A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).
Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.
A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.
2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-4-methyl-5-(4,6,8,8-tetrahydroxy-3,5,7-trioxa-4,6,8-triphosphaoct-1-yl)thiazolium hydroxide, inner salt, P,P',P''-trioxide. The triphosphate ester of thiamine. In Leigh's disease, this compound is present in decreased amounts in the brain due to a metabolic block in its formation.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
Inosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). An inosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonym: IRPPP.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of PURINERGIC RECEPTORS.
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and UTP. The activated P2Y2 receptor acts through a G-PROTEIN-coupled PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and intracellular CALCIUM SIGNALING pathway.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.
An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the pathway for histidine biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. ATP reacts reversibly with 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to yield N-1-(5'-phosphoribosyl)-ATP and pyrophosphate. EC 2.4.2.17.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A benzothaizole which is oxidized by LUCIFERASES, FIREFLY to cause emission of light (LUMINESCENCE).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Rapidly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses. In immunology, it is the rapid immunization against the effect of toxic doses of an extract or serum by previous injection of small doses. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.
1,N-6-Ethenoadenosine triphosphate. A fluorescent analog of adenosine triphosphate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.
A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic activity.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.
A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.
Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A triphosphate nucleotide analog which is the biologically active form of CYTARABINE. It inhibits nuclear DNA synthesis.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.

Inhibitory innervation of cat sphincter of Oddi. (1/29202)

1 Electrical stimulation with trains of 0.1-0.2 ms pulses of the cat isolated sphincter of Oddi inhibited the spontaneous contractile activity and lowered base-line tension considerably. A contraction usually followed the period of stimulation. 2 These inhibitory effects were prevented by tetrodotoxin 0.1-0.5 mug/ml but were not reduced by hexamethonilm, morphine, or blockade of alpha- or beta-adrenoreceptors of cholinoceptors with phenoxy-benzamine propranolol or atropine, respectively. 3 Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) inhibited the spontaneous sphincter activity and caused relaxation thus mimicking the effects of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (C8-CCK), isoprenaline and prostaglandin E1 and E2. 4 ATP alone (greater than 100 mug/ml) or ATP (greater than 10 mug/ml) plus dipyridamole (1 mug/ml), relaxed the sphincter to the same degrees as did the field stimulation. 5 In sphincter maximally contracted by acetylcholine, the effect of stimulation was more marked than that recorded in uncontracted preparations. 6 The present findings suggest that the sphincter of Oddi receives inhibitory nerves that are neither cholinergic nor adrenergic.  (+info)

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (2/29202)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

A novel nucleotide incorporation activity implicated in the editing of mitochondrial transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii. (3/29202)

In Acanthamoeba castellanii, most of the mtDNA-encoded tRNAs are edited by a process that replaces one or more of the first three nucleotides at their 5' ends. As a result, base pairing potential is restored at acceptor stem positions (1:72, 2:71, and/or 3:70, in standard tRNA nomenclature) that are mismatched according to the corresponding tRNA gene sequence. Here we describe a novel nucleotide incorporation activity, partially purified from A. castellanii mitochondria, that has properties implicating it in mitochondrial tRNA editing in this organism. This activity is able to replace nucleotides at the first three positions of a tRNA (positions 1, 2, and 3), matching the newly incorporated residues through canonical base pairing to the respective partner nucleotide in the 3' half of the acceptor stem. Labeling experiments with natural (Escherichia coli tRNATyr) and synthetic (run-off transcripts corresponding to A. castellanii mitochondrial tRNALeu1) substrates suggest that the nucleotide incorporation activity consists of at least two components, a 5' exonuclease or endonuclease and a template-directed 3'-to-5' nucleotidyltransferase. The nucleotidyltransferase component displays an ATP requirement and generates 5' pppN... termini in vitro. The development of an accurate and efficient in vitro system opens the way for detailed studies of the biochemical properties of this novel activity and its relationship to mitochondrial tRNA editing in A. castellanii. In addition, the system will allow delineation of the structural features in a tRNA that identify it as a substrate for the labeling activity.  (+info)

A processive single-headed motor: kinesin superfamily protein KIF1A. (4/29202)

A single kinesin molecule can move "processively" along a microtubule for more than 1 micrometer before detaching from it. The prevailing explanation for this processive movement is the "walking model," which envisions that each of two motor domains (heads) of the kinesin molecule binds coordinately to the microtubule. This implies that each kinesin molecule must have two heads to "walk" and that a single-headed kinesin could not move processively. Here, a motor-domain construct of KIF1A, a single-headed kinesin superfamily protein, was shown to move processively along the microtubule for more than 1 micrometer. The movement along the microtubules was stochastic and fitted a biased Brownian-movement model.  (+info)

Low resting potential and postnatal upregulation of NMDA receptors may cause Cajal-Retzius cell death. (5/29202)

Using in situ patch-clamp techniques in rat telencephalic slices, we have followed resting potential (RP) properties and the functional expression of NMDA receptors in neocortical Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells from embryonic day 18 to postnatal day 13, the time around which these cells normally disappear. We find that throughout their lives CR cells have a relatively depolarized RP (approximately -50 mV), which can be made more hyperpolarized (approximately -70 mV) by stimulation of the Na/K pump with intracellular ATP. The NMDA receptors of CR cells are subjected to intense postnatal upregulation, but their similar properties (EC50, Hill number, sensitivity to antagonists, conductance, and kinetics) throughout development suggest that their subunit composition remains relatively homogeneous. The low RP of CR cells is within a range that allows for the relief of NMDA channels from Mg2+ blockade. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that CR cells may degenerate and die subsequent to uncontrolled overload of intracellular Ca2+ via NMDA receptor activation by ambient glutamate. In support of this hypothesis we have obtained evidence showing the protection of CR cells via in vivo blockade of NMDA receptors with dizocilpine.  (+info)

Purinogen is not an endogenous substrate used in endothelial cells during substrate deprivation. (6/29202)

Porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) are known to be metabolically robust. They are capable of surviving extended periods of complete lack of exogenous substrate, and purine release has been shown to be significantly up-regulated. The endogenous substrates used during substrate deprivation, as well as the sources responsible for the increased purine release, have not been completely identified. We tested the possibility that a phosphoglyceroyl-ATP-containing polymer, purinogen, might support PAEC hibernation induced by lack of exogenous substrate. This involved isolation of the acid-insoluble fraction of PAEC, which was presumed to contain purinogen, and analysis by HPLC and 31P NMR. No evidence supporting the presence of triphosphate-containing compounds (purinogen) was found. Similar results were obtained in the rat heart. The majority of the products in the acid-insoluble, alkaline-treated fraction were identified as RNA degradation products (2'- and 3'-nucleoside monophosphates). A [14C]adenosine labelling experiment showed that incorporation of adenosine into the acid-insoluble fraction was almost completely prevented after inhibition of RNA synthesis with actinomycin D. Furthermore, RNA isolated from PAEC and subsequently treated with alkali showed a profile that was almost identical with the HPLC profile of the acid-insoluble fraction. Finally, substrate-free incubation of the cells did not quantitatively or qualitatively influence the distribution of acid-insoluble derivatives. We conclude that PAEC survival during the absence of exogenous substrate is not supported by purinogen but rather by some other, yet-to-be-identified, endogenous substrate.  (+info)

An RNA switch at the 5' splice site requires ATP and the DEAD box protein Prp28p. (7/29202)

Pre-mRNA splicing requires dramatic RNA rearrangements hypothesized to be catalyzed by ATP-dependent RNA unwindases of the DExD/H box family. In a rearrangement critical for the fidelity of 5' splice site recognition, a base-pairing interaction between the 5' splice site and U1 snRNA must be switched for a mutually exclusive interaction between the 5' splice site and U6 snRNA. By lengthening the U1:5' splice site duplex, we impeded this switch in a temperature-dependent manner and prevented formation of the spliceosome's catalytic core. Using genetics, we identified the DExD/H box protein Prp28p as a potential mediator of the switch. In vitro, the switch requires both Prp28p and ATP. We propose that Prp28p directs isomerization of RNA at the 5' splice site and promotes fidelity in splicing.  (+info)

Splicing factor Prp8 governs U4/U6 RNA unwinding during activation of the spliceosome. (8/29202)

The pre-mRNA 5' splice site is recognized by the ACAGA box of U6 spliceosomal RNA prior to catalysis of splicing. We previously identified a mutant U4 spliceosomal RNA, U4-cs1, that masks the ACAGA box in the U4/U6 complex, thus conferring a cold-sensitive splicing phenotype in vivo. Here, we show that U4-cs1 blocks in vitro splicing in a temperature-dependent, reversible manner. Analysis of splicing complexes that accumulate at low temperature shows that U4-cs1 prevents U4/U6 unwinding, an essential step in spliceosome activation. A novel mutation in the evolutionarily conserved U5 snRNP protein Prp8 suppresses the U4-cs1 growth defect. We propose that wild-type Prp8 triggers unwinding of U4 and U6 RNAs only after structurally correct recognition of the 5' splice site by the U6 ACAGA box and that the mutation (prp8-201) relaxes control of unwinding.  (+info)

Glutathione and adenosine triphosphate content of in vivo and in vitro matured porcine oocytes. Mol Reprod Dev. 2003 Apr; 64(4):492-8 ...
The report titled Global Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) Assay Kit Market is one of the most comprehensive and important additions to QY Researchs archive of market research studies. It offers detailed research and analysis of key aspects of the global Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) Assay Kit market. The market analysts authoring this report have provided in-depth information on leading growth drivers, restraints, challenges, trends, and opportunities to offer a complete analysis of the global Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) Assay Kit market. Market participants can use the analysis on market dynamics to plan effective growth strategies and prepare for future challenges beforehand. Each trend of the global Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) Assay Kit market is carefully analyzed and researched about by the market analysts.The market analysts and researchers have done extensive analysis of the global Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) Assay Kit market with the help of research methodologies ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The energetic state within hibernating myocardium is normal during dobutamine despite inhibition of ATP-dependent potassium channel opening with glibenclamide. AU - McFalls, Edward O.. AU - Kelly, Rosemary F.. AU - Hu, Qingsong. AU - Mansoor, Abdul. AU - Lee, Joseph. AU - Kuskowski, Michael. AU - Sikora, Joseph. AU - Ward, Herbert B.. AU - Zhang, Jianyi. PY - 2007/11. Y1 - 2007/11. N2 - Within hibernating myocardium, it is uncertain whether a normal energetic state is present at baseline and whether maintaining that energy state during a catecholamine challenge is dependent on ATP-dependent potassium channel opening. In this study, 16 swine underwent a thoracotomy with placement of an external constrictor on the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) (hibernation model). Seven additional swine underwent a sham operation. At 10 wk, the myocardial energetic state in the LAD region was assessed by 31P-NMR spectroscopy, and the ratio of phosphocreatine to ATP (PCr/ATP) was ...
The mRNA from macrophages exposed to propofol for 1 h was prepared for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of IFN-γ and β-actin mRNA according to the manufacturer guidelines (ExpressDirect mRNA Capture and RT System for RT-PCR Kit; Pierce, Rockford, IL). In brief, 1 × 106cells were seeded in 6-cm tissue culture dishes at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2. After administration of propofol, macrophages were lysed and cellular mRNA was prepared by bonding the cell lysates to an oligo(dT) plate. Reverse transcription was carried out by adding 33 μl 1× first-strand complementary DNA mix to the sample and reacting for 1 h at 37°C in a thermocycler block. Complementary DNA (10 μl) was used for PCR amplification of IFN-γ and β-actin. Oligonucleotides for PCR analyses of mouse IFN-γ and β-actin mRNA were designed and synthesized by CLONTECH Laboratories (Palo Alto, CA ...
HPr, a phosphate carrier protein of the streptococcal phosphotransferase system, is phosphorylated at the N-1 position of a single histidyl residue in a reaction requiring phosphoenolpyruvate (P-ePrv), Mg2+, and enzyme I (P-ePrv-HPr phosphotransferase, EC2.7.3.9). We demonstrate that in addition to this reaction, a seryl residue within HPr can be phosphorylated in an ATP-dependent process. This reaction is catalyzed by a protein kinase with an approximate Mr of 20,000. In whole cells the kinase activity is stimulated by glucose, whereas in crude extracts the activity is stimulated by glycolytic intermediates such as glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, and 2-phosphoglycerate. P-(Ser)-HPr cannot transfer its phosphate group via enzyme II to a sugar as does the P-(His)-HPr. Instead, a phosphatase (Mr = 70,000) was found to hydrolyze the phosphate group of P-(Ser)-HPr. The phosphatase reaction is strongly inhibited by the addition of P-ePrv and enzyme I. Protein kinase-catalyzed ...
Dive into the research topics of Inhibitory action of calcium antagonists on atp-dependent calcium uptake by the renal cortical microsomes. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The global ATP assays market size is expected to reach USD 472.6 million by 2028 at a CAGR of 10.5%, according to a new report by Reports and Data. The global market growth is primarily attributed to the growing demand for advanced, high-performance ATP assays in the healthcare, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and food & beverage sectors. The increasing prevalence of life-threatening diseases like cancer, the rapid spread of severely infectious diseases, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and the growing occurrence of water-borne and food-borne illnesses are the other significant parameters accountable for the global ATP assays markets steady growth. Moreover, the ever-increasing need for safer drugs and food products, fast-paced adoption of food contamination testing methods across various sectors, and the rising focus on laboratory hygiene have further stimulated the market growth.. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the primary energy source found in living organisms, and it helps efficiently ...
Effects of extracellularly applied ATP (added as disodium salt) on stimulus-secretion coupling were investigated in clonal insulin-producing RINm5F cells. Cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration [( Ca2+]i), electrical activity, membrane potential, formation of InsP3 and insulin release were measured. Addition of ATP in a Ca2(+)-containing medium promoted a rapid rise in [Ca2+]i, which was followed by a slow decline towards the basal level. In a Ca2(+)-free medium, the ATP-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was smaller, but still enough to elicit insulin secretion. Upon normalization of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration, the response to ATP recovered instantaneously. The presence of glucose in the incubation medium was a prerequisite to obtain a pronounced effect of ATP in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. However, glucose did not enhance the response to ATP in a Ca2(+)-containing medium. The effect of ATP was dose-dependent, with a clearly detectable increase in [Ca2+]i at 1 microM and a maximal response being
Adenosine triphosphate-dependent transport of estradiol-17beta(beta-D-glucuronide) in membrane vesicles by MDR1 expressed in insect cells ...
Objective. Balancing immunosuppression to prevent rejection while minimizing infection/drug toxicity risk is a challenge in organ transplantation. Drug monitoring alone or with functional monitoring is inadequate to measure the immune response after transplantation. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved immune monitoring assay, ImmuKnow, offers an noninvasive method to assess the immune status of transplanted patients by measuring adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from CD4 T cells. Herein, we have evaluated ATP levels reflecting the immune responses of Chinese kidney transplant recipients as a monitoring parameter to guide treatment after transplantation. Methods. From October 2008 to March 2010, we recruited 259 kidney transplant patients who were divided into four groups: stable (n = 174), postoperative infection (n = 32), postoperative rejection (n = 16), and high-dose corticosteroid treatment (n = 33). The ImmuKnow assay was performed to measure CD4 T-cell ATP levels. No ...
In many natural environments, organisms get exposed to low temperature and/or to strong temperature shifts. Also, standard preservation protocols for live cells or tissues involve ultradeep freezing in or above liquid nitrogen (-196°C or -150°C, respectively). To which extent these conditions cause cold- or cryostress has rarely been investigated systematically. Using ATP content as an indicator of the physiological state of cells, we found that representatives of bacteria, fungi, algae, plant tissue, as well as plant and human cell lines exhibited similar responses during freezing and thawing. Compared to optimum growth conditions, the cellular ATP content of most model organisms decreased significantly upon treatment with cryoprotectant and cooling to up to -196°C. After thawing and a longer period of regeneration, the initial ATP content was restored or even exceeded the initial ATP levels. To assess the implications of cellular ATP concentration for the physiology of cryostress, cell viability
The big challenge presented by the data analysis is to assign the signals in the measured spectrum to specific molecules or molecular groups. If this is successful, you can see which groups of molecules are structurally changed and when. The biophysicists marked the phosphate groups of the ATP molecule, so that they left characteristic signals in the spectrum. In this way they tracked, how ATP bound to the transport protein, how one of its three phosphate groups split off and was released into the environment without first latching back on to the protein. Our data also provides important clues as to how the protein moves during ATP hydrolysis. This lays the foundation for the study of the whole membrane protein, which we are going to tackle next, says Professor Hofmann. The investigations were supported by the Protein Research Department at the RUB and funds of the collaborative research centre SFB 642 GTP and ATP dependent membrane processes, whose speaker is Prof. Dr. Klaus Gerwert ...
A paper describing the use of LuminUltra Technologies Ltds QGO-M test for measuring cellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP) in aqueous polymer
ATP (adenosine triphosphate). is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.[1] ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. ADP (adenosine triphosphate). Slideshow...
Knowledge of molecular processes is crucial for fundamental understanding of the world and diverse technological applications. However, they cannot be clearly related to any directly experienced phenomena and may be very different from our intuitive expectations. Thus, representations are essential conceptual tools for making molecular processes understandable, but to be truly useful educational tools it is essential to ensure that students grasp the connections between what they represent and the represented phenomena. This challenge and associated personal and social aspects of learning were key themes of my doctoral research.. This thesis evaluates whether (and if so how) representations can support students conceptual understanding of molecular processes and thus successfully substitute the missing experience of these processes. The subject matter used to explore these issues included two crucial molecular processes in biochemical systems: self-assembly and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. ...
Download this stock image: Molecule of Adenosine Triphosphate ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism - B5R0WK from Alamys library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors.
Shown in Fig. 4 C are the amounts of free RanGTP that can be isolated from extracts of 2-deoxyglucose/azide- and ribavirin-treated cells. In untreated cells (lane 1), or cells incubated in gluc− media for 1 (lane 2) or 2 h (lane 4), substantial amounts of free RanGTP could be detected in the GST-RanBD eluate. That NEM treatment is inhibiting the GAP and GEF activity normally present in cellular extracts can be seen by comparing the amount of Ran in lane 1 (NEM-inactivated extract from control cells) with the amount in lane 8 (mock-inactivated extract from control cells). The decreased RanGTP in lane 8 is presumably due to GAP or GEF activity in the lysate. In all of these samples except those in lanes 6 and 7 (and in the experiment shown in Fig. 3), an excess of GDPβS (together with the NEM) was added upon cell lysis. This was to ensure that if any nucleotide exchange occurred on Ran before inactivation of the RanGEF, the Ran would be loaded into the GDP- and not the GTP-bound form, thus ...
7. Make a simple sketch of ATP and show the high-energy bond that is broken.. 8. To break the last phosphate bond in ATP, _________ must be added.. 9. The process is called ___________.. 10. What enzyme is used to help weaken & break the last phosphate bond in ATP?. 11. Can ATP be remade?. 12. When the last phosphate bond of ATP is broken, __________ and a free __________ form.. 13. What enzyme can be used to rejoin ADP and a free phosphate to make more ATP?. 14. Using ATPs energy and then remaking it is called the ________________ cycle.. 15. In the body, ATP is made during the process of _____________ ________________.. 16. Cellular respiration takes place in both ____________ and ____________.. 17. Cellular respiration requires the gas ____________.. 18. In cellular respiration, _____________ is oxidized (loses electrons) and ___________ is reduced (gains electrons).. 19. The breakdown of one glucose molecule results in ________ to _______ ATP molecules of energy.. 20. Write the overall ...
E. coli IMS/ATP Assay Kit, 100 Tests. |p|Escherichia coli (or E. coli for short) is a common bacterium that lives in human and animal intestines, where it is present in large numbers.
The kit is intended for determination of intracellular ATP (adenosine triphosphate) in living cells. Extracellular ATP in the samples is enzymatically degraded. If the samples also contain somatic cells and the intention is to determine microbial ATP, we recommend 266-112 Microbial ATP Kit including a Cell Lysing Reagent for most animal cells. 266-311 ATP Biomass Kit can be used, if there is only one type of cells and no extracellular ATP in the samples. All living cells contain ATP where it plays the role of energy currency between different cellular processes. When cells die of natural causes, ATP is normally degraded. The intracellular concentration of ATP is carefully regulated to similar levels in all types of cells. ATP is therefore a good estimate of the total intracellular volume. Most bacterial cells contain approx. 2×10 -18 mol ATP per cell, while most eukaryotic cells, as a result of their larger size, contain 10 -15 mol ATP or more. ATP Biomass Kit HS, Intracellular ATP Kit HS and ...
AMPK and CKB cooperate under energy stress to compensate for loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by either stimulating ATP-generating and inhibiting ATP-consuming pathways ...
There are numerous examples of synthesis reactions. Synthesis reactions are perhaps the most common reactions in chemistry. A successful synthesis reaction maximizes the creation of desired molecule and minimizes by-product molecules.
Some notes I took based on a very cool website (with citations). Exercise can be maintained so long as ATP resynthesis equals ATP usage ATP resynthesis needs two ingredients: Oxygen supply Fuel supply Glycogen: stored in muscles and not shared Fatty acids: circulating in the bloodstream, from fat Types of muscle fibers: Type I (slow-twitch): slow to fatigue,…
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Direct im aging of ROS in probe stained cells was carried out utilizing a fluorescence microscope, INK 128 価格 and photos had been captured with a DP Controller
Adenosine triphosphate, is a chemical compound that provides energy that is necessary for running procedures in living molecules.. ...
The preparation that was sent you contained 500 units per cc and its purity is 2000 units per milligram protein. A unit has been defined as one micromole DPN split per hour at 38 degrees at pH 7.4. In view of the fact that practically all my experiences with this enzyme has been with its DPN-splitting properties, I would consider that the most safe criterion of its potency. However, the rate of increase of fluorescence of a FAD preparation or the rate of hydrolysis ATP may turn out to be equally reliable. The preparation you have contains approximately 125 units per cc with respect to micromoles of phosphate release from ATP. Thus, the relative potency of DPN to ATP splitting is approximately 4. The ratio of 300, as indicated in my note, is misleading in that the ATP units were differently defined: they were expressed in terms of a reaction velocity constant ...
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phosphate groups (triphosphate). The phosphoryl groups, starting with the group closest to the ribose, are referred to as the alpha (α), beta (β), and gamma (γ) phosphates. The system of ATP and water under standard conditions and concentrations is extremely rich in chemical energy; the bond between the second and third phosphate groups is loosely said to be particularly high in energy. Strictly speaking, the bond itself is not high in energy (like all chemical bonds it requires energy to break), but energy is produced when the bond is broken and water is allowed to react with the two products. Thus, energy is produced from the new bonds formed between ADP and water, and between phosphate and water.. The net change in energy at ...
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the universal form of energy in living cells to power biochemical reactions such as muscle contraction or brain function. A human being needs approximately his/her own body weight of ATP per day; this large amount is constantly provided by a rotary ATPase, called the ATP synthase. It functions like an energy converter, which uses electric energy at the cell membrane to convert it in chemical energy, ATP. It is very intriguing that the enzyme works like a mechanic machine that has a rotating ion-turbine and a stator in which the ATP can be generated; The ATP synthase is the smallest nano-machine known. We are interested in understanding the structure and operation principles of this remarkable machine and to decipher how it works on the molecular level by using the combined power of sophisticated structural biology methods (X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy).. Rotary ATPase recently came also into focus as new drug target against tuberculosis (TB) and ...
A realistic estimate of the Na+ entry needed is obtained by quadrupling this to take account of simultaneous activation of Na+ and K+ channels (Hodgkin, 1975), resulting in 11.5×10^8Na+ which have to be pumped out again, requiring 3.84×10^8ATP molecules to be hydrolyzed (Figs. 1B, 2, and 3 ...
We are synthesizing novel ruthenium-modified adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogues. These molecules are being designed so that they can be used by kinases to phosphorylate protein-substrates with a ruthenium-modified phosphate group. Additionally, the ruthenated-phosphate group must be inaccessible to phosphatases such that once the protein-substrate is irreversibly phosphorylated. We plan to use these molecules to study and disrupt intracellular communication with a specific focus on cancerous cells. (The image above shows that one of the ruthenium-modified ATP molecules will look like (left) as well as a rendering of a protein structure with a tyrosine that has been phosphorylated with our modified ATP (right)). You can find more information on this lab at our group website ...
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Adenosine triphosphate, labeled on the gamma phosphate group with 32P. For applications such as DNA and RMA labeling, T4 PNK labeling, and kinase assays.
Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is the energy currency of life, the way that individual cells store and use chemical energy. Any food or other source of energy a cell takes in is converted to ATP, in...
Effect of Qter® treatment on ATP, protein content and cell growth in H9c2 cells.H9c2 cells were treated up to 72 hours with 100 nM Qter® and the ATP content w
Adenosine-5-triphosphate - adenozynotrifosforan (ATP), nukleotyd adenionowy (składa się z adenozyny i trzech grup fosforanowych. ATP jest wielofunkcyjnym nu...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Jena Bio \ ATP AffiPur Kit IV, S Kit For the purification of ATP binding proteins using EDA-ATP-Agarose \ AK-106S for more molecular products just contact us
Patterns of Chemical Reactions Synthesis reaction (A+BAB) Atoms or molecules combine Energy is absorbed for bond formation Decomposition reaction (ABA+B) Molecule is broken down Chemical energy is released Slide 2.18
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EWP 840: inhibits breakdown of inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate by inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate 5-phosphatase; structure given in first source
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Product Page for Peak ATP with GlycoCarn 60 Vcaps made by life-extension offering price, ingredients and full item description from betterlife
What is Peak ATP? What does it do and how does it work? What is the preferred dosage? Are there any good studies in humans to support it?
鈉鉀泵可以將細胞外相對細胞内較低濃度的鉀離子送進細胞,並將細胞内相對細胞外較低濃度的鈉離子送出細胞。經由以具放射性的鈉、鉀離子標定,可以發現鈉、鉀離子都會經過這個通道,鈉、鉀離子的濃度在細胞膜兩側也都是相互依賴的,所以顯示了鈉、鉀離子都可以經過這個載體運輸。目前已知鈉鉀泵需消耗ATP,並可以將三個鈉離子送出細胞,同時將兩個鉀離子送進細胞。 鈉鉀泵在1950年被丹麥的科學家延斯·斯科(Jens Skou)發現,它代表了我們對離子進出細胞的認識的一個重要的里程碑。它也在細胞刺激上有著重要的意義,像神經細胞的衝動,就是用鈉鉀泵幫助維持細胞電位使神經衝動得以傳輸。 ...
鈉鉀泵可以將細胞外相對細胞内較低濃度的鉀離子送進細胞,並將細胞内相對細胞外較低濃度的鈉離子送出細胞。經由以具放射性的鈉、鉀離子標定,可以發現鈉、鉀離子都會經過這個通道,鈉、鉀離子的濃度在細胞膜兩側也都是相互依賴的,所以顯示了鈉、鉀離子都可以經過這個載體運輸。目前已知鈉鉀泵需消耗ATP,並可以將三個鈉離子送出細胞,同時將兩個鉀離子送進細胞。 鈉鉀泵在1950年被丹麥的科學家延斯·斯科(Jens Skou)發現,它代表了我們對離子進出細胞的認識的一個重要的里程碑。它也在細胞刺激上有著重要的意義,像神經細胞的衝動,就是用鈉鉀泵幫助維持細胞電位使神經衝動得以傳輸。 ...
அடினோசின் முப்பொசுபேற்று அல்லது அடினோசின் முப்பாசுப்பேட்டு (Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) என்பது அனைத்து உயிரினங்களின் கலங்களிலும் பயன்படுத்தப்படும் ஒரு முக்கியமான துணை நொதியமாகும். இது உயிரினங்களில் சக்திக்கான அளவீடாக உள்ளது. கலத்துக்கிடையில் அனுசேபத்துக்காக சக்தியை இடம் மாற்றும் முக்கியமான மூலக்கூறாக அடினோசின் முப்பொசுபேற்று விளங்குகின்றது. ஒளித்தொகுப்பு, காற்றுள்ள சுவாசம் ...
The first substrate-level phosphorylation occurs after the conversion of 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and Pi and NAD+ to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate via glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate is then dephosphorylated via phosphoglycerate kinase, producing 3-phosphoglycerate and ATP through a substrate-level phosphorylation. The second substrate-level phosphorylation occurs by dephosphorylating phosphoenolpyruvate, catalyzed by pyruvate kinase, producing pyruvate and ATP. During the preparatory phase, each 6-carbon glucose molecule is broken into two 3-carbon molecules. Thus, in glycolysis dephosphorylation results in the production of 4 ATP. However, the prior preparatory phase consumes 2 ATP, so the net yield in glycolysis is 2 ATP. 2 molecules of NADH are also produced and can be used in oxidative phosphorylation to generate more ATP. ...
The effect of long-chain acyl-CoA on subcellular adenine nucleotide systems was studied in the intact liver cell. Long-chain acyl-CoA content was varied by varying the nutritional state (fed and starved states) or by addition of oleate. Starvation led to an increase in the mitochondrial and a decrease in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio in liver both in vivo and in the isolated perfused organ as compared with the fed state. The changes were reversed on re-feeding glucose in liver in vivo or on infusion of substrates (glucose, glycerol) in the perfused liver, respectively. Similar changes in mitochondrial and cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios occurred on addition of oleate, but, importantly, not with a short-chain fatty acid such as octanoate. It is concluded that long-chain acyl-CoA exerts an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocation in the intact cell, as was previously postulated in the literature from data obtained with isolated mitochondria. The physiological relevance with ...
Lab Reagents Atp Assay Laboratories manufactures the cayman chemicals and atp assay kit reagents distributed by Genprice. The Cayman Chemicals And Atp Assay Kit reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact atp assay. Other Cayman products are available in stock. Specificity: Cayman Category: Chemicals Group: And Atp. And Atp information ...
Extracellular adenosine triphosphate protects oxidative stress-induced increase of p21WAF1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression in primary cultured renal proximal tubule cells: Role of PI3K and Akt signaling. ...
Extracellular adenosine triphosphate: A potential regulator of vasa vasorum neovascularization in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling ...
Crickard JB, Moevus CJ, Kwon Y, Sung P, Greene EC. Rad54 Drives ATP Hydrolysis-Dependent DNA Sequence Alignment during Homologous Recombination. Cell. 2020.
Your body is always using energy. This energy, in the form of ATP, is generated within your cells through substrate-level phosphorylation or...
Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells can mediate a diverse number of biological responses, such as cell secretion, inflammation, and immune reactions through signaling pathways. According to Wang et al. (2013), the extracellular ATP concentration has been measured to accumulate to a high level in the nucleus pulposus (NP) region in the intervertebral disc (IVD), approximately 165 ?M. Since extracellular ATP is involved in a variety of cellular activities, the role of ATP distribution and accumulation in the IVD should be investigated. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of mechanical compression on the distribution of extracellular ATP and its adenine derivatives in the IVD using triphasic mechano-electrochemical theory. This theory describes the mechanical behavior and transport phenomena of charged hydrated soft tissue such as the IVD. Michaelis-Menten kinetics was used to model ATP hydrolysis and incorporated into a finite element model. Experiments were
Excellgen T4 RNA Ligase 2, ATP independent [EG-146] - Description ATP independent T4 RNA Ligase 2 specifically ligates the preadenylated 5´ end of DNA or RNA to the 3´ OH end of RNA. The enzyme does not require ATP for ligation but requires pre-adenylated linkers. Applications Ligate a pre-adenylated DNA or RNA sequence tag to any RNA 3´-end Join a single stranded
Bongkrekic acid (BKA) is a strong inhibitor of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), inducing inhibition of adenosine triphosphate synthesis. We designed and synthesized simplified benzene-ring-containing BKA analogs. The key reaction is the one-pot double Sonogashira reaction, which forms the main skeleton. The analogs were efficiently synthesized in 8-10 longest linear sequence steps. This synth ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of ATP binding to the carboxyl terminus of Kir6.2 by epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. AU - Wang, Xiao Li. AU - Lu, Tong D. AU - Cao, Sheng. AU - Shah, Vijay. AU - Lee, Hon Chi. PY - 2006/9. Y1 - 2006/9. N2 - Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), the cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), are potent and stereospecific activators of cardiac ATP-sensitive K+(KATP) channels. EETs activate KATP channels by reducing channel sensitivity to ATP. In this study, we determined the direct effects of EETs on the binding of ATP to KATP channel protein. A fluorescent ATP analog, 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl (TNP)-ATP, which increases its fluorescence emission significantly upon binding with proteins, was used for binding studies with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) Kir6.2 fusion proteins. TNP-ATP bound to GST fusion protein containing the C-terminus of Kir6.2 (GST-Kir6.2C), but not to the N-terminus of Kir6.2, or to GST alone. 11,12-EET (5 μM) did not change TNP-ATP binding KD to ...
1. The effect of G protein activation on the ATP-sensitive K+ (K+ATP) channel was examined in inside-out patches from guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. At low (0.3 mM) intracellular ATP concentration ([ATP]i) in the bathing solution, in the absence of agonists in the pipette, guanosine 5-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) or AlF4- applied to the intracellular side of the patch membrane gradually activated the K+ATP channel. The activation by GTP gamma S was irreversible, although high [ATP]i could completely close the channel. 2. In ATP-free media GTP gamma S did not increase further the activity of the fully active channel, and was unable to reactivate the channel in the non-operative state after rundown. [ATP]i-channel activity curves constructed before and after GTP gamma S application demonstrated that GTP gamma S shifts the half-inhibitory [ATP]i from 19.5 to 110 microM without changing the Hill coefficient. 3. When acetylcholine or adenosine was included in the pipette, intracellular GTP ...
Аннотация: Сells and tissues are composed from atoms of chemical elements, some of which have two kinds of stable isotopes, magnetic and nonmagnetic ones. Not long ago, magnetic isotope effects (MIEs) have been discovered in experiments with cells enriched with magnetic or nonmagnetic isotopes of magnesium. These MIEs can stem from higher efficiency of the enzymes of bioenergetics in the cells enriched with magnetic magnesium isotope. In the studies of MIEs in biological systems, it is needed to monitor the ATP concentrations as the major energy source in cells. The most sensitive and rapid method of the ATP measurements is based on the use of the firefly luciferase-luciferin system. Since luciferase is the ATP-dependent enzyme and activated by Mg-ions, it is necessary to elucidate whether this enzyme is sensitive to magnetic field of the magnesium isotopes nuclear spin. Herein we present the results of studying the effects of different isotopes of magnesium, magnetic 25Mg and ...
Applying atractyloside for inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthesis at a concentration of 1 μM reduced cellular ATP levels by approximately 30%, mimicking the energy status of aged RPE (Fig. 1). The amount of lactate detected in the conditioned medium after three days of culture was 2.77 mg/mL (±0.11, n = 6) for untreated cells and 3.51mg/mL (±0.12, n = 6) for cells cultured in the presence of atractyloside. Thus, the cells are able to partially compensate for the atractyloside-induced reduction of mitochondrial ATP supply by nonmitochondrial ATP generation. Consequently, ATP synthesis is affected more than 30%. In addition to moderately reduced cellular ATP levels, we intended to induce conditions of increased oxidative stress. To this end, the cells were treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH). Neither treatment with atractyloside or tBH alone nor the combination of both induced significant changes in the morphology of the cells (data not shown). No increase of LDH leakage to the ...
Author: Guo, K. K. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2011-09-14; Title: Polymerization of actin filaments coupled with adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis: Brownian dynamics and theoretical analysis
The Company of Biologists is the first not-for-profit publisher to commit to this approach. The Companys three hybrid journals - Development, Journal of Cell Science and Journal of Experimental Biology - have chosen the transformative route towards Open Access. Find out more in this interview with Claire Moulton, Publisher at The Company of Biologists and on our dedicated Transformative Journals page.. ...
The implementation of novel platform organisms to be used as microbial cell factories in industrial applications is currently the subject of intense research. Ongoing efforts include the adoption of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 variants with a reduced genome as the functional chassis for biotechnological purposes. In these strains, dispensable functions removed include flagellar motility (1.1% of the genome) and a number of open reading frames expected to improve genotypic and phenotypic stability of the cells upon deletion (3.2% of the genome). In this study, two previously constructed multiple-deletion P. putida strains were systematically evaluated as microbial cell factories for heterologous protein production and compared to the parental bacterium (strain KT2440) with regards to several industrially-relevant physiological traits. Energetic parameters were quantified at different controlled growth rates in continuous cultivations and both strains had a higher adenosine triphosphate content, increased
The second mechanism of respiratory control (allosteric ATP-inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO)) is demonstrated for the first time in intact isolated rat liver and heart mitochondria. The problems of measuring the kinetics of allosteric ATP-inhibition in isolated mitochondria were investigated. And it was found that only at very high ATP/ADP ratios, this inhibition is obtained and requires an ATP-regenerating system consisting of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and pyruvate kinase (PK). The allosteric ATP-inhibition can be switched off probably by dephosphorylation of a serine at CcO subunit-I. The phosphorylation of CcO at serine, threonine and tyrosine was studied in isolated mitochondria by extracting complex IV of the respiratory chain (CcO) by BN-PAGE (blue-nativepolyacrylamide- gel-electrophoresis), SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with the corresponding antibodies against the phosphorylated amino acids. The extent of allosteric ATP-inhibition of CcO varied in different preparations of ...
Conclusion Collectively, the results suggest that therapeutic dose of LIS elicits toxicity in male rats through induction of oxidative damage and depletion of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The reversal effects of GAR and SACE during LIS treatment suggest that these antioxidants may find clinical application in cellular damage involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP....
Acute ischemic strokes result from vascular occlusion secondary to thromboembolic disease (see Etiology). Ischemia causes cell hypoxia and depletion of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Without A... more
The abundant molecular chaperone Hsp90 is a key regulator of protein structure in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Although under physiological conditions a specific subset of proteins is substrate for Hsp90, under stress conditions Hsp90 seems to perform more general functions. However, the underlying mechanism of Hsp90 remained enigmatic. Here, we analyzed the function of conserved Hsp90 domains. We show that Hsp90 possesses two chaperone sites located in the N- and C-terminal fragments, respectively. The C-terminal fragment binds to partially folded proteins in an ATP-independent way potentially regulated by cochaperones. The N-terminal domain contains a peptide binding site that seems to bind preferentially peptides longer than 10 amino acids. Peptide dissociation is induced by ATP binding. Furthermore, the antitumor drug geldanamycin both inhibits the weak ATPase of Hsp90 and stimulates peptide release. We propose that the existence of two functionally different chaperone sites together ...
Knowledge of molecular processes is crucial for fundamental understanding of the world and diverse technological applications. However, they cannot be clearly related to any directly experienced phenomena and may be very different from our intuitive expectations. Thus, representations are essential conceptual tools for making molecular processes understandable, but to be truly useful educational tools it is essential to ensure that students grasp the connections between what they represent and the represented phenomena. This challenge and associated personal and social aspects of learning were key themes of my doctoral research.. This thesis evaluates whether (and if so how) representations can support students conceptual understanding of molecular processes and thus successfully substitute the missing experience of these processes. The subject matter used to explore these issues included two crucial molecular processes in biochemical systems: self-assembly and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. ...
Illustration of the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the mitochondria. The enzyme ATP synthase provides energy for the cell through the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. A cell obtains energy by converting ATP to ADP (adenosine diphosphate). The cell then converts ADP back to ATP using energy stored on food. Free radicals are byproducts of ATP production. They are useful in many body processes but may be harmful in excess. Natural antioxidants such as glutathione and the enzyme catalase convert free radicals to harmless compounds. Black=carbon, white=hydrogen, blue=nitrogen, orange=phosphate, yellow=sulfur; green=chlorine. Labels - Stock Image C022/4464
We have cloned an inwardly rectifying K+ channel from the hamster insulinoma cDNA library and shown that it is inhibited by cytoplasmic ATP. The channel is 90.97% identical to the IRK3 channels cloned from other species, and its mRNA is found primarily in the brain. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the channel displays strong inward rectification typical of inward rectifiers. The channel is inhibited reversibly by physiological concentrations of ATP via a mechanism that does not appear to involve ATP hydrolysis, as shown by studies of channels in excised inside-out membrane patches. This effect is antagonized by ADP, again in the physiological range, implying that this channel is sensitive to the index of metabolic state, i.e., the intracellular [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. This channel is different from previously known ATP-sensitive K+ channels, although it may also be stimulated by MgATP, as are other ATP-sensitive K+ channels. The potential physiological significance of these ATP-dependent ...
ATP is the primary energy currency of a cell, and according to our hypothesis, the iATP level of infected macrophages should increase. However, quantification of the iATP level significantly declined over time and this compelled us to evaluate the source of ATP, i.e. the metabolic status of Leishmania-infected macrophages during early infection. Contradictory to the iATP level, infection resulted in a heightened rate of glycolysis followed by lactate production. Intracellular pathogens are at times known to exploit host metabolic resources for their own benefit (Abu Kwaik and Bumann, 2013). Alteration of carbohydrate metabolism, the major ATP-generating pathway of the cell has also been reported (Bravo-Santano et al., 2018; Czyz et al., 2017). Pyruvate produced via glycolysis usually enters into the TCA cycle, but under certain circumstances gets converted into lactate. Although this is energetically less efficient compared with oxidative phosphorylation, it provides energy at a much faster ...
As if increasing testosterone werent enough, using Longjack extract also greatly increases ATP production. ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is the basic unit of energy in the body, responsible for keeping us alive and going. By increasing ATP, overall energy and vitality are increased. Most people want more energy, and Longjack provides it, without hyperstimulation, jittery nerves, or insomnia. This is the holy grail of human energy production, and is a valuable enough health benefit by itself to make Longjack an enduring Ayurvedic superstar regarding natural plant extracts.. Athletes and body builders will employ any agent which boosts performance or muscle mass. In both animals and humans, Longjack extract increases muscle mass. In a study of men [1], half of the subjects ingested Longjack extract and half did not. In an eight week physical training program, the men who consumed Longjack extract experienced greater gains in muscle mass and strength than those who did not. This demonstrates the ...
Read in this Application Note how a Microplate Reader from BMG LABTECH can measure the ENLITEN ATP Assay kit from Promega. Read more.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fluorescent Probes Applied to Catalytic Cooperativity in ATP Synthase. AU - Weber, Joachim. AU - Senior, Alan E.. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=1542319961&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/S0076-6879(04)80006-5. DO - 10.1016/S0076-6879(04)80006-5. M3 - Article. C2 - 15051335. AN - SCOPUS:1542319961. VL - 380. SP - 132. EP - 152. JO - Methods in Enzymology. JF - Methods in Enzymology. SN - 0076-6879. ER - ...
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the chemical compound known in biochemistry as the molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer; that is, ATP is able to store and transport chemical energy within cells. All cells-both prokaryotic, such as bacteria, and eukaryotic, such as with amoeba, fungi, plants, and animals-use ATP as the main molecule for carrying energy, and as the principal energy source for endergonic, or energy-requiring, reactions. Living cells require energy to survive and function, and most of this energy comes either via radiant energy or from chemical energy tied up in interatomic bonds of nutrient molecules. When nutrient molecules, such as those derived from carbohydrates and fats, are oxidized by cells, a portion of the free energy released can be captured in the chemical bonds of ATP. ATP allows cells to store energy as chemical potential and to circulate and use this energy. Cells are constantly creating and circulating ATP, and when cells need energy, they spend ...
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Phase transition reducing the value of heff/h=n as a basic step in bio-catalysis Hydrogen atom allows also large heff/h=n variants with n,6 with the scale of energy spectrum behaving as (6/n)2 if the n=4 holds true for visible matter. The reduction of n as the flux tube contracts would reduce n and liberate binding energy, which could be used to promote the catalysis. The notion of high energy phosphate bond is somewhat mysterious concept. There are claims that there is no such bond. I have spent considerable amount of time to ponder this problem. Could phosphate contain (dark) hydrogen atom able to go to the a state with a smaller value of heff/h and liberate the excess binding energy? Could the phosphorylation of acceptor molecule transfer this dark atom associated with the phosphate of ATP to the acceptor molecule? Could the mysterious high energy phosphate bond correspond to the dark atom state. Metabolic energy would be needed to transform ADP to ATP and would generate dark atom. Could ...
Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Canine Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ELISA Kit can measure Canine Adenosine triphosphate in serum, blood, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other related supernatants and tissues.
Within the DNA of Samuele Strufaldis new work, energy is in constant movement: asymmetric structures and changes of tempo rhythmput into action a kinetic force propelling the group towards a cycle of action and reaction. Science, tightrope walking, and a kaleidoscopic musical background are the molecules that make up Ismael Circus, led by Strufaldi, which arrives at Auand with the album Adenosine Triphosphate. A title which will improbably be associated with jazz, yet instead captures its essence, as the leader explains: Adenosine Triphosphate is an important high energy chemical compound which various metabolic and energetic reactions of the cells are based on. So the name of the entire disc is Energy, a particular force produced by molecular synthesis, which is also the constitutional make-up of the RNA, fundamental in giving energy to the molecules ...
Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Interleukin-2-inducible T-cell Kinase. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Interleukin-2 (IL-2)-inducible T-cell kinase (Itk); catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Itk (also known as Tsk or Emt) is a member of the Tec subfamily of proteins, which are cytoplasmic (or nonreceptor) tyr kinases with similarity to Src kinases in that they contain Src homology protein interaction domains (SH3, SH2) N-terminal to the catalytic tyr kinase domain. Unlike Src kinases, most Tec subfamily members (except Rlk) also contain an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, which binds the products of PI3K and allows membrane recruitment and activation. In addition, Itk ...
Looking for Documents about Cell Energy Why do cells need energy? How can cells store energy? A molecule called adenosine triphosphate ATP Energy is...
Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Fer. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Fer kinase; catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Fer kinase is a member of the Fes subfamily of proteins which are cytoplasmic (or nonreceptor) tyr kinases containing an N-terminal region with FCH (Fes/Fer/CIP4 homology) and coiled-coil domains, followed by a SH2 domain, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Fer kinase is expressed in a wide variety of tissues, and is found to reside in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. It plays important roles in neuronal polarization and neurite development, cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, growth factor signaling, and the regulation of cell-cell interactions mediated ...
Adenine Ribose 3 Phosphate groups ATP Adenosine ATP Structure ATP = Adenosine TriPhosphate High Energy Bonds ADP ATP Energy Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate
Definition of adenosine triphosphate, with etymology, pronunciation (phonetic and audio), synonyms, antonyms, derived terms and more about the word adenosine triphosphate.
The implications of this study are truly profound. ATP production is essential for the health of our body, from the level of the cell all the way up. When ATP production is compromised through suboptimal nutrition, environmental exposures, or non-adaptive stress, disease and accelerated aging are inevitable. Even when these adverse variables are not a factor, ATP production will naturally fall off as we age, leaving a role for nutritional interventions that can help to increase ATP synthesis without, for instance, increasing oxidative stress or causing exhaustion or imbalances elsewhere. .... If this cell and animal research holds true for humans, a chlorophyll-deficient diet, along with a deficiency of sunlight exposure, would lead to significantly lower ATP production. Given this possibility, wouldnt it be amazing to begin looking at the green wavelengths of color in the produce case as a source of energy for the powerhouses of the cell (mitochondria), as potential age-decelerating agents, or ...
The UvrABC repair system catalyzes the recognition and processing of DNA lesions. A damage recognition complex composed of 2 UvrA and 2 UvrB subunits scans DNA for abnormalities. Upon binding of the UvrA(2)B(2) complex to a putative damaged site, the DNA wraps around one UvrB monomer. DNA wrap is dependent on ATP binding by UvrB and probably causes local melting of the DNA helix, facilitating insertion of UvrB beta-hairpin between the DNA strands. Then UvrB probes one DNA strand for the presence of a lesion. If a lesion is found the UvrA subunits dissociate and the UvrB-DNA preincision complex is formed. This complex is subsequently bound by UvrC and the second UvrB is released. If no lesion is found, the DNA wraps around the other UvrB subunit that will check the other stand for damage.
Construction of a first atomic model for an intact bacterial ATP synthase allows for a structural understanding of the roles of individual amino acids in the mechanism of ATP synthesis.
Molecular chaperone implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes, including protection of the proteome from stress, folding and transport of newly synthesized polypeptides, activation of proteolysis of misfolded proteins and the formation and dissociation of protein complexes. Plays a pivotal role in the protein quality control system, ensuring the correct folding of proteins, the re-folding of misfolded proteins and controlling the targeting of proteins for subsequent degradation. This is achieved through cycles of ATP binding, ATP hydrolysis and ADP release, mediated by co-chaperones. The co-chaperones have been shown to not only regulate different steps of the ATPase cycle, but they also have an individual specificity such that one co-chaperone may promote folding of a substrate while another may promote degradation. The affinity for polypeptides is regulated by its nucleotide bound state. In the ATP-bound form, it has a low affinity for substrate proteins. However, upon hydrolysis of the ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is an excellent biomarker present in all living cells. During the past several years, several ATP test methods have been
Y. Avi-Dor, O. Gonda; Studies on the adenosine triphosphate-phosphate exchange and the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate catalysed by a particulate fraction from the mosquito. Biochem J 1 May 1959; 72 (1): 8-14. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj0720008. Download citation file:. ...
A mnemonic to remember ATP (adenosine triphosphate) this is the life giving energy cells depend on and image of mitochondria in cells GCSE High_School_Diploma
Poster (2013). Background: Mitochondria are double membrane- organelles that play a central role in cellular metabolism, calcium homeostasis and redox signaling. They have been also considered as main producers of ... [more ▼]. Background: Mitochondria are double membrane- organelles that play a central role in cellular metabolism, calcium homeostasis and redox signaling. They have been also considered as main producers of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In many cancer cells those organelles become dysfunctional leading to a shift of energy metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to active glycolysis and an increase of ROS generation. According to Warberg theory, cancer damage might occur at the mitochondrial level, affecting tiny structures within each cell implicated in the energy production through ATP. New insight is that mitochondria might be a good therapeutic target for metabolic syndromes, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organs transplantation. ...
An answer is on Wikipedia at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_triphosphate under Physical and chemical properties. Estimates vary - see also: http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2000/AmberIqbal.shtml Under normal biological conditions ATP hydrolysis to ADP releases somewhere in the region of 25-50 kJ per mole of which about 40-60% produces heat and the rest is used for other biological processes.. According to http://www.worldofmolecules.com/life/atp.htm The total quantity of ATP in the human body is about 0.1 mole. The energy used daily by an adult calls for the hydrolysis of 200 to 300 moles of ATP. This means that each ATP molecule has to be recycled 2000 to 3000 times during the day. ATP cannot be stored and so its synthesis has to closely follow its consumption.. An alkaline long-life AAA battery stores about 5,000 J of energy!. Last edited by Steve Lolait (19th Oct 2011 20:50:59). ...
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is the energy-carrying molecule that is found in the cells of all living things. This nutrient applied topically can help support the health of aging skin.
Adenosine triphosphate is a major "energy currency" of the cell. The high energy bonds between the phosphate groups can be ... "Adenosine Triphosphate". Drugs. 58 (2): 211-232. doi:10.2165/00003495-199958020-00002. ISSN 0012-6667. PMID 10473017. S2CID ...
Nave CR (2005). "Adenosine Triphosphate". Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet]. Georgia State University. Douglass JG, Patel ... Regrelor was synthesized from adenosine diphosphate (ADP), an endogenous chemical involved in metabolism. The authors noted ...
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often called the "molecular unit of currency": ... Walker for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the other ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adenosine_triphosphate&oldid=6562245" ... and it is produced by ATP synthase from inorganic phosphate and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, the di meaning two phosphate groups ...
"ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate". cnx.org. Retrieved 2018-05-16. Wackerhage, H.; Hoffmann, U.; Essfeld, D.; Leyk, D.; Mueller, K.; ... The product is adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and an inorganic phosphate (Pi). ADP can be further hydrolyzed to give energy, ... process by which chemical energy that has been stored in the high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds in adenosine triphosphate (ATP ... adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and another inorganic phosphate (Pi). ATP hydrolysis is the final link between the energy ...
PPi is pyrophosphate APS is adenosine 5-phosphosulfate; ATP is adenosine triphosphate; O2 is oxygen molecule; AMP is adenosine ... The addition of one of the four deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) (dATPαS, which is not a substrate for a luciferase, is ... This incorporation releases pyrophosphate (PPi). ATP sulfurylase converts PPi to ATP in the presence of adenosine 5´ ... and with the substrates adenosine 5´ phosphosulfate (APS) and luciferin. ...
Each molecule of actin is bound to a molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP) that is associated ... The adenosine nucleotide binding site is located between two beta hairpin-shaped structures pertaining to the I and III domains ... The divalent cation binding site is located just below that for the adenosine nucleotide. In vivo it is most often formed by ... This fold is a conserved structural motif that is also found in other proteins that interact with triphosphate nucleotides such ...
... adenosine triphosphate, the energy molecule; and oxygen. It occurs in modified excretory organs known as Malpighian tubules in ...
APC Adenosine deaminase deficiency, partial; 102700; ADA Adenosine triphosphate, elevated, of erythrocytes; 102900; PKLR ...
... including the first three dimensional structure of adenosine triphosphate and particularly the different forms of DNA. Together ... "Three dimensional structure of adenosine triphosphate". Nature. 225 (5230): 333-336. Bibcode:1970Natur.225..333K. doi:10.1038/ ...
Increased breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP; the molecule used as energy currency in all living things), which results ...
Ashcroft, F. M. (1988). "Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate-Sensitive Potassium Channels". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 11: 97-118. ...
Atkinson DE, Walton GM (July 1967). "Adenosine triphosphate conservation in metabolic regulation. Rat liver citrate cleavage ...
"Human Plasma Gelsolin Binds Adenosine Triphosphate". The Journal of Biochemistry. 108 (4): 505-506. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals. ...
AMP: adenosine monophosphate. • ATP: adenosine triphosphate. • AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase. • PGC‐1α: peroxisome ...
The ATP test is a process of rapidly measuring actively growing microorganisms through detection of adenosine triphosphate, or ...
Adenosine. Ado. Adenosine receptors. -. Small: Purine. Adenosine triphosphate. ATP. P2Y receptors. P2X receptors. ...
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) driven proton pumps (also referred to as proton ATPases or H+ -ATPases) are proton pumps driven by ... or adenosine triphosphate (ATP; proton ATPases). Complex I (EC 1.6.5.3) (also referred to as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or ... the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Three classes of proton ATPases are found in nature. In a single cell (for ...
Lymn, R. W.; Taylor, E. W. (1971-12-07). "Mechanism of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by actomyosin". Biochemistry. 10 (25 ... In 1987, S. Rosenfeld and Taylor evaluated the regulatory mechanism of actin-sub fragment 1 nucleoside triphosphate. They were ... Finlayson, Birdwell; Taylor, Edwin William (1969-03-01). "Hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates by myosin during the transient ...
Moreover, a positive feedback phenomenon was observed between adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and TPP. In brief, these results ...
i) Adenosine TriPhosphate. *Allied Tactical Publication. *Ammunition Transfer Point. *Association of Tennis Professionals (cf. ...
Rizzo, Joseph F. (1995). "Adenosine triphosphate deficiency: a genre of optic neuropathy". Neurology. 45 (1): 11-6. doi:10.1212 ...
This enzyme is also called adenosine triphosphate deaminase. Chung ST, Aida K (January 1967). "Purification and properties of ...
1971). "Mechanism of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by actomyosin". Biochemistry. 10 (25): 4617-4624. doi:10.1021/ ... adenosine triphosphate). Many cofactors are vitamins, and their role as vitamins is directly linked to their use in the ... 1997). "Kinetics of nucleoside triphosphate cleavage and phosphate release steps by associated rabbit skeletal actomyosin, ...
Aguilar-Bryan L, Bryan J (1999). "Molecular biology of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels". Endocr. Rev. 20 (2 ...
Examples include NADH, NADPH and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Some coenzymes, such as flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin ... carried by adenosine triphosphate the acetyl group, carried by coenzyme A formyl, methenyl or methyl groups, carried by folic ...
Nichols, C. G.; Lederer, W. J. (1991). "Adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in the cardiovascular system". The ... "Adenosine Diphosphate as an Intracellular Regulator of Insulin Secretion". Science. 272 (5269): 1785-7. doi:10.1126/science. ...
They release adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which activate purinergic receptors. On the other hand, purinergic receptor ...
... particularly in Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). She received the nation's highest science award, the National Medal of Science, ... "Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of adenosine di- and triphosphate. II. Effect of complexing with divalent metal ions". The ... "Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectra of adenosine diphosphate and triphosphate. I. Effect of PH". The Journal of Biological ...
Life requires enough energy to construct adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Where there is sunlight, the main processes for ...
Sirturo is an adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATP synthase) inhibitor. The following drugs are experimental compounds that are ...
adenosine triphosphate disodium. *hydroxyapatite. *monosodium phosphate. Potassium. *bicarbonate. *bitartrate. *chloride. * ...
In aerobic respiration, each molecule of glucose leads to about 34 molecules of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) being produced by ...
The energy released is used to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through chemiosmosis, the same basic process that happens ...
ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate), the biological energy source, reacts with luciferin with the aid of the enzyme luciferase to ...
Each cross-bridge attachment and detachment cycle is powered by the splitting of one molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ...
adenosine triphosphate (ATP). An organic compound derived from adenine that functions as the major source of energy for ... and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). In addition, the cycle ...
3'-deoxy-N,N-dimethyl-3'-[(O-methyl-L-tyrosyl)amino]adenosine ... Agonists: 2-Thiouridine 5'-triphosphate. *Neuropeptide Y. * ...
"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"[89] ...
"Reconstitution of Purple Membrane Vesicles Catalyzing Light-driven Proton Uptake and Adenosine Triphosphate Formation". Journal ...
... adenosine triphosphate), by substrate-level phosphorylation, NADH and FADH2 Simplified reaction: C6H12O6 (s) + 6 O2 (g) → 6 CO2 ... "Bioenergetic Cost of Making an Adenosine Triphosphate Molecule in Animal Mitochondria". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 107 (39): ... or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.[2] The reactions involved in respiration are ...
Cohn đã viết 160 bài khảo luận, tập trung vào các đề tài chất đồng vị và Adenosine triphosphate.[3] ...
His work culminated in the first synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).[3] ...
... such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), through respiration. A part of the energy received by primary consumers, herbivores, is ...
Noda, L. (1958). „Adenosine triphosphate-adenosine monophosphate transphosphorylase. III. Kinetic studies". J. Biol. Chem. 232 ... I. Purification and properties of an adenosine triphosphate-adenosine monophosphate transphosphorylase from swine liver". J. ... Noda, L. & Kuby, S.A. (1957). „Adenosine triphosphate-adenosine monophosphate transphosphorylase (myokinase). I. Isolation of ... Noda, L. & Kuby, S.A. (1957). „Adenosine triphosphate-adenosine monophosphate transphosphorylase (myokinase). II. Homogeneity ...
Metabolism of PEP to pyruvic acid by pyruvate kinase (PK) generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via substrate-level ... PEP is formed from the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate and hydrolysis of one guanosine triphosphate molecule. This reaction is ...
Their function is to convert the potential energy of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in ... Disorders of oxidative phosphorylation, the process by which cells produce their main energy source of adenosine triphosphate ( ... and thiamine diphosphate are commonly found but there is a reduced or absent level of thiamine triphosphate. This is thought to ... and therefore treatment in some patients would be to take thiamine triphosphate daily.[3][4] ...
... which drives the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is maintained by the reduction of oxygen. In animal cells, ...
All muscle cells produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules which are used to power the movement of the myosin heads. ... These chemical reactions produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules that are used to power the movement of the myosin heads ...
adenosine triphosphate disodium. *hydroxyapatite. *monosodium phosphate. Potassium. *bicarbonate. *bitartrate. *chloride. * ...
"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"[96] ...
Other names in common use include guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase II, and GTP-8-formylhydrolase. This enzyme participates ... Foor F, Brown GM (1975). "Purification and properties of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase II from Escherichia coli". J. ... Adenosine deaminase. *AMP deaminase. *Inosine monophosphate synthase. *DCMP deaminase. *GTP cyclohydrolase I ...
It was recently shown that bacteria also have a sort of 5' cap consisting of a triphosphate on the 5' end.[24] Removal of two ... After the mRNA has been cleaved, around 250 adenosine residues are added to the free 3' end at the cleavage site. This reaction ... The 5' cap consists of a terminal 7-methylguanosine residue that is linked through a 5'-5'-triphosphate bond to the first ...
Fumarate is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle used by cells to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP ...
An Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding site; ATP is crucial for ALOX5's metabolic activity ...
... which is used to synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via photophosphorylation.[69] The O. 2 remaining (after production of ...
Gajewski E, Steckler D, Goldberg R (1986). "Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5'-triphosphate to adenosine 5'- ... 1995). "Adenosine 5'-(gamma-thiotriphosphate): an ATP analog that should be used with caution in muscle contraction studies". ...
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) driven proton pumps (also referred to as proton ATPases or H+. -ATPases) are proton pumps driven ... or adenosine triphosphate (ATP; proton ATPases). Electron transport driven proton pumps[edit]. Electron Transport Complex I[ ... by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Three classes of proton ATPases are found in nature. In a single cell (for ...
... which is used to synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via photophosphorylation.[69] The O. 2 remaining (after production of ...
They can have a number of functions that disrupt herbivores such as inhibiting adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation, molting ...
The chemical compound 5-methyluridine, also called ribothymidine, is a pyrimidine nucleoside. It is the ribonucleoside counterpart to the deoxyribonucleoside thymidine, which lacks a hydroxyl group at the 2' position. 5-Methyluridine contains a thymine base joined to a ribose pentose sugar. It exists in solid form as small white crystals or white crystalline powder, has a molecular weight of 258.23 u, and has a melting point of 185 °C. The stability of 5-methyluridine under standard temperature and pressure (STP) is very high. ...
... 2007 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Chemical compounds. Adenosine 5-triphosphate. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP), discovered in 1929 by Karl Lohmann, is a multifunctional nucleotide primarily known in ... adenosine - itself composed of an adenine ring and a ribose sugar - and three phosphate groups (triphosphate). The phosphoryl ... adenosine and other nucleosides (ADO , AMP , ADP , ATP). P1 receptors have A1, A2a, A2b, and A3 subtypes (A as a remnant of ...
... seawater or wastewater samples using bioluminescent technology to measure adenosine triphosphate. ...
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) Adenosine-tetraphosphatase Adenosine methylene triphosphate ATPases ... Energy ATP and Exercise PubChem entry for Adenosine Triphosphate KEGG entry for Adenosine Triphosphate. ... Gajewski, E.; Steckler, D.; Goldberg, R. (1986). "Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5 ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an organic compound and hydrotrope that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells ...
... triphosphate. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions. ... adenosine 5′-triphosphate. Pronunciation: ă-den′ō-sēn trī-fos′fāt. Definition: Adenosine with triphosphoric acid esterified at ... Synonym(s): adenosine triphosphate. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information ...
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with colleagues at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the University of Manitoba and St. Boniface Hospital Albrechtsen Research Centre in Canada, have identified a molecular signaling pathway that, when blocked, promotes sensory neuron growth and prevents or reverses peripheral neuropathy in cell and rodent models of type 1 and 2 diabetes, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and HIV.. ...
Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate, is a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide. It ... Jordan F (2007). "Adenosine triphosphate and thiamine cross paths". Nat. Chem. Biol. 3 (4): 202-3. doi:10.1038/nchembio0407-202 ... "Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP) inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1(PARP-1) activity". J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo ... functional characterization of the enzyme synthesizing adenosine thiamine triphosphate". BMC Biochem. 8: 17. doi:10.1186/1471- ...
And search more of iStocks library of royalty-free stock images that features Adenosine Triphosphate photos available for ...
An international team of researchers have designed and built a model biological supercomputer powered by adenosine triphosphate ... An international team of researchers have designed and built a model biological supercomputer powered by adenosine triphosphate ...
Adenosine monophosphate. AMP. Adenosine diphosphate. ADP. Adenosine triphosphate. ATP. The three linked phosphoryl groups, ... ATP consists of adenosine and three attached phosphate groups (triphosphate). Adenosine itself is composed of two major ... History of "Adenosine triphosphate". Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the chemical compound known in biochemistry as the "molecular currency" of intracellular energy ...
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. Found in all forms of life, ATP ... "Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5′-diphosphate" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 261 (27): ... Walker for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the other ... "The discovery of adenosine triphosphate and the establishment of its structure". J. Hist. Biol. 24 (1): 145-154. doi:10.1007/ ...
Get Adenosine Triphosphate pictures and royalty-free images from iStock. Find high-quality stock photos that you wont find ... Adenosine Triphosphate Pictures, Images and Stock Photos. {{query.routeData[artist]}}. *. Related searches:. ...
... adenosine triphosphate (ATP), when present in extracellular domains, can elicit functional responses in a large number of types ... While exogenous ATP can be rapidly catabolized to adenosine by a number of ectophosphohydrolases, many of the observed actions ... In addition to its well-known involvement in intracellular energy and intermediary metabolism, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), ... While exogenous ATP can be rapidly catabolized to adenosine by a number of ectophosphohydrolases, many of the observed actions ...
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often called the "molecular unit of currency": ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?title=English-Chinese/Adenosine_triphosphate_(ATP)&oldid=2007618" ...
Bioenergetic cost of making an adenosine triphosphate molecule in animal mitochondria. Ian N. Watt, Martin G. Montgomery, ... Bioenergetic cost of making an adenosine triphosphate molecule in animal mitochondria. Ian N. Watt, Martin G. Montgomery, ... Bioenergetic cost of making an adenosine triphosphate molecule in animal mitochondria Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ... Bioenergetic cost of making an adenosine triphosphate molecule in animal mitochondria. Ian N. Watt, Martin G. Montgomery, ...
... Identifiers CAS number MeSH adenosine+thiamine+triphosphate ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide ... Jordan F (2007). "Adenosine triphosphate and thiamine cross paths". Nat. Chem. Biol. 3 (4): 202-3. doi:10.1038/nchembio0407-202 ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Adenosine_thiamine_triphosphate". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ...
Since 1991 we have been producing articles, magazines and conferences to promote and educate the population on how to maintain optimal health as they age. We also provide information on where to safely purchase hard to obtain medicines, nutritional supplements and bio identical hormones to make these theories and methods a reality.. ...
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often called the "molecular unit of currency": ... Walker for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the other ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adenosine_triphosphate&oldid=6562245" ... and it is produced by ATP synthase from inorganic phosphate and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, the di meaning two phosphate groups ...
Adenosine 5-triphosphate. Regulatory process names 3 IUPAC names 2 Other identifiers 9 ...
Adenosine 5-triphosphate. Regulatory process names 3 IUPAC names 4 Trade names 1 Other identifiers 9 ...
... Paul paulcord at pop.ozonline.com.au Wed Jul 12 06:44:17 EST 1995 * ... Next message: How does ATP ( Adenosine Tri Phosphate I think ) work ?? * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ... Next message: How does ATP ( Adenosine Tri Phosphate I think ) work ?? * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ... I stubled accross Adenosine in a suppliment form and it was recommened I take two a day. In a day or so I was a new person. I ...
Assistant Professor (Crop Physiology) C. cytochrome c. This is called as terminal oxidation.+ 2H+) to produce one H2O molecule.e. Two hydrogen atoms or electrons from the reduced coenzyme (NADH2 or NADPH2) travel through FAD and the cytochromes and ultimately combines with 1/2O2 molecule to produce one molecule of H2O. The terminal oxidation of each reduced coenzyme requires 1/2O2 molecule and 2H atoms (i. 2 e.e. they cannot give or take protons (H+) . UQ (ubiquinone). TERMINAL OXIDATION OF THE REDUCED COENZYMES / ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM AND OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION last step in aerobic respiration is the oxidation of reduced coenzymes produced in glycolysis and Krebs cycle by molecular oxygen through FAD. cytochrome b. Except for flavoproteins (like FAD) and ubiquinone (UQ) which are hydrogen carriers. cytochrome a and cytochrome a3 (cytochrome oxidase). the other components of electron transport chain (cytochromes) are only electron carriers i.. .. ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM .. NAD = ...
Adenosine 5-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate), disodium salt. Regulatory process names 1 IUPAC names 2 Other identifiers 1 ...
... triphosphate , C10H16N5O13P3 , CID 5957 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents ...
... also known as Adenosine. Its properties include antiaging benefits commonly found in creams & serums. ... Explore the skincare properties of Adenosine Triphosphate, ...
Adenosine Triphosphate-Induced Sliding of Tubules in Trypsin-Treated Flagella of Sea-Urchin Sperm. Keith E. Summers and I. R. ... Adenosine Triphosphate-Induced Sliding of Tubules in Trypsin-Treated Flagella of Sea-Urchin Sperm ... Adenosine Triphosphate-Induced Sliding of Tubules in Trypsin-Treated Flagella of Sea-Urchin Sperm ... Adenosine Triphosphate-Induced Sliding of Tubules in Trypsin-Treated Flagella of Sea-Urchin Sperm ...
Adenosine Triphosphate in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Adenosine Triphosphate in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors Official Title ICMJE A Phase I Study And ... Patients receive adenosine triphosphate (ATP) IV over 8 hours on day 0. Treatment repeats weekly for a total of 8 courses in ... RATIONALE: Adenosine triphosphate may decrease weight loss and improve muscle strength in patients with advanced solid tumors. ...
Miscellaneous: ATP (adenosine triphosphate), Catalase, DNA, Escherichia coli, Homeopathy, Lipid peroxidation, Reactive oxygen ... Miscellaneous: ATP (adenosine triphosphate), Efflux pump, Glycosides, Phosphodiesterase-5, Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, ... KEY WORDS: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), Arsenicum album, Arsenine, Arsenic resistance gene, Bacteria, Catalase, DNA damage, ...
... on Shapeways. Learn more before you buy, or discover other cool products ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) a small molecule used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often ... product/63PQJ39JW/adenosine-triphosphate-atp /, ,input type=hidden class= name=confirmation value= ... When ATP breaks into ADP (Adenosine diphosphate) and Pi (phosphate), the breakdown of the last covalent link of phosphate (a ...
Adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often called the molecular ... ATP - Adenosine tri-phosphate This is THE primary source of energy for muscle contraction. All other energy sources actually ... 9.Adenosine triphosphate 10. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 11. Jump to: navigation, search 12. This article is about ... Adenosine triphosphate . IUPAC name[hide] [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan2-yl]methyl( ...
Explore Adenosine Triphosphate, a nucleotide that is also known as ATP. ATP is effective in providing anti-aging protection, as ... ATP, adenosine triphosphate, is a nucleotide that has been known to drive and participate in countless intracellular processes ... Role of extracellular adenosine triphosphate in human skin. J Cutan Med Surg 8(2), 90-6 (2004) ...
  • Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) has one phosphate group attached to adenosine, and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) has two attached phosphate groups. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • ATP is also synthesized through several so-called "replenishment" reactions catalyzed by the enzyme families of NDKs (nucleoside diphosphate kinases), which use other nucleoside triphosphates as a high-energy phosphate donor, and the ATP guanido-phosphotransferase family, which uses creatine. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When consumed in metabolic processes, it converts either to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or to adenosine monophosphate (AMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • In E. coli AThTP is synthesized from thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) according to the following reaction catalyzed by thiamine diphosphate adenylyl transferase: ThDP + ATP (ADP) ↔ AThTP + PPi (Pi) The molecule is made up of thiamine and adenosine joined together with phosphate groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • One molecule of ATP contains three phosphate groups, and it is produced by ATP synthase from inorganic phosphate and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, the di meaning two phosphate groups) or adenosine monophosphate (AMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • When ATP breaks into ADP (Adenosine diphosphate) and Pi (phosphate), the breakdown of the last covalent link of phosphate (a simple -P04) liberates energy that is used in reactions where it is needed. (shapeways.com)
  • A cell obtains energy by converting ATP to ADP (adenosine diphosphate). (sciencephoto.com)
  • ATP is made from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and its use in metabolism converts it back into these precursors. (alamy.com)
  • The equilibrium constant K for the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phosphate is 1.66X10^5 at 37 degrees celcius, and Standard Delta H is -20.1 kJ/mol. (jiskha.com)
  • The equilibrium constant K for the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phosphate is 1.66 X 10^5 at 37o C, and ÄHè is -20.1 kJ/mol. (jiskha.com)
  • ADP(aq) + H2PO4-(aq), wehre ADP represents adenosine diphosphate. (jiskha.com)
  • Methods and Results- Aggregation, measured using a platelet-counting technique, occurred in response to ATP and was maximal at 10 to 100 μmol/L. It was abolished by MRS2179, AR-C69931, and creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase, implying that conversion to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is required. (ahajournals.org)
  • Large quantities of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) are present in erythrocytes, platelets, and other cells and tissues and can leave the cells via physical damage or exocytosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, Szent-Gyorgyi and Isenberg used electron paramagnetic resonance techniques to examine the nature of charge-transfer in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and ask what it might say about ATP's role in cell metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • The reaction product is adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and the phosphate group either ends up as orthophosphate (HPO 4 ) or attached to another molecule ( e.g . an alcohol). (bris.ac.uk)
  • Effects of arginine and some analogues of the partial adenosine triphosphate-adenosine diphosphate exchange reaction catalysed by arginine kinase. (portlandpress.com)
  • From the perspective of biochemistry , ATP is classified as a nucleoside triphosphate , which indicates that it consists of three components, a nitrogenous base ( adenine ), the sugar ribose, and the triphosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATP (Adenosine-5'-triphosphate), also known as Adenosine triphosphate, is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme and transports energy within cells for metabolism. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • is a nucleoside triphosphate. (slideserve.com)
  • It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine. (slideserve.com)
  • Similar peak responses were observed with maximal concentrations of these four agonists and with the hydrolysis-resistant adenine nucleoside triphosphate adenosine-5′- O -(3-thiotriphosphate). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In its many reactions related to metabolism, the adenine and sugar groups remain unchanged, but the triphosphate is converted to di- and monophosphate, giving respectively the derivatives ADP and AMP . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) + adenosine monophosphate (AMP) swab test, which incorporates a luciferase assay and (2) a bacteria count using the dielectrophoretic impedance measurement (DEPIM) method. (mdpi.com)
  • The proposed visual and PRA sensor exhibit good selectivity against adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate. (mdpi.com)
  • These include enzymes that convert ATP to ADP and ADP to AMP (NTPDase-1, also known as ATP diphosphohydrolase, CD 39 and EC 3.6.1.5), 13,14 ATP to AMP and ADP to AMP (5′-monophosphate phosphoanhydrolase/phosphodiesterase, NMPP), 15 and AMP to adenosine (5′-nucleotidase), 13 the latter being an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Even more energy can be extracted by removing a second phosphate group to produce adenosine monophosphate (AMP). (bris.ac.uk)
  • Relaxation of the rat thoracic aorta with adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and/or trypsin was associated with increased levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate in both time- and concentration-dependent manners. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thrombin and trypsin did not alter cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, whereas adenosine triphosphate increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels after significant relaxation occurred. (ahajournals.org)
  • After incubation of intact tissue with 32P-orthophosphate, the patterns of protein phosphorylation caused by adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and trypsin were indistinguishable from those of acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside and 8-bromo cyclic guanosine monophosphate. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, the present study supports the hypothesis that relaxation induced by adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and trypsin is mediated through the formation of an endothelial factor which elevates cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels and causes cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of myosin light chain. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adenosine itself is composed of two major molecular entities, adenine (a nitrogen-containing molecule) and ribose (a five-carbon sugar). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Comparison of beat frequencies with rates of dephosphorylation of adenosine triphosphate by glycerinated sea urchin spermatozoa as functions of adenosine triphosphate concentration suggests that each molecule of the flagellar adenosine triphosphatase, dynein, dephosphorylates one adenosine triphosphate molecule during each beat cycle. (caltech.edu)
  • However, a much more flexible system actually occurs where exergonic reactions in all organisms are linked to the production of an intermediary molecule, ATP (adenosine triphosphate). (markedbyteachers.com)
  • has been awarded to 3 biochemists for the study of the important biological molecule, adenosine triphosphate . (bris.ac.uk)
  • Organic compound from adenosine, which is formed by the hydrolysis of yeast nucleic acids. (paulaschoice.com)
  • Cells use the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (aTP) as a source of energy. (jiskha.com)
  • We observe that CDCs induce pores in dendritic cells (DC) as well as other cell types in a dose dependent manner, which allows the subsequent release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (jimmunol.org)
  • In vitro release of adenosine triphosphate from the urothelium of huma" by Vivek Kumar, Christopher R. Chapple et al. (edu.au)
  • The biologic actions of extracellular adenosine triphosphate. (cdc.gov)
  • Role of extracellular adenosine triphosphate in human skin. (lorealparisusa.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide used in cells as a coenzyme. (wikiversity.org)
  • Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate, is a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATP, adenosine triphosphate, is a nucleotide that has been known to drive and participate in countless intracellular processes. (lorealparisusa.com)
  • Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide, and plays an important role in cell biology as a coenzyme that is the 'molecular unit of currency' of intracellular energy transfer. (alamy.com)
  • With high level of very long chain fatty acid, gene study showed a de novo mutation in exon 1 at nucleotide position c.277_296dup20 (p.Ala100Cysfs*10) of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette D1 gene. (nih.gov)
  • An essential nucleotide triphosphate with a variety of roles in energy metabolism, signal transduction and nucleic acid metabolism. (bioexpress.com)
  • The agonist selectivity for adenosine di- and triphosphates was determined for the human P2Y 1 receptor stably expressed in human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells and was studied under conditions in which nucleotide metabolism was both minimized and assessed. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Illustration of the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the mitochondria. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Beneficial effects of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ channel opener on liver ischemia/reperfusion injury. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Removal of extracellular calcium, which also presumably inhibits phospholipase A2, prevented the elevated levels of cyclic nucleotides and the inhibitory effects of adenosine triphosphate and trypsin on contraction. (ahajournals.org)
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Adenosine_thiamine_triphosphate" . (bionity.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an organic compound and hydrotrope that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells, such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse propagation, condensate dissolution, and chemical synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997 was split, one half given to both Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the other half to Jens C. Skou for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase . (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme ATP synthase provides energy for the cell through the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Obligatory coupling between proton entry and the synthesis of adenosine 5'-triphosphate in Streptococcus lactis. (asm.org)
  • When present, elevated proton entry coincided with the appearance of net synthesis of adenosine 5'-triphosphate catalyzed by this adenosine 5'-triphosphatase. (asm.org)
  • These observations demonstrate that membrane-bound adenosine 5'-triphosphatase catalyzes an obligatory coupling between the inward movement of protons and synthesis of adenosine 5'-triphosphate. (asm.org)
  • Adenosine-5'-triphosphate-(ATP) mediated stimulation and suppression of DNA synthesis in lymphoid cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Guanosine 5'-triphosphate had nonspecific stimulatory effects on the DNA synthesis of various lymphoid cells, whereas cytidine triphosphate had no effect. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition to its well-known involvement in intracellular energy and intermediary metabolism, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), when present in extracellular domains, can elicit functional responses in a large number of types of tissue and cells. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter. (curehunter.com)
  • MONTREAL, Feb. 26 (UPI) -- An international team of researchers have designed and built a model biological supercomputer powered by adenosine triphosphate, or ATP -- a biochemical sometimes called a "molecular unit of currency" because it enables the transfer of energy inside cells. (upi.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate molecular model showing high energy bonds with a periodic table of elements in the background -- white=hydrogen, blue=nitrogen, black-carbon, red=oxygen, green=phosphorus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The molecular weight of ATP is roughly twice that of adenosine (551.15 g versus 267.24 g). (ahajournals.org)
  • In terms of its structure, ATP consists of an adenine attached by the 9-nitrogen atom to the 1′ carbon atom of a sugar ( ribose ), which in turn is attached at the 5′ carbon atom of the sugar to a triphosphate group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alterations in adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in cultured endothelial and P388D1 cells after oxidant injury. (jci.org)
  • is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. (slideserve.com)
  • For delta muH+ above 175 to 200 mV, elevated proton entry occurred only in cells having a functional membrane-bound Ca2+-stimulated, Mg2+stimulated adenosine 5'-triphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.3). (asm.org)
  • Previous research has identified adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as an important vasodilator that is released from red blood cells during exercise and exposure to hypoxic environments in adul. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Objective- Effects on platelet aggregation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from damaged cells and from platelets undergoing exocytosis have not been clearly established. (ahajournals.org)
  • 10,16 Also, adenosine can be taken up and neutralized by erythrocytes and other blood cells, thus limiting its potential inhibitory action. (ahajournals.org)
  • ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is present in all organic material and is the universal unit of energy found in animal, plant, bacterial, yeast and mould cells. (legionellacontrol.com)
  • To assess whether differences in the degree of receptor reserve might explain this discrepancy of results, P2Y 1 receptor-expressing 1321N1 cells were incubated for 24 hr with adenosine-5′- O -(2-thiodiphosphate), with the goal of down-regulating the level of functional receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), while adenosine triphosphate(ATP) can prevent Zr(IV)-induced aggregation of AuNPs. (mdpi.com)
  • A label-free hairpin aptamer probe for colorimetric detection of adenosine triphosphate based on the anti-aggregation of gold nanoparticles. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Recently, Jeremias et al 1 reported their studies comparing the vasodilator action of intracoronary injected adenosine with ATP in 6 healthy mongrel dogs. (ahajournals.org)
  • We addressed these questions in the human forearm 3 and observed that ATP is a more potent vasodilator than adenosine at equimolar doses. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, the maximal vasodilator action of ATP or adenosine should be determined before it can be concluded that "maximal hyperemia was not achieved by either pharmacological stimulus. (ahajournals.org)
  • While exogenous ATP can be rapidly catabolized to adenosine by a number of ectophosphohydrolases, many of the observed actions of extracellular ATP can be distinguished from those triggered by occupation of the well characterized A1- and A2-receptors for extracellular adenosine. (cdc.gov)
  • In these studies of Burnstock and colleagues, the use of the term P2-purinergic was introduced to designate the putative receptor(s) for ATP and to distinguish them from so-called P1-purinergic receptors for adenosine. (cdc.gov)
  • Both groups conclude that adenosine and ATP are equipotent coronary vasodilators and suggest that the ATP-induced vasodilation is caused by its degradation to AMP and adenosine, with subsequent stimulation of adenosine A 2 receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • A novel approach to evaluating this role is to apply the photoaffinity analogue of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), 8-azido[γ- 32 P]adenosine 5′-triphosphate (8-N 3 -[γ- 32 P]ATP), to extracts obtained from nondividing and dividing tissues in order to label high affinity ATP receptors, including protein kinases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Zhu Y, Hu XC, Shi S, Gao RR, HL H, Zhu YY, Lv XY, TM Y (2016) Ultrasensitive and universal fluorescent aptasensor for the detection of biomolecules (ATP, adenosine and thrombin) based on DNA/ag nanoclusters fluorescence light-up system. (springer.com)
  • Mechanisms of adenosine triphosphate-, thrombin-, and trypsin-induced relaxation of rat thoracic aorta. (ahajournals.org)
  • The mechanisms by which adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and trypsin cause relaxation of vascular smooth muscle were investigated. (ahajournals.org)
  • Removal of the endothelium abolished adenosine triphosphate-, thrombin-, and trypsin-induced relaxation and the associated increased levels of cyclic nucleotides. (ahajournals.org)
  • Bromophenacyl bromide, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, decreased relaxation due to adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and trypsin and the associated increased levels of cyclic nucleotides. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the power source of many biochemical reactions. (britannica.com)
  • Steady-state hyperemia could only be obtained by intracoronary papaverine and by intravenous ATP or adenosine. (ahajournals.org)
  • Only intracoronary papaverine and intravenous ATP or adenosine induce steady-state hyperemia enabling a pressure pullback maneuver that is useful in assessing diffuse coronary atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to compare, side-by-side, the effects of different dosages and routes of administrations of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine with intracoronary administration of contrast medium and papaverine regarding their potential for inducing maximal and steady-state hyperemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2. Jeremias et al 1 did not study the maximal effect of intracoronary adenosine or ATP. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unit 4: respiration Respiration is the process in which energy stored in complex molecules is used to make ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Energy is the ability to do work, it exists as potential (stored) or kinetic (movement) energy, large organic molecules contain chemical potential energy. (majortests.com)
  • Dipyridamole, an adenosine uptake inhibitor, was obtained from Boehringer Ingelheim. (ahajournals.org)
  • Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, potentiated relaxation to these agents, whereas the increased levels of cyclic nucleotides due to adenosine triphosphate were unaltered. (ahajournals.org)
  • Perfusion pressure control by adenosine triphosphate given during cardiopulmonary bypass. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to assess semi-quantification of myocardial perfusion using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-stress myocardial perfusion computed tomography (MPCT) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). (go.jp)
  • 6-8 However, in a more detailed dose-response study, the maximal tested dose of adenosine was 16 μg for the left coronary artery, 12 μg for the right coronary artery, and 140 μg · kg − 1 · min − 1 as an intravenous infusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inotropic and coronary vasodilatory actions of the K-adenosine triphosphate channel modulator nicorandil in human tissue. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A label-free fluorometric aptasensor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection based on aggregation-induced emission probe. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Based on Aggregation-Induced Emission (AIE), the development of a label-free, simple and sensitive fluorometric aptasensor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection is described. (bioportfolio.com)
  • There was neither an accumulation of metabolic products (uric acid, phosphate) nor a decrease in the level of divalent cation (Ca2+), which is observed when the cations combine with phosphates or adenosine nucleotides. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dipyridamole, which inhibits adenosine uptake into erythrocytes, inhibited aggregation induced by ATP in whole blood, and adenosine deaminase reversed this. (ahajournals.org)
  • Determine the individualized maximum tolerated dose of adenosine triphosphate in patients with advanced solid tumors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • On the basis of a dose-response curve ranging from 10 to 100 μg, the authors conclude that adenosine and ATP are approximately equipotent vasodilators. (ahajournals.org)
  • Similar results were obtained by Kato et al 2 in the human coronary vasculature using a single dose of adenosine and ATP (20 μg), without comparison with postischemic hyperemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, these data do not exclude the possibility that dose escalation of ATP or adenosine would have resulted in a further increase in vasodilation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a potassium efflux agent, can trigger the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in response to PAMPs, such as LPS and peptidoglycan. (invivogen.com)
  • Adenosine Triphosphate All living organisms require a continuous supply of energy to survive. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • A marked reduction in red cell glucose utilization, lactate production, and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine triphosphate concentration occurred in a patient with intractable diarrhea during a period of hypophosphatemia induced by parenteral nutrition with hypertonic glucose and protein hydrolysate. (annals.org)
  • ATP - Adenosine tri-phosphate This is THE primary source of energy for muscle contraction. (scribd.com)
  • The energy is derived from removing a phosphate ion from ATP, resulting in ADP (Adenosine di-phosphate). (scribd.com)
  • ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) supplements have been shown to increase overall energy levels , reduce fatigue and support cardiovascular health to the overall benefit of the aging process. (swansonvitamins.com)
  • triphosphate (ATP) and its phosphate bonds are the basic components of energy exchange in many biological systems. (fishersci.ca)
  • 1.1 This test method covers a protocol for capturing, extracting and quantifying the cellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP) content associated with microorganisms normally found in laboratory cultures, waters, wastewaters, and in plankton and periphyton samples from waters. (astm.org)
  • Many of these functional effects of ATP, furthermore, can be observed at extracellular concentrations (nanomolar to low-micromolar) that are generally well below the Michaelis constant (Km) values for most intracellular adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) and other ATP-utilizing enzymes. (cdc.gov)
  • A fluorometric displacement assay for adenosine triphosphate using layered cobalt(II) double hydroxide nanosheets. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This study is a randomized, open-label, controlled study that will explore the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy based on the adenosine triphosphate tumor chemosensitivity assay for patien. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A total of 25 patients with autoimmune diseases receiving tacrolimus were screened using a peripheral blood cluster of differentiation 4+ adenosine triphosphate (ATP) activity assay (IMK assay) between October 2013 and July 2014. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • LICHTMAN MA, MILLER DR, COHEN J, WATERHOUSE C. Reduced Red Cell Glycolysis, 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate and Adenosine Triphosphate Concentration, and Increased Hemoglobin-Oxygen Affinity Caused by Hypophosphatemia. (annals.org)
  • Glutathione and adenosine triphosphate content of in vivo and in vitro matured porcine oocytes. (harvard.edu)
  • Objective - In this set of experiments, we have assessed the contribution of the urothelium to purinergic activity by quantifying the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from the urothelium of patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) and with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and comparing these releases to those of controls. (edu.au)
  • Another study suggested that only dosages of adenosine larger by 2 orders of magnitude ensure maximal vasodilation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adenosine triphosphate phosphoribosyltransferase (ATP-PRT) catalyzes the first committed step of the histidine biosynthesis in plants and microorganisms. (rcsb.org)
  • Processes such as photosynthesis in plants, muscle contraction in humans, respiration in fungi and fermentation in yeast are all driven by adenosine triphosphate. (legionellacontrol.com)