Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Receptor, Adenosine A2B: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Receptors, Adenosine A2: A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenine NucleotidesReceptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Uridine Triphosphate: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide): A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Adenosine A3 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Coformycin: A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.Adenosine A3 Receptor Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.2-Chloroadenosine: 2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.Thiamine Triphosphate: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-4-methyl-5-(4,6,8,8-tetrahydroxy-3,5,7-trioxa-4,6,8-triphosphaoct-1-yl)thiazolium hydroxide, inner salt, P,P',P''-trioxide. The triphosphate ester of thiamine. In Leigh's disease, this compound is present in decreased amounts in the brain due to a metabolic block in its formation.Inosine NucleotidesPhenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Phenylisopropyladenosine: N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Uracil NucleotidesNucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Receptors, Purinergic P2X: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Inosine Triphosphate: Inosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). An inosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonym: IRPPP.Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Purinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of PURINERGIC RECEPTORS.Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cytidine Triphosphate: Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y2: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and UTP. The activated P2Y2 receptor acts through a G-PROTEIN-coupled PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and intracellular CALCIUM SIGNALING pathway.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Cytosine NucleotidesReceptors, Purinergic P2X7: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.PyruvatesPyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Guanine NucleotidesPhosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.ATP Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the pathway for histidine biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. ATP reacts reversibly with 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to yield N-1-(5'-phosphoribosyl)-ATP and pyrophosphate. EC 2.4.2.17.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Firefly Luciferin: A benzothaizole which is oxidized by LUCIFERASES, FIREFLY to cause emission of light (LUMINESCENCE).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nucleoside-Triphosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Pentostatin: A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Tachyphylaxis: Rapidly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses. In immunology, it is the rapid immunization against the effect of toxic doses of an extract or serum by previous injection of small doses. (Dorland, 28th ed)Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Theobromine: 3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Purinergic P2X Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Suramin: A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.Diphosphoglyceric AcidsEthenoadenosine Triphosphate: 1,N-6-Ethenoadenosine triphosphate. A fluorescent analog of adenosine triphosphate.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Purinergic P2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Iodoacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Perchlorates: Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Adenosine Phosphosulfate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate: The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Thioinosine: Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Dideoxynucleotides: The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Dilazep: Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic activity.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Oxidative Phosphorylation Coupling FactorsDeoxyguanine Nucleotides: Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.TritiumBrain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.2,3-Diphosphoglycerate: A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Coenzyme AAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Polyphosphates: Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Arabinofuranosylcytosine Triphosphate: A triphosphate nucleotide analog which is the biologically active form of CYTARABINE. It inhibits nuclear DNA synthesis.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Nicorandil: A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
(1/29202) Inhibitory innervation of cat sphincter of Oddi.

1 Electrical stimulation with trains of 0.1-0.2 ms pulses of the cat isolated sphincter of Oddi inhibited the spontaneous contractile activity and lowered base-line tension considerably. A contraction usually followed the period of stimulation. 2 These inhibitory effects were prevented by tetrodotoxin 0.1-0.5 mug/ml but were not reduced by hexamethonilm, morphine, or blockade of alpha- or beta-adrenoreceptors of cholinoceptors with phenoxy-benzamine propranolol or atropine, respectively. 3 Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) inhibited the spontaneous sphincter activity and caused relaxation thus mimicking the effects of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (C8-CCK), isoprenaline and prostaglandin E1 and E2. 4 ATP alone (greater than 100 mug/ml) or ATP (greater than 10 mug/ml) plus dipyridamole (1 mug/ml), relaxed the sphincter to the same degrees as did the field stimulation. 5 In sphincter maximally contracted by acetylcholine, the effect of stimulation was more marked than that recorded in uncontracted preparations. 6 The present findings suggest that the sphincter of Oddi receives inhibitory nerves that are neither cholinergic nor adrenergic.  (+info)

(2/29202) Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation.

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

(3/29202) A novel nucleotide incorporation activity implicated in the editing of mitochondrial transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii.

In Acanthamoeba castellanii, most of the mtDNA-encoded tRNAs are edited by a process that replaces one or more of the first three nucleotides at their 5' ends. As a result, base pairing potential is restored at acceptor stem positions (1:72, 2:71, and/or 3:70, in standard tRNA nomenclature) that are mismatched according to the corresponding tRNA gene sequence. Here we describe a novel nucleotide incorporation activity, partially purified from A. castellanii mitochondria, that has properties implicating it in mitochondrial tRNA editing in this organism. This activity is able to replace nucleotides at the first three positions of a tRNA (positions 1, 2, and 3), matching the newly incorporated residues through canonical base pairing to the respective partner nucleotide in the 3' half of the acceptor stem. Labeling experiments with natural (Escherichia coli tRNATyr) and synthetic (run-off transcripts corresponding to A. castellanii mitochondrial tRNALeu1) substrates suggest that the nucleotide incorporation activity consists of at least two components, a 5' exonuclease or endonuclease and a template-directed 3'-to-5' nucleotidyltransferase. The nucleotidyltransferase component displays an ATP requirement and generates 5' pppN... termini in vitro. The development of an accurate and efficient in vitro system opens the way for detailed studies of the biochemical properties of this novel activity and its relationship to mitochondrial tRNA editing in A. castellanii. In addition, the system will allow delineation of the structural features in a tRNA that identify it as a substrate for the labeling activity.  (+info)

(4/29202) A processive single-headed motor: kinesin superfamily protein KIF1A.

A single kinesin molecule can move "processively" along a microtubule for more than 1 micrometer before detaching from it. The prevailing explanation for this processive movement is the "walking model," which envisions that each of two motor domains (heads) of the kinesin molecule binds coordinately to the microtubule. This implies that each kinesin molecule must have two heads to "walk" and that a single-headed kinesin could not move processively. Here, a motor-domain construct of KIF1A, a single-headed kinesin superfamily protein, was shown to move processively along the microtubule for more than 1 micrometer. The movement along the microtubules was stochastic and fitted a biased Brownian-movement model.  (+info)

(5/29202) Low resting potential and postnatal upregulation of NMDA receptors may cause Cajal-Retzius cell death.

Using in situ patch-clamp techniques in rat telencephalic slices, we have followed resting potential (RP) properties and the functional expression of NMDA receptors in neocortical Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells from embryonic day 18 to postnatal day 13, the time around which these cells normally disappear. We find that throughout their lives CR cells have a relatively depolarized RP (approximately -50 mV), which can be made more hyperpolarized (approximately -70 mV) by stimulation of the Na/K pump with intracellular ATP. The NMDA receptors of CR cells are subjected to intense postnatal upregulation, but their similar properties (EC50, Hill number, sensitivity to antagonists, conductance, and kinetics) throughout development suggest that their subunit composition remains relatively homogeneous. The low RP of CR cells is within a range that allows for the relief of NMDA channels from Mg2+ blockade. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that CR cells may degenerate and die subsequent to uncontrolled overload of intracellular Ca2+ via NMDA receptor activation by ambient glutamate. In support of this hypothesis we have obtained evidence showing the protection of CR cells via in vivo blockade of NMDA receptors with dizocilpine.  (+info)

(6/29202) Purinogen is not an endogenous substrate used in endothelial cells during substrate deprivation.

Porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) are known to be metabolically robust. They are capable of surviving extended periods of complete lack of exogenous substrate, and purine release has been shown to be significantly up-regulated. The endogenous substrates used during substrate deprivation, as well as the sources responsible for the increased purine release, have not been completely identified. We tested the possibility that a phosphoglyceroyl-ATP-containing polymer, purinogen, might support PAEC hibernation induced by lack of exogenous substrate. This involved isolation of the acid-insoluble fraction of PAEC, which was presumed to contain purinogen, and analysis by HPLC and 31P NMR. No evidence supporting the presence of triphosphate-containing compounds (purinogen) was found. Similar results were obtained in the rat heart. The majority of the products in the acid-insoluble, alkaline-treated fraction were identified as RNA degradation products (2'- and 3'-nucleoside monophosphates). A [14C]adenosine labelling experiment showed that incorporation of adenosine into the acid-insoluble fraction was almost completely prevented after inhibition of RNA synthesis with actinomycin D. Furthermore, RNA isolated from PAEC and subsequently treated with alkali showed a profile that was almost identical with the HPLC profile of the acid-insoluble fraction. Finally, substrate-free incubation of the cells did not quantitatively or qualitatively influence the distribution of acid-insoluble derivatives. We conclude that PAEC survival during the absence of exogenous substrate is not supported by purinogen but rather by some other, yet-to-be-identified, endogenous substrate.  (+info)

(7/29202) An RNA switch at the 5' splice site requires ATP and the DEAD box protein Prp28p.

Pre-mRNA splicing requires dramatic RNA rearrangements hypothesized to be catalyzed by ATP-dependent RNA unwindases of the DExD/H box family. In a rearrangement critical for the fidelity of 5' splice site recognition, a base-pairing interaction between the 5' splice site and U1 snRNA must be switched for a mutually exclusive interaction between the 5' splice site and U6 snRNA. By lengthening the U1:5' splice site duplex, we impeded this switch in a temperature-dependent manner and prevented formation of the spliceosome's catalytic core. Using genetics, we identified the DExD/H box protein Prp28p as a potential mediator of the switch. In vitro, the switch requires both Prp28p and ATP. We propose that Prp28p directs isomerization of RNA at the 5' splice site and promotes fidelity in splicing.  (+info)

(8/29202) Splicing factor Prp8 governs U4/U6 RNA unwinding during activation of the spliceosome.

The pre-mRNA 5' splice site is recognized by the ACAGA box of U6 spliceosomal RNA prior to catalysis of splicing. We previously identified a mutant U4 spliceosomal RNA, U4-cs1, that masks the ACAGA box in the U4/U6 complex, thus conferring a cold-sensitive splicing phenotype in vivo. Here, we show that U4-cs1 blocks in vitro splicing in a temperature-dependent, reversible manner. Analysis of splicing complexes that accumulate at low temperature shows that U4-cs1 prevents U4/U6 unwinding, an essential step in spliceosome activation. A novel mutation in the evolutionarily conserved U5 snRNP protein Prp8 suppresses the U4-cs1 growth defect. We propose that wild-type Prp8 triggers unwinding of U4 and U6 RNAs only after structurally correct recognition of the 5' splice site by the U6 ACAGA box and that the mutation (prp8-201) relaxes control of unwinding.  (+info)

*  Adenosine triphosphate
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) Adenosine-tetraphosphatase Adenosine methylene triphosphate ATPases ... Energy ATP and Exercise PubChem entry for Adenosine Triphosphate KEGG entry for Adenosine Triphosphate. ... Gajewski, E.; Steckler, D.; Goldberg, R. (1986). "Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5 ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. Found in all forms of life, ATP ...
*  Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (band)
... to join him as a vocalist and keyboardist in Adenosine Tri-Phosphate. In 1993, Adenosine Tri-Phosphate was formed in Tokyo. ... Adenosine Tri-Phosphate is a Japanese alternative rock/pop band. The group's name was suggested to the band from a fan. The ... adenosine tri-phosphate). (ND). Retrieved from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2011-11-04 ... concept of Adenosine Tri-Phosphate is powerful music with musical experiments. The group began with the guitarist, Mug, who is ...
*  Adenosine thiamine triphosphate
... (AThTP), or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate, is a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide. It ... Jordan F (2007). "Adenosine triphosphate and thiamine cross paths". Nat. Chem. Biol. 3 (4): 202-3. doi:10.1038/nchembio0407-202 ... "Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP) inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1(PARP-1) activity". J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo ... functional characterization of the enzyme synthesizing adenosine thiamine triphosphate". BMC Biochem. 8: 17. doi:10.1186/1471- ...
*  Regrelor
Nave, C.R. (2005). "Adenosine Triphosphate". Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet]. Georgia State University. Douglass, JG; ... Regrelor was synthesized from adenosine diphosphate (ADP), an endogenous chemical involved in metabolism. The authors noted ...
*  Adenosine diphosphate
ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ... ISBN 0-7167-7108-X. Nave, C.R. (2005). "Adenosine Triphosphate". Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet]. Georgia State ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ...
*  Nucleoside triphosphate
"ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate , Boundless Biology". courses.lumenlearning.com-US. Retrieved 2017-11-12. Carvalho AT, Szeler K, ... For example, dATP stands for deoxyribose adenosine triphosphate. NTPs are the building blocks of RNA, and dNTPs are the ... Nucleoside triphosphates cannot be absorbed well, so all nucleoside triphosphates are typically made de novo. The synthesis of ... A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose ...
*  Acylglycerol kinase
Pieringer R.A.; Hokin L.E.; adenosine triphosphate (1962). "Biosynthesis of lysophosphatdic acid from monoglyceride". J. Biol. ...
*  Actin
Each molecule of actin is bound to a molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP) that is associated ... The adenosine nucleotide binding site is located between two beta hairpin-shaped structures pertaining to the I and III domains ... The divalent cation binding site is located just below that for the adenosine nucleotide. In vivo it is most often formed by ... This fold is a conserved structural motif that is also found in other proteins that interact with triphosphate nucleotides such ...
*  Arachnocampa luminosa
... adenosine triphosphate, the energy molecule; and oxygen. It occurs in modified excretory organs known as Malpighian tubules in ...
*  List of OMIM disorder codes
APC Adenosine deaminase deficiency, partial; 102700; ADA Adenosine triphosphate, elevated, of erythrocytes; 102900; PKLR ...
*  Energy charge
Stryer, Biochemistry Atkinson DE, Walton GM (1967). "Adenosine triphosphate conservation in metabolic regulation. Rat liver ...
*  Proton pump
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) driven proton pumps (also referred to as proton ATPases or H+ -ATPases) are proton pumps driven by ... or adenosine triphosphate (ATP; proton ATPases). Complex I (EC 1.6.5.3) (also referred to as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or ... the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Three classes of proton ATPases are found in nature. In a single cell (for ...
*  Mitochondrial optic neuropathies
Rizzo, Joseph F. (1995). "Adenosine triphosphate deficiency: a genre of optic neuropathy". Neurology. 45 (1): 11-6. doi:10.1212 ...
*  ATP deaminase
This enzyme is also called adenosine triphosphate deaminase. Chung ST, Aida K (January 1967). "Purification and properties of ...
*  ABCC8
Aguilar-Bryan L, Bryan J (1999). "Molecular biology of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels". Endocr. Rev. 20 (2 ... 1996). "Adenosine diphosphate as an intracellular regulator of insulin secretion". Science. 272 (5269): 1785-7. doi:10.1126/ ...
*  Enzyme catalysis
1971). "Mechanism of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by actomyosin". Biochemistry. 10: 4617-4624. doi:10.1021/bi00801a004. ... adenosine triphosphate). Catalysis of biochemical reactions in the cell is vital due to the very low reaction rates of the ... 1997). "Kinetics of nucleoside triphosphate cleavage and phosphate release steps by associated rabbit skeletal actomyosin, ...
*  Dinitro-ortho-cresol
This toxicant interferes with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Symptoms of dinitro-ortho-cresol poisoning, due to ...
*  Kir6.2
Aguilar-Bryan L, Bryan J (1999). "Molecular biology of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels". Endocr. Rev. 20 (2 ...
*  Colin Nichols
Nichols, C. G.; Lederer, W. J. (1991). "Adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in the cardiovascular system". The ... "Adenosine Diphosphate as an Intracellular Regulator of Insulin Secretion". Science. 272 (5269): 1785-7. doi:10.1126/science. ...
*  Membrane channel
They release Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which activate purinergic receptors. On the other hand, purinergic receptor ...
*  Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis
Sirturo is an adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATP synthase) inhibitor. The following drugs are experimental compounds that are ...
*  Firefly luciferin
As with all other luciferins, oxygen is required to elicit light; however, it has also been found adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ... Green A, McElroy WD (1956). "Function of adenosine triphosphate in the activation of luciferin". Arch Biochem Biophys. 64 (2): ...
*  Lombricine kinase
Gaffney TJ, Rosenberg H, Ennor AH (1964). "The purification and properties of adenosine triphosphate-lombricine ...
*  Luciferin
The chemistry is unusual, as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is required for light emission, in addition to molecular oxygen. ... "Function of adenosine triphosphate in the activation of luciferin". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 64 (2): 257-71. doi:10.1016/0003- ...
*  ATP diphosphatase
... adenosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase, and ATP diphosphohydrolase [ambiguous]. This enzyme participates in purine metabolism ... JOHNSON M, KAYE MA, HEMS R, KREBS HA (1953). "Enzymic hydrolysis of adenosine phosphates by cobra venom". Biochem. J. 54 (4): ... HEPPEL LA, HILMOE RJ (1953). "Mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis of adenosinetriphosphate". J. Biol. Chem. 202 (1): 217-26. PMID ...
*  Brain ischemia
... to switch to anaerobic metabolism and because it does not have any long term energy stored the levels of adenosine triphosphate ...
Effects of Intravenous and Intracoronary Adenosine 5′-Triphosphate as Compared With Adenosine on Coronary Flow and Pressure...  Effects of Intravenous and Intracoronary Adenosine 5′-Triphosphate as Compared With Adenosine on Coronary Flow and Pressure...
Effects of Intravenous and Intracoronary Adenosine 5′-Triphosphate as Compared With Adenosine on Coronary Flow and Pressure ... Effects of intravenous and intracoronary adenosine 5′-triphosphate as compared with adenosine on coronary flow and pressure ... Effects of Intravenous and Intracoronary Adenosine 5′-Triphosphate as Compared With Adenosine on Coronary Flow and Pressure ... Effects of Intravenous and Intracoronary Adenosine 5′-Triphosphate as Compared With Adenosine on Coronary Flow and Pressure ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/103/10/e58
Adenosine triphosphate - Wikipedia  Adenosine triphosphate - Wikipedia
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) Adenosine-tetraphosphatase Adenosine methylene triphosphate ATPases ... Energy ATP and Exercise PubChem entry for Adenosine Triphosphate KEGG entry for Adenosine Triphosphate. ... Gajewski, E.; Steckler, D.; Goldberg, R. (1986). "Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5 ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. Found in all forms of life, ATP ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_triphosphate
Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (band) - Wikipedia  Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (band) - Wikipedia
... to join him as a vocalist and keyboardist in Adenosine Tri-Phosphate. In 1993, Adenosine Tri-Phosphate was formed in Tokyo. ... Adenosine Tri-Phosphate is a Japanese alternative rock/pop band. The group's name was suggested to the band from a fan. The ... adenosine tri-phosphate). (ND). Retrieved from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2011-11-04 ... concept of Adenosine Tri-Phosphate is powerful music with musical experiments. The group began with the guitarist, Mug, who is ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_Tri-Phosphate_(band)
Adenosine triphosphate  Adenosine triphosphate
... 2007 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Chemical compounds. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate. ... Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), discovered in 1929 by Karl Lohmann, is a multifunctional nucleotide primarily known in ... adenosine - itself composed of an adenine ring and a ribose sugar - and three phosphate groups (triphosphate). The phosphoryl ... adenosine and other nucleosides (ADO , AMP , ADP , ATP). P1 receptors have A1, A2a, A2b, and A3 subtypes ('A' as a remnant of ...
more infohttp://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~rwest/wikispeedia/wpcd/wp/a/Adenosine_triphosphate.htm
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) News, Research  Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) News, Research
... seawater or wastewater samples using bioluminescent technology to measure adenosine triphosphate. ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/?tag=/Adenosine+Triphosphate+
Adenosine triphosphate - Wikipedia  Adenosine triphosphate - Wikipedia
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. Found in all forms of life, ATP ... "Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5′-diphosphate" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 261 (27): ... Walker for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the other ... "The discovery of adenosine triphosphate and the establishment of its structure". J. Hist. Biol. 24 (1): 145-154. doi:10.1007/ ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_triphosphate
Adenosine triphosphate - New World Encyclopedia  Adenosine triphosphate - New World Encyclopedia
Adenosine monophosphate. AMP. Adenosine diphosphate. ADP. Adenosine triphosphate. ATP. The three linked phosphoryl groups, ... ATP consists of adenosine and three attached phosphate groups (triphosphate). Adenosine itself is composed of two major ... History of "Adenosine triphosphate". Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the chemical compound known in biochemistry as the "molecular currency" of intracellular energy ...
more infohttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Adenosine_triphosphate
Adenosine Triphosphate News, Research - Page 2  Adenosine Triphosphate News, Research - Page 2
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with colleagues at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the University of Manitoba and St. Boniface Hospital Albrechtsen Research Centre in Canada, have identified a molecular signaling pathway that, when blocked, promotes sensory neuron growth and prevents or reverses peripheral neuropathy in cell and rodent models of type 1 and 2 diabetes, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and HIV.. ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/?tag=/Adenosine-Triphosphate&page=2
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)  Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Since 1991 we have been producing articles, magazines and conferences to promote and educate the population on how to maintain optimal health as they age. We also provide information on where to safely purchase hard to obtain medicines, nutritional supplements and bio identical hormones to make these theories and methods a reality.. ...
more infohttps://antiaging-systems.com/ingredients/3-adenosine-triphosphate-atp
Mitochondria Stock Photo & More Pictures of Adenosine Triphosphate | iStock  Mitochondria Stock Photo & More Pictures of Adenosine Triphosphate | iStock
And search more of iStock's library of royalty-free stock images that features Adenosine Triphosphate photos available for ...
more infohttps://www.istockphoto.com/my/photo/mitochondria-gm846236786-138573087
New bio supercomputer powered by adenosine triphosphate - UPI.com  New bio supercomputer powered by adenosine triphosphate - UPI.com
An international team of researchers have designed and built a model biological supercomputer powered by adenosine triphosphate ... An international team of researchers have designed and built a model biological supercomputer powered by adenosine triphosphate ...
more infohttps://www.upi.com/Science_News/2016/02/26/Scientists-build-model-biological-supercomputer/2431456504540/
Royalty Free Adenosine Triphosphate Pictures, Images and Stock Photos - iStock  Royalty Free Adenosine Triphosphate Pictures, Images and Stock Photos - iStock
Get Adenosine Triphosphate pictures and royalty-free images from iStock. Find high-quality stock photos that you won't find ... Adenosine Triphosphate Pictures, Images and Stock Photos. {{query.routeData['artist']}}. *. Related searches:. ...
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ATP (adenosine triphosphate)  ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Miscellaneous: ATP (adenosine triphosphate), Catalase, DNA, Escherichia coli, Homeopathy, Lipid peroxidation, Reactive oxygen ... Miscellaneous: ATP (adenosine triphosphate), Efflux pump, Glycosides, Phosphodiesterase-5, Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, ... KEY WORDS: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), Arsenicum album, Arsenine, Arsenic resistance gene, Bacteria, Catalase, DNA damage, ...
more infohttps://www.rainbow.coop/nutritional-library/miscellaneous/atp-adenosine-triphosphate/
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) (63PQJ39JW) by 3DBiology  Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) (63PQJ39JW) by 3DBiology
... on Shapeways. Learn more before you buy, or discover other cool products ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) a small molecule used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often ... product/63PQJ39JW/adenosine-triphosphate-atp' /, ,input type='hidden' class='' name='confirmation' value=' ... When ATP breaks into ADP (Adenosine diphosphate) and Pi (phosphate), the breakdown of the last covalent link of phosphate (a ...
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NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 20030700 - The biologic actions of extracellular adenosine triphosphate.  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20030700 - The biologic actions of extracellular adenosine triphosphate.
... adenosine triphosphate (ATP), when present in extracellular domains, can elicit functional responses in a large number of types ... While exogenous ATP can be rapidly catabolized to adenosine by a number of ectophosphohydrolases, many of the observed actions ... In addition to its well-known involvement in intracellular energy and intermediary metabolism, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), ... While exogenous ATP can be rapidly catabolized to adenosine by a number of ectophosphohydrolases, many of the observed actions ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20030700.html
Kitar Krebs | Adenosine Triphosphate | Cellular Respiration  Kitar Krebs | Adenosine Triphosphate | Cellular Respiration
Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often called the 'molecular ... ATP - Adenosine tri-phosphate This is THE primary source of energy for muscle contraction. All other 'energy sources' actually ... 9.Adenosine triphosphate 10. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 11. Jump to: navigation, search 12. This article is about ... Adenosine triphosphate . IUPAC name[hide] [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan2-yl]methyl( ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/doc/42885910/Kitar-Krebs
How does ATP ( Adenosine Tri Phosphate I think ) work ??  How does ATP ( Adenosine Tri Phosphate I think ) work ??
... Paul paulcord at pop.ozonline.com.au Wed Jul 12 06:44:17 EST 1995 * ... Next message: How does ATP ( Adenosine Tri Phosphate I think ) work ?? * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ... Next message: How does ATP ( Adenosine Tri Phosphate I think ) work ?? * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ... I stubled accross Adenosine in a suppliment form and it was recommened I take two a day. In a day or so I was a new person. I ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/hypermail/neur-sci/1995-July/008396.html
CRP 101 Lecture No. 16 | Cellular Respiration | Adenosine Triphosphate  CRP 101 Lecture No. 16 | Cellular Respiration | Adenosine Triphosphate
Assistant Professor (Crop Physiology) C. cytochrome c. This is called as terminal oxidation.+ 2H+) to produce one H2O molecule.e. Two hydrogen atoms or electrons from the reduced coenzyme (NADH2 or NADPH2) travel through FAD and the cytochromes and ultimately combines with 1/2O2 molecule to produce one molecule of H2O. The terminal oxidation of each reduced coenzyme requires 1/2O2 molecule and 2H atoms (i. 2 e.e. they cannot give or take protons (H+) . UQ (ubiquinone). TERMINAL OXIDATION OF THE REDUCED COENZYMES / ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM AND OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION last step in aerobic respiration is the oxidation of reduced coenzymes produced in glycolysis and Krebs' cycle by molecular oxygen through FAD. cytochrome b. Except for flavoproteins (like FAD) and ubiquinone (UQ) which are hydrogen carriers. cytochrome a and cytochrome a3 (cytochrome oxidase). the other components of electron transport chain (cytochromes) are only electron carriers i.. .. ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM .. NAD = ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/presentation/251604351/CRP-101-Lecture-No-16
adenosine triphosphate  adenosine triphosphate
Organic compound from adenosine, which is formed by the hydrolysis of yeast nucleic acids. ... Home Expert Advice Ingredient Dictionary adenosine triphosphate html body .pt_content-search-result #main { margin-top: 10px ...
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  • In terms of its structure, ATP consists of an adenine attached by the 9-nitrogen atom to the 1′ carbon atom of a sugar (ribose), which in turn is attached at the 5′ carbon atom of the sugar to a triphosphate group. (wikipedia.org)
  • While exogenous ATP can be rapidly catabolized to adenosine by a number of ectophosphohydrolases, many of the observed actions of extracellular ATP can be distinguished from those triggered by occupation of the well characterized A1- and A2-receptors for extracellular adenosine. (cdc.gov)
  • 1.1 This test method covers a protocol for capturing, extracting and quantifying the cellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP) content associated with microorganisms normally found in laboratory cultures, waters, wastewaters, and in plankton and periphyton samples from waters. (astm.org)
  • Promega Corporation's new Promega Water-Glo™ System, launched this week, offers a highly sensitive and flexible measurement tool for monitoring microbial contamination in freshwater, process water, seawater or wastewater samples using bioluminescent technology to measure adenosine triphosphate. (news-medical.net)
  • I stubled accross Adenosine in a suppliment form and it was recommened I take two a day. (bio.net)