Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Receptor, Adenosine A2B: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Receptors, Adenosine A2: A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Adenine Nucleotides1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESCyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide): A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.AMP Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Phenylisopropyladenosine: N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Etretinate: An oral retinoid used in the treatment of keratotic genodermatosis, lichen planus, and psoriasis. Beneficial effects have also been claimed in the prophylaxis of epithelial neoplasia. The compound may be teratogenic.Inosine NucleotidesPhosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Rolipram: A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.Inosine Monophosphate: Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Nucleotides, CyclicPhosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Adenosine A3 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Adenosine A3 Receptor Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Anthralin: An anthracene derivative that disrupts MITOCHONDRIA function and structure and is used for the treatment of DERMATOSES, especially PSORIASIS. It may cause FOLLICULITIS.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.2-Chloroadenosine: 2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cytidine Monophosphate: Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Tachyphylaxis: Rapidly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses. In immunology, it is the rapid immunization against the effect of toxic doses of an extract or serum by previous injection of small doses. (Dorland, 28th ed)Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone: Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.IMP Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 1.1.1.205.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits: Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Thiamine Monophosphate: Thiamine dihydrogen phosphate ester. The monophosphate ester of thiamine. Synonyms: monophosphothiamine; vitamin B1 monophosphate.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.TritiumThionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Dideoxyadenosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Alprostadil: A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.HexosephosphatesNelumbo: A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 3: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Receptors, Cyclic AMP: Cell surface proteins that bind cyclic AMP with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized cyclic AMP receptors are those of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The transcription regulator CYCLIC AMP RECEPTOR PROTEIN of prokaryotes is not included nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Adrenergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Coformycin: A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.Uridine Monophosphate: 5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Keratolytic Agents: Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Theobromine: 3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)Aminoimidazole Carboxamide: An imidazole derivative which is a metabolite of the antineoplastic agents BIC and DIC. By itself, or as the ribonucleotide, it is used as a condensation agent in the preparation of nucleosides and nucleotides. Compounded with orotic acid, it is used to treat liver diseases.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Milrinone: A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.Deoxycytidine Monophosphate: Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Aminophylline: A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.Pentostatin: A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Adenosine Phosphosulfate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Ginkgolides: DITERPENES with three LACTONES and a unique tert-butyl group, which are found in GINKGO plants along with BILOBALIDES.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Thioinosine: Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)Purinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of PURINERGIC RECEPTORS.Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP: N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Pyrrolidinones: A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP2 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Receptors, Prostaglandin: Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
(1/2141) The direct spectrophotometric observation of benzo(a)pyrene phenol formation by liver microsomes.

Optical spectral repetitive scan analysis during the oxidative metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by liver microsomal suspensions reveals the time-dependent formation of an intermediate(s) of which the visible spectra resemble those of several benzo(a)pyrene phenols. Liver microsomes from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats showed a greater rate of formation of the phenols than did microsomes from control animals; the rate of formation catalyzed by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats was intermediate. When 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was used as a standard for comparison of activity, the rates of formation of phenols were compared when measured by fluorometric, spectrophotometric, or high-pressure liquid chromatographic analytical techniques. An epoxide hydrase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide, enhanced phenol formation regardless of the source of liver microsomes, and 7,8-benzoflavone inhibited control and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced microsomal metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, 7,8-Benzoflavone did not effect benzo(a)pyrene metabolism by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats. The effect of inhibitors on the spectrophotometric assay correlates well with the results obtained from benzo(a)pyrene metabolite analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography.  (+info)

(2/2141) Utilization of exogenous purine compounds in Bacillus cereus. Translocation of the ribose moiety of inosine.

Intact cells of Bacillus cereus catalyze the breakdown of exogenous AMP to hypoxanthine and ribose 1-phosphate through the successive action of 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase, and inosine phosphorylase. Inosine hydrolase was not detectable, even in crude extracts. Inosine phosphorylase causes a "translocation" of the ribose moiety (as ribose 1-phosphate) inside the cell, while hypoxanthine remains external. Even though the equilibrium of the phosphorolytic reaction favors nucleoside synthesis, exogenous inosine (as well as adenosine and AMP) is almost quantitatively transformed into external hypoxanthine, since ribose 1-phosphate is readily metabolized inside the cell. Most likely, the translocated ribose 1-phosphate enters the sugar phosphate shunt, via its prior conversion into ribose 5-phosphate, thus supplying the energy required for the subsequent uptake of hypoxanthine in B. cereus.  (+info)

(3/2141) Fluorescence changes of a label attached near the myosin active site on nucleotide binding in rat skeletal muscle fibres.

1. Trinitrophenyl AMP (TNP-AMP) in the concentration range 10-300 microM induced an increase in fluorescence intensity at around 530 nm in skinned skeletal muscle fibres freshly obtained from rat psoas muscle. 2. The fluorescence intensity of the fibres depended on TNP-AMP concentration up to approximately 200 microM. The Kd of TNP-AMP binding to the muscle fibres was 38.0 +/- 8.4 microM (mean +/- s.d., n = 4 measurements) in three fibres. TNP-AMP fluorescence was readily washed out. 3. Various nucleotides affected the fluorescence of the fibres incubated in 20 microM TNP-AMP. MgATP (1 mM) and caged ATP (5 mM) reduced the fluorescence in 20 microM TNP-AMP by more than 40 % of the value measured in the absence of nucleotide. 4. When the fibres were stretched to almost no filament overlap, the extent of the quenching of the TNP-AMP (20 microM) fluorescence due to ATP binding was reduced by 14 %. This might be explained by assuming that the association of the thin filament affected the TNP-AMP fluorescence in muscle fibres. 5. The distance between the active site and the specific site for TNP was measured by the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between N-methylanthraniloyl-ATP (Mant-ATP) bound to the active site and the TNP-AMP bound to the TNP-specific site in muscle fibres. The results showed that the distance between the two may be less than 2 nm. 6. It may be concluded that the fluorescence intensity at 530 nm in skinned muscle fibres in low concentrations of TNP-AMP changes directly reflecting the conformational state of the nucleotide-binding region that is determined by the binding of nucleotides.  (+info)

(4/2141) Self-regulated polymerization of the actin-related protein Arp1.

The actin-related protein Arp1 (or centractin, actin RPV) is the major subunit of dynactin, a key component of the cytoplasmic dynein motor machinery [1] [2] [3]. Of the ubiquitously expressed members of the Arp superfamily, Arp1 is most similar to conventional actin [4] [5] [6] and, on the basis of conserved sequence features, is predicted to bind ATP and possibly polymerize. In vivo, all cytosolic Arp1 sediments at 20S [7] suggesting that it assembles into oligomers, most likely dynactin - a multiprotein complex known to contain eight or nine Arp1 monomers in a 37 nm filament [8]. The uniform length of Arp1 polymers suggests a novel assembly mechanism that may be governed by a 'ruler' activity. In dynactin, the Arp1 filament is bounded by actin-capping protein at one end and a heterotetrameric protein complex containing the p62 subunit (D.M. Eckley, S.R. Gill, J.B.B., J.E. Heuser, T.A.S., unpublished observations) at the other [8]. In the present study, we analyzed the behavior of highly purified, native Arp1. Arp1 was found to polymerize rapidly into short filaments that were similar, but not identical, in length to those in dynactin. With time, these filaments appeared to anneal to form longer assemblies but never attained the length of conventional actin filaments.  (+info)

(5/2141) Effect of zinc on adenine nucleotide pools in relation to aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus.

The adenylic acid systems of Aspergillus parasiticus were studied in zinc-replete and zinc-deficient media. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels of the fungus were high during exponential phase and low during stationary phase in zinc-replete cultures. On the other hand, the levels of adenosine 5'-diphosphate and adenosine 5'-monophosphate were low during exponential phase of growth and high during stationary phase. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels during exponential phase may indicate higher primary metabolic activity of the fungus. On the other hand, high adenosine 5'-monophosphate levels during stationary phase may inhibit lipid formation and may enhance aflatoxin levels. The inorganic phosphorus content was low in a zinc-replete medium throughout the growth period, thereby favoring aflatoxin biosynthesis. The energy charge during the exponential phase was high but low during the stationary phase. In general the energy charge values were lower because of high adenosine 5'-monophosphate content.  (+info)

(6/2141) Common variant in AMPD1 gene predicts improved clinical outcome in patients with heart failure.

BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to identify gene(s) that may be associated with improved clinical outcome in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). The adenosine monophosphate deaminase locus (AMPD1) was selected for study. We hypothesized that inheritance of the mutant AMPD1 allele is associated with increased probability of survival without cardiac transplantation in patients with CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: AMPD1 genotype was determined in 132 patients with advanced CHF and 91 control reference subjects by use of a polymerase chain reaction-based, allele-specific oligonucleotide detection assay. In patients with CHF, those heterozygous (n=20) or homozygous (n=1) for the mutant AMPD1 allele (AMPD1 +/- or -/-, respectively) experienced a significantly longer duration of heart failure symptoms before referral for transplantation evaluation than CHF patients homozygous for the wild-type allele (AMPD1 +/+; n=111; 7.6+/-6.5 versus 3.2+/-3.6 years; P<0.001). The OR of surviving without cardiac transplantation >/=5 years after initial hospitalization for CHF symptoms was 8.6 times greater (95% CI: 3.05, 23.87) in those patients carrying >/=1 mutant AMPD1 allele than in those carrying 2 wild-type AMPD1 +/+ alleles. CONCLUSIONS: After the onset of CHF symptoms, the mutant AMPD1 allele is associated with prolonged probability of survival without cardiac transplantation. The mechanism by which the presence of the mutant AMPD1 allele may modify the clinical phenotype of heart failure remains to be determined.  (+info)

(7/2141) Human liver glycogen phosphorylase. Kinetic properties and assay in biopsy specimens.

1. The two forms of glycogen phosphorylase were purified from human liver, and some kinetic properties were examined in the direction of glycogen synthesis. The b form has a limited catalytic capacity, resembling that of the rabbit liver enzyme. It is characterized by a low affinity for glucose 1-phosphate, which is unaffected by AMP, and a low V, which becomes equal to that of the a form in the presence of the nucleotide. Lyotropic anions stimulate phosphorylase b and inhibit phosphorylase a by modifying the affinity for glucose 1-phosphate. Both enzyme forms are easily saturated with glycogen. 2. These kinetic properties have allowed us to design a simple assay method for total (a + b) phosphorylase in human liver. It requires only 0.5 mg of tissue, and its average efficiency is 90% when the enzyme is predominantly in the b form. 3. The assay of total phosphorylase allows the unequivocal diagnosis of hepatic glycogen-storage disease caused by phosphorylase deficiency. One patient with a complete deficiency is reported. 4. The assay of human liver phosphorylase a is based on the preferential inhibition of the b form by caffeine. The a form displays the same activity when measured by either of the two assays.  (+info)

(8/2141) Metabolism of methionine and biosynthesis of caffeine in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

1. Caffeine biosynthesis was studied by following the incorporation of 14C into the products of L-[Me-14C]methionine metabolism in tea shoot tips. 2. After administration of a 'pulse' of L-[Me-14C]methionine, almost all of the L-[Me-14C]methionine supplied disappeared within 1 h, and 14C-labelled caffeine synthesis increased throughout the experimental periods, whereas the radioactivities of an unknown compound and theobromine were highest at 3 h after the uptake of L-[Me-14C]methionine, followed by a steady decrease. There was also slight incorporation of the label into 7-methylxanthine, serine, glutamate and aspartate, disappearing by 36 h after the absorption of L-[Me-14C]methionine. 3. The radioactivities of nucleic acids derived from L-[Me-14C]methionine increased rapidly during the first 12 h incubation period and then decreased steadily. Sedimentation analysis of nucleic acids by sucrose-gradient centrifugation showed that methylation of nucleic acids in tea shoot tips occurred mainly in the tRNA fraction. The main product among the methylated bases in tea shoot tips was identified as 1-methyladenine. 4. The results indicated that the purine ring in caffeine is derived from the purine nucleotides in the nucleotide pool rather than in nucleic acids. A metabolic scheme to show the production of caffeine and related methylxanthines from the nucleotides in tea plants is discussed.  (+info)

*  Adenosine monophosphate
... nucleoside monophosphates, including adenosine monophosphate, are formed. AMP can be regenerated to ATP as follows: AMP + ATP ... Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide. AMP consists of a phosphate group, the sugar ... In a catabolic pathway, adenosine monophosphate can be converted to uric acid, which is excreted from the body. AMP can also ... ribose, and the nucleobase adenine; it is an ester of phosphoric acid and the nucleoside adenosine. As a substituent it takes ...
*  Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
... (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) 8-Bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) Acrasin specific to chemotactic ... such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic AMP). Cyclic AMP is synthesized from ATP by adenylate cyclase located on the ... cAMP is a derivative of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and used for intracellular signal transduction in many different organisms ...
*  Cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate
... (cyclic GMP-AMP, cGAMP) is the first cyclic di-nucleotide found in ...
*  Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency type 1
AMP deaminase is an enzyme that converts adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to inosine monophosphate (IMP), freeing an ammonia ... Adenosine mediates pain through adenosine receptors. MADD causes an increase of free adenosine during heavy activity which may ... Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency type 1, also called myoadenylate deaminase deficiency (MADD), is a recessive ... In the brain, excess adenosine decreases alertness and causes sleepiness. In this way, adenosine may play a role in fatigue ...
*  Nucleoside-phosphate kinase
Transphosphorylation between adenosine monophosphate and nucleoside triphosphates". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 32: 422-30. doi: ... This enzyme is also called NMP-kinase, or nucleoside-monophosphate kinase. A number of crystal structures have been solved for ... Nucleoside monophosphate binding induces further changes that render the enzyme catalytically capable of facilitating a ... HEPPEL LA, STROMINGER JL, MAXWELL ES (1959). "Nucleoside monophosphate kinases. II. ...
*  Nucleotide
Inosine monophosphate is converted to adenosine monophosphate in two steps. First, GTP hydrolysis fuels the addition of ... Fumarate is then cleaved off forming adenosine monophosphate. This step is catalyzed by adenylosuccinate lyase. Inosine ... monophosphate is decarboxylated by orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase to form uridine monophosphate (UMP). PRPP transferase ... With all three joined, a nucleotide is also termed a "nucleoside monophosphate". The chemistry sources ACS Style Guide and ...
*  Deoxyadenosine diphosphate
Cofactor Guanosine Cyclic adenosine monophosphate dADP - Compound Summary, PubChem.. ... It is related to the common nucleic acid ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, with the -OH (hydroxyl) group on the 2' carbon on the ... This makes it also similar to adenosine diphosphate except with a hydroxyl group removed. Deoxyadenosine diphosphate is ...
*  AMP deaminase
Adenosine monophosphate deaminase is an enzyme that converts adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to inosine monophosphate (IMP), ... adenosine monophosphate (AMP) inosine monophosphate (IMP) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000116748 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... Adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP in skeletal muscle and plays an important role in ... Sims B, Powers RE, Sabina RL, Theibert AB (1999). "Elevated adenosine monophosphate deaminase activity in Alzheimer's disease ...
*  Beta2-adrenergic agonist
This enzyme produces the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). In the lung, cAMP decreases calcium ...
*  CAMP test
The name has no relationship to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Phillips EA, Tapsall JW, Smith DD (August 1980). "Rapid ...
*  B vitamins
Vitamin B8: adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as adenylic acid. Vitamin B8 may also refer to inositol. Vitamin B10: ...
*  Polyadenylation
Polyadenylate polymerase builds the poly(A) tail by adding adenosine monophosphate units from adenosine triphosphate to the RNA ... The poly(A) tail consists of multiple adenosine monophosphates; in other words, it is a stretch of RNA that has only adenine ... Formation of a Sequence of Adenylate Units from Adenosine Triphosphate by an Enzyme from Thymus Nuclei". The Journal of ...
*  Thromboregulation
cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, phosphorylate messengers via protein kinase A (PKA). These signaling elements include ...
*  Piclamilast
PDE4 hydrolyzes cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to inactive adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Inhibition of PDE4 blocks ...
*  Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor
PDE4 hydrolyzes cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to inactive adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Inhibition of PDE4 blocks ... on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It is a member of the larger family of PDE inhibitors. The PDE4 family of enzymes are ...
*  AMP nucleosidase
Other names in common use include adenylate nucleosidase, and adenosine monophosphate nucleosidase. This enzyme participates in ...
*  Milrinone
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) causes increased activation of protein kinase A (PKA). PKA is an enzyme that ...
*  AICA ribonucleotide
It enhances the rate of nucleotide re-synthesis increasing adenosine generation from adenosine monophosphate only during ... is an analog of adenosine that enters cardiac cells to inhibit adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase. ... "MECHANISMS OF ADENOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE-INDUCED PRECONDITIONING IN ISCHEMIA/REPERFUSION." Department of ... AICAR is an analog of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) that is capable of stimulating AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activity ...
*  Adenosine diphosphate
ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5' carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1' carbon ...
*  Susan S. Taylor
"Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ...
*  Protein kinase domain
"Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ...
*  Fungal behavior
One hormone that is used by many fungi is Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).[citation needed] Chemotaxis Dusenbery, David B ...
*  ATF3
... cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent gene expression". Mol. Endocrinol. 8 (1): 59-68. doi:10.1210/mend.8.1.8152431. PMID ... cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent gene expression". Mol. Endocrinol. 8 (1): 59-68. doi:10.1210/mend.8.1.8152431. PMID ...
*  PRKACA
Induction by regulatory subunit and inhibition by catalytic subunit of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase ... "Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ...
*  Cilostazol
... is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor with therapeutic focus on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It inhibits ...
*  Metabolism
One central coenzyme is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the universal energy currency of cells. This nucleotide is used to ... Both adenine and guanine are made from the precursor nucleoside inosine monophosphate, which is synthesized using atoms from ... causing the active site of the synthase domain to change shape and phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate - turning it into ATP. ...
Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate effects in the ischemic-hypoxic cat. | Stroke  Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate effects in the ischemic-hypoxic cat. | Stroke
Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate effects in the ischemic-hypoxic cat.. M D Sokoll, E H Stullken ... The effects of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dB-cAMP) were studied in fifty cats, twenty anesthetized with ...
more infohttp://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/8/3/371
Temporal effects of cytokines on neonatal cardiac myocyte Ca2+ transients and adenylate cyclase activity., Department of...  Temporal effects of cytokines on neonatal cardiac myocyte Ca2+ transients and adenylate cyclase activity., Department of...
Thus short-term cytokine treatment blocks the adrenergic receptor-mediated increases in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, ...
more infohttp://www.surgery.wisc.edu/research/publication/181
Adenosine monophosphate | C10H14N5O7P | ChemSpider  Adenosine monophosphate | C10H14N5O7P | ChemSpider
Adenosine monophosphate *Molecular FormulaC10H14N5O7P ... Adenosine 5'-phosph. oric acid adenosine phosphate [BAN] [INN] ... Adenosine monophosp. hate [Wiki] [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6. -Amino-9H-purin-9-y. l)-3,4-dihydroxytet. rahydro-2-furanyl]m. ethyl ... A purine ribonucleoside 5'-monophosphate having adenine as the nucleobase. ChEBI CHEBI:16027. ... Adenosine monophosphate, 61-19-8, adenosine phosphate, phosphate d'adénosine. ...
more infohttp://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.5858.html
Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate - DrugBank  Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate - DrugBank
... cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a molecule that is important in many biological processes; it is derived from adenosine ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a molecule that is important in ... Cyclic_adenosine_monophosphate. PDB Entries. 1cgp / 1cx4 / 1g6n / 1hw5 / 1i5z / 1i6x / 1j59 / 1lb2 / 1lpc / 1nhk … ... Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate. Accession Number. DB02527 (EXPT00959) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. Description. ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB02527
Adenosine monophosphate - Biology-Online Dictionary  Adenosine monophosphate - Biology-Online Dictionary
Related terms: cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Abbreviation: AMP. Synonym: 5'-Adenylic acid (IUPAC name). Compare: adenosine ... Adenosine monophosphate may be produced by combining two molecules of ADP during ATP synthesis. It may also be formed by the ... Adenosine monophosphate. Revision as of 07:38, 26 September 2008 by Honee_v (Talk , contribs) (new term) ... 2) An ester of phosphoric acid and the nucleoside adenosine, and with a molecular formula: C10H14N5O7P ...
more infohttp://www.biology-online.org/bodict/index.php?title=Adenosine_monophosphate&oldid=94675
3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase CpdA (IPR026575) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI  3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase CpdA (IPR026575) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase CpdA (IPR026575). Short name: cAMP_Pdiest_CpdA ... Identification of the cpdA gene encoding cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase in Escherichia coli.. J. Biol. ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR026575
Adenosine Monophosphate Deaminase & Treatment  Adenosine Monophosphate Deaminase & Treatment
... how to treat adenosine monophosphate deaminase, information about the causes, diagnosis, and related adenosine monophosphate ... how to treat adenosine monophosphate deaminase, information about the causes, diagnosis, and related adenosine monophosphate ... what is the definition of adenosine monophosphate deaminase, what are the signs and symptoms, medical treatment & ... what is the definition of adenosine monophosphate deaminase, what are the signs and symptoms, medical treatment & ...
more infohttps://signssymptoms.org/definition-for-disease-signs-symptoms-and-treatment/?Adenosine_monophosphate_deaminase-141
Adenosine Monophosphate
      - AMP
     Summary Report | CureHunter  Adenosine Monophosphate - AMP Summary Report | CureHunter
Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the ... AMP; Adenosine 2'-Phosphate; Adenosine 3'-Phosphate; Adenosine 5'-Phosphate; Phosphaden; Adenosine 2' Phosphate; Adenosine 3' ... Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP). Subscribe to New Research on Adenosine Monophosphate Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide ... bis(pivaloyloxymethyl) 8-aza-2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate. *bis(pivaloyloxymethyl) 8-bromo-2'-adenosine-5'-monophosphate ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD000249-Adenosine-Monophosphate-AMP.do
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP, adenylic acid) molecule. Nucleotide Stock Photo: 137665108 - Alamy  Adenosine monophosphate (AMP, adenylic acid) molecule. Nucleotide Stock Photo: 137665108 - Alamy
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP, adenylic acid) molecule. Nucleotide monomer of RNA (ribonucleic acid). Composed of phosphate, ... 3 dimensional, 3d, adenosin, adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, adenosine monophosphate amp, adenylate, adenylic, adenylic ... Adenosine monophosphate molecule * Adenosine monophosphate (AMP, adenylic acid) molecule. Nucleotide monomer of RNA. Composed ... Adenosine monophosphate molecule * Adenosine monophosphate (AMP, adenylic acid) molecule. Nucleotide monomer of RNA. Composed ...
more infohttps://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-adenosine-monophosphate-amp-adenylic-acid-molecule-nucleotide-monomer-137665108.html
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate - Biology-Online Dictionary | Biology-Online Dictionary  Cyclic adenosine monophosphate - Biology-Online Dictionary | Biology-Online Dictionary
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a 3'-5'-cyclic ester of AMP. It is a second messenger important in many biological ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate. From Biology-Online Dictionary , Biology-Online Dictionary. (Redirected from Cyclic phosphate) ... biochemistry) A cyclic form of adenosine monophosphate that serves as a second messenger for signal transduction at the ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Cyclic_adenosine_monophosphate&oldid=101672" ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Cyclic_phosphate
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate legal definition of Cyclic adenosine monophosphate  Cyclic adenosine monophosphate legal definition of Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
What is Cyclic adenosine monophosphate? Meaning of Cyclic adenosine monophosphate as a legal term. What does Cyclic adenosine ... Definition of Cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate legal definition of Cyclic adenosine monophosphate https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ... due to decreased degradation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP).. Catalyst ...
more infohttps://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Cyclic+adenosine+monophosphate
Frisolac (Adenosine Monophosphate; Alpha-Linolenic Acid; Beta-Carotene...) FrieslandCampina  Frisolac (Adenosine Monophosphate; Alpha-Linolenic Acid; Beta-Carotene...) FrieslandCampina
Cytidine Monophosphate*Fat*Folic Acid*Guanosine Monophosphate*Inosine Monophosphate*Iodine*Iron*Linoleic Acid*Magnesium* ... Adenosine Monophosphate*Alpha-Linolenic Acid*Beta-Carotene*Calcium*Carbohydrates*Carbon Black*Chloride*Choline*Copper* ... Cytidine Monophosphate 13 mg; Fat 27 g; Folic Acid 80 mcg; Guanosine Monophosphate 2.6 mg; Inosine Monophosphate 1.6 mg; Iodine ... Powder for Suspension; Oral; Adenosine Monophosphate 3.7 mg; Alpha-Linolenic Acid 485 mg; Beta-Carotene 310 mcg; Calcium 385 mg ...
more infohttp://drugs-about.com/drugs-f/frisolac-frieslandcampina.html
Blemil Plus 2 (Adenosine Monophosphate; Calcium; Chloride...) Pasteur Laboratorios  Blemil Plus 2 (Adenosine Monophosphate; Calcium; Chloride...) Pasteur Laboratorios
Adenosine Monophosphate*Calcium*Chloride*Copper*Cytidine Monophosphate*Dextrin Maltose*Egg Phospholipids*Fatty Acids ... Powder; Oral; Adenosine Monophosphate; Calcium; Chloride; Copper; Cytidine Monophosphate; Dextrin Maltose; Egg Phospholipids; ... Guanosine Monophosphate Disodium*Inosine Monophosphate Disodium*Iodine*Iron*Lactose*L-Carnitine*L-Carnitine Hydrochloride* ... Uridine Monophosphate Disodium*Vegetable Oil*Vitamin A*Vitamin B1*Vitamin B12*Vitamin B2*Vitamin B3 (Nicotinamide)*Vitamin B5 ( ...
more infohttp://drugs-about.com/drugs-b/blemil-plus-2.html
5-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulates myoendothelial junctions  5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulates myoendothelial junctions
... 5'-adenosine monophosphate- ... The 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is not only one of the most important enzymes controlling cell ... The 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is not only one of the most important enzymes controlling cell ... Qiu, Jiehua (2018): 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulates myoendothelial junctions. Dissertation ...
more infohttps://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/21468/
Cytokine inhibition of DNA synthesis: effect on cyclic adenosine monophosphate in lymphocytes | Science  Cytokine inhibition of DNA synthesis: effect on cyclic adenosine monophosphate in lymphocytes | Science
A greater than twofold increase in intracellular adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) inhibited DNA synthesis, in ... Cytokine inhibition of DNA synthesis: effect on cyclic adenosine monophosphate in lymphocytes ... Cytokine inhibition of DNA synthesis: effect on cyclic adenosine monophosphate in lymphocytes ... Cytokine inhibition of DNA synthesis: effect on cyclic adenosine monophosphate in lymphocytes ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/193/4259/1260
Adenosine monophosphate | Article about adenosine monophosphate by The Free Dictionary  Adenosine monophosphate | Article about adenosine monophosphate by The Free Dictionary
Adenine combines with the sugar ribose to form adenosine, which in turn... Explanation of adenosine monophosphate ... Find out information about adenosine monophosphate. organic compound composed of an adenine adenine , organic base of the ... Related to adenosine monophosphate: guanosine monophosphate, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate. adenosine monophosphate. (AMP) ( ... yielding the three nucleotides adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine. ..... Click the link for more ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/adenosine+monophosphate
Adenosine monophosphate - Wikipedia  Adenosine monophosphate - Wikipedia
... nucleoside monophosphates, including adenosine monophosphate, are formed. AMP can be regenerated to ATP as follows: AMP + ATP ... Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide. AMP consists of a phosphate group, the sugar ... In a catabolic pathway, adenosine monophosphate can be converted to uric acid, which is excreted from the body. AMP can also ... ribose, and the nucleobase adenine; it is an ester of phosphoric acid and the nucleoside adenosine. As a substituent it takes ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_monophosphate
Olfactory Dysfunction of Rhinosinusitis - Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP)/Calcium Signaling Study - Full Text View -...  Olfactory Dysfunction of Rhinosinusitis - Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP)/Calcium Signaling Study - Full Text View -...
Olfactory Dysfunction of Rhinosinusitis - Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP)/Calcium Signaling Study (cAMP). The safety and ... odor detection and signal transduction, cyclic adenosine monophosphate and odor detection, the role of cAMP in olfactory ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00970190
The effect of adenosine monophosphate deaminase overexpression on the accumulation of umami-related metabolites in tomatoes |...  The effect of adenosine monophosphate deaminase overexpression on the accumulation of umami-related metabolites in tomatoes |...
... and guanosine monophosphate (GMP). The production of IMP is regulated by the enzyme adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase ... The effect of adenosine monophosphate deaminase overexpression on the accumulation of umami-related metabolites in tomatoes. ... Dancer JE, Hughes R, Lindell SD (1997) Adenosine-5′-phosphate deaminase (A novel herbicide target). Plant Physiol 114:119-129 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00299-016-2058-z
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate - Wikipedia  Cyclic adenosine monophosphate - Wikipedia
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) 8-Bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) Acrasin specific to chemotactic ... such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic AMP). Cyclic AMP is synthesized from ATP by adenylate cyclase located on the ... cAMP is a derivative of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and used for intracellular signal transduction in many different organisms ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclic_adenosine_monophosphate
Antidepressant rolipram and inhibition of type 4 cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE4)  Antidepressant rolipram and inhibition of type 4 cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE4)
Pharmacological inhibition of type 4 cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE4) produces ... and that PDE4D-regulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling may play a role in the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of ...
more infohttps://www.biopsychiatry.com/rolipramantidep.htm
Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate and Norepinephrine: Effects on Transmembrane Properties of Cerebellar Purkinje Cells | Science  Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate and Norepinephrine: Effects on Transmembrane Properties of Cerebellar Purkinje Cells | Science
... cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. All these substances hyperpolarized Purkinje ... Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate and Norepinephrine: Effects on Transmembrane Properties of Cerebellar Purkinje Cells ... Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate and Norepinephrine: Effects on Transmembrane Properties of Cerebellar Purkinje Cells ... Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate and Norepinephrine: Effects on Transmembrane Properties of Cerebellar Purkinje Cells ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/171/3967/192
Adenosine monophosphate-protein transferase elisa and antibody  Adenosine monophosphate-protein transferase elisa and antibody
Recombinant Protein and Adenosine monophosphate-protein transferase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant ... Adenosine monophosphate-protein transferase. Adenosine monophosphate-protein transferase ELISA Kit. Adenosine monophosphate- ... Adenosine monophosphate-protein transferase FICD. Adenosine monophosphate-protein transferase FICD ELISA Kit. Adenosine ... Adenosine monophosphate-protein transferase NmFic. Adenosine monophosphate-protein transferase NmFic ELISA Kit. Adenosine ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=adenosine-monophosphate-protein-transferase
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate | Article about Cyclic adenosine monophosphate by The Free Dictionary  Cyclic adenosine monophosphate | Article about Cyclic adenosine monophosphate by The Free Dictionary
C10H13N5O4 A nucleoside composed of adenine andD-ribose Explanation of Cyclic adenosine monophosphate ... Looking for Cyclic adenosine monophosphate? Find out information about Cyclic adenosine monophosphate. ... adenosine. (redirected from Cyclic adenosine monophosphate). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Acronyms, ... Examples of cyclic nucleotides are cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).. Circadian ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Cyclic+adenosine+monophosphate
  • Adenosine monophosphate may be produced by combining two molecules of ADP during ATP synthesis . (biology-online.org)
  • adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Muscle cramping The cause of cramping is unknown, but may be related to elevated lactate, increased calcium signaling across the sarcoplasmic reticulum caused by membrane instability from reduced levels of ATP, or increased levels of free adenosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Without myoadenlyate deaminase, heavy activity causes adenosine to be released into the cell or perfused into the surrounding tissues. (wikipedia.org)