Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.
Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
DNA viruses producing malignant tumors. Of the six major groupings of DNA viruses four contain members which are actually or potentially oncogenic: the Adenoviridae, the Herpesviridae, the Papovaviridae, and the Poxviridae.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.
A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.

Adenovirus E4 open reading frame 4-induced dephosphorylation inhibits E1A activation of the E2 promoter and E2F-1-mediated transactivation independently of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. (1/111)

Previous studies have shown that the cell cycle-regulated E2F transcription factor is subjected to both positive and negative control by phosphorylation. Here we show that in transient transfection experiments, adenovirus E1A activation of the viral E2 promoter is abrogated by coexpression of the viral E4 open reading frame 4 (E4-ORF4) protein. This effect does not to require the retinoblastoma protein that previously has been shown to regulate E2F activity. The inhibitory activity of E4-ORF4 appears to be specific because E4-ORF4 had little effect on, for example, E4-ORF6/7 transactivation of the E2 promoter. We further show that the repressive effect of E4-ORF4 on E2 transcription works mainly through the E2F DNA-binding sites in the E2 promoter. In agreement with this, we find that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2F-1/DP-1-mediated transactivation. We also show that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2 mRNA expression during virus growth. E4-ORF4 has previously been shown to bind to and activate the cellular protein phosphatase 2A. The inhibitory effect of E4-ORF4 was relieved by okadaic acid, which inhibits protein phosphatase 2A activity, suggesting that E4-ORF4 represses E2 transcription by inducing transcription factor dephosphorylation. Interestingly, E4-ORF4 did not inhibit the transactivation capacity of a Gal4-E2F hybrid protein. Instead, E4-ORF4 expression appears to result in reduced stability of E2F/DNA complexes.  (+info)

Expression of E2A-HLF chimeric protein induced T-cell apoptosis, B-cell maturation arrest, and development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (2/111)

The E2A-HLF fusion gene, generated by t(17;19)(q22;p13) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), encodes a chimeric transcription factor in which the trans-activating domains of E2A are fused to the DNA-binding and dimerization domains of hepatic leukemic factor (HLF). To investigate its biological role, we generated transgenic mice expressing E2A-HLF using Ig enhancer and promoter, which direct transgene expression in cells committed to the lymphoid lineage. The transgenic mice exhibited abnormal development in the thymus and spleen and were susceptible to infection. The thymus contained small numbers of thymocytes, and TUNEL staining showed that higher population of thymocytes were undergoing apoptosis. The spleen exhibited a marked reduction in splenic lymphocytes and the flow cytometric analyses and the in vitro colony formation assays showed that the B-cell maturation was blocked at a very early developmental stage. These findings indicated that the expression of E2A-HLF induced T-cell apoptosis and B-cell maturation arrest in vivo and that the susceptibility of the transgenic mice to infection was due to immunodeficiency. Moreover, several transgenic mice developed acute leukemia, classified as T-ALL based on the surface marker analysis and DNA rearrangements, suggesting that an additional event is required for malignant transformation of lymphoid cells expressing E2A-HLF. Our findings provide insight into the biological function of E2A-HLF in lymphoid development and also its role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Generation of an adenovirus vector lacking E1, e2a, E3, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3. (3/111)

Toxicity and immunity associated with adenovirus backbone gene expression is an important hurdle to overcome for successful gene therapy. Recent efforts to improve adenovirus vectors for in vivo use have focused on the sequential deletion of essential early genes. Adenovirus vectors have been constructed with the E1 gene deleted and with this deletion in combination with an E2a, E2b, or E4 deletion. We report here a novel vector (Av4orf3nBg) lacking E1, E2a, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3 (ORF3) and expressing a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. This vector was generated by transfection of a plasmid carrying the full-length vector sequence into A30.S8 cells that express E1 and E2a but not E4. Production was subsequently performed in an E1-, E2a-, and E4-complementing cell line. We demonstrated with C57BL/6 mice that the Av4orf3nBg vector effected gene transfer with an efficiency comparable to that of the Av3nBg (wild-type E4) vector but that the former exhibited a higher level of beta-galactosidase expression. This observation suggests that E4 ORF3 alone is able to enhance RNA levels from the beta-galactosidase gene when the Rous sarcoma virus promoter is used to drive transgene expression in the mouse liver. In addition, we observed less liver toxicity in mice injected with the Av4orf3nBg vector than those injected with the Av3nBg vector at a comparable DNA copy number per cell. This study suggests that the additional deletion of E4 in an E1 and E2a deletion background may be beneficial in decreasing immunogenicity and improving safety and toxicity profiles, as well as increasing transgene capacity and expression for liver-directed gene therapy.  (+info)

Reduced toxicity, attenuated immunogenicity and efficient mediation of human p53 gene expression in vivo by an adenovirus vector with deleted E1-E3 and inactivated E4 by GAL4-TATA promoter replacement. (4/111)

A recombinant adenovirus with deleted E1 and E3, and E4-inactivated by replacing the E4 promoter with a synthetic promoter composed of a minimal TATA box and five consensus yeast GAL4-binding site elements was developed and used to express the human tumor suppresser gene p53. The toxicity and immunogenicity of this vector and vector-mediated p53 gene expression in vivo were studied in immunocompetent C3H and C57BL/6 mice. Expression of the late viral gene product, hexon protein, was observed in C3H and C57BL/6 mice injected with E4 wild-type adenovirus constructs Adv-cmv-beta-Gal (BG), Adv-cmv-hp53 (WT), and empty E1- vector Adv-E4 (EW) 3 to 28 days after injection, but was undetectable in mice treated with E4 modified empty E1- vector Adv-GAL4 (EG) or Adv-cmv-hp53-GAL4 (G4). Expression of the p53 gene was observed in both WT- and G4-injected C3H and C57BL/6 mouse livers from days 3 to 28. Ten weeks after injection, p53 gene expression was still detected in G4-treated C57BL/6 mice at similar levels, but was not detectable in WT-treated mice. Vector-induced liver toxicity was evaluated by analyzing serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT) activities. In all cases, SGOT and SGPT activities were markedly decreased in EG-treated C3H and C57BL/6 mice compared with those in EW-treated mice on days 3, 7 and 14 after injection. In C57BL/6 mice, the total anti-adenoviral CTL activities were two- to three-fold higher in animals treated with EW vector than in those treated with EG vector. These results suggest that inactivation of the E4 promoter efficiently diminished the viral replication and the late viral gene expression, reduced host immune response and consequently reduced toxicity and prolonged the duration of transgene expression in vivo.  (+info)

Adenovirus-mediated cytotoxicity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. (5/111)

We have studied adenovirus-mediated cytotoxicity after infection of malignant cells obtained from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Our studies indicate that adenoviruses can infect primary CLL cells and that infection of CLL cells with a replication-competent strain of human adenovirus 5 (Ad5dl309) results in cytotoxicity. Adenovirus-mediated cytotoxicity was also seen after infection of CLL cells with a variety of viruses attenuated by mutations in the adenovirus early region 1 (E1) or early region 2 (E2). Even viruses attenuated by deletion of the entire E1 region resulted in cytotoxicity after infection of the CLL cells obtained from some patients. Although there was variability in the degree of cytotoxicity induced by different viruses in different patients cells, a virus with a mutation in the E1B 19K gene resulted in the greatest degree of cytotoxicity in most of the CLL samples tested. These studies demonstrate that infection of CLL cells by attenuated adenoviruses with specific mutations in the E1 or E2 region results in cell death. Attenuated adenoviruses should be developed further as therapeutic agents for patients with CLL.  (+info)

Induction of transformation and p53-dependent apoptosis by adenovirus type 5 E4orf6/7 cDNA. (6/111)

Adenovirus (Ad) E4orf6/7, one of the early gene products of human Ads, forms a stable complex with the cellular transcription factor E2F to activate transcription from the Ad E2 promoter. E2F cDNAs have growth-promoting and apoptosis-inducing activities when overexpressed in cells. We cloned Ad5 E4orf6/7 cDNA in both simian virus 40- and human cytomegalovirus-based expression vectors to examine its transforming and apoptotic activities. The cloned E4orf6/7 collaborated with a retinoblastoma protein (RB)-nonbinding and therefore E2F-nonreleasing mutant of Ad5 E1A (dl922/947) to morphologically transform primary rat cells, suggesting that E2F is an important cellular protein functioning downstream of E1A for transformation. In a G418 colony formation assay, E4orf6/7 was shown to suppress growth of untransformed rat cells. Moreover, a recombinant Ad expressing Ad5 E4orf6/7 induced apoptosis in rat cells when coinfected with wild-type p53-expressing Ad. Mutational analysis of E4orf6/7 revealed that both of the domains required for growth inhibition and transformation by E4orf6/7 lay in the C-terminal region, which is essential for transactivation from the upstream sequence of an E2a promoter containing E2F-binding sites. However, the smallest mutant of E4orf6/7, encoding the C-terminal 59 amino acids, failed to complement the RB-nonbinding dl922/947 mutant despite showing growth inhibition and E2F transactivation activities. Thus, it is suggested that a subregion of E4orf6/7 which is required for growth inhibition and transformation in collaboration with dl922/947 overlaps the transactivation domain of E4orf6/7.  (+info)

An inhibitory switch derepressed by pbx, hox, and Meis/Prep1 partners regulates DNA-binding by pbx1 and E2a-pbx1 and is dispensable for myeloid immortalization by E2a-pbx1. (7/111)

The Pbx/Exd family of homeodomain (HD) proteins contribute to the transcriptional and developmental roles of other Hox and Meis/Prep1/Hth HD proteins through heterodimer formation. E2a-Pbx1 is an oncogenic derrivative of Pbx1 produced by the t(1;19) translocation in pediatric pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. E2a-Pbx1 heterodimerizes with Hox but not with Meis/Prep1 proteins, produces acute myeloid leukemia in mice, and blocks differentiation of cultured murine myeloid progenitors. Here, we characterize negative and positive regulatory sequences that flank the Pbx1 HD and determine their importance for myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1. A 25 residue predicted alpha helix preceding the Pbx1 HD bound the HD and prevented both its binding to DNA and its ability to heterodimerize with Hox proteins. Addition of 39 residues N-terminal to this inhibitory helix exposed a Pbx dimerization interface that orchestrated cooperative DNA-binding of E2a-Pbx1 and all Pbx proteins as homodimers and heterdimers. Sequences inhibiting DNA-binding and mediating Pbx dimerization coincided with those reported to have nuclear export function. An additional 103 residues N-terminal to the Pbx dimerization interface restored heterodimerization with Hox and Meis1/Prep1 proteins. This negative switch domain - comprised of the inhibitory helix and N-terminal regions required for its partner-mediated derepression - was dispensable for myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1. While stabilizing the heterodimer, the 310 helix C-terminal to the Pbx1 HD was also dispensable for the ability of E2a-Pbx1 to heterodimerize with Hox proteins and immortalize myeloblasts. Retention of myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1 proteins lacking all Pbx1 sequences N- or C-terminal to the HD indicates that Hox proteins, or a yet undefined factor that binds the Pbx1 HD and derepresses DNA-binding by the HD, cooperate with E2a-Pbx1 in myeloid immortalization.  (+info)

cAMP-independent activation of the adenovirus type 12 E2 promoter correlates with the recruitment of CREB-1/ATF-1, E1A(12S), and CBP to the E2-CRE. (8/111)

Expression of the transcription unit early region 2 (E2) is of crucial importance for adenoviruses because this region encodes proteins essential for viral replication. Here, we demonstrate that the E1A(12S) protein of the oncogenic adenovirus serotype 12 activates the E2 promoter in dependence of the N terminus and the conserved region 1. Activation is mediated through a cAMP-response element that is bound by CREB-1 and ATF-1. Moreover, the Ad12 E2 promoter is inducible by protein kinase A and repressed by either a dominant-negative cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) mutant or the highly specific protein kinase A inhibitor protein underscoring the participation of CREB-1/ATF-1 in promoter activation. E1A(12S) binds to CREB-1 and ATF-1 in dependence of the N terminus and CR1 and is recruited to the E2 cAMP-response element through both cellular transcription factors. Most interestingly, point mutations revealed that E1A(12S) domains essential for binding to CREB-1/ATF-1 and for activation of the Ad12 E2 promoter are also essential for binding to the CREB-binding protein. Due to these data and results obtained in DNA-dependent protein-protein interaction assays, we propose a model in which the cAMP-independent activation of the Ad12 E2 promoter is mediated through a ternary complex consisting of CREB-1/ATF-1, E1A(12S), and CREB-binding protein, which assembles on the E2 cAMP-response element.  (+info)

Bekyarova, Ganka (2014) Study On Some Possible Liver Damage Mechanisms Related To Oxidative Stress In Experimental Thermal Trauma Conditions And Melatonin Hepatoprotection Role// Проучване на някои възможни механизми за увреждане на черния дроб, свързани с оксидативния стрес в условията на експериментална термична травма и ролята на мелатонина в хепатопротекцията. Post-Doctoral thesis, Medical University of Varna. Decheva, Liubka (2014) Investigation of the regulatory effects of vitamin D analogues on calcium-phosphorus metabolism at renal function replacement // Проучване на регулаторните ефекти на аналози на витамин D върху калциево-фосфорната обмяна при заместване на бъбречната функция. Doctoral thesis, Medical University of ...
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Tritico era cultivate in Asia del West approximatemente 10,000 annos ante le presente e era o le prime recolta, o un del prime recoltas cultivate per nostre specie. Tritico einkorn (T. monococcum) e tritico emmer (T. dicoccum) era le prime species cultivate, ma hodie le majoritate de tritico cultivate es T. aestivum (usate pro pan) e le resto es primarimente T. durum, usate pro pasta e bulghur. ...
Tritico era cultivate in Asia del West approximatemente 10,000 annos ante le presente e era o le prime recolta, o un del prime recoltas cultivate per nostre specie. Tritico einkorn (T. monococcum) e tritico emmer (T. dicoccum) era le prime species cultivate, ma hodie le majoritate de tritico cultivate es T. aestivum (usate pro pan) e le resto es primarimente T. durum, usate pro pasta e bulghur. ...
Adenolipomatosis definition. adenolipomatosis adenolipomatosis ad·e·no·li·po·ma·to·sis (ādn-ō-lĭ-pōmə-tōsĭs) n. A condition marked by the development of multiple adenolipomas.
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UTF8PROC_CATEGORY_LO, 0, UTF8PROC_BIDI_CLASS_R, UTF8PROC_DECOMP_TYPE_FONT, utf8proc_sequences + 9266, NULL, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, false, false, false, false, UTF8PROC_BOUNDCLASS_OTHER, 1 ...
Pbx3兔多克隆抗体(ab56239)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
There are several new hot topics in antifungals and antifungal susceptibility testing. In this review, four topics of general interest to the clinical microbiology community are discussed. The first topic is the introduction of isavuconazole, a new t ...
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Okuma ABF-50 Avenger 50 Baitfeeder Reel. or Best Offer. The Avenger ABF uses Okumas live bait feeding system. or Best Offer +C $12.18 shipping; From United States; ... 1 Okuma Part # 25003516 or 25003783 Handle Fits AV-40,AV-50,AB F-40,ABF-50. SORRY, NO ETA, A-1 OKUMA 23180001 12mm REVERSE THREAD ROTOR NUT, A-1 OKUMA 23180003 & 23180015 12mm REVERSE THREAD ROTOR NUT, A-1 OKUMA 23180005 10mm REVERSE THREAD ROTOR NUT, A-1 OKUMA 23180008 14 mm REVERSE THREAD ROTOR NUT. It looks good, however has scuffs and scratches that come from normal use. Cosmetically. ... 25003516 HANDLE ASSY. ebay template Okuma ABF-50 Avenger 50 Baitfeeder Reel. Okuma Avenger ABF Graphite Bait Feeder Reel comes in various sizes - their specifications are given in the following table: 1 Okuma Part # 25005661 Handle Assembly Fits Trio Bf-55 and Abf-50 Upgrade. ... Achat immédiat - Okuma Ceramic Super Tune AVENGER BAITFEEDER ABF-50, ABF-55B Ajouter à votre liste dAffaires à suivre. 920-15 0920401 washer 504 25040004 handle ...
Panče Naumov is a native of Macedonia, where he was educated, and worked briefly at Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje. After earning his Ph.D. in chemistry and materials science from Tokyo Institute of Technology in 2004, Dr. Naumov continued his research at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) in Japan. In 2007, he was appointed Associate Professor at Osaka University, where he led a small but very active research group. After a short stint at Kyoto University, in 2012 he joined New York University, where he is now a tenured faculty member at their portal campus in Abu Dhabi, the UAE. His publication portfolio includes over 200 publications that have been cited more than 3300 times, with a current h-index of 32. He has also contributed three book chapters and a couple of academic manuals. At research conferences, he has presented over 300 times and has given about 50 invited talks and 30 invited seminars at various institutions. He is an active reviewer for more than ...
ABF-2014-070 Chroogomphus vinicolor. AgaricomycetesAgaricomycetidaeAgaricomycotinaBasidiomycotaBoletalesFungiGomphidiaceae ...
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The approach to use adenovirus as a vector to deliver spike protein is similar to the approach used by the Johnson & Johnson ... The protein of interest is the spike protein, a protein on the exterior of the virus that enables SARS-type coronaviruses to ... the production of coronavirus spike protein within the body will cause the immune system to attack the spike protein with ... Following vaccination, the adenovirus vector enters the cells and releases its genes, in the form of DNA, which are transported ...
... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.060 - adenovirus e2 ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.320 - fusion proteins, ... oncogene protein tpr-met MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045 - adenovirus early proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050 - adenovirus ...
E1A adenovirus protein, and S-HDAg (hepatitis delta virus small delta antigen). p300/CBP have also been observed to acetylate β ... NF-E2, SREBP, IRF2, Sp3, YY1, KLF13, EVI1, BCL6, HNF-4, ER81 and FOXO4 (AFX). The formation of multisubunit complexes has been ... structural proteins, polyamines, and proteins involved in nuclear import. Acetylation of these proteins can alter their ability ... Histones comprise the protein portion of chromatin. There are five different histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. A core ...
... the proposed connection between a single gene and a single protein enzyme outlived the protein theory of gene structure. In a ... "An amazing sequence arrangement at the 5' ends of adenovirus 2 messenger RNA." Cell 12, no. 1 (September 1977): 1-8. Jan Sapp ( ... However, it was not until the experiments were performed showing that DNA was the genetic material, that proteins consist of a ... In a 1945 review, Beadle suggested that "the gene can be visualized as directing the final configuration of a protein molecule ...
The DNA is surrounded by a protein nucleocapsid, which is surrounded by a tegument made of protein, which in turn is surrounded ... the latter completely abrogating the ability of a BRLF1 adenovirus vector to induce the lytic form of EBV infection. ... To enter epithelial cells, viral protein BMRF-2 interacts with cellular β1 integrins. Then, viral protein gH/gL interacts with ... The set of proteins and RNAs produced in Latency III transforms the B cell into a proliferating blast (also known as B cell ...
By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... 277(31): e1-e2 Harrison, Roger G., Todd, Paul, Rudge, Scott R., Petrides D.P. Bioseparations Science and Engineering. Oxford ... Berkowitz, S.A., Philo, J.S. Monitoring the Homogeneity of Adenovirus Preparations (a Gene Therapy Delivery System) Using ... Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ...
Using adenovirus-expressing SFRP1, impaired the canonical Wnt/Fzd pathway in the early phase of ischemia and as a result ... Smooth muscle cells cultured from the myometrium showed no significant induction of SFRP1 mRNA in response to treatment with E2 ... the SFRP1 netrin-related motif is also found in a range of other proteins that is thought to mediate protein-protein ... Secreted frizzled-related protein 1, also known as SFRP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SFRP1 gene. Secreted ...
Universal protein resource accession number Q29983 for "MICA - MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A precursor - Homo ... human adenovirus 5, M. tuberculosis, diarrheagenic E.coli, or human papillomavirus (HPV). microRNA-183 downregulates MICA ... It is located on chromosome 6 and the protein is expressed in two isoforms formed by alternative splicing: MICA1 and MICA2 ... MICA rather functions as a stress-induced ligand (as a danger signal) for integral membrane protein receptor NKG2D ("natural- ...
"Adenovirus protein involved in virus internalization recruits ubiquitin-protein ligases". Biochemistry. 41 (48): 14299-305. doi ... "Physical and functional interactions between the transactivation domain of the hematopoietic transcription factor NF-E2 and WW ... The encoded protein belongs to a family of NEDD4-like proteins, which are E3 ubiquitin-ligase molecules and regulate key ... This gene encodes a protein which contains 4 tandem WW domains and a HECT (homologous to the E6-associated protein carboxyl ...
In a second step, an E1 activating complex binds to SUMO at its di-glycine and passes it on to the E2 protein Ubc9, where it ... Hateboer G, Hijmans EM, Nooij JB, Schlenker S, Jentsch S, Bernards R (1996). "mUBC9, a novel adenovirus E1A-interacting protein ... For example, sumoylation may affect a protein's localization in the cell, its ability to interact with other proteins or DNA. ... SENP proteases can remove SUMO from sumoylated proteins, freeing it to be used in further sumoylation reactions. The protein ...
The NK cells expression relatively high levels of the LMP1 viral protein; this protein may activate the NF-κB cell signaling ... adenovirus, or toxoplasma. HIV, rubella, and Hepatitis viruses A, B, and C can produce an illness resembling IM. The acute EBV ... and other viral proteins; in >50% of cases, they also express classic B cell antigenic proteins such as CD20, BCL6, and CD15. ... EBNA1 and EBER proteins may contribute to the development and/or progression of BL by inhibiting the death by apoptosis of the ...
Protein loss and high blood pressure, as well as the features on biopsy of the kidney if performed, may predict progression to ... adenovirus, Helicobacter pylori, measles, mumps, rubella, Mycoplasma and numerous others. Drugs linked to HSP, usually as an ... With kidney involvement, there may be a loss of small amounts of blood and protein in the urine (hematuria and proteinuria), ... More than half also have proteinuria (protein in the urine), which in one eighth is severe enough to cause nephrotic syndrome ( ...
Serum biology, c-reactive proteins and leptins, the hormonal pituitary axis, and protein in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) are ... and adenovirus. Several days after symptoms first occur, patients become very tired. In cases that occur after an infection, ...
"Adenovirus Overrides Cellular Checkpoints for Protein Translation". Cell Cycle. 4 (7): 883-888. doi:10.4161/cc.4.7.1791. PMID ... p. E-2. Fikes, Bradley J. (27 July 2017). "Salk Institute, UCSD scientists decode DNA's 3D shape". The San Diego Union-Tribune ... Higginbotham, Jennifer M.; O'Shea, Clodagh C. (15 October 2015). Imperiale, M. J. (ed.). "Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Targets PIAS3 and ... "Visualizing viral protein structures in cells using genetic probes for correlated light and electron microscopy". Methods. 90: ...
All four auxiliary proteins are dispensible for viral replication. The E protein is divided into the E1 and E2 glycoproteins, ... and it has been suggested that Parker's rat coronavirus is only one type of rat salivary adenovirus. It is highly infectious. ... In addition to the four structural proteins of coronaviruses - spike protein (S), membrane protein (M), envelope protein (E) ... The types of auxiliary proteins in different virus strains may differ. For example, MHV-S lacks auxiliary protein 5a, so it is ...
"A family of proteins structurally and functionally related to the E6-AP ubiquitin-protein ligase". Proceedings of the National ... 1991 Chellappan, S.; Kraus, V. B.; Kroger, B.; Munger, K.; Howley, P. M.; Phelps, W. C.; Nevins, J. R. (1992). "Adenovirus E1A ... Insights into Ubiquitination by the E2-E3 Enzyme Cascade". Science. 286 (5443): 1321-1326. doi:10.1126/science.286.5443.1321. ... 1990 Huibregtse, J.M.; Scheffner, M.; Howley, P.M. (1991). "A cellular protein mediates association of p53 with the E6 ...
... encoding protein coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor CYYR1: Cysteine and tyrosine rich 1 DIP2A: Disco-interacting protein 2 ... encoding ubiquitin-associated and SH3 domain-containing protein A UBE2G2: encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 G2 UMODL1- ... encoding protein RWD domain-containing protein 2B S100B: calcium binding protein SAMSN1: encoding SAM domain-containing protein ... encoding protein Protein Mis18-alpha MORC3: encoding MORC family CW-type zinc finger protein 3 MRAP: encoding melanocortin-2 ...
... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 - adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH ... adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062 - antigens, viral, tumor MeSH D23.050.327.062.045 - adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23. - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23. - antigens, polyomavirus ... hiv core protein p24 MeSH D23.050.327.520.330 - hiv envelope protein gp41 MeSH D23.050.327.520.350 - hiv envelope protein gp120 ...
E2 protein induces expression of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/activator protein ... Wang N, Verna L, Hardy S, Forsayeth J, Zhu Y, Stemerman MB (September 1999). "Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of c-Jun and c ... Masuda A, Yoshikai Y, Kume H, Matsuguchi T (November 2004). "The interaction between GATA proteins and activator protein-1 ... "Human cytomegalovirus IE1 protein activates AP-1 through a cellular protein kinase(s)". The Journal of General Virology. 80 ( ...
"Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the adenovirus E1A-associated 300-kD protein (p300) reveals a protein with ... "AMF-1/Gps2 binds p300 and enhances its interaction with papillomavirus E2 proteins". J. Virol. 74 (13): 5872-9. doi:10.1128/jvi ... Histone acetyltransferase p300 also known as p300 HAT or E1A-associated protein p300 (where E1A = adenovirus early region 1A) ... This gene encodes the adenovirus E1A-associated cellular p300 transcriptional co-activator protein. EP300 is closely related to ...
"Study of Recombinant Protein Vaccine with Adjuvant against COVID-19 in Adults 18 Years of Age and Older". ... Gou J. "Phase III Trial of A COVID-19 Vaccine of Adenovirus Vector in Adults 18 Years Old and Above". Archived from the ... Costa AG (11 April 2021). "Estudo clínico que comprova maior eficácia da Coronavac é enviado para Lancet" [Clinical study ... "Study of Recombinant Protein Vaccine With Adjuvant Against COVID-19 in Adults 18 Years of Age and Older (VAT00002)". ...
The use of the Janssen adenovirus vector vaccine began in Finland in October 2021. It is only offered for those aged 65 and ... "Vacina da Pfizer é a 1ª a obter registro definitivo no Brasil" (in Brazilian Portuguese). G1. 23 February 2021. Retrieved 23 ... Full (0) Emergency (1) Iran Travel-only Hungary Malaysia New Zealand Turkey COVAX-19, also known as SpikoGen, is a protein ... "Adenovirus vaccines: FAQ - THL". Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Finland. Retrieved 3 December 2021. "Getting ...
Persons with aphthous stomatitis also have circulating lymphocytes which react with peptides 91-105 of heat shock protein 65-60 ... adenovirus, and cytomegalovirus. Some people with aphthous stomatitis may show herpes virus within the epithelium of the mucosa ... polio virus vaccine and prostaglandin E2. By definition, there is no serious underlying medical condition, and most importantly ...
E2 facilitates the binding of E1 to the viral origin of replication. E2 also utilizes a cellular protein known as Bromodomain-4 ... Glaunsinger BA, Lee SS, Thomas M, Banks L, Javier R (November 2000). "Interactions of the PDZ-protein MAGI-1 with adenovirus E4 ... E6 proteins also interact with the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase family) proteins. These proteins, including MAGI ... very hydrophobic proteins that destabilise the function of many membrane proteins in the infected cell. The E5 protein of some ...
The protein encoded by this gene is found in the nucleus and is a cofactor of DNA polymerase delta. The encoded protein acts as ... Morris GF, Mathews MB (1990). "Analysis of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoter and its response to adenovirus early ... Cell-cycle regulators Chromatin remodeling factor Clamp loader Cohesin DNA ligase DNA methyltransferase DNA polymerases E2 SUMO ... Proteins binding to PCNA via the PIP-box are mainly involved in DNA replication whereas proteins binding to PCNA via APIM are ...
It delivers a functional copy of the p53 gene using an engineered adenovirus. Certain pathogens can also affect the p53 protein ... Bernier-Villamor V, Sampson DA, Matunis MJ, Lima CD (February 2002). "Structural basis for E2-mediated SUMO conjugation ... or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53) is a regulatory protein that is often mutated in human cancers. The p53 proteins ( ... Mutant p53 proteins often fail to induce MDM2, causing p53 to accumulate at very high levels. Moreover, the mutant p53 protein ...
... a zinc-finger protein that shares an epitope with the adenovirus E1A protein". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... pRb binds and inhibits E2 promoter-binding-protein-dimerization partner (E2F-DP) dimers, which are transcription factors of the ... The retinoblastoma protein (protein name abbreviated pRb; gene name abbreviated Rb, RB or RB1) is a proto-oncogenic tumor ... E2F1 to E2F5 are known to associate with proteins in the pRb-family of proteins while E2F6 and E2F7 are independent of pRb. ...
... phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome and structural protein E2 gene indicated that the SD1709 strain was most similar ... and canine adenovirus. However, we detected none of these classical endemic viruses. ...
The gene loci coding for each of the DAG complex proteins is located outside the X chromosomes. Gene defects in these protein ... Efficient adenovirus-mediated transfer of a human minidystrophin gene to skeletal muscle of mdx mice. Nature. 1993 Feb 18. 361 ... Dystrophin: the protein product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus. Cell. 1987 Dec 24. 51 (6):919-28. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ... The etiology of MD is an abnormality in the genetic code for specific muscle proteins. [8] They all are classified according to ...
The approach to use adenovirus as a vector to deliver spike protein is similar to the approach used by the Johnson & Johnson ... The protein of interest is the spike protein, a protein on the exterior of the virus that enables SARS-type coronaviruses to ... the production of coronavirus spike protein within the body will cause the immune system to attack the spike protein with ... Following vaccination, the adenovirus vector enters the cells and releases its genes, in the form of DNA, which are transported ...
HPgV E2 amplification included denaturation at 94°C for 5 min followed by 20 cycles of 94°C for 18 s, 55°C for 20 s, 72°C for ... and human adenovirus (HAdV) in CSF samples. We used commercial serologic tests to test CSF and paired serum samples for HHV-1, ... 4 cells/mm2 or protein level ,40 mg/dL). We obtained written informed consent from all patients or from close relatives of ... C. Amino acid E2 region changes in CSF vs serum variants were both within regions predicted to contain T-cell epitopes ...
Adenovirus (serotypes 1, 6, 7, and 12) has been associated with cases of meningoencephalitis. Chronic meningoencephalitis has ... These processes account for the characteristic changes in CSF cell count, pH, lactate, protein, and glucose in patients with ... Many secondary mediators, such as IL-6, IL-8, nitric oxide, prostaglandins (eg, prostaglandin E2 [PGE2]), and platelet ... In many cases, this contributes to vasogenic edema and elevated CSF protein levels. In response to the cytokines and ...
E2F was originally identified through its role in transcriptional activation of the adenovirus E2 promoter. Sequences ... each of which forms heterodimers with a second protein, DP-1, forming an ?€?active?€? E2F transcriptional regulatory complex. ... of Rb can be mediated either through mutation or as a consequence of interaction with DNA tumor virus encoded proteins. Of all ... homologous to the E2F binding site have been found upstream of a number of genes that encode proteins with putative functions ...
All these processes involve the participation of cellular proteins, mitochondrial proteins, and virus specific proteins. This ... Others modulate the permeability transition pore and either prevent or induce the release of the apoptotic proteins from the ... hijack the host mitochondrial proteins to function fully inside the host cell. ... Some viruses encode the Bcl2 homologues to counter the proapoptotic functions of the cellular and mitochondrial proteins. ...
Adenovirus protein involved in virus internalization recruits ubiquitin- protein ligases. Biochemistry (2002) 41 (48) : 14299- ... DC-SIGN and L-SIGN are high affinity binding receptors for hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2. Journal of Biological Chemistry ( ... Protein transduction into human cells by adenovirus dodecahedron using WW domains as universal adaptors.. Journal of Gene ... Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 interaction with human cellular factors Tsg101 and Nedd4. Journal of Molecular Biology (2003) ...
HPgV E2 amplification included denaturation at 94°C for 5 min followed by 20 cycles of 94°C for 18 s, 55°C for 20 s, 72°C for ... and human adenovirus (HAdV) in CSF samples. We used commercial serologic tests to test CSF and paired serum samples for HHV-1, ... 4 cells/mm2 or protein level ,40 mg/dL). We obtained written informed consent from all patients or from close relatives of ... C. Amino acid E2 region changes in CSF vs serum variants were both within regions predicted to contain T-cell epitopes ...
... a recombinant E2 protein-based vaccine (32), chimeric alphavirus vectors (33,C35), an adenovirus vector (36), a virus-like ... E2, 6K, and E1) proteins (10,C12). Virions are 70-nm enveloped contaminants formulated with 240 heterodimers of E1/E2 ... The CHIKV-specific Compact disc8+ T cells had been directed against E1 and E2 proteins and preferentially, to a smaller level, ... The non-structural proteins (nsP1, nsP2, nsP3, and nsP4) are necessary for pathogen replication. The structural proteins are ...
Anti-Mi-2 antibodies recognize a major protein of a nuclear complex formed by at least 7 proteins that is involved in the ... Adenovirus Many drugs are known to cause myopathy. Most of those drugs, such as hydroxychloroquine and colchicine, cause a ... Anti-SRP antibodies are directed toward an RNA-protein complex that consists of 6 proteins and a 300-nucleotide RNA molecule ( ... The identified MSA targets include the following 3 distinct groups of proteins:. * Aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) ...
... é uma proteína pro-apoptótica membro da família Bcl-2. No sistema imunológico, BIM foi descrita como reguladora da homeostase ... BIM é uma proteína pro-apoptótica membro da família Bcl-2. No sistema imunológico, BIM foi descrita como reguladora da ... BIM is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family. In the immune system, BIM has been described as lymphocyte ... Role of BIM in the generation of antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in response to vaccination with recombinant adenovirus. ...
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12] * Proteins [D12.776] * DNA-Binding Proteins [D12.776.260] * Adenovirus E2 Proteins [ ... Proteins [D12.776] * Transcription Factors [D12.776.930] * Adenovirus E1A Proteins [D12.776.930.100] * Adenovirus E1B Proteins ... Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins [D12.776.260.775.092] * TATA-Binding Protein Associated Factors [D12.776.260.775 ... Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins [D12.776.930.930.092] * TATA-Binding Protein Associated Factors [D12.776.930.930 ...
... regarded as an activator to the promoter of adenovirus E2 in the 1980s. With the in-depth study, it was found that the E2F ... D) The protein level of FOXN3 in xenograft tumors at 14 days postimplantation. (E) The relative mRNA level of Ki67 and PCNA in ... B) The protein level of FOXN3 in PC3, Du145 and LNCap cells after infected with lentivirus containing FOXN3 ORF. (C) The cell ... Both mRNA and protein levels of FOXN3 in PC3-FOXN3, Du145-FOXN3 and LNCap- FOXN3 cell lines were significantly upregulated (fig ...
This applies to the adenovirus vector with which Gelsinger was injected, since adenovirus antibodies are frequently found in ... The genome is divided into two main regions expressing four early (E1, E2, E3, E4) and five late (L1, L2, L3, L4, L5) genes. ... However, this is not the end of the story, for the vector can also, of course, introduce genes for other proteins that could ... Adenovirus vectors are depleted of their E1 region, which is essential for reproduction and may also be deprived of the E3 and ...
BQ.1 has an advantage over other COVID subvariants thanks to three major mutations on its spike protein, the part of the SARS- ... With just 68 percent of its 1.4 billion people fully vaccinated with one of eight authorized vaccines-a mix of adenovirus, ... inactivated-virus and protein vaccines but no mRNA-and only 15 percent boosted, India is somewhere in the middle of the global ... the two messenger-RNA jabs from Pfizer and Moderna as well as separate protein-based and inactivated-virus vaccines from ...
Human chaperone proteins abrogate inhibition of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E1 helicase by the HPV E2 protein. Mol. Cell. ... Activation of adenovirus early promoters and lytic phase in differentiated strata of organotypic cultures of human ... Viral E1 and E2 proteins support replication of homologous and heterologous papillomaviral origins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ... Cell-free replication of the human papillomavirus DNA with homologous viral E1 and E2 proteins and human cell extracts. J. Biol ...
Recombinant measles virus vaccine strain (Schwarz strain) expressing env (E1, E2, E3), capsid C en structural protein 6K from ... Recombinant Adenovirus serotype 26 and MVA Bavarian Nordic strain Only notified under the "contained use" procedure. Dossier ...
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12] * Proteins [D12.776] * DNA-Binding Proteins [D12.776.260] * Adenovirus E2 Proteins [ ... Proteins [D12.776] * Transcription Factors [D12.776.930] * Adenovirus E1A Proteins [D12.776.930.100] * Adenovirus E1B Proteins ... Replication Protein C [D12.776.260.702] * Repressor Proteins [D12.776.260.703] * AraC Transcription Factor [D12.776.260.703.099 ... Repressor Proteins Preferred Concept UI. M0018809. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Proteins which maintain the transcriptional ...
DNA-Binding Proteins. *Adenovirus E2 Proteins. *Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors ... It contains a 56 amino acid MADS-box domain within the N-terminal of the protein and is one of the four founder proteins that ... "Minichromosome Maintenance 1 Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ... A sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role as a global regulator of yeast cell cycle control. ...
YB-1 relocates to the nucleus in adenovirus-infected cells and facilitates viral replication by inducing E2 gene expression ... Yeast DNA replication protein Dpb11 activates the Mec1/ATR checkpoint kinase. Navadgi-Patil, V. M. & Burgers, P. M., Dec 19 ... Y-box Binding Protein-1 Is Part of a Complex Molecular Network Linking ΔNp63α to the PI3K/akt Pathway in Cutaneous Squamous ... Yes-associated protein-1 may serve as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for residual/recurrent hepatocellular ...
Adenovirus E2 Proteins Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors ... Chemicals and Drugs [D] » Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12] » Proteins » DNA-Binding Proteins ... Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes ... specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases. MeSH ...
The monoUb is a substrate for the heterodimeric E2 Ube2N/Ube2V2, leading to TRIM21-anchored Ub-(63)Ub. Depletion of both E2 ... The encoded protein is part of the RoSSA ribonucleoprotein, which includes a single polypeptide and one of four small RNA ... IgA neutralizes adenovirus an infection in a TRIM21- and proteasome-dependent method in each human and mouse cells. ... The encoded protein is part of the RoSSA ribonucleoprotein, which includes a single polypeptide and one of four small RNA ...
YB-1 relocates to the nucleus in adenovirus-infected cells and facilitates viral replication by inducing E2 gene expression ... through the E2 late promoter. Holm, P. S., Bergmann, S., Jürchott, K., Lage, H., Brand, K., Ladhoff, A., Mantwill, K., Curiel, ...
Alternatively, first-generation subunit vaccines using the viral protein E2 allow for use of DIVA diagnostic tests, but are ... Use of ENABL® adjuvant to increase the potency of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A subunit ... Identification of a protein complex that assembles lipopolysaccharide in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli journal, July ... Plant‐made E2 glycoprotein single‐dose vaccine protects pigs against classical swine fever. Journal Article Laughlin, Richard C ...
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12] * Proteins [D12.776] * DNA-Binding Proteins [D12.776.260] * Adenovirus E2 Proteins [ ... Molecular Motor Proteins [D08.811.] * MutL Proteins [D08.811.] * Mismatch Repair Endonuclease ... MutL Proteins Preferred Concept UI. M000612744. Registry Number. EC Scope Note. DNA repair proteins that include the ... MutL Proteins [D08.811.074.766] * Mismatch Repair Endonuclease PMS2 [D08.811.074.766.250] * MutL Protein Homolog 1 [D08.811. ...
... of confluence and infected with adenovirus containing green fluorescent protein (AdGFP) or AdIGF-I. Three days after infection ... prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-6, by mean of blockage and inhibitory assays [14, 15, 21]. However, this is the first report ... Retinoblastoma-like protein 2 (Rbl2) and G protein-coupled receptor 132 (Gpr132) (fold change: 4; 2.4; 2 and 2, respectively). ... Similar comparisons were done at the protein level for IL-6 and IL-10 (supernatants; c and d, respectively) and TNF-α ( ...
Coxsackie Adenovirus Receptor/hCAR (16). * CPSF30/NAR (3). * CREBBP (22). * CREBBP+KAT3B / p300 (3). ... PCBP2/hnRNP E2 (10). * Pea3 (4). * Poliovirus Receptor/PVR (34). * PVRL1/NECTIN1 (16). ...
... expression of fluorescent proteins for imaging, reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells and stem cell ... 16,16-Dimethyl Prostaglandin E2. Enhances lentiviral transduction; synthetic prostaglandin E2 (Cat. No. 2296) derivative. ... meaning they dont contain sequences required by the virus to make proteins for viral replication and infection. However, ...
BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3. 0.030. Ndufa9. NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 9. 0.027. ... dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex). 0.032. Yeast Rat ... hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-Coenzyme A thiolase/enoyl-Coenzyme A hydratase (trifunctional protein), beta ...
... proteins of the virus (NS3-NS5) using chimpanzee adenovirus priming and a modifed vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost. These represent ... A novel hepacivirus with an unusually long and intrinsi cally disordered NS5A protein in a wild Old World primate. J of Virol. ... protein_id="QJC2104QJC21049.1") that has 87% query cover with Homo sapiens protein kinase C eta (PRKCH) (NG_011514.1). 9.1] ... However, the use of whole virus or full-length S protein-based immunogens in humans should be approached with caution, because ...
The TRPC6 protein forms homomeric and heteromeric channels composed of TRPC6 alone or TRPC6 and other TRPC proteins. TRPC6 is ... Adenovirus with transgenic MAGE-A3 insertion, severe myeloid leukaemia, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumour, Bacillus Calmette- ... prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) [25] or adenosine A2a receptors (A2ARs). They could also deliver a healing payload made to improve ... The TRPC6 proteins forms homomeric and heteromeric stations made up of TRPC6 only or TRPC6 and additional TRPC proteins. TRPC6 ...
  • SUMO is a conserved family of proteins that has one member in yeast, around eight in plants and four in mammals. (
  • Additionally, Ad-AS-TK/GCV system altered expression of cycle-related and apoptosis-related proteins in BP-CML cell lines. (
  • Trichostatin A sensitizes cisplatin-resistant A549 cells to apoptosis by up-regulating death-associated protein kinase. (
  • GSK-3 regulates protein translation, promotion of mitochondrial apoptosis, and levels of other signaling elements like cyclin D1 and D2 by activation of different transcription factors (18C20). (
  • Dickkopf‑related protein 3 (DKK3), which is a member of the Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor family, is considered to be a tumor suppressor, due to its reduced expression in cancer cells and its ability to induce apoptosis when overexpressed by adenovirus. (
  • Some factors like Fas receptors and caspases promote apoptosis, while some members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins inhibit apoptosis. (
  • Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release. (
  • The human papillomavirus type 16 E7 gene encodes transactivation and transformation functions similar to those of adenovirus E1A. (
  • Induced expression of the endogenous beta interferon gene in adenovirus type 5-transformed rat fibroblasts. (
  • Bovine papillomavirus E2 trans -activating gene product binds to specific sites in papillomavirus DNA. (
  • As a specific cancer-associated gene candidate, our previous study led us to focus on the Dickkopf-related protein 3 (DKK3) gene, which is a member of the Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor family. (
  • Here, we had two purposes: to develop a robust gene doping mouse model using the human EPO gene (hEPO) transferred using recombinant adenovirus (rAdV) as a vector and to develop a detection method to prove gene doping using this model. (
  • 2004), and TS, an enzyme of the trypomastigote forms that catalyzes the transfer of acid sialic acid from host glycoproteins to receptor molecules on the parasite's membrane (Schenkman et al 1994), belong to the same gene family and have been described as immunodominant proteins (Low et al. (
  • Use this bacterial expression vector as a source of the fluorescent protein gene. (
  • However, since the level of mRNAs does not always correlate with that of the proteins they encode, the direct profiling of the functional actors of the cells, the proteins, appears essential for a more precise and informative determination of gene expression programs with single-cell resolution. (
  • This occurred in 1988 when it was shown that BCL2, the gene responsible for follicular lymphoma, encoded a protein that inhibited cell death. (
  • Since MRLC3 was identified as a protein with strong selective binding to peptides related to the non-phosphorylated forms Ramelteon (TAK-375) of checkpoint kinase substrate motifs but not to these same peptides following phosphorylation we asked whether the AATF:MRLC3 connection could be disrupted by phosphatase inhibition. (
  • Lately found "Trim-Away" mechanism opens a brand new window for quick and selective degradation of endogenous proteins. (
  • We show that oncogenic Ki-Ras regulates the expression of the ISG15 pathway (free ISG15 and ISG15 conjugates), and ISG15, in turn, stabilizes Ki-Ras protein by inhibiting its targeted degradation via lysosomes in breast cancer cells. (
  • Ubiquitin is best known for its role in redirecting the proteins towards degradation via proteasomal or lysosomal pathways by binding to the target protein in a polymer fashion (also known as poly-ubiquitin tags), but it is also involved in regulating nuclear localization and DNA repair pathways [ 65 ]. (
  • The biological effects of miRNAs are mediated through the binding of miRNAs to the 3′ UTR of target mRNAs via the seed regions (the 2nd to 7th base at the 5′ end) and through Argonaute (Ago) protein-dependent degradation of mRNAs or blocking of mRNA translation ( 9 ). (
  • AMPK is activated by phosphorylation and exerts its function as a kinase in many processes, including synthesis and degradation of proteins, mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose uptake, and fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism. (
  • Dicke SS, Alperstein AM, Schueler KL, Stapleton DS, Simonett SP, Fields CR, Chalyavi F, Keller MP, Attie AD, Zanni MT. Application of 2D IR Bioimaging: Hyperspectral Images of Formalin-Fixed Pancreatic Tissues and Observation of Slow Protein Degradation. (
  • Conversely, infection with adenovirus encoding dominant-negative (DN) Nrf2 (ad-DN-Nrf2) or pretreatment with the selective phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 inhibited the tBHQ-mediated promoter response and corresponding neuroprotection. (
  • Abstract As a key coordinator of metabolism, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is vitally involved in skeletal muscle maintenance. (
  • AMPK exerts its cellular effects through its function as a serine/threonine protein kinase by regulating many downstream targets and plays important roles in the development and growth of skeletal muscle. (
  • In addition, in HSC‑3 shDKK3 cells, the expression levels of phosphorylated (p)‑protein kinase B (Akt) (Ser473), p‑phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K) p85 (Tyr467), p‑PI3K p55 (Try199), p‑3‑phosphoinositide‑dependent protein kinase‑1 (PDK1) (Ser241) and total p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) were reduced. (
  • Neural precursor cell portrayed developmentally downregulated 9 CR2 (NEDD9), also called as individual enhancer of filamentation 1 (HEF1) or Cas-L (Crk-associated substrate L), is normally a scaffold protein localized in focal adhesions to put together the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as well as the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src to modify multiple mobile signaling pathways [28, 29]. (
  • Some viruses encode the Bcl2 homologues to counter the proapoptotic functions of the cellular and mitochondrial proteins. (
  • Viruses like Herpes simplex virus 1 deplete the host mitochondrial DNA and some, like human immunodeficiency virus, hijack the host mitochondrial proteins to function fully inside the host cell. (
  • All these processes involve the participation of cellular proteins, mitochondrial proteins, and virus specific proteins. (
  • Mitochondria contain a single 16 kb circular DNA genome, which codes for 13 proteins (mostly subunits of respiratory chains I, II, IV, and V), 22 mitochondrial tRNAs and 2 rRNAs [ 25 , 26 ]. (
  • Although the majority of the mitochondrial proteins are encoded by nuclear DNA and imported into the mitochondria (reviewed by [ 21 , 28 - 31 ]), mitochondria synthesize few proteins that are essential for their respiratory function [ 1 , 27 ]. (
  • The combination of these presequences with adjacent regions determines the localization of a protein in respective mitochondrial compartments. (
  • Selected proteins for subunit vaccination should be widespread, highly conserved, and surface exposed. (
  • Results Two candidate proteins for subunit vaccination (RlpB and VacJ) against G. parasuis were identified using random mutagenesis and an in vitro organ culture system. (
  • Though high antibody titers to the recombinant proteins and increased interferon-γ producing cells were found in subunit vaccinated animals, the pigs were not protected from developing systemic disease. (
  • protein, implying that accessory subunit binding alone is not adequate for channel modulation. (
  • Bouma A., De Smit A.J., De Kluijver E.P., Terpstra C., Moormann R.J., Efficacy and stability of a subunit vaccine based on glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus, Vet. (
  • Neuroinflammation involving macrophages elevates Prostaglandin E2, associated with neuropathic pain. (
  • Abcam: antibodies, proteins, kits. (
  • E2F was originally identified through its role in transcriptional activation of the adenovirus E2 promoter. (
  • E2F family, which was named for its function, regulates transcription by binding to the E2F site (TTTSSCGC: S=C or G). E2F family was originally regarded as an activator to the promoter of adenovirus E2 in the 1980s. (
  • Proteins destined to mitochondria have either internally localized [ 28 ] or amino terminal localized [ 21 ] presequences known as mitochondria/matrix localization signals (MLS), which can be 10-80 amino acid long with predominantly positively charged amino acids. (
  • 2006. Dynamic localization of the HPV-11 origin binding protein E2 during mitosis while in association with the spindle apparatus. (
  • SUMO influences cellular activity, the use of cellular compartments, localization of processes, the stability of proteins and the molecules they are interacting with. (
  • By reintroducing Nrf2 via infection with a replication-deficient adenovirus (ad), both the genetic response and neuroprotection were rescued. (
  • 2006). The amastigote surface protein (ASP)-2, important for the establishment of chronic infection (Boscardin et al. (
  • Adenoviruses are highly prevalent pathogens responsible for a wide range of clinical diseases, including respiratory tract infection, acute gastroenteritis, and conjunctivitis. (
  • However, adenovirus infection is. (
  • The different kinds of viruses involved in the spread of this infection are adenovirus, EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus), influenza and parainfluenza virus , and herpes simplex virus . (
  • Role of BIM in the generation of antigen-specific CD8 + T lymphocytes in response to vaccination with recombinant adenovirus. (
  • Mutants with changes within or near a hydrophobic region of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen are defective for binding cellular protein p53. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase delta, forms homotrimers around double stranded DNA. (
  • As a histone-like protein it interacts with many other nuclear proteins and is therefore ubiquitous in caryoplasm. (
  • Pigs were vaccinated with recombinant RlpB and VacJ, outer membrane proteins with important contributions to cellular function and viability. (
  • A study to evaluate safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of GSK Biologicals' RSV investigational vaccine based on viral proteins encoded by chimpanzee-derived adenovector (ChAd155-RSV) (GSK3389245A) in infants. (
  • and rotavirus viral protein 6 and sequence reads of 100 nt. (
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) p7 viroporin protein is essential for viral assembly and release, suggesting its unrealised potential as a target for HCV interventions. (
  • Cirrhosis is characterized by the excessive accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins, leading to liver function impairment [ 1 ]. (
  • they then proliferate, migrate to the injured areas, and produce large amounts of extracellular matrix proteins and pro-fibrogenic cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) [ 3 ]. (
  • It is still unclear what exactly causes this scarring, but it is thought that increasing amounts of proteins in the space surrounding the cells of the lungs, the extracellular matrix, could play a role. (
  • After being delivered into cells, the antibody is launched and varieties advanced with its goal protein, and subsequently binds to the Fc receptor of TRIM21 . (
  • The resulted advanced of goal protein/ antibody / TRIM21 is then degraded by the proteasome. (
  • Profit from its comfort and focused supply advantage, Nano-ERASER approach is promising in offering a dependable software for endogenous protein perform research in addition to paves the way in which for novel antibody -based Trim-Away therapeutic modalities for most cancers and different ailments. (
  • specimen was negative for respiratory syncytial virus, George M. Weinstock, Gregory A. Storch, infl uenza types A and B, parainfl uenza, and adenovirus and David Wang by fl uorescent antibody testing, and culture results were negative for respiratory viruses. (
  • Li L, Deng C, Chen S, Zhang S, Wu Z , Hu C, Zhang F, Li Y . Meta-Analysis: Diagnostic Accuracy of Anti-Carbamylated Protein Antibody for Rheumatoid Arthritis. (
  • and manifestation amounts boost during retinal advancement, with exhibiting the best modification (Fig.?S1, more than a ninefold boost between E13 and P7), whereas another SOCS family do not show significant differences across age groups, recommending how Salvianolic acid F the expression of different SOCS adaptor proteins are controlled during retinal advancement differentially. (
  • adaptor related protein complex 2 subu. (
  • Human lung cancer cell line expressing capsid protein of human adenovirus. (
  • In the present study, we demonstrated that miR‑711‑mediated downregulation of CD44 expression inhibited EMT of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by downregulating vimentin protein expression and upregulating E‑cadherin protein expression through transfection, qRT‑PCR and western blotting. (
  • Far-red fluorescent proteins such as mRaspberry, mPlum, E2-Crimson, and HcRed1 avoid the natural green autofluorescence found in plants and animals and are ideal for in vivo imaging. (
  • In addition, forkhead box N3 repressed expression of E2F1, a reported potential oncogene at the messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels. (
  • These complexes function in DNA repair pathways, primarily DNA MISMATCH REPAIR , where MutL/MLH1 and the MUTS DNA MISMATCH-BINDING PROTEIN are targeted to damaged DNA . (
  • Small Ubiquitin like Modifier (SUMO) proteins have been recognized as one of the key PTMs modulating the function and half-life of many proteins, thereby serving as master switches in multiple molecular signalling pathways. (
  • [5] Both pathways induce cell death by activating caspases , which are proteases , or enzymes that degrade proteins. (
  • The two pathways both activate initiator caspases, which then activate executioner caspases, which then kill the cell by degrading proteins indiscriminately. (
  • Sequences homologous to the E2F binding site have been found upstream of a number of genes that encode proteins with putative functions in the G1 and S phases of the cell cycle. (
  • The GMO MVA-HBV is a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector (MVA) encoding a fusion of sequences derived from two hepatitis B virus (HBV) protein antigens. (
  • It is a vast sister system to ubiquitin that doesn't tag but attaches to proteins altering and regulating them, often using some of the same sequences as ubiquitin. (
  • When SUMO is attaches to a protein it is called SUMOylation. (
  • SUMO operates on the signaling and enzyme cascades altering many of the proteins by sumoylation. (
  • In addition, in HEK293 cells transfected with HA-Ubc9, we found that -tubulin could be coimmunoprecipitated with Ubc9, the unique E2 enzyme for SUMOylation (Physique?1C), indicating that -tubulin interacts with the SUMOylation machinery. (
  • Certain adenoviruses (e.g., canine adenovirus 1 and 2, family Adenoviridae) can infect domestic and wild carnivores. (
  • Others modulate the permeability transition pore and either prevent or induce the release of the apoptotic proteins from the mitochondria. (
  • The ubiquitin and SUMO systems, which tag and modulate proteins is a major target of both cell defenses and microbe attacks. (
  • Developed in the United Kingdom by Oxford University and British-Swedish company AstraZeneca, using as a vector the modified chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdOx1. (
  • In the CFTR vector transduced cells, we have detected both CFTR mRNA and protein expression by qPCR and Wetern analysis, respectively. (
  • Armengol E., Wiesmüller K.-H., Wienhold D., Büttner M., Pfaff E., Jung G., Saalmüller A., Identification of T-cell epitopes in the structural and non-structural proteins of classical swine fever virus, J. Gen. Virol. (
  • Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS . (
  • A potential transcriptional activation element in the p53 protein. (
  • Right here we present that the conjugation of TRIM21 with Ok63-linked ubiquitin (Ub-(63)Ub) catalyzed by the sequential exercise of nonredundant E2 Ub enzymes is required for its twin antiviral features. (
  • different E2 and hundreds of different E3 enzymes, producing a very large amount of different tags for a very wide range of different purposes. (
  • Furthermore, both mRNA and protein degrees of NEDD9 are raised in pancreatic carcinoma weighed against the matched up adjacent noncancerous tissue [34, 35]. (
  • Stage-associated overexpression of the ubiquitin-like protein, ISG15, in bladder cancer. (
  • The interferon regulated ubiquitin-like protein, ISG15, in tumorigenesis: friend or foe? (
  • Binding of the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to the antioxidant response element (ARE) in neural cells results in the induction of a battery of genes that can coordinate a protective response against a variety of oxidative stressors. (
  • BIM is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family. (
  • The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases. (
  • Small ubiquitin-like modifier", or SUMO, is a family of proteins that alter the amino acid products of messenger RNA and the Ribosome's activity. (
  • A large family of structurally-related transcription factors that were originally discovered based upon their close sequence homology to an HMG-box domain found in SEX-DETERMINING REGION Y PROTEIN. (
  • The numerous members of this family are organized in several subgroups according to structural identities found within the proteins. (
  • also found that a specific family of proteins, which helps to connect the collagen fibres, was increased in the tissue of patients with IPF. (
  • This protein family comprises secreted proteins with two distinct cysteine-rich domains, which antagonize the Wnt ligand, thus functioning as negative regulators of oncogenic Wnt signaling ( 3 ). (
  • Some molecular candidates have excelled in inducing a protective immune response, such as cruzipain proteins, present in amastigote and trypomastigote forms, surface proteins of trypomastigote forms of the trans-sialidase (TS) family, paraflagellar rod protein, among others (Cazorla et al. (
  • A member of the serpin family of proteins. (
  • Cloning and characterization of 60S ribosomal protein L22 (RPL22) from Culex pipiens pallens. (
  • Ubiquitin is a small protein of 76 amino acids that exists in most eukaryote cells with human and yeast versions 96% the same. (
  • A previous study showed that FOXN3 could down-regulate E2F5 in human cells to control cell cycle or inhibit protein biosynthesis[ 6 ]. (
  • Association of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 E6 proteins with p53. (
  • A striking feature of the genome of TtPV2, as well as that of PsPV1, is the lack of an E7 open reading frame, which typically encodes one of the oncogenic proteins believed to be responsible for malignant transformation in the high-risk mucosotropic human papillomaviruses (HPVs). (
  • In 2007, the Coulombe lab discovered a set of previously uncharacterized proteins that turned out to play a central role in biogenesis of protein complexes and networks in human cells. (
  • Functional inactivation of Rb can be mediated either through mutation or as a consequence of interaction with DNA tumor virus encoded proteins. (
  • The antiphospholipid (aPL) autoantibodies bind moieties on negatively charged PLs or moieties formed by the interaction of negatively charged PLs with other lipids, PLs, or proteins. (
  • The forkhead domain, also known as winged helix is the common DNA-binding domain of these proteins. (
  • With the evolution of methods and techniques that allowed more refined biochemical and molecular studies, it became possible to select proteins from parasite fractions, as well as immunogenic epitopes contained in a given protein and test their ability to generate an immune response and protection to the challenge with T. cruzi . (
  • The most important of them are the porins, which freely allow the transport (export and import) of the molecules (proteins, ions, nutrients, and ATP) less than 10 kDa across the membranes. (
  • The earliest viruses to be studied as vectors were retroviruses and adenoviruses. (
  • Characteristically, a vaccine is composed of a component of the pathogenic microorganism, and may be in its live attenuated, inactivated form, protein or saccharide fractions, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), or carried by genetically modified vectors. (
  • Furthermore, phosphorylation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) (Ser2448) was slightly decreased in HSC‑3 shDKK3 cells, which may be due to the increased expression of DEP domain‑containing mTOR‑interacting protein. (
  • 2002). mRaspberry shows stable expression and great performance in applications using fusion proteins. (
  • Description: pre-made RFP expression adenovirus, provided in PBS solution. (
  • The first enzyme, E1, using an ATP energy particle to activate the process, transfers the ubiquitin to a second enzyme, E2, and then finally E3 attaches it to the protein that is being tagged. (