Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Adenovirus E4 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.Adenovirus E1B Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.Adenovirus E3 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Adenovirus Infections, Human: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.Adenovirus E2 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.Adenoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mastadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).Adenoviruses, Canine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.E1A-Associated p300 Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Adenoviruses, Porcine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Aviadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Fowl adenovirus A: The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Keratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Papillomavirus E7 Proteins: ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Adenovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.PhosphoproteinsTransgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Genes, Retinoblastoma: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.DNA, Concatenated: Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.DNA Tumor Viruses: DNA viruses producing malignant tumors. Of the six major groupings of DNA viruses four contain members which are actually or potentially oncogenic: the Adenoviridae, the Herpesviridae, the Papovaviridae, and the Poxviridae.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Mice, Inbred BALB CGenes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Cell Nucleus Structures: Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.p300-CBP Transcription Factors: A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).ConjunctivitisE2F2 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Atadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.G-Box Binding Factors: A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Rats, Inbred F344Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Tropism: The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
(1/171) Development of porcine adenovirus-3 as an expression vector.

Porcine adenovirus-3 (PAV-3) was developed as an expression vector using homologous recombination in Escherichia coli BJ 5183. As a prerequisite, the complete genome of PAV-3 was first introduced as a PacI restriction fragment into a bacterial plasmid. The plasmid, when PacI restricted and transfected into swine testicular cells, produces an infectious virus. The potential of this procedure was demonstrated by the construction of several PAV-3 recombinants. Part of the E3 region, which is nonessential for virus replication under cell culture conditions, was identified and deleted from the virus genome. The gene for glycoprotein D (gD) of pseudorabies virus (PRV), which elicits PRV-neutralizing antibodies in pigs, was cloned and expressed from the E3 region of PAV-3. A 50 kDa polypeptide was identified in recombinant PAV-3-infected cell lysates by immunoprecipitation assays using gD-specific monoclonal antibodies. In another experiment, a region between the right inverted terminal repeat and the promoter of the E4 region was used to clone and express the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene under the control of SV40 immediate early promoter. CAT gene expression was observed irrespective of the orientation of the CAT gene. These results indicate that the helper-independent recombinant PAV-3 could be used as an expression vector and has potential as a recombinant vaccine vector in pigs.  (+info)

(2/171) Transcription mapping and characterization of 284R and 121R proteins produced from early region 3 of bovine adenovirus type 3.

We established the transcription map of early region (E) 3 of bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV-3) by Northern blot, S1 nuclease protection assays, cDNA sequencing, and RT-PCR analysis. Five major classes of mRNAs were identified, which shared the 3' ends. Four classes of mRNAs transcribed from the E3 promoter also shared the 5' end, while one major class of mRNA transcribed from the major late promoter contained a tripartite leader sequence at the 5' end. These five transcripts have the potential to encode four proteins, namely 284R, 121R, 86R, and 82R. To identify the proteins, rabbit antiserum was prepared using a bacterial fusion protein encoding 284R or 121R protein. Serum against 284R immunoprecipitated protein of 26-32 kDa in in vitro translated and transcribed mRNA and three proteins of 48, 67, and 125 kDa from BAV-3-infected cells. Western blots and enzymatic digestions confirmed that the 284R protein is a glycoprotein, which contains only N-linked oligosaccharides, both high mannose (48 kDa) and complex types (67 kDa). Serum against 121R immunoprecipitated a protein of 14.5 kDa from in vitro translated and transcribed mRNA and BAV-3-infected cells. Although 121R protein shows limited sequence similarity to a 14.7-kDa protein of human adenovirus 5, the 284R protein appears to be unique to BAV-3. Since proteins encoded by the E3 region appear to influence adenovirus pathogenesis, the 284R protein may contribute to the unique pathogenic properties of BAV-3.  (+info)

(3/171) Novel role for E4 region genes in protection of adenovirus vectors from lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

Target cells infected with adenovirus (Ad) vectors containing intact E3 and E4 regions were found to be relatively resistant to lysis by Ad-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Elements from both the E3 and the E4 regions were required for this effect, leading to the identification of a previously undescribed role for E4 gene products in resistance to cytolysis.  (+info)

(4/171) Cutting edge: adenovirus E19 has two mechanisms for affecting class I MHC expression.

Viral strategies for immune evasion include inhibition of various steps in the class I MHC assembly pathway. Here, we demonstrate that adenovirus produces one gene product with a dual function in this regard. It is well established that adenovirus E19 binds class I molecules and retains them in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, E19 also delays the expression of class I alleles to which it cannot tightly bind. Here, we show that E19 binds TAP and acts as a tapasin inhibitor, preventing class I/TAP association. DeltaE19, an E19 mutant lacking the ER-retention signal, delays maturation of class I molecules, indicating that E19's inhibition of class I/TAP interaction is sufficient to delay class I expression. These data identify tapasin inhibition as a novel mechanism of viral immune evasion and suggest that, through this secondary mechanism, adenovirus can affect Ag presentation by MHC alleles that it can only weakly affect by direct retention.  (+info)

(5/171) Mucosal immunization of calves with recombinant bovine adenovirus-3: induction of protective immunity to bovine herpesvirus-1.

To determine the potential of replication-competent (E3-deleted) bovine adenovirus-3 (BAV-3) as a delivery system for vaccine antigens in calves, we evaluated the ability of recombinant BAV-3 expressing different forms of of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein gD to protect against BHV-1 infection in calves that had pre-existing BAV-3 specific antibodies. Three- to four-month-old calves, vaccinated intranasally with recombinant BAV-3 expressing full-length gD (BAV3.E3gD) or a truncated version of gD (gDt) (BAV3.E3gDt), or with E3-deleted BAV-3 (BAV3.E3d; control), were challenged with BHV-1 strain 108. Vaccination with BAV3.E3gD or BAV3.E3gDt induced gD-specific antibody responses in serum and nasal secretions, and primed calves for gD-specific lymphoproliferative responses. In addition, all calves developed complement-independent neutralizing antibodies against BHV-1. Protection against viral challenge was observed in calves vaccinated with recombinant BAV3.E3gD or BAV3.E3gDt as shown by a significant reduction in body temperature and clinical disease, and a partial reduction in the amount and duration of virus excretion in nasal secretions. These results indicate that replication-competent BAV-3-based vectors can induce protective immune responses in calves (the natural host) that have pre-existing BAV-3-specific antibodies.  (+info)

(6/171) Generation of an adenovirus vector lacking E1, e2a, E3, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3.

Toxicity and immunity associated with adenovirus backbone gene expression is an important hurdle to overcome for successful gene therapy. Recent efforts to improve adenovirus vectors for in vivo use have focused on the sequential deletion of essential early genes. Adenovirus vectors have been constructed with the E1 gene deleted and with this deletion in combination with an E2a, E2b, or E4 deletion. We report here a novel vector (Av4orf3nBg) lacking E1, E2a, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3 (ORF3) and expressing a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. This vector was generated by transfection of a plasmid carrying the full-length vector sequence into A30.S8 cells that express E1 and E2a but not E4. Production was subsequently performed in an E1-, E2a-, and E4-complementing cell line. We demonstrated with C57BL/6 mice that the Av4orf3nBg vector effected gene transfer with an efficiency comparable to that of the Av3nBg (wild-type E4) vector but that the former exhibited a higher level of beta-galactosidase expression. This observation suggests that E4 ORF3 alone is able to enhance RNA levels from the beta-galactosidase gene when the Rous sarcoma virus promoter is used to drive transgene expression in the mouse liver. In addition, we observed less liver toxicity in mice injected with the Av4orf3nBg vector than those injected with the Av3nBg vector at a comparable DNA copy number per cell. This study suggests that the additional deletion of E4 in an E1 and E2a deletion background may be beneficial in decreasing immunogenicity and improving safety and toxicity profiles, as well as increasing transgene capacity and expression for liver-directed gene therapy.  (+info)

(7/171) Novel expression of mouse adenovirus type 1 early region 3 gp11K at late times after infection.

Mutations were introduced into mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) early region 3 (E3) initiator codons by homologous recombination between viral DNA and a plasmid containing a mutagenized E3 region. The resulting mutant virus, pmE312, contained ATG --> TTA mutations at codon positions 1 and 4 and was expected to be null for the expression of the E3 proteins. However, gp11K, an MAV-1 E3 glycoprotein of 14K molecular weight, was detected in mutant-infected cell lysates at levels about 10-12% of that of wild-type (wt) virus at late times in infection. The gp11K polypeptide produced by pmE312 at late times was immunoprecipitated with two E3-specific antisera prepared against different regions of the protein. Like gp11K produced by wt virus infections, it was sensitive to endoglycosidase H (endo H) and thus resident in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In pmE312-infected cells treated with cytosine arabinoside (araC), an inhibitor of DNA replication, the gp11K protein was not detected by immunoprecipitation. This indicates that gp11K expression in pmE312-infected cells at late times was dependent on DNA replication and that it was thus translated from a late transcript. In vitro translation of poly(A)+ RNA from mock-, wild-type-, and pmE312-infected cells showed that gp11K was translated from late mRNA as an approximately 28K fusion between a late protein and gp11K. Our data are consistent with a model in which gp11K is expressed at late times as a late protein-gp11K chimera in both wt- and mutant-infected cells. This chimera is then processed: removal of a large N-terminal sequence results in the observed 14K ER-localized gp11K.  (+info)

(8/171) Reduced toxicity, attenuated immunogenicity and efficient mediation of human p53 gene expression in vivo by an adenovirus vector with deleted E1-E3 and inactivated E4 by GAL4-TATA promoter replacement.

A recombinant adenovirus with deleted E1 and E3, and E4-inactivated by replacing the E4 promoter with a synthetic promoter composed of a minimal TATA box and five consensus yeast GAL4-binding site elements was developed and used to express the human tumor suppresser gene p53. The toxicity and immunogenicity of this vector and vector-mediated p53 gene expression in vivo were studied in immunocompetent C3H and C57BL/6 mice. Expression of the late viral gene product, hexon protein, was observed in C3H and C57BL/6 mice injected with E4 wild-type adenovirus constructs Adv-cmv-beta-Gal (BG), Adv-cmv-hp53 (WT), and empty E1- vector Adv-E4 (EW) 3 to 28 days after injection, but was undetectable in mice treated with E4 modified empty E1- vector Adv-GAL4 (EG) or Adv-cmv-hp53-GAL4 (G4). Expression of the p53 gene was observed in both WT- and G4-injected C3H and C57BL/6 mouse livers from days 3 to 28. Ten weeks after injection, p53 gene expression was still detected in G4-treated C57BL/6 mice at similar levels, but was not detectable in WT-treated mice. Vector-induced liver toxicity was evaluated by analyzing serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT) activities. In all cases, SGOT and SGPT activities were markedly decreased in EG-treated C3H and C57BL/6 mice compared with those in EW-treated mice on days 3, 7 and 14 after injection. In C57BL/6 mice, the total anti-adenoviral CTL activities were two- to three-fold higher in animals treated with EW vector than in those treated with EG vector. These results suggest that inactivation of the E4 promoter efficiently diminished the viral replication and the late viral gene expression, reduced host immune response and consequently reduced toxicity and prolonged the duration of transgene expression in vivo.  (+info)

*  Adenovirus genome
Membrane protein E3 RID-alpha and membrane protein E3 RID-beta performs a variety of molecular functions that contribute to ... "PHA3615: E3 gp19K protein". NCBI. Retrieved 2013-01-17. "PHA3613: E3 14.7K protein". NCBI. Retrieved 2013-01-17. "PHA3605: ... The functions of many adenovirus proteins are known: Structural proteins include capsid proteins II (hexon), III (penton base ... Control protein E3 14.7K protects the virus from host antiviral responses. The control proteins of the E4 transcription unit ...
*  PTPRC
In addition, CD45 was shown to be the target of the species D adenovirus 19a E3/49K protein to inhibit the activation of NK and ... A unique secreted adenovirus E3 protein binds to the leukocyte common antigen CD45 and modulates leukocyte functions. Proc Natl ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling ... "Specific isoforms of the resident endoplasmic reticulum protein glucosidase II associate with the CD45 protein-tyrosine ...
*  MAD2L2
Ying B, Wold WS (2003). "Adenovirus ADP protein (E3-11.6K), which is required for efficient cell lysis and virus release, ... Mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAD2L2 gene. MAD2L2 is a ... "Trichosanthin interacts with acidic ribosomal proteins P0 and P1 and mitotic checkpoint protein MAD2B". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (7 ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.776)
... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus ... adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.060 - adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.070 - adenovirus e3 ... adenovirus E1 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050.100 - adenovirus E1A proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050.110 - ... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.100 - adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - ...
*  Optineurin
"Interaction of an adenovirus E3 14.7-kilodalton protein with a novel tumor necrosis factor alpha-inducible cellular protein ... Optineurin interacts with adenovirus E3-14.7K protein and may utilize tumor necrosis factor-alpha or Fas-ligand pathways to ... Optineurin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPTN gene. This gene encodes the coiled-coil containing protein ... and transcription factor IIIA proteins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein ...
*  Cyclin E1
Li Y, Graham C, Lacy S, Duncan AM, Whyte P (1994). "The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of the ... G1/S-specific cyclin-E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNE1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ... This protein was found to associate with, and be involved in, the phosphorylation of NPAT protein (nuclear protein mapped to ... Li Y, Graham C, Lacy S, Duncan AM, Whyte P (December 1993). "The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a ...
*  Immortalised cell line
... the adenovirus type 5 E1 gene was used to immortalize the HEK 293 cell line). Artificial expression of key proteins required ... from testing toxicity of compounds or drugs to production of eukaryotic proteins. While immortalized cell lines often originate ...
*  Svante Pääbo
He earned his PhD from Uppsala University in 1986 for research investigating how the E19 protein of adenoviruses modulates the ... How the E19 protein of adenoviruses modulates the immune system (PhD thesis). Uppsala University. ISBN 9155419216. OCLC ...
*  VA RNA
These two VA RNA genes are distinct genes in the adenovirus genome. VA RNAI is the major species with VA RNAII expressed at a ... VAI stimulates the translation of both early and late viral genes including E3 and hexon. VAII does not stimulate translation. ... VAI RNA functions as a decoy RNA for the double stranded RNA activated protein kinase R which would otherwise phosphorylate ... The VA (viral associated) RNA is a type of non-coding RNA found in adenovirus. It plays a role in regulating translation. There ...
*  WWP1
The encoded protein belongs to a family of NEDD4-like proteins, which are E3 ubiquitin-ligase molecules and regulate key ... "Adenovirus protein involved in virus internalization recruits ubiquitin-protein ligases". Biochemistry. 41 (48): 14299-305. doi ... NEDD4-like E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase WWP1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the WWP1 gene. WW domain-containing ... "Entrez Gene: WWP1 WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D23)
... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 --- adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 --- adenovirus e3 proteins ... adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062 --- antigens, viral, tumor MeSH D23.050.327.062.045 --- adenovirus e1a proteins ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.050 --- adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.090 --- antigens, ... ephrin-a3 MeSH D23.348.479.500.400 --- ephrin-a4 MeSH D23.348.479.500.500 --- ephrin-a5 MeSH D23.348.479.500.600 --- ephrin-b1 ...
*  YY1
... and relief of repression by adenovirus E1A protein". Cell. 67 (2): 377-88. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90189-6. PMID 1655281. Zhu ... Park K, Atchison ML (Nov 1991). "Isolation of a candidate repressor/activator, NF-E1 (YY-1, delta), that binds to the ... YY1 is a ubiquitously distributed transcription factor belonging to the GLI-Kruppel class of zinc finger proteins. The protein ... "Relief of YY1 transcriptional repression by adenovirus E1A is mediated by E1A-associated protein p300". Genes & Development. 9 ...
*  WWP2
NEDD4-liثثبقثke E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase WWP2 also known as atrophin-1-interacting protein 2 (AIP2) or WW domain-containing ... "Adenovirus protein involved in virus internalization recruits ubiquitin-protein ligases". Biochemistry. 41 (48): 14299-305. doi ... The family of proteins is known to possess ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. The encoded protein contains 4 tandem WW domains ... "Latent membrane protein 2A of Epstein-Barr virus binds WW domain E3 protein-ubiquitin ligases that ubiquitinate B-cell tyrosine ...
*  S100A10
"Induction of endogenous genes following infection of human endothelial cells with an E1(-) E4(+) adenovirus gene transfer ... S100 calcium-binding protein A10 (S100A10), also known as p11, is a protein that is encoded by the S100A10 gene in humans and ... The S100 protein is implicated in exocytosis and endocytosis by reorganization of F-actin. The p11 protein is linked with the ... As a member of the S-100 family, its structure resembles that of the S-100A1 and S-100B proteins. This class of proteins has ...
*  HEK 293 cells
... system Isoform-selective protein kinase C agonist Interaction between two proteins Nuclear export signal in a protein A more ... E1 and E3) are deleted, such as AdEasy. An important variant of this cell line is the 293T cell line. It contains the SV40 ... and could be preferentially transformed by adenovirus. Adenoviruses transform neuronal lineage cells much more efficiently than ... The cells were cultured by van der Eb; the transformation by adenovirus was performed by Frank Graham, a post-doc in van der ...
*  Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor
Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXADR gene. The protein encoded by ... doi:10.1161/01.RES.0000218041.41932.e3. PMID 16543498. Lim BK, Xiong D, Dorner A, Youn TJ, Yung A, Liu TI, Gu Y, Dalton ND, ... "Entrez Gene: CXADR coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor". "Protein sequence of human CXADR (Uniprot ID: P78310)". Cardiac ... Law LK, Davidson BL (Jan 2002). "Adenovirus serotype 30 fiber does not mediate transduction via the coxsackie-adenovirus ...
*  Mydicar
99:e3-e9. Meyer M, Schillinger W; Pieske B, Holubarsch C, Heilmann C, Posival H, et al. (1995). "Alterations of sarcoplasmic ... AAVs also produce less of an immune response than alternative viral vehicles, such as adenoviruses. AAVs have been studied in ... the viral vector can insert itself into the genome and increase expression of the SERCA2a protein. Delivering the gene via an ... reticulum proteins in failing human dilated cardiomyopathy". Circulation. 92:778-784.. ...
*  UBE2I
In a second step, an E1 activating complex binds to SUMO at its di-glycine and passes it on to the E2 protein Ubc9, where it ... Hateboer G, Hijmans EM, Nooij JB, Schlenker S, Jentsch S, Bernards R (1996). "mUBC9, a novel adenovirus E1A-interacting protein ... This process can be assisted by an E3 ligase protein. The sumoylation process is reversible. SENP proteases can remove SUMO ... For example, sumoylation may affect a protein's localization in the cell, its ability to interact with other proteins or DNA. ...
*  Short linear motif
... the Adenovirus protein E1A. Pathogenic bacteria also mimic host motifs (as well as having their own motifs), however, not to ... Stability - A subset of docking motifs recruit E3 ubiquitin ligase to their substrates. The resulting polyubiquitination ... are short stretches of protein sequence that mediate protein protein interaction. The first definition was given by Tim Hunt: " ... Linear motif mediated protein-protein interactions have shown promise in recent years as novel drug targets. Success stories ...
*  Cyclin-dependent kinase 2
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of Ser/Thr protein kinases. This protein ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, CDK2AP1, CDKN1B CDKN3, CEBPA, Cyclin A1, Cyclin E1, Flap ... and adenovirus E1A-associated p33 kinase". Nature. 353 (6340): 174-7. doi:10.1038/353174a0. PMID 1653904. "Entrez Gene: CDK2 ... This protein associates with and is regulated by the regulatory subunits of the complex including cyclin E or A. Cyclin E binds ...
*  LNX1
"The Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) forms a complex with the PDZ domain-containing protein ligand-of-numb protein- ... E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase LNX is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the LNX1 gene. LNX1 has been shown to interact with ... "c-Src is a PDZ interaction partner and substrate of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Ligand-of-Numb protein X1". FEBS Letters. 581 (26 ... "Np9 protein of human endogenous retrovirus K interacts with ligand of numb protein X". Journal of Virology. 78 (19): 10310-9. ...
*  Centrifugation
By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... Berkowitz, S.A., Philo, J.S. Monitoring the Homogeneity of Adenovirus Preparations (a Gene Therapy Delivery System) Using ... 277(31): e1-e2. ... One protein being investigated at the time was hemoglobin. It ... Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ...
*  ATF3
"Altered AP-1/ATF complexes in adenovirus-E1-transformed cells due to EIA-dependent induction of ATF3". Oncogene. 12 (5): 1025- ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... ATF3 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) FactorBook ATF3 This article ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-3 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF3 gene. Activating ...
*  Minigene
... proteins and small ribonucleoproteins (snRNP). Proteins encoded by aberrantly spliced pre-mRNAs are functionally different and ... The mRNA (-E3) encodes a truncated form of hGH that then inhibits normal hGH secretion. Minigenes were used to determine that a ... RNA splicing was discovered in the late 1970s through the study of adenoviruses that invade mammals and replicate inside them. ... Tau protein isoforms are created by alternative splicing of exons 2, 3 and 10. The regulation of tau splicing is specific to ...
*  Retinoblastoma-like protein 2
... has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, BRF1 C-Raf, Cyclin E1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, HDAC1, ... Li Y, Graham C, Lacy S, Duncan AM, Whyte P (Dec 1993). "The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of ... Li Y, Graham C, Lacy S, Duncan AM, Whyte P (Dec 1993). "The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of ... Retinoblastoma-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBL2 gene. ...
*  Thomas Henry Flewett
He also identified two new species of adenoviruses (later called types 40 and 41), as well as confirming the presence of ... Hand, foot, and mouth disease' associated with Coxsackie A5 virus. J Clin Pathol. 1963 Jan;16:53-5. Kapikian, AZ; Wyatt, RG; ... were thought to have a double protein outer coat. The early research papers from the 1970s use both names. Flewett did much ...
Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein legal definition of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein  Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein legal definition of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein
What is Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein? Meaning of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein as a legal term. What does Adenovirus ... E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein mean in law? ... Definition of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein in the Legal ... Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein legal definition of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein https://legal-dictionary. ... redirected from Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. See: dislodge, eject, evict ...
more infohttps://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Adenovirus+E3+10.4K%2F14.5kD+Protein
Structural and functional annotation of hypothetical proteins of human adenovirus: prioritizing the novel drug targets | BMC...  Structural and functional annotation of hypothetical proteins of human adenovirus: prioritizing the novel drug targets | BMC...
We found that these proteins may act as DNA terminal protein, DNA polymerase, DNA binding protein, adenovirus E3 region protein ... HP contains Adenovirus E3 region protein CR2 and Adenovirus E3 region protein CR1 motifs along with one conserved structural ... Human adenovirusHypothetical proteinsFunction annotationDNA terminal proteinDNA polymeraseDNA binding protein ... This computed extinction coefficient can be helpful for quantitatively studying protein-ligand and protein-protein interaction ...
more infohttps://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13104-017-2992-z
Improved adenoviral vector for vascular gene therapy : beneficial effects on vascular function and inflammation. - CLAHRC  Improved adenoviral vector for vascular gene therapy : beneficial effects on vascular function and inflammation. - CLAHRC
We conclude that the E1/E4-AV vector is superior to the E1-AV vector for vascular gene therapy because of the prolonged ... To reduce the impact of viral proteins on the gene-modified cells, a second-generation adenoviral vector with an additional ... The E1-AV vector-transduced vessels also demonstrated significantly impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation whereas the E1/E4 ... we directly compared the efficiency of gene transfer to uninjured rabbit carotid arteries using either an E1/E4-AV or an E1-AV ...
more infohttps://www.clahrc-oxford.nihr.ac.uk/publications/105349
TACE Plus Recombinant Human Adenovirus for Hepatocellular Carcinoma - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov  TACE Plus Recombinant Human Adenovirus for Hepatocellular Carcinoma - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Three adenovirus E3 proteins cooperate to evade apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-1 ... Recombinant Human Adenovirus Type 5, an E1B gene deleted adenovirus, is known to have a significant antitumor activity. In ... Drug: Recombinant Human Adenovirus Type 5 Injection After identifying the target artery of HCC, Recombinant Human Adenovirus ... Experimental: TACE Plus Adenovirus After identifying the target artery of HCC, Recombinant Human Adenovirus Type 5 Injection( ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01869088
Intraocular Adenoviral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer in Proliferative Retinopathies | IOVS | ARVO Journals  Intraocular Adenoviral Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer in Proliferative Retinopathies | IOVS | ARVO Journals
A gene transfer vector-cell line system for complete functional complementation of adenovirus early regions E1 and E4. J Virol. ... The delivery of proteins is particularly problematic and may require repeated intraocular injections, which are risky and ... There is one report of toxicity to the retina and RPE after subretinal injection of E1- and partial E3-deleted adenoviral ... Although adenoviral vectors can transduce nondividing cells, it is clear that this type 5 E1-deleted, E3-deleted adenoviral ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2123325
It has been known for some time that the human adenovirus - NF-κB signaling in inflammation and cancer  It has been known for some time that the human adenovirus - NF-κB signaling in inflammation and cancer
... one of a variety of E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes in which a substrate reputation component introduces the prospective proteins ... and one of the most studied examples is the complex formed by the human adenovirus E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins. These proteins ... It has been known for some time that the human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) E4orf6 and Sox18 E1B55K proteins work in concert to ... 2 26 29 60 78 Our group showed that the human adenovirus serotype 5 (Advertisement5) E4orf6 item interacts with many protein ( ...
more infohttp://healthcarecoremeasures.com/2017/01/24/it-has-been-known-for-some-time-that-the-human-adenovirus/
Functional characterization of the human adenovirus pVII protein and non-coding VA RNAI  Functional characterization of the human adenovirus pVII protein and non-coding VA RNAI
2. Human adenovirus infection counteracts the anti-viral activity of the cellular MKRN1 E3 ubiquitin ligase. Open this ... 1. Adenovirus Precursor pVII Protein Stability Is Regulated By Its Propeptide Sequence. Open this publication in new window or ... Human adenovirus (HAdV) is a common pathogen causing a broad spectrum of diseases. HAdV encodes the pVII protein, which is ... Adenovirus encodes for the pVII protein, which interacts and modulates virus DNA structure in the infected cells. The pVII ...
more infohttp://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:1094348
Adenovirus Infection in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation | SpringerLink  Adenovirus Infection in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation | SpringerLink
Adenoviruses (HAdVs) are nonenveloped lytic DNA viruses with 67 different human serotypes. HAdV infection post transplant seems ... Functions and mechanisms of action of the adenovirus E3 proteins. Int Rev Immunol. 2004;23(1-2):75-111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Human CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses to adenovirus capsid proteins. Virology. 2006;350(2):312-22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... T-cell lines specific for peptides of adenovirus hexon protein and devoid of alloreactivity against recipient cells can be ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-28797-3_33
DiVA - Search result  DiVA - Search result
Adenovirus E3 protein modulates leukocyte functions2013In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ... Previous work has identified an RNR protein in yeast, Rnr4p, which is homologous to other R2 proteins but lacks a number of ... This study reveals that structures of unstable transient complexes of interacting proteins and of protein domains are ... protein of the F type, which, like other antibiotic resistance (ARE) ABCF proteins, is thought to bind to antibiotic-stalled ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?p=1&fs=false&language=en&searchType=SIMPLE&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22journalId%22%3A%2215041%22%7D%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&sortOrder2=title_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all
Viral TNF Inhibitors as Potential Therapeutics | SpringerLink  Viral TNF Inhibitors as Potential Therapeutics | SpringerLink
Three adenovirus E3 proteins cooperate to evade apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-1 ... The 10,400-and 14,500-dalton proteins encoded by region E3 of adenovirus form a complex and function together to down-regulate ... Vaccinia virus NIL protein resembles a B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family protein. Protein Sci 2007; 16(1): 118-124.CrossRef ... The adenovirus E3-10.4K/14.5K complex mediates loss of cell surface Fas (CD95) and resistance to Fas-induced apoptosis. J Virol ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4419-1601-3_5
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Ras-related GTP-binding protein A - Q7L523 (RRAGA HUMAN)  RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Ras-related GTP-binding protein A - Q7L523 (RRAGA HUMAN)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... May alternatively act as a cellular target for adenovirus E3-14.7K, an inhibitor of TNF-alpha functions, thereby affecting cell ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q7L523 - Homo sapiens 3 * Q15347 - Homo sapiens no matching PDB entries ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/Q7L523
Publications  Publications
A unique secreted adenovirus E3 protein binds to the leukocyte common antigen CD45 and modulates leukocyte functions. Proc. ... Stark, S.; Flaig, R. M.; Sandusky, M. M.; Watzl, C.: The use of trimeric isoleucine-zipper fusion proteins to study surface- ... Protein Sci. 43 Suppl.: Unit 19.11, 13 pp. (2006). I am interested in this work. ... Liesche, C.; Sauer, P.; Prager, I.; Urlaub, D.; Claus, M.; Eils, R.; Beaudouin, J.; Watzl, C.: Single-fluorescent protein ...
more infohttps://www.ifado.de/immunology/publications/
PTPRC - Wikipedia  PTPRC - Wikipedia
In addition, CD45 was shown to be the target of the species D adenovirus 19a E3/49K protein to inhibit the activation of NK and ... A unique secreted adenovirus E3 protein binds to the leukocyte common antigen CD45 and modulates leukocyte functions. Proc Natl ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling ... "Specific isoforms of the resident endoplasmic reticulum protein glucosidase II associate with the CD45 protein-tyrosine ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PTPRC
Ramachandra M[au] - PubMed - NCBI  Ramachandra M[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Overexpression of adenovirus E3-11.6K protein induces cell killing by both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent mechanisms ... Re-engineering adenovirus regulatory pathways to enhance oncolytic specificity and efficacy.. Ramachandra M, Rahman A, Zou A, ... Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of MMAC1/PTEN to glioblastoma cells inhibits S phase entry by the recruitment of p27Kip1 into ... An oncolytic adenovirus expressing soluble transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor for targeting breast cancer: in ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Ramachandra+M%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50
Adaptation and increased susceptibility to infection associated with constitutive expression of misfolded SP-C | JCB  Adaptation and increased susceptibility to infection associated with constitutive expression of misfolded SP-C | JCB
... including the E3/19k protein of adenovirus (Pahl et al., 1996), middle human hepatitis B surface protein (Meyer et al., 1992), ... Activation of transcription factor NF-κB by the adenovirus E3/19K protein requires its ER retention. J. Cell Biol. 132:511-522. ... SP-C (surfactant protein C) is a transmembrane protein that is synthesized as a 191- or 197-amino acid proprotein by type II ... Secretion of surfactant protein C, an integral membrane protein, requires the N-terminal propeptide. J. Biol. Chem. 276:14658- ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/172/3/395?ijkey=54dff839a4eef48987de13d61f717c51c8bee64d&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Adaptation and increased susceptibility to infection associated with constitutive expression of misfolded SP-C | JCB  Adaptation and increased susceptibility to infection associated with constitutive expression of misfolded SP-C | JCB
... including the E3/19k protein of adenovirus (Pahl et al., 1996), middle human hepatitis B surface protein (Meyer et al., 1992), ... Activation of transcription factor NF-κB by the adenovirus E3/19K protein requires its ER retention. J. Cell Biol. 132:511-522. ... SP-C (surfactant protein C) is a transmembrane protein that is synthesized as a 191- or 197-amino acid proprotein by type II ... Secretion of surfactant protein C, an integral membrane protein, requires the N-terminal propeptide. J. Biol. Chem. 276:14658- ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/172/3/395
The failed HIV Merck vaccine study: a step back or a launching point for future vaccine development? | JEM  The failed HIV Merck vaccine study: a step back or a launching point for future vaccine development? | JEM
... the Merck rAD5 vector is missing only one adenovirus protein (E1) and thus expresses more viral genes than other adenovirus ... Neutralizing antibodies to adenovirus serotype 5 vaccine vectors are directed primarily against the adenovirus hexon protein. J ... The vector used by National Institutes of Health's Vaccine Research Center, for example, lacks both the E1 and E3 protein. ... Adenovirus types 5 and 35 seroprevalence in AIDS risk groups supports type 35 as a vaccine vector. AIDS. 18:1213-1216. ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/205/1/7
Adenovirus Gp19K (IPR006965) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI  Adenovirus Gp19K (IPR006965) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Sequence and functional analysis of the human adenovirus type 7 E3-gp19K protein from 17 clinical isolates.. Virology 197 593- ... Adenovirus Gp19K (IPR006965). Short name: Adenovirus_Gp19K Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Adenovirus Gp19K superfamily ( ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR006965
Mutations in Cx30 that are linked to skin disease and non-syndromic hearing loss exhibit several distinct cellular pathologies ...  Mutations in Cx30 that are linked to skin disease and non-syndromic hearing loss exhibit several distinct cellular pathologies ...
1996). Activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB by the adenovirus E3/19K protein requires its ER retention. J. Cell Biol. ... protein determination kit (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL). Total protein lysates of 50 µg were resolved by SDS-PAGE in 10% ... 2004). Protein folding and quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 16, 343-349. doi:10.1016/j.ceb. ... The aberrant accumulation of misfolded secretory proteins in the ER triggers a process known as the unfolded protein response ( ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/127/8/1751
  • First-generation, E1-deleted adenoviral vectors (E1-AV) can transduce the vascular endothelium with high efficiency, but their use is limited by the resulting acute endothelial injury and the long-term development of intimal hyperplasia. (nihr.ac.uk)
  • To determine whether this E1/E4-AV vector would be useful for vascular gene transfer, we directly compared the efficiency of gene transfer to uninjured rabbit carotid arteries using either an E1/E4-AV or an E1-AV vector encoding beta-galactosidase. (nihr.ac.uk)
  • however, the E1/E4-AV vector gene-modified vessels showed higher beta-galactosidase expression 10 days after gene transfer. (nihr.ac.uk)
  • Importantly, the E1/E4-AV vector produced substantially less endothelial cell activation, less inflammation, and reduced neointimal hyperplasia compared with the E1-AV vector-treated vessels. (nihr.ac.uk)
  • We conclude that the E1/E4-AV vector is superior to the E1-AV vector for vascular gene therapy because of the prolonged transgene expression, reduced vascular inflammation, reduced intimal hyperplasia, and maintenance of normal vasomotor function. (nihr.ac.uk)
  • The purpose was the characterization of 38 randomly retrieved hypothetical proteins through determination of their physiochemical properties, subcellular localization, function, structure and ligand binding sites using various sequence and structure based bioinformatics tools. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Function of six hypothetical proteins P03269, P03261, P03263, Q83127, Q1L4D7 and I6LEV1 were predicted confidently and then used further for structure analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In-silico strategies to annotate the hypothetical proteins are cost effective and fast enough to explore their function. (biomedcentral.com)
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