, we find that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2F-1/DP-1-mediated transactivation. We also show that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2 mRNA expression during virus growth. E4-ORF4 has previously been shown to bind to and activate the cellular protein phosphatase 2A. The inhibitory effect of E4-ORF4 was relieved by okadaic acid, which inhibits protein phosphatase 2A activity, suggesting that E4-ORF4 represses E2 transcription by inducing transcription factor dephosphorylation. Interestingly, E4-ORF4 did not inhibit the transactivation capacity of a Gal4-E2F hybrid protein. Instead, E4-ORF4 expression appears to result in reduced stability of E2F/DNA complexes.  (+info)

Novel role for E4 region genes in protection of adenovirus vectors from lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (3/211)

Target cells infected with adenovirus (Ad) vectors containing intact E3 and E4 regions were found to be relatively resistant to lysis by Ad-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Elements from both the E3 and the E4 regions were required for this effect, leading to the identification of a previously undescribed role for E4 gene products in resistance to cytolysis.  (+info)

Distinct regulation of p53 and p73 activity by adenovirus E1A, E1B, and E4orf6 proteins. (4/211)

Multiple adenovirus (Ad) early proteins have been shown to inhibit transcription activation by p53 and thereby to alter its normal biological functioning. Since these Ad proteins affect the activity of p53 via different mechanisms, we examined whether this inhibition is target gene specific. In addition, we analyzed whether the same Ad early proteins have a comparable effect on transcription activation by the recently identified p53 homologue p73. Our results show that the large E1B proteins very efficiently inhibited the activity of p53 on the Bax, p21(Waf1), cyclin G, and MDM2 reporter constructs but had no effect on the activation of the same reporter constructs by p73, with the exception of some inhibition of the Bax promoter by Ad12 E1B. The repressive effect of the E1A proteins on p53 activity is less than that seen with the large E1B proteins, but the E1A proteins inhibit the activity of both p53 and p73. We could not detect significant inhibition of p53 functions by E4orf6, but a clear repression of the transcription activation by p73 by this Ad early protein was observed. In addition, we found that stable expression of the Ad5 E1A and that of the E1B protein both caused increased p73 protein expression. The large E1B and the E4orf6 proteins together do not target the p73 protein for rapid degradation after adenoviral infection, as has previously been found for the p53 protein, probably because the large E1B protein does not interact with p73. Our results suggest that the p53 and p73 proteins are both inactivated after Ad infection and transformation but via distinct mechanisms.  (+info)

E1(-)E4(+) adenoviral gene transfer vectors function as a "pro-life" signal to promote survival of primary human endothelial cells. (5/211)

Although endothelial cells are quiescent and long-lived in vivo, when they are removed from blood vessels and cultured in vitro they die within days to weeks. In studies of the interaction of E1(-)E4(+) replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) vectors and human endothelium, the cells remained quiescent and were viable for prolonged periods. Evaluation of these cultures showed that E1(-)E4(+) Ad vectors provide an "antiapoptotic" signal that, in association with an increase in the ratio of Bcl2 to Bax levels, induces the endothelial cells to enter a state of "suspended animation," remaining viable for at least 30 days, even in the absence of serum and growth factors. Although the mechanisms initiating these events are unclear, the antiapoptoic signal requires the presence of E4 genes in the vector genome, suggesting that one or more E4 open reading frames of subgroup C Ad initiate a "pro-life" program that modifies cultured endothelial cells to survive for prolonged periods.  (+info)

An arginine-faced amphipathic alpha helix is required for adenovirus type 5 e4orf6 protein function. (6/211)

A region in the carboxy terminus of the protein encoded by open reading frame 6 in early region 4 (E4orf6) of adenovirus type 5 was determined to be required for directing nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein and for efficient virus replication. A peptide encompassing this region, corresponding to amino acids 239 through 255 of the E4orf6 protein, was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The peptide showed evidence of self-interaction and displayed the characteristic spectra of an amphipathic alpha helix in the helix-stabilizing solvent trifluoroethanol. Disrupting the integrity of this alpha helix in the E4orf6 protein by proline substitutions or by removing amino acids 241 through 250 abolished its ability to direct the E1B 55-kDa protein to the nucleus when both proteins were transiently expressed in HeLa cells. Expression of E4orf6 variants that failed to direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein failed to enhance replication of the E4 mutant virus, dl1014, whereas expression of the wild-type E4orf6 protein restored growth of dl1014 to near-wild-type levels. These results suggest that the E4orf6 protein contains an arginine-faced, amphipathic alpha helix that is critical for a functional interaction with the E1B 55-kDa protein in the cell and for the function of the E4orf6 protein during a lytic infection.  (+info)

The role of human TFIIB in transcription start site selection in vitro and in vivo. (7/211)

The general transcription factor TFIIB plays a crucial role in selecting the transcription initiation site in yeast. We have analyzed the human homologs of TFIIB mutants that have previously been shown to affect transcription start site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the distinct mechanisms of transcription start site selection observed in S. cerevisiae and humans, the role of TFIIB in this process is similar. However, unlike their yeast counterparts, the human mutants do not show a severe defect in supporting either basal transcription or transcription stimulated by an acidic activator in vitro. Transient transfection analysis revealed that, in addition to a role in transcription start site selection, human TFIIB residue Arg-66 performs a critical function in vivo that is bypassed in vitro. Furthermore, although correct transcription start site selection is dependent upon an arginine residue at position 66 in human TFIIB, innate function in vivo is determined by the charge of the residue alone. Our observations raise questions as to the evolutionary conservation of TFIIB and uncover an additional function for TFIIB that is required in vivo but can be bypassed in vitro.  (+info)

Generation of an adenovirus vector lacking E1, e2a, E3, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3. (8/211)

Toxicity and immunity associated with adenovirus backbone gene expression is an important hurdle to overcome for successful gene therapy. Recent efforts to improve adenovirus vectors for in vivo use have focused on the sequential deletion of essential early genes. Adenovirus vectors have been constructed with the E1 gene deleted and with this deletion in combination with an E2a, E2b, or E4 deletion. We report here a novel vector (Av4orf3nBg) lacking E1, E2a, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3 (ORF3) and expressing a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. This vector was generated by transfection of a plasmid carrying the full-length vector sequence into A30.S8 cells that express E1 and E2a but not E4. Production was subsequently performed in an E1-, E2a-, and E4-complementing cell line. We demonstrated with C57BL/6 mice that the Av4orf3nBg vector effected gene transfer with an efficiency comparable to that of the Av3nBg (wild-type E4) vector but that the former exhibited a higher level of beta-galactosidase expression. This observation suggests that E4 ORF3 alone is able to enhance RNA levels from the beta-galactosidase gene when the Rous sarcoma virus promoter is used to drive transgene expression in the mouse liver. In addition, we observed less liver toxicity in mice injected with the Av4orf3nBg vector than those injected with the Av3nBg vector at a comparable DNA copy number per cell. This study suggests that the additional deletion of E4 in an E1 and E2a deletion background may be beneficial in decreasing immunogenicity and improving safety and toxicity profiles, as well as increasing transgene capacity and expression for liver-directed gene therapy.  (+info)

Adenovirus E1A proteins are the early region 1A proteins encoded by adenoviruses, a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections in humans. The E1A proteins play a crucial role in the regulation of the viral life cycle and host cell response. They function as transcriptional regulators, interacting with various cellular proteins to modulate gene expression and promote viral replication.

There are two major E1A protein isoforms, 289R and 243R, which differ in their amino-terminal regions due to alternative splicing of the E1A mRNA. The 289R isoform contains an additional 46 amino acids at its N-terminus compared to the 243R isoform. Both isoforms share conserved regions, including a strong transcriptional activation domain and a binding domain for cellular proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, such as retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and p300/CBP.

The interaction between E1A proteins and pRb is particularly important because it leads to the release of E2F transcription factors, which are essential for the initiation of viral DNA replication. By binding and inactivating pRb, E1A proteins promote the expression of cell cycle-regulated genes that facilitate viral replication in dividing cells.

In summary, adenovirus E1A proteins are multifunctional regulatory proteins involved in the control of viral gene expression and host cell response during adenovirus infection. They manipulate cellular transcription factors and pathways to create a favorable environment for viral replication.

Adenoviruses, Human: A group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory illnesses, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and croup, in humans. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye), cystitis (bladder infection), and gastroenteritis (stomach and intestinal infection).

Human adenoviruses are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that belong to the family Adenoviridae. There are more than 50 different types of human adenoviruses, which can be classified into seven species (A-G). Different types of adenoviruses tend to cause specific illnesses, such as respiratory or gastrointestinal infections.

Human adenoviruses are highly contagious and can spread through close personal contact, respiratory droplets, or contaminated surfaces. They can also be transmitted through contaminated water sources. Some people may become carriers of the virus and experience no symptoms but still spread the virus to others.

Most human adenovirus infections are mild and resolve on their own within a few days to a week. However, some types of adenoviruses can cause severe illness, particularly in people with weakened immune systems, such as infants, young children, older adults, and individuals with HIV/AIDS or organ transplants.

There are no specific antiviral treatments for human adenovirus infections, but supportive care, such as hydration, rest, and fever reduction, can help manage symptoms. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not sharing personal items like towels or utensils.

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. The E4 proteins of adenoviruses are non-structural proteins encoded by the early region 4 (E4) of the adenovirus genome. These proteins play important roles during the viral life cycle, including regulation of viral transcription, DNA replication, and host cell response.

There are several E4 proteins expressed by adenoviruses, depending on the serotype, but some of the well-characterized ones include E4 ORF6, E4 ORF3, and E4 ORF1/2. These proteins have been shown to interact with various host cell factors and viral proteins to modulate the intracellular environment for efficient viral replication.

For example, E4 ORF6 interacts with the host cell protein p53 to inhibit its transcriptional activity, which helps to prevent premature apoptosis of infected cells. E4 ORF3 is involved in the regulation of viral DNA replication and also interacts with cellular proteins to modulate the host cell cycle. E4 ORF1/2 forms a complex that functions as a helicase during viral DNA replication.

Overall, adenovirus E4 proteins are important regulators of the viral life cycle and play a significant role in the pathogenesis of adenovirus infections.

Adenovirus E1B proteins are proteins encoded by the early region 1B (E1B) gene of adenoviruses. There are two main E1B proteins, E1B-55kD and E1B-19kD, which play crucial roles during the viral life cycle and in tumorigenesis.

1. E1B-55kD: This protein is a potent transcriptional repressor that inhibits the expression of host cell genes involved in DNA damage response, apoptosis, and antiviral defense mechanisms. By doing so, it creates a favorable environment for viral replication and evades the host's immune surveillance. E1B-55kD also interacts with p53, a tumor suppressor protein, leading to its degradation and further contributing to oncogenesis.

2. E1B-19kD: This protein is involved in blocking apoptosis or programmed cell death, which would otherwise be triggered by the host's defense mechanisms during viral infection. E1B-19kD forms a complex with another adenoviral protein, E4orf6, and together they inhibit the activity of several pro-apoptotic proteins, thus promoting viral replication and persistence in the host cell.

In summary, Adenovirus E1B proteins are essential for the viral life cycle by counteracting host defense mechanisms, particularly through the inhibition of apoptosis and transcriptional repression. Additionally, their interaction with crucial cellular regulatory proteins like p53 contributes to oncogenic transformation in certain contexts.

Adenovirus early proteins refer to the viral proteins that are expressed by adenoviruses during the early phase of their replication cycle. Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that can cause various symptoms, such as respiratory illness, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis.

The adenovirus replication cycle is divided into two phases: the early phase and the late phase. During the early phase, which occurs shortly after the virus infects a host cell, the viral genome is transcribed and translated into early proteins that help to prepare the host cell for viral replication. These early proteins play various roles in regulating the host cell's transcription, translation, and DNA replication machinery, as well as inhibiting the host cell's antiviral response.

There are several different adenovirus early proteins that have been identified, each with its own specific function. For example, E1A is an early protein that acts as a transcriptional activator and helps to activate the expression of other viral genes. E1B is another early protein that functions as a DNA-binding protein and inhibits the host cell's apoptosis (programmed cell death) response.

Overall, adenovirus early proteins are critical for the efficient replication of the virus within host cells, and understanding their functions can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of viral infection and pathogenesis.

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. The E3 region of the adenovirus genome encodes several proteins that play important roles in the virus's life cycle and its interactions with the host cell.

The E3 proteins include:

1. E3-10.4K: This protein helps to prevent the infected cell from undergoing programmed cell death (apoptosis), allowing the virus to continue replicating.
2. E3-14.7K: This protein inhibits the host cell's antiviral response by blocking the activation of certain immune signaling pathways.
3. E3-14.5K: This protein helps to prevent the infected cell from presenting viral antigens on its surface, which would otherwise alert the immune system to the infection.
4. E3-19K: This protein helps to stabilize the virion and protect it from being broken down by host cell enzymes.
5. E3-gp19K: This protein is involved in the transport of newly synthesized viral proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum, where they can be assembled into new virions.
6. E3-RID: This protein helps to protect the virus from being neutralized by antibodies produced by the host's immune system.

Overall, the E3 proteins play important roles in helping the adenovirus evade the host's immune response and establish a successful infection.

Adenoviridae is a family of viruses that includes many species that can cause various types of illnesses in humans and animals. These viruses are non-enveloped, meaning they do not have a lipid membrane, and have an icosahedral symmetry with a diameter of approximately 70-90 nanometers.

The genome of Adenoviridae is composed of double-stranded DNA, which contains linear chromosomes ranging from 26 to 45 kilobases in length. The family is divided into five genera: Mastadenovirus, Aviadenovirus, Atadenovirus, Siadenovirus, and Ichtadenovirus.

Human adenoviruses are classified under the genus Mastadenovirus and can cause a wide range of illnesses, including respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and upper respiratory tract infections. Some serotypes have also been associated with more severe diseases such as hemorrhagic cystitis, hepatitis, and meningoencephalitis.

Adenoviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, fecal-oral route, or by contact with contaminated surfaces. They can also be spread through contaminated water sources. Infections caused by adenoviruses are usually self-limiting, but severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care.

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and fevers in humans. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye), croup, and stomach and intestinal inflammation (gastroenteritis). Adenovirus infections are most common in children, but people of any age can be infected. The viruses spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through contact with contaminated surfaces or objects. There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, and most people recover on their own within a week or two. However, some people may develop more severe illness, particularly those with weakened immune systems. Preventive measures include frequent hand washing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. Some adenoviruses can also cause serious diseases in people with compromised immune systems, such as transplant recipients and people undergoing cancer treatment. There are vaccines available to prevent some types of adenovirus infections in military recruits, who are at higher risk due to close living quarters and stress on the immune system from basic training.

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. The E2 proteins of adenoviruses are involved in the replication of the viral genome. Specifically, E2 consists of three proteins: E2a, E2b, and E2c.

E2a is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that binds to the origin of replication on the viral genome and recruits other viral and cellular proteins necessary for replication. E2b is a DNA polymerase processivity factor that interacts with the viral DNA polymerase and increases its processivity, allowing for efficient synthesis of new viral DNA. E2c is a helicase that unwinds the double-stranded DNA at the replication fork, enabling the synthesis of new strands.

Together, these proteins play a critical role in the replication of adenoviruses and are important targets for the development of antiviral therapies.

Adenoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by members of the Adenoviridae family of viruses, which are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. These viruses can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. In humans, adenovirus infections can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific type of virus and the age and immune status of the infected individual.

Common manifestations of adenovirus infections in humans include:

1. Respiratory illness: Adenoviruses are a common cause of respiratory tract infections, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and croup. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye) and pharyngoconjunctival fever.
2. Gastrointestinal illness: Some types of adenoviruses can cause diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, particularly in children and immunocompromised individuals.
3. Genitourinary illness: Adenoviruses have been associated with urinary tract infections, hemorrhagic cystitis, and nephritis.
4. Eye infections: Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis is a severe form of conjunctivitis caused by certain adenovirus types.
5. Central nervous system infections: Adenoviruses have been linked to meningitis, encephalitis, and other neurological disorders, although these are rare.

Transmission of adenoviruses typically occurs through respiratory droplets, contaminated surfaces, or contaminated water. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, but supportive care can help alleviate symptoms. In severe cases or in immunocompromised patients, antiviral therapy may be considered.

Adenovirus E1 proteins are the earliest expressed and most critical proteins in the replication cycle of adenoviruses. The "E" stands for "early," indicating that these proteins are produced before the viral DNA begins to replicate. The E1 proteins play a crucial role in regulating the viral life cycle, altering cellular processes to support efficient viral replication, and inhibiting the host's antiviral responses.

The adenovirus E1 proteins are divided into two groups: E1A and E1B.

1. E1A proteins: These proteins are involved in transactivating various viral and cellular promoters, which leads to the expression of early and late viral genes. They also interact with several cellular proteins to alter the host cell cycle, promote cell growth, and inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). E1A proteins are essential for efficient viral replication and can transform cells in culture, contributing to adenovirus-induced tumorigenesis in certain animal models.

2. E1B proteins: These proteins have multiple functions during the viral life cycle. E1B 55kDa protein is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis and contributes to efficient viral replication by preventing premature cell death. It also interacts with several cellular proteins, including tumor suppressor p53, to modulate their functions. The E1B 19kDa protein, on the other hand, is a DNA-binding protein that plays a role in viral mRNA processing and export from the nucleus.

Together, adenovirus E1 proteins are essential for successful viral replication and manipulate host cellular processes to create a favorable environment for viral propagation. Understanding their functions has contributed significantly to our knowledge of viral pathogenesis and cancer biology.

Oncogene proteins, viral, are cancer-causing proteins that are encoded by the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of certain viruses. These viral oncogenes can be acquired through infection with retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), and certain types of papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses.

When these viruses infect host cells, they can integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome, leading to the expression of viral oncogenes. These oncogenes may then cause uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in the formation of tumors or cancers. The process by which viruses contribute to cancer development is complex and involves multiple steps, including the alteration of signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Examples of viral oncogenes include the v-src gene found in the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), which causes chicken sarcoma, and the E6 and E7 genes found in human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are associated with cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. Understanding viral oncogenes and their mechanisms of action is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat virus-associated cancers.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

A mastadenovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Adenoviridae and the genus Mastadenovirus. These viruses are known to infect mammals, including humans, and can cause a variety of diseases such as respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis.

Human mastadenoviruses are typically associated with mild illnesses, although some strains can cause more severe disease, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. The virus is usually transmitted through respiratory droplets or contact with contaminated surfaces.

Mastadenoviruses are non-enveloped viruses, which means they do not have a lipid membrane surrounding their protein capsid. They contain a double-stranded DNA genome that encodes for several proteins involved in the virus's replication and assembly. The virus replicates in the nucleus of infected cells and can cause cell lysis or transformation, leading to various clinical manifestations.

Overall, mastadenoviruses are a significant cause of human and animal diseases, and understanding their biology and epidemiology is essential for developing effective prevention and treatment strategies.

Canine adenoviruses are a type of virus that can infect dogs and cause two distinct diseases: Infectious Canine Hepatitis (type 1) and Canine Respiratory Disease Complex (type 2).

Canine adenovirus type 1 primarily affects the liver, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, it can lead to liver failure and death.

Canine adenovirus type 2 mainly causes respiratory infections, including kennel cough, which is characterized by a harsh, hacking cough and nasal discharge. It can also cause pneumonia in some cases.

Both types of canine adenoviruses are highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected dogs or their feces and urine. Vaccination is available to protect against both forms of the virus and is recommended for all dogs.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Cell transformation, viral refers to the process by which a virus causes normal cells to become cancerous or tumorigenic. This occurs when the genetic material of the virus integrates into the DNA of the host cell and alters its regulation, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Some viruses known to cause cell transformation include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and certain types of herpesviruses.

E1A-associated protein, also known as p300, is a transcriptional coactivator that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression. It was initially identified as a protein that interacts with the E1A protein of adenovirus.

The p300 protein contains several functional domains, including a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain, which can modify histone proteins and alter chromatin structure to promote gene transcription. It also has a bromodomain that recognizes acetylated lysine residues on histones and other proteins, further enhancing its ability to regulate gene expression.

In addition to its role in transcriptional regulation, p300 is involved in various cellular processes such as DNA repair, differentiation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of p300 function has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, neurodevelopmental disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

Retinoblastoma Protein (pRb or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle and preventing uncontrolled cell growth. It is encoded by the RB1 gene, located on chromosome 13. The retinoblastoma protein functions as a regulatory checkpoint in the cell cycle, preventing cells from progressing into the S phase (DNA synthesis phase) until certain conditions are met.

When pRb is in its active state, it binds to and inhibits the activity of E2F transcription factors, which promote the expression of genes required for DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Phosphorylation of pRb by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) leads to the release of E2F factors, allowing them to activate their target genes and drive the cell into S phase.

Mutations in the RB1 gene can result in the production of a nonfunctional or reduced amount of pRb protein, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and an increased risk of developing retinoblastoma, a rare form of eye cancer, as well as other types of tumors.

Antigens are substances that trigger an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies. Antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules found on the surface of cells or viruses.

Viral antigens are antigens that are present on the surface of viruses. When a virus infects a cell, it may display viral antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This can alert the immune system to the presence of the virus and trigger an immune response.

Tumor antigens are antigens that are present on the surface of cancer cells. These antigens may be unique to the cancer cells, or they may be similar to antigens found on normal cells. Tumor antigens can be recognized by the immune system as foreign, leading to an immune response against the cancer cells.

It is important to note that not all viral infections lead to cancer, and not all tumors are caused by viruses. However, some viruses have been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancer. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with an increased risk of cervical, anal, and oral cancers. In these cases, the virus may introduce viral antigens into the cells it infects, leading to an altered presentation of tumor antigens on the surface of the infected cells. This can potentially trigger an immune response against both the viral antigens and the tumor antigens, which may help to prevent or slow the growth of the cancer.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Transcription factor DP1 (TFDP1) is not a specific medical term, but it is a term used in molecular biology and genetics. TFDP1 is a protein that functions as a transcription factor, which means it helps regulate the expression of genes by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the rate of transcription of those genes into messenger RNA (mRNA).

TFDP1 typically forms a complex with another transcription factor called E2F, and this complex plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle and promoting cell division. TFDP1 can act as both a transcriptional activator and repressor, depending on which E2F family member it binds to and the specific context of the cell.

Mutations or dysregulation of TFDP1 have been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer. For example, overexpression of TFDP1 has been observed in several types of cancer, such as breast, lung, and prostate cancer, and is often associated with poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, understanding the role of TFDP1 in gene regulation and cellular processes may provide insights into the development of new therapeutic strategies for treating human diseases.

Adenoviruses, Porcine:

A group of viruses that primarily infect pigs and cause a variety of symptoms, such as respiratory illness, diarrhea, vomiting, and reproductive failure. They belong to the family Adenoviridae and are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. Porcine adenoviruses can be classified into several serotypes, with different serotypes causing different disease manifestations. Some porcine adenoviruses have been associated with economic losses in the swine industry due to their impact on growth and mortality rates. They are primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route and can also be found in contaminated environments. Currently, there are no specific treatments for porcine adenovirus infections, and control measures focus on preventing transmission through good biosecurity practices.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

An Aviadenovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family *Adenoviridae* and the genus *Aviadenovirus*. These viruses primarily infect avian species, such as birds, and can cause a variety of diseases. The genome of an Aviadenovirus is double-stranded DNA. Some species of Aviadenoviruses have been known to cause respiratory and reproductive problems in poultry, leading to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. It's important to note that Aviadenoviruses are not known to infect or cause disease in humans.

Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1 (RBP1) is not a medical term itself, but it is a protein that has been studied in the context of cancer research, including retinoblastoma. According to scientific and medical literature, RBP1 is a protein that binds to the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), which is a tumor suppressor protein. The binding of RBP1 to pRb can influence the activity of this tumor suppressor and contribute to the regulation of the cell cycle and cell growth.

In the case of retinoblastoma, mutations in the RB1 gene, which encodes for the pRb protein, have been identified as a cause of this rare eye cancer in children. However, the role of RBP1 in retinoblastoma or other cancers is not well-defined and requires further research to fully understand its implications in disease development and potential therapeutic targets.

Genetic therapy, also known as gene therapy, is a medical intervention that involves the use of genetic material, such as DNA or RNA, to treat or prevent diseases. It works by introducing functional genes into cells to replace missing or faulty ones caused by genetic disorders or mutations. The introduced gene is incorporated into the recipient's genome, allowing for the production of a therapeutic protein that can help manage the disease symptoms or even cure the condition.

There are several approaches to genetic therapy, including:

1. Replacing a faulty gene with a healthy one
2. Inactivating or "silencing" a dysfunctional gene causing a disease
3. Introducing a new gene into the body to help fight off a disease, such as cancer

Genetic therapy holds great promise for treating various genetic disorders, including cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, and certain types of cancer. However, it is still an evolving field with many challenges, such as efficient gene delivery, potential immune responses, and ensuring the safety and long-term effectiveness of the therapy.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

E2F transcription factors are a family of proteins that play crucial roles in the regulation of the cell cycle, DNA repair, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). These factors bind to specific DNA sequences called E2F responsive elements, located in the promoter regions of target genes. They can act as either transcriptional activators or repressors, depending on which E2F family member is involved, the presence of co-factors, and the phase of the cell cycle.

The E2F family consists of eight members, divided into two groups based on their functions: activator E2Fs (E2F1, E2F2, and E2F3a) and repressor E2Fs (E2F3b, E2F4, E2F5, E2F6, and E2F7). Activator E2Fs promote the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression, DNA replication, and repair. Repressor E2Fs, on the other hand, inhibit the transcription of these same genes as well as genes involved in differentiation and apoptosis.

Dysregulation of E2F transcription factors has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer. Overexpression or hyperactivation of activator E2Fs can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, while loss of function or inhibition of repressor E2Fs can result in impaired differentiation and increased susceptibility to malignancies. Therefore, understanding the roles and regulation of E2F transcription factors is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies against cancer and other diseases associated with cell cycle dysregulation.

Fowl adenovirus A, also known as Fowl aviadenovirus serotype 1 or Fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (FAdV-A), is a species of DNA virus that belongs to the family Adenoviridae and genus Aviadenovirus. It primarily infects birds, particularly chickens, causing various clinical manifestations such as inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) and hydropericardium syndrome (HPS). The virus is transmitted horizontally through the fecal-oral route and can be found in the environment for extended periods. FAdV-A infection can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to high mortality rates, especially in young chickens.

Gene transfer techniques, also known as gene therapy, refer to medical procedures where genetic material is introduced into an individual's cells or tissues to treat or prevent diseases. This can be achieved through various methods:

1. **Viral Vectors**: The most common method uses modified viruses, such as adenoviruses, retroviruses, or lentiviruses, to carry the therapeutic gene into the target cells. The virus infects the cell and inserts the new gene into the cell's DNA.

2. **Non-Viral Vectors**: These include methods like electroporation (using electric fields to create pores in the cell membrane), gene guns (shooting gold particles coated with DNA into cells), or liposomes (tiny fatty bubbles that can enclose DNA).

3. **Direct Injection**: In some cases, the therapeutic gene can be directly injected into a specific tissue or organ.

The goal of gene transfer techniques is to supplement or replace a faulty gene with a healthy one, thereby correcting the genetic disorder. However, these techniques are still largely experimental and have their own set of challenges, including potential immune responses, issues with accurate targeting, and risks of mutations or cancer development.

Transcriptional activation is the process by which a cell increases the rate of transcription of specific genes from DNA to RNA. This process is tightly regulated and plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including development, differentiation, and response to environmental stimuli.

Transcriptional activation occurs when transcription factors (proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences) interact with the promoter region of a gene and recruit co-activator proteins. These co-activators help to remodel the chromatin structure around the gene, making it more accessible for the transcription machinery to bind and initiate transcription.

Transcriptional activation can be regulated at multiple levels, including the availability and activity of transcription factors, the modification of histone proteins, and the recruitment of co-activators or co-repressors. Dysregulation of transcriptional activation has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Trans-activators are proteins that increase the transcriptional activity of a gene or a set of genes. They do this by binding to specific DNA sequences and interacting with the transcription machinery, thereby enhancing the recruitment and assembly of the complexes needed for transcription. In some cases, trans-activators can also modulate the chromatin structure to make the template more accessible to the transcription machinery.

In the context of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection, the term "trans-activator" is often used specifically to refer to the Tat protein. The Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication of HIV by activating the transcription of the viral genome. It does this by binding to a specific RNA structure called the Trans-Activation Response Element (TAR) located at the 5' end of all nascent HIV transcripts, and recruiting cellular cofactors that enhance the processivity and efficiency of RNA polymerase II, leading to increased viral gene expression.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. It is a DNA virus that has been extensively studied in laboratory settings due to its ability to transform cells and cause tumors in animals. In fact, SV40 was discovered as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines that were prepared using rhesus monkey kidney cells in the 1950s and 1960s.

SV40 is not typically associated with human disease, but there has been some concern that exposure to the virus through contaminated vaccines or other means could increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as mesothelioma and brain tumors. However, most studies have failed to find a consistent link between SV40 infection and cancer in humans.

The medical community generally agrees that SV40 is not a significant public health threat, but researchers continue to study the virus to better understand its biology and potential impact on human health.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

A "cell line, transformed" is a type of cell culture that has undergone a stable genetic alteration, which confers the ability to grow indefinitely in vitro, outside of the organism from which it was derived. These cells have typically been immortalized through exposure to chemical or viral carcinogens, or by introducing specific oncogenes that disrupt normal cell growth regulation pathways.

Transformed cell lines are widely used in scientific research because they offer a consistent and renewable source of biological material for experimentation. They can be used to study various aspects of cell biology, including signal transduction, gene expression, drug discovery, and toxicity testing. However, it is important to note that transformed cells may not always behave identically to their normal counterparts, and results obtained using these cells should be validated in more physiologically relevant systems when possible.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

Tumor suppressor protein p53, also known as p53 or tumor protein p53, is a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer development and maintaining genomic stability. It does so by regulating the cell cycle and acting as a transcription factor for various genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death), DNA repair, and cell senescence (permanent cell growth arrest).

In response to cellular stress, such as DNA damage or oncogene activation, p53 becomes activated and accumulates in the nucleus. Activated p53 can then bind to specific DNA sequences and promote the transcription of target genes that help prevent the proliferation of potentially cancerous cells. These targets include genes involved in cell cycle arrest (e.g., CDKN1A/p21), apoptosis (e.g., BAX, PUMA), and DNA repair (e.g., GADD45).

Mutations in the TP53 gene, which encodes p53, are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers. These mutations often lead to a loss or reduction of p53's tumor suppressive functions, allowing cancer cells to proliferate uncontrollably and evade apoptosis. As a result, p53 has been referred to as "the guardian of the genome" due to its essential role in preventing tumorigenesis.

Oncolytic virotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses genetically modified viruses to selectively infect and destroy cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells unharmed. The virus used in oncolytic virotherapy can replicate inside cancer cells, causing them to rupture and release new viruses that can then infect nearby cancer cells.

The process continues in a cascading manner, leading to the destruction of many cancer cells in the treated area. Additionally, some oncolytic viruses can also stimulate an immune response against cancer cells, further enhancing their therapeutic effect. Oncolytic virotherapy is still an experimental treatment approach and is being studied in clinical trials for various types of cancer.

Activating transcription factors (ATFs) are a family of proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and promoting the initiation of transcription. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including development, differentiation, and stress response. ATFs can form homodimers or heterodimers with other transcription factors, such as cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and bind to the consensus sequence called the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the promoter region of target genes. The activation of ATFs can be regulated through various post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, which can alter their DNA-binding ability and transcriptional activity.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens refer to specific proteins expressed by polyomaviruses that can induce cellular transformation and lead to the development of cancer. These antigens are called large T antigen (T-Ag) and small t antigen (t-Ag). They manipulate key cellular processes, such as cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation.

The large T antigen is a multifunctional protein that plays a crucial role in viral replication and transformation. It has several domains with different functions:

1. Origin binding domain (OBD): Binds to the viral origin of replication, initiating DNA synthesis.
2. Helicase domain: Unwinds double-stranded DNA during replication.
3. DNA binding domain: Binds to specific DNA sequences and acts as a transcriptional regulator.
4. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding domain: Recruits PP1 to promote viral DNA replication and inhibit host cell defense mechanisms.
5. p53-binding domain: Binds and inactivates the tumor suppressor protein p53, promoting cell cycle progression and preventing apoptosis.
6. Rb-binding domain: Binds to and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), leading to deregulation of the cell cycle and uncontrolled cell growth.

The small t antigen shares a common N-terminal region with large T antigen but lacks some functional domains, such as the OBD and helicase domain. Small t antigen can also bind to and inactivate PP1 and pRb, contributing to transformation. However, its primary role is to stabilize large T antigen by preventing its proteasomal degradation.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens are associated with various human cancers, such as Merkel cell carcinoma (caused by Merkel cell polyomavirus) and some forms of brain tumors, sarcomas, and lymphomas (associated with simian virus 40).

Oncolytic viruses are a type of viruses that preferentially infect and kill cancer cells, while leaving normal cells relatively unharmed. These viruses can replicate inside the cancer cells, causing them to rupture and ultimately leading to their death. The release of new virus particles from the dead cancer cells allows the infection to spread to nearby cancer cells, resulting in a potential therapeutic effect.

Oncolytic viruses can be genetically modified to enhance their ability to target specific types of cancer cells and to increase their safety and efficacy. They may also be used in combination with other cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, to improve treatment outcomes. Oncolytic virus therapy is a promising area of cancer research, with several clinical trials underway to evaluate its potential benefits for patients with various types of cancer.

Keratoconjunctivitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of both the cornea (the clear, outer layer at the front of the eye) and the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye).

The condition can cause symptoms such as redness, pain, sensitivity to light, watery eyes, and a gritty or burning sensation in the eyes. Keratoconjunctivitis can be caused by various factors, including viral or bacterial infections, allergies, or environmental irritants like dust, smoke, or chemical fumes.

Treatment for keratoconjunctivitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications such as antibiotics, antivirals, or anti-inflammatory agents to reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms. In some cases, artificial tears or lubricants may also be recommended to help keep the eyes moist and comfortable.

Genetic transduction is a process in molecular biology that describes the transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another by a viral vector called a bacteriophage (or phage). In this process, the phage infects one bacterium and incorporates a portion of the bacterial DNA into its own genetic material. When the phage then infects a second bacterium, it can transfer the incorporated bacterial DNA to the new host. This can result in the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of traits such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors between bacteria.

There are two main types of transduction: generalized and specialized. In generalized transduction, any portion of the bacterial genome can be packaged into the phage particle, leading to a random assortment of genetic material being transferred. In specialized transduction, only specific genes near the site where the phage integrates into the bacterial chromosome are consistently transferred.

It's important to note that genetic transduction is not to be confused with transformation or conjugation, which are other mechanisms of HGT in bacteria.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Retinoblastoma-like protein p107, also known as RBL1 or p107, is a tumor suppressor protein that belongs to the family of "pocket proteins." This protein is encoded by the RBL1 gene in humans. It plays a crucial role in regulating the cell cycle and preventing uncontrolled cell growth, which can lead to cancer.

The p107 protein is structurally similar to the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and functions in a related manner. Both proteins interact with E2F transcription factors to control the expression of genes required for DNA replication and cell division. When the p107 protein is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinases during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, it releases E2F transcription factors, allowing them to activate the transcription of target genes necessary for S phase entry and DNA replication.

Retinoblastoma-like protein p107 is often inactivated or mutated in various human cancers, including retinoblastoma, small cell lung cancer, and certain types of sarcomas. Loss of p107 function can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation. However, it's important to note that the role of p107 in cancer development is complex and may depend on its interactions with other proteins and signaling pathways.

CREB-binding protein (CBP) is a transcription coactivator that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression. It is called a "coactivator" because it works together with other proteins, such as transcription factors, to enhance the process of gene transcription. CBP is so named because it can bind to the cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein, which is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of various genes in response to different signals within cells.

CBP has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, which means it can add acetyl groups to histone proteins around which DNA is wound. This modification loosens the chromatin structure, making it more accessible for transcription factors and other proteins involved in gene expression. As a result, CBP acts as a global regulator of gene expression, influencing various cellular processes such as development, differentiation, and homeostasis.

Mutations in the CBP gene have been associated with several human diseases, including Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by growth retardation, mental deficiency, and distinct facial features. Additionally, CBP has been implicated in cancer, as its dysregulation can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

Chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase is an enzyme that is encoded by the cat gene in certain bacteria. This enzyme is responsible for adding acetyl groups to chloramphenicol, which is an antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. When chloramphenicol is acetylated by this enzyme, it becomes inactivated and can no longer bind to the ribosome and prevent bacterial protein synthesis.

Bacteria that are resistant to chloramphenicol often have a plasmid-borne cat gene, which encodes for the production of Chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase. This enzyme allows the bacteria to survive in the presence of chloramphenicol by rendering it ineffective. The transfer of this plasmid between bacteria can also confer resistance to other susceptible strains.

In summary, Chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase is an enzyme that inactivates chloramphenicol by adding acetyl groups to it, making it an essential factor in bacterial resistance to this antibiotic.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

DNA replication is the biological process by which DNA makes an identical copy of itself during cell division. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows genetic information to be passed down from one generation of cells to the next. During DNA replication, each strand of the double helix serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. This results in the creation of two identical DNA molecules. The enzymes responsible for DNA replication include helicase, which unwinds the double helix, and polymerase, which adds nucleotides to the growing strands.

Papillomavirus E7 proteins are small, viral regulatory proteins encoded by the E7 gene in papillomaviruses (HPVs). These proteins play a crucial role in the life cycle of HPVs and are associated with the development of various types of cancer, most notably cervical cancer.

The E7 protein functions as a transcriptional activator and can bind to and degrade the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), which is a tumor suppressor. By binding to and inactivating pRb, E7 promotes the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation.

E7 proteins are also capable of inducing genetic alterations, such as chromosomal instability and DNA damage, which can contribute to the development of cancer. Additionally, E7 has been shown to inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death) and promote angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), further contributing to tumor growth and progression.

Overall, Papillomavirus E7 proteins are important oncogenic factors that play a central role in the development of HPV-associated cancers.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

E2F1 is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors, which are involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Specifically, E2F1 plays a role as a transcriptional activator, binding to specific DNA sequences and promoting the expression of genes required for the G1/S transition of the cell cycle.

In more detail, E2F1 forms a complex with a retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in the G0 and early G1 phases of the cell cycle. When pRb is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinases during the late G1 phase, E2F1 is released and can then bind to its target DNA sequences and activate transcription of genes involved in DNA replication and cell cycle progression.

However, if E2F1 is overexpressed or activated inappropriately, it can also promote apoptosis, making it a key player in both cell proliferation and cell death pathways. Dysregulation of E2F1 has been implicated in the development of various human cancers, including breast, lung, and prostate cancer.

Repressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein in molecular biology that suppress the transcription of specific genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) by binding to DNA. They function as part of gene regulation processes, often working in conjunction with an operator region and a promoter region within the DNA molecule. Repressor proteins can be activated or deactivated by various signals, allowing for precise control over gene expression in response to changing cellular conditions.

There are two main types of repressor proteins:

1. DNA-binding repressors: These directly bind to specific DNA sequences (operator regions) near the target gene and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene into mRNA.
2. Allosteric repressors: These bind to effector molecules, which then cause a conformational change in the repressor protein, enabling it to bind to DNA and inhibit transcription.

Repressor proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress response, by controlling gene expression patterns in cells.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Oncogenes are genes that have the potential to cause cancer. They can do this by promoting cell growth and division (cellular proliferation), preventing cell death (apoptosis), or enabling cells to invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). Oncogenes can be formed when normal genes, called proto-oncogenes, are mutated or altered in some way. This can happen as a result of exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, or through inherited genetic mutations. When activated, oncogenes can contribute to the development of cancer by causing cells to divide and grow in an uncontrolled manner.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "KB cells" is not a widely recognized or established term in medical or scientific communities. It's possible that "KB cells" may refer to a specific cell line used in scientific research. KB cells are a type of cell line derived from a human carcinoma (a type of cancer) of the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose). They are often used in studies related to cancer, virology, and other areas of biomedical research.

However, without more context or information, it's difficult to provide a more precise definition of "KB cells." If you have more information about where you encountered this term or what specific context it was used in, I may be able to give a more accurate answer.

Viral conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye (sclera) and the inner surface of the eyelids, caused by a viral infection. The condition is often characterized by redness, watering, gritty or burning sensation in the eyes, and a clear, watery discharge. In some cases, it may also cause swelling of the eyelids and light sensitivity.

The most common viruses that can cause conjunctivitis are adenoviruses, which are responsible for about 65-90% of all viral conjunctivitis cases. Other viruses that can cause the condition include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus (which causes chickenpox and shingles), and picornaviruses.

Viral conjunctivitis is highly contagious and can spread easily through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated surfaces. It typically affects one eye first and then spreads to the other eye within a few days. The condition usually resolves on its own within 1-2 weeks, although in some cases it may take longer to clear up completely.

There is no specific treatment for viral conjunctivitis, and antibiotics are not effective against viral infections. However, cool compresses and artificial tears can help alleviate symptoms such as discomfort and dryness. It is important to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding touching the eyes, to prevent the spread of the virus to others.

Cell cycle proteins are a group of regulatory proteins that control the progression of the cell cycle, which is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell leading to its division and duplication. These proteins can be classified into several categories based on their functions during different stages of the cell cycle.

The major groups of cell cycle proteins include:

1. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs): CDKs are serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate key transitions in the cell cycle. They require binding to a regulatory subunit called cyclin to become active. Different CDK-cyclin complexes are activated at different stages of the cell cycle.
2. Cyclins: Cyclins are a family of regulatory proteins that bind and activate CDKs. Their levels fluctuate throughout the cell cycle, with specific cyclins expressed during particular phases. For example, cyclin D is important for the G1 to S phase transition, while cyclin B is required for the G2 to M phase transition.
3. CDK inhibitors (CKIs): CKIs are regulatory proteins that bind to and inhibit CDKs, thereby preventing their activation. CKIs can be divided into two main families: the INK4 family and the Cip/Kip family. INK4 family members specifically inhibit CDK4 and CDK6, while Cip/Kip family members inhibit a broader range of CDKs.
4. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C): APC/C is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. During the cell cycle, APC/C regulates the metaphase to anaphase transition and the exit from mitosis by targeting securin and cyclin B for degradation.
5. Other regulatory proteins: Several other proteins play crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, such as p53, a transcription factor that responds to DNA damage and arrests the cell cycle, and the polo-like kinases (PLKs), which are involved in various aspects of mitosis.

Overall, cell cycle proteins work together to ensure the proper progression of the cell cycle, maintain genomic stability, and prevent uncontrolled cell growth, which can lead to cancer.

Genetic enhancer elements are DNA sequences that increase the transcription of specific genes. They work by binding to regulatory proteins called transcription factors, which in turn recruit RNA polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA). This results in the activation of gene transcription and increased production of the protein encoded by that gene.

Enhancer elements can be located upstream, downstream, or even within introns of the genes they regulate, and they can act over long distances along the DNA molecule. They are an important mechanism for controlling gene expression in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner, allowing for the precise regulation of gene activity during embryonic development and throughout adult life.

It's worth noting that genetic enhancer elements are often referred to simply as "enhancers," and they are distinct from other types of regulatory DNA sequences such as promoters, silencers, and insulators.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Adenovirus vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using adenoviruses, which are a type of virus that commonly causes mild respiratory illnesses. These vaccines work by introducing a weakened or harmless form of the adenovirus to the body, which triggers an immune response and enables the body to recognize and fight off the virus if it encounters it in the future.

There are several adenovirus vaccines that have been developed and licensed for use, including those that protect against adenovirus types 4 and 7, which can cause acute respiratory disease in military recruits. Additionally, there are adenovirus vectors being studied as potential vaccine candidates for other diseases, such as COVID-19.

It's important to note that while adenovirus vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in clinical trials, like any medical treatment or prevention strategy, they may carry some risks and side effects. It's always best to consult with a healthcare provider for personalized advice on vaccination and other preventive measures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "TATA box" is actually a term used in molecular biology, specifically in the field of genetics and gene regulation. It does not have a direct medical definition.

The TATA box is a DNA sequence located in the promoter region of many genes, which serves as a binding site for certain proteins involved in the initiation of transcription. Transcription is the first step in gene expression, where the information in a gene is used to create a corresponding protein or RNA molecule.

The TATA box is typically found about 25-30 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site and has the consensus sequence "TATAAA". It is recognized by the TATA-binding protein (TBP), which is a component of the transcription factor II D (TFIIB) complex. The binding of TBP to the TATA box helps to position the RNA polymerase enzyme properly for the initiation of transcription.

While not a medical term per se, understanding the function of the TATA box and other cis-acting elements in gene regulation is important for understanding how genes are turned on and off in various cellular processes and how this can go awry in certain diseases.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

A dependovirus, also known as a dependent adenovirus or satellite adenovirus, is a type of virus that requires the presence of another virus, specifically an adenovirus, to replicate. Dependoviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded DNA genome. They cannot complete their replication cycle without the help of an adenovirus, which provides necessary functions for the dependovirus to replicate.

Dependoviruses are clinically significant because they can cause disease in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. In some cases, dependoviruses may also affect the severity and outcome of adenovirus infections. However, it is important to note that not all adenovirus infections are associated with dependovirus co-infections.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

A precipitin test is a type of immunodiagnostic test used to detect and measure the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum. The test is based on the principle of antigen-antibody interaction, where the addition of an antigen to a solution containing its corresponding antibody results in the formation of an insoluble immune complex known as a precipitin.

In this test, a small amount of the patient's serum is added to a solution containing a known antigen or antibody. If the patient has antibodies or antigens that correspond to the added reagent, they will bind and form a visible precipitate. The size and density of the precipitate can be used to quantify the amount of antibody or antigen present in the sample.

Precipitin tests are commonly used in the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergies. They can also be used in forensic science to identify biological samples. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern immunological techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and radioimmunoassays (RIAs).

The cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. It consists of four main phases: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, and M phase.

During the G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for DNA replication. In the S phase, the cell's DNA is copied, resulting in two complete sets of chromosomes. During the G2 phase, the cell continues to grow and produces more proteins and organelles necessary for cell division.

The M phase is the final stage of the cell cycle and consists of mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division). Mitosis results in two genetically identical daughter nuclei, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm and creates two separate daughter cells.

The cell cycle is regulated by various checkpoints that ensure the proper completion of each phase before progressing to the next. These checkpoints help prevent errors in DNA replication and division, which can lead to mutations and cancer.

Protein Phosphatase 2 (PP2A) is a type of serine/threonine protein phosphatase that plays a crucial role in the regulation of various cellular processes, including signal transduction, cell cycle progression, and metabolism. PP2A is a heterotrimeric enzyme composed of a catalytic subunit (C), a regulatory subunit A (A), and a variable regulatory subunit B (B). The different combinations of the B subunits confer specificity to PP2A, allowing it to regulate a diverse array of cellular targets.

PP2A is responsible for dephosphorylating many proteins that have been previously phosphorylated by protein kinases. This function is essential for maintaining the balance of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cells, which is necessary for proper protein function and cell signaling. Dysregulation of PP2A has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Acetyltransferases are a type of enzyme that facilitates the transfer of an acetyl group (a chemical group consisting of an acetyl molecule, which is made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms) from a donor molecule to a recipient molecule. This transfer of an acetyl group can modify the function or activity of the recipient molecule.

In the context of biology and medicine, acetyltransferases are important for various cellular processes, including gene expression, DNA replication, and protein function. For example, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are a type of acetyltransferase that add an acetyl group to the histone proteins around which DNA is wound. This modification can alter the structure of the chromatin, making certain genes more or less accessible for transcription, and thereby influencing gene expression.

Abnormal regulation of acetyltransferases has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is an important area of research in biomedicine.

Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified by the addition of a phosphate group (-PO3H2) onto specific amino acid residues, most commonly serine, threonine, or tyrosine. This process is known as phosphorylation and is mediated by enzymes called kinases. Phosphoproteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, metabolism, and gene expression. The addition or removal of a phosphate group can activate or inhibit the function of a protein, thereby serving as a switch to control its activity. Phosphoproteins can be detected and quantified using techniques such as Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunofluorescence.

A transgene is a segment of DNA that has been artificially transferred from one organism to another, typically between different species, to introduce a new trait or characteristic. The term "transgene" specifically refers to the genetic material that has been transferred and has become integrated into the host organism's genome. This technology is often used in genetic engineering and biomedical research, including the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural purposes or the creation of animal models for studying human diseases.

Transgenes can be created using various techniques, such as molecular cloning, where a desired gene is isolated, manipulated, and then inserted into a vector (a small DNA molecule, such as a plasmid) that can efficiently enter the host organism's cells. Once inside the cell, the transgene can integrate into the host genome, allowing for the expression of the new trait in the resulting transgenic organism.

It is important to note that while transgenes can provide valuable insights and benefits in research and agriculture, their use and release into the environment are subjects of ongoing debate due to concerns about potential ecological impacts and human health risks.

The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is a general transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the initiation of transcription of protein-coding genes in archaea and eukaryotes. It is named after its ability to bind to the TATA box, a conserved DNA sequence found in the promoter regions of many genes.

TBP is a key component of the transcription preinitiation complex (PIC), which also includes other general transcription factors and RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes. The TBP protein has a unique structure, characterized by a saddle-shaped DNA-binding domain that allows it to recognize and bind to the TATA box in a sequence-specific manner.

By binding to the TATA box, TBP helps to position the RNA polymerase II complex at the start site of transcription, allowing for the initiation of RNA synthesis. TBP also plays a role in regulating gene expression by interacting with various coactivators and corepressors that modulate its activity.

Mutations in the TBP gene have been associated with several human diseases, including some forms of cancer and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Recombinant DNA is a term used in molecular biology to describe DNA that has been created by combining genetic material from more than one source. This is typically done through the use of laboratory techniques such as molecular cloning, in which fragments of DNA are inserted into vectors (such as plasmids or viruses) and then introduced into a host organism where they can replicate and produce many copies of the recombinant DNA molecule.

Recombinant DNA technology has numerous applications in research, medicine, and industry, including the production of recombinant proteins for use as therapeutics, the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural or industrial purposes, and the development of new tools for genetic analysis and manipulation.

It's important to note that while recombinant DNA technology has many potential benefits, it also raises ethical and safety concerns, and its use is subject to regulation and oversight in many countries.

Transcription Factor TFIID is a multi-subunit protein complex that plays a crucial role in the process of transcription, which is the first step in gene expression. In eukaryotic cells, TFIID is responsible for recognizing and binding to the promoter region of genes, specifically to the TATA box, a sequence found in many promoters that acts as a binding site for the general transcription factors.

TFIID is composed of the TATA-box binding protein (TBP) and several TBP-associated factors (TAFs). The TBP subunit initially recognizes and binds to the TATA box, followed by the recruitment of other general transcription factors and RNA polymerase II to form a preinitiation complex. This complex then initiates the transcription of DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA), allowing for the production of proteins and the regulation of gene expression.

Transcription Factor TFIID is essential for accurate and efficient transcription, and its dysfunction can lead to various developmental and physiological abnormalities, including diseases such as cancer.

A Cytopathic Effect (CPE) is a visible change in the cell or group of cells due to infection by a pathogen, such as a virus. When the cytopathic effect is caused specifically by a viral infection, it is referred to as a "Viral Cytopathic Effect" (VCPE).

The VCPE can include various changes in the cell's morphology, size, and structure, such as rounding, shrinkage, multinucleation, inclusion bodies, and formation of syncytia (multinucleated giant cells). These changes are often used to identify and characterize viruses in laboratory settings.

The VCPE is typically observed under a microscope after the virus has infected cell cultures, and it can help researchers determine the type of virus, the degree of infection, and the effectiveness of antiviral treatments. The severity and timing of the VCPE can vary depending on the specific virus and the type of cells that are infected.

Proto-oncogene proteins are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival under physiological conditions.

When proto-oncogene proteins undergo mutations or aberrations in their expression levels, they can transform into oncogenic forms, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. These altered proteins are then referred to as oncogene products or oncoproteins. Oncogenic mutations can occur due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and aging.

Examples of proto-oncogene proteins include:

1. Ras proteins: Involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Activating mutations in Ras genes are found in various human cancers.
2. Myc proteins: Regulate gene expression related to cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and metabolism. Overexpression of Myc proteins is associated with several types of cancer.
3. EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor): A transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR are linked to various malignancies, such as lung cancer and glioblastoma.
4. Src family kinases: Intracellular tyrosine kinases that regulate signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Dysregulation of Src family kinases is implicated in several types of cancer.
5. Abl kinases: Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and stress responses. Aberrant activation of Abl kinases, as seen in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Understanding the roles of proto-oncogene proteins and their dysregulation in cancer development is essential for developing targeted cancer therapies that aim to inhibit or modulate these aberrant signaling pathways.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Helper viruses, also known as "auxiliary" or "satellite" viruses, are defective viruses that depend on the assistance of a second virus, called a helper virus, to complete their replication cycle. They lack certain genes that are essential for replication, and therefore require the helper virus to provide these functions.

Helper viruses are often found in cases of dual infection, where both the helper virus and the dependent virus infect the same cell. The helper virus provides the necessary enzymes and proteins for the helper virus to replicate, package its genome into new virions, and bud off from the host cell.

One example of a helper virus is the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which can serve as a helper virus for hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection. HDV is a defective RNA virus that requires the HBV surface antigen to form an envelope around its nucleocapsid and be transmitted to other cells. In the absence of HBV, HDV cannot replicate or cause disease.

Understanding the role of helper viruses in viral infections is important for developing effective treatments and vaccines against viral diseases.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Retinoblastoma genes, often referred to as RB1, are tumor suppressor genes that play a critical role in regulating cell growth and division. When functioning properly, these genes help prevent the development of cancer by ensuring that cells divide and grow in a controlled manner.

Mutations in the Retinoblastoma gene can lead to retinoblastoma, a rare type of eye cancer that typically affects young children. There are two types of retinoblastoma: hereditary and non-hereditary. Hereditary retinoblastoma is caused by an inherited mutation in the RB1 gene, while non-hereditary retinoblastoma is caused by a mutation that occurs spontaneously during development.

When both copies of the RB1 gene are mutated or inactivated in a retinal cell, it can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division, resulting in the formation of a tumor. Symptoms of retinoblastoma may include an unusual white pupil reflex, crossed eyes, or a lazy eye. If left untreated, retinoblastoma can spread to other parts of the body and be life-threatening.

It is important to note that mutations in the RB1 gene can also increase the risk of developing other types of cancer, such as lung, breast, and bladder cancer, later in life.

"Concatenated DNA" is a term used to describe two or more DNA molecules that are linked together in a head-to-tail fashion, forming a continuous double helix. This can occur either naturally or through laboratory manipulation. In the context of molecular biology and genetics, concatenation refers to the joining of multiple DNA fragments into one longer molecule.

Concatenated DNA molecules are often used in various applications, such as cloning large DNA sequences, constructing artificial chromosomes, or studying the recombination and repair of DNA. The process of creating concatemers (the plural form of concatener) typically involves ligating multiple copies of a DNA fragment together using an enzyme called a ligase, which forms covalent bonds between the ends of the fragments to create a single, uninterrupted molecule.

It is important to note that "DNA, concatenated" is not a formal medical term or diagnosis but rather a technical term used in molecular biology and genetics research.

Defective viruses are viruses that have lost the ability to complete a full replication cycle and produce progeny virions independently. These viruses require the assistance of a helper virus, which provides the necessary functions for replication. Defective viruses can arise due to mutations, deletions, or other genetic changes that result in the loss of essential genes. They are often non-infectious and cannot cause disease on their own, but they may interfere with the replication of the helper virus and modulate the course of infection. Defective viruses can be found in various types of viruses, including retroviruses, bacteriophages, and DNA viruses.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

"Nude mice" is a term used in the field of laboratory research to describe a strain of mice that have been genetically engineered to lack a functional immune system. Specifically, nude mice lack a thymus gland and have a mutation in the FOXN1 gene, which results in a failure to develop a mature T-cell population. This means that they are unable to mount an effective immune response against foreign substances or organisms.

The name "nude" refers to the fact that these mice also have a lack of functional hair follicles, resulting in a hairless or partially hairless phenotype. This feature is actually a secondary consequence of the same genetic mutation that causes their immune deficiency.

Nude mice are commonly used in research because their weakened immune system makes them an ideal host for transplanted tumors, tissues, and cells from other species, including humans. This allows researchers to study the behavior of these foreign substances in a living organism without the complication of an immune response. However, it's important to note that because nude mice lack a functional immune system, they must be kept in sterile conditions and are more susceptible to infection than normal mice.

DNA tumor viruses are a group of viruses that contain double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) as their genetic material and are capable of causing cancer in humans. These viruses typically infect specific cell types and can alter the normal regulation of the cell cycle, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation.

There are several families of DNA tumor viruses, including:

1. Papillomaviridae: This family includes human papillomavirus (HPV), which is associated with cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers.
2. Herpesviridae: This family includes Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is associated with Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
3. Adenoviridae: This family includes adenoviruses, which can cause respiratory infections and are associated with some rare forms of cancer.
4. Polyomaviridae: This family includes simian virus 40 (SV40) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), which are associated with certain types of cancer.
5. Hepadnaviridae: This family includes hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is associated with liver cancer.

DNA tumor viruses can cause cancer by several mechanisms, including integrating their genetic material into the host cell's DNA, expressing oncogenes that promote cell growth and division, and inhibiting tumor suppressor genes that regulate the cell cycle. Understanding how these viruses contribute to cancer development is important for developing preventative measures and treatments for virus-associated cancers.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

A conserved sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to a pattern of nucleotides (in DNA or RNA) or amino acids (in proteins) that has remained relatively unchanged over evolutionary time. These sequences are often functionally important and are highly conserved across different species, indicating strong selection pressure against changes in these regions.

In the case of protein-coding genes, the corresponding amino acid sequence is deduced from the DNA sequence through the genetic code. Conserved sequences in proteins may indicate structurally or functionally important regions, such as active sites or binding sites, that are critical for the protein's activity. Similarly, conserved non-coding sequences in DNA may represent regulatory elements that control gene expression.

Identifying conserved sequences can be useful for inferring evolutionary relationships between species and for predicting the function of unknown genes or proteins.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Beta-galactosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-galactosides into monosaccharides. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and mammals. In humans, it plays a role in the breakdown and absorption of certain complex carbohydrates, such as lactose, in the small intestine. Deficiency of this enzyme in humans can lead to a disorder called lactose intolerance. In scientific research, beta-galactosidase is often used as a marker for gene expression and protein localization studies.

Down-regulation is a process that occurs in response to various stimuli, where the number or sensitivity of cell surface receptors or the expression of specific genes is decreased. This process helps maintain homeostasis within cells and tissues by reducing the ability of cells to respond to certain signals or molecules.

In the context of cell surface receptors, down-regulation can occur through several mechanisms:

1. Receptor internalization: After binding to their ligands, receptors can be internalized into the cell through endocytosis. Once inside the cell, these receptors may be degraded or recycled back to the cell surface in smaller numbers.
2. Reduced receptor synthesis: Down-regulation can also occur at the transcriptional level, where the expression of genes encoding for specific receptors is decreased, leading to fewer receptors being produced.
3. Receptor desensitization: Prolonged exposure to a ligand can lead to a decrease in receptor sensitivity or affinity, making it more difficult for the cell to respond to the signal.

In the context of gene expression, down-regulation refers to the decreased transcription and/or stability of specific mRNAs, leading to reduced protein levels. This process can be induced by various factors, including microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation, histone modification, or DNA methylation.

Down-regulation is an essential mechanism in many physiological processes and can also contribute to the development of several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

A "reporter gene" is a type of gene that is linked to a gene of interest in order to make the expression or activity of that gene detectable. The reporter gene encodes for a protein that can be easily measured and serves as an indicator of the presence and activity of the gene of interest. Commonly used reporter genes include those that encode for fluorescent proteins, enzymes that catalyze colorimetric reactions, or proteins that bind to specific molecules.

In the context of genetics and genomics research, a reporter gene is often used in studies involving gene expression, regulation, and function. By introducing the reporter gene into an organism or cell, researchers can monitor the activity of the gene of interest in real-time or after various experimental treatments. The information obtained from these studies can help elucidate the role of specific genes in biological processes and diseases, providing valuable insights for basic research and therapeutic development.

DNA Mutational Analysis is a laboratory test used to identify genetic variations or changes (mutations) in the DNA sequence of a gene. This type of analysis can be used to diagnose genetic disorders, predict the risk of developing certain diseases, determine the most effective treatment for cancer, or assess the likelihood of passing on an inherited condition to offspring.

The test involves extracting DNA from a patient's sample (such as blood, saliva, or tissue), amplifying specific regions of interest using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then sequencing those regions to determine the precise order of nucleotide bases in the DNA molecule. The resulting sequence is then compared to reference sequences to identify any variations or mutations that may be present.

DNA Mutational Analysis can detect a wide range of genetic changes, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, deletions, duplications, and rearrangements. The test is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations to provide a comprehensive assessment of a patient's genetic profile.

It is important to note that not all mutations are pathogenic or associated with disease, and the interpretation of DNA Mutational Analysis results requires careful consideration of the patient's medical history, family history, and other relevant factors.

A chromosome deletion is a type of genetic abnormality that occurs when a portion of a chromosome is missing or deleted. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that contain our genetic material, which is organized into genes.

Chromosome deletions can occur spontaneously during the formation of reproductive cells (eggs or sperm) or can be inherited from a parent. They can affect any chromosome and can vary in size, from a small segment to a large portion of the chromosome.

The severity of the symptoms associated with a chromosome deletion depends on the size and location of the deleted segment. In some cases, the deletion may be so small that it does not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, larger deletions can lead to developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, physical abnormalities, and various medical conditions.

Chromosome deletions are typically detected through a genetic test called karyotyping, which involves analyzing the number and structure of an individual's chromosomes. Other more precise tests, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and identify the specific location and size of the deletion.

3T3 cells are a type of cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. The name "3T3" is derived from the fact that these cells were developed by treating mouse embryo cells with a chemical called trypsin and then culturing them in a flask at a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius.

Specifically, 3T3 cells are a type of fibroblast, which is a type of cell that is responsible for producing connective tissue in the body. They are often used in studies involving cell growth and proliferation, as well as in toxicity tests and drug screening assays.

One particularly well-known use of 3T3 cells is in the 3T3-L1 cell line, which is a subtype of 3T3 cells that can be differentiated into adipocytes (fat cells) under certain conditions. These cells are often used in studies of adipose tissue biology and obesity.

It's important to note that because 3T3 cells are a type of immortalized cell line, they do not always behave exactly the same way as primary cells (cells that are taken directly from a living organism). As such, researchers must be careful when interpreting results obtained using 3T3 cells and consider any potential limitations or artifacts that may arise due to their use.

Retinoblastoma-like protein p130, also known as RBL2 or p130, is a tumor suppressor protein that belongs to the family of retinoblastoma proteins (pRb, p107, and p130). It is encoded by the RBL2 gene located on chromosome 12q13. This protein plays crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis.

The primary function of p130 is to negatively control the transition from the G1 phase to the S phase of the cell cycle. It does so by forming a complex with E2F4 or E2F5 transcription factors, which results in the repression of genes required for DNA replication and cell cycle progression. The activity of p130 is regulated through phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) during the cell cycle. When p130 is hypophosphorylated, it can bind to E2F4/E2F5 and repress target gene transcription; however, when p130 gets phosphorylated by CDKs, it releases from E2F4/E2F5, leading to the activation of cell cycle-promoting genes.

Retinoblastoma-like protein p130 is often inactivated or downregulated in various human cancers, including retinoblastoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. This loss of function contributes to uncontrolled cell growth and tumorigenesis. Therefore, understanding the role of p130 in cell cycle regulation and its dysfunction in cancer provides valuable insights into potential therapeutic targets for cancer treatment.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

An enterovirus is a type of virus that primarily infects the gastrointestinal tract. There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses such as EV-D68 and EV-A71. These viruses are typically spread through close contact with an infected person, or by consuming food or water contaminated with the virus.

While many people infected with enteroviruses may not experience any symptoms, some may develop mild to severe illnesses such as hand, foot and mouth disease, herpangina, meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and paralysis (in case of poliovirus). Infection can occur in people of all ages, but young children are more susceptible to infection and severe illness.

Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently with soap and water, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not sharing food or drinks with someone who is ill. There are also vaccines available to prevent poliovirus infection.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules bound to hist proteins, forming chromosomes. The nuclear membrane, also known as the nuclear envelope, consists of two lipid bilayers perforated by nuclear pores that regulate the transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

The cell nucleus has several structures with essential functions:

1. Chromosomes: These are thread-like structures made up of DNA, hist proteins, and RNA. They carry genetic information in the form of genes and are responsible for inheritance.
2. Nucleolus: A prominent structure within the nucleus, the nucleolus is the site of ribosome biogenesis. It assembles ribosomal subunits, which are then transported to the cytoplasm for protein synthesis.
3. Nuclear matrix/nuclear lamina: A network of proteins that provides structural support and anchorage for chromosomes, the nucleolus, and other nuclear components. It is located directly inside the inner nuclear membrane.
4. Nuclear pores: These are large protein complexes embedded in the nuclear membrane that regulate the exchange of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm. They allow the passage of ions, small molecules, and proteins while preventing the uncontrolled release of genetic material.
5. Heterochromatin and euchromatin: These are different forms of chromatin (chromosomal material) with distinct functions. Heterochromatin is highly condensed and transcriptionally inactive, whereas euchromatin is less condensed and more accessible for gene transcription.

Together, these structures within the cell nucleus play crucial roles in maintaining genome stability, regulating gene expression, and ensuring proper cell function.

P300 and CREB binding protein (CBP) are both transcriptional coactivators that play crucial roles in regulating gene expression. They function by binding to various transcription factors and modifying the chromatin structure to allow for the recruitment of the transcriptional machinery. The P300-CBP complex is essential for many cellular processes, including development, differentiation, and oncogenesis.

P300-CBP transcription factors refer to a family of proteins that include both p300 and CBP, as well as their various isoforms and splice variants. These proteins share structural and functional similarities and are often referred to together due to their overlapping roles in transcriptional regulation.

The P300-CBP complex plays a key role in the P300-CBP-mediated signal integration, which allows for the coordinated regulation of gene expression in response to various signals and stimuli. Dysregulation of P300-CBP transcription factors has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodevelopmental disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

In summary, P300-CBP transcription factors are a family of proteins that play crucial roles in regulating gene expression through their ability to bind to various transcription factors and modify the chromatin structure. Dysregulation of these proteins has been implicated in several diseases, making them important targets for therapeutic intervention.

Alcohol oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH. These enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of alcohols and other organic compounds in living organisms.

The most well-known example of an alcohol oxidoreductase is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is responsible for the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in the liver during the metabolism of alcoholic beverages. Other examples include aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH).

These enzymes are important targets for the development of drugs used to treat alcohol use disorder, as inhibiting their activity can help to reduce the rate of ethanol metabolism and the severity of its effects on the body.

Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, a thin, clear membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye. The condition can cause redness, itching, burning, tearing, discomfort, and a gritty feeling in the eyes. It can also result in a discharge that can be clear, yellow, or greenish.

Conjunctivitis can have various causes, including bacterial or viral infections, allergies, irritants (such as smoke, chlorine, or contact lens solutions), and underlying medical conditions (like dry eye or autoimmune disorders). Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include antibiotics, antihistamines, anti-inflammatory medications, or warm compresses.

It is essential to maintain good hygiene practices, like washing hands frequently and avoiding touching or rubbing the eyes, to prevent spreading conjunctivitis to others. If you suspect you have conjunctivitis, it's recommended that you consult an eye care professional for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

E2F2 is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors, which are involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and differentiation. Specifically, E2F2 forms a complex with a retinoblastoma protein (pRb) to regulate the expression of genes required for DNA replication and cell cycle progression. When pRb is phosphorylated and inactivated by cyclin-dependent kinases during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, E2F2 is released and can activate the transcription of its target genes, promoting the transition from G1 to S phase. In addition to its role in the cell cycle, E2F2 has also been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and differentiation in certain contexts.

Cyclins are a family of regulatory proteins that play a crucial role in the cell cycle, which is the series of events that take place as a cell grows, divides, and produces two daughter cells. They are called cyclins because their levels fluctuate or cycle during the different stages of the cell cycle.

Cyclins function as subunits of serine/threonine protein kinase complexes, forming an active enzyme that adds phosphate groups to other proteins, thereby modifying their activity. This post-translational modification is a critical mechanism for controlling various cellular processes, including the regulation of the cell cycle.

There are several types of cyclins (A, B, D, and E), each of which is active during specific phases of the cell cycle:

1. Cyclin D: Expressed in the G1 phase, it helps to initiate the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) that promote progression through the G1 restriction point.
2. Cyclin E: Active during late G1 and early S phases, it forms a complex with CDK2 to regulate the transition from G1 to S phase, where DNA replication occurs.
3. Cyclin A: Expressed in the S and G2 phases, it associates with both CDK2 and CDK1 to control the progression through the S and G2 phases and entry into mitosis (M phase).
4. Cyclin B: Active during late G2 and M phases, it partners with CDK1 to regulate the onset of mitosis by controlling the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, chromosome condensation, and spindle formation.

The activity of cyclins is tightly controlled through several mechanisms, including transcriptional regulation, protein degradation, and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events. Dysregulation of cyclin expression or function can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation, which are hallmarks of cancer.

Repetitive sequences in nucleic acid refer to repeated stretches of DNA or RNA nucleotide bases that are present in a genome. These sequences can vary in length and can be arranged in different patterns such as direct repeats, inverted repeats, or tandem repeats. In some cases, these repetitive sequences do not code for proteins and are often found in non-coding regions of the genome. They can play a role in genetic instability, regulation of gene expression, and evolutionary processes. However, certain types of repeat expansions have been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders and other human diseases.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Proto-oncogene proteins, such as c-Jun, are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). When proto-oncogenes undergo mutations or are overexpressed, they can become oncogenes, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and leading to cancer.

The c-Jun protein is a component of the AP-1 transcription factor complex, which regulates gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences. It is involved in various cellular responses such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Dysregulation of c-Jun has been implicated in several types of cancer, including lung, breast, and colon cancers.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Atadenovirus is a genus of viruses in the family *Parvoviridae*, which infect a wide range of animals including reptiles, birds, and mammals. These viruses are non-enveloped, meaning they do not have a lipid membrane, and have a single-stranded DNA genome. Atadenoviruses can cause various diseases in their hosts, depending on the specific species of the virus and the animal it infects. Some atadenoviruses have been associated with gastrointestinal illnesses, respiratory infections, and liver disease in animals. However, more research is needed to fully understand the impact of atadenovirus infections in various animal populations.

An oligonucleotide probe is a short, single-stranded DNA or RNA molecule that contains a specific sequence of nucleotides designed to hybridize with a complementary sequence in a target nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). These probes are typically 15-50 nucleotides long and are used in various molecular biology techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, microarray analysis, and blotting methods.

Oligonucleotide probes can be labeled with various reporter molecules, like fluorescent dyes or radioactive isotopes, to enable the detection of hybridized targets. The high specificity of oligonucleotide probes allows for the precise identification and quantification of target nucleic acids in complex biological samples, making them valuable tools in diagnostic, research, and forensic applications.

Luciferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of their substrates, leading to the emission of light. This bioluminescent process is often associated with certain species of bacteria, insects, and fish. The term "luciferase" comes from the Latin word "lucifer," which means "light bearer."

The most well-known example of luciferase is probably that found in fireflies, where the enzyme reacts with a compound called luciferin to produce light. This reaction requires the presence of oxygen and ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which provides the energy needed for the reaction to occur.

Luciferases have important applications in scientific research, particularly in the development of sensitive assays for detecting gene expression and protein-protein interactions. By labeling a protein or gene of interest with luciferase, researchers can measure its activity by detecting the light emitted during the enzymatic reaction. This allows for highly sensitive and specific measurements, making luciferases valuable tools in molecular biology and biochemistry.

The YY1 transcription factor, also known as Yin Yang 1, is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression. It functions as a transcriptional repressor or activator, depending on the context and target gene. YY1 can bind to DNA at specific sites, known as YY1-binding sites, and it interacts with various other proteins to form complexes that modulate the activity of RNA polymerase II, which is responsible for transcribing protein-coding genes.

YY1 has been implicated in a wide range of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, differentiation, and DNA damage response. Mutations or dysregulation of YY1 have been associated with various human diseases, such as cancer, neurodevelopmental disorders, and heart disease.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Papillomaviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that primarily infect the epithelial cells of mammals, birds, and reptiles. The name "papillomavirus" comes from the Latin word "papilla," which means nipple or small projection, reflecting the characteristic wart-like growths (papillomas) that these viruses can cause in infected host tissues.

The family Papillomaviridae includes more than 200 distinct papillomavirus types, with each type being defined by its specific DNA sequence. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are the most well-studied members of this family, are associated with a range of diseases, from benign warts and lesions to malignant cancers such as cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers.

Papillomaviruses have a circular, double-stranded DNA genome that is approximately 8 kbp in size. The viral genome encodes several early (E) proteins involved in viral replication and oncogenesis, as well as late (L) proteins that form the viral capsid. The life cycle of papillomaviruses is tightly linked to the differentiation program of their host epithelial cells, with productive infection occurring primarily in the differentiated layers of the epithelium.

In summary, Papillomaviridae is a family of DNA viruses that infect epithelial cells and can cause a variety of benign and malignant diseases. Human papillomaviruses are a significant public health concern due to their association with several cancer types.

p53 is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a protein responsible for controlling cell growth and division. The p53 protein plays a crucial role in preventing the development of cancer by regulating the cell cycle and activating DNA repair processes when genetic damage is detected. If the damage is too severe to be repaired, p53 can trigger apoptosis, or programmed cell death, to prevent the propagation of potentially cancerous cells. Mutations in the TP53 gene, which encodes the p53 protein, are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers and are often associated with a poor prognosis.

RNA Polymerase III is a type of enzyme that carries out the transcription of DNA into RNA, specifically functioning in the synthesis of small, stable RNAs. These RNAs include 5S rRNA, transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and other small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). The enzyme recognizes specific promoter sequences in DNA and catalyzes the formation of phosphodiester bonds between ribonucleotides to create a complementary RNA strand. RNA Polymerase III is essential for protein synthesis and cell survival, and its activity is tightly regulated within the cell.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Tumor suppressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein that helps control the cell cycle and prevent cells from dividing and growing in an uncontrolled manner. They work to inhibit tumor growth by preventing the formation of tumors or slowing down their progression. These proteins can repair damaged DNA, regulate gene expression, and initiate programmed cell death (apoptosis) if the damage is too severe for repair.

Mutations in tumor suppressor genes, which provide the code for these proteins, can lead to a decrease or loss of function in the resulting protein. This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, leading to the formation of tumors and cancer. Examples of tumor suppressor proteins include p53, Rb (retinoblastoma), and BRCA1/2.

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Polyomavirus is a type of double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the family Polyomaviridae. These viruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with an icosahedral symmetry. They have a relatively simple structure and contain a circular genome.

Polyomaviruses are known to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. In humans, polyomaviruses can cause asymptomatic infections or lead to the development of various diseases, depending on the age and immune status of the host.

There are several types of human polyomaviruses, including:

* JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV), which can cause severe disease in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients. JCV is associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare but often fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, while BKV can cause nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis.
* Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), which is associated with Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare but aggressive form of skin cancer.
* Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSV), which is associated with trichodysplasia spinulosa, a rare skin disorder that affects immunocompromised individuals.

Polyomaviruses are typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected bodily fluids. Once inside the host, they can establish latency in various tissues and organs, where they may remain dormant for long periods of time before reactivating under certain conditions, such as immunosuppression.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. There are currently no vaccines available to prevent polyomavirus infections, although research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against some of the more pathogenic human polyomaviruses.

Proto-oncogene proteins, such as c-Myc, are crucial regulators of normal cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). When proto-oncogenes undergo mutations or alterations in their regulation, they can become overactive or overexpressed, leading to the formation of oncogenes. Oncogenic forms of c-Myc contribute to uncontrolled cell growth and division, which can ultimately result in cancer development.

The c-Myc protein is a transcription factor that binds to specific DNA sequences, influencing the expression of target genes involved in various cellular processes, such as:

1. Cell cycle progression: c-Myc promotes the expression of genes required for the G1 to S phase transition, driving cells into the DNA synthesis and division phase.
2. Metabolism: c-Myc regulates genes associated with glucose metabolism, glycolysis, and mitochondrial function, enhancing energy production in rapidly dividing cells.
3. Apoptosis: c-Myc can either promote or inhibit apoptosis, depending on the cellular context and the presence of other regulatory factors.
4. Differentiation: c-Myc generally inhibits differentiation by repressing genes that are necessary for specialized cell functions.
5. Angiogenesis: c-Myc can induce the expression of pro-angiogenic factors, promoting the formation of new blood vessels to support tumor growth.

Dysregulation of c-Myc is frequently observed in various types of cancer, making it an important therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

Cytoplasm is the material within a eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) that lies between the nuclear membrane and the cell membrane. It is composed of an aqueous solution called cytosol, in which various organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles are suspended. Cytoplasm also contains a variety of dissolved nutrients, metabolites, ions, and enzymes that are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and transport. It is where most of the cell's metabolic activities take place, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the cell.

Histone Acetyltransferases (HATs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression. They function by adding acetyl groups to specific lysine residues on the N-terminal tails of histone proteins, which make up the structural core of nucleosomes - the fundamental units of chromatin.

The process of histone acetylation neutralizes the positive charge of lysine residues, reducing their attraction to the negatively charged DNA backbone. This leads to a more open and relaxed chromatin structure, facilitating the access of transcription factors and other regulatory proteins to the DNA, thereby promoting gene transcription.

HATs are classified into two main categories: type A HATs, which are primarily found in the nucleus and associated with transcriptional activation, and type B HATs, which are located in the cytoplasm and participate in chromatin assembly during DNA replication and repair. Dysregulation of HAT activity has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, neurodevelopmental disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a protein that plays an essential role in the process of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells. It functions as a cofactor for DNA polymerase delta, enhancing its activity during DNA synthesis. PCNA forms a sliding clamp around DNA, allowing it to move along the template and coordinate the actions of various enzymes involved in DNA metabolism.

PCNA is often used as a marker for cell proliferation because its levels increase in cells that are actively dividing or have been stimulated to enter the cell cycle. Immunostaining techniques can be used to detect PCNA and determine the proliferative status of tissues or cultures. In this context, 'proliferating' refers to the rapid multiplication of cells through cell division.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

RNA splicing is a post-transcriptional modification process in which the non-coding sequences (introns) are removed and the coding sequences (exons) are joined together in a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule. This results in a continuous mRNA sequence that can be translated into a single protein. Alternative splicing, where different combinations of exons are included or excluded, allows for the creation of multiple proteins from a single gene.

Ubiquitin-protein ligases, also known as E3 ubiquitin ligases, are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the ubiquitination process. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification where ubiquitin molecules are attached to specific target proteins, marking them for degradation by the proteasome or for other regulatory functions.

Ubiquitin-protein ligases catalyze the final step in this process by binding to both the ubiquitin protein and the target protein, facilitating the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to the target protein. There are several different types of ubiquitin-protein ligases, each with their own specificity for particular target proteins and regulatory functions.

Ubiquitin-protein ligases have been implicated in various cellular processes such as protein degradation, DNA repair, signal transduction, and regulation of the cell cycle. Dysregulation of ubiquitination has been associated with several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory responses. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligases is an important area of research in biology and medicine.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "G-Box Binding Factors" is not a widely recognized or established term in medical or molecular biology literature. The "G-box" is a specific sequence of DNA that can be found in the promoter regions of many genes and serves as a binding site for various transcription factors. Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and either promoting or inhibiting the initiation of transcription.

However, "G-Box Binding Factors" is too broad since multiple transcription factors can bind to the G-box sequence. Some examples of transcription factors known to bind to the G-box include proteins like GBF (G-box binding factor), HSF (heat shock transcription factor), and bZIP (basic region/leucine zipper) proteins, among others.

If you have a more specific context or reference related to "G-Box Binding Factors," I would be happy to help provide further information based on that context.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or, less commonly, fungi.

RTIs are classified into two categories based on their location: upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). URTIs include infections of the nose, sinuses, throat, and larynx, such as the common cold, flu, laryngitis, and sinusitis. LRTIs involve the lower airways, including the bronchi and lungs, and can be more severe. Examples of LRTIs are pneumonia, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis.

Symptoms of RTIs depend on the location and cause of the infection but may include cough, congestion, runny nose, sore throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Treatment for RTIs varies depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection. For viral infections, treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, while antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial infections.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Oncogene proteins are derived from oncogenes, which are genes that have the potential to cause cancer. Normally, these genes help regulate cell growth and division, but when they become altered or mutated, they can become overactive and lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division, which is a hallmark of cancer. Oncogene proteins can contribute to tumor formation and progression by promoting processes such as cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Examples of oncogene proteins include HER2/neu, EGFR, and BCR-ABL.

CREB (Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in response to various cellular signals. CREB binds to the cAMP response element (CRE) sequence in the promoter region of target genes and regulates their transcription.

When activated, CREB undergoes phosphorylation at a specific serine residue (Ser-133), which leads to its binding to the coactivator protein CBP/p300 and recruitment of additional transcriptional machinery to the promoter region. This results in the activation of target gene transcription.

CREB is involved in various cellular processes, including metabolism, differentiation, survival, and memory formation. Dysregulation of CREB has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and mood disorders.

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates inside the living cells of an organism. It is not considered to be a living organism itself, as it lacks the necessary components to independently maintain its own metabolic functions. Viruses are typically composed of genetic material, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid. Some viruses also have an outer lipid membrane known as an envelope.

Viruses can infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea. They cause various diseases by invading the host cell, hijacking its machinery, and using it to produce numerous copies of themselves, which can then infect other cells. The resulting infection and the immune response it triggers can lead to a range of symptoms, depending on the virus and the host organism.

Viruses are transmitted through various means, such as respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, contaminated food or water, and vectors like insects. Prevention methods include vaccination, practicing good hygiene, using personal protective equipment, and implementing public health measures to control their spread.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Inclusion bodies, viral are typically described as intracellular inclusions that appear as a result of viral infections. These inclusion bodies consist of aggregates of virus-specific proteins, viral particles, or both, which accumulate inside the host cell's cytoplasm or nucleus during the replication cycle of certain viruses.

The presence of inclusion bodies can sometimes be observed through histological or cytological examination using various staining techniques. Different types of viruses may exhibit distinct morphologies and locations of these inclusion bodies, which can aid in the identification and diagnosis of specific viral infections. However, it is important to note that not all viral infections result in the formation of inclusion bodies, and their presence does not necessarily indicate active viral replication or infection.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Mutagenesis is the process by which the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism is changed in a way that can alter its phenotype, or observable traits. These changes, known as mutations, can be caused by various factors such as chemicals, radiation, or viruses. Some mutations may have no effect on the organism, while others can cause harm, including diseases and cancer. Mutagenesis is a crucial area of study in genetics and molecular biology, with implications for understanding evolution, genetic disorders, and the development of new medical treatments.

DNA restriction enzymes, also known as restriction endonucleases, are a type of enzyme that cut double-stranded DNA at specific recognition sites. These enzymes are produced by bacteria and archaea as a defense mechanism against foreign DNA, such as that found in bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).

Restriction enzymes recognize specific sequences of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA) and cleave the phosphodiester bonds between them. The recognition sites for these enzymes are usually palindromic, meaning that the sequence reads the same in both directions when facing the opposite strands of DNA.

Restriction enzymes are widely used in molecular biology research for various applications such as genetic engineering, genome mapping, and DNA fingerprinting. They allow scientists to cut DNA at specific sites, creating precise fragments that can be manipulated and analyzed. The use of restriction enzymes has been instrumental in the development of recombinant DNA technology and the Human Genome Project.

Viral pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by viral infection. It primarily affects the upper and lower respiratory tract, leading to inflammation of the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs. This results in symptoms such as cough, difficulty breathing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Common viruses that can cause pneumonia include influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and adenovirus. Viral pneumonia is often milder than bacterial pneumonia but can still be serious, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and fever reduction, while the body fights off the virus. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Haplorhini is a term used in the field of primatology and physical anthropology to refer to a parvorder of simian primates, which includes humans, apes (both great and small), and Old World monkeys. The name "Haplorhini" comes from the Greek words "haploos," meaning single or simple, and "rhinos," meaning nose.

The defining characteristic of Haplorhini is the presence of a simple, dry nose, as opposed to the wet, fleshy noses found in other primates, such as New World monkeys and strepsirrhines (which include lemurs and lorises). The nostrils of haplorhines are located close together at the tip of the snout, and they lack the rhinarium or "wet nose" that is present in other primates.

Haplorhini is further divided into two infraorders: Simiiformes (which includes apes and Old World monkeys) and Tarsioidea (which includes tarsiers). These groups are distinguished by various anatomical and behavioral differences, such as the presence or absence of a tail, the structure of the hand and foot, and the degree of sociality.

Overall, Haplorhini is a group of primates that share a number of distinctive features related to their sensory systems, locomotion, and social behavior. Understanding the evolutionary history and diversity of this group is an important area of research in anthropology, biology, and psychology.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

RNA Polymerase II is a type of enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA in eukaryotic cells. It plays a crucial role in the process of gene expression, where the information stored in DNA is used to create proteins. Specifically, RNA Polymerase II transcribes protein-coding genes to produce precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA), which is then processed into mature mRNA. This mature mRNA serves as a template for protein synthesis during translation.

RNA Polymerase II has a complex structure, consisting of multiple subunits, and it requires the assistance of various transcription factors and coactivators to initiate and regulate transcription. The enzyme recognizes specific promoter sequences in DNA, unwinds the double-stranded DNA, and synthesizes a complementary RNA strand using one of the unwound DNA strands as a template. This process results in the formation of a nascent RNA molecule that is further processed into mature mRNA for protein synthesis or other functional RNAs involved in gene regulation.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 are a group of proteins that play a role in regulating cell death (apoptosis). The c-bcl-2 gene produces one of these proteins, which helps to prevent cells from undergoing apoptosis. This protein is located on the membrane of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and it can inhibit the release of cytochrome c, a key player in the activation of caspases, which are enzymes that trigger apoptosis.

In normal cells, the regulation of c-bcl-2 protein helps to maintain a balance between cell proliferation and cell death, ensuring proper tissue homeostasis. However, when the c-bcl-2 gene is mutated or its expression is dysregulated, it can contribute to cancer development by allowing cancer cells to survive and proliferate. High levels of c-bcl-2 protein have been found in many types of cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, and carcinomas, and are often associated with a poor prognosis.

CD46, also known as membrane cofactor protein (MCP), is a regulatory protein that plays a role in the immune system and helps to protect cells from complement activation. It is found on the surface of many different types of cells in the body, including cells of the immune system such as T cells and B cells, as well as cells of various other tissues such as epithelial cells and endothelial cells.

As an antigen, CD46 is a molecule that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. It is a type I transmembrane protein that consists of four distinct domains: two short cytoplasmic domains, a transmembrane domain, and a large extracellular domain. The extracellular domain contains several binding sites for complement proteins, which helps to regulate the activation of the complement system and prevent it from damaging host cells.

CD46 has been shown to play a role in protecting cells from complement-mediated damage, modulating immune responses, and promoting the survival and proliferation of certain types of immune cells. It is also thought to be involved in the development of some autoimmune diseases and may be a target for immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer.

A sequence deletion in a genetic context refers to the removal or absence of one or more nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA or RNA) from a specific region in a DNA or RNA molecule. This type of mutation can lead to the loss of genetic information, potentially resulting in changes in the function or expression of a gene. If the deletion involves a critical portion of the gene, it can cause diseases, depending on the role of that gene in the body. The size of the deleted sequence can vary, ranging from a single nucleotide to a large segment of DNA.

Macromolecular substances, also known as macromolecules, are large, complex molecules made up of repeating subunits called monomers. These substances are formed through polymerization, a process in which many small molecules combine to form a larger one. Macromolecular substances can be naturally occurring, such as proteins, DNA, and carbohydrates, or synthetic, such as plastics and synthetic fibers.

In the context of medicine, macromolecular substances are often used in the development of drugs and medical devices. For example, some drugs are designed to bind to specific macromolecules in the body, such as proteins or DNA, in order to alter their function and produce a therapeutic effect. Additionally, macromolecular substances may be used in the creation of medical implants, such as artificial joints and heart valves, due to their strength and durability.

It is important for healthcare professionals to have an understanding of macromolecular substances and how they function in the body, as this knowledge can inform the development and use of medical treatments.

Gene deletion is a type of mutation where a segment of DNA, containing one or more genes, is permanently lost or removed from a chromosome. This can occur due to various genetic mechanisms such as homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, or other types of genomic rearrangements.

The deletion of a gene can have varying effects on the organism, depending on the function of the deleted gene and its importance for normal physiological processes. If the deleted gene is essential for survival, the deletion may result in embryonic lethality or developmental abnormalities. However, if the gene is non-essential or has redundant functions, the deletion may not have any noticeable effects on the organism's phenotype.

Gene deletions can also be used as a tool in genetic research to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes. For example, researchers may use gene deletion techniques to create genetically modified animal models to investigate the impact of gene deletion on disease progression or development.

Protein biosynthesis is the process by which cells generate new proteins. It involves two major steps: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. This RNA copy, or messenger RNA (mRNA), carries the genetic information to the site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. During translation, the mRNA is read by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which bring specific amino acids to the ribosome based on the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA. The ribosome then links these amino acids together in the correct order to form a polypeptide chain, which may then fold into a functional protein. Protein biosynthesis is essential for the growth and maintenance of all living organisms.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Zinc fingers are a type of protein structural motif involved in specific DNA binding and, by extension, in the regulation of gene expression. They are so named because of their characteristic "finger-like" shape that is formed when a zinc ion binds to the amino acids within the protein. This structure allows the protein to interact with and recognize specific DNA sequences, thereby playing a crucial role in various biological processes such as transcription, repair, and recombination of genetic material.

Regulatory sequences in nucleic acid refer to specific DNA or RNA segments that control the spatial and temporal expression of genes without encoding proteins. They are crucial for the proper functioning of cells as they regulate various cellular processes such as transcription, translation, mRNA stability, and localization. Regulatory sequences can be found in both coding and non-coding regions of DNA or RNA.

Some common types of regulatory sequences in nucleic acid include:

1. Promoters: DNA sequences typically located upstream of the gene that provide a binding site for RNA polymerase and transcription factors to initiate transcription.
2. Enhancers: DNA sequences, often located at a distance from the gene, that enhance transcription by binding to specific transcription factors and increasing the recruitment of RNA polymerase.
3. Silencers: DNA sequences that repress transcription by binding to specific proteins that inhibit the recruitment of RNA polymerase or promote chromatin compaction.
4. Intron splice sites: Specific nucleotide sequences within introns (non-coding regions) that mark the boundaries between exons (coding regions) and are essential for correct splicing of pre-mRNA.
5. 5' untranslated regions (UTRs): Regions located at the 5' end of an mRNA molecule that contain regulatory elements affecting translation efficiency, stability, and localization.
6. 3' untranslated regions (UTRs): Regions located at the 3' end of an mRNA molecule that contain regulatory elements influencing translation termination, stability, and localization.
7. miRNA target sites: Specific sequences in mRNAs that bind to microRNAs (miRNAs) leading to translational repression or degradation of the target mRNA.

COS cells are a type of cell line that are commonly used in molecular biology and genetic research. The name "COS" is an acronym for "CV-1 in Origin," as these cells were originally derived from the African green monkey kidney cell line CV-1. COS cells have been modified through genetic engineering to express high levels of a protein called SV40 large T antigen, which allows them to efficiently take up and replicate exogenous DNA.

There are several different types of COS cells that are commonly used in research, including COS-1, COS-3, and COS-7 cells. These cells are widely used for the production of recombinant proteins, as well as for studies of gene expression, protein localization, and signal transduction.

It is important to note that while COS cells have been a valuable tool in scientific research, they are not without their limitations. For example, because they are derived from monkey kidney cells, there may be differences in the way that human genes are expressed or regulated in these cells compared to human cells. Additionally, because COS cells express SV40 large T antigen, they may have altered cell cycle regulation and other phenotypic changes that could affect experimental results. Therefore, it is important to carefully consider the choice of cell line when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Gastroenteritis is not a medical condition itself, but rather a symptom-based description of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, primarily involving the stomach and intestines. It's often referred to as "stomach flu," although it's not caused by influenza virus.

Medically, gastroenteritis is defined as an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, usually resulting in symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. This condition can be caused by various factors, including viral (like rotavirus or norovirus), bacterial (such as Salmonella, Shigella, or Escherichia coli), or parasitic infections, food poisoning, allergies, or the use of certain medications.

Gastroenteritis is generally self-limiting and resolves within a few days with proper hydration and rest. However, severe cases may require medical attention to prevent complications like dehydration, which can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

"Competitive binding" is a term used in pharmacology and biochemistry to describe the behavior of two or more molecules (ligands) competing for the same binding site on a target protein or receptor. In this context, "binding" refers to the physical interaction between a ligand and its target.

When a ligand binds to a receptor, it can alter the receptor's function, either activating or inhibiting it. If multiple ligands compete for the same binding site, they will compete to bind to the receptor. The ability of each ligand to bind to the receptor is influenced by its affinity for the receptor, which is a measure of how strongly and specifically the ligand binds to the receptor.

In competitive binding, if one ligand is present in high concentrations, it can prevent other ligands with lower affinity from binding to the receptor. This is because the higher-affinity ligand will have a greater probability of occupying the binding site and blocking access to the other ligands. The competition between ligands can be described mathematically using equations such as the Langmuir isotherm, which describes the relationship between the concentration of ligand and the fraction of receptors that are occupied by the ligand.

Competitive binding is an important concept in drug development, as it can be used to predict how different drugs will interact with their targets and how they may affect each other's activity. By understanding the competitive binding properties of a drug, researchers can optimize its dosage and delivery to maximize its therapeutic effect while minimizing unwanted side effects.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Oncogenic viruses are a type of viruses that have the ability to cause cancer in host cells. They do this by integrating their genetic material into the DNA of the infected host cell, which can lead to the disruption of normal cellular functions and the activation of oncogenes (genes that have the potential to cause cancer). This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately leading to the formation of tumors. Examples of oncogenic viruses include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). It is important to note that only a small proportion of viral infections lead to cancer, and the majority of cancers are not caused by viruses.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

Tropism, in the context of medicine and biology, refers to the growth or turning movement of an organism or its parts (like cells, roots, etc.) in response to an external stimulus such as light, gravity, touch, or chemical substances. This phenomenon is most commonly observed in plants, but it can also occur in certain types of animal cells. In a medical context, the term "tropism" is sometimes used to describe the preference of a virus or other infectious agent to attach to and invade specific types of cells in the body.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a type of herpesvirus that can cause infection in humans. It is characterized by the enlargement of infected cells (cytomegaly) and is typically transmitted through close contact with an infected person, such as through saliva, urine, breast milk, or sexual contact.

CMV infection can also be acquired through organ transplantation, blood transfusions, or during pregnancy from mother to fetus. While many people infected with CMV experience no symptoms, it can cause serious complications in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing cancer treatment or those who have HIV/AIDS.

In newborns, congenital CMV infection can lead to hearing loss, vision problems, and developmental delays. Pregnant women who become infected with CMV for the first time during pregnancy are at higher risk of transmitting the virus to their unborn child. There is no cure for CMV, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the risk of complications in severe cases.

"Intralesional injection" is a medical term that refers to the administration of a medication directly into a lesion or skin abnormality, such as a tumor, cyst, or blister. This technique is used to deliver the medication directly to the site of action, allowing for higher local concentrations and potentially reducing systemic side effects. Common examples include the injection of corticosteroids into inflamed tissues to reduce swelling and pain, or the injection of chemotherapeutic agents directly into tumors to shrink them.

Regulator genes are a type of gene that regulates the activity of other genes in an organism. They do not code for a specific protein product but instead control the expression of other genes by producing regulatory proteins such as transcription factors, repressors, or enhancers. These regulatory proteins bind to specific DNA sequences near the target genes and either promote or inhibit their transcription into mRNA. This allows regulator genes to play a crucial role in coordinating complex biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism, and response to environmental stimuli.

There are several types of regulator genes, including:

1. Constitutive regulators: These genes are always active and produce regulatory proteins that control the expression of other genes in a consistent manner.
2. Inducible regulators: These genes respond to specific signals or environmental stimuli by producing regulatory proteins that modulate the expression of target genes.
3. Negative regulators: These genes produce repressor proteins that bind to DNA and inhibit the transcription of target genes, thereby reducing their expression.
4. Positive regulators: These genes produce activator proteins that bind to DNA and promote the transcription of target genes, thereby increasing their expression.
5. Master regulators: These genes control the expression of multiple downstream target genes involved in specific biological processes or developmental pathways.

Regulator genes are essential for maintaining proper gene expression patterns and ensuring normal cellular function. Mutations in regulator genes can lead to various diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and metabolic dysfunctions.

Proto-oncogenes are normal genes that are present in all cells and play crucial roles in regulating cell growth, division, and death. They code for proteins that are involved in signal transduction pathways that control various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival. When these genes undergo mutations or are activated abnormally, they can become oncogenes, which have the potential to cause uncontrolled cell growth and lead to cancer. Oncogenes can contribute to tumor formation through various mechanisms, including promoting cell division, inhibiting programmed cell death (apoptosis), and stimulating blood vessel growth (angiogenesis).

Cysteine endopeptidases are a type of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds within proteins. They are also known as cysteine proteases or cysteine proteinases. These enzymes contain a catalytic triad consisting of three amino acids: cysteine, histidine, and aspartate. The thiol group (-SH) of the cysteine residue acts as a nucleophile and attacks the carbonyl carbon of the peptide bond, leading to its cleavage.

Cysteine endopeptidases play important roles in various biological processes, including protein degradation, cell signaling, and inflammation. They are involved in many physiological and pathological conditions, such as apoptosis, immune response, and cancer. Some examples of cysteine endopeptidases include cathepsins, caspases, and calpains.

It is important to note that these enzymes require a reducing environment to maintain the reduced state of their active site cysteine residue. Therefore, they are sensitive to oxidizing agents and inhibitors that target the thiol group. Understanding the structure and function of cysteine endopeptidases is crucial for developing therapeutic strategies that target these enzymes in various diseases.

Thymidine kinase (TK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate (dTMP), a nucleotide required for DNA replication and repair. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine to thymidine monophosphate (dTMP) by transferring a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

There are two major isoforms of thymidine kinase in humans: TK1 and TK2. TK1 is primarily found in the cytoplasm of proliferating cells, such as those involved in the cell cycle, while TK2 is located mainly in the mitochondria and is responsible for maintaining the dNTP pool required for mtDNA replication and repair.

Thymidine kinase activity has been used as a marker for cell proliferation, particularly in cancer cells, which often exhibit elevated levels of TK1 due to their high turnover rates. Additionally, measuring TK1 levels can help monitor the effectiveness of certain anticancer therapies that target DNA replication.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique used to introduce specific and targeted changes to a specific DNA sequence. This process involves creating a new variant of a gene or a specific region of interest within a DNA molecule by introducing a planned, deliberate change, or mutation, at a predetermined site within the DNA sequence.

The methodology typically involves the use of molecular tools such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The resulting modified DNA molecule can then be used to transform host cells, allowing for the production of large quantities of the mutated gene or protein for further study.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a valuable tool in basic research, drug discovery, and biotechnology applications where specific changes to a DNA sequence are required to understand gene function, investigate protein structure/function relationships, or engineer novel biological properties into existing genes or proteins.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

Activating Transcription Factor 2 (ATF-2) is a protein that belongs to the family of leucine zipper transcription factors. It plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in response to various cellular stress signals, such as inflammation, DNA damage, and oxidative stress. ATF-2 can bind to specific DNA sequences called cis-acting elements, located within the promoter regions of target genes, and activate their transcription.

ATF-2 forms homodimers or heterodimers with other proteins, such as c-Jun, to regulate gene expression. The activity of ATF-2 is tightly controlled through various post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, which can modulate its DNA binding and transactivation properties.

ATF-2 has been implicated in several biological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and its dysregulation has been associated with various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

A xenograft model antitumor assay is a type of preclinical cancer research study that involves transplanting human tumor cells or tissues into an immunodeficient mouse. This model allows researchers to study the effects of various treatments, such as drugs or immune therapies, on human tumors in a living organism.

In this assay, human tumor cells or tissues are implanted into the mouse, typically under the skin or in another organ, where they grow and form a tumor. Once the tumor has established, the mouse is treated with the experimental therapy, and the tumor's growth is monitored over time. The response of the tumor to the treatment is then assessed by measuring changes in tumor size or weight, as well as other parameters such as survival rate and metastasis.

Xenograft model antitumor assays are useful for evaluating the efficacy and safety of new cancer therapies before they are tested in human clinical trials. They provide valuable information on how the tumors respond to treatment, drug pharmacokinetics, and toxicity, which can help researchers optimize dosing regimens and identify potential side effects. However, it is important to note that xenograft models have limitations, such as differences in tumor biology between mice and humans, and may not always predict how well a therapy will work in human patients.

The proteasome endopeptidase complex is a large protein complex found in the cells of eukaryotic organisms, as well as in archaea and some bacteria. It plays a crucial role in the degradation of damaged or unneeded proteins through a process called proteolysis. The proteasome complex contains multiple subunits, including both regulatory and catalytic particles.

The catalytic core of the proteasome is composed of four stacked rings, each containing seven subunits, forming a structure known as the 20S core particle. Three of these rings are made up of beta-subunits that contain the proteolytic active sites, while the fourth ring consists of alpha-subunits that control access to the interior of the complex.

The regulatory particles, called 19S or 11S regulators, cap the ends of the 20S core particle and are responsible for recognizing, unfolding, and translocating targeted proteins into the catalytic chamber. The proteasome endopeptidase complex can cleave peptide bonds in various ways, including hydrolysis of ubiquitinated proteins, which is an essential mechanism for maintaining protein quality control and regulating numerous cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, signal transduction, and stress response.

In summary, the proteasome endopeptidase complex is a crucial intracellular machinery responsible for targeted protein degradation through proteolysis, contributing to various essential regulatory functions in cells.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) are relatively short, synthetic single-stranded DNA molecules. They typically contain 15 to 30 nucleotides, but can range from 2 to several hundred nucleotides in length. ODNs are often used as tools in molecular biology research for various applications such as:

1. Nucleic acid detection and quantification (e.g., real-time PCR)
2. Gene regulation (antisense, RNA interference)
3. Gene editing (CRISPR-Cas systems)
4. Vaccine development
5. Diagnostic purposes

Due to their specificity and affinity towards complementary DNA or RNA sequences, ODNs can be designed to target a particular gene or sequence of interest. This makes them valuable tools in understanding gene function, regulation, and interaction with other molecules within the cell.

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is not a medical term per se, but a scientific term used in the field of molecular biology. GFP is a protein that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light, particularly blue or ultraviolet light. It was originally discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria.

In medical and biological research, scientists often use recombinant DNA technology to introduce the gene for GFP into other organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals, including humans. This allows them to track the expression and localization of specific genes or proteins of interest in living cells, tissues, or even whole organisms.

The ability to visualize specific cellular structures or processes in real-time has proven invaluable for a wide range of research areas, from studying the development and function of organs and organ systems to understanding the mechanisms of diseases and the effects of therapeutic interventions.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

The lac operon is a genetic regulatory system found in the bacteria Escherichia coli that controls the expression of genes responsible for the metabolism of lactose as a source of energy. It consists of three structural genes (lacZ, lacY, and lacA) that code for enzymes involved in lactose metabolism, as well as two regulatory elements: the lac promoter and the lac operator.

The lac repressor protein, produced by the lacI gene, binds to the lac operator sequence when lactose is not present, preventing RNA polymerase from transcribing the structural genes. When lactose is available, it is converted into allolactose, which acts as an inducer and binds to the lac repressor protein, causing a conformational change that prevents it from binding to the operator sequence. This allows RNA polymerase to bind to the promoter and transcribe the structural genes, leading to the production of enzymes necessary for lactose metabolism.

In summary, the lac operon is a genetic regulatory system in E. coli that controls the expression of genes involved in lactose metabolism based on the availability of lactose as a substrate.

Sigmodontinae is a subfamily of rodents, more specifically within the family Cricetidae. This group is commonly known as the New World rats and mice, and it includes over 300 species that are primarily found in North, Central, and South America. The members of Sigmodontinae vary greatly in size and habits, with some being arboreal while others live on the ground or burrow. Some species have specialized diets, such as eating insects or seeds, while others are more generalist feeders. This subfamily is also notable for its high degree of speciation and diversity, making it an interesting subject for evolutionary biologists and ecologists.

Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases (PSTKs) are a type of protein kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl side chains of serine or threonine residues on target proteins. This phosphorylation process plays a crucial role in various cellular signaling pathways, including regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. PSTKs are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, and their dysregulation has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Tumor suppressor genes are a type of gene that helps to regulate and prevent cells from growing and dividing too rapidly or in an uncontrolled manner. They play a critical role in preventing the formation of tumors and cancer. When functioning properly, tumor suppressor genes help to repair damaged DNA, control the cell cycle, and trigger programmed cell death (apoptosis) when necessary. However, when these genes are mutated or altered, they can lose their ability to function correctly, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of tumors. Examples of tumor suppressor genes include TP53, BRCA1, and BRCA2.

Erythroid-specific DNA-binding factors are transcription factors that bind to specific sequences of DNA and help regulate the expression of genes that are involved in the development and differentiation of erythroid cells, which are cells that mature to become red blood cells. These transcription factors play a crucial role in the production of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. Examples of erythroid-specific DNA-binding factors include GATA-1 and KLF1.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "genes, jun" does not appear to be a recognized or established medical term or concept in genetics or molecular biology. It is possible that there may be some misunderstanding or typo in the phrase. If you have any specific questions about genes or genetics, I would be happy to try and help clarify those for you.

In general, a gene is a segment of DNA that contains the instructions for making a particular protein or performing a specific function in the body. Genes are passed down from parents to offspring and can vary between individuals, leading to differences in traits and characteristics.

Cell death is the process by which cells cease to function and eventually die. There are several ways that cells can die, but the two most well-known and well-studied forms of cell death are apoptosis and necrosis.

Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death that occurs as a normal and necessary process in the development and maintenance of healthy tissues. During apoptosis, the cell's DNA is broken down into small fragments, the cell shrinks, and the membrane around the cell becomes fragmented, allowing the cell to be easily removed by phagocytic cells without causing an inflammatory response.

Necrosis, on the other hand, is a form of cell death that occurs as a result of acute tissue injury or overwhelming stress. During necrosis, the cell's membrane becomes damaged and the contents of the cell are released into the surrounding tissue, causing an inflammatory response.

There are also other forms of cell death, such as autophagy, which is a process by which cells break down their own organelles and proteins to recycle nutrients and maintain energy homeostasis, and pyroptosis, which is a form of programmed cell death that occurs in response to infection and involves the activation of inflammatory caspases.

Cell death is an important process in many physiological and pathological processes, including development, tissue homeostasis, and disease. Dysregulation of cell death can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases.

Northern blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and analyze specific RNA molecules (such as mRNA) in a mixture of total RNA extracted from cells or tissues. This technique is called "Northern" blotting because it is analogous to the Southern blotting method, which is used for DNA detection.

The Northern blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Electrophoresis: The total RNA mixture is first separated based on size by running it through an agarose gel using electrical current. This separates the RNA molecules according to their length, with smaller RNA fragments migrating faster than larger ones.

2. Transfer: After electrophoresis, the RNA bands are denatured (made single-stranded) and transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane using a technique called capillary transfer or vacuum blotting. This step ensures that the order and relative positions of the RNA fragments are preserved on the membrane, similar to how they appear in the gel.

3. Cross-linking: The RNA is then chemically cross-linked to the membrane using UV light or heat treatment, which helps to immobilize the RNA onto the membrane and prevent it from washing off during subsequent steps.

4. Prehybridization: Before adding the labeled probe, the membrane is prehybridized in a solution containing blocking agents (such as salmon sperm DNA or yeast tRNA) to minimize non-specific binding of the probe to the membrane.

5. Hybridization: A labeled nucleic acid probe, specific to the RNA of interest, is added to the prehybridization solution and allowed to hybridize (form base pairs) with its complementary RNA sequence on the membrane. The probe can be either a DNA or an RNA molecule, and it is typically labeled with a radioactive isotope (such as ³²P) or a non-radioactive label (such as digoxigenin).

6. Washing: After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove unbound probe and reduce background noise. The washing conditions (temperature, salt concentration, and detergent concentration) are optimized based on the stringency required for specific hybridization.

7. Detection: The presence of the labeled probe is then detected using an appropriate method, depending on the type of label used. For radioactive probes, this typically involves exposing the membrane to X-ray film or a phosphorimager screen and analyzing the resulting image. For non-radioactive probes, detection can be performed using colorimetric, chemiluminescent, or fluorescent methods.

8. Data analysis: The intensity of the signal is quantified and compared to controls (such as housekeeping genes) to determine the relative expression level of the RNA of interest. This information can be used for various purposes, such as identifying differentially expressed genes in response to a specific treatment or comparing gene expression levels across different samples or conditions.

A neoplasm is a tumor or growth that is formed by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Neoplasm proteins are therefore any proteins that are expressed or produced in these neoplastic cells. These proteins can play various roles in the development, progression, and maintenance of neoplasms.

Some neoplasm proteins may contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in cancer, such as oncogenic proteins that promote cell cycle progression or inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). Others may help the neoplastic cells evade the immune system, allowing them to proliferate undetected. Still others may be involved in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels that supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

Neoplasm proteins can also serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment response. For example, the presence or level of certain neoplasm proteins in biological samples such as blood or tissue may indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer, help predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence, or suggest whether a particular therapy will be effective.

Overall, understanding the roles and behaviors of neoplasm proteins can provide valuable insights into the biology of cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Genetic hybridization is a biological process that involves the crossing of two individuals from different populations or species, which can lead to the creation of offspring with new combinations of genetic material. This occurs when the gametes (sex cells) from each parent combine during fertilization, resulting in a zygote with a unique genetic makeup.

In genetics, hybridization can also refer to the process of introducing new genetic material into an organism through various means, such as genetic engineering or selective breeding. This type of hybridization is often used in agriculture and biotechnology to create crops or animals with desirable traits, such as increased disease resistance or higher yields.

It's important to note that the term "hybrid" can refer to both crosses between different populations within a single species (intraspecific hybrids) and crosses between different species (interspecific hybrids). The latter is often more challenging, as significant genetic differences between the two parental species can lead to various reproductive barriers, making it difficult for the hybrid offspring to produce viable offspring of their own.

Medical Definition of "Multiprotein Complexes" :

Multiprotein complexes are large molecular assemblies composed of two or more proteins that interact with each other to carry out specific cellular functions. These complexes can range from relatively simple dimers or trimers to massive structures containing hundreds of individual protein subunits. They are formed through a process known as protein-protein interaction, which is mediated by specialized regions on the protein surface called domains or motifs.

Multiprotein complexes play critical roles in many cellular processes, including signal transduction, gene regulation, DNA replication and repair, protein folding and degradation, and intracellular transport. The formation of these complexes is often dynamic and regulated in response to various stimuli, allowing for precise control of their function.

Disruption of multiprotein complexes can lead to a variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure, composition, and regulation of these complexes is an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Weiden, MD; Ginsberg, HS (1994). "Deletion of the E4 region of the genome produces adenovirus concatemers". PNAS. 91 (1): 153- ... Adenovirus E1B protein usually refers to one of two proteins transcribed from the E1B gene of the adenovirus: a 55kDa protein ... These two proteins are needed to block apoptosis in adenovirus-infected cells. E1B proteins work to prevent apoptosis that is ... White, E; Cipriani, R (January 10, 1990). "Role of adenovirus E1B proteins in transformation: altered organization of ...
Control protein E3 14.7K protects the virus from host antiviral responses. The control proteins of the E4 transcription unit ... The functions of many adenovirus proteins are known: Structural proteins include capsid proteins II (hexon), III (penton base ... Control protein E1B 19K suppresses apoptosis by mimicking the action of cellular protein Bcl-2. Control protein E1B 55K binds ... "Protein Details for Human adenovirus E". NCBI. Retrieved 2013-01-17. Russell, WC (Jan 2009). "Adenoviruses: update on structure ...
Glaunsinger BA, Lee SS, Thomas M, Banks L, Javier R (November 2000). "Interactions of the PDZ-protein MAGI-1 with adenovirus E4 ... In the case of HPV-1, E4 can account for up to 30% of the total protein at the surface of a wart. The E4 protein of many ... Although E4 proteins are expressed at low levels during the early phase of viral infection, expression of E4 increases ... E6 proteins also interact with the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase family) proteins. These proteins, including MAGI ...
"Multi-PDZ Domain Protein MUPP1 Is a Cellular Target for both Adenovirus E4-ORF1 and High-Risk Papillomavirus Type 18 E6 ... Multiple PDZ domain protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MPDZ gene. MPDZ has been shown to interact with: 5- ... "The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor interacts with the multi-PDZ domain protein-1 (MUPP-1) within the tight junction". J ... "The multi PDZ domain protein MUPP1 as a putative scaffolding protein for organizing signaling complexes in the acrosome of ...
Glaunsinger BA, Weiss RS, Lee SS, Javier R (2001). "Link of the unique oncogenic properties of adenovirus type 9 E4-ORF1 to a ... Tight junction protein ZO-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TJP2 gene. Tight junction proteins (TJPs) belong to a ... Tight junction protein 2 has been shown to interact with tight junction protein 1, band 4.1, occludin and USP53. GRCh38: ... "The tight junction protein ZO-1 establishes a link between the transmembrane protein occludin and the actin cytoskeleton". J. ...
... of transcription factor DRTF1/E2F which is functionally important for recognition by pRb and the adenovirus E4 orf 6/7 protein ... Vidal M, Braun P, Chen E, Boeke JD, Harlow E (1996). "Genetic characterization of a mammalian protein-protein interaction ... Wu CL, Zukerberg LR, Ngwu C, Harlow E, Lees JA (May 1995). "In vivo association of E2F and DP family proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol ... Wu CL, Zukerberg LR, Ngwu C, Harlow E, Lees JA (1995). "In vivo association of E2F and DP family proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 15 ...
... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.080 - adenovirus e4 ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.090 - antigens, ... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.100 - adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus ... oncogene protein tpr-met MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045 - adenovirus early proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050 - adenovirus ...
... with a genome deleted of the entire E1 and E3 regions and the native E4 region replaced with the E4 orf6 of human adenovirus 5 ... on a novel replication defective Gorilla Adenovirus and encodes for SARS-COV-2 full length prefusion stabilized Spike protein. ... More specifically, the vector used is the simian group C adenovirus GRAd32, isolated from a captive gorilla, ... April 2021). "Immunogenicity of a new gorilla adenovirus vaccine candidate for COVID-19". Molecular Therapy. 29 (8): 2412-2423 ...
The vector is a chimpanzee adenovirus modified to avoid its replication. Adenoviruses are effective vectors for inducing and ... and matrix protein 1 (M1), creating a vaccine candidate named ChAdOx1 NP+M1. ChAdOx1 has been derived from a chimpanzee ... adenovirus (ChAd) serotype Y25 engineered by λ red recombination to exchange the native E4 orf4, orf6 and orf6/7 genes for ... Simian adenoviruses do not suffer from the same disadvantages. Therefore, investigators have tested new vaccines using the ...
... responsible for expression of the adenovirus E4 gene. Because of its chromosomal localization and ability to form heterodimers ... GA-binding protein alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABPA gene. This gene encodes one of three GA- ... Bannert N, Avots A, Baier M, Serfling E, Kurth R (Feb 1999). "GA-binding protein factors, in concert with the coactivator CREB ... "Entrez Gene: GABPA GA binding protein transcription factor, alpha subunit 60kDa". Vogel JL, Kristie TM (Feb 2000). "The novel ...
... replication of the adenovirus genome can occur. A terminal protein that is covalently bound to the 5' end of the adenovirus ... E3 and E4) and one late transcription unit ranging from L1-L5. In addition, adenoviruses also contain two intermediate ... Tupaia adenovirus (TAV) (tree shrew adenovirus 1) has been isolated from tree shrews. Otarine adenovirus 1 has been isolated ... regulatory proteins. The goal of these proteins is threefold: to alter the expression of host proteins that are necessary for ...
Transcription factor E4F1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the E4F1 gene. The zinc finger protein encoded by this gene ... The full-length gene product represses transcription from the E4 promoter in the absence of E1A, while the 50-kDa form acts as ... Fernandes ER, Rooney RJ (1997). "The adenovirus E1A-regulated transcription factor E4F is generated from the human homolog of ... A 50-kDa amino-terminal product is generated from the full-length protein through proteolytic cleavage. The protein is ...
Higginbotham, Jennifer M.; O'Shea, Clodagh C. (15 October 2015). Imperiale, M. J. (ed.). "Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Targets PIAS3 and ... "Adenovirus Overrides Cellular Checkpoints for Protein Translation". Cell Cycle. 4 (7): 883-888. doi:10.4161/cc.4.7.1791. PMID ... "Visualizing viral protein structures in cells using genetic probes for correlated light and electron microscopy". Methods. 90: ...
E4(+) adenovirus gene transfer vector". Journal of Virology. 73 (12): 10183-90. doi:10.1128/JVI.73.12.10183-10190.1999. PMC ... S100 calcium-binding protein A10 (S100A10), also known as p11, is a protein that is encoded by the S100A10 gene in humans and ... The S100 protein is implicated in exocytosis and endocytosis by reorganization of F-actin. The p11 protein is linked with the ... As a member of the S-100 family, its structure resembles that of the S-100A1 and S-100B proteins. This class of proteins has ...
This protein binds specifically to adenovirus E1B-55kDa oncoprotein. It may play an important role in nucleocytoplasmic RNA ... 26 (7): 1613-8. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000226543.77214.e4. PMID 16690874. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, et al. (2006). "Global, in ... 2005). "Protein arginine methylation during lytic adenovirus infection". Biochem. J. 383 (Pt 2): 259-65. doi:10.1042/BJ20040210 ... HNRPUL1 also participates in ATR protein kinase signalling pathways during adenovirus infection. Two transcript variants ...
... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.050 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.090 - antigens, polyomavirus ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.050 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.090 - antigens, polyomavirus ... adenovirus early proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.050 - adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 - ...
... such as adenovirus, and modify its genome to have genes that code for immunogenic proteins that can spike the immune systems ... While both the E4 and M13 viruses can infect and replicate within their bacterial host, it unclear if they retain this capacity ... This was done by editing the genes of the virus that code for the protein coat. The protein coat is edited to coat itself in ... The most common virus used for gene delivery come from adenoviruses as they can carry up to 7.5 kb of foreign DNA and infect a ...
"Enhanced tumor suppression by a p14ARF/p53 bicistronic adenovirus through increased p53 protein translation and stability". ... 27 (17): 2652-2660.e4. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.07.033. PMC 5788810. PMID 28844647. Shearin AL, Hedan B, Cadieu E, Erich SA, ... When a mutation occurs in protein p16, it prevents the protein kinase of CDK4, which results in the inactivation of the tumor ... These exons are used to create two proteins named p16 and p14ARF. Protein p16, created by exon 1α and exon 2, is responsible ...
... (STING), also known as transmembrane protein 173 (TMEM173) and MPYS/MITA/ERIS is a protein that ... Adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, HSV-1 and HSV-2, as well as the negative-stranded RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV ... 23 (3): 297-301.e4. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2018.01.006. PMC 7104992. PMID 29478775. Jin L, Getahun A, Knowles HM, Mogan J, Akerlund ... STING has also been shown to colocalize with autophagy proteins, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and ...
... adenoviruses, plasmids, and naked DNA or protein compounds. In 2008, Hochedlinger et al. used an adenovirus to transport the ... 25 (6): 737-753.e4. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2019.10.002. PMC 6900749. PMID 31708402. Quality of induced pluripotent stem cells is ... The adenovirus is unique from other vectors like viruses and retroviruses because it does not incorporate any of its own genes ... Plasmids, adenoviruses, and transposon vectors have all been explored, but these often come with the tradeoff of lower ...
99 (3): E4. doi:10.1542/peds.99.3.e4. PMID 9099769. Clark, DA; Kidd, IM; Collingham, KE; Tarlow, M; Ayeni, T; Riordan, A; ... Some research has shown that syncytia formation in betaherpesviruses can vary based on the type of envelop protein expressed by ... "Human herpesvirus 7 infection of lymphoid and myeloid cell lines transduced with an adenovirus vector containing the CD4 gene ... This information indicates that CXCR4 and CCR5 are not essential receptor proteins for HHV-7 infection. The trademark ...
These include using a different variants or novel creations of the Cas protein, using an altogether different effector protein ... 81 (20): 4333-4345.e4. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2021.08.008. PMID 34480847. S2CID 237417317. Bravo JP, Liu MS, Hibshman GN, ... adenovirus (AdV), and adeno-associated virus (AAV). Efficiency of CRISPR-Cas9 has been found to greatly increase when various ... Currently, three major groups of DNA binding proteins have been predominantly used for epigenome editing: Zinc finger proteins ...
Weiden, MD; Ginsberg, HS (1994). "Deletion of the E4 region of the genome produces adenovirus concatemers". PNAS. 91 (1): 153- ... Adenovirus E1B protein usually refers to one of two proteins transcribed from the E1B gene of the adenovirus: a 55kDa protein ... These two proteins are needed to block apoptosis in adenovirus-infected cells. E1B proteins work to prevent apoptosis that is ... White, E; Cipriani, R (January 10, 1990). "Role of adenovirus E1B proteins in transformation: altered organization of ...
This is the first study that delineates transcript expression and protein interaction of HPV18 E6 and E7 in esophageal and ... Glaunsinger BA, Lee SS, Thomas M, Banks L, Javier R. Interactions of the PDZ-protein MAGI-1 with adenovirus E4-ORF1 and high- ... Dyson N, Guida P, Münger K, Harlow E. Homologous sequences in adenovirus E1A and human papillomavirus E7 proteins mediate ... As we did not measure other protein targets, the effect on PDZ proteins like hScribble [24] and MAGIs [23] remains to be ...
AAV also requires some back up from adenovirus genes - E4, E2a, and VA - which are supplied on a helper plasmid and mediate ... Kulanayake, S., Tikoo, S. K. Adenovirus Core Proteins: Structure and Function. Viruses. 2021 13(3):388. DOI:10.3390/v13030388 ... Adenovirus. Adenoviruses have quite a bit in common with AAV, just like lenti and gamma-retroviruses have a lot in common with ... Fun fact: There are 57 human adenovirus types, but most vectors are based on adenovirus 5 (Ad5). ...
Adenovirus (AdV) encodes proteins from the early E4 region which are necessary for productive infection. Some cellular ... the full repertoire of host proteome changes induced by viral E4 proteins has not been defined. To identify cellular proteins ... Adenovirus encodes early gene products from the E4 genomic region that are known to alter host response pathways and promote ... Systems-level analysis identifies cellular proteins and processes impacted in an E4-dependent manner, suggesting ways that ...
E4 open reading frame 1 (E4orf1) is an adenovirus derived protein that promotes glucose clearance independent of insulin, ... E4 open reading frame 1 (E4orf1) is an adenovirus derived protein that promotes glucose clearance independent of insulin, ... Role of E4orf1 protein in preventing the progression of cognitive and synaptic dysfunction in mouse model of Alzheimers ... Role of E4orf1 protein in preventing the progression of cognitive and synaptic dysfunction in mouse model of Alzheimers ...
Nucleotide sequence of adenovirus 2 DNA fragment encoding for the carboxylic region of the fiber protein and the entire E4 ... Adenovirus type 2 early proteins: assignment of the early region 1A proteins synthesized in vivo and in vitro to specific mRNAs ... Localization of the Adenovirus E1Aa Protein, a Positive-Acting Transcriptional Factor, in Infected Cells Infected Cells ... Proteins encoded by v-myc and c-myc oncogenes: Identification and localization in acute leukemia virus transformants and bursal ...
... whereas the adenovirus E4 ORF3 protein does not impact this process. The potential of ICP0 and IE1 to alter SUMO-1 modification ... Here VTP-27999 HCl we show that this HSV ICP0 and CMV IE1 proteins specifically abrogate the SUMO-1 modification of PML and ... PLA fibers membrane promoted proteins deposition set alongside the PLA/PVA/SA fiber membrane. In addition, IHC suggested that ... potential participation of casein kinase-2 as well as the cAMP-activated kinase protein kinase A January 20, 2022 bcr. ...
The adenovirus E4-ORF4 splicing enhancer protein interacts with a subset of phosphorylated SR proteins. EMBO Journal, 20 (4). ... Manley, J. L., Krainer, A. R. (2010) A rational nomenclature for serine/arginine-rich protein splicing factors (SR proteins). ... Modeling RNA-Binding Protein Specificity In Vivo by Precisely Registering Protein-RNA Crosslink Sites. Mol Cell, 74 (6). 1189- ... Das, R., Yu, J., Zhang, Z., Gygi, M. P., Krainer, A. R., Gygi, S. P., Reed, R. (June 2007) SR proteins function in coupling ...
Isolation of novel simian adenoviruses from macaques for development of a vector for human gene therapy and vaccines. J Virol. ... Cryptococcal proteases exhibit the potential to activate the latent SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. J Infect Public Health. 2024 Feb ... 2024 Mar 21; 31(3):565-576.e4.. View in: PubMed. * ... unfolded protein response and reduced enzyme trafficking to ... A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were tranformed with human adenovirus type 5. ...
There are two ways to generate adenovirus vectors with the AdenoZAP system: 1. In vitro ligation and transfection The AdenoZAP ... if your expression cassette is larger than 7.7 kb, you must consider E1/E3/E4-deleted adenovirus vectors. ... the adenovirus "death protein" E3-11.6K, which facilitates the release of viral particles from infected cells, or gp19K, whose ... Which precautions should I take while working with adenovirus? Work with adenovirus must be performed in a BL2 lab. There you ...
Adenovirus type 5 particles with CMV-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP) in E1 region - manufactured by The Native Antigen ... This recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expresses green fluorescent protein under the control of a CMV promoter. Green ... E4), intermediate, and late. The E1 gene is essential for activation of other viral genes and for viral replication. Deletion ... Adenovirus type 5 is one of the most extensively studied and characterized adenoviruses and is the type used most frequently in ...
... and adenovirus helper plasmids containing clones of adenovirus-2 E2A, E4, and VA-RNA genes were introduced to the 293EB cells ... In general, a method which involves coagulating soluble proteins by heating and then removing the resulting proteins is well ... and adenovirus helper plasmids containing clones of adenovirus-2 E2A, E4, and VA-RNA genes were introduced to the 293EB cells ... and 23 μg/flask of adenovirus helper plasmids containing clones of adenovirus-2 E2A, E4, and VA-RNA genes were introduced to ...
... and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and reduced the expression of C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) and X-box binding protein 1 ( ... Administration of adenoviruses has Tubacin been shown to be safe, and vaccines consisting Tubacin of unattenuated adenovirus ... Most commonly, DNA sequences from the E1, E3, or E4 regions Tubacin are deleted, which results in a computer virus deficient in ... Fusion protein predicated on the immunoglobulin Fc domains show the capability to facilitate proteins appearance and enable ...
Cesa, L. C., Mapp, A. K., and Gestwicki, J. E. (2015). Direct and propagated effects of small molecules on protein-protein ... 2017). Apolipoprotein E4 impairs neuronal insulin signaling by trapping insulin receptor in the endosomes. Neuron 96, 115-129. ... astrocytes infected with adenovirus expressing human ApoE. J. Neurochem. 86, 1391-1402. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.01950.x ... low density lipoprotein receptor related protein and 39 kDa receptor associated protein in embryonic mouse tissues. Vivo Athens ...
Recombinant Human IFN-beta Protein. Backed by our 100% Guarantee. ... MK Holly, JG Smith Adenovirus infection of human enteroids ... 1249-1260.e4. 2019-10-29 [PMID: 31665637] (Cell Culture, Human) Cell Culture. Human. ... Recombinant Human IFN-beta Protein Summary. Details of Functionality. Measured in anti-viral assays using HeLa human cervical ... STING (STimulator of INterferon Genes protein) acts as a sensor of cytosolic DNA. Bacteria/Virus or self-derived DNA in the ...
Weiden MD, Ginsberg HS (1994) Deletion of the E4 region of the genome produces adenovirus DNA concatemers. Proc Natl Acad Sci ... Protein kinase R (PKR) is a central effector of innate antiviral immunity that induces translational shutoff, modifies protein ... proteins required for replication, but lacks the envelope proteins and hence does not support viral budding. The left replicon ... Lastly, other cellular proteins such as uracil DNA glycosylases (UNG) can modulate viral mutation rates. Uracil can be found in ...
Per confermare inserimenti o cancellazioni di voci è necessario confermare con il tasto SALVA/INSERISCI in fondo alla pagina * ... METHODS AND RESULTS: The hTK gene was transferred to murine adductors by increasing doses of an adenovirus (Ad.hTK). ... The ability of hTK to phosphorylate-activate Akt/protein kinase B (Akt-B) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) was also determined. ... The ability of hTK to phosphorylate-activate Akt/protein kinase B (Akt-B) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) was also determined. ...
A suggested role for these viruses or parts of viruses is related to the proteins involved in the induction or maintenance of ... Some viruses have been found within meningiomas, including polyoma virus, simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV-40), and adenovirus. ... 14 (6):e4. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. *. Bondy M, Ligon BL. Epidemiology and etiology of intracranial meningiomas: a review. J ... This genetic alteration leads to loss of expression of NF2 protein product (neurofibromin) and has been reported in 40-70% of ...
A suggested role for these viruses or parts of viruses is related to the proteins involved in the induction or maintenance of ... Some viruses have been found within meningiomas, including polyoma virus, simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV-40), and adenovirus. ... 14 (6):e4. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. *. Bondy M, Ligon BL. Epidemiology and etiology of intracranial meningiomas: a review. J ... This genetic alteration leads to loss of expression of NF2 protein product (neurofibromin) and has been reported in 40-70% of ...
... protein_Use1 1 XM0123025571 IPR008862 FAMILY:Tcp11 1 XM0045200222 IPR019135 DOMAIN:Polycomb_protein_VEFS-Box 1 XM0123069011 ... E4_core 2 XM0045214622;XM0123043901 IPR024053 DOMAIN:VHL_beta_dom 1 XM0045357912 IPR040586 DOMAIN:PheRS_DBD2 1 XM0045235332 ... adenovirus-E1B 1 XM0045251992 IPR037721 FAMILY:Ferlin 2 XM0122995041;XM0045190682 IPR005292 FAMILY:Multidrug-R_assoc 1 ... protein_CML-like 2 XM0045357111;XM0045241852 IPR013155 DOMAIN:M/V/L/I-tRNA-synth_anticd-bd 6 XM0045244792;XM0123039961; ...
Adenoviruses Adenovirus Infections Infection with one of the many adenoviruses may be asymptomatic or result in specific ... Malabsorption can affect macronutrients (eg, proteins, carbohydrates, fats)... read more . It is usually acquired via person-to ... Gastroenterology 159(2):708-738.e4, 2020. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.05.060 ... Malabsorption can affect macronutrients (eg, proteins, carbohydrates, fats)... read more in the affected bowel subsequently ...
Detection of human adenovirus F41 in wastewater and its relationship to clinical cases of acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology. ... Cell systems 2022 10 (10) 844-856.e4 * The third international hackathon for applying insights into large-scale genomic ... SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and spike protein mutational dynamics in a Swedish cohort during 2021, studied by Nanopore ...
E4 Protein, Adenovirus use Adenovirus E4 Proteins E4 Proteins, Adenovirus use Adenovirus E4 Proteins ... E2A 72K Protein, Adenovirus use Adenovirus E2 Proteins E2A Immunoglobulin Enhancer Binding Factor E12 use Transcription Factor ... E29 Proteins, Adenovirus use Adenovirus Early Proteins ... E4F Protein, Adenovirus use Adenovirus E4 Proteins E600 use ... E29 Protein, Adenovirus use Adenovirus Early Proteins ... E2F Protein, Adenovirus use Adenovirus E2 Proteins E2F Proteins ...
E4 Protein, Adenovirus use Adenovirus E4 Proteins E4 Proteins, Adenovirus use Adenovirus E4 Proteins ... E2A 72K Protein, Adenovirus use Adenovirus E2 Proteins E2A Immunoglobulin Enhancer Binding Factor E12 use Transcription Factor ... E29 Proteins, Adenovirus use Adenovirus Early Proteins ... E4F Protein, Adenovirus use Adenovirus E4 Proteins E600 use ... E29 Protein, Adenovirus use Adenovirus Early Proteins ... E2F Protein, Adenovirus use Adenovirus E2 Proteins E2F Proteins ...
Human adenovirus oncolytic properties and the inhibitory role of E4 orf4 and E4 orf6/7 on endogenously activated NF-κB. Biochem ... Control of cell migration by the novel protein phosphatase-2A interacting protein inka2. Cell Tissue Res. 2020 PubMed ID: ... 2421 Nanbu-Wakao R, Fujitani Y, Masuho Y, Muramatu M, Wakao H. Prolactin enhances CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-beta (C/EBP ... 12619 Ishihara S, Mizutani T, Kawabata K, Haga H. An improved method for western blotting when extracting proteins from ...
Cell Host Microbe 2021, 29, 975-987.e4. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]. *Grier, A.; Gill, A.L.; Kessler, H.A.; Corbett, A.; ... This study found that the NS1 protein is an antagonist of type-1 interferons and many other cytokines ex vivo, and impaired DC ... An increased detection of nasal miR-155 levels in infants with respiratory viral infections, including RV, adenovirus, and ... Munir, S.; Le Nouen, C.; Luongo, C.; Buchholz, U.J.; Collins, P.L.; Bukreyev, A. Nonstructural proteins 1 and 2 of respiratory ...
Structure and activity of the axon guidance protein MICAL.PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNI ... The endoplasmic reticulum lumenal domain of the adenovirus type 2 E3-19K protein binds to peptide-filled and peptide-deficient ... Structural variation in human apolipoprotein E3 and E4: Secondary structure, tertiary structure, and size distribution. ... tuberculosis protein kinase substrates: PknB recruits GarA, a FHA domain-containing protein, through activation loop-mediated ...
... protein, the G attachment (G) protein and the small hydrophobic (SH) protein. The F protein plays a central role in virus entry ... e4. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.09.043. *90. Villenave R, Thavagnanam S, Sarlang S, Parker J, Douglas I, Skibinski G, et al. In ... interleukin-10 and soluble markers of immune activation in infants with primary adenovirus (ADV) and respiratory syncytial ... The SH protein is a short integral membrane protein that is not essential for RSV replication in cell culture but is involved ...
... of recombinants with an easy technique by minimizing the amount of necessary steps for generating a recombinant adenovirus. ... After harvesting recombinant adenovirus, we infected cells with AdCD and checked the expression of the Cytosin deaminase ... protein by Western blot. The functionality of the gene was proven by FACS analysis. We confirmed expression of the protein as ... pAdEasy-1 with deleted E1/E3 and pAdEasy-2 with deleted E1/E3/E4) and four different shuttle vectors (pShuttle, pShuttle-CMV, ...
  • E1B-55k also forms a complex with E4orf6, a viral protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • provide evidence that the rapid divergence of Ad7d to a Particularly interesting were the distinctive patterns of cir- novel genome type Ad7l could have been due to viral culating genome types during the Ad7 epidemic in Korea strategies involving multiple sequence changes in E4. (cdc.gov)
  • This is the role of Gag proteins: they contain the matrix, capsid, and nucleocapsid viral components needed for viral packaging, assembly, and display. (addgene.org)
  • The viral packaging proteins for AAV are rep and cap. (addgene.org)
  • AAV also requires some back up from adenovirus genes - E4, E2a, and VA - which are supplied on a helper plasmid and mediate efficient viral replication. (addgene.org)
  • More information on these viral genes is available in the adenovirus section below! (addgene.org)
  • However, the full repertoire of host proteome changes induced by viral E4 proteins has not been defined. (bvsalud.org)
  • The spike proteins is in charge of viral entrance into focus on cells. (cxcr-antagonist.com)
  • Most other viral gastroenteritis infections are caused by astrovirus or enteric adenovirus. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Various vectors derived from retrovirus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, and the like are known. (justia.com)
  • Adenovirus E1B protein usually refers to one of two proteins transcribed from the E1B gene of the adenovirus: a 55kDa protein and a 19kDa protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses encode gene products that manipulate host proteins to redirect cellular processes or subvert antiviral immune responses. (bvsalud.org)
  • Some cellular antiviral proteins are known to be targeted by AdV E4 gene products, resulting in their degradation or mislocalization. (bvsalud.org)
  • Isolation of novel simian adenoviruses from macaques for development of a vector for human gene therapy and vaccines. (harvard.edu)
  • Adenovirus Type 5 particles with CMV-induced GFP gene. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Adenovirus type 5 is one of the most extensively studied and characterized adenoviruses and is the type used most frequently in generating recombinant adenoviruses for gene therapy . (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • Adenoviruses: Basic Biology to Gene Therapy. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • One risk factor for developing AD is the APOE gene coding for the apolipoprotein E protein (apoE). (frontiersin.org)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The hTK gene was transferred to murine adductors by increasing doses of an adenovirus (Ad.hTK). (uniss.it)
  • Si ricorda che il superamento dei valori soglia (almeno 2 su 3) è requisito necessario ma non sufficiente al conseguimento dell'abilitazione. (unicampus.it)
  • The system consists of two adenoviral backbone vectors (pAdEasy-1 with deleted E1/E3 and pAdEasy-2 with deleted E1/E3/E4) and four different shuttle vectors (pShuttle, pShuttle-CMV, pAdTrack, pAdTrack-CMV), into which the desired transgenes are inserted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Structural and bioinformatics studies have shown that E1B-55k, which is specific to mammalian mastadenoviruses, has evolved by exaptation from an LH3-like minor capsid protein encoded by atadenoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cap is a structural capsid protein that helps with virion assembly and particle release from late endosomes when AAV is trafficked. (addgene.org)
  • In infected cells, the expression of E1A results in the degradation of MCL-1, which normally binds the propaptotic protein, BAK. (wikipedia.org)
  • The midnolin-proteasome pathway catches proteins for ubiquitination-independent degradation. (harvard.edu)
  • To validate our conclusions and the efficacy of nuclear separation, we used protein localization through a combination of transformations and immunofluorescence. (bvsalud.org)
  • One amino acid change in the receptor-binding domain of fiber and 6 amino acid pattern is the result of a mutation of the Bam HI restriction variations in E4 ORF 6/7 were identified between 2 site at 0.93 map units of the genome. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic variations between the Ad7d and Ad7l genome types have been studied by analyzing the sequences of hexon, E3, fiber, and E4 ORF 6/7 peptides. (cdc.gov)
  • 2014). Significantly, plants include a post-translational adjustment mechanism making them ideal for creation of complex protein, such as for example antibodies and Fc fusion protein as described right here. (cxcr-antagonist.com)
  • Spassov et al Cell Rep. 2018 Oct 9;25(2):449-463.e4. (addgene.org)
  • La presente simulazione è stata realizzata sulla base delle specifiche raccolte sul tavolo ER del Focus Group IRIS coordinato dall'Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia e delle regole riportate nel DM 589/2018 e allegata Tabella A. Cineca, l'Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia e il Focus Group IRIS non si assumono alcuna responsabilità in merito all'uso che il diretto interessato o terzi faranno della simulazione. (unicampus.it)
  • E1B-19k mimics MCL1, which is a cellular antiapoptotic protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The E1B-55k/E4orf6 complex in infected cells assembles with other cellular proteins to form a ubiquitin ligase complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • We find that A3A interacts with the chaperonin-containing TCP-1 (CCT) complex, a cellular machine that assists in protein folding and function. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cryptococcal proteases exhibit the potential to activate the latent SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. (harvard.edu)
  • Entry depends upon binding from the receptor binding domains (RBD) over the spike proteins to its mobile receptor, which facilitates trojan attachment towards the receptor and fusion with cell membrane (Li et al. (cxcr-antagonist.com)
  • 2020). For SARS-CoV-2, the trojan uses the RBD in spike proteins to connect to individual angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a crucial initial stage to enter target cells, comparable to SARS-CoV (Li et al. (cxcr-antagonist.com)
  • The antigen in GBP510/AS03 is a two-part recombinant nanoparticle, which displays 60 receptor binding domain (RBD) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 Spike on its surface. (bvsalud.org)
  • Compared to their presence in strains of Ad7d, 2 restriction isolated in Korea during nationwide outbreaks from 1995 to fragments (8,400 and 2,650 bp) are lost in strains of Ad7l, 2000, the genetic variabilities of Ad7d and Ad7l were stud- which contain a new fragment equal in length to the sum ied by sequence analysis of hexon, fiber, E3, and E4 open of those 2 fragments. (cdc.gov)
  • Mature human IFN-beta shares 47% and 46% amino acid sequence identity with the mouse and rat proteins, respectively. (novusbio.com)
  • Ig molecules are highly modular proteins, in which the variable and constant domains have clear, conserved sequence patterns. (embl.de)
  • Immunoglobulin-like domains that are related in both sequence and structure can be found in several diverse protein families. (embl.de)
  • However, in adenovirus-infected cells, activated BAK and BAX are sequestered by E1B-19k, preventing the pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic trees based on hexon, fiber, and E4 sug- early region 4 (E4) (unpub. (cdc.gov)
  • result suggests fiber and E4 ORF 6/7 peptides participate in the evolution of Ad7. (cdc.gov)
  • Fiber and E4 ORF 6/7 peptides were chosen for study because of close proximity to a mutation site at 0.93 map units, and hexon and E3 peptides were chosen because of their reported genetic heterogeneities. (cdc.gov)
  • Adenovirus (AdV) encodes proteins from the early E4 region which are necessary for productive infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our outcomes showed which the plant-produced ACE2-Fc fusion proteins can bind towards the RBD and inhibit SARS-CoV-2 an infection and commercially synthesized by Genewiz, Suzhou, China. (cxcr-antagonist.com)
  • The ability of hTK to phosphorylate-activate Akt/protein kinase B (Akt-B) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) was also determined. (uniss.it)
  • RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED CHEMISTRY 78 (1): 130-136 JAN 2005Wiseman RL, Johnson SM, Kelker MS, Foss T, Wilson IA, Kelly JW (2005) Kinetic stabilization of an oligomeric protein by a single ligand binding event. (rebuildinglifegardens.com)
  • BAK activation induces apoptosis by cooligomerizing with another proapoptotic protein, BAX. (wikipedia.org)
  • c.376A>G, (p.Ser126Gly) Alpha-Galactosidase A mutation induces ER stress, unfolded protein response and reduced enzyme trafficking to lysosome: Possible relevance in the pathogenesis of late-onset forms of Fabry Disease. (harvard.edu)
  • A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were tranformed with human adenovirus type 5. (harvard.edu)
  • This product is a concentrated source of highly-purified Adenovirus type 5 particles from a lysate of optimally-infected 293 cells, with an E1 and E3 deletion. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • This recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expresses green fluorescent protein under the control of a CMV promoter. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • VSVG is a broad tropism envelope protein that can also be pseudotyped to alter infectivity. (addgene.org)
  • Muscular endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A mRNA and protein content were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. (uniss.it)
  • The place created ACE2-Fc fusion proteins was used being a theraputic agent to avoid the connection of trojan to web host cell by getting together with SARS-CoV-2 RBD Clindamycin (Amount 1B). (cxcr-antagonist.com)
  • Exosomal proteins as prognostic biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer. (revistanct.org.mx)
  • Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors. (novusbio.com)
  • Mutations originate from replication errors, nucleic acid damage, and editing of the genetic material by host-encoded proteins or by specialized molecular systems such as diversity-generating retro-elements (DGRs). (springer.com)
  • In this study, we investigate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the GBP510 protein subunit vaccine adjuvanted with AS03, which has recently been authorized for marketing in South Korea under the trade name SKYCovioneTM. (bvsalud.org)
  • E1B proteins work to prevent apoptosis that is induced by the small adenovirus E1A protein, which stabilizes p53, a tumor suppressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since its growth requires coinfection by adenovirus or herpesvirus, AAV is low infective. (justia.com)
  • These two proteins are needed to block apoptosis in adenovirus-infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • We note distinct differences between the somatic and germline nuclei, with many functional proteins being highly enriched in one of the two nuclei. (bvsalud.org)
  • Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing IG domain. (embl.de)
  • The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with IG domain is also avaliable . (embl.de)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing IG domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
  • Using proteomics, we evaluate protein interactors of A3A to identify potential regulators. (bvsalud.org)
  • The haplotype combination at the two SNPs results in three apoE protein isoforms: apoE2 (Cys112, Cys158), apoE3 (Cys112, Arg158), and apoE4 (Arg112, Arg158). (frontiersin.org)

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