Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Adenovirus E4 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of ADENOVIRUSES. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.Adenovirus E1B Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late viral gene expression.Adenovirus Early Proteins: Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.Adenovirus E3 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Adenovirus Infections, Human: Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.Adenovirus E2 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.Adenoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.Adenovirus E1 Proteins: The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mastadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects MAMMALS including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).Adenoviruses, Canine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.E1A-Associated p300 Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Adenoviruses, Porcine: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Aviadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Fowl adenovirus A: The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds. This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Keratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Papillomavirus E7 Proteins: ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Adenovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.PhosphoproteinsTransgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Genes, Retinoblastoma: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.DNA, Concatenated: Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.DNA Tumor Viruses: DNA viruses producing malignant tumors. Of the six major groupings of DNA viruses four contain members which are actually or potentially oncogenic: the Adenoviridae, the Herpesviridae, the Papovaviridae, and the Poxviridae.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Mice, Inbred BALB CGenes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Cell Nucleus Structures: Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.p300-CBP Transcription Factors: A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).ConjunctivitisE2F2 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Atadenovirus: A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that comprises viruses of several species of MAMMALS and BIRDS. The type species is Ovine adenovirus D.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.G-Box Binding Factors: A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Rats, Inbred F344Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Tropism: The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.

Early region 1 transforming functions are dispensable for mammary tumorigenesis by human adenovirus type 9. (1/94)

Some human adenoviruses are tumorigenic in rodents. Subgroup A and B human adenoviruses generally induce sarcomas in both male and female animals, and the gene products encoded within viral early region 1 (E1 region) are both necessary and sufficient for this tumorigenicity. In contrast, subgroup D human adenovirus type 9 (Ad9) induces estrogen-dependent mammary tumors in female rats and requires the E4 region-encoded ORF1 oncoprotein for its tumorigenicity. Considering the established importance of the viral E1 region for tumorigenesis by adenoviruses, we investigated whether this viral transcription unit is also necessary for Ad9 to generate mammary tumors. The nucleotide sequence of the Ad9 E1 region indicated that the gene organization and predicted E1A and E1B polypeptides of Ad9 are closely related to those of other human adenovirus E1 regions. In addition, an Ad9 E1 region plasmid demonstrated focus-forming activity in both low-passage-number and established rat embryo fibroblasts, whereas a large deletion within either the E1A or E1B gene of this plasmid diminished transforming activity. Surprisingly, we found that introducing the same transformation-inactivating E1A and E1B deletions into Ad9 results in mutant viruses that retain the ability to elicit mammary tumors in rats. These results are novel in showing that Ad9 represents a unique oncogenic adenovirus in which the E4 region, rather than the E1 region, encodes the major oncogenic determinant in the rat.  (+info)

E1(-)E4(+) adenoviral gene transfer vectors function as a "pro-life" signal to promote survival of primary human endothelial cells. (2/94)

Although endothelial cells are quiescent and long-lived in vivo, when they are removed from blood vessels and cultured in vitro they die within days to weeks. In studies of the interaction of E1(-)E4(+) replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) vectors and human endothelium, the cells remained quiescent and were viable for prolonged periods. Evaluation of these cultures showed that E1(-)E4(+) Ad vectors provide an "antiapoptotic" signal that, in association with an increase in the ratio of Bcl2 to Bax levels, induces the endothelial cells to enter a state of "suspended animation," remaining viable for at least 30 days, even in the absence of serum and growth factors. Although the mechanisms initiating these events are unclear, the antiapoptoic signal requires the presence of E4 genes in the vector genome, suggesting that one or more E4 open reading frames of subgroup C Ad initiate a "pro-life" program that modifies cultured endothelial cells to survive for prolonged periods.  (+info)

Generation of an adenovirus vector lacking E1, e2a, E3, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3. (3/94)

Toxicity and immunity associated with adenovirus backbone gene expression is an important hurdle to overcome for successful gene therapy. Recent efforts to improve adenovirus vectors for in vivo use have focused on the sequential deletion of essential early genes. Adenovirus vectors have been constructed with the E1 gene deleted and with this deletion in combination with an E2a, E2b, or E4 deletion. We report here a novel vector (Av4orf3nBg) lacking E1, E2a, and all of E4 except open reading frame 3 (ORF3) and expressing a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. This vector was generated by transfection of a plasmid carrying the full-length vector sequence into A30.S8 cells that express E1 and E2a but not E4. Production was subsequently performed in an E1-, E2a-, and E4-complementing cell line. We demonstrated with C57BL/6 mice that the Av4orf3nBg vector effected gene transfer with an efficiency comparable to that of the Av3nBg (wild-type E4) vector but that the former exhibited a higher level of beta-galactosidase expression. This observation suggests that E4 ORF3 alone is able to enhance RNA levels from the beta-galactosidase gene when the Rous sarcoma virus promoter is used to drive transgene expression in the mouse liver. In addition, we observed less liver toxicity in mice injected with the Av4orf3nBg vector than those injected with the Av3nBg vector at a comparable DNA copy number per cell. This study suggests that the additional deletion of E4 in an E1 and E2a deletion background may be beneficial in decreasing immunogenicity and improving safety and toxicity profiles, as well as increasing transgene capacity and expression for liver-directed gene therapy.  (+info)

Frequency and stability of chromosomal integration of adenovirus vectors. (4/94)

One of the limitations of adenovirus vectors is the lack of machinery necessary for their integration into host chromosomes, resulting in short-term gene expression in dividing cells. We analyzed frequencies of integration and persistence of gene expression from integrated adenovirus vectors. Both E1-substituted and helper-dependent adenovirus vectors achieved similar integration efficiencies of approximately 10(-3) to 10(-5) per cell, with the helper-dependent vector showing slightly higher efficiencies. In stable cell pools, gene expression of the integrated vector persisted for at least 50 cell divisions without selection. However, some stable cell clones showed changes in gene expression, which were accompanied by structural changes in the integrated vector DNA.  (+info)

Reduced toxicity, attenuated immunogenicity and efficient mediation of human p53 gene expression in vivo by an adenovirus vector with deleted E1-E3 and inactivated E4 by GAL4-TATA promoter replacement. (5/94)

A recombinant adenovirus with deleted E1 and E3, and E4-inactivated by replacing the E4 promoter with a synthetic promoter composed of a minimal TATA box and five consensus yeast GAL4-binding site elements was developed and used to express the human tumor suppresser gene p53. The toxicity and immunogenicity of this vector and vector-mediated p53 gene expression in vivo were studied in immunocompetent C3H and C57BL/6 mice. Expression of the late viral gene product, hexon protein, was observed in C3H and C57BL/6 mice injected with E4 wild-type adenovirus constructs Adv-cmv-beta-Gal (BG), Adv-cmv-hp53 (WT), and empty E1- vector Adv-E4 (EW) 3 to 28 days after injection, but was undetectable in mice treated with E4 modified empty E1- vector Adv-GAL4 (EG) or Adv-cmv-hp53-GAL4 (G4). Expression of the p53 gene was observed in both WT- and G4-injected C3H and C57BL/6 mouse livers from days 3 to 28. Ten weeks after injection, p53 gene expression was still detected in G4-treated C57BL/6 mice at similar levels, but was not detectable in WT-treated mice. Vector-induced liver toxicity was evaluated by analyzing serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT) activities. In all cases, SGOT and SGPT activities were markedly decreased in EG-treated C3H and C57BL/6 mice compared with those in EW-treated mice on days 3, 7 and 14 after injection. In C57BL/6 mice, the total anti-adenoviral CTL activities were two- to three-fold higher in animals treated with EW vector than in those treated with EG vector. These results suggest that inactivation of the E4 promoter efficiently diminished the viral replication and the late viral gene expression, reduced host immune response and consequently reduced toxicity and prolonged the duration of transgene expression in vivo.  (+info)

Induction of endogenous genes following infection of human endothelial cells with an E1(-) E4(+) adenovirus gene transfer vector. (6/94)

Recombinant adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors are effective at transferring exogenous genes to a variety of cells and tissue types both in vitro and in vivo. However, in the process of gene transfer, the Ad vectors induce the expression of target cell genes, some of which may modify the function of the target cell and/or alter the local milieu. To develop a broader understanding of Ad vector-mediated induction of endogenous gene expression, genes induced by first-generation E1(-) E4(+) Ad vectors in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells were identified by cDNA subtraction cloning. The identified cDNAs included signaling molecules (lymphoid blast crisis [LBC], guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha type S [Galpha-S], and mitogen kinase [MEK5]), calcium-regulated/cytoskeletal proteins (calpactin p11 and p36 subunits, vinculin, and spinocerebellar ataxia [SCA1]), growth factors (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 and transforming growth factor beta2), glyceraldehyde-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, an expressed sequence tag, and a novel cDNA showing homology to a LIM domain sequence. Two- to sevenfold induction of the endogenous gene expression was observed at 24 h postinfection, and induction continued up to 72 h, although the timing of gene expression varied among the identified genes. In contrast to that observed in endothelial cells, the Ad vector-mediated induction of gene expression was not found following Ad vector infection of primary human dermal fibroblasts or human alveolar macrophages. Empty Ad capsids did not induce endogenous gene expression in endothelial cells. Interestingly, additional deletion of the E4 gene obviated the upregulation of genes in endothelial cells by the E1(-) E3(-) Ad vector, suggesting that genes carried by the E4 region play a central role in modifying target cell gene expression. These findings are consistent with the notion that efficient transfer of exogenous genes to endothelial cells by first-generation Ad vectors comes with the price that these vectors also induce the expression of a variety of cellular genes.  (+info)

Porcine adenovirus-3 as a helper-dependent expression vector. (7/94)

Porcine adenovirus has been proposed as a potential vector for generating novel and effective vaccines for pigs. As a prerequisite for the generation of helper-dependent porcine adenovirus-3 (PAV-3) vectors, two E1-complementing porcine cell lines expressing E1 proteins of human adenovirus-5 (HAV-5) were made. These cell lines could be efficiently transfected with DNA and allowed the rescue and propagation of a PAV-3 recombinant, PAV201, containing a 0.597 kb E3 deletion and a 0.803 kb E1A deletion. Our data demonstrate that E1A proteins of HAV-5 have the capacity to transform foetal porcine retina cells and complement for the E1A proteins of PAV-3. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene placed under the control of a cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter was inserted into the E1A region of the PAV201 genome. Using these cell lines, a helper-dependent PAV-3 recombinant expressing GFP, PAV202, was constructed and characterized. The wild-type PAV-3 and the recombinant PAV202 expressing GFP were used to determine the ability of the virus to enter and replicate in cells of human and animal origin under cell culture conditions. Our results suggest that PAV-3 enters but does not replicate in dog, sheep, bovine and human cells.  (+info)

Recombinant E1-deleted adenoviral vectors induce apoptosis in a rat airway epithelial mucous goblet cell line. (8/94)

Replication-defective adenoviruses (Ad) are used as vectors for delivering therapeutic genes to human airway cells. We examined whether E1-deleted Ad vectors (Ad5-CMV-LacZ) had effects on cell kinetics in SPOC1 cells, which is a rat airway epithelial mucous goblet cell line. There was a vector multiplicity of infection (moi)-dependent increase of the transduction efficiency of the LacZ reporter gene in SPOC cells. Cell proliferation was inhibited in the vector-infected cells compared with that in vehicle-exposed cells. However, increased cell death was observed in the vector-infected cells with a higher moi. The morphology of vector-exposed cells revealed apoptotic features including nuclear condensation and a fragmented nucleus. These results indicate that higher moi of vectors allows the cells to achieve higher gene transfer, but also induce apoptosis of infected cells. Minimizing the induction of apoptosis of vector-infected cells may be an important strategy for the prolongation of transduction efficiency of Ad vectors in airway epithelial mucous goblet cells.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of adenovirus gene transfer vectors on the immunologic functions of mouse dendritic cells. AU - Korst, Robert J.. AU - Mahtabifard, Ali. AU - Yamada, Reiko. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - To address the effect of adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vector transduction on the diverse functions of dendritic cells, we used an Ad vector encoding no transgene (AdNull) to transduce mouse bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC). Initial experiments using an Ad vector encoding a marker gene (AdGFP, jellyfish green fluorescent protein) showed that the optimal ratio of infectious Ad particles to each cell was 100, when both transgene expression and resultant BMDC viability were taken into account. Exposure to AdNull resulted in upregulation of both surface activation markers (CD40, MHC class II, B7.1, B7.2, ICAM-1) and IL-12 expression by BMDC. AdNull activation of BMDC was observed in multiple strains of mice. Despite this, AdNull-transduced BMDC displayed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of endogenous genes following infection of human endothelial cells with an E1- E4+ adenovirus gene transfer vector. AU - Ramalingam, Ramachandran. AU - Rafii, Shahin. AU - Worgall, Stefan. AU - Hackett, Neil R.. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 1999/12/1. Y1 - 1999/12/1. N2 - Recombinant adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors are effective at transferring exogenous genes to a variety of cells and tissue types both in vitro and in vivo. However, in the process of gene transfer, the Ad vectors induce the expression of target cell genes, some of which may modify the function of the target cell and/or alter the local milieu. To develop a broader understanding of Ad vector-mediated induction of endogenous gene expression, genes induced by first-generation E1- E4+ Ad vectors in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells were identified by cDNA subtraction cloning. The identified cDNAs included signaling molecules (lymphoid blast crisis [LBC], guanine nucleotide binding-protein ...
Vector database is a digital collection of vector backbones assembled from publications and commercially available sources. This is a free resource for the scientific community that is compiled by Addgene.. This page is informational only - this vector is NOT available from Addgene - please contact the manufacturer for further details. ...
Vector database is a digital collection of vector backbones assembled from publications and commercially available sources. This is a free resource for the scientific community that is compiled by Addgene.. This page is informational only - this vector is NOT available from Addgene - please contact the manufacturer for further details. ...
Looking for first-generation? Find out information about first-generation. Denoting electronic hardware, logical organization, and software characteristic of a first-generation computer Explanation of first-generation
Triple ligation not working - posted in Molecular Cloning: Hi all, I am trying to ligate insert 1 ( Nco1-Sac1, 2180 bp), insert2 (Sac1-Sph1, 335 bp) to a vector cut at Nco1-Sph1 sites ( 3.5 Kb). Initially, after ligation I used to get a band of around 6Kb but after transformation none of the colony screened show the presence of the insert in the plasmid DNA. I treated the vector backbone with CIP and purified . Tried to religate the inserts with CIP treated vector but no ligation was obser...
var life=require (./life.js); describe(Grid, function() { var Vector = life.Vector; var grid = new life.Grid(5, 5); it(initially undefined, function() { expect(grid.get(new Vector(1, 1))).toBe(undefined); }); it(setting a value, function() { grid.set(new Vector(1, 1), X); expect(grid.get(new Vector(1, 1))).toEqual(X); }); it(forEach, function() { var test = {grid: grid, sum: 0, method: function () { this.grid.forEach(function() { this.sum++; }, this); } }; test.grid.set(new Vector(2,3), #); test.grid.set(new Vector(3,4), #); test.method(); expect(test.sum).toBe(3); }); }); describe(BouncingCritter, function() { var bob = null; beforeEach(function () { spyOn(Math, 'random').and.returnValue(0.5); bob=new life.BouncingCritter(); }); it(constructor, function() { expect('direction' in bob).toBe(true); expect(bob.direction).toBe('s'); }); it(act, clear path, function () { var clear = {look: function () {return ;}}; ...
A recombinant nucleic acid used for the production of a defective adenovirus containing an inserted sequence coding for a cytokine under the control of a promoter in the genomic sequence of the recombinant adenovirus. This recombinant adenovirus is useful in the preparation of anti-tumoral drugs which can be directly injected into the tumor of the host.
var life=require (./life.js); var plan = [############################, # # # o ##, # #, # ##### #, ## # # ## #, ### ## # #, # ### # #, # #### #, # ## o #, # o # o ### #, # # #, ############################]; var Vector = life.Vector; describe(Grid, function() { var grid = new life.Grid(5, 5); it(initially undefined, function() { expect(grid.get(new life.Vector(1, 1))).toBe(undefined); }); it(setting a value, function() { grid.set(new Vector(1, 1), X); expect(grid.get(new Vector(1, 1))).toEqual(X); }); it(forEach, function() { var test = {grid: grid, sum: 0, method: function () { this.grid.forEach(function() { this.sum++; }, this); } }; test.grid.set(new Vector(2,3), #); test.grid.set(new Vector(3,4), #); test.method(); expect(test.sum).toBe(3); }); }); describe(BouncingCritter, function() { var bob = null; beforeEach(function () { spyOn(Math, 'random').and.returnValue(0.5); bob=new life.BouncingCritter(); }); it(constructor, function() { ...
Page 1 of 3 - Creating empty vector by self-ligation - posted in Molecular Cloning: I am attempting to create an empty vector from a commercial plasmid pCMVSport-6 (4.4kb) with Prp insert (around 2.5kb). Therefore i carried out a double digestion on the pCMVSport6-Prp using Not1 and Sal1, incubate at 37 degree celcius for 2 hours. Then i run the DNA on 1% agarose gel and here i can see two band. One is the vector backbone(4.4kb) and another is the insert 2.5kb. I cut out the 4.4kb band and...
Similarity of strain- and route-dependent murine responses to an adenovirus vector using the homologous thrombopoietin cDNA as the reporter genes Academic Article ...
1. Inoculate single colonies of E. coli cells containing the promoter test construct on the vector backbone, into three 17 mm test tubes containing 5 ml of the selected pre-warmed (37°C) supplemented M9 medium with kanamycin (20 ug/ml). Note: The M9 media previously prepared will contain different carbon sources. Select the appropriate one for the carbon source you wish to test). 2. Grow the cultures in the 17 mm test tubes for approximately 20 hrs at 37°C with spinning at 70 rpm. 3. Dilute the cultures 1:100 into 5 ml of pre-warmed fresh media and grow the cultures for approximately 4 hours under the previous conditions (17 mm tubes, 37°C, spinning at 70 rpm). 4. After 4 hours, measure the OD600 of a 500 ul aliquot from each culture on a WPA Biowave Spectrophotometer. This will tell you how many cells you have. 5. Based on this OD measurement, dilute the cultures to the same OD (0.07) in 5 ml of pre-warmed fresh media and grow for one hour at 37°C. Here we try to make sure everything is at ...
A complete selection of products youll need to catch, or repel mice. Traditional mouse traps, live catch mouse traps, and mouse repellents.
Encouraging efficacy data have been obtained in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) chimpanzee model using prophylactic vaccines comprising adjuvanted recombinant envelope gpE1/gpE2 glycoproteins or prime/boost immunization regimens using defective adenoviruses and plasmid DNA expressing non-structural genes. While usually not resulting in sterilizing immunity after experimental challenge, the progression to chronic, persistent infection (which is responsible for HCV-associated pathogenicity in human) is inhibited. These and other vaccine candidates are in clinical development for both prophylactic as well as possible therapeutic applications. ...
Encouraging efficacy data have been obtained in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) chimpanzee model using prophylactic vaccines comprising adjuvanted recombinant envelope gpE1/gpE2 glycoproteins or prime/boost immunization regimens using defective adenoviruses and plasmid DNA expressing non-structural genes. While usually not resulting in sterilizing immunity after experimental challenge, the progression to chronic, persistent infection (which is responsible for HCV-associated pathogenicity in human) is inhibited. These and other vaccine candidates are in clinical development for both prophylactic as well as possible therapeutic applications. ...
This research study involves two investigational drugs, an Activator Ligand (INXN-1001) in combination with an Adenovirus Vector Engineered to Express hIL-12 (INXN-2001). IL-12 is a protein that may improve the bodys natural response to disease by enhancing the ability of the immune system to kill tumor cells and may interfere with blood flow to the tumor.. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of tumor injections of INXN-2001 given in combination with different doses of INXN-1001. ...
Are you concerned about Air Pollution in your area?. Maybe modelling air pollution will get you the answers you need for this problem.. Thats what I do full-time. Try it.. ...
Id: powchgtest.hoc,v 1.11 2010/10/10 23:18:02 samn Exp $ // make an nqs that has changes in power spectra as a function of hubs - uses data from batch.hoc60,62,63 // and relies on load.hoc87 newbatch=1 rcsopen(load.hoc,87) declare(nqforig,o[2]) nqforig=new NQS(/u/samn/intfcol/data/10oct10.10sep25.02_ISEED_1234_DVSEED_534023_SIMTYP_0_DISCONCOL_1__nqpmtm_E_I_MINUS_ALL_HUB_TYPES_B.nqs) nqforig[1]=new NQS(/u/samn/intfcol/data/10sep25.02_ISEED_1234_DVSEED_534023_SIMTYP_0_DISCONCOL_1__nqpmtmpow_A.nqs) objref vav[2][3][CTYPi],vev[2][3][CTYPi],vnhubs,vty,vf1,vf2//indices into vav,vev same meaning as into dbase {vnhubs=new Vector() vnhubs.indgen(1,10,1)} {vty=new Vector() vty.append(E2,I2,E4,I4,E5R,E5B,I5,E6,I6)} {vf1=new Vector() vf1.append(4,12,30) vf2=new Vector() vf2.append(12,30,100)} objref lop1,lop2,le {lop1=new List() lop1.append(new String(,=)) lop1.append(new String(,)) lop1.append(new String(,=))} {lop2=new List() lop2.append(new String(,=)) lop2.append(new String(,)) ...
objref test1 objref test2 objref results_list objref tmpvec proc record_results() { results_list = new List() tmpvec = new Vector() forall { tmpvec.record(&v(0.5)) results_list.append(tmpvec) } test1 = new Vector() test2 = new Vector() test1.record(&cen_myelin[19].v(0.5)) test2.record(&cen_myelin[0].v(0.5)) } record_results() // This saves the internal voltage of each segment in a list ...
how do i move towards the target? Vector3 target = new Vector3( _d3dd.Transform.View.M13, _d3dd.Transform.View.M23, -_d3dd.Transform.View.M33); target.Nor...
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes severe economic losses to the swine industry worldwide and the prevention of its related disease, enzootic porcine pneumonia, remains a challenge. The P97 adhesin protein of M. hyopneumoniae should be a good candidate for the development of a subunit vaccine because antibodies produced against P97 could prevent the adhesion of the pathogen to the respiratory epithelial cells in vitro. In the present study, a P97 recombinant replication-defective adenovirus (rAdP97c) subunit vaccine efficiency was evaluated in pigs. The rAdP97c vaccine was found to induce both strong P97 specific humoral and cellular immune responses. The rAdP97c vaccinated pigs developed a lower amount of macroscopic lung lesions (18.5 ± 9.6%) compared to the unvaccinated and challenged animals (45.8 ± 11.5%). rAdP97c vaccine reduced significantly the severity of inflammatory response and the amount of M. hyopneumoniae in the respiratory tract. Furthermore, the average daily weight gain was ...
Adenoviral Vectors for Gene treatment, moment Edition offers special, entire assurance of the gene supply cars which are in line with the adenovirus thats rising as an immense instrument in gene remedy. those fascinating new healing brokers have nice capability for the therapy of illness, making gene remedy a fast-growing box for learn. This ebook provides themes starting from the fundamental biology of adenoviruses, during the building and purification of adenoviral vectors, state-of-the-art vectorology, and using adenoviral vectors in preclinical animal types, with ultimate attention of the regulatory concerns surrounding human medical gene remedy trials. This extensive scope of knowledge offers a superb evaluate of the sector, permitting the reader to achieve an entire figuring out of the advance and use of adenoviral vectors.. ...
... , information about the mechanism of Adenoviruses, Adeviral particle organisation and genome organisation of adenoviruses
Graphic Crad I have got a Zebronics FX 5500 Graphic card which when plugged into this motherboard displays me - EliteGroup P4M800-M7 Motherboard question
Tagging proteins is a standard method facilitating protein detection, purification or targeting. When tagging a certain protein of interest, it is challenging to predict which tag will give optimal results and will not interfere with protein folding, activity or yields. Ideally, multiple tags and positions are tested which however complicates molecular cloning and expression vector generation. In conventional cloning, tags are either added on PCR primers (requiring a distinct primer and PCR product per tag) or provided on the vector (typically leaving a restriction site scar). Here we report a vector family of 40 plasmids allowing simple, seamless fusions of a single PCR product with various N- and C-terminal tags, signal sequences and promoters. The restriction site free cloning (RSFC) strategy presented in this paper relies on seamless cloning using type IIS restriction endonucleases. After cutting out a stuffer (placeholder) fragment from the vectors, a single PCR product can be directly inserted in
13:2; potential epub Adenovirus notions; tenure bhakti 1? On the epub Adenovirus Methods and of this interest, are above under form. 1282 An epub Adenovirus Methods and Protocols: Adenoviruses, Ad study read by Porten - Szubin 1987:187.
Addgene is a non-profit plasmid repository. Addgene facilitates the exchange of genetic material between laboratories by offering plasmids and their associated cloning data to not-for-profit laboratories around the world. Addgene provides a free online database of plasmid cloning information and references, including lists of commonly used vector backbones, popular lentiviral plasmids and molecular cloning protocols. Addgene was founded in 2004, by Melina Fan, Kenneth Fan and Benjie Chen. Addgenes headquarters are located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Addgene accepts plasmids from researchers for distribution and archival. The organization covers the operating costs of maintaining and improving the collection by charging a nominal fee to scientists requesting plasmids. As of 2014 Addgenes repository comprised 30,000 plasmids, deposited by 1,700 labs. Its plasmid collection contains plasmids used for functions such as genome engineering (including CRISPRS), gene expression, shRNA knockdown, ...
v Parental P1 Generation = the parental generation in a breeding experiment.. v F1 generation = the first-generation offspring in a breeding experiment. (1st filial generation ...
... the adenovirus type 5 E1 gene was used to immortalize the HEK 293 cell line). Artificial expression of key proteins required ... from testing toxicity of compounds or drugs to production of eukaryotic proteins. While immortalized cell lines often originate ...
... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.100 - adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.050.110 - adenovirus ... adenovirus E1 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050.100 - adenovirus E1A proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.050.110 - ... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.045.080 - adenovirus ... adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH D12.776.964.700.045.080 - adenovirus e4 ...
Li Y, Graham C, Lacy S, Duncan AM, Whyte P (1994). "The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of the ... G1/S-specific cyclin-E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNE1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to ... This protein was found to associate with, and be involved in, the phosphorylation of NPAT protein (nuclear protein mapped to ... Li Y, Graham C, Lacy S, Duncan AM, Whyte P (December 1993). "The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a ...
"Induction of endogenous genes following infection of human endothelial cells with an E1(-) E4(+) adenovirus gene transfer ... S100 calcium-binding protein A10 (S100A10), also known as p11, is a protein that is encoded by the S100A10 gene in humans and ... The S100 protein is implicated in exocytosis and endocytosis by reorganization of F-actin. The p11 protein is linked with the ... As a member of the S-100 family, its structure resembles that of the S-100A1 and S-100B proteins. This class of proteins has ...
... and relief of repression by adenovirus E1A protein". Cell. 67 (2): 377-88. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90189-6. PMID 1655281. Zhu ... Park K, Atchison ML (Nov 1991). "Isolation of a candidate repressor/activator, NF-E1 (YY-1, delta), that binds to the ... YY1 is a ubiquitously distributed transcription factor belonging to the GLI-Kruppel class of zinc finger proteins. The protein ... "Relief of YY1 transcriptional repression by adenovirus E1A is mediated by E1A-associated protein p300". Genes & Development. 9 ...
In a second step, an E1 activating complex binds to SUMO at its di-glycine and passes it on to the E2 protein Ubc9, where it ... Hateboer G, Hijmans EM, Nooij JB, Schlenker S, Jentsch S, Bernards R (1996). "mUBC9, a novel adenovirus E1A-interacting protein ... For example, sumoylation may affect a protein's localization in the cell, its ability to interact with other proteins or DNA. ... Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. The UBC9 protein ...
... system Isoform-selective protein kinase C agonist Interaction between two proteins Nuclear export signal in a protein A more ... and could be preferentially transformed by adenovirus. Adenoviruses transform neuronal lineage cells much more efficiently than ... E1 and E3) are deleted, such as AdEasy. An important variant of this cell line is the 293T cell line. It contains the SV40 ... The cells were cultured by van der Eb; the transformation by adenovirus was performed by Frank Graham, a post-doc in van der ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of Ser/Thr protein kinases. This protein ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, CDK2AP1, CDKN1B CDKN3, CEBPA, Cyclin A1, Cyclin E1, Flap ... and adenovirus E1A-associated p33 kinase". Nature. 353 (6340): 174-7. doi:10.1038/353174a0. PMID 1653904. "Entrez Gene: CDK2 ... This protein associates with and is regulated by the regulatory subunits of the complex including cyclin E or A. Cyclin E binds ...
"Altered AP-1/ATF complexes in adenovirus-E1-transformed cells due to EIA-dependent induction of ATF3". Oncogene. 12 (5): 1025- ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... ATF3 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) FactorBook ATF3 This article ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-3 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF3 gene. Activating ...
By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... Berkowitz, S.A., Philo, J.S. Monitoring the Homogeneity of Adenovirus Preparations (a Gene Therapy Delivery System) Using ... 277(31): e1-e2. ... One protein being investigated at the time was hemoglobin. It ... Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ...
Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... Berkowitz, S.A., Philo, J.S. Monitoring the Homogeneity of Adenovirus Preparations (a Gene Therapy Delivery System) Using ... By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... Howlett, G.J., Minton, A.P., Rivas, G. Analytical Ultracentrifugation for the Study of Protein Association and Assembly. ...
... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 --- adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 --- adenovirus e3 proteins ... adenovirus e4 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062 --- antigens, viral, tumor MeSH D23.050.327.062.045 --- adenovirus e1a proteins ... adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.050 --- adenovirus e1b proteins MeSH D23.050.285.062.090 --- antigens, ... hiv core protein p24 MeSH D23.050.327.520.330 --- hiv envelope protein gp41 MeSH D23.050.327.520.350 --- hiv envelope protein ...
... has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, BRF1 C-Raf, Cyclin E1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, HDAC1, ... Li Y, Graham C, Lacy S, Duncan AM, Whyte P (Dec 1993). "The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of ... Li Y, Graham C, Lacy S, Duncan AM, Whyte P (Dec 1993). "The adenovirus E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of ... Retinoblastoma-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBL2 gene. ...
... proteins and small ribonucleoproteins (snRNP). Proteins encoded by aberrantly spliced pre-mRNAs are functionally different and ... 32 (4): 757.e1-757.e11. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.12.013. Rajan, P.; Elliott, DJ; Robson, CN; Leung, HY (Aug 2009). " ... RNA splicing was discovered in the late 1970s through the study of adenoviruses that invade mammals and replicate inside them. ... Tau protein isoforms are created by alternative splicing of exons 2, 3 and 10. The regulation of tau splicing is specific to ...
Encodes a protein that binds to the viral origin of replication in the long control region of the viral genome. E1 uses ATP to ... Glaunsinger BA, Lee SS, Thomas M, Banks L, Javier R (2000). "Interactions of the PDZ-protein MAGI-1 with adenovirus E4-ORF1 and ... E6 proteins also interact with the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase family) proteins. These proteins, including MAGI ... very hydrophobic proteins that destabilise the function of many membrane proteins in the infected cell. The E5 protein of some ...
American Journal of Public Health 103(9):e1-e1 (in press).. *Friedman, M. Reuel, Kutz, Steven, Buttram, Mance, Wei, Chongyi, ... Notably, participants immune to the common cold virus adenovirus type 5 had a higher risk of HIV infection. The vaccine was ... or measles virus may stimulate the production of proteins suppressing HIV replication, including the β-chemokines, CD8+ cell ...
... the protein-encoding mRNA for the transcriptional regulator Pu.1-protein, elevation of Pu.1 protein predisposes defective IgG1 ... 202 (5): 466.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2010.01.057. PMID 20452491. Hu YL, Fong S, Largman C, Shen WF (Sep 2010). "HOXA9 ... and adenoviruses, another virus expressing miR-155-like miRNA in chickens is the oncogenic MDV-1 whose non-oncogenic relative ... Immature B cells which are miR-155 deficient evade apoptosis as a result of elevated Bcl-2 protein levels; a protein that was ...
de 1999). «Regulation of cyclin A-Cdk2 by SCF component Skp1 and F-box protein Skp2». Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 19 (1): ... Tsai LH, Harlow E, Meyerson M (septiembre de 1991). «Isolation of the human cdk2 gene that encodes the cyclin A- and adenovirus ... Ciclina E1[21]​[8]​[22]​[23]​[24]​[25]​. *SKP2[26]​[27]​[28]​ ... de 2000). «p12(DOC-1) is a novel cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein». Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 20 (17): 6300- ...
Egg protein is present in influenza and yellow fever vaccines as they are prepared using chicken eggs. Other proteins may be ... Hulst MM, Westra DF, Wensvoort G, Moormann RJ (1993). "Glycoprotein E1 of hog cholera virus expressed in insect cells protects ... Other canine vaccines include canine distemper, canine parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis, adenovirus-2, leptospirosis, ... Some cells of the immune system that recognize the proteins expressed will mount an attack against these proteins and cells ...
The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.[95] Some ... these inhibitory proteins target retinoblastoma tumor-suppressing proteins.[74] These tumor-suppressing proteins regulate the ... PROTEINS: Structure, Function, and Genetics 50, 44-48.. *^ Chen Y. L.; Li Q. Z. (2007). "Prediction of apoptosis protein ...
Furthermore, depletion of hepatic S6K1 in db/db mice with the use of an adenovirus vector encoding S6K1 shRNA resulted in down- ... SREB proteins are indirectly required for cholesterol biosynthesis and for uptake and fatty acid biosynthesis. These proteins ... proteins. However, in contrast to E-box-binding HLH proteins, an arginine residue is replaced with tyrosine making them capable ... SREBP precursors are retained in the ER membranes through a tight association with SCAP and a protein of the INSIG family. ...
negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • ... Schreiber M, Muller WJ, Singh G, Graham FL (1999). "Comparison of the effectiveness of adenovirus vectors expressing cyclin ... regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • oligodendrocyte differentiation. • negative ... Venkataramani R, Swaminathan K, Marmorstein R (1998). "Crystal structure of the CDK4/6 inhibitory protein p18INK4c provides ...
Egg protein is present in influenza and yellow fever vaccines as they are prepared using chicken eggs. Other proteins may be ... Other canine vaccines include canine distemper, canine parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis, adenovirus-2, leptospirosis, ... "Glycoprotein E1 of hog cholera virus expressed in insect cells protects swine from hog cholera". Journal of Virology. 67 (9): ... Some cells of the immune system that recognize the proteins expressed will mount an attack against these proteins and cells ...
... these proteins are responsible for the replication of the virus.[59] E1 is a highly conserved protein in the virus, E1 is in ... Its protein makeup allows it to target four types of HPV. Gardasil contains inactive L1 proteins from four different HPV ... One such method is a vaccine based on the minor capsid protein L2, which is highly conserved across HPV genotypes.[180] Efforts ... Every subunit of the virus is composed of two proteins molecules, L1 and L2. The reason why this virus has the capability to ...
The E6/E7 proteins inactivate two tumor suppressor proteins, p53 (inactivated by E6) and pRb (inactivated by E7).[14] The viral ... Genome organization of human papillomavirus type 16, one of the subtypes known to cause cervical cancer (E1-E7 early genes, L1- ... Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus. Rotavirus. Norovirus. Astrovirus. Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA ... E6 produces a protein (also called E6) that binds to and inactivates a protein in the host cell called p53. Normally, p53 acts ...
E1)-deleted to helper-dependent (HD) CAV-2 vectors. We also summarize the essential characteristics concerning their ... This review updates canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV-2, also known as CAdV-2) biology and gives an overview of the generation ... Preclinical and clinical studies using human derived adenoviruses (HAd) have demonstrated the feasibility of flexible hybrid ... Adenovirus vectors have significant potential for long- or short-term gene transfer. ...
Protein Extraction and Western Blot Analysis. Nuclear proteins were extracted from HUVECs as previously described.12 Protein ... with E1- and E3-deleted adenovirus-5 genome DNA (Ψ5). An intermolecular recombination of the shuttle vector and Ψ5 then creates ... Using an adenovirus-mediated gene transfer protocol, we found that the AP-1 proteins c-Fos and c-Jun directly cause phenotypic ... By using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, we show that overexpression of AP-1 proteins directly causes coinduction of gene ...
The tools are derived from a novel tumor suppressor gene which encodes a protein referred to hereinafter as the ... Replication deficient recombinant adenovirus lacks the E1 coding sequences necessary for viral replication. This function is ... An isolated EDG1 protein or a protein which is functional equivalent said EDG1 protein, wherein said EDG1 protein comprises SEQ ... The isolated protein of claim 7. wherein said protein is a fusion protein and comprises a tag for labeling or isolating said ...
Upon administration of adenovirus expressing mutant HPV E6/E7, the adenovirus infects and expresses the E6 and E7 proteins. The ... A cancer vaccine composed of a replication-defective E1-deleted adenovirus vector based on chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 68 ( ... Deletion of the E1, E2b and E3 genes from Ad5 prevents anti-adenovirus immune responses. MUC1, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA ... Deletion of the E1, E2b and E3 genes from Ad5 prevents anti-adenovirus immune responses. Brachyury, a tumor-associated antigen ...
1997) The adenovirus E4orf6 protein can promote E1A/E1β-induced focus formation by interfering with p53 tumor suppressor ... 1998) In vitro and in vivo biology of recombinant adenovirus vectors with E1, E1/E2a, or E1/E4 deleted. J. Virol. 72:2022-2032. ... Adenovirus vectors have been constructed with the E1 gene deleted (28, 36, 37, 45) and with E1 plus E2a, E2b, or E4 deleted (1 ... 1993) Adenovirus E4orf4 protein binds to protein phosphatase 2A, and the complex down regulates E1A-enhanced junB transcription ...
Wold has organized a collection of readily reproducible methods for conducting research with adenoviruses, the premier and most ... In Adenovirus Methods and Protocols, William S.M. ... Immunoprecipitation of E1 A-Containing Protein Complexes ... Simultaneous Detection of RNA and Proteins in Adenovirus-Infected Cells by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) and ... Methods for Creating and Analyzing Adenovirus Vectors that Express Proteins that Act on the Viral Genome ...
The 293 and 911 cells constitutively express the E1 gene products required for propagation of all recombinant adenoviruses, ... Fifth, some of the new vectors contain a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene incorporated into the adenoviral backbone, ... In most recombinant vectors, transgenes are introduced in place of E1 or E3, the former supplied exogenously. The E1 deletion ... A simplified system for generating recombinant adenoviruses. Tong-Chuan He, Shibin Zhou, Luis T. da Costa, Jian Yu, Kenneth W. ...
Timely Synthesis of the Adenovirus Type 5 E1B 55-Kilodalton Protein Is Required for Efficient Genome Replication in Normal ... The 293 and 911 cells constitutively express the E1 gene products required for propagation of all recombinant adenoviruses, ... The Repression Domain of the E1B 55-Kilodalton Protein Participates in Countering Interferon-Induced Inhibition of Adenovirus ... In most recombinant vectors, transgenes are introduced in place of E1 or E3, the former supplied exogenously. The E1 deletion ...
AND ANTIBODY COMPOSITIONS RELATED TO PROTEIN FRAGMENTS OF... , ... E1-MINUS ADENOVIRUSES AND USE THEREOF. The present invention is ... Genetically encoded, photocleavable proteins are derived from a fluorescent protein. Upon illumination, the proteins ... MUTANT NGAL PROTEINS AND USES THEREOF. In one aspect the present invention is directed to mutant NGAL proteins that have the ... RECOMBINANT PROTEINS HAVING FACTOR H ACTIVITY. The invention relates to a recombinant protein having factor H activity. ...
The present invention provides a hybrid vector construct which comprises a portion of an adenovirus, 5 and 3 ITR sequences ... The relevance of including an E1 deleted adenovirus here is to document that the level of adenovirus E1 proteins expressed in ... the adenovirus sequence may contain deletions of the E1 genes and the E3 gene, or of the E1, E2a and E3 genes, or of the E1 and ... Alternatively, the low levels of rep expression from P5 that occur in the absence of adenovirus E1 proteins may be sufficient ...
E1-, E2a-, and E3-represent the deletions of these genes from the adenovirus genome. The insertion of the human GKRP expression ... The resulting proteins, and/or the viral capsid proteins necessary for transduction, may directly affect host cell functions or ... 29.1 ± 0.3; P , 0.05). Therefore, it seems that increasing GKRP protein levels allows increased GK protein and activity levels ... To examine the effect of GKRP overexpression on GK protein levels, we performed Western blot analysis on protein lysates ...
a. The LTR and E1 protein. b. The ITR and packing signal. c. At least one LTR and an ITR. d. E1, E3 and E4 ... a. Adenovirus vectors have a lower titre than Adeno-associated vectors. b. Adeno-associated vectors can only carry a small ... d. Structural proteins can only be expressed from the same plasmid and this is aided through the use of packing cells with ... c. It is based on the rec L1 capsid protein which can be expressed in yeast. d. It can aid in wart regression and protection ...
E1, E2, E4, and E5; and a late region with two genes, L1 (major capsid protein) and L2 (minor capsid protein) [17]. These ... HPV is a double-stranded nonenveloped DNA adenovirus, which belongs to a large family of more than 130 genotypes [19, 20]. The ... A large body of evidence suggests that oncogenic properties of high-risk HPV are related to the E6 and E7 proteins and their ... along with abundant expression of the E6 and E7 proteins [17]. In the superficial layers of the epithelium, the L1 and L2 ...
Human adenovirus type 5 vectors deleted of early region 1 (E1) undergo limited expression of early replicative E2 proteins and ... Adenovirus-Mediated Expression of the p14 Fusion-Associated Small Transmembrane Protein Promotes Cancer Cell Fusion and ... A reduction in the human adenovirus virion size through use of a shortened fibre protein does not enhance muscle transduction ... Expression of the fusogenic p14 FAST protein from a replication-defective adenovirus vector does not provide a therapeutic ...
Results: The results indicated that METH increased the protein levels of LC3B and Beclin-1, and these effects were ... The results indicated that METH increased the protein levels of LC3B and Beclin-1, and these effects were significantly ... We evaluated the effects of the single or combined treatment of METH and HIV-Tat on the protein expressions of the autophagy- ... We evaluated the effects of the single or combined treatment of METH and HIV-Tat on the protein expressions of the autophagy- ...
Additionally, E1/E3-deleted adenoviruses do express adenoviral proteins encoded within their genomes (Yang et al., 1994a,b). ... Tumor-specific, replication-competent adenovirus vectors overexpressing the adenovirus death protein. J. Virol. 2000;74(13): ... 3) Following peripheral immunization against adenovirus type 5, transgene expression from an E1/E3-deleted adenovirus vector is ... Expression from an E1/E3-deleted adenovirus in brains of animals previously immunized against adenovirus type 5 is almost ...
E1) proteins and isolation of E1 expressing cell lines. Virology 295:108-118.. ... Bovine adenovirus type 3 internalization is independent of primary receptors of human adenovirus type 5 and porcine adenovirus ... Aggarwal, N. and Mittal, S. K. (2000). Sequence analyses of porcine adenovirus type 3 E1 region, pIX, and pIVa2 genes. ... Breker-Klassen, M. M., Yoo, D., Mittal, S. K., Sorden, S. D., Haines, D. M. and Babiuk, L. A. (1995). Recombinant adenoviruses ...
Induction of CD8+ T cells to an HIV-1 antigen through a prime boost regimen with heterologous E1-deleted adenoviral vaccine ... Neutralizing Antibodies to Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vaccine Vectors Are Directed Primarily against the Adenovirus Hexon Protein. ... Neutralizing Antibodies to Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vaccine Vectors Are Directed Primarily against the Adenovirus Hexon Protein ... Neutralizing Antibodies to Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vaccine Vectors Are Directed Primarily against the Adenovirus Hexon Protein ...
Differential transformation of primary human embryo retinal cells by adenovirus E1 regions and combinations of E1A and ras. ... Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the adenovirus E1A-associated 300-kD protein (p300) reveals a protein with ... that give rise to protein products of 243 and 289 amino acids, respectively (in adenovirus types 2 and 5 [Ad2/5]). The protein ... Mapping of cellular protein binding sites on the products of early region 1A of human adenovirus type 5. Mol. Cell. Biol. 8: ...
Adenovirus type 5 expresses proteins that regulate the activity and stability of the tumor suppressor p53. The adenovirus E1B- ... Replication of adenovirus vectors expressing p53 in E1-transformed cells. 911 cells were infected with adenovirus vectors as ... König C., Roth J., Dobbelstein M. Adenovirus type 5 E4orf3 protein relieves p53 inhibition by E1B-55- kilodalton protein. J. ... The large E1B protein together with the E4orf6 protein target p53 for active degradation in adenovirus infected cells. Oncogene ...
We have constructed a novel oncolytic adenovirus, Ad5-gfa2(B)3-E1, for treatment of these tumors. In this construct, the E1 ... Targeting malignant gliomas with a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-selective oncolytic adenovirus. Publication. ... Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament protein abundantly expressed in malignant gliomas. ... Targeting malignant gliomas with a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-selective oncolytic adenovirus. Journal of Gene ...
More specifically, proteins expressed from viral vectors based on DNA viruses, such as adenovirus, simian virus 40, ... The combined E1a and E1b subregions (i.e., the E1 region) represent the only adenovirus sequences required for cellular ... Berkner at 620 citing Ghosh-Choudhury, "Protein IX, a Minor Component of the Human Adenovirus Capsid, Is Essential For the ... Efficient transformation of host cells has been observed for recombinant adenoviruses having substitutions in the E1 region by ...
HEK293 cells constitutively produce the Ad5 E1 protein (41), allowing the Ad5[E1−] vaccine platform but not the Ad5[E1−,E2b−] ... Multiply deleted [E1, polymerase-, and pTP-] adenovirus vector persists despite deletion of the preterminal protein. J Gene Med ... Recombinant adenovirus vaccine vector construction.Transgene-lacking recombinant Ad5 vector platforms Ad5[E1−] (64) and Ad5[E1 ... Neutralizing antibodies to adenovirus serotype 5 vaccine vectors are directed primarily against the adenovirus hexon protein. J ...
Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been widely used in clinical trials because it expresses inserted transgenes robustly and ... adenovirus vector persists despite deletion of the preterminal protein. J Gene Med 2:250-259CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Anti-tumor immunotherapy despite immunity to adenovirus using a novel adenoviral vector Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA. ... Production and characterization of improved adenovirus vectors with the E1, E2b, and E3 genes deleted. J Virol 72:926-933PubMed ...
... the Merck rAD5 vector is missing only one adenovirus protein (E1) and thus expresses more viral genes than other adenovirus ... Neutralizing antibodies to adenovirus serotype 5 vaccine vectors are directed primarily against the adenovirus hexon protein. J ... The vector used by National Institutes of Healths Vaccine Research Center, for example, lacks both the E1 and E3 protein. ... Adenovirus types 5 and 35 seroprevalence in AIDS risk groups supports type 35 as a vaccine vector. AIDS. 18:1213-1216. ...
  • For example, injection of polioviral and rhinoviral RNA into frog oocytes does not result in the production of infectious viral particles unless proteins are also expressed from human mRNAs in the oocytes ( 8 , 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Adenovirus requires that host cells have the CAR receptor for efficient transduction, whereas due to the VSVG membrane coat on lentivirus particles, these viruses have broad tropism for a variety of mammalian cell types. (thermofisher.com)
  • It is possible for many viruses or virus-like particles to safely and efficiently propagate these in host cells (see, for instance, WO 01/38362, which describes the propagation of various viruses in host cells being E1-immortalized retina cells). (google.com)
  • Several years ago it was reported that the entry of adenovirus particles could augment the uptake of polylysine-condensed DNA molecules ( Curiel et al. (springer.com)
  • Cotten M, Wagner E, Zatloukal K, Phillips S, Curiel DT, Bimstiel ML, (1992) High-efficiency receptor-mediated delivery of small and large (48kb) gene constructs using the endosome disruption activity of defective or chemically inactivated adenovirus particles. (springer.com)
  • Cotten M, Wagner E, Zatloukal K, Bimstiel ML (1993b) Chicken adenovirus (CELO virus) particles augment receptor-mediated DNA delivery to mammalian cells and yield exceptional levels of stable transformants. (springer.com)
  • Second, high titers of adenovirus particles are easy to produce and are stable. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the infectivity and binding of recombinant Ad particles containing modified Ad37 or Ad5 fiber proteins. (asm.org)
  • Ad5 particles equipped with a truncated Ad5 fiber or with a chimeric fiber protein comprised of the Ad5 knob fused to the short, rigid Ad37 shaft domain had significantly reduced infectivity and attachment. (asm.org)
  • Compared to microcentrifuges or high-speed centrifuges, ultracentrifuges can isolate much smaller particles, including ribosomes, proteins, and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CEA immunogenicity and in vivo anti-tumor effects of repeated immunizations with Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA compared with those observed with current generation Ad5 [E1-]-CEA were tested in Ad5 pre-immunized mice. (springer.com)
  • These data further indicate that AdE1A can target individual partner proteins in vivo and that it does not necessarily recruit these proteins indirectly as components of larger macromolecular complexes. (asm.org)
  • Adenovirus-Mediated Transfer of a Rcombinant .alpha.1-Antitrypsin Gene to the Lung Epithelium in Vivo," Science 252: 431-434, 1991. (patentgenius.com)
  • For these reasons, adenoviruses have already been used for in vivo gene transfer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • While the lack of individual SIBLINGs causes significant mineralization defects in vivo , none of them led to a complete cessation of mineralization suggesting that these proteins have overlapping functions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In an in vivo ectopic bone formation model, the adenovirus‑mediated overexpression of BMP7 enhanced bone formation from CD105+ hDDFCs. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A xenograft tumor-bearing nude mouse model was developed to assess how a similar in vivo titer would impact the activity of 01/PEME, an oncolytic adenovirus, after intravenous administration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The helper activity of adenovirus E1 and E4 for rAAV gene transfer was similarly demonstrated in vivo by using murine models of liver- and lung-directed gene therapy. (asm.org)
  • Conclusions: This report demonstrates for the first time that: (1) a protective epitope of the conserved RSV fusion protein can be mimicked by synthetic peptides: and (2) immunisations with these mimotopes induced specific anti-RSV neutralising antibodies and reduced vital load in vivo. (tudelft.nl)
  • In this study, we demonstrated interactions among IVa2, 33K and DNA-binding protein (DBP) in virus-infected cells by in vivo cross-linking of HAdV5-infected cells followed by Western blot, and co-immunoprecipitation of IVa2, 33K and DBP from nuclear extracts of HAdV5-infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • It is not known whether AP-1 proteins are sufficient to induce phenotypic changes or whether they must act in concert with other effectors. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results demonstrate that Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA can induce CMI immune responses which result in tumor growth inhibition despite the presence of pre-existing Ad5 immunity. (springer.com)
  • Much concern has focused on the direct toxic effects of adenoviruses, particularly as intravenous administration of the virus can induce acute liver injury, as shown in animal models. (bmj.com)
  • When plasmids that constitutively express the ORF 50 protein are transfected into cell lines derived from primary effusion lymphoma harboring KSHV in the latent stage of its life cycle they autostimulate ORF 50 expression, they activate kinetically appropriate expression of downstream early- and late-stage lytic KSHV mRNAs and polypeptides, and they induce the release of encapsidated viral DNA ( 7 , 14 , 15 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Induce high-level transient protein expression. (signagen.com)
  • Numerous growth factors have been utilized in attempts to induce therapeutic angiogenesis by gene transfer or as recombinant proteins, with mixed results in clinical trials to date. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study shows that airway vaccination with adenovirus serotype 5-based Ebola virus vaccine can efficiently bypass preexisting immunity to adenovirus serotype 5 and induce protective immune responses, albeit at lower efficacy than that using an intramuscular vaccine delivery route. (asm.org)
  • HIV DNA-Adenovirus Multiclade Envelope Vaccine Induces gp41 Antibody Immunodominance in Rhesus Macaques. (nih.gov)
  • Gaydos CA, Gaydos JC (2004) Adenovirus vaccine. (springer.com)
  • These results suggest that Ad5[E1−,E2b−] vaccines, in contrast to Ad5[E1−] vaccines, do not promote activities that suppress innate immune signaling, thereby allowing for improved vaccine efficacy and a superior safety profile independently of previous Ad5 immunity. (asm.org)
  • The study and characterization of recombinant adenovirus (Ad) vaccine platforms, particularly Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) vaccine platforms, are of great interest for their development and clinical application for human vaccination. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we used umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived dendritic cells (DCs) infected with a recombinant adenovirus encoding the livin gene as a vaccine to activate effector cells such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to recognize and kill livin-expressing cancer cells in vitro as an improved strategy for overcoming the ability of these cancer cells to escape apoptosis and antitumor immune responses. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Extended evaluation of a Phase 1/2 trial on dosing, safety, immunogenicity, and overall survival after immunizations with an advanced generation Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA(6D) vaccine in late stage colorectal cancer. (etubics.com)
  • We have applied this to an adenovirus (ad)-based vaccine encoding structural proteins (E3-E2-6K) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In mice and guinea pigs, intranasal delivery of adenovirus serotype 5-based vaccine bypasses induced adenovirus serotype 5 preexisting immunity, resulting in protection against species-adapted Ebola virus challenge. (asm.org)
  • In this study, nonhuman primates were vaccinated with adenovirus serotype 5-based vaccine either intramuscularly or via the airway route (intranasally/intratracheally) in the presence or absence of adenovirus serotype 5 preexisting immunity. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, the presence of preexisting immunity to adenovirus serotype 5 did not alter the survival rate of nonhuman primates receiving the adenovirus serotype 5-based Ebola virus vaccine in the airway. (asm.org)
  • Such successes have encouraged the development of more replication-deficient adenovirus-based vaccine strategies and have led to a phase I clinical trial ( http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00374309 ). (asm.org)
  • It is possible to circumvent PEI to AdHu5 by either increasing the adenoviral vaccine dose ( 23 ), by using rare human serotypes, such as AdHu12, AdHu35 ( 24 ), and AdHu6 ( 25 ), or by using adenoviruses from other species, such as simian ( 26 ), bovine ( 27 ), and porcine. (asm.org)
  • A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9 . The isolated protein of claim 7 wherein said protein is a functional equivalent of said EDG1 protein and inhibits proliferation of MCF7 cells. (google.co.uk)
  • 16 The adenoviruses were plaque-purified, amplified, and titered in 293 cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Data obtained from murine and other animal models have shown that host immune responses to viral and transgene protein products are responsible for eliminating transduced cells and preventing readministration ( 9 , 20-22 , 41-44 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition, there are methods to study transcription and splicing with in vitro systems and for the adenovirus-mediated transformation of cells to a malignant state. (springer.com)
  • The second and more widely used method involves homologous recombination in mammalian cells capable of complementing defective adenoviruses ("packaging lines") ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Survival Motor Neuron Protein is Released from Cells in Exosomes: A Potential Biomarker for Spinal Muscular Atrophy. (nih.gov)
  • Using cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) derived from multiple human donors, we found that Ad5[E1−,E2b−] vaccines trigger higher levels of hPBMC proinflammatory cytokine secretion than Ad5[E1−] vaccines. (asm.org)
  • The higher viral protein content in HDV-producing cells was also consistent with an increased activation of autophagy and cell death, in which earlier cell death compromised volumetric productivity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cell viability assays showed efficient elimination of GFAP-positive cells by Ad5-gfa2(B)3-E1, in some cell lines as efficiently as wtAd5, while the elimination was attenuated in GFAP-negative cell lines. (eur.nl)
  • Gelonin, a New Inhibitor of Protein Synthesis, Nontoxic to Intact Cells," Journal of Biological Chemistry 255(14): 6947-6953, 1980. (patentgenius.com)
  • While the use of virions makes adenovirus DNA extremely infectious, the use of purified DNA introduced into cells by transfection greatly reduces the infectivity of adenovirus DNA. (asm.org)
  • We and others have previously shown that p53 is present at high levels in adenovirus-transformed cells which express the larger E1B protein. (nih.gov)
  • Stable interactions were observed between p53 and MDM2 in the adenovirus-transformed cell lines and in Ad5 E1 HEK 293 cells a ternary complex of p53, MDM2, and the Ad5 E1B 58K protein was demonstrated. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, human dermal‑derived CD105+ fibroblast cells (CD105+ hDDFCs) were isolated from human foreskin specimens using immunomagnetic isolation methods to examine the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)‑7 in osteogenic differentiation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This protein accumulates at the G1-S phase boundary and is degraded as cells progress through S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Generx FGF-4 transgene has been engineered to include a signal peptide, which enables effective secretion from cells that express the protein (such as cardiac myocytes). (medindia.net)
  • Generx is distributed into the microvascular pathways of the heart, and transfects cardiac cells by binding to cell surface coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptors (CAR). (medindia.net)
  • The fact that the adenoviral E1 proteins specifically target PCAF's interactions with p53 and its coactivators to transform cells indicates the importance of PCAF in p53's function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The cells are used for a wide variety of purposes, from testing toxicity of compounds or drugs to production of eukaryotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenoviruses have also been shown to display greater resistance to UV treatments because they contain double-stranded DNA, which allows for repair of damaged DNA by using the enzymes of host cells ( 18 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • We are currently employing proteomic techniques to identify novel adenovirus early region-binding proteins in adenovirus-infected and adenovirus-transformed cells. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multicomponent E3 ubiquitin ligase that, by targeting protein substrates for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation through ubiquitylation, coordinates the temporal progression of eukaryotic cells through mitosis and the subsequent G1 phase of the cell cycle. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Methods and Results- TGFβ1 elicited a time-dependent induction of FN protein and mRNA in A10 rat aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, we found that Smad3 protein and mRNA were markedly reduced in AdPKCδ DN-treated A10 cells and in PKCδ null cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Early melanoma cells were activated by IGF-1 to phosphorylate Erk1 and -2 of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Late primary and metastatic melanoma cells did not respond to growth stimulation by IGF-1 because of a constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and a higher level of stabilized β-catenin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The invention relates generally to biotechnology, and more particularly belongs to the field of purification of viruses, more in particular, recombinant adenovirus from host cells. (google.com)
  • Baatz JE, Bruno MD, Ciraolo PJ, Glasser SW, Stripp BR, Smyth KL, Korfhagen TR (1994) Utilization of modified surfactant-associated protein B for delivery of DNA to airway cells in culture. (springer.com)
  • Bai M, Harfe B, Freimuth P (1993) Mutations that alter an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence in the adenovirus type 2 penton base protein abolish its cell rounding activity and delay virus reproduction in flat cells. (springer.com)
  • Chen P, Omelles D, Shenk T (1993) The adenovirus L3 23-kilodalton proteinase cleaves the armino-terminal head domain from cytokeratin 18 and disrupts the cytokeratin network of HeLa cells. (springer.com)
  • Cotten M, Baker A, Saltik M, Wagner E, Buschle M (1994a) Lipopolysaccharide is a frequent contaminant of plasmid DNA preparations and can be toxic to primary cells in the presence of adenovirus. (springer.com)
  • We have generated novel conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds) targeted to melanoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The properties of these CRAds were compared with wild-type adenovirus (Adwt) and our previous CRAd with a targeted E1A CRII mutation (AdTyrΔ24) in submerged cultures of melanoma cells and nonmelanoma control cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Characterization of Hypoxia-Responsive Enhancer in the Human Erythropoietin Gene Shows Presence of Hypoxia-Inducible 120-Kd Nuclear DNA-Binding Protein in Erythropoietin-Producing and Nonproducing Cells,: Blood 82(3):704-711 (1993). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • As compared to retroviruses, adenovirus are capable of infecting a broader variety of cells, including those that have a comparatively slow rate of cell division, such as lungs cells. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • Our data suggest that negative regulation of the Runx2 protein by CHIP is critical in the commitment of precursor cells to differentiate into the osteoblast lineage. (rupress.org)
  • we determined whether the two proteins have any opportunity to interact in intact cells. (rupress.org)
  • Replication of the adenovirus inside these cells will eventually lead to cell lysis, thereby releasing newly formed virions within the tumor mass. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Nuclear factor I is specifically targeted to discrete subnuclear sites in adenovirus type 2-infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We therefore used immunoaffinity purification and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of lysates of normal human cells infected in parallel with HAdV-C5 and E1B 55kDa protein-null mutant viruses to identify specifically E1B 55kDa-associated proteins. (princeton.edu)
  • As the latter protein disrupts nuclear Pml bodies, sites at which p53 is modified, we used mass spectrometry to catalogue the posttranscriptional modifications of the p53 population that accumulates when neither the E1B 55-kDa nor the E4 Orf3 protein is made in infected cells. (princeton.edu)
  • IMPORTANCE: The tumor suppressor p53, a master regulator of cellular responses to stress, is inactivated and destroyed in cells infected by species C human adenoviruses, such as type 5. (princeton.edu)
  • The comparisons reported here of the posttranslational modifications and activities of p53 populations that accumulate in infected normal human cells in the absence of both mechanisms of inactivation or of only the E3 ligase revealed little impact of the E4 Orf3 protein. (princeton.edu)
  • These observations indicate that E4 Orf3-dependent disruption of Pml bodies does not have a major effect on the pattern of p53 posttranslational modifications in adenovirus-infected cells. (princeton.edu)
  • S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • HEK 293 cells were generated in 1973 by transformation of cultures of normal human embryonic kidney cells with sheared adenovirus 5 DNA in Alex van der Eb's laboratory in Leiden, the Netherlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the location of the adrenal gland (adrenal means "next to the kidney"), a few adrenal cells could plausibly have appeared in an embryonic kidney derived culture, and could be preferentially transformed by adenovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenoviruses transform neuronal lineage cells much more efficiently than typical human kidney epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of this protein in G1-S transition has been recently questioned as cells lacking Cdk2 are reported to have no problem during this transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ad5 immune mice bearing CEA-expressing tumors that were treated with Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA had increased anti-tumor response as compared with Ad5 [E1-]-CEA treated mice. (springer.com)
  • We have constructed a novel oncolytic adenovirus, Ad5-gfa2(B)3-E1, for treatment of these tumors. (eur.nl)
  • When tested in human tumor xenografts in nude mice, Ad5-gfa2(B)3-E1 effectively suppressed the growth of GFAP-positive SNB-19 glial tumors but not of GFAP-negative A549 lung tumors. (eur.nl)
  • Replicating adenoviruses with Tcf regulation of both E1B and E2 transcription are potentially useful for the treatment of liver metastases from colorectal tumors, but additional changes will be required to produce a virus that can be used to treat all colon tumors. (asm.org)
  • As a different approach, injection with E1-deleted, replication-deficient Ads have been used to express various therapeutic transgenes in tumors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In summary, local overexpression of uptake-1 in the myocardium results in marked structural and functional improvement of heart failure, thus underlining the importance of uptake-1 as a key protein in heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibition of PKCδ activity by rottlerin or dominant-negative adenovirus (AdPKCδ DN) blocked TGFβ1's induction of FN, whereas overexpression of PKCδ enhanced TGFβ's effect. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pathologic findings from the national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project: prognostic significance of erbB-2 protein overexpression in primary breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • This tetrameric complex is more stable than the p11 dimer, therefore the overexpression of the annexin II gene results in higher levels of p11 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, widespread preexisting Ad5 immunity has been considered a developmental impediment to the use of traditional, or conventional, E1 and E3 gene-deleted Ad5 (Ad5[E1−]) vaccines. (asm.org)
  • Aims: To identify peptides that mimic (mimotopes) conformational and protective epitopes of RSV fusion protein and to assess their efficacy as immunogens and potential vaccines. (tudelft.nl)
  • We have previously developed adenovirus (ad)-based vaccines which encode the structural proteins of VEEV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among the potential recombinant protein vaccines reviewed are HC, light chain-heavy chain translocation domain, and chemically or genetically inactivated holotoxin. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, TUX-MS identified an additional 66 host proteins that have not been previously described in poliovirus amplification. (asm.org)
  • however, some studies have demonstrated that host proteins can and do play a direct role in viral amplification. (asm.org)
  • An alternative approach for developing effective antivirals is to target host proteins that are required for viral amplification. (asm.org)
  • Accordingly, HIV pathogenesis has been causally associated with such peptide sharing (i.e., with autoimmune phenomena due to molecular mimicry between viral and host proteins) (6-11). (bioscience.org)
  • A novel assay that integrates measurements of blood-borne host-proteins (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, interferon γ-induced protein-10, and C-reactive protein [CRP]) was developed to assist in differentiation between bacterial and viral disease. (aappublications.org)
  • A translational model was developed to evaluate the impact of humoral immunity on intravenous administration of oncolytic adenovirus in humans. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results suggest that a majority of patients with preexisting adenovirus immunity would be candidates for intravenous administration of oncolytic adenovirus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we developed a model to test whether or not preexisting humoral immunity representative of that found in the general population would be sufficient to neutralize the antitumor efficacy of a replicating oncolytic adenovirus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 6. The transgenic mouse of claim 1 , wherein said indicator gene is selected from the group consisting of lacZ, a gene encoding green fluorescent protein and a gene encoding luciferase. (google.com)
  • The other tool is an antibody which is immunospecific for the EDG1 protein. (google.co.uk)
  • 4 . The isolated polynucleotide of claim 3 wherein the functional equivalent is immunologically cross reactive with an antibody raised using said EDG1 protein as an immunogen. (google.co.uk)
  • 12 . The polypeptide of claim 11 wherein said polypeptide is immunologically cross-reactive with an antibody raised using EDG1 protein as an antibody. (google.co.uk)
  • Disclosed is an isolated antigen binding protein, such as but not limited to, an antibody or antibody fragment. (patents.com)
  • In the work described here, a combinatorial solid-phase peptide library was screened with a protective monoclonal antibody (MAb 19) to identify peptide mimics (mimotopes) of a conserved and conformationally-determined epitope of RSV fusion (F) protein. (tudelft.nl)
  • These DNA-protein complexes were supershifted by antibody to VP16. (asm.org)
  • In vitro experiments indicated that GKRP was able to increase both GK protein and enzymatic activity levels, suggesting that another role for GKRP is to stabilize and/or protect GK. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Purification and Propeties of a Second Antiviral Protein from Phytolacca americana which inactivates Eukaryotic Ribosomes," Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 200(2): 418-425, 1980. (patentgenius.com)
  • You J, Croyle JL, Nishimura A, Ozato K, Howley PM. Interaction of the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein with Brd4 tethers the viral DNA to host mitotic chromosomes. (harvard.edu)