Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Adenovirus E4 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.Adenovirus E1B Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.Adenovirus E3 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Adenovirus Infections, Human: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.Adenovirus E2 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.Adenoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mastadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).Adenoviruses, Canine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.E1A-Associated p300 Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Adenoviruses, Porcine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Aviadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Fowl adenovirus A: The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Keratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Papillomavirus E7 Proteins: ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Adenovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.PhosphoproteinsTransgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Genes, Retinoblastoma: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.DNA, Concatenated: Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.DNA Tumor Viruses: DNA viruses producing malignant tumors. Of the six major groupings of DNA viruses four contain members which are actually or potentially oncogenic: the Adenoviridae, the Herpesviridae, the Papovaviridae, and the Poxviridae.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Mice, Inbred BALB CGenes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Cell Nucleus Structures: Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.p300-CBP Transcription Factors: A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).ConjunctivitisE2F2 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Atadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.G-Box Binding Factors: A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Rats, Inbred F344Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Tropism: The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.

Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4-induced dephosphorylation inhibits E1A activation of the E2 promoter and E2F-1-mediated transactivation independently of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. (1/111)

Previous studies have shown that the cell cycle-regulated E2F transcription factor is subjected to both positive and negative control by phosphorylation. Here we show that in transient transfection experiments, adenovirus E1A activation of the viral E2 promoter is abrogated by coexpression of the viral E4 open reading frame 4 (E4-ORF4) protein. This effect does not to require the retinoblastoma protein that previously has been shown to regulate E2F activity. The inhibitory activity of E4-ORF4 appears to be specific because E4-ORF4 had little effect on, for example, E4-ORF6/7 transactivation of the E2 promoter. We further show that the repressive effect of E4-ORF4 on E2 transcription works mainly through the E2F DNA-binding sites in the E2 promoter. In agreement with this, we find that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2F-1/DP-1-mediated transactivation. We also show that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2 mRNA expression during virus growth. E4-ORF4 has previously been shown to bind to and activate the cellular protein phosphatase 2A. The inhibitory effect of E4-ORF4 was relieved by okadaic acid, which inhibits protein phosphatase 2A activity, suggesting that E4-ORF4 represses E2 transcription by inducing transcription factor dephosphorylation. Interestingly, E4-ORF4 did not inhibit the transactivation capacity of a Gal4-E2F hybrid protein. Instead, E4-ORF4 expression appears to result in reduced stability of E2F/DNA complexes.  (+info)

Expression of E2A-HLF chimeric protein induced T-cell apoptosis, B-cell maturation arrest, and development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (2/111)

The E2A-HLF fusion gene, generated by t(17;19)(q22;p13) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), encodes a chimeric transcription factor in which the trans-activating domains of E2A are fused to the DNA-binding and dimerization domains of hepatic leukemic factor (HLF). To investigate its biological role, we generated transgenic mice expressing E2A-HLF using Ig enhancer and promoter, which direct transgene expression in cells committed to the lymphoid lineage. The transgenic mice exhibited abnormal development in the thymus and spleen and were susceptible to infection. The thymus contained small numbers of thymocytes, and TUNEL staining showed that higher population of thymocytes were undergoing apoptosis. The spleen exhibited a marked reduction in splenic lymphocytes and the flow cytometric analyses and the in vitro colony formation assays showed that the B-cell maturation was blocked at a very early developmental stage. These findings indicated that the expression of E2A-HLF induced T-cell apoptosis and B-cell maturation arrest in vivo and that the susceptibility of the transgenic mice to infection was due to immunodeficiency. Moreover, several transgenic mice developed acute leukemia, classified as T-ALL based on the surface marker analysis and DNA rearrangements, suggesting that an additional event is required for malignant transformation of lymphoid cells expressing E2A-HLF. Our findings provide insight into the biological function of E2A-HLF in lymphoid development and also its role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Generation of an adenovirus vector lacking E1, e2a, E3, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3. (3/111)

Toxicity and immunity associated with adenovirus backbone gene expression is an important hurdle to overcome for successful gene therapy. Recent efforts to improve adenovirus vectors for in vivo use have focused on the sequential deletion of essential early genes. Adenovirus vectors have been constructed with the E1 gene deleted and with this deletion in combination with an E2a, E2b, or E4 deletion. We report here a novel vector (Av4orf3nBg) lacking E1, E2a, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3 (ORF3) and expressing a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. This vector was generated by transfection of a plasmid carrying the full-length vector sequence into A30.S8 cells that express E1 and E2a but not E4. Production was subsequently performed in an E1-, E2a-, and E4-complementing cell line. We demonstrated with C57BL/6 mice that the Av4orf3nBg vector effected gene transfer with an efficiency comparable to that of the Av3nBg (wild-type E4) vector but that the former exhibited a higher level of beta-galactosidase expression. This observation suggests that E4 ORF3 alone is able to enhance RNA levels from the beta-galactosidase gene when the Rous sarcoma virus promoter is used to drive transgene expression in the mouse liver. In addition, we observed less liver toxicity in mice injected with the Av4orf3nBg vector than those injected with the Av3nBg vector at a comparable DNA copy number per cell. This study suggests that the additional deletion of E4 in an E1 and E2a deletion background may be beneficial in decreasing immunogenicity and improving safety and toxicity profiles, as well as increasing transgene capacity and expression for liver-directed gene therapy.  (+info)

Reduced toxicity, attenuated immunogenicity and efficient mediation of human p53 gene expression in vivo by an adenovirus vector with deleted E1-E3 and inactivated E4 by GAL4-TATA promoter replacement. (4/111)

A recombinant adenovirus with deleted E1 and E3, and E4-inactivated by replacing the E4 promoter with a synthetic promoter composed of a minimal TATA box and five consensus yeast GAL4-binding site elements was developed and used to express the human tumor suppresser gene p53. The toxicity and immunogenicity of this vector and vector-mediated p53 gene expression in vivo were studied in immunocompetent C3H and C57BL/6 mice. Expression of the late viral gene product, hexon protein, was observed in C3H and C57BL/6 mice injected with E4 wild-type adenovirus constructs Adv-cmv-beta-Gal (BG), Adv-cmv-hp53 (WT), and empty E1- vector Adv-E4 (EW) 3 to 28 days after injection, but was undetectable in mice treated with E4 modified empty E1- vector Adv-GAL4 (EG) or Adv-cmv-hp53-GAL4 (G4). Expression of the p53 gene was observed in both WT- and G4-injected C3H and C57BL/6 mouse livers from days 3 to 28. Ten weeks after injection, p53 gene expression was still detected in G4-treated C57BL/6 mice at similar levels, but was not detectable in WT-treated mice. Vector-induced liver toxicity was evaluated by analyzing serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT) activities. In all cases, SGOT and SGPT activities were markedly decreased in EG-treated C3H and C57BL/6 mice compared with those in EW-treated mice on days 3, 7 and 14 after injection. In C57BL/6 mice, the total anti-adenoviral CTL activities were two- to three-fold higher in animals treated with EW vector than in those treated with EG vector. These results suggest that inactivation of the E4 promoter efficiently diminished the viral replication and the late viral gene expression, reduced host immune response and consequently reduced toxicity and prolonged the duration of transgene expression in vivo.  (+info)

Adenovirus-mediated cytotoxicity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. (5/111)

We have studied adenovirus-mediated cytotoxicity after infection of malignant cells obtained from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Our studies indicate that adenoviruses can infect primary CLL cells and that infection of CLL cells with a replication-competent strain of human adenovirus 5 (Ad5dl309) results in cytotoxicity. Adenovirus-mediated cytotoxicity was also seen after infection of CLL cells with a variety of viruses attenuated by mutations in the adenovirus early region 1 (E1) or early region 2 (E2). Even viruses attenuated by deletion of the entire E1 region resulted in cytotoxicity after infection of the CLL cells obtained from some patients. Although there was variability in the degree of cytotoxicity induced by different viruses in different patients cells, a virus with a mutation in the E1B 19K gene resulted in the greatest degree of cytotoxicity in most of the CLL samples tested. These studies demonstrate that infection of CLL cells by attenuated adenoviruses with specific mutations in the E1 or E2 region results in cell death. Attenuated adenoviruses should be developed further as therapeutic agents for patients with CLL.  (+info)

Induction of transformation and p53-dependent apoptosis by adenovirus type 5 E4orf6/7 cDNA. (6/111)

Adenovirus (Ad) E4orf6/7, one of the early gene products of human Ads, forms a stable complex with the cellular transcription factor E2F to activate transcription from the Ad E2 promoter. E2F cDNAs have growth-promoting and apoptosis-inducing activities when overexpressed in cells. We cloned Ad5 E4orf6/7 cDNA in both simian virus 40- and human cytomegalovirus-based expression vectors to examine its transforming and apoptotic activities. The cloned E4orf6/7 collaborated with a retinoblastoma protein (RB)-nonbinding and therefore E2F-nonreleasing mutant of Ad5 E1A (dl922/947) to morphologically transform primary rat cells, suggesting that E2F is an important cellular protein functioning downstream of E1A for transformation. In a G418 colony formation assay, E4orf6/7 was shown to suppress growth of untransformed rat cells. Moreover, a recombinant Ad expressing Ad5 E4orf6/7 induced apoptosis in rat cells when coinfected with wild-type p53-expressing Ad. Mutational analysis of E4orf6/7 revealed that both of the domains required for growth inhibition and transformation by E4orf6/7 lay in the C-terminal region, which is essential for transactivation from the upstream sequence of an E2a promoter containing E2F-binding sites. However, the smallest mutant of E4orf6/7, encoding the C-terminal 59 amino acids, failed to complement the RB-nonbinding dl922/947 mutant despite showing growth inhibition and E2F transactivation activities. Thus, it is suggested that a subregion of E4orf6/7 which is required for growth inhibition and transformation in collaboration with dl922/947 overlaps the transactivation domain of E4orf6/7.  (+info)

An inhibitory switch derepressed by pbx, hox, and Meis/Prep1 partners regulates DNA-binding by pbx1 and E2a-pbx1 and is dispensable for myeloid immortalization by E2a-pbx1. (7/111)

The Pbx/Exd family of homeodomain (HD) proteins contribute to the transcriptional and developmental roles of other Hox and Meis/Prep1/Hth HD proteins through heterodimer formation. E2a-Pbx1 is an oncogenic derrivative of Pbx1 produced by the t(1;19) translocation in pediatric pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. E2a-Pbx1 heterodimerizes with Hox but not with Meis/Prep1 proteins, produces acute myeloid leukemia in mice, and blocks differentiation of cultured murine myeloid progenitors. Here, we characterize negative and positive regulatory sequences that flank the Pbx1 HD and determine their importance for myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1. A 25 residue predicted alpha helix preceding the Pbx1 HD bound the HD and prevented both its binding to DNA and its ability to heterodimerize with Hox proteins. Addition of 39 residues N-terminal to this inhibitory helix exposed a Pbx dimerization interface that orchestrated cooperative DNA-binding of E2a-Pbx1 and all Pbx proteins as homodimers and heterdimers. Sequences inhibiting DNA-binding and mediating Pbx dimerization coincided with those reported to have nuclear export function. An additional 103 residues N-terminal to the Pbx dimerization interface restored heterodimerization with Hox and Meis1/Prep1 proteins. This negative switch domain - comprised of the inhibitory helix and N-terminal regions required for its partner-mediated derepression - was dispensable for myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1. While stabilizing the heterodimer, the 310 helix C-terminal to the Pbx1 HD was also dispensable for the ability of E2a-Pbx1 to heterodimerize with Hox proteins and immortalize myeloblasts. Retention of myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1 proteins lacking all Pbx1 sequences N- or C-terminal to the HD indicates that Hox proteins, or a yet undefined factor that binds the Pbx1 HD and derepresses DNA-binding by the HD, cooperate with E2a-Pbx1 in myeloid immortalization.  (+info)

cAMP-independent activation of the adenovirus type 12 E2 promoter correlates with the recruitment of CREB-1/ATF-1, E1A(12S), and CBP to the E2-CRE. (8/111)

Expression of the transcription unit early region 2 (E2) is of crucial importance for adenoviruses because this region encodes proteins essential for viral replication. Here, we demonstrate that the E1A(12S) protein of the oncogenic adenovirus serotype 12 activates the E2 promoter in dependence of the N terminus and the conserved region 1. Activation is mediated through a cAMP-response element that is bound by CREB-1 and ATF-1. Moreover, the Ad12 E2 promoter is inducible by protein kinase A and repressed by either a dominant-negative cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) mutant or the highly specific protein kinase A inhibitor protein underscoring the participation of CREB-1/ATF-1 in promoter activation. E1A(12S) binds to CREB-1 and ATF-1 in dependence of the N terminus and CR1 and is recruited to the E2 cAMP-response element through both cellular transcription factors. Most interestingly, point mutations revealed that E1A(12S) domains essential for binding to CREB-1/ATF-1 and for activation of the Ad12 E2 promoter are also essential for binding to the CREB-binding protein. Due to these data and results obtained in DNA-dependent protein-protein interaction assays, we propose a model in which the cAMP-independent activation of the Ad12 E2 promoter is mediated through a ternary complex consisting of CREB-1/ATF-1, E1A(12S), and CREB-binding protein, which assembles on the E2 cAMP-response element.  (+info)

Bekyarova, Ganka (2014) Study On Some Possible Liver Damage Mechanisms Related To Oxidative Stress In Experimental Thermal Trauma Conditions And Melatonin Hepatoprotection Role// Проучване на някои възможни механизми за увреждане на черния дроб, свързани с оксидативния стрес в условията на експериментална термична травма и ролята на мелатонина в хепатопротекцията. Post-Doctoral thesis, Medical University of Varna. Decheva, Liubka (2014) Investigation of the regulatory effects of vitamin D analogues on calcium-phosphorus metabolism at renal function replacement // Проучване на регулаторните ефекти на аналози на витамин D върху калциево-фосфорната обмяна при заместване на бъбречната функция. Doctoral thesis, Medical University of ...
Info concerning Southern State Community College winter classes. Browse accredited degree programs online. You can train in as little as two to four years to begin your career as a qualified professional.
Tritico era cultivate in Asia del West approximatemente 10,000 annos ante le presente e era o le prime recolta, o un del prime recoltas cultivate per nostre specie. Tritico einkorn (T. monococcum) e tritico emmer (T. dicoccum) era le prime species cultivate, ma hodie le majoritate de tritico cultivate es T. aestivum (usate pro pan) e le resto es primarimente T. durum, usate pro pasta e bulghur. ...
Tritico era cultivate in Asia del West approximatemente 10,000 annos ante le presente e era o le prime recolta, o un del prime recoltas cultivate per nostre specie. Tritico einkorn (T. monococcum) e tritico emmer (T. dicoccum) era le prime species cultivate, ma hodie le majoritate de tritico cultivate es T. aestivum (usate pro pan) e le resto es primarimente T. durum, usate pro pasta e bulghur. ...
... adenolipomatosis adenolipomatosis ad·e·no·li·po·ma·to·sis (ādn-ō-lĭ-pōmə-tōsĭs) n. A condition marked by the development of multiple adenolipomas.
Pbx3兔多克隆抗体(ab56239)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
ir.ry . r Railway JTpticasy^-. JTEW ZEALAND RAILWAYS. PRINCE OF WALES BIRTHDAY, 1881, All Ordinary Single Fare Tickets issued on Bth and 9th November will be available for return up to and including 10th. W. M. HANNAY, Traffic Superintendent. Traffic Superintendents Office, Dunedin, October 31st, 1881. 5d Business Notices. Orr and Co., JRONMONGERB AND IMPORTERS OF GENERAL MERCHANDISE, Would invite attention to their large and varied Stock, especially to the following lines now landing, viz : Raw and Boiled Oils Genuine White Lead, 281bs and lewt kegs Yarnish in £, and 1 gallons Lamp Black Raddle Seaming Twine Ink Powder Sponge Baths Ranges and Grates American Stoves Fenders and Fire Irons Colonial Ovens Locks and Hinges Preserving Pans E. P. Cruets and Mugs E. P. Pickle Jars Table Cutlery Sheap Shears Turkey Stones Carpenters Tools Builders Ironmongery Furnishing Ironmongery Spades and Forks Shovels and Rakes 100 kegs Wire Nails Wire Netting Barbed Fence Wire Fencing Wire (plain), Nos. 8, ...
Panče Naumov is a native of Macedonia, where he was educated, and worked briefly at Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje. After earning his Ph.D. in chemistry and materials science from Tokyo Institute of Technology in 2004, Dr. Naumov continued his research at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) in Japan. In 2007, he was appointed Associate Professor at Osaka University, where he led a small but very active research group. After a short stint at Kyoto University, in 2012 he joined New York University, where he is now a tenured faculty member at their portal campus in Abu Dhabi, the UAE. His publication portfolio includes over 200 publications that have been cited more than 3300 times, with a current h-index of 32. He has also contributed three book chapters and a couple of academic manuals. At research conferences, he has presented over 300 times and has given about 50 invited talks and 30 invited seminars at various institutions. He is an active reviewer for more than ...
ABF-2014-070 Chroogomphus vinicolor. http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/NamesRecord.asp?RecordID=328195. AgaricomycetesAgaricomycetidaeAgaricomycotinaBasidiomycotaBoletalesFungiGomphidiaceae ...
13 milyon üzerinde projeye sahip dünyanın en büyük serbest çalışma pazarında Php output excel utf8 ile ilgili işler arayın ya da iş verin. Kaydolmak ve işlere teklif vermek ücretsizdir.
I paid my dues some time ago to eliminate ads (e.g. before the sale to the new owner.) Today Ive been inundated with annoying video ads playing over the top of my music. What gives?
... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.060 - adenovirus e2 ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.320 - fusion proteins, ... oncogene protein tpr-met MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045 - adenovirus early proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050 - adenovirus ...
... the proposed connection between a single gene and a single protein enzyme outlived the protein theory of gene structure. In a ... "An amazing sequence arrangement at the 5' ends of adenovirus 2 messenger RNA." Cell 12, no. 1 (September 1977): 1-8. Jan Sapp ( ... However, it was not until the experiments were performed showing that DNA was the genetic material, that proteins consist of a ... In a 1945 review, Beadle suggested that "the gene can be visualized as directing the final configuration of a protein molecule ...
E1A adenovirus protein, and S-HDAg (hepatitis delta virus small delta antigen). p300/CBP have also been observed to acetylate β ... NF-E2, SREBP, IRF2, Sp3, YY1, KLF13, EVI1, BCL6, HNF-4, ER81, and FOXO4 (AFX). The formation of multisubunit complexes has been ... structural proteins, polyamines, and proteins involved in nuclear import. Acetylation of these proteins can alter their ability ... Histones comprise the protein portion of chromatin. There are five different histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. A core ...
The DNA is surrounded by a protein nucleocapsid. This nucleocapsid is surrounded by a tegument made of protein, which in turn ... the latter completely abrogating the ability of a BRLF1 adenovirus vector to induce the lytic form of EBV infection. ... To enter epithelial cells, viral protein BMRF-2 interacts with cellular β1 integrins. Then, viral protein gH/gL interacts with ... The set of proteins and RNAs produced in Latency III transforms the B cell into a proliferating blast (also known as B cell ...
Using adenovirus-expressing SFRP1, impaired the canonical Wnt/Fzd pathway in the early phase of ischemia and as a result ... Smooth muscle cells cultured from the myometrium showed no significant induction of SFRP1 mRNA in response to treatment with E2 ... the SFRP1 netrin-related motif is also found in a range of other proteins that is thought to mediate protein-protein ... Secreted frizzled-related protein 1, also known as SFRP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SFRP1 gene. Secreted ...
"Adenovirus protein involved in virus internalization recruits ubiquitin-protein ligases". Biochemistry. 41 (48): 14299-305. doi ... "Physical and functional interactions between the transactivation domain of the hematopoietic transcription factor NF-E2 and WW ... The encoded protein belongs to a family of NEDD4-like proteins, which are E3 ubiquitin-ligase molecules and regulate key ... This gene encodes a protein which contains 4 tandem WW domains and a HECT (homologous to the E6-associated protein carboxyl ...
In a second step, an E1 activating complex binds to SUMO at its di-glycine and passes it on to the E2 protein Ubc9, where it ... Hateboer G, Hijmans EM, Nooij JB, Schlenker S, Jentsch S, Bernards R (1996). "mUBC9, a novel adenovirus E1A-interacting protein ... For example, sumoylation may affect a protein's localization in the cell, its ability to interact with other proteins or DNA. ... Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. The UBC9 protein ...
Protein loss and high blood pressure, as well as the features on biopsy of the kidney if performed, may predict progression to ... adenovirus, Helicobacter pylori, measles, mumps, rubella, Mycoplasma and numerous others. Drugs linked to HSP, usually as an ... With kidney involvement, there may be a loss of small amounts of blood and protein in the urine (hematuria and proteinuria), ... More than half also have proteinuria (protein in the urine), which in one eighth is severe enough to cause nephrotic syndrome ( ...
Serum biology, c-reactive proteins and leptins, the hormonal pituitary axis, and protein in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) are ... and adenovirus. Several days after symptoms first occur, patients become very tired. In cases that occur after an infection, ...
By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... Berkowitz, S.A., Philo, J.S. Monitoring the Homogeneity of Adenovirus Preparations (a Gene Therapy Delivery System) Using ... 277(31): e1-e2. ... One protein being investigated at the time was hemoglobin. It ... Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ...
Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... Berkowitz, S.A., Philo, J.S. Monitoring the Homogeneity of Adenovirus Preparations (a Gene Therapy Delivery System) Using ... By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... Howlett, G.J., Minton, A.P., Rivas, G. Analytical Ultracentrifugation for the Study of Protein Association and Assembly. ...
... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 --- adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 --- adenovirus e3 proteins ... adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062 --- antigens, viral, tumor MeSH D23.050.327.062.045 --- adenovirus e1a proteins ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.050 --- adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.090 --- antigens, ... hiv core protein p24 MeSH D23.050.327.520.330 --- hiv envelope protein gp41 MeSH D23.050.327.520.350 --- hiv envelope protein ...
E2 protein induces expression of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/activator protein ... Wang N, Verna L, Hardy S, Forsayeth J, Zhu Y, Stemerman MB (September 1999). "Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of c-Jun and c ... April 1999). "Human cytomegalovirus IE1 protein activates AP-1 through a cellular protein kinase(s)". J. Gen. Virol. 80 (4): ... Masuda A, Yoshikai Y, Kume H, Matsuguchi T (November 2004). "The interaction between GATA proteins and activator protein-1 ...
"Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the adenovirus E1A-associated 300-kD protein (p300) reveals a protein with ... "AMF-1/Gps2 binds p300 and enhances its interaction with papillomavirus E2 proteins". J. Virol. 74 (13): 5872-9. doi:10.1128/jvi ... Histone acetyltransferase p300 also known as p300 HAT or E1A-associated protein p300 (where E1A = adenovirus early region 1A) ... This gene encodes the adenovirus E1A-associated cellular p300 transcriptional co-activator protein. EP300 is closely related to ...
Persons with aphthous stomatitis also have circulating lymphocytes which react with peptides 91-105 of heat shock protein 65-60 ... adenovirus, and cytomegalovirus. Some people with aphthous stomatitis may show herpes virus within the epithelium of the mucosa ... polio virus vaccine and prostaglandin E2. By definition, there is no serious underlying medical condition, and most importantly ...
The protein encoded by this gene is found in the nucleus and is a cofactor of DNA polymerase delta. The encoded protein acts as ... Morris GF, Mathews MB (1990). "Analysis of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoter and its response to adenovirus early ... E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme • Helicases, ATPases • Mismatch repair enzymes • Base excision repair enzymes • Nucleotide excision ... Proteins binding to PCNA via the PIP-box are mainly involved in DNA replication whereas proteins binding to PCNA via APIM are ...
The detailed structure of E2 envelope glycoprotein, believed to be the key protein the virus uses to invade liver cells, was ... One effort involved using hepatitis B core antigen modified to carry a hepatitis C protein.[8] In a 2006 study, 60 patients ... Due to the relatively conserved binding region of E2 to the CD81 receptor on the liver cells, this discovery is expected to ... genotypes 1a and 1b and targeting the HCV antigens nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) and 4A (NS4A), as well as NS4B and NS5A ...
E2 facilitates the binding of E1 to the viral origin of replication. E2 also utilizes a cellular protein known as Bromodomain-4 ... Glaunsinger BA, Lee SS, Thomas M, Banks L, Javier R (2000). "Interactions of the PDZ-protein MAGI-1 with adenovirus E4-ORF1 and ... E6 proteins also interact with the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase family) proteins. These proteins, including MAGI ... very hydrophobic proteins that destabilise the function of many membrane proteins in the infected cell. The E5 protein of some ...
The primary structures expressed in these areas are E1 and E2, these proteins are responsible for the replication of the virus. ... Its protein makeup allows it to target four types of HPV. Gardasil contains inactive L1 proteins from four different HPV ... The vaccine is officially called the MEL-1 vaccine but also known as the MVA-E2 vaccine. In a study it has been suggested that ... One such method is a vaccine based on the minor capsid protein L2, which is highly conserved across HPV genotypes.[180] Efforts ...
É outro fármaco antiviral de amplo espectro, inicialmente pensado para tratar infeccións por citomegalovirus e adenovirus, que ... "Ebola Virus Matrix Protein VP40 Uses the COPII Transport System for Its Intracellular Transport". Cell Host & Microbe 3 (3): ... O contacto entre grupos de gorilas é raro, o que indica que a transmisión entre grupos de gorilas é improbable, e que os gromos ... A transmisión por exposición oral e a través da conxuntiva é posible[25] e foi confirmada en primates non humanos.[26] O virus ...
... a zinc-finger protein that shares an epitope with the adenovirus E1A protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (10): 4467-71. ... Rb binds and inhibits E2 promoter-binding-protein-dimerization partner (E2F-DP) dimers, which are transcription factors of the ... The retinoblastoma protein (protein name abbreviated pRb; gene name abbreviated RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that ... ESF-1 to ESF-5 are known to associate with proteins in the pRb-family of proteins while ESF-6 and ESF-7 are independent of pRb ...
It delivers a functional copy of the p53 gene using an engineered adenovirus. Certain pathogens can also affect the p53 protein ... Bernier-Villamor V, Sampson DA, Matunis MJ, Lima CD (February 2002). "Structural basis for E2-mediated SUMO conjugation ... Mutant p53 proteins often fail to induce MDM2, causing p53 to accumulate at very high levels. Moreover, the mutant p53 protein ... In addition to the full-length protein, the human TP53 gene encodes at least 15 protein isoforms, ranging in size from 3.5 to ...
The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.[95] Some ... these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor-suppressing proteins.[74] These tumor-suppressing proteins regulate the ... PROTEINS: Structure, Function, and Genetics 50, 44-48.. *^ Chen Y. L.; Li Q. Z. (2007). "Prediction of apoptosis protein ...
negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • ... Schreiber M, Muller WJ, Singh G, Graham FL (1999). "Comparison of the effectiveness of adenovirus vectors expressing cyclin ... regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • oligodendrocyte differentiation. • negative ... Venkataramani R, Swaminathan K, Marmorstein R (1998). "Crystal structure of the CDK4/6 inhibitory protein p18INK4c provides ...
... serves as an E7 mRNA to translate E7 protein.[99] However, viral early transcription subjects to viral E2 regulation and high ... Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus. Rotavirus. Norovirus. Astrovirus. Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA ... The E6/E7 proteins inactivate two tumor suppressor proteins, p53 (inactivated by E6) and pRb (inactivated by E7).[14] The viral ... E6 produces a protein (also called E6) that binds to and inactivates a protein in the host cell called p53. Normally, p53 acts ...
... adenovirus, and cytomegalovirus.[5] Some people with aphthous stomatitis may show herpes virus within the epithelium of the ... Persons with aphthous stomatitis also have circulating lymphocytes which react with peptides 91-105 of heat shock protein 65-60 ... polio virus vaccine and prostaglandin E2.[2] ...
The hexon and fibre proteins are non-covalently linked to the penton base. Adenoviral fibres contain the adenovirus receptor ( ... Benkő, M., Harrach, B., Russel, W.C., Adair, B.M., Ádám, É. & De Jong, J.C., 2005, Family Adenoviridae, in C.M. Fauquet, M.A ... Fowl adenovirus(FAdV) A, Fowl adenovirus B, Fowl adenovirus C, Fowl adenovirus D, Fowl adenovirus E, Goose adenovirus A and ... Restriction enzyme analysis of the L1 loop of the hexon protein. Gel purified PCR products were used for restriction enzyme ...
"Adenovirus E2 Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Adenovirus E2 Proteins" was a major or ... "Adenovirus E2 Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication. ... Adenovirus E2 Proteins*Adenovirus E2 Proteins. *E2 Proteins, Adenovirus. *E2 Protein, Adenovirus ...
"Overexpression and characterization of the 100K protein of Fowl adenovirus-4 as an antiviral target, Virus Research" on ... Ojkic, D.; Nagy, É.. * Estimation of globular protein secondary structure from circular dichroism ... Overexpression and characterization of the 100K protein of Fowl adenovirus-4 as an antiviral target. Shah, Majid Ali; Ullah, ... Adenovirus L4-100K assembly protein is a granzyme B substrate that potently inhibits granzyme B-mediated cell death ...
The adenovirus E4-6/7 protein transactivates the E2 promoter by inducing dimerization of a heteromeric E2F complex. Mol. Cell. ... Adenovirus type 5 E4orf3 protein relieves p53 inhibition by E1B-55-kilodalton protein. J. Virol. 73:2253-2262. ... The large E1B protein together with the E4orf6 protein target p53 for active degradation in adenovirus infected cells. Oncogene ... of accumulation of the E2 72-kDa DNA-binding protein and the E4 Orf 6 protein were similar to those of the E1B 55-kDa protein ( ...
E2, E4, and E5; and a late region with two genes, L1 (major capsid protein) and L2 (minor capsid protein) [17]. These viruses ... HPV is a double-stranded nonenveloped DNA adenovirus, which belongs to a large family of more than 130 genotypes [19, 20]. The ... A large body of evidence suggests that oncogenic properties of high-risk HPV are related to the E6 and E7 proteins and their ... along with abundant expression of the E6 and E7 proteins [17]. In the superficial layers of the epithelium, the L1 and L2 ...
Human adenovirus type 5 vectors deleted of early region 1 (E1) undergo limited expression of early replicative E2 proteins and ... Adenovirus-Mediated Expression of the p14 Fusion-Associated Small Transmembrane Protein Promotes Cancer Cell Fusion and ... A reduction in the human adenovirus virion size through use of a shortened fibre protein does not enhance muscle transduction ... Expression of the fusogenic p14 FAST protein from a replication-defective adenovirus vector does not provide a therapeutic ...
Regulation of adenovirus 12 E1A transcription: E2F and ATF motifs in the E1A promoter bind nuclear protein complexes including ... Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4-induced dephosphorylation inhibits E1A activation of the E2 promoter and E2F-1-mediated ... Independent regions of adenovirus E1A are required for binding to and dissociation of E2F-protein complexes. ... E1A 12S and 13S of the transformation-defective adenovirus type 12 strain CS-1 inactivate proteins of the RB family, permitting ...
The E2 region encodes proteins required for viral replication. Id. at 617. The E3 regionis totally dispensable for growth in ... More specifically, proteins expressed from viral vectors based on DNA viruses, such as adenovirus, simian virus 40, ... Berkner at 620 citing Ghosh-Choudhury, "Protein IX, a Minor Component of the Human Adenovirus Capsid, Is Essential For the ... 255:6947-6953, 1980), pokeweed antiviral protein (Irvin, Pharmac. Ther. 21:371-387,1983), antiviral protein (Barbieri et al., ...
1993) TATA-binding protein and the retinoblastoma gene product bind to overlapping epitopes on c-Myc and adenovirus E1A protein ... In transfection assays, CREG represses transcription and antagonizes 12SE1A-mediated activation of both the adenovirus E2 and ... regulation by retinoblastoma family proteins and adenovirus transforming proteins. Genes Dev. 10:2960-2970. ... 1992) Adenovirus E1A makes two distinct contacts with the retinoblastoma protein. J. Virol. 66:4606-4611. ...
Interestingly, VP22-E2 proteins produced in adenovirus-infected cells are able to enter uninfected cells and induce apoptosis. ... Another possible solution is to use purified E2 proteins or E2 fusion proteins. The herpes simplex virus VP22 protein is one of ... E2 proteins than it is to the HPV 16 E2 protein. Using gel retardation assays, we show that the hierarchy of E2 sites within ... E2 responses were determined by full-length E2-GST ELISA with ELISPOT and proliferation assays using E2 C-terminal protein. As ...
... the proposed connection between a single gene and a single protein enzyme outlived the protein theory of gene structure. In a ... "An amazing sequence arrangement at the 5 ends of adenovirus 2 messenger RNA." Cell 12, no. 1 (September 1977): 1-8. Jan Sapp ( ... However, it was not until the experiments were performed showing that DNA was the genetic material, that proteins consist of a ... In a 1945 review, Beadle suggested that "the gene can be visualized as directing the final configuration of a protein molecule ...
The adenovirus E4-6/7 protein transactivates the E2 promoter by inducing dimerization of a heteromeric E2F complex. Mol. Cell. ... Generation of epitope-tagged derivatives of STE proteins and SPI2-encoded proteins.Secreted and translocated substrate proteins ... an 18-amino-acid peptide of the adenovirus protein E4-6/7, has previously been used to generate fusions to substrate proteins ... A 231-bp SmaI/XbaI fragment encoding the M45 epitope of the adenovirus protein E4-6/7 (16) was kindly provided by W.-D. Hardt ( ...
2004) Vaccination of rabbits with an adenovirus vector expressing the papillomavirus E2 protein leads to clearance of ... One concern in using pigs as an animal model is that AcHERV vectors are coated with HERV envelope protein, not with protein ... HPV L1 protein was detected by first incubating the membranes with primary anti-HPV L1 antibodies (obtained from the serum of ... 2D, lane 4) expressed HPV L1 proteins with an approximate molecular weight of 52 kD. Moreover, pseudoviral HPV L1 was detected ...
Viral transcription units are conventionally referred to as early (E1, E2, E3, and E4) and late, depending on their temporal ... Fifth, some of the new vectors contain a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene incorporated into the adenoviral backbone, ... A simplified system for generating recombinant adenoviruses. Tong-Chuan He, Shibin Zhou, Luis T. da Costa, Jian Yu, Kenneth W. ... A simplified system for generating recombinant adenoviruses. Tong-Chuan He, Shibin Zhou, Luis T. da Costa, Jian Yu, Kenneth W. ...
Timely Synthesis of the Adenovirus Type 5 E1B 55-Kilodalton Protein Is Required for Efficient Genome Replication in Normal ... Viral transcription units are conventionally referred to as early (E1, E2, E3, and E4) and late, depending on their temporal ... The Repression Domain of the E1B 55-Kilodalton Protein Participates in Countering Interferon-Induced Inhibition of Adenovirus ... A simplified system for generating recombinant adenoviruses. Tong-Chuan He, Shibin Zhou, Luis T. da Costa, Jian Yu, Kenneth W. ...
"Induction of immune responses in mice and pigs by oral administration of classical swine fever virus E2 protein expressed in ... Oral and sub-cutaneous vaccination of commercial pigs with a recombinant porcine adenovirus expressing the classical swine ... Dongjin to express a recombinant E2 protein (rE2-TRCs). The expression of the recombinant E2 protein (rE2) in rE2-TRCs was ... In planta production of two peptides of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 glycoprotein fused to the coat protein of ...
We exploited the ability of the adenovirus early region 1 A protein (E1A) oncogene to force the reentry into the cell cycle of ... A subset of these genes was activated through a retinoblastoma protein/E2 viral promoter required factor-independent (pRb/E2F- ...
... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.060 - adenovirus e2 ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.320 - fusion proteins, ... oncogene protein tpr-met MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045 - adenovirus early proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050 - adenovirus ...
In vitro expression of the HPV E2 protein in human primary keratinocytes downregulates the expression of STING and several ... Furthermore, viral oncogenes such as HPV E7 and E1A of human adenovirus A5 were proposed to bind to the N-terminal region of ... E2 proteins of high risk human papillomaviruses down-modulate STING and IFN-kappa transcription in keratinocytes. PLoS One 9(3 ... Zhong B, Yang Y, Li S, Wang YY, Li Y, Diao F, Lei C, He X, Zhang L, Tien P, Shu HB (2008) The adaptor protein MITA links virus- ...
... adenovirus improves tumor cell killing and is more tumor cell specific than expression of the adenoviral death protein. Human ... 3, B and C). A potential explanation for this observation is that the E4 function, such as activation of E2 expression by ... Adenoviruses possess the critical basic properties required for viral oncolysis (3). First, wild-type adenoviruses (Adwt) are ... We have generated novel conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds) targeted to melanoma cells. In these adenoviruses, the ...
These proteins, in addition to their E2 enzyme activity, could potentially function as biological chaperones, transcriptional ... Other pathogens attack components of the SUMOylation machinery of the host, such as Gam1 of adenovirus, which targets and ... The Salmonella virulence protein SifA is a G protein antagonist. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:14141-14146. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... The antibody-bound proteins were then captured using protein A-agarose beads and washed five times with RIPA buffer followed by ...
It was shown that HPV encoded E2 protein is localized predominantly in the nucleus of infected cells. However, in the case of ... Kogan, and A. N. Saprin, Glycolysis in Adenovirus Infected Rat Cell Cultures and in Adenovirus Type 12 Induced Hamster Sarcoma ... Adenoviruses. The ability of adenoviruses to perform the metabolic shift was demonstrated by infection of primary rat embryonic ... strains 18 and 16 the E2 protein can shuttle between cytoplasm and nucleus. It was shown, using mass spectrometry of ...
The viral proteins discussed are the two major KSHV encoded transcription factors, K-Rta and K-bZIP (KSHV basic leucine zipper ... The viral proteins discussed are the two major KSHV encoded transcription factors, K-Rta (KSHV replication and transcriptional ... A large body of work has focused on the activities of the key viral regulatory proteins involved in KSHV latent or lytic states ... A large body of work has focused on the activities of the key viral regulatory proteins involved in KSHV latent or lytic states ...
HPgV E2 amplification included denaturation at 94°C for 5 min followed by 20 cycles of 94°C for 18 s, 55°C for 20 s, 72°C for ... and human adenovirus (HAdV) in CSF samples. We used commercial serologic tests to test CSF and paired serum samples for HHV-1, ... 4 cells/mm2 or protein level ,40 mg/dL). We obtained written informed consent from all patients or from close relatives of ... C. Amino acid E2 region changes in CSF vs serum variants were both within regions predicted to contain T-cell epitopes ...
Removal of viral genes encoding key replication functions (E2 encoded DNA polymerase, DNA binding protein, and the genome ... 1998) Adenovirus E3 proteins: 14.7K, RID, and gp19K inhibit immune-induced cell death; Adenovirus death protein promotes cell ... 2000) Identification of contact residues and definition of the CAR-binding site of adenovirus type 5 fiber protein. J Virol 74: ... 1997) Increased in vitro and in vivo gene transfer by adenovirus vectors containing chimeric fiber proteins. J Virol 71:8221- ...
  • Three members of the STE family, SifA, SifB, and SseJ, were secreted under conditions that also induce secretion of SPI2-encoded substrate proteins. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that oral administration of rE2-TRCs can induce E2-specific immune responses. (deepdyve.com)
  • At the same time, it was also shown that human adenoviruses could induce tumors in newborn hamsters [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Much concern has focused on the direct toxic effects of adenoviruses, particularly as intravenous administration of the virus can induce acute liver injury, as shown in animal models. (bmj.com)
  • Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 10 μM indole-3-carbinol (I3C) for 48 h caused a 3.5-fold induction of E2 2-hydroxylase activity, whereas, I3C at concentrations as high as 100 μM did not induce CYP1A1 mRNA levels or immunoreactive protein. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we report the efficacy of a bivalent human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 DNA vaccine system following repeated dosing in mice and pigs using a recombinant baculovirus bearing human endogenous retrovirus envelope protein (AcHERV) as a vector. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The death in the USA of an 18 year old with ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency after intrahepatic arterial injection of an adenovirus vector carrying a wild-type version of the defective enzyme has precipitated a flurry of reports and congressional hearings focusing on the ethics of such trials and on the very nature of clinical research itself. (bmj.com)
  • We now offer adenovirus vector design, custom cloning and production services. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • So whether you need to create an adenovirus vector from scratch or you wish to optimise an existing system then contact the experts and let us help you. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). (rcsb.org)
  • To address this issue, we developed a marker CSF vaccine rAdV-SFV-E2 based on human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5)/alphavirus replicon chimeric vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 34 magnetic bead-based immunoassays (23 phosphoprotein and 11 total protein targets) have been reformulated and optimized to provide exceptional sensitivity, high specificity, and improved performance over western blot and ELISA methods. (selectscience.net)
  • Effects of mutations in the adenoviral E1B 55-kilodalton protein coding sequence on viral late mRNA metabolism. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The GoStix test, which resembles a pregnancy test but instead detects adenoviral hexon proteins, requires just 20 µl of adenoviral supernatant to determine if infectious virus was produced posttransfection. (clontech.com)
  • This work aimed to study the process of disaggregation of IB and refolding of oligomeric proteins the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) and the globular region of the adenoviral fiber (RGFA) using high hydrostatic pressure. (usp.br)
  • After transfections of such plasmids into a mammalian packaging cell line, viral production is conveniently followed with the aid of green fluorescent protein, encoded by a gene incorporated into the viral backbone. (pnas.org)
  • In order to analyze the relationship between E6*I and full-length E6 in relation to localization, we created a series of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 6. The transgenic mouse of claim 1 , wherein said indicator gene is selected from the group consisting of lacZ, a gene encoding green fluorescent protein and a gene encoding luciferase. (google.com)
  • Twelve weeks after streptozotocin injection, rats in the treatment group were further divided into adenovirus-ACE2, adenovirus-enhanced green fluorescent protein, losartan, and mock groups (n = 20 each). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Conclusions- These results indicate that LQT2 nonsense mutations cause a decrease in mutant mRNA levels by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay rather than production of truncated proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8,12-18 However, it is now becoming clear that nonsense and frameshift mutations bearing PTCs can destabilize mRNA transcripts via a mechanism known as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) in many human diseases, resulting in decreased abundance of mutant mRNA transcripts rather than in production of truncated proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that, for a non-model species, the sequencing of expressed mRNA can generate a protein database for mass spectrometry-based identification. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Humans have three functional analogues of SUMO (SUMO1, SUMO2, and SUMO3) that could be linked to hundreds of different target proteins. (asm.org)
  • The SCF E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex participates in the recognition and recruitment of target proteins for ubiquitination and degradation by the ubiquitin 26S proteasome system (UPS). (mdpi.com)
  • Sumoylation, which consists in the covalent and reversible conjugation of Small Ubiquitin-related Modifiers (SUMO-1, 2 and 3 in mammals) to target proteins, is an essential cellular process from yeasts to mammals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • β-catenin is stabilized by these mutations and activates transcription in part by acting as a bridge between Tcf-LEF proteins and the HD2 domain of the BCL9 coactivator. (duhnnae.com)
  • A CTB é a porção pentamérica não tóxica da CT, responsável pela ligação da holotoxina ao receptor gangliosídeo GM1. (usp.br)
  • Using an epitope-tagging approach, we analyzed secretion of proteins by the TTSS of SPI2 and identified SseF and SseG as further secreted substrate proteins. (asm.org)
  • Until recently, the identities of substrate proteins of the TTSS of SPI2 were unknown. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, growth conditions were defined that trigger the secretion of SPI2 substrate proteins in vitro ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • It has been proposed that SseE, SseF, and SseG are substrate proteins of the TTSS of SPI2 ( 11 ), but so far, there is no experimental evidence for this hypothesis. (asm.org)
  • We were interested in analyzing the secretion of STE proteins and other putative substrate proteins of the TTSS of SPI2 under in vitro conditions. (asm.org)
  • The last step consists in the transfer of SUMO from the E2 to the ε-amino group of a lysine side chain on the substrate, which results in isopeptide bond formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study was designed to test the adjuvant effects of Salmonella enteritidis -derived bacterial ghosts (BG) to enhance the protective immunity of rAdV-SFV-E2 in pigs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study was aimed at evaluating the adjuvant effects of BG to enhance the protective immunity of rAdV-SFV-E2 in pigs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overexpression and high purification yield of the soluble 100K protein was achieved. (deepdyve.com)
  • Elevated cyclin D1 was associated with both HK1.ras/ERK- and Δ5PTEN-mediated AKT signaling, whereas cyclin E2 overexpression seemed dependent on PTEN loss. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Since both the adenovirus E1A protein and transcriptional activation by E2F function to promote cellular proliferation, the results presented here suggest that CREG activity may contribute to the transcriptional control of cell growth and differentiation. (asm.org)
  • It is a multifunctional protein, has RNA binding activity and is known to bind to the Translation initiation complex and prevent cap-dependent translation of cellular messages, thus promoting virus-specific translation which can occur in a cap-independent manner. (grantome.com)
  • The F-box protein is one of the four components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) complex, which mediates ubiquitination of proteins targeted for degradation by the proteasome, playing an essential role in many cellular processes. (mdpi.com)
  • E2 2-hydroxylase activity was also increased by I3C within 2 h after treatment suggesting in situ interactions with the cellular cytochrome P450 system. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Repressor Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Repressor Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Repressor Proteins" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • A ubiquitously expressed sequence-specific transcriptional repressor that is normally the target of signaling by NOTCH PROTEINS. (umassmed.edu)
  • 11. The method of claim 10, wherein inducing activation of the prophage comprises inactivating one or more phage repressor proteins in the bacterial cell. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 13. The method of claim 11, wherein the bacterial cell comprises lambda prophage and inducing activation of the prophage comprises inactivating a temperature-sensitive repressor allele of protein cI in the bacterial cell. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • some virus unique protein expressed (early function) - sometimes latency may be additionally terminated. (palawanboard.com)
  • Anders DG, Gibson W (1988) Location, transcript analysis, and partial nucleotide sequence of the cytomegalovirus gene encoding an early DNA-binding protein with similarities to ICP8 of Herpes simplex virus Type 1. (springer.com)
  • Adenovirus E2 Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Immunoglobulin J Recombination Signal Sequence-Binding Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)