Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Adenovirus E4 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.Adenovirus E1B Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.Adenovirus E3 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Adenovirus Infections, Human: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.Adenovirus E2 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.Adenoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit: A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Mastadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).Adenoviruses, Canine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.E1A-Associated p300 Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.HMGA1b Protein: An AT-hook motif-containing protein (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is a truncated form of HMGA1a protein that is produced by alternative-splicing of the HMGA1 gene. It may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Adenoviruses, Porcine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.Aviadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Fowl adenovirus A: The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Cucumovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Keratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Papillomavirus E7 Proteins: ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.PhosphoproteinsProto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Adenovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Genes, Retinoblastoma: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.DNA, Concatenated: Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Mice, Inbred BALB CRestriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.DNA Tumor Viruses: DNA viruses producing malignant tumors. Of the six major groupings of DNA viruses four contain members which are actually or potentially oncogenic: the Adenoviridae, the Herpesviridae, the Papovaviridae, and the Poxviridae.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.I-kappa B Proteins: A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.Cell Nucleus Structures: Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.p300-CBP Transcription Factors: A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).ConjunctivitisFluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.E2F2 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B: A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Atadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLGreen Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.DNA Repair Enzymes: Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.

Definition of a major p53 binding site on Ad2E1B58K protein and a possible nuclear localization signal on the Ad12E1B54K protein. (1/290)

Previous studies have established that adenovirus 2/5 early region 1B (Ad E1B) 58K protein binds p53 strongly and co-localizes with it to cytoplasmic dense bodies whilst the homologous Ad12E1B54K protein binds only weakly and co-localizes primarily to the nucleus in Ad12E1 transformed cells. We have used these properties of the E1B proteins from different viral serotypes to map the p53 binding site on the Ad2/5 protein. A set of chimaeric genes was constructed containing different proportions of the Ad12 and Ad2E1B DNA. These, together with Ad12E1A and E1B19K DNA, were transfected into baby rat kidney cells and transformed lines isolated. From an examination of the properties of these Ad12/Ad2E1B fusion proteins in co-immunoprecipitation and subcellular localization experiments it has been concluded that the p53 binding site on Ad2E1B58K protein lies between amino acids 216 and 235 and that the homologous region on Ad12E1B54K protein also binds p53. In addition, a unique nuclear localization signal is located on Ad12E1B54K between residues 228 and 239. We suggest that primary structure differences in these regions of the Ad2 and Ad12E1B proteins are responsible for the different subcellular localizations in AdE1 transformants.  (+info)

Use of the Gal4-UAS technique for targeted gene expression in the zebrafish. (2/290)

The most common way to analyze the function of cloned genes in zebrafish is to misexpress the gene product or an altered variant of it by mRNA injection. However, mRNA injection has several disadvantages. The GAL4-UAS system for targeted gene expression allows one to overcome some of these disadvantages. To test the GAL4-UAS system in zebrafish, we generated two different kinds of stable transgenic lines, carrying activator and effector constructs, respectively. In the activator lines the gene for the yeast transcriptional activator GAL4 is under the control of a given promoter, while in the effectors the gene of interest is fused to the sequence of the DNA-binding motif of GAL4 (UAS). Crosses of animals from the activator and effector lines show that effector genes are transcribed with the spatial pattern of the activators. This work smoothes the way for a novel method of misexpression of gene products in zebrafish in order to analyze the function of genes in developmental processes.  (+info)

Corepressor required for adenovirus E1B 55,000-molecular-weight protein repression of basal transcription. (3/290)

Adenovirus E1B 55,000-molecular-weight protein (55K) binds to host cell p53, stabilizing it, greatly increasing its affinity for its cognate DNA-binding site, and converting it from a regulated activator to a constitutive repressor. Here we analyzed the mechanism of repression by the p53-E1B 55K complex. E1B 55K repression requires that 55K be tethered to the promoter by binding directly to DNA-bound p53. Transcription from an assembled, p53-activated preinitiation complex was not repressed by the subsequent addition of E1B 55K, suggesting that either sites of 55K interaction with p53 or targets of 55K in the preinitiation complex are blocked. Specific E1B 55K repression was observed in reactions lacking TFIIA and with recombinant TATA-binding protein in place of TFIID, conditions under which p53 does not activate transcription. Thus, E1B 55K does not simply inhibit a p53-specific activation mechanism but rather blocks basal transcription. As a consequence, E1B 55K may repress transcription from any promoter with an associated p53-binding site, no matter what other activators associate with the promoter. E1B 55K did not repress basal transcription in reactions with recombinant and highly purified general transcription factors and RNA polymerase II but rather required a corepressor that copurifies with the polymerase.  (+info)

Distinct regulation of p53 and p73 activity by adenovirus E1A, E1B, and E4orf6 proteins. (4/290)

Multiple adenovirus (Ad) early proteins have been shown to inhibit transcription activation by p53 and thereby to alter its normal biological functioning. Since these Ad proteins affect the activity of p53 via different mechanisms, we examined whether this inhibition is target gene specific. In addition, we analyzed whether the same Ad early proteins have a comparable effect on transcription activation by the recently identified p53 homologue p73. Our results show that the large E1B proteins very efficiently inhibited the activity of p53 on the Bax, p21(Waf1), cyclin G, and MDM2 reporter constructs but had no effect on the activation of the same reporter constructs by p73, with the exception of some inhibition of the Bax promoter by Ad12 E1B. The repressive effect of the E1A proteins on p53 activity is less than that seen with the large E1B proteins, but the E1A proteins inhibit the activity of both p53 and p73. We could not detect significant inhibition of p53 functions by E4orf6, but a clear repression of the transcription activation by p73 by this Ad early protein was observed. In addition, we found that stable expression of the Ad5 E1A and that of the E1B protein both caused increased p73 protein expression. The large E1B and the E4orf6 proteins together do not target the p73 protein for rapid degradation after adenoviral infection, as has previously been found for the p53 protein, probably because the large E1B protein does not interact with p73. Our results suggest that the p53 and p73 proteins are both inactivated after Ad infection and transformation but via distinct mechanisms.  (+info)

Involvement of epitope mimicry in potentiation but not initiation of autoimmune disease. (5/290)

We have examined whether the peptide (368-381) from the murine adenovirus type 1 E1B sequence, exhibiting a high degree of homology with the known pathogenic thyroglobulin (Tg) T cell epitope (2695-2706), can induce experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in SJL/J mice. The viral peptide was a poor immunogen at the T or B cell level and did not elicit EAT either directly or by adoptive transfer assays. Surprisingly, however, the viral peptide was highly antigenic in vitro, activating a Tg2695-2706-specific T cell clone and reacting with serum IgG from mice primed with the Tg homologue. The viral peptide also induced strong recall responses in Tg2695-2706-primed lymph node cells, and subsequent adoptive transfer of these cells into naive mice led to development of highly significant EAT. These data demonstrate that nonimmunogenic viral peptides can act as agonists for preactivated autoreactive T cells and suggest that epitope mimicry may at times play a potentiating rather than a precipitating role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.  (+info)

An arginine-faced amphipathic alpha helix is required for adenovirus type 5 e4orf6 protein function. (6/290)

A region in the carboxy terminus of the protein encoded by open reading frame 6 in early region 4 (E4orf6) of adenovirus type 5 was determined to be required for directing nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein and for efficient virus replication. A peptide encompassing this region, corresponding to amino acids 239 through 255 of the E4orf6 protein, was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The peptide showed evidence of self-interaction and displayed the characteristic spectra of an amphipathic alpha helix in the helix-stabilizing solvent trifluoroethanol. Disrupting the integrity of this alpha helix in the E4orf6 protein by proline substitutions or by removing amino acids 241 through 250 abolished its ability to direct the E1B 55-kDa protein to the nucleus when both proteins were transiently expressed in HeLa cells. Expression of E4orf6 variants that failed to direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein failed to enhance replication of the E4 mutant virus, dl1014, whereas expression of the wild-type E4orf6 protein restored growth of dl1014 to near-wild-type levels. These results suggest that the E4orf6 protein contains an arginine-faced, amphipathic alpha helix that is critical for a functional interaction with the E1B 55-kDa protein in the cell and for the function of the E4orf6 protein during a lytic infection.  (+info)

p53-Independent and -dependent requirements for E1B-55K in adenovirus type 5 replication. (7/290)

The adenovirus type 5 mutant dl1520 was engineered previously to be completely defective for E1B-55K functions. Recently, this mutant (also known as ONYX-015) has been suggested to replicate preferentially in p53(-) and some p53(+) tumor cell lines but to be attenuated in primary cultured cells (C. Heise, A. Sampson-Johannes, A. Williams, F. McCormick, D. D. F. Hoff, and D. H. Kirn, Nat. Med. 3:639-645, 1997). It has been suggested that dl1520 might be used as a "magic bullet" that could selectively lyse tumor cells without harm to normal tissues. However, we report here that dl1520 replication is independent of p53 genotype and occurs efficiently in some primary cultured human cells, indicating that the mutant virus does not possess a tumor selectivity. Although it was not the sole host range determinant, p53 function did reduce dl1520 replication when analyzed in a cell line expressing temperature-sensitive p53 (H1299-tsp53) (K. L. Fries, W. E. Miller, and N. Raab-Traub, J. Virol. 70:8653-8659, 1996). As found earlier for other E1B-55K mutants in HeLa cells (Y. Ho, R. Galos, and J. Williams, Virology 122:109-124, 1982), dl1520 replication was temperature dependent in H1299 cells. When p53 function was restored at low temperature in H1299-tsp53 cells, it imposed a modest defect in viral DNA replication and accumulation of late viral cytoplasmic mRNA. However, in both H1299 and H1299-tsp53 cells, the defect in late viral protein synthesis appeared to be much greater than could be accounted for by the modest defects in late viral mRNA levels. We therefore propose that in addition to countering p53 function and modulating viral and cellular mRNA nuclear transport, E1B-55K also stimulates late viral mRNA translation.  (+info)

A novel adenovirus E1B19K-binding protein B5 inhibits apoptosis induced by Nip3 by forming a heterodimer through the C-terminal hydrophobic region. (8/290)

The adenovirus E1B19K protein inhibits apoptosis induced by E1A and other divergent signals. The cellular proteins that interact with E1B19K have been analyzed by isolating cDNA clones by the yeast two hybrid system. One of these clones encodes B5 which consists of 219 amino acid residues and contains the putative BH3 and transmembrane regions. B5 binds strongly to Nip3 and itself, weakly to E1B19K, but not to Bcl-2 and localizes in nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. B5 has sequence homology with Nip3 in the middle and C-terminal regions, but not in the N-terminal region. Unlike other E1B19K binding BH3 proteins so far characterized, B5 does not induce apoptosis, but inhibits apoptosis induced by Nip3. However the deletion mutant B5Delta1-31 lacking the N-terminus does induce apoptosis, although weaker than does Nip3, suggesting that the N-terminal region is masking the apoptosis-inducing capacity of B5.  (+info)

*Adenovirus E1B protein

... usually refers to one of two proteins transcribed from the E1B gene of the adenovirus: a 55kDa protein ... These two proteins are needed to block apoptosis in adenovirus-infected cells. E1B proteins work to prevent apoptosis that is ... E1B-55k also forms a complex with E4orf6, a viral protein. The E1B-55k/E4orf6 complex in infected cells assembles with other ... However, in adenovirus-infected cells, activated BAK and BAX are sequestered by E1B-19k, preventing the pathway. E1B-55k blocks ...

*Oncovirus

The adenovirus E1B protein (55K) prevents p53 from regulating genes by binding to the site on p53 which binds to the genome. In ... HPV instead degrades p53: the HPV protein E6 binds to a cellular protein called the E6-associated protein (E6-AP, also known as ... DNA oncoviruses typically impair two families of tumor suppressor proteins: tumor proteins p53 and the retinoblastoma proteins ... SV40 uses the same protein for inactivating Rb, LT, to inactivate p53. HPV contains a protein, E7, which can bind to Rb in much ...

*BNIP2

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BNIP2 gene. This gene is ... "Adenovirus E1B 19 kDa and Bcl-2 proteins interact with a common set of cellular proteins". Cell. 79 (2): 341-51. doi:10.1016/ ... "Entrez Gene: BNIP2 BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 2". Low BC, Seow KT, Guy GR (December 2000). "The BNIP-2 and ... it interacts with the E1B 19 kDa protein which is responsible for the protection of virally induced cell death, as well as E1B ...

*BNIP3

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BNIP3 gene. BNIP3 is a ... "Adenovirus E1B 19 kDa and Bcl-2 proteins interact with a common set of cellular proteins". Cell. 79 (2): 341-51. doi:10.1016/ ... As of this edit, this article uses content from "1.A.20 The BCL2/Adenovirus E1B-interacting Protein 3 (BNip3) Family", which is ... "Entrez Gene: BNIP3 BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 3". Menyhárt O, Harami-Papp H, Sukumar S, Schäfer R, Magnani L ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.050 --- adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.090 --- antigens, ... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 --- adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 --- adenovirus e3 proteins ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.050 --- adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.090 --- antigens, ... hiv core protein p24 MeSH D23.050.327.520.330 --- hiv envelope protein gp41 MeSH D23.050.327.520.350 --- hiv envelope protein ...

*HNRPUL1

This protein binds specifically to adenovirus E1B-55kDa oncoprotein. It may play an important role in nucleocytoplasmic RNA ... and its function is modulated by E1B-55kDa in adenovirus-infected cells. HNRPUL1 also participates in ATR protein kinase ... "E1B 55-kilodalton-associated protein: a cellular protein with RNA-binding activity implicated in nucleocytoplasmic transport of ... 2005). "Protein arginine methylation during lytic adenovirus infection". Biochem. J. 383 (Pt 2): 259-65. doi:10.1042/BJ20040210 ...

*BNIP3L

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BNIP3L gene. This ... gene is a member of the BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kd-interacting protein (BNIP) family. It interacts with the E1B 19 kDa protein ... "Entrez Gene: BNIP3L BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 3-like". Passer BJ, Nancy-Portebois V, Amzallag N, Prieur S, ... The protein encoded by this gene is a functional homolog of BNIP3, a proapoptotic protein. This protein may function ...

*Oncolytic adenovirus

E1B proteins produced by adenoviruses protect the infected cell by binding to and degrading the p53 transcription factors, ... Barker DD, Berk AJ (1987). "Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by ... Barker, Douglas D.; Berk, Arnold J. (1987). "Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation ... and the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein trimer. CAR is necessary for adenovirus infection. Although expressed widely ...

*Bcl-2

"Adenovirus E1B 19 kDa and Bcl-2 proteins interact with a common set of cellular proteins". Cell. 79 (2): 341-51. doi:10.1016/ ... These pro-apoptotic proteins are in turn activated by BH3-only proteins, and are inhibited by the function of BCL-2 and its ... This is the first FDA approval of a protein-protein inhibitor of BCL-2. Bcl-2 has been shown to interact with: BAK1, BCAP31, ... encodes a protein that activates apoptosis and interacts selectively with survival-promoting proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L)". The ...

*Transporter Classification Database

Tic110 family 1.A.19 Type A influenza virus matrix-2 channel family 1.A.20 BCL2/Adenovirus E1B-interacting protein 3 family 1.A ... HBV-S Protein) Family 1.G.7 The Reovirus FAST Fusion Protein (R-FAST) Family 1.G.8 The Arenavirus Fusion Protein (AV-FP) Family ... see also SecDF protein-export membrane protein 2.A.7 The Drug/Metabolite Transporter (DMT) Superfamily 2.A.8 The Gluconate:H+ ... Conjugal DNA-Protein Transfer or VirB) Secretory Pathway (IVSP) Family 3.A.8 The Mitochondrial Protein Translocase (MPT) Family ...

*BNIPL

Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 2-like protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BNIPL gene. BNIPL ... "Entrez Gene: BNIPL BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kD interacting protein like". Qin W, Hu J, Guo M, Xu J, Li J, Yao G, Zhou X, Jiang H, ... "The apoptosis-associated protein BNIPL interacts with two cell proliferation-related proteins, MIF and GFER". FEBS Letters. 540 ... a human homolog of mitochondrial proapoptotic protein BNIP3". Cancer Research. 59 (3): 533-7. PMID 9973195. Human BNIPL genome ...

*TP53

... binding to mdm-2 and the adenovirus 5 E1B 55-kD protein". Genes & Development. 8 (10): 1235-46. doi:10.1101/gad.8.10.1235. PMID ... It delivers a functional copy of the p53 gene using an engineered adenovirus. Certain pathogens can also affect the p53 protein ... Mutant p53 proteins often fail to induce MDM2, causing p53 to accumulate at very high levels. Moreover, the mutant p53 protein ... In addition to the full-length protein, the human TP53 gene encodes at least 15 protein isoforms, ranging in size from 3.5 to ...

*TAF9

... binding to mdm-2 and the adenovirus 5 E1B 55-kD protein". Genes Dev. 8 (10): 1235-46. doi:10.1101/gad.8.10.1235. PMID 7926727. ... TATA binding protein, Transcription initiation protein SPT3 homolog, and Transformation/transcription domain-associated protein ... TAF9 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 32kDa, also known as TAF9, is a protein that in ... Lu H, Levine AJ (1995). "Human TAFII31 protein is a transcriptional coactivator of the p53 protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S ...

*Apoptosis

The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein. Some viruses ... these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor-suppressing proteins. These tumor-suppressing proteins regulate the cell ... HIV proteins decrease the amount of CD4 glycoprotein marker present on the cell membrane. Released viral particles and proteins ...

*Vectors in gene therapy

It was found that in the absence of the E1B-55Kd viral protein, adenovirus caused very rapid apoptosis of infected, p53(+) ... Retroviruses and adeno-associated viruses have a single protein coating their membrane, while adenoviruses are coated with both ... or by chimeric proteins. Such chimera would consist of those parts of the viral protein necessary for incorporation into the ... entry into potential host cells requires a favorable interaction between a protein on the surface of the virus and a protein on ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.060 - adenovirus e2 ... adenovirus E1B proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.060 - adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.070 - adenovirus ... adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.080 - adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.320 - fusion proteins, ... oncogene protein tpr-met MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045 - adenovirus early proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050 - adenovirus ...

*Adenoviridae

... replication of the adenovirus genome can occur. A terminal protein that is covalently bound to the 5' end of the adenovirus ... E1A (binds Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein) has been found to immortalize primary cells in vitro allowing E1B (binds ... Adenoviruses Stanford University - Adenoviruses Adenoviruses General Concepts General information on Adenovirus DNA virus ... Tupaia adenovirus (TAV) (Tree shrew adenovirus 1) has been isolated from tree shrews. Otarine adenovirus 1 has been isolated ...

*CUL5

2002). "Analysis of the Adenovirus E1B-55K-Anchored Proteome Reveals Its Link to Ubiquitination Machinery". J. Virol. 76 (18): ... Cullin-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CUL5 gene. The mammalian gene product was originally discovered by ... Since then, VACM-1 has been shown to be homologous to the Cullin family of proteins, and was subsequently dubbed cul5. Studies ... 2001). "Muf1, a novel Elongin BC-interacting leucine-rich repeat protein that can assemble with Cul5 and Rbx1 to reconstitute a ...

*Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer

"A novel adenovirus E1B19K-binding protein B5 inhibits apoptosis induced by Nip3 by forming a heterodimer through the C-terminal ... "Cloning of a bcl-2 homologue by interaction with adenovirus E1B 19K". Nature. 374 (6524): 731-3. doi:10.1038/374731a0. PMID ... Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAK1 gene on chromosome 6. The protein encoded ... Cartron PF, Petit E, Bellot G, Oliver L, Vallette FM (Sep 2014). "Metaxins 1 and 2, two proteins of the mitochondrial protein ...

*Adenovirus genome

Control protein E1B 19K suppresses apoptosis by mimicking the action of cellular protein Bcl-2. Control protein E1B 55K binds ... The functions of many adenovirus proteins are known: Structural proteins include capsid proteins II (hexon), III (penton base ... "Protein Details for Human adenovirus E". NCBI. Retrieved 2013-01-17. Russell, WC (Jan 2009). "Adenoviruses: update on structure ... and the terminal protein TP. Encapsidation proteins IVa2, 52K, and L1, and hexon assembly protein 100K are involved in assembly ...

*P73

The viral oncoproteins (e.g. Adenovirus E1B) that efficiently inhibit p53 function are unable to inactivate p73, and those that ... p73 is a protein related to the p53 tumor protein. Because of its structural resemblance to p53, it has also been considered a ... p73, also known as tumor protein 73 (TP73), protein was the first identified homologue of the tumor suppressor gene, p53. Like ... A naturally occurring p73 mutation in a p73-p53 double-mutant lung cancer cell line encodes p73α protein with a dominant- ...

*Bcl-2-interacting killer

Han J, Sabbatini P, White E (1996). "Induction of apoptosis by human Nbk/Bik, a BH3-containing protein that interacts with E1B ... "A novel adenovirus E1B19K-binding protein B5 inhibits apoptosis induced by Nip3 by forming a heterodimer through the C-terminal ... this protein is suggested as a likely target for antiapoptotic proteins. This protein shares a critical BH3 domain with other ... The protein encoded by this gene is known to interact with cellular and viral survival-promoting proteins, such as BCL2 and the ...
Oncolytic adenoviral mutants have demonstrated good safety profiles but, despite some encouraging clinical results, efficacy as a single agent was limited. Combinations with conventional chemo- or radiotherapy significantly enhanced the anti-tumour effect. We investigated the possibility of enhancing prostate cancer (PCa) cell killing using adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) with phytochemicals. Phytochemicals are chemopreventive and can modulate intracellular signalling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway which regulates the expression of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). Equol and resveratrol synergistically enhanced cell death in both androgen receptor (AR)- positive and AR-negative PCa cell lines. On the other hand, curcumin, epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) and genistein had either synergistic and antagonistic responses with Ad5, depending on the dose and timing of addition. We therefore decided not to pursue the use of these compounds. Although we found that ...
kdplus.test performs a global test of clustering for comparing cases and controls using the method of Diggle and Chetwynd (1991). It relies on the difference in estimated K functions.
For a multitype point pattern, estimate the multitype $K$ function which counts the expected number of points of type $j$ within a given distance of a point of type $i$.
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Backgrounds: The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the peripheral blood is associated with short survival and, therefore, the detection of CTC is clinically useful as prognostic factors of disease outcome and/or surrogate markers of treatment response. Recently, the analytic method using immunocytochemical staining or PCR-based assay were developed to detect a few CTC in the blood; however, there is no sensitive assay for detecting and visualizing live CTC. In present study, we report a new strategy to selectively label human CTC with fluorescence among millions of peripheral blood leukocytes using telomerase-specific replication-selective adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Methods: We previously constructed a GFP-expressing adenovirus variant, in which the Telomerase promoter regulates viral replication (OBP-401, TelomeScan). We used OBP-401 to establish a simple ex vivo method for detecting viable human circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood and assessed ...
human MATE2-K protein: results suggest that hMATE1 and hMATE2-K function together as a detoxication system, by mediating the tubular secretion of intracellular ionic compounds across the brush-border membranes of the kidney.
Russell Shaw" ,[email protected], schrieb im Newsbeitrag news:[email protected] , , , Falk Brunner wrote: , , , , I think Peter triggerd some inner gost of mine. , , I want to compute the EXACT number of unique functions possible with a 4 , , input LUT... , , It depends on the exact definition of a function. , To get 64k functions from a 4-bit lut, one could , assume that all 4 input bits are dedicated to one , function, and that all combinations of inputs are , valid. Then by defining function as "the set of Hmm, I see what you mean. Like Y = !A and B is also a valid function for a 4I-LUT. , input-,output maps", thered by 2^16. However, NO!! Why? Just look. (Fixed font) DCBA Y Y2 0000 0 0 0001 1 0 0010 0 0 0011 1 0 0100 0 0 0101 1 0 0110 0 0 0111 1 0 1000 0 1 1001 1 1 1010 0 1 1011 1 1 1100 0 1 1101 1 1 1110 0 1 1111 1 1 The function Y and Y2 are IDENTICAL. Y = A Y2 = D This is just a permutation of inputs. , the LUT inputs can be divided between smaller , sub-LUTs, so ...
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Definition of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein? Meaning of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein as a legal term. What does Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein mean in law?
Two years ago, OShea discovered that E4-ORF3 clears the way for adenovirus to proliferate by deactivating genes that help the cell defend itself against the virus. "It literally creates zip files of p53 target genes by compressing them until they can no longer be read," she explains. E4-ORF3 self-assembles inside cells into a disordered, web-like structure that captures and inactivates different tumor suppressor protein complexes. Horng Ou, a postdoctoral researcher in OSheas laboratory, says E4-ORF3 is unusual. "It doesnt resemble any known proteins that assemble polymers or that function in cellular tumor suppressor pathways," he says. "Most cellular polymers and filaments form uniform, rigid chains. But E4-ORF3 is the viruss Swiss army knife-it assembles into something that is highly versatile. It has the ability to build itself into all sorts of different shapes and sizes that can capture and deactivate the many defenses of a host cell." In collaboration with scientists from the ...
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Five distinct localization patterns were observed for the adenovirus E1A proteins in the nuclei of infected HeLa cells: diffuse, reticular, nucleolar, punctate, and peripheral. The variable distribution of E1A was correlated with the time postinfection and the cell cycle stage of the host cell at the time of infection. All staining patterns, with the exception of peripheral E1A localization, were associated with the early phase of infection since only the diffuse, reticular, nucleolar, and punctate staining patterns were observed in the presence of hydroxyurea. Because the E1A proteins (12S and 13S) stimulate the expression of the cellular heat shock 70-kilodalton protein (hsp70), we examined the intracellular distribution of hsp70 in the adenovirus-infected cells. Whereas hsp70 was predominantly cytoplasmic in the cells before infection, after adenovirus infection most of the protein was now found within the nucleus. Specifically, hsp70 was found within the nucleoli as well as exhibiting ...
Export of adenoviral late mRNA from the nucleus requires the Nxf1/Tap export receptor.: One important function of the human adenovirus E1B 55-kDa protein is ind
View Notes - CH310N_Spring09_HW02-1 from CH 53185 at University of Texas. Sessler CH310N Homework Problem Set 2 Due Thursday February 5th 1 K E Y Please write the first three letters of your last
Do HEK 293 cells contain functional E1A/E1B? - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Dear all, I wish to do p53 related studies and I was wondering if HEK 293 cells contain fucntional Adenovirus proteins like E1A or E1B?If so,do they inhibit p53 in these cells?Would this affect my readout of p53-reporter based experiments? Thanks!!
BNIP3 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein
RNA molecules from nuclear and cytoplasmic polyribosomes of adenovirus-infected HeLa cells were compared by hybridization to analyse the sequence content. Nuclear polyribosomes were released by exposure of intact detergent-washed nuclei to poly(U) and purified. Cytoplasmic polyribosomes were also purified from the same cells. To show that nuclear polyribosomes contain ribosomes linked by mRNA, polyribosomes were labelled with methionine and uridine in the presence of actinomycin D in adenovirus-infected cells. Purified nuclear polyribosomes were treated with EDTA under conditions which dissociate polyribosomes into ribosomes and subunits with a simultaneous release of mRNA, and sedimented. The treatment dissociated these polyribosomes, releasing the mRNA from them. Radiolabelled total RNA from each polyribosome population was fractionated in sucrose gradients into several pools or hybridized to intact adenovirus DNA to select virus-specific RNA. Sucrose-gradient-fractionated pool-3 RNA (about ...
Ubiquitin carrier proteins (E2s) are involved in the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a variety of cellular target proteins in eukaryotes. Here, we report the cloning of genes from wheat and Arabidopsis thaliana that encode 16-kDa E2s and a domain analysis of E2s by in vitro mutagenesis. The genes for E216kDa, which we have designated wheat and At UBC1, encode proteins that are only 33% identical (58% similar) with a 23-kDa E2 from wheat (encoded by the gene now designated wheat UBC4), but are 63% identical (82% similar) with the E2 encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair gene, RAD6. Unlike the proteins encoded by RAD6 and wheat UBC4, the UBC1 gene products lack acidic C-terminal domains extending beyond the conserved core of the proteins and are incapable of efficient in vitro ligation of ubiquitin to histones. From enzymatic analysis of the UBC1 and UBC4 gene products mutagenized in vitro, we have identified several domains important for E2 function, including the active site ...
Jimenez-Garcia, L. F., Spector, D. L. (1992) Reorganization of the Pre-Messenger-Rna Splicing Apparatus Upon Adenovirus Infection. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3. A322-A322. ISSN 1059-1524 ...
This post is about adenovirus infection, a major cause of illness both minor and severe in the United States, especially among children in group settings.
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PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene located at chromosome 10q23.31, encoding for a 403-amino acid protein that possesses both lipid and protein phosphatase activities. The main function of PTEN is to block the PI3K pathway by dephosphorylating phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3,4,5 triphosphate to phosphatidylinositol (PI)-4,5-bisphosphate thus counteracting PI3K function. PTEN inactivation is a frequent event in many cancer types and can occur through various genetic alterations including point mutations, large chromosomal deletions and epigenetic mechanisms. In colorectal cancer (CRC) PTEN is altered through mixed genetic/epigenetic mechanisms, which lead to the biallelic inactivation of the protein in 20-30% of cases.The role of PTEN as a prognostic and predictive factor in CRC has been addressed by relatively few works. This review is focused on the report and on the discussion of the studies investigating these aspects. Overall, at the moment, there are conflicting results and, therefore it has not been
3.0.CO;2-G. Fu, T J; Peng J, Lee G, Price D H, Flores O (Dec. de 1999). «Cyclin K functions as a CDK9 regulatory subunit and participates in RNA polymerase II transcription». J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 274 (49): 34527-30. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10574912. La referencia utiliza el parámetro obsoleto ,coautores= (ayuda) Peng, J; Zhu Y, Milton J T, Price D H (Mar. de 1998). «Identification of multiple cyclin subunits of human P-TEFb». Genes Dev. (UNITED STATES) 12 (5): 755-62. ISSN 0890-9369. PMID 9499409. La referencia utiliza el parámetro obsoleto ,coautores= (ayuda) Amini, Shohreh; Clavo Anaira, Nadraga Yuri, Giordano Antonio, Khalili Kamel, Sawaya Bassel E (Aug. de 2002). «Interplay between cdk9 and NF-kappaB factors determines the level of HIV-1 gene transcription in astrocytic cells». Oncogene (England) 21 (37): 5797-803. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 12173051. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1205754. La referencia utiliza el parámetro obsoleto ,coautores= (ayuda) Cabart, Pavel; Chew Helen K, Murphy ...
The spatial distribution of mineral deposits is a critical component of predictive estimation of undiscovered mineral resources. Nickel sulfide deposits in the Kalgoorlie terrane of Western Australia, the worlds premier province for komatiite-hosted nickel sulfide deposits, are generally perceived to be clustered. We apply distance-based spatial analysis methods (nearest neighbor and K function) to determine the spatial distribution pattern of nickel sulfide deposits in the Kalgoorlie terrane. Results of these spatial analyses indicate the komatiite bodies that contain the nickel sulfide deposits in the terrane are clustered. In contrast, nickel sulfide deposits within komatiite bodies are either randomly distributed or dispersed and not clustered. Therefore, the apparent clustering of nickel sulfide deposits within the Kalgoorlie terrane may be a mere expression of the underlying clustering of the host komatiite bodies. These findings have two main implications: (1) nickel exploration models ...
Find more information on adenovirus vector including adenovirus infection and adenovirus symptoms in Kidspots comprehensive health section.
Adenovirus Type 9, 0.1 mg. The many different serotypes of human adenoviruses (Ad) are divided into six subgroups, of which all Ad subgroup A and B and two subgroup D Ads can elicit tumors in infected rodents.
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Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, and recent epidemiological studies have strongly implicated the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) as a causative agent. The ability of high-risk HPVs to contribute to malignant progression seems to depend on expression of the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes. The E6 oncoprotein forms a complex with the cellular tumor suppressor protein p53, leading to degradation of p53 via ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Thus, E6 expression results in the loss of p53 function in cells, including stimulation of apoptosis and inhibition of the expression of the antiapoptotic protein bcl-2. Recently, we found increased bcl-2 expression in cervical carcinoma cell lines containing mutated or E6-inactivated p53 (X. L. Liang, S. Mungal, A. Ayscue, J. D. Meissner, P. Wodnicki, G. Gordon, S. Lockett, and B. Herman. J. Cell. Biochem., 57: 509-520, 1995). Based on these findings, we examined Papanicolaou smears from 94 women with ...
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Doctors Ask: Adenovirus infection is exposed to all segments of the population. Basic manifestations of adenovirus infection The latent (incubation period) is usually 5-7 days. The disease most often begins acutely, from the phenomena of intoxication: slight increase in temperature, rashes in the body, chills, lethargy, headache, loss of appetite, etc.
Oncolytic adenoviruses are designed to take advantage of the virus native ability to replicate in cancer cells to induce oncolysis
There are many stages in the development of a new drug for viral infection and such processes are even further complicated for adenovirus by the fact that there are at least 51 serotypes, forming six distinct groups (A-F), with different degree of infectivity. This review attempts to address the importance of developing pharmaceuticals for adenovirus and also review recent development in drug discovery for adenovirus, including newer strategies such as microRNA approaches. Different drug screening strategies will also be discussed.
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Definition of i-kappa b proteins in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of i-kappa b proteins. What does i-kappa b proteins mean? Information and translations of i-kappa b proteins in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
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Adenovirus infection generally may lead to common cold, pneumonia and pharyngitis.There are few types of adenoviruses. Specifically, adenoviruses types 8,19 and 37 will lead to keratoconjunctivitis mostly in adult.
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In one mode of adenovirus infection (called lytic infection because it destroys large numbers of cells), adenoviruses kill healthy cells and replicate up to 1 million new viruses per cell killed, of which 1 to 5 percent are infectious. People with this kind of infection feel sick. In chronic or latent infection, a much smaller number of viruses are released, and healthy cells can multiply more rapidly than they are destroyed. People who have this kind of infection do not exhibit symptoms. Children who have normal immune systems usually experience only minor symptoms when infected with adenovirus. The course of infection tends to be more serious in children who are immunocompromised, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or those who have a disease that disrupts normal immune response (e.g. human immunodeficiency syndrome [HIV]). In such children, the virus more often affects organs such as the lungs, liver, and kidneys, and the risk of fatality increases. Symptoms common to respiratory illnesses ...
Nota: Não confundir com Paxilina (alcaloide). A paxilina é uma proteína que funciona como proteína adaptadora na transdução de sinais e foi descoberta em 1990, à qual lhe foi dada o nome em inglês de paxillin, do latim paxillus, que significa "pequeno poste" (não confundir com o alcaloide neurotóxico, em inglês denominado paxilline). A paxilina tem 68 kDa e está localizada no citoplasma nos pontos onde a célula se une à matriz extracelular formando de aderências focais. A região C-terminal da paxilina contém quatro domínios LIM servem para que a paxilina se una às adesões focais. Acredita-se que nas adesões focais seja estabelecida uma associação direta com a cauda citoplasmática beta-integrina. A região N-terminal da paxilina é rica em sítios de interação proteína-proteína. São várias as proteínas que se ligam à paxilina e entre elas estão proteína-tirosina quinases, como a Src e a quinase de adesão focal (FAK), proteínas estruturais, como a vinculina e ...
Adenoviruses are a group of medium sized, non enveloped, ds DNA viruses that share a common complement fixing antigen. They infect humans, animals and birds, shows strict host specifity. At least 47 serotypes of adenoviruses have been isolated from human sources. Adenovirus infections are common worldwide mostly in children. Many infections are asymptomatic. The virus may persist in the host for many months.It cause infections of the respiratory tract and eyes. These viruses carry DNA up to 7kb and are being investigated as potential vectors in gene therapy. ...
Adenoviruses are a family of viruses that are an important cause of febrile illnesses in young children. They are most frequently associated with upper respiratory tract syndromes, such as pharyngitis or coryza, but can also cause pneumonia. Less com
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Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the adenovirus E1A-associated 300-kD protein (p300) reveals a protein with properties of a transcriptional adaptor ...
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Campaigning works, but only when people care enough to get involved. For many years on ibikelondon weve said we should each be the change wed like to see, but the need now for more people to get involved is more apparent than ever before. Because whilst the protests and campaigns are gaining traction, the forces arrayed against creating more cycle-friendly streets are as prevalent as ever. Funding cuts, the motor lobby, hackneyed and downright dangerous road design schemes divert our attention. Indeed, Cyclists In The City blog recently identified 5 major proposed road design schemes that seek - either through ignorance or downright spite - to squeeze out cycling. Meanwhile, at the Judiciary, drivers who kill or hurt cyclists are let off with alarming and downright depressing regularity. And at Government level the recent cash that has been pledged is most welcome, but not nearly enough to really make a difference. ...
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Looking for Dog adenovirus? Find out information about Dog adenovirus. acute viral disease of canines, especially dogs and foxes. The causative agent, an adenovirus, is not infectious to humans. In foxes the disease is... Explanation of Dog adenovirus
Human adenovirus 12 ATCC ® VR-863D™ Designation: DNA from Human adenovirus 12 strain Huie [ATCC ® VR-863™] Application: It is suitable for use in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viral gene products and other molecular virology applications. Respiratory research
Human adenovirus 4 ATCC ® VR-1572D™ Designation: DNA from Human adenovirus 4 strain RI-67 [ATCC ® VR-1572™] Application: It is suitable for use in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viral gene products and other molecular virology applications. Respiratory research
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 110, no 50, 19976-19977 p.Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published ...
Adenovirus and pregnancy - What is adenovirus infection? Many forms. This virus can produce several forms of infection. Pharyngo-conjunctival fever (or swimming pool fever) is one of the better known, but also gastroenteritis, upper respiratory tract infections and pneumonia can all occur.
Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Adenoviruses commonly infect humans, causing colds, flu-like symptoms and sometimes even death, but now UC San Francisco researchers have discovered that a new species of adenovirus can spread from primate to primate, and ...
[205 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Adenovirus Diagnostic Testing Market: US, Europe, Japan report by Venture Planning Group. The report presents a detailed analysis of the Adenovirus diagnostics...
Buy our Recombinant Human SMPDL3B protein. Ab162135 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam provides free…
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TACE Plus Recombinant Human Adenovirus for Hepatocellular Carcinoma - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.govTACE Plus Recombinant Human Adenovirus for Hepatocellular Carcinoma - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Recombinant Human Adenovirus Type 5, an E1B gene deleted adenovirus, is known to have a significant antitumor activity. In ... Three adenovirus E3 proteins cooperate to evade apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-1 ... Drug: Recombinant Human Adenovirus Type 5 Injection After identifying the target artery of HCC, Recombinant Human Adenovirus ... Experimental: TACE Plus Adenovirus After identifying the target artery of HCC, Recombinant Human Adenovirus Type 5 Injection( ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01869088

Adenovirus E1B protein - WikipediaAdenovirus E1B protein - Wikipedia

Adenovirus E1B protein usually refers to one of two proteins transcribed from the E1B gene of the adenovirus: a 55kDa protein ... These two proteins are needed to block apoptosis in adenovirus-infected cells. E1B proteins work to prevent apoptosis that is ... E1B-55k also forms a complex with E4orf6, a viral protein. The E1B-55k/E4orf6 complex in infected cells assembles with other ... However, in adenovirus-infected cells, activated BAK and BAX are sequestered by E1B-19k, preventing the pathway. E1B-55k blocks ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenovirus_E1B_protein

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 3-Like (BNIP3L) AntikörperBCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 3-Like (BNIP3L) Antikörper

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3-like , BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3A , ... BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19-kd protein-interacting protein 3a , NIP3-like protein X , NIP3L , adenovirus E1B19k-binding protein B5 ... BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kD-interacting protein 3-like , BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 3-like , BCL2/adenovirus ... anti-BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 1 Antikörper * anti-BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kD Interacting Protein Like ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/BCL2-adenovirus+E1B+19kDa+Interacting+Protein+3-Like+

Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA...Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA...

Adenovirus proteins from both E1B reading frames are required for transformation of rodent cells by viral infection and DNA ... To determine the requirements for the individual Ad2 E1B proteins during the transformation of rodent cells, viral mutants were ... E1B proteins. Point mutations generating stop codons very early in the coding sequences were constructed to prevent the ... Studies with a third mutant virus, pm2022, which contains a stop codon after the second codon of the 495R protein, suggest that ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2949421?dopt=Abstract

Human BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 1 (BNIP1) Protein (GST tag), Recombinant | ABIN1346798Human BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 1 (BNIP1) Protein (GST tag), Recombinant | ABIN1346798

Protein (GST tag). Species: Human. Source: Wheat germ. Order product ABIN1346798. ... Recombinant BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 1 (BNIP1) ... Protein Name BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 1 (BNIP1) show synonyms for this antigen * NIP1 ... BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 1 (BNIP1) (AA 1-228), (full length) protein (GST tag) Read product details ...
more infohttp://www.antibodies-online.com/protein/1346798/BCL2/adenovirus+E1B+19kDa+Interacting+Protein+1+BNIP1+AA+1-228,+full+length+protein+GST+tag/

Adenovirus E1B 55-Kilodalton Protein Is Required for both Regulation of mRNA Export and Efficient Entry into the Late Phase of...Adenovirus E1B 55-Kilodalton Protein Is Required for both Regulation of mRNA Export and Efficient Entry into the Late Phase of...

Adenovirus type 5 E4orf3 protein relieves p53 inhibition by E1B-55-kilodalton protein. J. Virol. 73:2253-2262. ... The large E1B protein together with the E4orf6 protein target p53 for active degradation in adenovirus infected cells. Oncogene ... Effects of insertion mutations on accumulation of the E1B 55-kDa protein. A. The 496-residue Ad5 E1B 55-kDa protein is ... The adenovirus type 5 E1b 55K and E4 Orf3 proteins associate in infected cells and affect ND10 components. J. Gen. Virol. 80: ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/80/2/964

Adenovirus E1B 55-Kilodalton Protein Is Required for both Regulation of mRNA Export and Efficient Entry into the Late Phase of...Adenovirus E1B 55-Kilodalton Protein Is Required for both Regulation of mRNA Export and Efficient Entry into the Late Phase of...

Adenovirus type 5 E4orf3 protein relieves p53 inhibition by E1B-55-kilodalton protein. J. Virol. 73:2253-2262. ... The large E1B protein together with the E4orf6 protein target p53 for active degradation in adenovirus infected cells. Oncogene ... Effects of insertion mutations on accumulation of the E1B 55-kDa protein. A. The 496-residue Ad5 E1B 55-kDa protein is ... The adenovirus type 5 E1b 55K and E4 Orf3 proteins associate in infected cells and affect ND10 components. J. Gen. Virol. 80: ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/80/2/964?ijkey=5b8b10f5e82e154789588007444e163ae9b71741&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Analysen zur Funktion des E1B-55K-Proteins von Adenovirus Typ 5 im lytischen Replikationszyklus  - Publikationsserver der...Analysen zur Funktion des E1B-55K-Proteins von Adenovirus Typ 5 im lytischen Replikationszyklus - Publikationsserver der...

Despite the altered localization of the E1B proteins mutations in the E4orf6- and/or the E1B-NES as well as the E1B-SCS have no ... Trotz der deutlich veränderten Lokalisation des E1B-55K-Proteins haben Mutationen im E4orf6- und/oder E1B-NES sowie im E1B-SKM ... Finally, results from these studies demonstrate the existence of two isoforms (E1B-48K and E1B-49K) of the E1B-55K protein. ... Weiterhin wurden im Verlauf dieser Arbeit erstmals zwei neue Isoformen des E1B-55K-Proteins (E1B-48K und E1B-49K) identifiziert ...
more infohttps://epub.uni-regensburg.de/10525/

Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 2-like protein elisa and antibodyBcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 2-like protein elisa and antibody

Recombinant Protein and Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 2-like protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA ... Shop Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 2-like protein ELISA Kit, ... Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 2-like protein. Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 2-like protein ... Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 2-like protein Recombinant. Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 2- ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=bcl-2-adenovirus-e1b-19-kda-interacting-protein-2-like-protein

Image:DNA Overview.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaImage:DNA Overview.png - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Origin Recognition Complex Protein* Haplogroup O2a (Y-DNA)* Adenovirus E1B protein* Haplogroup O2b (Y-DNA)* Fosmid* Suppressor ... Zinc finger protein* MSin3 interaction domain* Transcription Factor II D* Coactivator (genetics)* Cis-regulatory element* ... MUT (zinc finger protein)* Tn10* Methylation specific oligonucleotide microarray* Nature Via Nurture: Genes, Experience, and ... Interferon Consensus Sequence-binding protein* Smith-Waterman algorithm* Giemsa* Blending inheritance* Genetic viability* Gene ...
more infohttps://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~rwest/wikispeedia/wpcd/images/176/17604.png.htm

TNO Repository search for: subject:Antibodies, ViralTNO Repository search for: subject:'Antibodies, Viral'

Adenovirus E1B Proteins · Adenoviruses, Human · Animals · Antibodies, Viral · Cell Line · Cells, Cultured · Dendritic Cells · ... Human adenovirus · Human adenovirus 35 · Human adenovirus 5 · Human cell · Immune response · Mouse · Nonhuman · Plasmid · ... Viral Proteins Aims: To identify peptides that mimic (mimotopes) conformational and protective epitopes of RSV fusion protein ... Viral Envelope Proteins · Viral Load · Viral Proteins · Viral Vaccines ...
more infohttps://repository.tudelft.nl/search/tno/?q=subject%3A%22Antibodies%2C%20Viral%22

What Makes a Cancer Cell a Cancer Cell? - Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine - NCBI BookshelfWhat Makes a Cancer Cell a Cancer Cell? - Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine - NCBI Bookshelf

These include adenovirus protein E1b, Ras, and ν-Abl.. Mitochondria play a pivotal role in the events of apoptosis by at least ... Protein Phosphatases. Although it has been known for a long time that protein phosphatases play a regulatory role in certain ... Integrins are a family of proteins consisting of αβ heterodimers that are integral membrane proteins with a specific arginine, ... Activation of the SH2 domain protein PLC-γ1 can also potentially stimulate protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways. Thus, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK12516/

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

The role of adenovirus E1B-55k in targeting host-cell proteins that possess antiviral activity for proteasomal degradation is ... Adenovirus protein VII is a highly cationic core protein that forms a nucleosome-like structure in the adenovirus core by ... Purification and characterization of adenovirus core protein VII: a histone-like protein that is critical for adenovirus core ... Comparison of protein expression during wild-type, and E1B-55k-deletion, adenovirus infection using quantitative time-course ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=C02.256.076

Produktübersicht anti-BNIP1 AntikörperProduktübersicht anti-BNIP1 Antikörper

BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 1, NIP1 , SNARE protein SEC20 , BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa-interacting protein 1 , N- ... anti-BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 3 Antikörper * anti-BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 3-Like ... BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 1 , transformation-related gene 8 protein , vesicle transport protein ... anti-BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 1 (BNIP1) Antikörper. BNIP1 is a member of the BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kd- ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/BCL2-adenovirus+E1B+19kDa+Interacting+Protein+1+

TCDB » SEARCHTCDB » SEARCH

Protein Name:. BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3-like aka NIP3L. ... 2] "Nix and Nip3 form a subfamily of pro-apoptotic mitochondrial proteins." Chen G.et.al. 9867803. [3] "A novel adenovirus ... 1] "Isolation, mapping, and functional analysis of a novel human cDNA (BNIP3L) encoding a protein homologous to human NIP3." ... E1B19K-binding protein B5 inhibits apoptosis induced by Nip3 by forming a heterodimer through the C-terminal hydrophobic region ...
more infohttp://www.tcdb.org/search/result.php?tc=1.A.20.1.2

Gene InfoGene Info

Bnip2, BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 2. Sequence ID:. NM_001008238. NM_016787. ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GeneInfo?ORG=Mm&CID=159777&LLNO=12175

Human cytomegalovirus IE1 and IE2 proteins are mutagenic and mediate hit-and-run oncogenic transformation in cooperation with...Human cytomegalovirus IE1 and IE2 proteins are mutagenic and mediate "hit-and-run" oncogenic transformation in cooperation with...

... as do the adenovirus E1B 19-kDa (E1B) protein and the cellular Bcl-2 protein, each of which can block apoptosis (15, 16). In ... In contrast, the E1B protein was detected in cells transformed by the E1A plus E1B proteins throughout the entire 27-day time ... In cell lines derived by transfection with E1A plus E1B, both E1A (Fig. 2C) and E1B (data not shown) proteins are readily ... a level comparable to the activity of E1A plus the adenovirus E1B protein (Fig. 1 A and B) or Bcl-2 (15). As reported ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/94/7/3341.full

Oncovirus - WikipediaOncovirus - Wikipedia

The adenovirus E1B protein (55K) prevents p53 from regulating genes by binding to the site on p53 which binds to the genome.[32 ... DNA oncoviruses typically impair two families of tumor suppressor proteins: tumor proteins p53 and the retinoblastoma proteins ... the HPV protein E6 binds to a cellular protein called the E6-associated protein (E6-AP, also known as UBE3A), forming a complex ... SV40 uses the same protein for inactivating Rb, LT, to inactivate p53.[39] HPV contains a protein, E7, which can bind to Rb in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tumor_viruses

bnip3lb - PrimePCR Assay and Template | Life Science | Bio-Radbnip3lb - PrimePCR Assay and Template | Life Science | Bio-Rad

BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3-like b Assay Type: Probe Assay Design: Intron-spanning Application: Gene Expression ... BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3-like b Assay Type: SYBR® Green Assay Design: Intron-spanning Application: Gene ... The pathway maps illustrate protein interactions and regulation to provide a comprehensive picture of signaling and disease ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/gene/bnip3lb-zebrafish

Anti-BNIP3 antibody [ANa40] (ab88729) | AbcamAnti-BNIP3 antibody [ANa40] (ab88729) | Abcam

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein interacting protein 3 antibody. *BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 ... BCL2 Adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 3 antibody. * ... The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) in 2010. Nucleic Acids ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ... Apoptosis-inducing protein that, which can overcome BCL2 suppression. May play a role in repartitioning calcium between the two ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/bnip3-antibody-ana40-ab88729.html

GO Gene ListGO Gene List

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 2. NM_004330. Gene Info. BVES. Blood vessel epicardial substance. NM_001199563. ... GEM interacting protein. NM_016573. Gene Info. GNAO1. Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 1. NM_002922. Gene Info. RGS10. Regulator of G-protein signaling 10. NM_001005339. NM_002925. ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 22. NM_015668. Gene Info. RGS3. Regulator of G-protein signaling 3. NM_144488. NM_130795. NM_ ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GoGeneQuery?PAGE=1&ORG=Hs&GOID=0030811

BNIP3P1 Gene - GeneCards | BNIP3P1 PseudogeneBNIP3P1 Gene - GeneCards | BNIP3P1 Pseudogene

... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... BCL2/Adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 3 Pseudogene 1 2 3 * BCL2/Adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 3 Pseudogene 2 ... Search Origene for Purified Proteins, MassSpec and Protein Over-expression Lysates for BNIP3P1 ... Search Origene for Purified Proteins, MassSpec and Protein Over-expression Lysates for BNIP3P1 ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=BNIP3P1

BNIP3 | Cancer Genetics WebBNIP3 | Cancer Genetics Web

... and BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3)] and ROS related proteins [catalase, thioredoxinreductase ... The encoded protein interacts with anti-apoptotic proteins, including the E1B 19 kDa protein and Bcl2. This gene is silenced in ... The hypoxia‑inducible factor 1α/B cell lymphoma 2/adenovirus E1B 19K‑interacting protein 3 signaling pathway was involved in ... Silibinin stimulated the expression of Bcl-2 adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), a pro-death Bcl-2 family ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/BNIP3.htm

Biomolecules  | Free Full-Text | A Mechanistic Review of Mitophagy and Its Role in Protection against Alcoholic Liver Disease |...Biomolecules | Free Full-Text | A Mechanistic Review of Mitophagy and Its Role in Protection against Alcoholic Liver Disease |...

Bcl2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), Fun14 Domain containing 1 (FUNDC1), Cardiolipin, and ... Yasuda, M.; Theodorakis, P.; Subramanian, T.; Chinnadurai, G. Adenovirus E1B-19K/BCL-2 interacting protein BNIP3 contains a BH3 ... BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa interacting protein 3-like (BNIP3L), also known as Nix, is another Parkin substrate, and Parkin- ... The autophagy receptor proteins then further recruit autophagosomes likely via directly interacting with the LC3 protein to ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/5/4/2619/htm
  • E1B-55k also forms a complex with E4orf6, a viral protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The E1B-55k/E4orf6 complex in infected cells assembles with other cellular proteins to form a ubiquitin ligase complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essentially, the E1B-55k/E4orf6 complex takes over the cellular ubiquitin ligase complexes and gives them viral substrate-recognition subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MRN complex, if not bound by the E1B-55K/E4orf6 ubiquitin ligase, will treat the ends of the viral DNA like a double-stranded DNA break and the viral DNA becomes ligated into long concatomers of randomly assorted genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Die lytischen Aktivitäten des E1B-Proteins werden zumindest teilweise im Komplex mit dem viralen Protein E4orf6 vermittelt. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Soweit bekannt fördert der E1B-55K/E4orf6-Komplex (E1B/E4-Komplex) den nukleozytoplasmatischen Transport viraler mRNAs und fördert somit die Synthese viraler Kapsidproteine bzw. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Die vorliegende Arbeit befasste sich mit Untersuchungen zur Funktion der E1B-55K- und E4orf6-Proteine in der Regulation des produktiven Replikationszyklus von Ad5, und insbesondere mit Fragestellungen zur Regulation des viralen mRNA-Transports durch den E1B/E4-Komplex. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Dazu wurden im ersten Schritt, mit Hilfe eines direkten Klonierungsverfahrens, Mutationen in die kodierenden Bereiche der E1B- und/oder E4orf6-Gene im Ad5-Genom eingeführt, die zu Aminosäureaustauschen in: (1) den NESs von E1B-55K und/oder E4orf6, (2) im SKM von E1B-55K und (3) in den p53- bzw. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Insgesamt bestätigen diese Versuche die Annahme, dass E1B-55K und vermutlich der E1B-55K/E4orf6-Komplex in lytisch infizierten Zellen kontinuierlich über den Exportrezeptor CRM1 aus dem Zellkern transportiert wird. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Im Unterschied zu E4orf6 führen Mutationen im E1B-NES zu einer fast vollständigen Restriktion des viralen Proteins im Zellkern, wo das virale Protein an der Peripherie der sog. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Trotz der deutlich veränderten Lokalisation des E1B-55K-Proteins haben Mutationen im E4orf6- und/oder E1B-NES sowie im E1B-SKM keinen negativen Einfluss auf die zytoplasmatische Akkumulation viraler Transkripte, Synthese später Strukturproteine, Produktion von Nachkommenviren und den proteasomalen Abbau von MRN. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Obwohl die molekulare Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse noch unklar ist, zeigen die Untersuchungen dieser Arbeit, dass der nukleäre Export von E1B-55K und E4orf6 auch über die CRM1-unabhängigen RNA-Exportrezeptoren HuR und/oder TAP/NXF1 gesteuert wird, da sowohl die HuR-Liganden pp32 und APRIL als auch das TAP/NXF1-Adaptorprotein Aly/REF1 an den E1B/E4-Komplex binden. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Während pp32 bekanntermaßen über E4orf6 mit dem E1B/E4-Komplex wechselwirkt, zeigen Koimmunpräzipitationsversuche erstmalig, dass APRIL und Aly/REF1 über E1B-55K mit dem viralen Proteinkomplex interagieren. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • BRK cells, which have been used extensively to assay the transforming activity of adenovirus oncogenes ( 21 , 22 ), were used to test the oncogenic potential of the HCMV immediate early genes. (pnas.org)
  • Material and methods: An 8-mer solid- phase (TG resin) library was screened with a neutralising and protective RSV fusion protein specific monoclonal antibodies (Mab-19). (tudelft.nl)
  • Conclusions: This report demonstrates for the first time that: (1) a protective epitope of the conserved RSV fusion protein can be mimicked by synthetic peptides: and (2) immunisations with these mimotopes induced specific anti-RSV neutralising antibodies and reduced vital load in vivo. (tudelft.nl)
  • The mutant virus dl1520, a double mutant unable to synthesize the 495R protein, was also extremely defective for the transformation of CREF cells in virion- and viral DNA-mediated assays. (nih.gov)
  • These two mechanisms differ in their biology and epidemiology: direct tumor viruses must have at least one virus copy in every tumor cell expressing at least one protein or RNA that is causing the cell to become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aims: To identify peptides that mimic (mimotopes) conformational and protective epitopes of RSV fusion protein and to assess their efficacy as immunogens and potential vaccines. (tudelft.nl)
  • Studies with a third mutant virus, pm2022, which contains a stop codon after the second codon of the 495R protein, suggest that very low levels of 495R protein activity are sufficient for a productive infection and significant transforming activity. (nih.gov)
  • Adenoviral nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of a cat that had suffered from disseminated adenovirus infection. (bireme.br)
  • Point mutations generating stop codons very early in the coding sequences were constructed to prevent the expression of amino-terminal protein fragments which might have biological activity. (nih.gov)
  • The sequences were clearly distinguishable from corresponding hexon and polymerase sequences of other mastadenoviruses, including human adenoviruses. (bireme.br)
  • It has also been reported that the E4 Orf 6 protein contains a similar NES necessary for exportin-dependent shuttling of the E1B 55-kDa-E4 Orf 6 protein complex and sufficient to allow export when fused to an heterologous protein ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • On the other hand, it has also been reported that the E4 Orf 6 NES failed to direct efficient export of a heterologous protein and that export of this E4 protein is insensitive to leptomycin B ( 26 , 58 ). (asm.org)
  • In the work described here, a combinatorial solid-phase peptide library was screened with a protective monoclonal antibody (MAb 19) to identify peptide mimics (mimotopes) of a conserved and conformationally-determined epitope of RSV fusion (F) protein. (tudelft.nl)
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • Mutant virus pm1722 contains a point mutation that terminates translation of the 175R protein after three amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • The predicted protein consists of 133 amino acid residues and contains an N-terminal signal sequence and a cystine-knot motif at its carboxyl-terminal end. (arvojournals.org)
  • Three-dimensional computer modeling of the amino acid sequence reveals striking similarity with transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), 10 suggesting that this protein is involved in developmental and differentiation processes. (arvojournals.org)
  • The specific inhibitor of exportin 1, leptomycin B, has been observed to inhibit shuttling of this E4 protein substantially ( 78 ). (asm.org)
  • Presumably, this increased affinity and concentration of p53 turns the p53-E1B-55k complex into a powerful repressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The potential contribution of adenovirus 36 to the development of obesity]. (bireme.br)
  • There are five adenovirus which have been associated with development of obesity in animals. (bireme.br)