Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Adenovirus E4 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.Adenovirus E1B Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.Adenovirus E3 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Adenovirus Infections, Human: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.Adenovirus E2 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.Adenoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mastadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).Adenoviruses, Canine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.E1A-Associated p300 Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Adenoviruses, Porcine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Aviadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Fowl adenovirus A: The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Keratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Papillomavirus E7 Proteins: ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Adenovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.PhosphoproteinsTransgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Genes, Retinoblastoma: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.DNA, Concatenated: Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.DNA Tumor Viruses: DNA viruses producing malignant tumors. Of the six major groupings of DNA viruses four contain members which are actually or potentially oncogenic: the Adenoviridae, the Herpesviridae, the Papovaviridae, and the Poxviridae.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Mice, Inbred BALB CGenes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Cell Nucleus Structures: Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.p300-CBP Transcription Factors: A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).ConjunctivitisE2F2 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Atadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.G-Box Binding Factors: A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Rats, Inbred F344Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Tropism: The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.

B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through SP1-binding sites. (1/910)

B-MYB is an ubiquitous protein required for mammalian cell growth. In this report we show that B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through a 120 bp segment proximal to the transcription start site. The B-MYB-responsive element does not contain myb-binding sites and gel-shift analysis shows that SP1, but not B-MYB, protein contained in SAOS2 cell extracts binds to the 120 bp B-myb promoter fragment. B-MYB-dependent transactivation is cooperatively increased in the presence of SP1, but not SP3 overexpression. When the SP1 elements of the B-myb promoter are transferred in front of a heterologous promoter, an increased response to B-MYB results. In contrast, c-MYB, the prototype member of the Myb family, is not able to activate the luciferase construct containing the SP1 elements. With the use of an SP1-GAL4 fusion protein, we have determined that the cooperative activation occurs through the domain A of SP1. These observations suggest that B-MYB functions as a coactivator of SP1, and that diverse combinations of myb and SP1 sites may dictate the responsiveness of myb-target genes to the various members of the myb family.  (+info)

A viral mechanism for inhibition of p300 and PCAF acetyltransferase activity. (2/910)

Nucleosomal histone modification is believed to be a critical step in the activation of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription. p300/CBP and PCAF histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are coactivators for several transcription factors, including nuclear hormone receptors, p53, and Stat1alpha, and participate in transcription by forming an activation complex and by promoting histone acetylation. The adenoviral E1A oncoprotein represses transcriptional signaling by binding to p300/CBP and displacing PCAF and p/CIP proteins from the complex. Here, we show that E1A directly represses the HAT activity of both p300/CBP and PCAF in vitro and p300-dependent transcription in vivo. Additionally, E1A inhibits nucleosomal histone modifications by the PCAF complex and blocks p53 acetylation. These results demonstrate the modulation of HAT activity as a novel mechanism of transcriptional regulation.  (+info)

Regulation of histone acetyltransferases p300 and PCAF by the bHLH protein twist and adenoviral oncoprotein E1A. (3/910)

Histone acetyltransferases (HAT) play a critical role in transcriptional control by relieving repressive effects of chromatin, and yet how HATs themselves are regulated remains largely unknown. Here, it is shown that Twist directly binds two independent HAT domains of acetyltransferases, p300 and p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), and directly regulates their HAT activities. The N terminus of Twist is a primary domain interacting with both acetyltransferases, and the same domain is required for inhibition of p300-dependent transcription by Twist. Adenovirus E1A protein mimics the effects of Twist by inhibiting the HAT activities of p300 and PCAF. These findings establish a cogent argument for considering the HAT domains as a direct target for acetyltransferase regulation by both a cellular transcription factor and a viral oncoprotein.  (+info)

Recruitment of the retinoblastoma protein to c-Jun enhances transcription activity mediated through the AP-1 binding site. (4/910)

The retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (RB) is a transcriptional modulator. One of the targets for this modulator effect is the AP-1 binding site within the c-jun and collagenase promoters. The physical interactions between RB and c-Jun were demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation of these two proteins using anti-c-Jun or anti-RB antisera, glutathione S-transferase affinity matrix binding assays in vitro, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The C-terminal site of the leucine zipper of c-Jun mediated the interaction with RB. Although the B-pocket domain of RB alone bound to c-Jun, a second c-Jun binding site in the RB was also suggested. Mammalian two-hybrid-based assay provided corroborative evidence that transactivation of gene expression by RB required the C-terminal region of c-Jun. We conclude that RB enhances transcription activity mediated through the AP-1 binding site. Adenovirus E1A or human papillomavirus E7 inhibits RB-mediated transcription activity. These data reveal that the interactions between these two distinct classes of oncoproteins RB and c-Jun may be involved in controlling cell growth and differentiation mediated by transcriptional regulation.  (+info)

Mutant p53 can provoke apoptosis in p53-deficient Hep3B cells with delayed kinetics relative to wild-type p53. (5/910)

Wild-type (wt) p53 frequently induces apoptosis when expressed in tumor cells whereas mutant p53 acts as an oncoprotein and consequently, stimulates cell proliferation. We report here exceptions to that rule. p53 conformational mutant 175H and DNA contact mutant 273H provoke apoptosis in human p53-deficient Hep3B hepatoma cells with delayed kinetics relative to wt p53. Similarly, c-Myc strongly stimulates apoptosis in these cells. In contrast, viral oncoproteins E1A and E7, and the cellular oncoprotein MDM-2, fail to elicit cytocidal responses. Efficient apoptotic cell death by mutant p53 requires oligomerization as 175H and 273H with deletions between amino acid residues 326 and 347 of the oligomerization domain are nontoxic. Apoptosis by mutant or wt p53 was significantly inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor AEBSF but not by the inactive analog AEBSA. Together, these results suggest that a wt p53-independent control mechanism is operational in Hep3B cells that eliminates cells upon sensing illegitimate proliferation signals originating from certain oncoproteins, including mutant p53 and Myc. We suggest that some tumor cell types lack p53 altogether because they tolerate neither wild-type nor mutant forms of the protein.  (+info)

Differences in the interactions of oncogenic adenovirus 12 early region 1A and nononcogenic adenovirus 2 early region 1A with the cellular coactivators p300 and CBP. (6/910)

Association with the cellular coactivators p300 and CBP is required for the growth-regulatory function of adenoviral (Ad) early region 1A (E1A) proteins. E1A regions necessary for these interactions overlap with domains involved in the induction of tumours in immunocompetent rodents through highly oncogenic Ad12. Differences in the association of cellular factors with the respective E1A domains of Ad12 and nononcogenic Ad2 might therefore be involved in serotype-specific oncogenicity. We analyzed the interaction of the Ad12 E1A 235R protein with p300 and CBP. Here we demonstrate that in the case of Ad12, but not Ad2/5, amino acids (aa) 1-29 of E1A proteins are sufficient to bind the p300-C/H3 domain in vivo and wild-type p300 in vitro. The conserved arginine-2, which is essential for the interaction between Ad2 E1A and p300, was dispensable for the Ad12 E1A 235R-p300 interaction in vitro. In addition to the p300-C/H3 region, we identified a second domain within p300 (aa 1999-2200) binding to the 235R protein. Contrary to p300, the amino-terminus and CR1 are necessary to associate with CBP. The aa 1-29 of the 235R protein but not CR1 are essential for the repression of colTRE-driven gene expression. This repression function is strictly dependent on p300 but not on CBP.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation of the mouse ferritin H gene. Involvement of p300/CBP adaptor proteins in FER-1 enhancer activity. (7/910)

We previously identified a major enhancer of the mouse ferritin H gene (FER-1) that is central to repression of the ferritin H gene by the adenovirus E1A oncogene (Tsuji, Y., Akebi, N., Lam, T. K., Nakabeppu, Y., Torti, S. V., and Torti, F. M. (1995) Mol. Cell. Biol. 15, 5152-5164). To dissect the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation of ferritin H, E1A mutants were tested for their ability to repress FER-1 enhancer activity using cotransfection with ferritin H-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter constructs. Here we report that p300/CBP transcriptional adaptor proteins are involved in the regulation of ferritin H transcription through the FER-1 enhancer element. Thus, E1A mutants that failed to bind p300/CBP lost the ability to repress FER-1, whereas mutants of E1A that abrogated its interaction with Rb, p107, or p130 were fully functional in transcriptional repression. Transfection with E1A did not affect endogenous p300/CBP levels, suggesting that repression of FER-1 by E1A is not due to repression of p300/CBP synthesis, but to E1A and p300/CBP interaction. In addition, we have demonstrated that transfection of a p300 expression plasmid significantly activated ferritin H-CAT containing the FER-1 enhancer, but had a marginal effect on ferritin H-CAT with FER-1 deleted. Furthermore, both wild-type p300 and a p300 mutant that failed to bind E1A but retained an adaptor function restored FER-1 enhancer activity repressed by E1A. Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, mimicked p300/CBP function in activation of ferritin H-CAT and elevation of endogenous ferritin H mRNA, suggesting that the histone acetyltransferase activity of p300/CBP or its associated proteins may contribute to the activation of ferritin H transcription. Recruitment of these broadly active transcriptional adaptor proteins for ferritin H synthesis may represent an important mechanism by which changes in iron metabolism are coordinated with other cellular responses mediated by p300/CBP.  (+info)

The adenoviral E1A oncoproteins interfere with the growth-inhibiting effect of the cdk-inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1). (8/910)

The cdk-inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1) inhibits the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, thereby repressing cell-cycle progression and DNA replication. Transforming oncogenes, such as E1A of human adenovirus 5 (Ad5), may interfere with such growth-inhibitory proteins. In this study, we show that in various Ad5E1-transformed cells, p21(CIP1/WAF1) is expressed and that, in general, expression is not downregulated. In addition, colony-formation assays show that in Ad5E1-transformed cells highly overexpressed p21(CIP1/WAF1) can still cause growth inhibition. FACS experiments indicate, however, that a G1 arrest induced by moderate overexpression of p21(CIP1/WAF1) can be overcome by E1A. The E1A proteins may interfere with the function of p21(CIP1/WAF1) by binding. Indeed, p21(CIP1/WAF1) binds with its cyclin/cdk-binding N terminus to the transforming N-terminal and CR1 region of the E1A proteins. Together, these results lend support to the model that E1A can interfere directly with p21(CIP1/WAF1) function and thereby stimulates cell growth.  (+info)

Definition of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein? Meaning of Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein as a legal term. What does Adenovirus E3 10.4K/14.5kD Protein mean in law?
In addition to decreased EGF-induced in vivo invasion of Mena11a-expressing cells, we also found that these cells express less CSF1 mRNA. Data from patients suggests that CSF1 and its receptor play crucial roles during progression of breast cancer (Kacinski et al., 1991; Scholl et al., 1994) and that CSF1 and the CSF1R are coexpressed in ,50% of breast tumors (Kacinski, 1997). Elevated circulating CSF1 was also suggested to be an indicator of early metastatic relapse in patients with breast cancer, independent of breast cancer subtype (Scholl et al., 1994; Tamimi et al., 2008; Beck et al., 2009). This suggests that lower levels of CSF1 in Mena11a-expressing cells could lead to decreased metastatic progression. The decreased invasion, intravasation and dissemination of Mena11a-expressing cells are consistent with the decrease in expression of CSF1 and the reduced sensitivity to EGF, which would make these cells less likely to participate in a paracrine signaling loop with macrophages.. A major ...
Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation and interacts with FOXK1/K2, DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 and CtBP1/2 (CtBP) protein complexes. To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. Our results suggest that CtBP-E1A interaction suppresses immortalization and Ras co-operative transformation of primary rodent epithelial cells without significantly influencing the tumorigenic activities of transformed cells in immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. During productive infection, CtBP-E1A ...
KRISP paper on Science 2018 on HLA and NK cells by Veron Ramsuran shows that HLA-B haplotypes that favor NKG2A-mediated NK cell licensing (i.e., education) exacerbate the deleterious effect of high HLA-A on HIV control, consistent with NKG2A-mediated inhibition impairing NK cell clearance of HIV-infected targets. Therapeutic blockade of HLA-E:NKG2A interaction may yield benefit in HIV disease.
Recombinant BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa Interacting Protein 1 (BNIP1) Protein (GST tag). Species: Human. Source: Wheat germ. Order product ABIN1346798.
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Get an answer for Calculate Kc for the system, Ni2+ + Co Ni + Co2+. at 25 C?Ni2+ (aq) + 2e === Ni (s) E = - 0.25 V Co2+ (aq) + 2e === Co (s) E = - 0.28 and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the adenovirus E1A-associated 300-kD protein (p300) reveals a protein with properties of a transcriptional adaptor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Repression of cytochrome P‐450c gene expression by cotransfection with adenovirus E1a DNA. AU - SOGAWA, Kazuhiro. AU - HANDA, Hiroshi. AU - FUJISAWA‐SEHARA, Atsuko. AU - HIROMASA, Takako. AU - YAMANE, Miyuki. AU - FUJII‐KURIYAMA, Yoshiaki. PY - 1989/5. Y1 - 1989/5. N2 - Gene expression of rat cytochrome P‐450c (P‐450c) depends upon inducible enhancers scattered in the 5′‐upstream region of the gene. We show that expression of the P‐450c gene is repressed by contransfection with adenovirus E1a DNA, regardless of the presence or absence of inducers, in a transient expression system of HeLa cells. Since cotransfection of either 13S or 12S E1a cDNA was effective in the repression, the region necessary for repression could be separated from that of transactivation of other adenovirus early genes. Moreover, we investigated the regions responsible for the inhibitory activity using in‐frame deletion mutants lacking internal or external portions of the E1a proteins. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The adenovirus E4 11k protein binds and relocalizes the cytoplasmic P-body component Ddx6 to aggresomes. AU - Greer, Amy E.. AU - Hearing, Patrick. AU - Ketner, Gary W. PY - 2011/8/15. Y1 - 2011/8/15. N2 - The adenovirus E4 11k protein, product of E4 ORF3, is required in infection for processes including normal accumulation of viral late mRNAs. 11. k restructures both the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells by relocalizing specific host cell target proteins, most strikingly components of nuclear PML oncogenic domains. It is likely that in many cases relocalization inactivates target proteins to produce 11. ks effects, although the mechanism and targets for stimulation of late mRNA accumulation is unknown. We have identified a new set of proteins relocalized by 11. k: at least five protein components of cytoplasmic mRNA processing bodies (p-bodies) are found in 11. k-induced cytoplasmic aggresomes, sites where proteins are inactivated or destroyed. One of these p-body ...
HEK 293T/17 cells were transformed with adenovirus E1a carrying a temperature sensitive T antigen co-selected with neomycin. Transformation was brought about by the insertion of approximately 4.5 kilobases of viral genome into human chromosome 19.
HEK 293T/17 cells were transformed with adenovirus E1a carrying a temperature sensitive T antigen co-selected with neomycin. Transformation was brought about by the insertion of approximately 4.5 kilobases of viral genome into human chromosome 19.
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Epithelial cells isolated from fresh human breast surgically resected tumor and normal margin. Cryopreserved samples available in frozen aliquots. High quality human breast primary epithelial cell cultures available for research.
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 110, no 50, 19976-19977 p.Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published ...
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kd interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) regulates hypoxia-induced neural precursor cell death. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. 68:1326-1338. 2009 ...
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Looking for online definition of adenovirus early region genes in the Medical Dictionary? adenovirus early region genes explanation free. What is adenovirus early region genes? Meaning of adenovirus early region genes medical term. What does adenovirus early region genes mean?
Adenovirus genomes are linear, non-segmented double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules that are typically 26-46 Kbp long, containing 23-46 protein-coding genes. The example used for the following description is Human adenovirus E, a mastadenovirus with a 36 Kbp genome containing 38 protein-coding genes. While the precise number and identity of genes varies among adenoviruses, the basic principles of genome organization and the functions of most of the genes described in this article are shared among all adenoviruses. The 38 genes in the Human Adenovirus E genome are organized in 17 transcription units, each containing 1-8 coding sequences. Alternative splicing during processing of the pre-mRNAs produced by each transcription unit enable multiple different mRNAs to be produced from one transcription unit. The E1A, E1B, E2A, E2B, E3, and E4 transcription units are successively transcribed early in the viral reproductive cycle. The proteins coded for by genes within these transcription units are mostly ...
The corepressor CtBP (carboxyl-terminal binding protein) is involved in transcriptional pathways important for development, cell cycle regulation, and transformation. We demonstrate that CtBP binding to cellular and viral transcriptional repressors is regulated by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides NAD+ and NADH, with NADH being two to three orders of magnitude more effective. Levels of free nuclear nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides, determined using two-photon microscopy, correspond to the levels required for half-maximal CtBP binding and are considerably lower than those previously reported. Agents capable of increasing NADH levels stimulate CtBP binding to its partners in vivo and potentiate CtBP-mediated repression. We propose that this ability to detect changes in nuclear NAD+/NADH ratio allows CtBP to serve as a redox sensor for transcription. ...
Intraperitoneal (i.p.) recurrence of cisplatin-refractory and p53 mutant ovarian cancer is a major clinical problem, despite surgery and chemotherapy. dl1520 (ONYX-015) is an E1B-55 kDa gene-deleted adenovirus engineered selectively to replicate in and destroy cancer cells lacking functional p53. Ho …
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Detect adenovirus rescue even before cytopathic effect (CPE) is observed. Ensure high titer by harvesting amplified adenovirus at the optimal time
Detect adenovirus rescue even before cytopathic effect (CPE) is observed. Ensure high titer by harvesting amplified adenovirus at the optimal time
Tangen JM, Fløisand Y, Foss-Abrahamsen J, Haukås E, Næss IA, Skjelbakken T. Overlevelse hos voksne med akutt myelogen leukemi. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2008;128(10):1164-7. Gardin C, Turlure P, Fagot T, Thomas X, Terre C, Contentin N, et…. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Markedly enhanced cytolysis by E1B-19kD-deleted oncolytic adenovirus in combination with cisplatin. AU - Yoon, A. Rum. AU - Kim, Joo Hang. AU - Lee, Young Sook. AU - Kim, Hoguen. AU - Yoo, Ji Young. AU - Sohn, Joo Hyuk. AU - Park, Byeong Woo. AU - Yun, Chae Ok. PY - 2006/4/1. Y1 - 2006/4/1. N2 - Oncolytic adenoviruses are currently being developed as novel antitumor therapeutics. To enhance their therapeutic potential, adenoviruses are being administered in combination with standard chemotherapy. Adenoviral vectors used in these clinical trials, however, can be destructive as they encode intact E1B 19-kDa protein, which can block the apoptotic pathway induced by a variety of chemotherapeutic agents. Previously, we have shown that oncolytic adenovirus Ad-ΔE1B19/55, deleted for sequence encoding E1B 19-kDa and E1B 55-kDa proteins, exhibits marked enhancement in cytolytic and apoptotic activity [Kim, J., Cho, J.Y., Kim, J.H., Jung, K.C., and Yun, C.O. (2002). Cancer Gene Ther. 9, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Etoposide enhances antitumor efficacy of MDR1-driven oncolytic adenovirus through autoupregulation of the MDR1 promoter activity. AU - Su, Bing Hua. AU - Shieh, Gia Shing. AU - Tseng, Yau Lin. AU - Shiau, Ai Li. AU - Wu, Chao Liang. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds), or oncolytic adenoviruses, such as E1B55K-deleted adenovirus, are attractive anticancer agents. However, the therapeutic efficacy of E1B55K-deleted adenovirus for refractory solid tumors has been limited. Environmental stress conditions may induce nuclear accumulation of YB-1, which occurs in multidrug-resistant and adenovirus-infected cancer cells. Overexpression and nuclear localization of YB-1 are associated with poor prognosis and tumor recurrence in various cancers. Nuclear YB-1 transactivates the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes through the Y-box. Here, we developed a novel E1B55K-deleted adenovirus driven by the MDR1 promoter, designed Ad5GS3. We tested the ...
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Adenovirus Type 9, 0.1 mg. The many different serotypes of human adenoviruses (Ad) are divided into six subgroups, of which all Ad subgroup A and B and two subgroup D Ads can elicit tumors in infected rodents.
Our study is the first report of an RSAd, in which the "promoter-based regulation of E1A," approach is used to target the deregulated G1 to S phase in tumor cells. We demonstrated that AdE2F-1RC replicated selectively in tumor cells and not in normal cells expressing high and low levels of E2F-1 protein, respectively. Additionally, in two mouse xenograft models, AdE2F-1RC exhibited significant in vivo therapeutic benefit often equivalent to wild-type adenovirus treatment. These studies validate several design features of AdE2F-1RC.. The wild-type adenovirus dl309 replicated in all of the normal cells tested. We reasoned that normal resting cells would be a good model for AdE2F-1RC toxicity tests, because these cells do not express E2F-1 (44 , 45) and are found in the tumor environment. In contrast to dl309, the replication and CPE of AdE2F-1RC was significantly attenuated in normal cells suggesting that the E2F-1 promoter was not optimally activated. One reason is that the presence of pRb/E2F-1 ...
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This post is about adenovirus infection, a major cause of illness both minor and severe in the United States, especially among children in group settings.
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To delineate the function of adenovirus early region 4 (E4) gene products, we constructed a set of mutant viruses which carry defined lesions within this coding region. Deletion and insertion mutations within six of seven known E4 coding regions had no measurable effect on virus growth in cultured cells. A variant carrying a deletion within the last coding region (encoding a 34,000-molecular-weight polypeptide) was modestly defective, and a mutant lacking the majority of the E4 region was severely defective for growth. The phenotypes of the two defective mutants are similar and complex. Both display perturbations in DNA replication, translation of the E2A mRNA, accumulation of late viral mRNAs, and host cell shutoff. ...
Fusion of the BCL9 HD2 domain to E1A increases the cytopathic effect of an oncolytic adenovirus that targets colon cancer cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Adenovirus has been associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease and, with regard to infections among military recruits, who were routinely immunized against types 4 and 7 from 1971 until the cessation of vaccine production in 1996. Adenovirus became a significant cause of economic cost and morbidity in this setting. A live oral vaccine against adenovirus types 4 and 7 was approved for use in this population by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011, and subsequent incidence of acute respiratory disease declined.. Of interest is the role of adenoviruses as vectors in vaccination and in gene therapy. [1, 2, 3] Adenoviruses can infect various cells, both proliferating and quiescent, and thus hold the promise of targeting many different tissues and diseased cell lines.. The genome of adenovirus is well known and can be modified with relative ease to induce lysis or cytotoxicity of a specified cell line without affecting others.. The virus itself can be engineered to remove its ...
Supplementary Material for: Preclinical Evaluation of AdVince, an Oncolytic Adenovirus Adapted for Treatment of Liver Metastases from Neuroendocrine Cancer
13:2; potential epub Adenovirus notions; tenure bhakti 1? On the epub Adenovirus Methods and of this interest, are above under form. 1282 An epub Adenovirus Methods and Protocols: Adenoviruses, Ad study read by Porten - Szubin 1987:187.
There are many stages in the development of a new drug for viral infection and such processes are even further complicated for adenovirus by the fact that there are at least 51 serotypes, forming six distinct groups (A-F), with different degree of infectivity. This review attempts to address the importance of developing pharmaceuticals for adenovirus and also review recent development in drug discovery for adenovirus, including newer strategies such as microRNA approaches. Different drug screening strategies will also be discussed.
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What is the difference between Adenovirus and Retrovirus? Adenovirus is a virus type without an envelope whereas retroviruses are virus type with an envelope...
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Adenoviruses commonly infect humans, causing colds, flu-like symptoms and sometimes even death, but now UC San Francisco researchers have discovered that a new species of adenovirus can spread from primate to primate, and ...
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Lillie, J. W.; Loewenstein, P. M.; Green, M. R.; Green, M. (1987). "Functional domains of adenovirus type 5 E1a proteins". Cell ... He discovered two of the proteins required for adenoviruses to transform cells, and also other proteins that usurp the infected ... In recent years, Green has focused his studies on the multifunctional adenovirus oncoprotein E1A, which is necessary for cell ... doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87)90175-9. Loewenstein, P. M., Wu, S., Chiang, C., & Green, M. (2012). The adenovirus E1A N-terminal ...
Whyte, P (1988). "Association between an oncogene and an anti-oncogene: the adenovirus E1A proteins bind to the retinoblastoma ... "Association between an oncogene and an anti-oncogene: the adenovirus E1A proteins bind to the retinoblastoma gene product." ( ... Whyte, P (1989). "Cellular targets for transformation by the adenovirus E1A proteins". Cell. 56: 67-75. doi:10.1016/0092-8674( ... "Cellular targets for transformation by the adenovirus E1A proteins." cell 56.1 (1989): 67-75. member, National Academy of ...
"Mammalian Srb/Mediator complex is targeted by adenovirus E1A protein". Nature. 399 (6733): 276-9. doi:10.1038/20466. PMID ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (Nov 2002). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ... This protein is also a component of other multisubunit complexes e.g. thyroid hormone receptor-(TR-) associated proteins which ... Ko L, Cardona GR, Chin WW (May 2000). "Thyroid hormone receptor-binding protein, an LXXLL motif-containing protein, functions ...
The protein encoded by this gene was first identified by its ability to bind the adenovirus E1A protein. The protein localizes ... a novel adenovirus E1A-associated protein that inhibits E1A transactivation". The EMBO Journal. 14 (13): 3159-69. PMC 394377 . ... Masselink H, Bernards R (Mar 2000). "The adenovirus E1A binding protein BS69 is a corepressor of transcription through ... "Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of adenovirus E1A protein is inhibited by BS69". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...
Li Y, Graham C, Lacy S, Duncan AM, Whyte P (1993). "The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of the ... "Interaction between human cyclin A and adenovirus E1A-associated p107 protein". Science. 255 (5040): 87-90. doi:10.1126/science ... Cyclin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA2 gene. It is one of the two types of cyclin A: cyclin A1 is ... Cyclin A2 (Ccna2) is a key protein involved in the direction of mammalian cardiac myocytes to grow and divide, and has been ...
"Adenovirus E1A proteins direct subcellular redistribution of Nek9, a NimA-related kinase". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 212 ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3: 89. doi:10.1038/ ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase Nek9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NEK9 gene. NEK9 has been shown to interact ...
This protein can influence splice site selection of adenovirus E1A pre-mRNA. It interacts with the oncoprotein TLS, and ... FUS-interacting serine-arginine-rich protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFRS13A gene. This gene product is ... "TLS-ERG leukemia fusion protein inhibits RNA splicing mediated by serine-arginine proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (10): 3345-54 ... "TLS-ERG leukemia fusion protein inhibits RNA splicing mediated by serine-arginine proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (10): 3345-54 ...
Histone acetyltransferase p300 also known as p300 HAT or E1A-associated protein p300 (where E1A = adenovirus early region 1A) ... "Relief of YY1 transcriptional repression by adenovirus E1A is mediated by E1A-associated protein p300". Genes Dev. 9 (10): 1188 ... "Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the adenovirus E1A-associated 300-kD protein (p300) reveals a protein with ... This gene encodes the adenovirus E1A-associated cellular p300 transcriptional co-activator protein. EP300 is closely related to ...
Hateboer G, Hijmans EM, Nooij JB, Schlenker S, Jentsch S, Bernards R (1996). "mUBC9, a novel adenovirus E1A-interacting protein ... For example, sumoylation may affect a protein's localization in the cell, its ability to interact with other proteins or DNA. ... Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. The UBC9 protein ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3: 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134 ...
"Relief of YY1 transcriptional repression by adenovirus E1A is mediated by E1A-associated protein p300". Genes & Development. 9 ... "Relief of YY1 transcriptional repression by adenovirus E1A is mediated by E1A-associated protein p300". Genes & Development. 9 ... and relief of repression by adenovirus E1A protein". Cell. 67 (2): 377-88. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90189-6. PMID 1655281. Zhu ... YY1 is a ubiquitously distributed transcription factor belonging to the GLI-Kruppel class of zinc finger proteins. The protein ...
"Human cyclin A is adenovirus E1A-associated protein p60 and behaves differently from cyclin B". Nature. 346 (6286): 760-763. ... "the discovery of protein kinases that phosphorylate tyrosine residues in proteins, critical for the regulation of a wide ... "Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins Interact with Checkpoint and Recombination Proteins to Promote S-Phase Genome Stability". ... Hunter, Anthony Rex (1969). Aspects of mammalian protein synthesis (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. OCLC 500479081. "Tony ...
A divergent MYND domain present in the adenovirus E1A binding protein BS69 was also shown to interact with N-CoR and mediate ... Masselink H, Bernards R (March 2000). "The adenovirus E1A binding protein BS69 is a corepressor of transcription through ... The current evidence suggests that the MYND motif in mammalian proteins constitutes a protein-protein interaction domain that ... protein. ETO has been shown to be a co-repressor recruited by the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein. ...
Masselink H, Bernards R (2000). "The adenovirus E1A binding protein BS69 is a corepressor of transcription through recruitment ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCOR1 gene. NCOR1 is a transcriptional coregulatory protein which contains ... "Both corepressor proteins SMRT and N-CoR exist in large protein complexes containing HDAC3". EMBO J. 19 (16): 4342-50. doi: ... It is a member of the family of nuclear receptor corepressors; the other human protein that is a member of that family is ...
Pines, Jonathon; Hunter, Tony (1990). "Human cyclin A is adenovirus E1A-associated protein p60 and behaves differently from ... and identified the first link between cyclins and oncoproteins by showing that cyclin A bound to adenovirus E1A, thus linking ... proteolysis coordinates chromosome congression with cytokinesis and mitotic exit by degrading specific proteins at specific ...
Protein CREG1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CREG1 gene. The adenovirus E1A protein both activates and represses ... The protein encoded by this gene antagonizes transcriptional activation and cellular transformation by E1A. This protein shares ... Jiang LQ, Wen SJ, Wang HY, Chen LY (2003). "Screening the proteins that interact with calpain in a human heart cDNA library ... 2003). "The Secreted Protein Discovery Initiative (SPDI), a Large-Scale Effort to Identify Novel Human Secreted and ...
... the adenovirus E1A proteins bind to the retinoblastoma gene product". Nature. 334 (6178): 124-9. Bibcode:1988Natur.334..124W. ... Biol 16: 13-47). A.D. Hershey and Martha Chase, "Independent Functions of Viral Protein and Nucleic Acid in Growth of ... a highly conserved protein complex that recognizes and binds to specific DNA sequences, marking starting points for replication ... the small subset of protein-coding genes within the much larger genome-now a mainstay of identifying genetic mutations in ...
E1A adenovirus protein, and S-HDAg (hepatitis delta virus small delta antigen). p300/CBP have also been observed to acetylate β ... and E1A adenovirus protein. It can also autoacetylate, which facilitates intramolecular interactions with its bromodomain that ... structural proteins, polyamines, and proteins involved in nuclear import. Acetylation of these proteins can alter their ability ... Histones comprise the protein portion of chromatin. There are five different histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. A core ...
October 1991). Transcriptional repression by YY1, a human GLI-Kruppel-related protein, and a relief of repression by adenovirus ... E1A. Cell 67(2), 377-388. Yao Y et al. (September 2001). Regulation of transcription factor YY1 by acetylation and ... Furthermore, SINEs frequently contain motifs for YY1 polycomb proteins. YY1 is a zinc-finger protein that acts as a ... Thereafter, one of the strands is incorporated into a multi-protein RNA-inducing silencing complex (RISC). Among these proteins ...
pRb is one of the targets of the oncogenic human papilloma virus protein E7, and human adenovirus protein E1A. By binding to ... Most E2F have a pocket protein binding domain. Pocket proteins such as pRB and related proteins p107 and p130, can bind to E2F ... Homo sapiens E2F1 mRNA or E2F1 protein sequences from NCBI protein and nucleotide database. X-ray crystallographic analysis has ... Activator E2F proteins can then transcribe S phase promoting genes. In REF52 cells, overexpression of activator E2F1 is able to ...
The adenovirus E1B protein (55K) prevents p53 from regulating genes by binding to the site on p53 which binds to the genome. In ... The adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) is an oncoprotein which binds to Rb and can stimulate transcription and transform cells. ... HPV instead degrades p53: the HPV protein E6 binds to a cellular protein called the E6-associated protein (E6-AP, also known as ... DNA oncoviruses typically impair two families of tumor suppressor proteins: tumor proteins p53 and the retinoblastoma proteins ...
"Isolation of a cDNA encoding the adenovirus E1A enhancer binding protein: a new human member of the ets oncogene family". ... encoding the adenovirus E1A enhancer-binding protein, in extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... "Entrez Gene: ETV4 Ets variant gene 4 (E1A enhancer binding protein, E1AF)". Friedman LS, Ostermeyer EA, Lynch ED, Welcsh P, ... ETV4 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
"Upregulation of the Golgi protein GP73 by adenovirus infection requires the E1A CtBP interaction domain". Virology. 301 (2): ... Golgi membrane protein 1 (GOLM1) also known as Golgi phosphoprotein 2 or Golgi membrane protein GP73 is a protein that in ... The protein encoded by this gene is a type II Golgi transmembrane protein. It processes protein synthesized in the rough ... 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi: ...
... the Adenovirus protein E1A. Pathogenic bacteria also mimic host motifs (as well as having their own motifs), however, not to ... are short stretches of protein sequence that mediate protein protein interaction. The first definition was given by Tim Hunt: " ... Linear motif mediated protein-protein interactions have shown promise in recent years as novel drug targets. Success stories ... "Prediction of Protein Binding Regions in Disordered Proteins". PLoS Computational Biology. 5 (5): e1000376. doi:10.1371/journal ...
The CtBP1 protein was originally identified as a human protein that bound a PLDLS motif in the C-terminus of adenovirus E1A ... 1993). "A region in the C-terminus of adenovirus 2/5 E1a protein is required for association with a cellular phosphoprotein and ... 1998). "Interaction between a cellular protein that binds to the C-terminal region of adenovirus E1A (CtBP) and a novel ... "Interaction between a cellular protein that binds to the C-terminal region of adenovirus E1A (CtBP) and a novel cellular ...
"The retinoblastoma protein binds to RIZ, a zinc-finger protein that shares an epitope with the adenovirus E1A protein". ... PR domain zinc finger protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRDM2 gene. This tumor suppressor gene is a ... It encodes a zinc finger protein that can bind to retinoblastoma protein, estrogen receptor, and the TPA-responsive element ( ... PRDM2 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
"The retinoblastoma protein binds to RIZ, a zinc-finger protein that shares an epitope with the adenovirus E1A protein". Proc. ... The retinoblastoma protein (protein name abbreviated pRb; gene name abbreviated RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that ... protein binding. • androgen receptor binding. • identical protein binding. • enzyme binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding ... protein localization to chromosome, centromeric region. • cell cycle. • striated muscle cell differentiation. • Ras protein ...
The adenovirus E1a protein stimulates transcription of a wide variety of viral and cellular genes. It is shown here that E1a ... Transcription activation by the adenovirus E1a protein.. Lillie JW1, Green MR. ... perhaps by interacting with a DNA-bound protein, and the other, an activating region, enables the bound activator to stimulate ... has the two functions characteristic of a typical cellular activator: one direct E1a to the promoter, ...
The adenovirus E1A 243R oncoprotein encodes a potent transcription-repression function within the N-terminal 80 amino acids. ... Our proposed model of E1A repression predicts that E1A interacts with im... ... Adenovirus E1A proteins are closely associated with chromatin in productively infected and transformed cells. *Green M ... Analyses of chromatin from HeLa cells infected with adenovirus vectors expressing E1A 243R protein with deletions in different ...
Adenovirus E1A proteins stimulate inositol phospholipid metabolism in PC12 cells.. K Shiroki, A Yamakawa, M Shibata, T Takenawa ... Adenovirus E1A proteins stimulate inositol phospholipid metabolism in PC12 cells.. K Shiroki, A Yamakawa, M Shibata, T Takenawa ... Adenovirus E1A proteins stimulate inositol phospholipid metabolism in PC12 cells.. K Shiroki, A Yamakawa, M Shibata, T Takenawa ... Adenovirus E1A proteins stimulate inositol phospholipid metabolism in PC12 cells. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the adenovirus E1A-associated 300-kD protein (p300) reveals a protein with ... Recruitment of CBP/p300, TATA-Binding Protein, and S8 to Distinct Regions at the N Terminus of Adenovirus E1A. Mozhgan Rasti, ... Amino acids 1-29 of the adenovirus serotypes 12 and 2 E1A proteins interact with rap30 [TF(II)F] and TBP in vitro. Virus Res. ... The adenovirus E1A repression domain disrupts the interaction between the TATA binding protein and the TATA box in a manner ...
... family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co- ... Highlights: • Adenovirus E1A C-terminal region suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation. • This E1A region binds with FOXK, DYRK1/ ... Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with ... Title: Interaction of CtBP with adenovirus E1A suppresses immortalization of primary epithelial cells and enhances virus ...
We suggest that the ability of E1A, the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen, and E7 to dissociate the E2F-pRb complex may be a ... We now show that the E7 protein and the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen can dissociate the E2F-pRb complex, dependent on ... These sequences are also required for these proteins to bind to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb). Recent experiments have ... E7 protein share a short amino acid sequence that constitutes a domain required for the transforming activity of these proteins ...
A truncated EIA protein, in which 169 carboxyl terminal residues of the 289-amino acid E1A 13 S mRNA product are deleted, was ... The E1A proteins stimulated cellular DNA synthesis in mouse Swiss 3T3 cells, when microinjected either individually or in ... Our results provide evidence that E1A proteins can function, independent of other viral functions, in the stimulation of ... The present results are consistent with the E1A gene products acting to modulate the expression of the cellular genes which ...
... although the 135 E1A protein binds more efficiently than the 12S E1A protein. Two domains on the E1A proteins interact with YY1 ... although the 135 E1A protein binds more efficiently than the 12S E1A protein. Two domains on the E1A proteins interact with YY1 ... although the 135 E1A protein binds more efficiently than the 12S E1A protein. Two domains on the E1A proteins interact with YY1 ... although the 135 E1A protein binds more efficiently than the 12S E1A protein. Two domains on the E1A proteins interact with YY1 ...
Adenovirus E1A Proteins. Grant support. *R01 CA90784-01A1/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States ... We also observed that the virus without any promoter for the E1a gene could still express leaky levels of E1A which can lead to ... one without any promoter controlling the E1a gene and two vectors with the E1a gene being controlled by either its endogenous ... Adenoviral E1a expression levels affect virus-selective replication in human cancer cells.. Zheng X1, Rao XM, Snodgrass C, Wang ...
SAHA downregulated Bcl-XL and upregulated proapoptotic BH3-only protein Bim, whose expression was further enhanced by E1A in ... Adenovirus 5 early region 1A (E1A) has been shown to exhibit high tumor suppressor activity, and gene therapy using E1A has ... Here, we showed that proapoptotic activity of HDACi was robustly enhanced by E1A in multiple cancer cells, but not in normal ... Together, our results provide not only a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying anti-tumor activity of E1A, but also a ...
The F-box protein is one of the four components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) complex, which mediates ubiquitination ... On the other hand, F-box proteins can be used in the defense response by the host. This review describes the role of F-box ... of proteins targeted for degradation by the proteasome, playing an essential role in many cellular processes. Several ... proteins and the use of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in virus-host interactions. ...
METHODS TO OBTAIN RECOMBINANT PROTEINS WITH INCREASED SIALYLATION FROM CELLS THAT EXPRESS ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEIN. ... Thus, two aspects appear relevant for increasing sialylation of produced proteins in cells that express adenovirus El A protein ... INVENTION Methods to obtain recombinant proteins with increased sialylation from cells that express adenovirus El A protein, ... The expression of E1A influences the glycosylation of proteins produced in such cells (WO 03/038100).. N-linked glycans are ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... but which include the SWI/SNF related protein SRCAP. The NuA4 complex interacts with MYC and the adenovirus E1A protein. EP400 ... Interacts with human adenovirus 5 E1A protein; this interaction stabilizes MYC (PubMed:18413597). UniProt ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q96L91 - Homo sapiens 0 * Q6P2F5 - Homo sapiens no matching PDB entries ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Isoform early E1A 32 kDa protein and isoform early E1A 26 kDa protein interact (via N-terminus) with CUL1 and E3 ubiquitin ... E1A protein has both transforming and trans-activating activities. Induces the disassembly of the E2F1 transcription factor ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ...
Interaction of Adenovirus E1A with the HHV8 Promoter of Latent Genes: E1A Proteins are Able to Activate the HHV-8 LANAp in MV3 ... Adenoviral (Ad) E1A proteins regulate the activity of cellular and viral promoters/enhancers and transcription factors and can ... In summary, we report the activation of the LANAp by E1A as a novel interaction of E1A with a viral promoter. These data may ... and LANA proteins required for latent type infection is regulated by E1A. Transfection experiments in MV3 melanoma cells ...
Identification of specific adenovirus E1A N-terminal residues critical to the binding of cellular proteins and to the control ... Identification of specific adenovirus E1A N-terminal residues critical to the binding of cellular proteins and to the control ... Identification of specific adenovirus E1A N-terminal residues critical to the binding of cellular proteins and to the control ... Identification of specific adenovirus E1A N-terminal residues critical to the binding of cellular proteins and to the control ...
... an adenovirus E1A-binding protein, and maps to human chromosome 21q21.3. ... A novel C-terminal binding protein (CTBP2) is closely related to CTBP1, ... A novel C-terminal binding protein (CTBP2) is closely related to CTBP1, an adenovirus E1A-binding protein, and maps to human ... A region of the C-terminus of adenovirus type 2/5 E1A protein has been associated with negative modulation of tumorigenicity, ...
Human being adenovirus type 12 (Advertisement12) E1A proteins (E1A-12) may be. Published on September 8, 2018. Author ... Human being adenovirus type 12 (Advertisement12) E1A proteins (E1A-12) may be the crucial determinant of viral tumorigenesis. ... E1A protein of nontumorigenic adenoviruses, such as for example Advertisement5, cannot suppress MHC-I appearance, Quetiapine ... These outcomes demonstrate that E1A-12 particularly stops NF-B from getting phosphorylated by PKAc. Individual adenovirus type ...
Arched Isoelectric focusing Method for the Study of Proteins in the Cat Aqueous Humor* / p49 (0114.jp2) ... Molecular mechanism of tumorigenesis in transgenic mice carrying E1A and E1B genes of human adenovirus * * 杉山, 文博 スギヤマ, フミヒロ ... Neuroectodermal Tumors Expressing c-,L-,and N-myc in Transgenic Mice That Carry the E1A/E1B Gene of Human Adenovirus Type 12 ... 1.Production of transgenic mice carrying human renin promoter/E1A and E1B genes of human adenovirus type 12 / p12 (0020.jp2) ...
E1A) protein and both the mouse retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and the mouse pRb-related protein, p107. Interactions between MAV- ... 1 E1A and mouse pRb or mouse p107 proteins were examined in infected cell ly … ... We demonstrated functional associations between mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) early region 1A ( ... E1A) protein and both the mouse retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and the mouse pRb-related protein, p107. Interactions between MAV- ...
Yes-associated protein (YAP) is the downstream transcriptional co-activato … ... Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics * Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism * Adenovirus E1A Proteins ... We also found that SH3 domain binding protein 1 (SH3BP1), a RhoGAP protein that drives cell motility, is a direct target gene ... Yes-associated protein (YAP) is the downstream transcriptional co-activator of the Hippo pathway, is overexpressed in prostate ...
Adenovirus DNA replication - mechanism 2 stage replication. Stage 1. Pre-terminal protein covalently linked to CTP acts as a ... Determined both by direct DNA binding and by protein-protein interactions. Affects replication, gene expression, and cell cycle ... Inhibition of interferon mediated protein synthesis shut-off.. Expression of viion associated host shutoff protein which causes ... Functions of E1A (13S) of adenovirus. Multifunctional. Needed for activation of early genes. Activation of promoters. ...
... we transfected primary BRK cells with plasmids encoding the IE1 and IE2 proteins as well as the adenovirus E1A protein. IE1 or ... and the E1A protein was detected throughout the time course in cells transformed by E1A/IE1/IE2 or by E1A/E1B. Even though the ... Since mutant p53 alleles are known to cooperate with the adenovirus E1A protein to transform rodent cells (32), we tested ... In cell lines derived by transfection with E1A plus E1B, both E1A (Fig. 2C) and E1B (data not shown) proteins are readily ...
Lillie, J. W.; Loewenstein, P. M.; Green, M. R.; Green, M. (1987). "Functional domains of adenovirus type 5 E1a proteins". Cell ... He discovered two of the proteins required for adenoviruses to transform cells, and also other proteins that usurp the infected ... In recent years, Green has focused his studies on the multifunctional adenovirus oncoprotein E1A, which is necessary for cell ... doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87)90175-9. Loewenstein, P. M., Wu, S., Chiang, C., & Green, M. (2012). The adenovirus E1A N-terminal ...
Functional and Sequence Similarities Between HPV16 E7 and Adenovirus E1A W. C. Phelps, C. L. Yee, K. Münger, P. M. Howley ... DNA RNA antigen cancer gene hepatitis hepatitis B liver molecular biology protein proteins tumor tumorigenesis virology virus ... The Transforming Protein of Simian Virus 40: Large T Antigen and Its Interaction with the Cellular Protein p 53. * Front Matter ... SV40 Large T Antigen Induces a Protein Kinase Responsible for Phosphorylation of the Cellular Protein p53 ...
  • These data further indicate that AdE1A can target individual partner proteins in vivo and that it does not necessarily recruit these proteins indirectly as components of larger macromolecular complexes. (asm.org)
  • May also participate in the formation of NuA4 related complexes which lack the KAT5 /TIP60 catalytic subunit, but which include the SWI/SNF related protein SRCAP . (rcsb.org)
  • Thus the formation of a p107-E2F complex in wild-type- or these mutant-infected extracts inversely correlated with the presence of E1A-p107 complexes identified in the vitro coimmunoprecipitation experiments. (nih.gov)
  • TATA binding protein (TBP) and transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) are key factors for the assembly of eukaryotic transcription initiation complexes. (plantcell.org)
  • The cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the complex between the trimeric human adenovirus B serotype 3 fibre knob and human desmoglein 2 fragments containing cadherin domains EC2 and EC3 has been published, showing 3:1 and 3:2 complexes. (medworm.com)
  • 1998 ). The promyelocytic leukaemia gene product (PML) forms stable complexes with the retinoblastoma protein. (biologists.org)
  • Proteins that enter the nucleus in preformed complexes may not require their own targeting motif ( Dingwall,1982 ). (eu.org)
  • 1994). In this review I will provide a summary of the current methods of generating adenovirus-DNA transfection complexes as well as discussing two of the toxicity problems that we have encountered with this system and describing some solutions to these problems. (springer.com)
  • A biochemical investigation of the adenovirus-induced G1 to S progression: Thymidine kinase, ornithine decarboxylase, and inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis. (naver.com)
  • It's been proposed the fact that phosphorylation of p65 Ser276 with the proteins kinase A catalytic subunit (PKAc) promotes transactivation activity by launching the C-terminal transactivation area from an intramolecular masking with the N-terminal area (44). (globaltechbiz.com)
  • Elk-1 is associated with a dimer of serum response factor (SRF) at the SRE site, and its phosphorylation occurs at specific residues in response to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c-Jun-N terminal kinase (JNK), p38/MAPK, and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK). (frontiersin.org)
  • 1991 ) Signalling by the sevenless protein tyrosine kinase is mimicked by Ras1 activation. (biologists.org)
  • Repression of GCN5 histone acetyltransferase activity via bromodomain-mediated binding and phosphorylation by the Ku-DNA-dependent protein kinase complex. (nature.com)
  • The GLI zinc finger transcription factors act at the end of the HH signaling cascade to control gene expression, and recent studies have shown that the activity of GLI proteins can be additionally modified by integration of distinct signals, such as the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our data suggest that BFT-stimulated IL-8 secretion involves tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) as well as activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), p38 and extracellular signal-related kinase. (asm.org)
  • Selective interaction of JNK protein kinase isoforms with transcription factors. (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, it took a long time to realise that Cdc2 and cyclins form a stoichiometric complex and that a cyclin subunit is necessary for the Cdc2 subunit to gain its protein kinase activity. (biologists.org)
  • the kinase activity was modulated during the cell division cycle, and association of pRb with E1A apparently was not required for this activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • cdc2 protein kinase is complexed with both cyclin A and B: Evidence for proteolytic inactivation of MPF. (cshlpress.com)
  • 4 5 6 Paxillin can directly associate with cytosolic protein tyrosine kinases, csk, crk, c-src, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). (ahajournals.org)
  • 6 Tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin is associated with cytokines, mitogenic peptides, growth factors, and extracellular matrix protein-stimulated signal transduction, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway that is involved in cell migration and proliferation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Shown in A) are five nuclear proteins ( LIN-1 , SUR-2 , LIN-25 , EOR-1 , EOR-2 ) that are jointly important for vulval, excretory duct and P12 cell fates. (wormbook.org)
  • 1 (1967) 891), of DNA and nuclear proteins (Kaneda et al. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Many nuclear proteins possess a nuclear localisation signal (NLS) that is recognised by the importer protein importin-alpha. (eu.org)
  • Therefore, almost all well studied nuclear proteins are transported into the nucleus using active translocation through the pore. (eu.org)
  • On the basis of these results, the relationship between the transcriptional regulation of Cah1 and protein-binding to the enhancer elements in the 5′-upstream region of Cah1 is discussed. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Moreover, we showed here, the underlying molecular mechanisms of HDACi-induced apoptosis enhanced by E1A. (nature.com)
  • This 30-nm fiber is the predominant structure of interphase chromatin, but permits low accessibility and processivity for regulator proteins and enzymes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These results suggest that the sequence-specific DNA-binding protein JDP2 may control transcription via direct regulation of the modification of histones and the assembly of chromatin. (nature.com)
  • In addition, the repressor COUP-TF becomes strongly bound to a different recognition site on the class I enhancer, where it associates with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) and E1A-12, resulting in chromatin compaction. (upenn.edu)