Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.
Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
DNA viruses producing malignant tumors. Of the six major groupings of DNA viruses four contain members which are actually or potentially oncogenic: the Adenoviridae, the Herpesviridae, the Papovaviridae, and the Poxviridae.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.
A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.

Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4-induced dephosphorylation inhibits E1A activation of the E2 promoter and E2F-1-mediated transactivation independently of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. (1/111)

Previous studies have shown that the cell cycle-regulated E2F transcription factor is subjected to both positive and negative control by phosphorylation. Here we show that in transient transfection experiments, adenovirus E1A activation of the viral E2 promoter is abrogated by coexpression of the viral E4 open reading frame 4 (E4-ORF4) protein. This effect does not to require the retinoblastoma protein that previously has been shown to regulate E2F activity. The inhibitory activity of E4-ORF4 appears to be specific because E4-ORF4 had little effect on, for example, E4-ORF6/7 transactivation of the E2 promoter. We further show that the repressive effect of E4-ORF4 on E2 transcription works mainly through the E2F DNA-binding sites in the E2 promoter. In agreement with this, we find that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2F-1/DP-1-mediated transactivation. We also show that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2 mRNA expression during virus growth. E4-ORF4 has previously been shown to bind to and activate the cellular protein phosphatase 2A. The inhibitory effect of E4-ORF4 was relieved by okadaic acid, which inhibits protein phosphatase 2A activity, suggesting that E4-ORF4 represses E2 transcription by inducing transcription factor dephosphorylation. Interestingly, E4-ORF4 did not inhibit the transactivation capacity of a Gal4-E2F hybrid protein. Instead, E4-ORF4 expression appears to result in reduced stability of E2F/DNA complexes.  (+info)

Expression of E2A-HLF chimeric protein induced T-cell apoptosis, B-cell maturation arrest, and development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (2/111)

The E2A-HLF fusion gene, generated by t(17;19)(q22;p13) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), encodes a chimeric transcription factor in which the trans-activating domains of E2A are fused to the DNA-binding and dimerization domains of hepatic leukemic factor (HLF). To investigate its biological role, we generated transgenic mice expressing E2A-HLF using Ig enhancer and promoter, which direct transgene expression in cells committed to the lymphoid lineage. The transgenic mice exhibited abnormal development in the thymus and spleen and were susceptible to infection. The thymus contained small numbers of thymocytes, and TUNEL staining showed that higher population of thymocytes were undergoing apoptosis. The spleen exhibited a marked reduction in splenic lymphocytes and the flow cytometric analyses and the in vitro colony formation assays showed that the B-cell maturation was blocked at a very early developmental stage. These findings indicated that the expression of E2A-HLF induced T-cell apoptosis and B-cell maturation arrest in vivo and that the susceptibility of the transgenic mice to infection was due to immunodeficiency. Moreover, several transgenic mice developed acute leukemia, classified as T-ALL based on the surface marker analysis and DNA rearrangements, suggesting that an additional event is required for malignant transformation of lymphoid cells expressing E2A-HLF. Our findings provide insight into the biological function of E2A-HLF in lymphoid development and also its role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Generation of an adenovirus vector lacking E1, e2a, E3, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3. (3/111)

Toxicity and immunity associated with adenovirus backbone gene expression is an important hurdle to overcome for successful gene therapy. Recent efforts to improve adenovirus vectors for in vivo use have focused on the sequential deletion of essential early genes. Adenovirus vectors have been constructed with the E1 gene deleted and with this deletion in combination with an E2a, E2b, or E4 deletion. We report here a novel vector (Av4orf3nBg) lacking E1, E2a, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3 (ORF3) and expressing a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. This vector was generated by transfection of a plasmid carrying the full-length vector sequence into A30.S8 cells that express E1 and E2a but not E4. Production was subsequently performed in an E1-, E2a-, and E4-complementing cell line. We demonstrated with C57BL/6 mice that the Av4orf3nBg vector effected gene transfer with an efficiency comparable to that of the Av3nBg (wild-type E4) vector but that the former exhibited a higher level of beta-galactosidase expression. This observation suggests that E4 ORF3 alone is able to enhance RNA levels from the beta-galactosidase gene when the Rous sarcoma virus promoter is used to drive transgene expression in the mouse liver. In addition, we observed less liver toxicity in mice injected with the Av4orf3nBg vector than those injected with the Av3nBg vector at a comparable DNA copy number per cell. This study suggests that the additional deletion of E4 in an E1 and E2a deletion background may be beneficial in decreasing immunogenicity and improving safety and toxicity profiles, as well as increasing transgene capacity and expression for liver-directed gene therapy.  (+info)

Reduced toxicity, attenuated immunogenicity and efficient mediation of human p53 gene expression in vivo by an adenovirus vector with deleted E1-E3 and inactivated E4 by GAL4-TATA promoter replacement. (4/111)

A recombinant adenovirus with deleted E1 and E3, and E4-inactivated by replacing the E4 promoter with a synthetic promoter composed of a minimal TATA box and five consensus yeast GAL4-binding site elements was developed and used to express the human tumor suppresser gene p53. The toxicity and immunogenicity of this vector and vector-mediated p53 gene expression in vivo were studied in immunocompetent C3H and C57BL/6 mice. Expression of the late viral gene product, hexon protein, was observed in C3H and C57BL/6 mice injected with E4 wild-type adenovirus constructs Adv-cmv-beta-Gal (BG), Adv-cmv-hp53 (WT), and empty E1- vector Adv-E4 (EW) 3 to 28 days after injection, but was undetectable in mice treated with E4 modified empty E1- vector Adv-GAL4 (EG) or Adv-cmv-hp53-GAL4 (G4). Expression of the p53 gene was observed in both WT- and G4-injected C3H and C57BL/6 mouse livers from days 3 to 28. Ten weeks after injection, p53 gene expression was still detected in G4-treated C57BL/6 mice at similar levels, but was not detectable in WT-treated mice. Vector-induced liver toxicity was evaluated by analyzing serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT) activities. In all cases, SGOT and SGPT activities were markedly decreased in EG-treated C3H and C57BL/6 mice compared with those in EW-treated mice on days 3, 7 and 14 after injection. In C57BL/6 mice, the total anti-adenoviral CTL activities were two- to three-fold higher in animals treated with EW vector than in those treated with EG vector. These results suggest that inactivation of the E4 promoter efficiently diminished the viral replication and the late viral gene expression, reduced host immune response and consequently reduced toxicity and prolonged the duration of transgene expression in vivo.  (+info)

Adenovirus-mediated cytotoxicity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. (5/111)

We have studied adenovirus-mediated cytotoxicity after infection of malignant cells obtained from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Our studies indicate that adenoviruses can infect primary CLL cells and that infection of CLL cells with a replication-competent strain of human adenovirus 5 (Ad5dl309) results in cytotoxicity. Adenovirus-mediated cytotoxicity was also seen after infection of CLL cells with a variety of viruses attenuated by mutations in the adenovirus early region 1 (E1) or early region 2 (E2). Even viruses attenuated by deletion of the entire E1 region resulted in cytotoxicity after infection of the CLL cells obtained from some patients. Although there was variability in the degree of cytotoxicity induced by different viruses in different patients cells, a virus with a mutation in the E1B 19K gene resulted in the greatest degree of cytotoxicity in most of the CLL samples tested. These studies demonstrate that infection of CLL cells by attenuated adenoviruses with specific mutations in the E1 or E2 region results in cell death. Attenuated adenoviruses should be developed further as therapeutic agents for patients with CLL.  (+info)

Induction of transformation and p53-dependent apoptosis by adenovirus type 5 E4orf6/7 cDNA. (6/111)

Adenovirus (Ad) E4orf6/7, one of the early gene products of human Ads, forms a stable complex with the cellular transcription factor E2F to activate transcription from the Ad E2 promoter. E2F cDNAs have growth-promoting and apoptosis-inducing activities when overexpressed in cells. We cloned Ad5 E4orf6/7 cDNA in both simian virus 40- and human cytomegalovirus-based expression vectors to examine its transforming and apoptotic activities. The cloned E4orf6/7 collaborated with a retinoblastoma protein (RB)-nonbinding and therefore E2F-nonreleasing mutant of Ad5 E1A (dl922/947) to morphologically transform primary rat cells, suggesting that E2F is an important cellular protein functioning downstream of E1A for transformation. In a G418 colony formation assay, E4orf6/7 was shown to suppress growth of untransformed rat cells. Moreover, a recombinant Ad expressing Ad5 E4orf6/7 induced apoptosis in rat cells when coinfected with wild-type p53-expressing Ad. Mutational analysis of E4orf6/7 revealed that both of the domains required for growth inhibition and transformation by E4orf6/7 lay in the C-terminal region, which is essential for transactivation from the upstream sequence of an E2a promoter containing E2F-binding sites. However, the smallest mutant of E4orf6/7, encoding the C-terminal 59 amino acids, failed to complement the RB-nonbinding dl922/947 mutant despite showing growth inhibition and E2F transactivation activities. Thus, it is suggested that a subregion of E4orf6/7 which is required for growth inhibition and transformation in collaboration with dl922/947 overlaps the transactivation domain of E4orf6/7.  (+info)

An inhibitory switch derepressed by pbx, hox, and Meis/Prep1 partners regulates DNA-binding by pbx1 and E2a-pbx1 and is dispensable for myeloid immortalization by E2a-pbx1. (7/111)

The Pbx/Exd family of homeodomain (HD) proteins contribute to the transcriptional and developmental roles of other Hox and Meis/Prep1/Hth HD proteins through heterodimer formation. E2a-Pbx1 is an oncogenic derrivative of Pbx1 produced by the t(1;19) translocation in pediatric pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. E2a-Pbx1 heterodimerizes with Hox but not with Meis/Prep1 proteins, produces acute myeloid leukemia in mice, and blocks differentiation of cultured murine myeloid progenitors. Here, we characterize negative and positive regulatory sequences that flank the Pbx1 HD and determine their importance for myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1. A 25 residue predicted alpha helix preceding the Pbx1 HD bound the HD and prevented both its binding to DNA and its ability to heterodimerize with Hox proteins. Addition of 39 residues N-terminal to this inhibitory helix exposed a Pbx dimerization interface that orchestrated cooperative DNA-binding of E2a-Pbx1 and all Pbx proteins as homodimers and heterdimers. Sequences inhibiting DNA-binding and mediating Pbx dimerization coincided with those reported to have nuclear export function. An additional 103 residues N-terminal to the Pbx dimerization interface restored heterodimerization with Hox and Meis1/Prep1 proteins. This negative switch domain - comprised of the inhibitory helix and N-terminal regions required for its partner-mediated derepression - was dispensable for myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1. While stabilizing the heterodimer, the 310 helix C-terminal to the Pbx1 HD was also dispensable for the ability of E2a-Pbx1 to heterodimerize with Hox proteins and immortalize myeloblasts. Retention of myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1 proteins lacking all Pbx1 sequences N- or C-terminal to the HD indicates that Hox proteins, or a yet undefined factor that binds the Pbx1 HD and derepresses DNA-binding by the HD, cooperate with E2a-Pbx1 in myeloid immortalization.  (+info)

cAMP-independent activation of the adenovirus type 12 E2 promoter correlates with the recruitment of CREB-1/ATF-1, E1A(12S), and CBP to the E2-CRE. (8/111)

Expression of the transcription unit early region 2 (E2) is of crucial importance for adenoviruses because this region encodes proteins essential for viral replication. Here, we demonstrate that the E1A(12S) protein of the oncogenic adenovirus serotype 12 activates the E2 promoter in dependence of the N terminus and the conserved region 1. Activation is mediated through a cAMP-response element that is bound by CREB-1 and ATF-1. Moreover, the Ad12 E2 promoter is inducible by protein kinase A and repressed by either a dominant-negative cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) mutant or the highly specific protein kinase A inhibitor protein underscoring the participation of CREB-1/ATF-1 in promoter activation. E1A(12S) binds to CREB-1 and ATF-1 in dependence of the N terminus and CR1 and is recruited to the E2 cAMP-response element through both cellular transcription factors. Most interestingly, point mutations revealed that E1A(12S) domains essential for binding to CREB-1/ATF-1 and for activation of the Ad12 E2 promoter are also essential for binding to the CREB-binding protein. Due to these data and results obtained in DNA-dependent protein-protein interaction assays, we propose a model in which the cAMP-independent activation of the Ad12 E2 promoter is mediated through a ternary complex consisting of CREB-1/ATF-1, E1A(12S), and CREB-binding protein, which assembles on the E2 cAMP-response element.  (+info)

Bekyarova, Ganka (2014) Study On Some Possible Liver Damage Mechanisms Related To Oxidative Stress In Experimental Thermal Trauma Conditions And Melatonin Hepatoprotection Role// Проучване на някои възможни механизми за увреждане на черния дроб, свързани с оксидативния стрес в условията на експериментална термична травма и ролята на мелатонина в хепатопротекцията. Post-Doctoral thesis, Medical University of Varna. Decheva, Liubka (2014) Investigation of the regulatory effects of vitamin D analogues on calcium-phosphorus metabolism at renal function replacement // Проучване на регулаторните ефекти на аналози на витамин D върху калциево-фосфорната обмяна при заместване на бъбречната функция. Doctoral thesis, Medical University of ...
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Tritico era cultivate in Asia del West approximatemente 10,000 annos ante le presente e era o le prime recolta, o un del prime recoltas cultivate per nostre specie. Tritico einkorn (T. monococcum) e tritico emmer (T. dicoccum) era le prime species cultivate, ma hodie le majoritate de tritico cultivate es T. aestivum (usate pro pan) e le resto es primarimente T. durum, usate pro pasta e bulghur. ...
Tritico era cultivate in Asia del West approximatemente 10,000 annos ante le presente e era o le prime recolta, o un del prime recoltas cultivate per nostre specie. Tritico einkorn (T. monococcum) e tritico emmer (T. dicoccum) era le prime species cultivate, ma hodie le majoritate de tritico cultivate es T. aestivum (usate pro pan) e le resto es primarimente T. durum, usate pro pasta e bulghur. ...
Adenolipomatosis definition. adenolipomatosis adenolipomatosis ad·e·no·li·po·ma·to·sis (ādn-ō-lĭ-pōmə-tōsĭs) n. A condition marked by the development of multiple adenolipomas.
Pbx3兔多克隆抗体(ab56239)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
There are several new hot topics in antifungals and antifungal susceptibility testing. In this review, four topics of general interest to the clinical microbiology community are discussed. The first topic is the introduction of isavuconazole, a new t ...
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Okuma ABF-50 Avenger 50 Baitfeeder Reel. or Best Offer. The Avenger ABF uses Okumas live bait feeding system. or Best Offer +C $12.18 shipping; From United States; ... 1 Okuma Part # 25003516 or 25003783 Handle Fits AV-40,AV-50,AB F-40,ABF-50. SORRY, NO ETA, A-1 OKUMA 23180001 12mm REVERSE THREAD ROTOR NUT, A-1 OKUMA 23180003 & 23180015 12mm REVERSE THREAD ROTOR NUT, A-1 OKUMA 23180005 10mm REVERSE THREAD ROTOR NUT, A-1 OKUMA 23180008 14 mm REVERSE THREAD ROTOR NUT. It looks good, however has scuffs and scratches that come from normal use. Cosmetically. ... 25003516 HANDLE ASSY. ebay template Okuma ABF-50 Avenger 50 Baitfeeder Reel. Okuma Avenger ABF Graphite Bait Feeder Reel comes in various sizes - their specifications are given in the following table: 1 Okuma Part # 25005661 Handle Assembly Fits Trio Bf-55 and Abf-50 Upgrade. ... Achat immédiat - Okuma Ceramic Super Tune AVENGER BAITFEEDER ABF-50, ABF-55B Ajouter à votre liste dAffaires à suivre. 920-15 0920401 washer 504 25040004 handle ...
Panče Naumov is a native of Macedonia, where he was educated, and worked briefly at Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje. After earning his Ph.D. in chemistry and materials science from Tokyo Institute of Technology in 2004, Dr. Naumov continued his research at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) in Japan. In 2007, he was appointed Associate Professor at Osaka University, where he led a small but very active research group. After a short stint at Kyoto University, in 2012 he joined New York University, where he is now a tenured faculty member at their portal campus in Abu Dhabi, the UAE. His publication portfolio includes over 200 publications that have been cited more than 3300 times, with a current h-index of 32. He has also contributed three book chapters and a couple of academic manuals. At research conferences, he has presented over 300 times and has given about 50 invited talks and 30 invited seminars at various institutions. He is an active reviewer for more than ...
ABF-2014-070 Chroogomphus vinicolor. http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/NamesRecord.asp?RecordID=328195. AgaricomycetesAgaricomycetidaeAgaricomycotinaBasidiomycotaBoletalesFungiGomphidiaceae ...
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... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.060 - adenovirus e2 ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.320 - fusion proteins, ... oncogene protein tpr-met MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045 - adenovirus early proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050 - adenovirus ...
... the proposed connection between a single gene and a single protein enzyme outlived the protein theory of gene structure. In a ... "An amazing sequence arrangement at the 5' ends of adenovirus 2 messenger RNA." Cell 12, no. 1 (September 1977): 1-8. Jan Sapp ( ... However, it was not until the experiments were performed showing that DNA was the genetic material, that proteins consist of a ... In a 1945 review, Beadle suggested that "the gene can be visualized as directing the final configuration of a protein molecule ...
The protein of interest is the spike protein, an external protein that enables the SARS-type coronavirus to enter cells through ... The adenovirus is called replication-deficient because some of its essential genes were deleted and replaced by a gene coding ... for the spike protein. Following vaccination, the adenovirus vector enters the cells and releases its genes, which are ... The Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is a replication-deficient simian adenovirus vector, containing the full‐length codon‐ ...
E1A adenovirus protein, and S-HDAg (hepatitis delta virus small delta antigen). p300/CBP have also been observed to acetylate β ... NF-E2, SREBP, IRF2, Sp3, YY1, KLF13, EVI1, BCL6, HNF-4, ER81 and FOXO4 (AFX). The formation of multisubunit complexes has been ... structural proteins, polyamines, and proteins involved in nuclear import. Acetylation of these proteins can alter their ability ... Histones comprise the protein portion of chromatin. There are five different histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. A core ...
Protein loss and high blood pressure, as well as the features on biopsy of the kidney if performed, may predict progression to ... Mycoplasma and adenovirus.[citation needed] The diagnosis is based on the combination of the symptoms, as very few other ... With kidney involvement, there may be a loss of small amounts of blood and protein in the urine (hematuria and proteinuria), ... More than half also have proteinuria (protein in the urine), which in one eighth is severe enough to cause nephrotic syndrome ( ...
The DNA is surrounded by a protein nucleocapsid, which is surrounded by a tegument made of protein, which in turn is surrounded ... the latter completely abrogating the ability of a BRLF1 adenovirus vector to induce the lytic form of EBV infection. ... To enter epithelial cells, viral protein BMRF-2 interacts with cellular β1 integrins. Then, viral protein gH/gL interacts with ... The set of proteins and RNAs produced in Latency III transforms the B cell into a proliferating blast (also known as B cell ...
Universal protein resource accession number Q29983 for "MICA - MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A precursor - Homo ... human adenovirus 5, M. tuberculosis, diarrheagenic E.coli, or human papillomavirus (HPV). In the negative regulation of MICA ... It is located on chromosome 6 and the protein is expressed in two isoforms formed by alternative splicing: MICA1 and MICA2 ... MICA rather functions as a stress-induced ligand (as a danger signal) for integral membrane protein receptor NKG2D ("natural- ...
By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... 277(31): e1-e2 Harrison, Roger G., Todd, Paul, Rudge, Scott R., Petrides D.P. Bioseparations Science and Engineering. Oxford ... Berkowitz, S.A., Philo, J.S. Monitoring the Homogeneity of Adenovirus Preparations (a Gene Therapy Delivery System) Using ... Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ...
Using adenovirus-expressing SFRP1, impaired the canonical Wnt/Fzd pathway in the early phase of ischemia and as a result ... Smooth muscle cells cultured from the myometrium showed no significant induction of SFRP1 mRNA in response to treatment with E2 ... the SFRP1 netrin-related motif is also found in a range of other proteins that is thought to mediate protein-protein ... Secreted frizzled-related protein 1, also known as SFRP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SFRP1 gene. Secreted ...
"Adenovirus protein involved in virus internalization recruits ubiquitin-protein ligases". Biochemistry. 41 (48): 14299-305. doi ... "Physical and functional interactions between the transactivation domain of the hematopoietic transcription factor NF-E2 and WW ... The encoded protein belongs to a family of NEDD4-like proteins, which are E3 ubiquitin-ligase molecules and regulate key ... This gene encodes a protein which contains 4 tandem WW domains and a HECT (homologous to the E6-associated protein carboxyl ...
The NK cells expression relatively high levels of the LMP1 viral protein; this protein may activate the NF-κB cell signaling ... adenovirus, or toxoplasma. HIV, rubella, and Hepatitis viruses A, B, and C can produce an illness resembling IM. The acute EBV ... and other viral proteins; in >50% of cases, they also express classic B cell antigenic proteins such as CD20, BCL6, and CD15. ... EBNA1 and EBER proteins may contribute to the development and/or progression of BL by inhibiting the death by apoptosis of the ...
Serum biology, c-reactive proteins and leptins, the hormonal pituitary axis, and protein in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) are ... and adenovirus. Several days after symptoms first occur, patients become very tired. In cases that occur after an infection, ...
"Adenovirus Overrides Cellular Checkpoints for Protein Translation". Cell Cycle. 4 (7): 883-888. doi:10.4161/cc.4.7.1791. PMID ... p. E-2. Fikes, Bradley J. (27 July 2017). "Salk Institute, UCSD scientists decode DNA's 3D shape". The San Diego Union-Tribune ... Higginbotham, Jennifer M.; O'Shea, Clodagh C. (15 October 2015). Imperiale, M. J. (ed.). "Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Targets PIAS3 and ... "Visualizing viral protein structures in cells using genetic probes for correlated light and electron microscopy". Methods. 90: ...
"A family of proteins structurally and functionally related to the E6-AP ubiquitin-protein ligase". Proceedings of the National ... 1991 Chellappan, S.; Kraus, V. B.; Kroger, B.; Munger, K.; Howley, P. M.; Phelps, W. C.; Nevins, J. R. (1992). "Adenovirus E1A ... Insights into Ubiquitination by the E2-E3 Enzyme Cascade". Science. 286 (5443): 1321-1326. doi:10.1126/science.286.5443.1321. ... 1990 Huibregtse, J.M.; Scheffner, M.; Howley, P.M. (1991). "A cellular protein mediates association of p53 with the E6 ...
Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... Berkowitz, S.A., Philo, J.S. Monitoring the Homogeneity of Adenovirus Preparations (a Gene Therapy Delivery System) Using ... By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... Howlett, G.J., Minton, A.P., Rivas, G. Analytical Ultracentrifugation for the Study of Protein Association and Assembly. ...
... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 - adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH ... adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062 - antigens, viral, tumor MeSH D23.050.327.062.045 - adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.050 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.090 - antigens, polyomavirus ... hiv core protein p24 MeSH D23.050.327.520.330 - hiv envelope protein gp41 MeSH D23.050.327.520.350 - hiv envelope protein gp120 ...
E2 protein induces expression of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/activator protein ... Wang N, Verna L, Hardy S, Forsayeth J, Zhu Y, Stemerman MB (September 1999). "Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of c-Jun and c ... Masuda A, Yoshikai Y, Kume H, Matsuguchi T (November 2004). "The interaction between GATA proteins and activator protein-1 ... "Human cytomegalovirus IE1 protein activates AP-1 through a cellular protein kinase(s)". The Journal of General Virology. 80 ( ...
... é probable ou a probabilidade é moderada de que orixine cancro. Así, o Instituto Nacional do Cancro dos Estados Unidos anunciou ... Moens, U; Van Ghelue, M; Johannessen, M (2007). "Oncogenic potentials of the human polyomavirus regulatory proteins". Cellular ... Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Shimojo, H (August 1971). "Multiplicity reactivation of human adenovirus type 12 and simian virus 40 ... O SV40 é un virión icosaédrico sen envoltura cun xenoma de ADN bicatenario circular pechado[4] de 5,2 kb.[5] O virión adhírese ...
"Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the adenovirus E1A-associated 300-kD protein (p300) reveals a protein with ... "AMF-1/Gps2 binds p300 and enhances its interaction with papillomavirus E2 proteins". J. Virol. 74 (13): 5872-9. doi:10.1128/jvi ... Histone acetyltransferase p300 also known as p300 HAT or E1A-associated protein p300 (where E1A = adenovirus early region 1A) ... This gene encodes the adenovirus E1A-associated cellular p300 transcriptional co-activator protein. EP300 is closely related to ...
They found out that the protein synthesis of E.Coli was stopped and phage proteins were synthesized. Then, in May 1961, their ... 16-29.e2. doi:10.1016/B978-0-323-18907-1.00002-0. ISBN 978-0-323-18907-1. Yamamoto A, Kormann M, Rosenecker J, Rudolph C (March ... virus vectors such as retrovirus and adenovirus and liposomes have been used.[citation needed] It has been found out that the ... Gelinas AD, Davies DR, Janjic N (February 2016). "Embracing proteins: structural themes in aptamer-protein complexes". Current ...
Persons with aphthous stomatitis also have circulating lymphocytes which react with peptides 91-105 of heat shock protein 65-60 ... adenovirus, and cytomegalovirus. Some people with aphthous stomatitis may show herpes virus within the epithelium of the mucosa ... polio virus vaccine and prostaglandin E2. By definition, there is no serious underlying medical condition, and most importantly ...
E2 facilitates the binding of E1 to the viral origin of replication. E2 also utilizes a cellular protein known as Bromodomain-4 ... Glaunsinger BA, Lee SS, Thomas M, Banks L, Javier R (November 2000). "Interactions of the PDZ-protein MAGI-1 with adenovirus E4 ... E6 proteins also interact with the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase family) proteins. These proteins, including MAGI ... very hydrophobic proteins that destabilise the function of many membrane proteins in the infected cell. The E5 protein of some ...
The detailed structure of E2 envelope glycoprotein, believed to be the key protein the virus uses to invade liver cells, was ... One effort involved using hepatitis B core antigen modified to carry a hepatitis C protein.[8] In a 2006 study, 60 patients ... Due to the relatively conserved binding region of E2 to the CD81 receptor on the liver cells, this discovery is expected to ... genotypes 1a and 1b and targeting the HCV antigens nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) and 4A (NS4A), as well as NS4B and NS5A ...
É outro fármaco antiviral de amplo espectro, inicialmente pensado para tratar infeccións por citomegalovirus e adenovirus, que ... "Ebola Virus Matrix Protein VP40 Uses the COPII Transport System for Its Intracellular Transport". Cell Host & Microbe 3 (3): ... O contacto entre grupos de gorilas é raro, o que indica que a transmisión entre grupos de gorilas é improbable, e que os gromos ... A transmisión por exposición oral e a través da conxuntiva é posible[25] e foi confirmada en primates non humanos.[26] O virus ...
The primary structures expressed in these areas are E1 and E2, these proteins are responsible for the replication of the virus. ... Its protein makeup allows it to target four types of HPV. Gardasil contains inactive L1 proteins from four different HPV ... The vaccine is officially called the MEL-1 vaccine but also known as the MVA-E2 vaccine. In a study it has been suggested that ... One such method is a vaccine based on the minor capsid protein L2, which is highly conserved across HPV genotypes.[180] Efforts ...
"Vacina da Pfizer é a 1ª a obter registro definitivo no Brasil" (in Portuguese). G1. 23 February 2021. Retrieved 23 February ... The vaccine, known as Ad26.COV2.S, is a replication-incompetent adenovirus type 26 (Ad26) vectored vaccine encoding a ... stabilized variant of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. "A Study of Ad26.COV2.S in Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 4 August 2020. Archived ... August 2020). "Immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine in healthy adults aged 18 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is found in the nucleus and is a cofactor of DNA polymerase delta. The encoded protein acts as ... Morris GF, Mathews MB (1990). "Analysis of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoter and its response to adenovirus early ... Cell-cycle regulators Chromatin remodeling factor Clamp loader Cohesin DNA ligase DNA methyltransferase DNA polymerases E2 SUMO ... Proteins binding to PCNA via the PIP-box are mainly involved in DNA replication whereas proteins binding to PCNA via APIM are ...
It delivers a functional copy of the p53 gene using an engineered adenovirus. Certain pathogens can also affect the p53 protein ... Bernier-Villamor V, Sampson DA, Matunis MJ, Lima CD (February 2002). "Structural basis for E2-mediated SUMO conjugation ... Mutant p53 proteins often fail to induce MDM2, causing p53 to accumulate at very high levels. Moreover, the mutant p53 protein ... In addition to the full-length protein, the human TP53 gene encodes at least 15 protein isoforms, ranging in size from 3.5 to ...
... a zinc-finger protein that shares an epitope with the adenovirus E1A protein". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... Rb binds and inhibits E2 promoter-binding-protein-dimerization partner (E2F-DP) dimers, which are transcription factors of the ... The retinoblastoma protein (protein name abbreviated Rb; gene name abbreviated RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that is ... E2F1 to E2F5 are known to associate with proteins in the pRb-family of proteins while E2F6 and E2F7 are independent of pRb. ...
The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.[104] Some ... these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor-suppressing proteins.[83] These tumor-suppressing proteins regulate the ... Expression of viral proteins coupled to MHC proteins on the surface of the infected cell, allowing recognition by cells of the ...
Structural proteins made by the hepatitis C virus include Core protein, E1 and E2; nonstructural proteins include NS2, NS3, ... Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus. Rotavirus. Norovirus. Astrovirus. Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA ... E1 serves as the fusogenic subunit and E2 acts as the receptor binding protein. E1 has 4-5 N-linked glycans and E2 has 11 N- ... E2-p7-nonstructural protein 2 (NS2)-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5A-NS5B-C terminal. The mature nonstructural proteins (NS2 to NS5B) ...
"The retinoblastoma protein binds to RIZ, a zinc-finger protein that shares an epitope with the adenovirus E1A protein". Proc. ... Rb binds and inhibits E2 promoter-binding-protein-dimerization partner (E2F-DP) dimers, which are transcription factors of the ... The retinoblastoma protein (protein name abbreviated pRb; gene name abbreviated RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that ... protein binding. • androgen receptor binding. • identical protein binding. • enzyme binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding ...
negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • ... Schreiber M, Muller WJ, Singh G, Graham FL (1999). "Comparison of the effectiveness of adenovirus vectors expressing cyclin ... regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • oligodendrocyte differentiation. • negative ... Venkataramani R, Swaminathan K, Marmorstein R (1998). "Crystal structure of the CDK4/6 inhibitory protein p18INK4c provides ...
The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.[95] Some ... these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor-suppressing proteins.[74] These tumor-suppressing proteins regulate the ... PROTEINS: Structure, Function, and Genetics 50, 44-48.. *^ Chen Y. L.; Li Q. Z. (2007). "Prediction of apoptosis protein ...
The protein of interest is the spike protein, an external protein that enables the SARS-type coronavirus to enter cells through ... The adenovirus is called replication-deficient because some of its essential genes were deleted and replaced by a gene coding ... Following vaccination, the adenovirus vector enters the cells and releases its genes, which are transported to the cell nucleus ... The Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is a replication-deficient simian adenovirus vector, containing the full‐length codon‐ ...
... serves as an E7 mRNA to translate E7 protein.[99] However, viral early transcription subjects to viral E2 regulation and high ... Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus. Rotavirus. Norovirus. Astrovirus. Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA ... The E6/E7 proteins inactivate two tumor suppressor proteins, p53 (inactivated by E6) and pRb (inactivated by E7).[14] The viral ... E6 produces a protein (also called E6) that binds to and inactivates a protein in the host cell called p53. Normally, p53 acts ...
"Adenovirus E2 Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Adenovirus E2 Proteins" was a major or ... "Adenovirus E2 Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication. ... Adenovirus E2 Proteins*Adenovirus E2 Proteins. *E2 Proteins, Adenovirus. *E2 Protein, Adenovirus ...
The adenovirus E4-6/7 protein transactivates the E2 promoter by inducing dimerization of a heteromeric E2F complex.. S Obert, R ... The adenovirus E4-6/7 protein transactivates the E2 promoter by inducing dimerization of a heteromeric E2F complex. ... The adenovirus E4-6/7 protein transactivates the E2 promoter by inducing dimerization of a heteromeric E2F complex. ... The adenovirus E4-6/7 protein transactivates the E2 promoter by inducing dimerization of a heteromeric E2F complex. ...
Generation and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus expressing the E2 protein of classical swine fever virus in rabbits ... Generation and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus expressing the E2 protein of cla ... In this study, a recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus expressing the CSFV E2 gene (rAdV-E2) was generated and ... which were seen in the rabbits immunized with the parent adenovirus of rAdV-E2. This indicates that the recombinant adenovirus ...
A recombinant adenovirus with deleted E1 and E3, and E4-inactivated by replacing the E4 promoter with a synthetic promoter ... Adenovirus E1 Proteins / genetics * Adenovirus E2 Proteins / genetics * Adenovirus E3 Proteins / genetics ... A recombinant adenovirus with deleted E1 and E3, and E4-inactivated by replacing the E4 promoter with a synthetic promoter ... Expression of the late viral gene product, hexon protein, was observed in C3H and C57BL/6 mice injected with E4 wild-type ...
"Overexpression and characterization of the 100K protein of Fowl adenovirus-4 as an antiviral target, Virus Research" on ... Ojkic, D.; Nagy, É.. * Estimation of globular protein secondary structure from circular dichroism ... Overexpression and characterization of the 100K protein of Fowl adenovirus-4 as an antiviral target. Shah, Majid Ali; Ullah, ... Adenovirus L4-100K assembly protein is a granzyme B substrate that potently inhibits granzyme B-mediated cell death ...
E2, E4, and E5; and a late region with two genes, L1 (major capsid protein) and L2 (minor capsid protein) [17]. These viruses ... HPV is a double-stranded nonenveloped DNA adenovirus, which belongs to a large family of more than 130 genotypes [19, 20]. The ... A large body of evidence suggests that oncogenic properties of high-risk HPV are related to the E6 and E7 proteins and their ... along with abundant expression of the E6 and E7 proteins [17]. In the superficial layers of the epithelium, the L1 and L2 ...
Human adenovirus type 5 vectors deleted of early region 1 (E1) undergo limited expression of early replicative E2 proteins and ... Adenovirus-Mediated Expression of the p14 Fusion-Associated Small Transmembrane Protein Promotes Cancer Cell Fusion and ... A reduction in the human adenovirus virion size through use of a shortened fibre protein does not enhance muscle transduction ... Expression of the fusogenic p14 FAST protein from a replication-defective adenovirus vector does not provide a therapeutic ...
The adenovirus E4-6/7 protein transactivates the E2 promoter by inducing dimerization of a heteromeric E2F complex. Mol. Cell. ... Adenovirus type 5 E4orf3 protein relieves p53 inhibition by E1B-55-kilodalton protein. J. Virol. 73:2253-2262. ... The large E1B protein together with the E4orf6 protein target p53 for active degradation in adenovirus infected cells. Oncogene ... of accumulation of the E2 72-kDa DNA-binding protein and the E4 Orf 6 protein were similar to those of the E1B 55-kDa protein ( ...
Presented are ways to address the problem of replication competent adenovirus in adenoviral production for use with, for ... The required proteins may be expressed from adenovirus genes on the DNA molecule itself, from adenovirus E2 genes integrated in ... the DNA-binding protein ("DBP"), the adenovirus DNA polymerase ("Ad-pol"), and the preterminal protein ("pTP"). ... In the transduced cells, synthesis of the adenovirus DNA-binding protein (the E2A-gene product), penton, and fiber proteins ( ...
Regulation of adenovirus 12 E1A transcription: E2F and ATF motifs in the E1A promoter bind nuclear protein complexes including ... Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4-induced dephosphorylation inhibits E1A activation of the E2 promoter and E2F-1-mediated ... Independent regions of adenovirus E1A are required for binding to and dissociation of E2F-protein complexes. ... E1A 12S and 13S of the transformation-defective adenovirus type 12 strain CS-1 inactivate proteins of the RB family, permitting ...
The E2 region encodes proteins required for viral replication. Id. at 617. The E3 regionis totally dispensable for growth in ... More specifically, proteins expressed from viral vectors based on DNA viruses, such as adenovirus, simian virus 40, ... Berkner at 620 citing Ghosh-Choudhury, "Protein IX, a Minor Component of the Human Adenovirus Capsid, Is Essential For the ... 255:6947-6953, 1980), pokeweed antiviral protein (Irvin, Pharmac. Ther. 21:371-387,1983), antiviral protein (Barbieri et al., ...
1993) TATA-binding protein and the retinoblastoma gene product bind to overlapping epitopes on c-Myc and adenovirus E1A protein ... In transfection assays, CREG represses transcription and antagonizes 12SE1A-mediated activation of both the adenovirus E2 and ... regulation by retinoblastoma family proteins and adenovirus transforming proteins. Genes Dev. 10:2960-2970. ... 1992) Adenovirus E1A makes two distinct contacts with the retinoblastoma protein. J. Virol. 66:4606-4611. ...
The adenovirus E4-6/7 protein transactivates the E2 promoter by inducing dimerization of a heteromeric E2F complex. Mol. Cell. ... Generation of epitope-tagged derivatives of STE proteins and SPI2-encoded proteins.Secreted and translocated substrate proteins ... an 18-amino-acid peptide of the adenovirus protein E4-6/7, has previously been used to generate fusions to substrate proteins ... A 231-bp SmaI/XbaI fragment encoding the M45 epitope of the adenovirus protein E4-6/7 (16) was kindly provided by W.-D. Hardt ( ...
Interestingly, VP22-E2 proteins produced in adenovirus-infected cells are able to enter uninfected cells and induce apoptosis. ... Another possible solution is to use purified E2 proteins or E2 fusion proteins. The herpes simplex virus VP22 protein is one of ... E2 proteins than it is to the HPV 16 E2 protein. Using gel retardation assays, we show that the hierarchy of E2 sites within ... E2 responses were determined by full-length E2-GST ELISA with ELISPOT and proliferation assays using E2 C-terminal protein. As ...
The second exon-encoded region of E1A is conserved across all E1A isoforms except for the 55 residues protein, which has a ... the first encoding 185 amino acids in the 289 residues adenovirus 5 E1A, while the second exon encodes 104 residues. ... Adenovirus Early 1A proteins (E1A) are crucial for initiation of the viral life cycle after infection. The E1A gene is encoded ... the first comprehensive insight into the contributions of the C-terminus of E1A to the replicative fitness of human adenovirus ...
2004) Vaccination of rabbits with an adenovirus vector expressing the papillomavirus E2 protein leads to clearance of ... One concern in using pigs as an animal model is that AcHERV vectors are coated with HERV envelope protein, not with protein ... HPV L1 protein was detected by first incubating the membranes with primary anti-HPV L1 antibodies (obtained from the serum of ... 2D, lane 4) expressed HPV L1 proteins with an approximate molecular weight of 52 kD. Moreover, pseudoviral HPV L1 was detected ...
"Induction of immune responses in mice and pigs by oral administration of classical swine fever virus E2 protein expressed in ... Oral and sub-cutaneous vaccination of commercial pigs with a recombinant porcine adenovirus expressing the classical swine ... Dongjin to express a recombinant E2 protein (rE2-TRCs). The expression of the recombinant E2 protein (rE2) in rE2-TRCs was ... In planta production of two peptides of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 glycoprotein fused to the coat protein of ...
We exploited the ability of the adenovirus early region 1 A protein (E1A) oncogene to force the reentry into the cell cycle of ... A subset of these genes was activated through a retinoblastoma protein/E2 viral promoter required factor-independent (pRb/E2F- ...
... with subsequent transcriptional activation of E2F1-regulated S-phase genes and of the E2 region of the adenoviral genome. ... E1A protein has both transforming and trans-activating activities. Induces the disassembly of the E2F1 transcription factor ... Interaction with RBX1 and CUL1 inhibits ubiquitination of the proteins targeted by SCF(FBXW7) ubiquitin ligase complex, and may ... would arrest the cell proliferation and direct its death but this effect is counteracted by the viral protein E1B-55K. ...
In vitro expression of the HPV E2 protein in human primary keratinocytes downregulates the expression of STING and several ... Furthermore, viral oncogenes such as HPV E7 and E1A of human adenovirus A5 were proposed to bind to the N-terminal region of ... E2 proteins of high risk human papillomaviruses down-modulate STING and IFN-kappa transcription in keratinocytes. PLoS One 9(3 ... Zhong B, Yang Y, Li S, Wang YY, Li Y, Diao F, Lei C, He X, Zhang L, Tien P, Shu HB (2008) The adaptor protein MITA links virus- ...
Viral transcription units are conventionally referred to as early (E1, E2, E3, and E4) and late, depending on their temporal ... Fifth, some of the new vectors contain a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene incorporated into the adenoviral backbone, ... A simplified system for generating recombinant adenoviruses. Tong-Chuan He, Shibin Zhou, Luis T. da Costa, Jian Yu, Kenneth W. ... A simplified system for generating recombinant adenoviruses. Tong-Chuan He, Shibin Zhou, Luis T. da Costa, Jian Yu, Kenneth W. ...
Timely Synthesis of the Adenovirus Type 5 E1B 55-Kilodalton Protein Is Required for Efficient Genome Replication in Normal ... Viral transcription units are conventionally referred to as early (E1, E2, E3, and E4) and late, depending on their temporal ... The Repression Domain of the E1B 55-Kilodalton Protein Participates in Countering Interferon-Induced Inhibition of Adenovirus ... A simplified system for generating recombinant adenoviruses. Tong-Chuan He, Shibin Zhou, Luis T. da Costa, Jian Yu, Kenneth W. ...
It was shown that HPV encoded E2 protein is localized predominantly in the nucleus of infected cells. However, in the case of ... Kogan, and A. N. Saprin, Glycolysis in Adenovirus Infected Rat Cell Cultures and in Adenovirus Type 12 Induced Hamster Sarcoma ... Adenoviruses. The ability of adenoviruses to perform the metabolic shift was demonstrated by infection of primary rat embryonic ... strains 18 and 16 the E2 protein can shuttle between cytoplasm and nucleus. It was shown, using mass spectrometry of ...
... adenovirus improves tumor cell killing and is more tumor cell specific than expression of the adenoviral death protein. Human ... 3, B and C). A potential explanation for this observation is that the E4 function, such as activation of E2 expression by ... Adenoviruses possess the critical basic properties required for viral oncolysis (3). First, wild-type adenoviruses (Adwt) are ... We have generated novel conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds) targeted to melanoma cells. In these adenoviruses, the ...
... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.060 - adenovirus e2 ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.320 - fusion proteins, ... oncogene protein tpr-met MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045 - adenovirus early proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050 - adenovirus ...
The viral proteins discussed are the two major KSHV encoded transcription factors, K-Rta and K-bZIP (KSHV basic leucine zipper ... The viral proteins discussed are the two major KSHV encoded transcription factors, K-Rta (KSHV replication and transcriptional ... A large body of work has focused on the activities of the key viral regulatory proteins involved in KSHV latent or lytic states ... A large body of work has focused on the activities of the key viral regulatory proteins involved in KSHV latent or lytic states ...
The protein of interest is the spike protein, an external protein that enables the SARS-type coronavirus to enter cells through ... The adenovirus is called replication-deficient because some of its essential genes were deleted and replaced by a gene coding ... Following vaccination, the adenovirus vector enters the cells and releases its genes, which are transported to the cell nucleus ... The Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is a replication-deficient simian adenovirus vector, containing the full‐length codon‐ ...
... the proposed connection between a single gene and a single protein enzyme outlived the protein theory of gene structure. In a ... "An amazing sequence arrangement at the 5 ends of adenovirus 2 messenger RNA." Cell 12, no. 1 (September 1977): 1-8. Jan Sapp ( ... However, it was not until the experiments were performed showing that DNA was the genetic material, that proteins consist of a ... In a 1945 review, Beadle suggested that "the gene can be visualized as directing the final configuration of a protein molecule ...
"E2F" refers to a transcriptional factor that was shown to be critical in the E1A-mediated activation of the Adenovirus E2 ... and for genes which encode protein, into protein through "translation" of mRNA. Gene expression can be regulated at many stages ... Fusion proteins from HVJ promote fusion of the liposomes with the cell membranes and deposition of molecules into the cell. We ... The protein-DNA binding reaction was performed at room temperature for 20 min in a volume of 20 μl. The reaction mixture ...
Immunology, Issue 99, Antigen Capsid-Incorporation strategy, transgene method, Adenovirus (Ad), vaccine, capsid proteins, dual ... They include ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, and ubiquitin ligase E3. Unlike to E1 and E2, E3 ... Protein-protein interaction, High-throughput screening, Luminescence, Yeast two-hybrid, HT-GPCA, Network, protein, yeast, cell ... Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, ...
  • The adenovirus E4-6/7 protein transactivates the E2 promoter by inducing dimerization of a heteromeric E2F complex. (asm.org)
  • A recombinant adenovirus with deleted E1 and E3, and E4-inactivated by replacing the E4 promoter with a synthetic promoter composed of a minimal TATA box and five consensus yeast GAL4-binding site elements was developed and used to express the human tumor suppresser gene p53. (nih.gov)
  • 4. The method according to claim 1, wherein said precursor molecule comprises an adenovirus E2 region under the control of an inducible promoter. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Binding sites for E2F, a key transcriptional regulator of cell cycle progression, were found to be required for repression of the adenovirus E2 promoter by CREG, and CREG was shown to inhibit activation by E2F. (asm.org)
  • 12SE1A has been observed to activate transcription through several different response elements, including both sequences in the core promoter and binding sites for specific regulatory proteins. (asm.org)
  • The binding site for the cell cycle-regulated transcription factor E2F is an E1A response element that was first identified in the adenoviral E2 (AdE2) promoter ( 49 ). (asm.org)
  • A subset of these genes was activated through a retinoblastoma protein/E2 viral promoter required factor-independent (pRb/E2F-independent) mechanism and was overexpressed in a fraction of human cancers. (jci.org)
  • In these adenoviruses, the E4 region (AdΔ24TyrE4) or both E1 and E4 regions (Ad2xTyr) were controlled by a synthetic tyrosinase enhancer/promoter (Tyr2E/P) specific for melanocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The adenovirus L4 33-kilodalton protein binds to intragenic sequences of the major late promoter required for late phase-specific stimulation of transcription. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In case of Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs), E2 binds to the early promoter and decreases expression of E6/E7. (kenyon.edu)
  • Also, E2F binds and activates transcription from the adenovirus E2 promoter. (studentreader.com)
  • Carthew RW, Chodosh LA, Sharp PA (1985) An RNA polymerase II transcription factor binds to an upstream element in the adenovirus major late promoter. (springer.com)
  • These RNAs and region E2 RNAs share the first leader and presumably the same promoter, and may be coordinately expressed. (cshl.edu)
  • An adenovirus E1A transcriptional repressor domain functions as an activator when tethered to a promoter. (usc.edu.cn)
  • Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4 protein autoregulates E4 transcription by inhibiting E1A transactivation of the E4 promoter. (usc.edu.cn)
  • Adenovirus E4-ORF4 induced dephosphorylation inhibits E1A activation of the E2 promoter and E2F-1 mediated transactivation independently of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. (usc.edu.cn)
  • This mutant E7 protein possessed wild-type levels of transcriptional activity on the adenovirus E2 promoter but exhibited reduced transforming activity in cooperation with EJ-ras. (pianolarge.ml)
  • Binding of PKA-RIIalpha to the Adenovirus E1A12S oncoprotein correlates with its nuclear translocation and an increase in PKA-dependent promoter activity. (uky.edu)
  • Cotransfection of E1A12S with RIIalpha results in strong activation of the E2 promoter. (uky.edu)
  • Based on these results we conclude that E1A12S functions as a viral A-kinase anchoring protein redistributing RIIalpha from the cytoplasm into the nucleus where it is involved in E1A12S-mediated activation of the E2 promoter. (uky.edu)
  • Repression of transforming growth factor beta 1 promoter by the adenovirus oncogene E1A. (uab.edu)
  • The E1A gene is encoded at the left end of the viral genome and consists of two exons, the first encoding 185 amino acids in the 289 residues adenovirus 5 E1A, while the second exon encodes 104 residues. (mdpi.com)
  • Induces the disassembly of the E2F1 transcription factor from RB1 by direct competition for the same binding site on RB1, with subsequent transcriptional activation of E2F1-regulated S-phase genes and of the E2 region of the adenoviral genome. (uniprot.org)
  • The genome of the most commonly used human adenovirus (serotype 5) consists of a linear, 36-kb, double-stranded DNA molecule. (pnas.org)
  • HPV, adenoviruses, and polyomaviruses induce the host cell transformation while infecting nonpermissive cells and integrating into the host genome (see Table 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • In human AdV serotype 5 (HAdV5), the IVa2 protein initiates specific recognition of viral genome by associating with the viral packaging domain located between nucleotides 220 and 400 of the genome. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Genome structure of incomplete particles of adenovirus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Only one strand of the genome is transcribed, producing two classes of proteins: the non-structural regulatory proteins, known as early proteins, and the structural proteins L1 and L2, known as late proteins. (kenyon.edu)
  • The general principle appears to be that two or more early proteins co-operate to give a transforming phenotype.The most confusing thing is that in most cases, all or part of the Papilloma genome including the putative "transforming genes" is maintained in the tumour cells, whereas in other cases, the virus DNA may be lost after transformation. (kenyon.edu)
  • The entire adenovirus genome is a linear, double-stranded DNA of approximately 36Kb. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • The 87K protein, together with proteins of 105,000 and 75,000 daltons, are translated from leftward transcribed (1-strand) messenger RNAs that are complementary to the viral genome between positions 11.2 and 31.5. (cshl.edu)
  • Adenovirus vectors can be generated by insertion or deletion of DNA in three regions, namely the E1 gene, E3 gene and a short segment between the E4 gene and the end of the viral genome. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • The adenovirus genome comprises of multiple genes that are transcribed at different time points in the viral replication cycle. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • Cell-free system studies implicate HSP70i in HPV11 genome replication with E1 and E2 proteins, and there is evidence that HSP70 is involved in capsid assembly and disassembly for PyV and PV. (unm.edu)
  • In HPV31 infected monolayer cells ectopically expressing viral capsid proteins, without obvious impact on L1 expression levels, our results suggest wild type HSP70i interacts with and promotes L1 translocation into nucleus concomitant with increased HPV genome replication and virion production. (unm.edu)
  • These results indicate that HSP70i is involved in diverse aspects of the viral life cycle including genome replication, capsid protein transportation and virion morphogenesis. (unm.edu)
  • Its single stranded, positive sense RNA genome encodes for one open reading frame, which is co- and post-translationally processed into 12 proteins by viral and cellular proteases. (nature.com)
  • BVDV particles consist of a nucleocapsid, composed of core protein and the viral genome, and a viral envelope, in which three surface glycoproteins, E rns , E1 and E2, are anchored. (nature.com)
  • Rescue of in vitro transcribed genome of BVDV E2_fluo was attempted by electroporation in MDBK cells. (nature.com)
  • Hexon protein is encoded by the adenoviral genome and is an essential component of the adenoviral capsid required for adenoviral replication, but its expression depends on the E1 gene product. (clontech.com)
  • Although viruses are minute particles composed only of a genome surrounded by a few proteins, they have a fiendish way of wreaking havoc not only on humans, as everyone who ever had the flu knows, but also on animals, plants, and even bacteria. (oncohemakey.com)
  • At low multiplicities of infection most group I mutants failed to produce detectable levels of virus proteins derived from regions E1, E2, or E3 of the viral genome. (researchwithnj.com)
  • This observation indicates that the E1B 55-kDa protein regulates mRNA export during the late phase of infection of normal human cells. (asm.org)
  • During the late phase of human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection, cellular protein synthesis is severely inhibited, while viral late proteins are made in large quantities ( 3 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Adenovirus Early 1A proteins (E1A) are crucial for initiation of the viral life cycle after infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Fifth, some of the new vectors contain a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene incorporated into the adenoviral backbone, allowing direct observation of the efficiency of transfection and infection, processes that have been difficult to follow with adenoviruses in the past. (pnas.org)
  • Longitudinal Sequence and Functional Evolution within Glycoprotein E2 in Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 3a Infection. (jove.com)
  • These studies reveal that during HCV infection, the exposure of the CD81 binding site on E2 becomes increasingly occluded, and the antigenicity of the E2 RBD towards both neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies is modulated via allosteric mechanisms. (jove.com)
  • The commonly used first generation recombinant adenovirus vectors are based on adenovirus type 5, which causes mild respiratory infection in humans. (bmj.com)
  • In practice this has not always been the case and studies in rodents, primates, and humans have provided variable results, highlighting the need for a more detailed understanding of the natural history of adenovirus infection in humans and questioning the value of animal models in determining the safety of virus vectors. (bmj.com)
  • However, in certain tumor cells, 0NYX-015 fails to replicate and this was shown to be because it fails to express the L4 100K protein, which is involved in inhibition of host protein synthesis and specific translation of late viral messages, a process which is critical for a productive adenovirus infection. (grantome.com)
  • 1980). The mRNA for the 87K terminal protein precursor, like that for the E2-72K DNA binding protein, is detectable at both early and late times of infection, and its production is sensitive to protein synthesis inhibition (Lewis and Mathews, 1980). (cshl.edu)
  • Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) expresses E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase ICP0 (ICP0), which functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase required to promote infection. (nature.com)
  • We identified the cellular protein Schlafen family member 5 (SLFN5) as an ICP0 target that binds vDNA during HSV-1 ΔICP0 infection. (nature.com)
  • In the present paper we describe the generation and characterisation of BVDV particles that are labelled with a fluorophore fused to E2 surface glycoprotein and their applicability for the imaging of infection dynamics. (nature.com)
  • Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to dendritic cells is highly efficient and often used, but the relationship among cell maturation, viral infection and expression of a transferred gene remains unclear. (elsevier.com)
  • The cells cultured in the absence of maturation medium remained immature and maintained the ability to respond to the later addition of the maturation irrespective of adenovirus infection and transferred gene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Expression of CD83 and p40 were unaffected by adenovirus infection and transferred gene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • We have identified the viral mRNAs present in cells in which protein synthesis has been stringently inhibited prior to infection with adenovirus type 2. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Several classes of adenovirus type 5 host range mutants have been isolated, These mutants replicate in Ads-transformed human embryonic kidney cells (293 cells) but at low multiplicities of infection fail to replicate in HeLa cells. (researchwithnj.com)
  • This protein, termed CREG for cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes, shares limited sequence similarity with E1A and binds both the general transcription factor TBP and the tumor suppressor pRb in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Clink, a nanovirus-encoded protein, binds both pRB and SKP1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • ResultsThe E1A-HD2 fusion protein binds to β-catenin in vivo and activates a Tcf-regulated luciferase reporter better than wild-type E1A in cells with activated Wnt signaling. (duhnnae.com)
  • E7-- Transforming protein, binds to pRB/p107. (kenyon.edu)
  • in infected cells, Rb is not bound to E2F -- the adenovirus protein E1A binds to retinoblastoma and removes it from E2F. (studentreader.com)
  • Westberg C, Yang J, Tang H, Reddy T, Wong Staal F. A novel shuttle protein binds to RNA helicase A and activates the retroviral constitutive transport element. (labome.org)
  • HCV core protein binds to the NBS1 protein and inhibits the formation of the Mre11/NBS1/Rad50 complex, thereby affecting ATM activation and inhibiting DNA binding of repair enzymes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Berkner, "Development of Adenovirus Vectors for the Expression of Heterologous Genes," BioTechniques 6(7): 616-629, 1988. (patentgenius.com)
  • Among the viral vectors investigated as delivery systems for antigen-encoding DNA are recombinant adenovirus [9] and vaccinia virus [10] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Several features of adenovirus biology have made such viruses the vectors of choice for certain of these applications. (pnas.org)
  • In this review we will consider the nature of adenovirus toxicity and the development of improved adenovirus vectors. (bmj.com)
  • What's toxic about adenovirus vectors? (bmj.com)
  • Porcine adenoviral vectors evade preexisting humoral immunity to adenoviruses and efficiently infect both human and murine cells in culture. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This part of the project, which involves TAP purification and Mass spec, aims at identifying novel cellular partners of 100k, which is key to understanding the function of this protein and should give us more insights into how to design more effective oncolytic vectors, and may provide insights into the mechanism of translational control in mammalian cells. (grantome.com)
  • Second and third generation adenovirus vectors were developed by deleting E1, E2 and E4 genes. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • Adenovirus vectors are developed from double stranded DNA viruses that belong to the Adenoviridae family. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • Adenovirus vectors used in gene therapies lack the E1 gene. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • Adenovirus vectors are considered among the most promising vectors for use in gene therapy. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • Adenovirus vectors have a high transduction efficiency for dividing and non-dividing cells. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • Adenovirus vectors can be produced at high titres. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • The Adeno-X qPCR Titration Kit provides a fast, simple, and accurate method for titrating adenoviral stocks from all Ad5-based adenoviral vectors, including recombinant adenovirus created with our Adeno-X Expression Systems. (clontech.com)
  • Adenovirus vector-based purging of multiple myeloma cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Expression of the late viral gene product, hexon protein, was observed in C3H and C57BL/6 mice injected with E4 wild-type adenovirus constructs Adv-cmv-beta-Gal (BG), Adv-cmv-hp53 (WT), and empty E1- vector Adv-E4 (EW) 3 to 28 days after injection, but was undetectable in mice treated with E4 modified empty E1- vector Adv-GAL4 (EG) or Adv-cmv-hp53-GAL4 (G4). (nih.gov)
  • Packaging cells having no overlapping sequences with a selected vector are suited for large-scale production of recombinant adenoviruses. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Here, we report the efficacy of a bivalent human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 DNA vaccine system following repeated dosing in mice and pigs using a recombinant baculovirus bearing human endogenous retrovirus envelope protein (AcHERV) as a vector. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca it is given by intramuscular injection , using as a vector the modified chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdOx1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The death in the USA of an 18 year old with ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency after intrahepatic arterial injection of an adenovirus vector carrying a wild-type version of the defective enzyme has precipitated a flurry of reports and congressional hearings focusing on the ethics of such trials and on the very nature of clinical research itself. (bmj.com)
  • The present invention provides a hybrid vector construct which comprises a portion of an adenovirus, 5' and 3' ITR sequences from an AAV, and a selected transgene. (google.com)
  • 3. The vector according to claim 2 wherein said adenovirus sequences further comprise a functional deletion in the E1 gene. (google.com)
  • 4. The vector according to claim 2 wherein said adenovirus sequences further comprise functional deletions in one or more adenovirus genes selected from the group consisting of: the E2a gene, the E4 gene, the late genes L1 through L5, and the intermediate genes IX and IV a . (google.com)
  • 8. The vector according to claim 5 wherein said reporter gene is selected from the group consisting of the genes encoding β-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase and green fluorescent protein. (google.com)
  • ImmunityBio has engineered the vector to overcome this problem and has shown that its second-generation adenovirus vector can safely and effectively deliver its cargo even in patients with pre-existing adenovirus immunity. (businesswire.com)
  • The J&J vaccine, like the COVID-19 vaccine from AstraZeneca, is a viral vector vaccine, meaning it uses a different harmless virus (an adenovirus) that has been engineered to encode the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 to trigger a protective immune response. (sccm.org)
  • The adenovirus vector is able to deliver genes with 100% efficiency to a wide selection of cell types including dividing and non-dividing cells, primary cells, or cell lines. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • All these have made recombinant adenoviruses the vector of choice for functional genomics research. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • As of October 2, 2020, there are 42 candidate vaccines of different types (including inactivated, viral vector, RNA, DNA, and protein subunit vaccines) in clinical evaluation. (acoem.org)
  • We now offer adenovirus vector design, custom cloning and production services. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • So whether you need to create an adenovirus vector from scratch or you wish to optimise an existing system then contact the experts and let us help you. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). (rcsb.org)
  • In HFFs infected by the null mutant Hr6, synthesis of viral late mRNAs and proteins was severely impaired. (asm.org)
  • Mutations that prevent synthesis of the E4 Orf 6 protein or reduce binding of this to the E1B 55-kDa protein ( 83 ) result in both mislocalization of the E1B 55-kDa protein and defects in export of viral late mRNAs ( 39 , 70 ). (asm.org)
  • Irvin, "Purification and Partial Characterization of the Antiviral Protein from Phytolacca americana Which Inhibits Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis," Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 169: 522-528, 1975. (patentgenius.com)
  • Gelonin, a New Inhibitor of Protein Synthesis, Nontoxic to Intact Cells," Journal of Biological Chemistry 255(14): 6947-6953, 1980. (patentgenius.com)
  • In normal cells, the transition from G 1 to S phase and the start of DNA synthesis is tightly controlled by mechanisms that include transcriptional regulation of genes encoding proteins required in the S phase. (asm.org)
  • Treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide or RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the Upf1 protein resulted in the restoration of mutant mRNA to levels comparable to that of the wild-type minigene, suggesting that hERG nonsense mutations are subject to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, late gene expression, expression of structural proteins and vegetative DNA synthesis is restricted to terminally differentiated cells of the epidermis which implies a link between cellular differentiation and viral gene expression. (kenyon.edu)
  • The E4 gene products are involved in the metabolism of virus messenger RNA and provide functions that promote virus DNA replication and shut-off of host protein synthesis. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • Therefore, I study the mechanism by which L4-100k is regulated, and how this protein mediates host protein synthesis shutoff. (grantome.com)
  • The high abundance of mitochondria and the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) confer upon brown adipose tissue (BAT) the unique capacity to convert chemical energy into heat at the expense of ATP synthesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • E2F is a key host cell transcription factor in activating cellular genes required for synthesis of dNTPs, DNA polymerases, and other proteins required for cells to begin S-phase. (studentreader.com)
  • This data supports a model of adenovirus DNA replication in which the 87K terminal protein precursor is the primary translation product and primes DNA synthesis. (cshl.edu)
  • E4 gene products are involved in the metabolism of virus messenger RNA (mRNA), promotion of viral DNA replication and in shutting-off of host protein synthesis. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • Treatment of cells with 100 μM anisomycin inhibits 99.6% of protein synthesis and substantially depresses (by 20-200 fold) the levels of the conventional early mRNAs from regions E1 A, E1B, E2, E3 and E4. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • The E2 glycoprotein of CSFV is the main target for neutralizing antibodies . (bvsalud.org)
  • We have previously evaluated a Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon vectored DNA vaccine (pSFV1CS2-E2) and a recombinant adenovirus (rAdV-E2) expressing the E2 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in pigs. (bvsalud.org)
  • The adenovirus E1A protein both activates and represses gene expression to promote cellular proliferation and inhibit differentiation. (asm.org)
  • Recombinant adenoviruses provide a versatile system for gene expression studies and therapeutic applications. (pnas.org)
  • We reasoned that host factors that inhibit viral gene expression could be identified by determining proteins bound to viral DNA (vDNA) in the absence of key viral antagonists. (nature.com)
  • Both domains are also essential for the activation of viral E2 gene expression. (uky.edu)
  • Thus, immature dendritic cells infected with recombinant adenoviruses can be matured when desired after transferred gene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Lewis, JB & Mathews, MB 1980, ' Control of adenovirus early gene expression: A class of immediate early products ', Cell , vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 303-313. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Presented are ways to address the problem of replication competent adenovirus in adenoviral production for use with, for example, gene therapy. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Effects of mutations in the adenoviral E1B 55-kilodalton protein coding sequence on viral late mRNA metabolism. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The prototype of adenoviral oncolytic therapy is a mutant adenovirus -ONYX-015- which was designed to replicate in tumor cells but not in normal cells. (grantome.com)
  • The GoStix test, which resembles a pregnancy test but instead detects adenoviral hexon proteins, requires just 20 µl of adenoviral supernatant to determine if infectious virus was produced posttransfection. (clontech.com)
  • Studies of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses, such as adenovirus E1A, simian virus 40 large tumor antigen, or human papillomavirus E7, have revealed a great deal about the proteins and pathways that regulate cellular proliferation. (asm.org)
  • Investigations into the mechanisms by which E1A activates and represses expression of particular genes have revealed that 12SE1A interacts with several transcriptional regulators of cell proliferation, including the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, pRb, and the coactivators p300 and CBP. (asm.org)
  • For example, cancer cells in which the tumor suppressor proteins p53 or pRb are inactivated were reported to be permissive for efficient replication of adenoviruses that are mutated in the E1B55K or E1A genes that encode p53- or pRb-inactivating proteins, respectively ( 7 -9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, viral proteins enhance glucose uptake and controls tumor microenvironment, promoting metastasizing of the tumor cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Adenovirus E1A, simian virus 40 tumor antigen, and human papillomavirus E7 protein share the capacity to disrupt the interaction between transcription factor E2F and the retinoblastoma gene product. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The adenovirus E1A gene product, the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen, and the human papillomavirus E7 protein share a short amino acid sequence that constitutes a domain required for the transforming activity of these proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Three members of the STE family, SifA, SifB, and SseJ, were secreted under conditions that also induce secretion of SPI2-encoded substrate proteins. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that oral administration of rE2-TRCs can induce E2-specific immune responses. (deepdyve.com)
  • At the same time, it was also shown that human adenoviruses could induce tumors in newborn hamsters [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Much concern has focused on the direct toxic effects of adenoviruses, particularly as intravenous administration of the virus can induce acute liver injury, as shown in animal models. (bmj.com)
  • These same regions of E1A have also been implicated in interactions with other cellular transcription factors, such as TATA-binding protein (TBP), raising the possibility that transcriptional regulation and cellular transformation by E1A may involve additional mechanisms ( 22 , 61 ). (asm.org)
  • The viral proteins discussed are the two major KSHV encoded transcription factors, K-Rta (KSHV replication and transcriptional activator) and K-bZIP (KSHV basic leucine zipper) and the viral latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). (frontiersin.org)
  • Hai T, Hartman MG. The molecular biology and nomenclature of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors: ATF proteins and homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • Transcription factors 1: bZIP proteins. (springer.com)
  • We have previously described oncolytic adenoviruses with binding sites for Tcf-LEF transcription factors inserted into the early viral promoters. (duhnnae.com)
  • The results showed that the rabbits immunized with rAdV-E2 developed high-level CSFV-specific antibodies . (bvsalud.org)
  • Fourth and importantly, in productive infections, host cells are lysed and release their progeny, but the viruses are usually eliminated in a few days by antibodies to the capsid proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To overcome the difficulty in E6 protein detection by use of antibodies, GFP-linked E6 constructs were created (Figure 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1B 55-kDa protein is required for selective nuclear export of viral late mRNAs from the nucleus and concomitant inhibition of export of cellular mRNAs in HeLa cells and some other human cell lines, but its contributions(s) to replication in normal human cells is not well understood. (asm.org)
  • In infected cells, these last two early proteins form a complex ( 84 ) that has been implicated in regulation of mRNA export ( 12 , 19 ). (asm.org)
  • The E1B 55-kDa protein contains a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) that is recognized by the cellular exportin 1 export receptor and mediates shuttling of the viral protein when it is synthesized either alone or in Ad5-infected cells ( 26 , 58 ). (asm.org)
  • Survival Motor Neuron Protein is Released from Cells in Exosomes: A Potential Biomarker for Spinal Muscular Atrophy. (nih.gov)
  • This TTSS secretes a set of SPI2-encoded proteins in vitro and translocates Salmonella serovar Typhimurium translocated effectors (STE) that are encoded by genes outside of SPI2 into host cells. (asm.org)
  • The second and more widely used method involves homologous recombination in mammalian cells capable of complementing defective adenoviruses ("packaging lines") ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Homologous recombination results in a defective adenovirus that can replicate in the packaging line (e.g., 293 or 911 cells) supplying the missing gene products (e.g. (pnas.org)
  • We exploited the ability of the adenovirus early region 1 A protein (E1A) oncogene to force the reentry into the cell cycle of terminally differentiated cells in order to identify and characterize genes whose expression is upregulated in this process. (jci.org)
  • We have generated novel conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds) targeted to melanoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The properties of these CRAds were compared with wild-type adenovirus (Adwt) and our previous CRAd with a targeted E1A CRII mutation (AdTyrΔ24) in submerged cultures of melanoma cells and nonmelanoma control cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subsequently, these cells were co-cultured and fused to various human and murine cells expressing HCV structural proteins core, envelope 1 and 2 (E1, E2) and accessory proteins p7 and NS2. (jove.com)
  • Of these, the ability of adenoviruses to efficiently infect and deliver genes to a range of cells and to be generated to high titres has led to their widespread application. (bmj.com)
  • It was envisaged that the inability of these recombinant adenoviruses to replicate efficiently would prevent the production of unwanted viral proteins by infected cells, thus limiting both direct adenovirus toxicity and possible harmful consequences of antiadenovirus immune responses. (bmj.com)
  • However, the information regarding E6 and E6*I protein localization with respect to E6AP protein in the cells is still unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrated interactions among IVa2, 33K and DNA-binding protein (DBP) in virus-infected cells by in vivo cross-linking of HAdV5-infected cells followed by Western blot, and co-immunoprecipitation of IVa2, 33K and DBP from nuclear extracts of HAdV5-infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Nuclear factor I is specifically targeted to discrete subnuclear sites in adenovirus type 2-infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • There was no change in viral protein expression or CPE in HeLa cells, indicating that E1A-HD2 viruses retain selectivity for cells with activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. (duhnnae.com)
  • These results provide compelling evidence of the need for vaccines to target both S and N proteins and to activate T cells to produce immune system memory to combat this virus," said Patrick Soon-Shiong, MD, Chairman and CEO of ImmunityBio. (businesswire.com)
  • Results showed that DMF increased nuclear levels of Nrf2, and both DMF and adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nrf2 (Ad-Nrf2) decreased PAI-1, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin and type 1 collagen expression in TGF-β-treated rat mesangial cells (RMCs) and renal fibroblast cells (NRK-49F). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Most of the E3 proteins are involved in modulating the immune response of infected cells. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • There are many advantages to using an adenovirus to introduce genetic material into host cells. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • Work in our lab involves using adenovirus as a potential oncolytic agent, as well as a tool to study regulation of translation in mammalian cells. (grantome.com)
  • Moreover, melatonin contributed to the translation and transcription of autophagy-related protein ATG7 and inhibited the function of miR-106a-5p in AF cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Selective autophagy ensures the removal of specific soluble proteins, protein aggregates, damaged mitochondria, and invasive bacteria from cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Liu Y, Liu Y, Elly C, Yoshida H, Lipkowitz S, Altman A. Serine phosphorylation of Cbl induced by phorbol ester enhances its association with 14-3-3 proteins in T cells via a novel serine-rich 14-3-3-binding motif. (labome.org)
  • When human adenovirus infects human cells there is disruption of rRNA biogenesis. (worktribe.com)
  • Stable expression of core protein induced frequent chromosome translocations in cultured cells and in transgenic mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our laboratory studies how these viruses infect normal human cells and the consequences of the subsequent interactions between the viral oncogenes and the cellular DNA, genes and proteins. (dana-farber.org)
  • As compared to retroviruses, adenovirus are capable of infecting a broader variety of cells, including those that have a comparatively slow rate of cell division, such as lungs cells. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • However, in progression, reduced ras Ha -associated ERK protein and activity, increased Δ5PTEN-associated cyclin E2 expression, and unique K1/K13 profiles following TPA treatment suggest that PTEN loss, rather than ras Ha activation, gives rise to a population of cells with greater malignant potential. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We use human cells infected with human adenovirus as a complex and dynamic model to demonstrate the robustness of this approach. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Also, BVDV E2_fluo particles bound to fluorophore labelled CD46 expressing cells could be resolved in fluorescence microscopy. (nature.com)
  • Thus, E1 trans-complementing cell types such as HEK 293 can be used to measure infectious activity because only infected cells will produce the hexon protein. (clontech.com)
  • Adeno-X GoStix are also ideal tools for determing the best time to harvest your virus following amplification, since the amount of adenovirus detected in the supernatant correlates strongly with adenovirus production inside the cells. (clontech.com)
  • To study this relationship, we introduced a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus encoding the gene for green fluorescent protein to normal human immature myeloid dendritic cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Further proof that production of the mRNA for the immediate early 13.5K protein is independent of EIA gene function is provided by the observation that it can be detected in cells infected with the EIA deletion mutant d1312. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • the E3 region encodes proteins involved in evading host immunity and is dispensable for viral production per se . (pnas.org)
  • 4 They have been modified by deletion of the E1 region, which encodes proteins that regulate expression of the other early genes (as well as the late virus structural proteins), thereby rendering virus replication defective. (bmj.com)
  • The E2 region encodes viral proteins required for adenovirus DNA replication. (studentreader.com)
  • Recombinant adenoviruses currently are used for a variety of purposes, including gene transfer in vitro , vaccination in vivo , and gene therapy ( 1 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this study, a recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus expressing the CSFV E2 gene (rAdV-E2) was generated and evaluated for the immunogenicity in rabbits . (bvsalud.org)
  • Second, high titers of adenovirus particles are easy to produce and are stable. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Excess of APOC1 protein does inhibit the hepatic clearance of VLDL remnant particles, whereas excess of apoE leads to a hampered extra-hepatic lipolysis of VLDL triglyceride. (tudelft.nl)
  • L1-- Major capsid protein: can form virus-like particles. (kenyon.edu)
  • The fluorophore E2 fusion protein was readily detectable in purified virus particles by Western blot and fluorescence microscopy and the particle integrity and morphology was confirmed by cryo electron microscopy. (nature.com)
  • To gain dynamic information of virus entry, viruses can be genetically labelled by the fusion of a structural protein with a fluorophore or by labelling components of intact virus particles with a fluorescent dye (e.g. adenovirus/enveloped particles with DiD) (reviewed in 7 ). (nature.com)
  • A large body of work has focused on the activities of the key viral regulatory proteins involved in KSHV latent or lytic states. (frontiersin.org)
  • A genetic analysis of the E2F1 gene distinguishes regulation by Rb, p107, and adenovirus E4. (nih.gov)
  • The functional importance of these interactions is supported by the observation that mutations in CR1 and CR2 result in E1A proteins defective in transcriptional regulation and cellular transformation ( 62 , 71 ). (asm.org)
  • These results suggest a functional relationship between the E6*I and full-length E6 protein which correlates with their localization and likely is important in regulation of the E6-E6AP complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Role of adenovirus E1A in viral gene regulation. (bham.ac.uk)
  • The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. (curehunter.com)
  • Pines J, Hunter T. Isolation of a human cyclin cDNA: evidence for cyclin mRNA and protein regulation in the cell cycle and for interaction with p34cdc2. (labome.org)
  • Maruo S, Johannsen E, Illanes D, Cooper A, Zhao B, Kieff E. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 3A domains essential for growth of lymphoblasts: transcriptional regulation through RBP-Jkappa/CBF1 is critical. (umassmed.edu)
  • 2008. Distribution and regional stressor-induced regulation of corticotrophin-releasing factor binding protein in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ). (uoguelph.ca)
  • Thesis: Transcriptional regulation by adenovirus early region 1 and 4 proteins. (usc.edu.cn)
  • Within the family Flaviviridae , options for genetic labelling of non-structural proteins exist. (nature.com)
  • Yet, no system to genetically label structural proteins has been put forward to date. (nature.com)
  • After transfections of such plasmids into a mammalian packaging cell line, viral production is conveniently followed with the aid of green fluorescent protein, encoded by a gene incorporated into the viral backbone. (pnas.org)
  • In order to analyze the relationship between E6*I and full-length E6 in relation to localization, we created a series of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 6. The transgenic mouse of claim 1 , wherein said indicator gene is selected from the group consisting of lacZ, a gene encoding green fluorescent protein and a gene encoding luciferase. (google.com)
  • Twelve weeks after streptozotocin injection, rats in the treatment group were further divided into adenovirus-ACE2, adenovirus-enhanced green fluorescent protein, losartan, and mock groups (n = 20 each). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Results Four weeks after ACE2 gene transfer, the adenovirus-ACE2 group showed increased ACE2 expression, matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity, and LV ejection fractions and decreased LV volumes, myocardial fibrosis, and ACE, Ang-II, and collagen expression in comparison with the adenovirus-enhanced green fluorescent protein and control groups. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Molecular characterization of Xenopus laevis DP proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Purification and partial characterization of another form of the antiviral protein from the seeds of Phytolacca americana L. (pokeweed)," Biochem. (patentgenius.com)
  • Here we report the identification and characterization of a cellular protein that antagonizes transcriptional activation and cellular transformation by E1A. (asm.org)
  • Anders DG, Irmiere A, Gibson W (1986) Identification and characterization of a major early cytomegalovirus DNA-binding protein. (springer.com)
  • Anders DG, Kidd JR, Gibson W (1987) Immunological characterization of an early cytomegalovirus single-strand DNA binding protein with similarities to the HSV major DNA-binding protein. (springer.com)
  • Localization and functional characterization of pulmonary bovine odorant binding protein. (uoguelph.ca)
  • The 34 magnetic bead-based immunoassays (23 phosphoprotein and 11 total protein targets) have been reformulated and optimized to provide exceptional sensitivity, high specificity, and improved performance over western blot and ELISA methods. (selectscience.net)
  • NH2-Terminal targeting motifs direct dual specificity A-kinase-anchoring protein 1 (D-AKAP1) to either mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum. (labome.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel" by people in this website by year, and whether "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • To enhance the immunogenecity of the vaccines, we tried a prime-boost vaccination strategy using a combination of prime with pSFV1CS2-E2 followed by boost with rAdV-E2. (bvsalud.org)
  • Many people who have been exposed to the "common cold" potentially develop adenovirus immunity: the immune system often attacks and disables these first-generation vaccines before they can activate the immune response to attack the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (businesswire.com)
  • When adenoviruses infect a host cell, their genetic material (DNA) is inserted into the host cell. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • The isolated recombinant nucleic acid molecule is based on or derived from an adenovirus, has at least one functional encapsidation signal and at least one functional Inverted Terminal Repeat, and lacks overlapping sequences with the nucleic acid of the cell. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Otherwise, the overlapping sequences would enable homologous recombination leading to replication competent adenovirus in the primary cell into which the isolated recombinant nucleic acid molecule is to be transferred. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The evolution of CD81 binding function and antigenicity was examined with longitudinal E2 RBD sequences. (jove.com)
  • These sequences are also required for these proteins to bind to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb). (semanticscholar.org)
  • The term ATF was first used in 1987 to refer to a putative polypeptide with the activity to bind to the sites on the adenovirus E2, E3, and E4 promoters with sequences similar to the consensus TGACGT(C/A)(G/A) (Lee et al. (springer.com)
  • Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release. (harvard.edu)
  • You J, Croyle JL, Nishimura A, Ozato K, Howley PM. Interaction of the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein with Brd4 tethers the viral DNA to host mitotic chromosomes. (harvard.edu)
  • Interaction with RBX1 and CUL1 inhibits ubiquitination of the proteins targeted by SCF(FBXW7) ubiquitin ligase complex, and may be linked to unregulated host cell proliferation. (uniprot.org)
  • Targeting the retinoblastoma protein by MC007L, gene product of the molluscum contagiosum virus: detection of a novel virus-cell interaction by a member of the poxviruses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Interaction of the putative human cytomegalovirus portal protein pUL104 with the large terminase subunit pUL56 and its inhibition by benzimidazole-D-ribonucleosides. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Characterisation of the functional interaction between HPV16 E2 and Rint-1 AND Project 2. (bham.ac.uk)
  • The interaction between Ubc9 and most targets is not stable enough for efficient transfer, and therefore requires additional proteins, the so-called E3 ligases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Legaree, B.A., and A.J. Clarke (2008) Interaction of penicillin-binding protein 2 with soluble lytic transglycosylase B1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (uoguelph.ca)
  • Similarly, PTEN regulates cell cycle arrest via protein phosphatase-dependent interaction with cyclin D and phospholipase-dependent p27 kip mechanisms ( 15 ), consistent with inhibition of S phase via recruitment of p27 kip into cyclin E complexes following adenovirus-mediated delivery of PTEN ( 16 ) and cooperation between PTEN loss and p27 kip in prostate cancer ( 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The transcriptional co-activator proteins p300 and CBP stimulate adenovirus E1A conserved region 1 transactivation independent of a direct interaction. (usc.edu.cn)
  • this interaction activates the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (By similarity). (rcsb.org)
  • The WW domains mediate interaction with PPxY motif-containing proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • We have therefore examined the phenotypes exhibited by viruses carrying mutations in the E1B 55-kDa protein coding sequence in normal human fibroblast (HFFs). (asm.org)
  • 15 . We sought to exploit this property by insertion of a fluorescent protein sequence (mCherry or mClover) after the first amino acid (aa) residue of the E2 coding sequence of a cytopathogenic BVDV1 (strain C87, BVDV E2_fluo ). (nature.com)
  • However, under certain in vitro conditions, a TTSS can also secrete proteins into a culture medium. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, growth conditions were defined that trigger the secretion of SPI2 substrate proteins in vitro ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • We were interested in analyzing the secretion of STE proteins and other putative substrate proteins of the TTSS of SPI2 under in vitro conditions. (asm.org)
  • MethodsLuciferase assays, co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, immunofluorescent cell staining and cytopathic effect assays were used to characterize the E1A-HD2 fusion protein and virus in vitro. (duhnnae.com)
  • To accommodate larger recombinant genes (up to 8 Kb), 1st generation adenoviruses are both E1 and E3 deleted (E1/E3), since the E3 region is not essential for in vitro viral growth. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • The DNA-protein complex containing the 87K form is active as a template for viral DNA replication in vitro. (cshl.edu)
  • Adenovirus-Mediated Transfer of a Rcombinant .alpha.1-Antitrypsin Gene to the Lung Epithelium in Vivo," Science 252: 431-434, 1991. (patentgenius.com)
  • The localization of these proteins with reference to E6AP in vivo remains unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cathomen T, Collete D, Weitzman M. A chimeric protein containing the N terminus of the adeno-associated virus Rep protein recognizes its target site in an in vivo assay. (labome.org)
  • The F-box domain is a protein structural motif of about 50 amino acids that mediates protein-protein interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • In transfection assays, CREG represses transcription and antagonizes 12SE1A-mediated activation of both the adenovirus E2 and cellular hsp70 promoters. (asm.org)
  • Since both the adenovirus E1A protein and transcriptional activation by E2F function to promote cellular proliferation, the results presented here suggest that CREG activity may contribute to the transcriptional control of cell growth and differentiation. (asm.org)
  • The protein products of both the 12S and 13S mRNA forms of E1A (12SE1A and 13SE1A, respectively) regulate the expression of a number of viral and cellular genes. (asm.org)
  • It is a multifunctional protein, has RNA binding activity and is known to bind to the Translation initiation complex and prevent cap-dependent translation of cellular messages, thus promoting virus-specific translation which can occur in a cap-independent manner. (grantome.com)
  • The F-box protein is one of the four components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) complex, which mediates ubiquitination of proteins targeted for degradation by the proteasome, playing an essential role in many cellular processes. (mdpi.com)
  • Sumoylation, which consists in the covalent and reversible conjugation of Small Ubiquitin-related Modifiers (SUMO-1, 2 and 3 in mammals) to target proteins, is an essential cellular process from yeasts to mammals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have further reported that HCV induces inducible NO synthase ( iNOS ) mRNA expression and enhances NO production through the action of the viral structural protein core and nonstructural protein (NS)3, and that NO is responsible for DSBs in most cellular genes ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the rel gene (GENES, REL). (umassmed.edu)
  • The prime receptor for human adenoviruses is the Coxsackie/Adenovirus Receptor (CAR). (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • This includes selecting specific epitopes within the receptor binding domain of the spike protein as targets for a neutralizing antibody response. (acoem.org)
  • Even the subsequent reformulation of the "one gene-one polypeptide" hypothesis is now considered too simple to describe the relationship between genes and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This combination of high-throughput sequencing and protein identification technologies allows detection of genes and proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We show that this approach can also be used to highlight genes and proteins undergoing dynamic changes in post-transcriptional protein stability. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. (harvard.edu)
  • The second exon-encoded region of E1A is conserved across all E1A isoforms except for the 55 residues protein, which has a unique C-terminus due to a frame shift following splicing into the second exon. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we examined the evolution of the E1 and E2 region in two patients infected with genotype 3a virus. (jove.com)
  • E6*I protein and E6AP were found to co-localize mainly to the cytoplasm, whereas the co-localization of full-length E6 protein and E6AP, if at all, was found mainly at the perinuclear region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have studied rates of evolution of the first hypervariable region (HVR1) of the E2 envelope protein in six individuals with disparate liver disease severity. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Comparison of the rate of sequence variation in the hypervariable region (HVR) of the E2/NS1 region of hepatitis C virus in normal and hypogammaglobulinaemic patients. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Besides the F-box domain, other domains and motifs related to protein-protein interactions are usually present in the C -terminal region of FBPs, such as leucine rich repeats (LRR), WD40 repeats (WD), Kelch repeats, proline-rich and others. (mdpi.com)
  • The RNA bodies extend from coordinated 30, 26 and 23 to 11.1, with leaders at 39, 68.5 and 75 map units, defining a new adenovirus early region. (cshl.edu)
  • Analysis of a series of E1A mutants showed that the repression was dependent on the amino terminus and the conserved region 1 of the E1A protein. (uab.edu)
  • Viral transcription units are conventionally referred to as early (E1, E2, E3, and E4) and late, depending on their temporal expression relative to the onset of viral DNA replication ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The expression of the recombinant E2 protein (rE2) in rE2-TRCs was confirmed using Northern blot, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot analysis. (deepdyve.com)
  • Expression of the E1A-HD2 protein promotes nuclear import of β-catenin, mediated by the strong nuclear localization signal in E1A. (duhnnae.com)
  • Tcf-regulated viruses expressing the fusion protein show increased expression of viral proteins and a five-fold increase in cytopathic effect CPE in colorectal cancer cell lines. (duhnnae.com)
  • allows high expression of the recombinant protein. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • Cardiac myocyte and fibroblast culture was performed to assess Ang-II and collagen protein expression before and after ACE2 gene transfection. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Association of Programmed Death 1 Protein Ligand (PD-L1) Expression With Prognosis in Merkel Cell Carcinoma. (dana-farber.org)
  • Moreover, in all PTEN-null tumors, levels of ras Ha -associated total ERK protein became reduced, whereas phosphorylated ERK and cyclin D1 were lowered in late-stage papillomas returning to elevated levels, alongside increased cyclin E2 expression, in TPA-derived carcinomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) E1A12S oncoprotein utilizes the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signal transduction pathway to activate expression of the viral E2 gene, the products of which are essential for viral replication. (uky.edu)
  • Conclusions- These results indicate that LQT2 nonsense mutations cause a decrease in mutant mRNA levels by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay rather than production of truncated proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8,12-18 However, it is now becoming clear that nonsense and frameshift mutations bearing PTCs can destabilize mRNA transcripts via a mechanism known as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) in many human diseases, resulting in decreased abundance of mutant mRNA transcripts rather than in production of truncated proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that, for a non-model species, the sequencing of expressed mRNA can generate a protein database for mass spectrometry-based identification. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The only mRNAs not depressed by this treatment are an mRNA for a 13.5K protein encoded between 17.0 and 21.5 map units, and the mRNA for the late 52,55K protein encoded between 29 and 34 map units, which is also present in small amounts at early times. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Adenovirus E2 Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • MeSH D12.776.503.280.249.500 - mannose-binding lectin MeSH D12.776.503.280.249.600 - pulmonary surfactant-associated protein a MeSH D12.776.503.280.249.625 - pulmonary surfactant-associated protein d MeSH D12.776.503.499.968.900 - wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate See List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543). (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin J Recombination Signal Sequence-Binding Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • There approximately two phases of adenovirus transcription, namely early and late phases, which occur before and after replication. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • The early-transcribed regions are E1, E2, E3 and E4. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • Anders DG, Gibson W (1988) Location, transcript analysis, and partial nucleotide sequence of the cytomegalovirus gene encoding an early DNA-binding protein with similarities to ICP8 of Herpes simplex virus Type 1. (springer.com)
  • Genes transcribed early in the viral replication cycle are the E1, E2, E3 and E4 genes. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • Thus, we were interested in analyzing the co-localization of E6 and E6*I protein with E6AP to gain further insight into functional relationships that might correlate with localization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dimethylfumarate attenuates renal fibrosis via NF-E2-related factor 2-mediated inhibition of transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The viral core and nonstructural protein 3 proteins were shown to be responsible for the inhibition of DNA repair, mediated by NO and reactive oxygen species. (jimmunol.org)
  • β-catenin is stabilized by these mutations and activates transcription in part by acting as a bridge between Tcf-LEF proteins and the HD2 domain of the BCL9 coactivator. (duhnnae.com)
  • First, wild-type adenoviruses (Adwt) are nononcogenic in humans. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These properties indicate that E4 Orf 6 protein-dependent recruitment of the E1B protein to the specialized nuclear sites at which viral late pre-mRNAs are synthesized promotes selective export of the processed mRNAs. (asm.org)