Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Receptor, Adenosine A2B: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Formycins: Pyrazolopyrimidine ribonucleosides isolated from Nocardia interforma. They are antineoplastic antibiotics with cytostatic properties.Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Receptors, Adenosine A2: A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Pentostatin: A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Inosine Monophosphate: Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Zeatin: An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)2-Chloroadenosine: 2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Coformycin: A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Thioinosine: Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Methylthioinosine: 6-(Methylthio)-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine. An analog of inosine with a methylthio group replacing the hydroxyl group in the 6-position.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Inorganic Chemicals: A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.Adenosylhomocysteinase: An enzyme which catalyzes the catabolism of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE to ADENOSINE and HOMOCYSTEINE. It may play a role in regulating the concentration of intracellular adenosylhomocysteine.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Adenine NucleotidesS-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide): A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Toyocamycin: 4-Amino-5-cyano-7-(D-ribofuranosyl)-7H- pyrrolo(2,3-d)pyrimidine. Antibiotic antimetabolite isolated from Streptomyces toyocaensis cultures. It is an analog of adenosine, blocks RNA synthesis and ribosome function, and is used mainly as a tool in biochemistry.Foreskin: The double-layered skin fold that covers the GLANS PENIS, the head of the penis.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Deoxycytidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of deoxycytidine with the formation of a nucleoside diphosphate and deoxycytidine monophosphate. Cytosine arabinoside can also act as an acceptor. All natural nucleoside triphosphates, except deoxycytidine triphosphate, can act as donors. The enzyme is induced by some viruses, particularly the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS). EC 2.7.1.74.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Aminoimidazole Carboxamide: An imidazole derivative which is a metabolite of the antineoplastic agents BIC and DIC. By itself, or as the ribonucleotide, it is used as a condensation agent in the preparation of nucleosides and nucleotides. Compounded with orotic acid, it is used to treat liver diseases.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Adenosine A3 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.MorpholinesAdenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
(1/217) Quantification of extracellular and intracellular adenosine production: understanding the transmembranous concentration gradient.

BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of adenosine membrane transport cause vasodilation and enhance the plasma adenosine concentration. However, it is unclear why the plasma adenosine concentration rises rather than falls when membrane transport is inhibited. We tested the hypothesis that the cytosolic adenosine concentration exceeds the interstitial concentration under well-oxygenated conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: In isolated, isovolumically working guinea pig hearts (n=50), the release rate of adenosine and accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (after 20 minutes of 200 micromol/L homocysteine), a measure of the free cytosolic adenosine concentration, were determined in the absence and presence of specific and powerful blockers of adenosine membrane transport (nitrobenzylthioinosine 1 micromol/L), adenosine deaminase (erythro-9-hydroxy-nonyl-adenine 5 micromol/L), and adenosine kinase (iodotubericidine 10 micromol/L). Data analysis with a distributed multicompartment model revealed a total cardiac adenosine production rate of 2294 pmol. min-1. g-1, of which 8% was produced in the extracellular region. Because of a high rate of intracellular metabolism, however, 70.3% of extracellularly produced adenosine was taken up into cellular regions, an effect that was effectively eliminated by membrane transport block. The resulting approximately 2.8-fold increase of the interstitial adenosine concentration evoked near-maximal coronary dilation. CONCLUSIONS: We rejected the hypothesis that the cytosolic adenosine concentration exceeds the interstitial. Rather, there is significant extracellular production, and the parenchymal cell represents a sink, not a source, for adenosine under well-oxygenated conditions.  (+info)

(2/217) Molecular cloning and expression of adenosine kinase from Leishmania donovani: identification of unconventional P-loop motif.

The unique catalytic characteristics of adenosine kinase (Adk) and its stage-specific differential activity pattern have made this enzyme a prospective target for chemotherapeutic manipulation in the purine-auxotrophic parasitic protozoan Leishmania donovani. However, nothing is known about the structure of the parasite Adk. We report here the cloning of its gene and the characterization of the gene product. The encoded protein, consisting of 345 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 37173 Da, shares limited but significant similarity with sugar kinases and inosine-guanosine kinase of microbial origin, supporting the notion that these enzymes might have the same ancestral origin. The identity of the parasite enzyme with the corresponding enzyme from two other sources so far described was only 40%. Furthermore, 5' RNA mapping studies indicated that the Adk gene transcript is matured post-transcriptionally with the trans-splicing of the mini-exon (spliced leader) occurring at nt -160 from the predicted translation initiation site. The biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme were similar to those of the enzyme isolated from leishmanial cells. The intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the enzyme was substrate-sensitive. On the basis of a multiple protein-alignment sequence comparison and ATP-induced fluorescence quenching in the presence or the absence of KI and acrylamide, the docking site for ATP has been provisionally identified and shown to have marked divergence from the consensus P-loop motif reported for ATP- or GTP-binding proteins from other sources.  (+info)

(3/217) Adenosine kinase inhibitors as a novel approach to anticonvulsant therapy.

Adenosine levels increase at seizure foci as part of a postulated endogenous negative feedback mechanism that controls seizure activity through activation of A1 adenosine receptors. Agents that amplify this site- and event-specific surge of adenosine could provide antiseizure activity similar to that of adenosine receptor agonists but with fewer dose-limiting side effects. Inhibitors of adenosine kinase (AK) were examined because AK is normally the primary route of adenosine metabolism. The AK inhibitors 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine, 5-iodotubercidin, and 5'-deoxy-5-iodotubercidin inhibited maximal electroshock (MES) seizures in rats. Several structural classes of novel AK inhibitors were identified and shown to exhibit similar activity, including a prototype inhibitor, 4-(N-phenylamino)-5-phenyl-7-(5'-deoxyribofuranosyl)pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidine (GP683; MES ED50 = 1.1 mg/kg). AK inhibitors also reduced epileptiform discharges induced by removal of Mg2+ in a rat neocortical preparation. Overall, inhibitors of adenosine deaminase or of adenosine transport were less effective. The antiseizure activities of GP683 in the in vivo and in vitro preparations were reversed by the adenosine receptor antagonists theophylline and 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline. GP683 showed little or no hypotension or bradycardia and minimal hypothermic effect at anticonvulsant doses. This improved side effect profile contrasts markedly with the profound hypotension, bradycardia, and hypothermia and greater inhibition of motor function observed with the adenosine receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine and opens the way to clinical evaluation of AK inhibitors as a novel, adenosine-based approach to anticonvulsant therapy.  (+info)

(4/217) Metabolism and selective toxicity of 6-nitrobenzylthioinosine in Toxoplasma gondii.

The purine nucleoside analogue NBMPR (nitrobenzylthioinosine or 6-[(4-nitrobenzyl)thio]-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine) was selectively phosphorylated to its nucleoside 5'-monophosphate by Toxoplasma gondii but not mammalian adenosine kinase (EC 2.7.1.20). NBMPR was also cleaved in toxoplasma to its nucleobase, nitrobenzylmercaptopurine. However, nitrobenzylmercaptopurine was not a substrate for either adenosine kinase or hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.8). Because of this unique and previously unknown metabolism of NBMPR by the parasite, the effect of NBMPR as an antitoxoplasmic agent was tested. NBMPR killed T. gondii grown in human fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of approximately 10 microM and without apparent toxicity to host cells. Doses of up to 100 microM had no significant toxic effect on uninfected host cells. The promising antitoxoplasmic effect of NBMPR led to the testing of other 6-substituted 9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurines, which were shown to be good ligands of the parasite adenosine kinase (M. H. Iltzsch, S. S. Uber, K. O. Tankersley, and M. H. el Kouni, Biochem. Pharmacol. 49:1501-1512, 1995), as antitoxoplasmic agents. Among the analogues tested, 6-benzylthioinosine, p-nitrobenzyl-6-selenopurine riboside, N(6)-(p-azidobenzyl)adenosine, and N(6)-(p-nitrobenzyl)adenosine, like NBMPR, were selectively toxic to parasite-infected cells. Thus, it appears that the unique characteristics of purine metabolism in T. gondii render certain 6-substituted 9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurines promising antitoxoplasmic drugs.  (+info)

(5/217) Characterization and molecular cloning of an adenosine kinase from Babesia canis rossi.

In the search for immunoprotective antigens of the intraerythrocytic Babesia canis rossi parasite, a new cDNA was cloned and sequenced. Protein sequence database searches suggested that the 41-kDa protein belongs to the phosphofructokinase B type family (PFK-B). However, because of the low level sequence identity (< 20%) of the protein both with adenosine and sugar kinases from this family, its structural and functional features were further investigated using molecular modelling and enzymatic assays. The sequence/structure comparison of the protein with the crystal structure of a member of the PFK-B family, Escherichia coli ribokinase (EcRK), suggested that it might also form a stable and active dimer and revealed conservation of the ATP-binding site. However, residues specifically involved in the ribose-binding sites in the EcRK sequence (S and N) were substituted in its sequence (by H and M, respectively), and were suspected of binding adenosine compounds rather than sugar ones. Enzymatic assays using a purified glutathione S-transferase fusion protein revealed that this protein exhibits rapid catalysis of the phosphorylation of adenosine with an apparent Km value of 70 nM, whereas it was inactive on ribose or other carbohydrates. As enzymatic assays confirmed the results of the structure/function analysis indicating a preferential specificity towards adenosine compounds, this new protein of the PFK-B family corresponds to an adenosine kinase from B. canis rossi. It was named BcrAK.  (+info)

(6/217) The adenosine transporter of Toxoplasma gondii. Identification by insertional mutagenesis, cloning, and recombinant expression.

Purine transport into the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays an indispensable nutritional function for this pathogen. To facilitate genetic and biochemical characterization of the adenosine transporter of the parasite, T. gondii tachyzoites were transfected with an insertional mutagenesis vector, and clonal mutants were selected for resistance to the cytotoxic adenosine analog adenine arabinoside (Ara-A). Whereas some Ara-A-resistant clones exhibited disruption of the adenosine kinase (AK) locus, others displayed normal AK activity, suggesting that a second locus had been tagged by the insertional mutagenesis plasmid. These Ara-A(r) AK+ mutants displayed reduced adenosine uptake capability, implying a defect in adenosine transport. Sequences flanking the transgene integration point in one mutant were rescued from a genomic library of Ara-A(r) AK+ DNA, and Southern blot analysis revealed that all Ara-A(r) AK+ mutants were disrupted at the same locus. Probes derived from this locus, designated TgAT, were employed to isolate genomic and cDNA clones from wild-type libraries. Conceptual translation of the TgAT cDNA open reading frame predicts a 462 amino acid protein containing 11 transmembrane domains, a primary structure and membrane topology similar to members of the mammalian equilibrative nucleoside transporter family. Expression of TgAT cRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes increased adenosine uptake capacity in a saturable manner, with an apparent K(m) value of 114 microM. Uptake was inhibited by various nucleosides, nucleoside analogs, hypoxanthine, guanine, and dipyridamole. The combination of genetic and biochemical studies demonstrates that TgAT is the sole functional adenosine transporter in T. gondii and a rational target for therapeutic intervention.  (+info)

(7/217) The influence of inorganic phosphate on the activity of adenosine kinase.

The enzyme adenosine kinase (AK; EC 2.7.1.20) shows a dependence upon inorganic phosphate (Pi) for activity. The degree of dependence varies among enzyme sources and the pH at which the activity is measured. At physiological pH, recombinant AK from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and AK from beef liver (BL) show higher affinities for the substrate adenosine (Ado), larger maximum velocities and lower sensitivities to substrate inhibition in the presence of Pi. At pH 6.2, both BL and CHO AK exhibit almost complete dependence on the presence of Pi for activity. The data show that both enzymes exhibit increasing relief from substrate inhibition upon increasing Pi and the inhibition of BL AK is almost completely alleviated by the addition of 50 mM Pi. The affinity of CHO AK for Ado increases asymptotically from K(m) 6.4 microM to a limit of 0.7 microM upon the addition of increasing Pi from 1 to 50 mM. The concentration of Ado necessary to invoke substrate inhibition also increases asymptotically from K(i) 32 microM to a limit of 69 microM at saturating concentrations of phosphate. In the presence of increasing amounts of Pi, the maximal velocity of activity increases hyperbolically. The effect that phosphate exerts on AK may be either to protect the enzyme from inactivation at high adenosine and H(+) concentrations or to stabilize substrate binding at the active site.  (+info)

(8/217) A(2B) receptors mediate antimitogenesis in vascular smooth muscle cells.

Adenosine inhibits growth of vascular smooth muscle cells. The goals of this study were to determine which adenosine receptor subtype mediates the antimitogenic effects of adenosine and to investigate the signal transduction mechanisms involved. In rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells, platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) (25 ng/mL) stimulated DNA synthesis ([(3)H]thymidine incorporation), cellular proliferation (cell number), collagen synthesis ([(3)H]proline incorporation), total protein synthesis ([(3)H]leucine incorporation), and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity. The adenosine receptor agonists 2-chloroadenosine and 5'-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine, but not N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine or CGS21680, inhibited the growth effects of PDGF-BB, an agonist profile consistent with an A(2B) receptor-mediated effect. The adenosine receptor antagonists KF17837 and 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine, but not 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine, blocked the growth-inhibitory effects of 2-chloroadenosine and 5'-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine, an antagonist profile consistent with an A(2) receptor-mediated effect. Antisense, but not sense or scrambled, oligonucleotides to the A(2B) receptor stimulated basal and PDGF-induced DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and MAP kinase activity. Moreover, the growth-inhibitory effects of 2-chloroadenosine, 5'-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine, and erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine plus iodotubericidin (inhibitors of adenosine deaminase and adenosine kinase, respectively) were abolished by antisense, but not scrambled or sense, oligonucleotides to the A(2B) receptor. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that adenosine causes inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell growth by activating A(2B) receptors coupled to inhibition of MAP kinase activity. Pharmacological or molecular biological activation of A(2B) receptors may prevent vascular remodeling associated with hypertension, atherosclerosis, and restenosis following balloon angioplasty.  (+info)

*  ADAR
"RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 suppresses measles virus-induced apoptosis and activation of protein kinase PKR". The ... "Entrez Gene: ADAR Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA". Samuel CE (2012). Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) and A-to-I ... which stands for adenosine deaminase acting on RNA). Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) are enzymes responsible for ... Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA is one of the most common forms of RNA editing, and has both selective and non-selective ...
*  Adenosine A2A receptor
... which functions primarily through protein kinase A to upregulate inhibitory cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta ( ... The adenosine A2A receptor, also known as ADORA2A, is an adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it. This ... As a result, Adenosine receptor A2A decreases activity in the Dopamine D2 receptors. The adenosine A2A receptor has also been ... "Entrez Gene: ADORA2A adenosine A2A receptor". Ohta A, Sitkovsky M (2001). "Role of G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors in ...
*  Adenosine kinase
The role of adenosine kinase in regulating adenosine concentration. Biochem J 1985, 226: 343-344. Boison D: Adenosine as a ... Gupta RS: Adenosine-AMP exchange activity is an integral part of the mammalian adenosine kinase. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1996, 39 ... Adenosine kinase (AdK; EC 2.7.1.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of gamma-phosphate from Adenosine triphosphate ( ... Arch JR, Newsholme EA: Activities and some properties of 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase in tissues ...
*  Gene therapy for epilepsy
The increase in adenosine kinase results in an increased metabolic rate for adenosine nucleosides. Due to the decrease in these ... The most prevalent theory is that upon brain injury there is an increased expression of the adenosine kinase (ADK). ... ISBN 978-88-470-1642-2. Boison, Detlev (October 2006). "Adenosine kinase, epilepsy, and stroke: mechanisms and theory". ... the effects can be counteracted and moderated by adenosine. Based on the properties afforded by adenosine in preventing ...
*  ADK (gene)
Adenosine kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADK gene. This gene encodes adenosine kinase, an abundant enzyme ... "Entrez Gene: ADK adenosine kinase". Human ADK genome location and ADK gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Klobutcher ... Singh B, Lin A, Wu ZC, Gupta RS (2001). "Gene structure for adenosine kinase in Chinese hamster and human: high-frequency ... 1997). "Cloning and expression of the adenosine kinase gene from rat and human tissues". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 231 (3 ...
*  Ribokinase
Other members of this family (also known as the RK family) include adenosine kinase (AK), inosine-guanosine kinase, ... Park J, Gupta RS: Adenosine kinase and ribokinase--the RK family of proteins. Cell Mol Life Sci 2008, 65: 2875-2896. Bork P, ... Spychala J, Datta NS, Takabayashi K, Datta M, Fox IH, Gribbin T, Mitchell BS: Cloning of human adenosine kinase cDNA: sequence ... Maj MC, Singh B, Gupta RS: Pentavalent ions dependency is a conserved property of adenosine kinase from diverse sources: ...
*  Phosphofructokinase
... adenosine kinase (AK), inosine kinase, and 1-phosphofructokinase. The members of the PfkB/RK family are identified by the ... Park J, Gupta RS: Adenosine kinase and ribokinase--the RK family of proteins. Cell Mol Life Sci 2008, 65: 2875-2896. Bork P, ... Spychala J, Datta NS, Takabayashi K, Datta M, Fox IH, Gribbin T, Mitchell BS: Cloning of human adenosine kinase cDNA: sequence ... Maj MC, Singh B, Gupta RS: Pentavalent ions dependency is a conserved property of adenosine kinase from diverse sources: ...
*  1-phosphofructokinase
Park J, Gupta RS: Adenosine kinase and ribokinase--the RK family of proteins. Cell Mol Life Sci 2008, 65: 2875-2896. Bork P, ... Maj MC, Singh B, Gupta RS: Pentavalent ions dependency is a conserved property of adenosine kinase from diverse sources: ... Sapico V, Anderson RL (1969). "D-fructose 1-phosphate kinase and D-fructose 6-phosphate kinase from Aerobacter aerogenes. A ... D-fructose-1-phosphate kinase, fructose 1-phosphate kinase, and 1-phosphofructokinase. This enzyme participates in fructose and ...
*  Tagatose-6-phosphate kinase
Park J, Gupta RS: Adenosine kinase and ribokinase--the RK family of proteins. Cell Mol Life Sci 2008, 65: 2875-2896. Bork P, ... Maj MC, Singh B, Gupta RS: Pentavalent ions dependency is a conserved property of adenosine kinase from diverse sources: ... In enzymology, a tagatose-6-phosphate kinase (EC 2.7.1.144) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + D-tagatose ... This enzyme belongs to the phosphofructokinase B (PfkB) or Ribokinase family of sugar kinases, specifically those transferring ...
*  AICA ribonucleotide
... is an analog of adenosine that enters cardiac cells to inhibit adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase. It enhances the rate ... "MECHANISMS OF ADENOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE-INDUCED PRECONDITIONING IN ISCHEMIA/REPERFUSION." Department of ... AICAR is an analog of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) that is capable of stimulating AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activity ... AICAR is able to enter the de novo synthesis pathway for adenosine synthesis to inhibit adenosine deaminase causing an increase ...
*  List of EC numbers (EC 2)
... adenosine kinase EC 2.7.1.21: thymidine kinase EC 2.7.1.22: ribosylnicotinamide kinase EC 2.7.1.23: NAD+ kinase EC 2.7.1.24: ... subunit kinase EC 2.7.11.24: mitogen-activated protein kinase EC 2.7.11.25: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase EC ... EC 2.7.1.71: shikimate kinase EC 2.7.1.72: streptomycin 6-kinase EC 2.7.1.73: inosine kinase EC 2.7.1.74: deoxycytidine kinase ... UDP-N-acetylglucosamine kinase EC 2.7.1.177: L-threonine kinase EC 2.7.2.1: acetate kinase EC 2.7.2.2: carbamate kinase EC 2.7. ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D08)
... adenosine kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.155 --- choline kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.175 --- deoxycytidine kinase MeSH ... map kinase kinase kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.100 --- map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.300 --- map kinase kinase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682 ... map kinase kinase kinase 4 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.500 --- map kinase kinase kinase 5 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682 ...
*  Adenylyl-sulfate kinase
... adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase, adenosine phosphosulfate kinase, adenosine phosphosulfokinase, adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate- ... MacRae IJ, Rose AB, Segel IH (October 1998). "Adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase from Penicillium chrysogenum. site-directed ... Other names in common use include adenylylsulfate kinase (phosphorylating), 5'-phosphoadenosine sulfate kinase, ... In enzymology, an adenylyl-sulfate kinase (EC 2.7.1.25) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + adenylyl ...
*  Cardioprotection
ROS and adenosine acting on kinases such as PKCε and Src, which in turn activate gene transcription and upregulation of late PC ... "Postconditioning protects rabbit hearts through a protein kinase C-adenosine A2b receptor cascade". Cardiovascular research. 70 ... These signaling events act on the ROS-generating mitochondria, activate PKCε and the Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinase (RISK) ... "Novel functional role of heat shock protein 90 in protein kinase C-mediated ischemic postconditioning". The Journal of surgical ...
*  Susan S. Taylor
"Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ... She is known for her research on protein kinases, particularly protein kinase A. She was elected to the Institute of Medicine ... Taylor's research group has focused on the structure and function of protein kinases, particularly protein kinase A, since ... Taylor, SS; Yang, J; Wu, J; Haste, NM; Radzio-Andzelm, E; Anand, G (11 March 2004). "PKA: a portrait of protein kinase dynamics ...
*  Protein kinase domain
"Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ... Hanks SK, Hunter T (May 1995). "Protein kinases 6. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain ... Protein kinase function has been evolutionarily conserved from Escherichia coli to Homo sapiens. Protein kinases play a role in ... The protein kinase domain is a structurally conserved protein domain containing the catalytic function of protein kinases. ...
*  PAPSS1
... kinetic properties of the adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase domains". Biochemistry. 43 ... Sekulic N, Konrad M, Lavie A (2007). "Structural mechanism for substrate inhibition of the adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase ... In humans, PAPS is synthesized from adenosine 5-prime triphosphate (ATP) and inorganic sulfate by 2 isoforms, PAPSS1 and PAPSS2 ... 1998). "cDNA cloning, expression, and characterization of the human bifunctional ATP sulfurylase/adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate ...
*  PAPSS2
"Genomic organization of the mouse and human genes encoding the ATP sulfurylase/adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase isoform SK2 ...
*  RHEB
... adenosine-monophospate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has also been found to be an effector for RHEB. AMPK is a protein kinase ... Yee WM, Worley PF (Feb 1997). "Rheb interacts with Raf-1 kinase and may function to integrate growth factor- and protein kinase ... AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (C-Raf) mammalian Target of Rapamycin ... Long X, Lin Y, Ortiz-Vega S, Yonezawa K, Avruch J (Apr 2005). "Rheb binds and regulates the mTOR kinase". Current Biology. 15 ( ...
*  Cytidine monophosphate
CMP can be phosphorylated to cytidine diphosphate by the enzyme CMP kinase, with adenosine triphosphate or guanosine ...
*  BIM-1
"Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase". Science. 253 (5018): ... The protein kinase C inhibitor bis(indolyl)maleimide inhibitor BIM1 is clearly seen in the structure of PKCiota (residue 574- ... BIM-1 and the related compounds BIM-2, BIM-3, and BIM-8 are bisindolylmaleimide-based protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors. These ... The bound BIM1 inhibitor blocks the ATP-binding site and puts the kinase domain into an intermediate open conformation. The ...
*  STK11
LKB1 is a primary upstream kinase of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a necessary element in cell ... Serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11) also known as liver kinase B1 (LKB1) or renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-19 is a protein ... that is capable of phosphorylating and activating AMPK and at least 12 other kinases that belong to the AMPK-related kinase ... LKB1 has a structure typical of other protein kinases, with two (small and large) lobes on either side of the ligand ATP- ...
*  PRKACA
Induction by regulatory subunit and inhibition by catalytic subunit of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase ... Protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA Cα) is a member of the AGC kinase family, and contributes to the control of cellular ... A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs) bind a surface formed between both R subunits and target the kinase to different locations ... They realized that a key metabolic enzyme called phosphorylase kinase was activated by another kinase that was dependent on the ...
*  Myelin basic protein
1985). "Studies on the phosphorylation of myelin basic protein by protein kinase C and adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent ... "Phosphorylation sites of bovine brain myelin basic protein phosphorylated with Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase from ... protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 260 (23): 12492-9. PMID 2413024. Saxe DF, Takahashi N, Hood L, Simon MI (1985). "Localization ...
*  Thromboregulation
cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, phosphorylate messengers via protein kinase A (PKA). These signaling elements include ... Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates cGMP production and therefore the activation cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G kinase). This kinase ... In vivo phosphorylation of thromboxane by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase" (PDF). Journal of the Salk Institute for ...
*  Metabolism
Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ... One central coenzyme is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the universal energy currency of cells. This nucleotide is used to ... causing the active site of the synthase domain to change shape and phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate - turning it into ATP. ...
*  Nucleic acid metabolism
Adenylate kinase is a specific nucleoside-monophosphate kinase that functions only on adenosine-monophosphate. Nucleic acid RNA ... The nucleoside, adenosine, is then deaminated and hydrolyzed to form hypoxanthine via adenosine deaminase and nucleosidase ... "Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency". Learn.Genetics. Retrieved 31 October 2014. Nucleic Acids Book (free online book on the ... AMP and GMP can then be converted into ATP and GTP, respectively, by kinases that add additional phosphates. ATP stimulates ...
Toxoplasma gondii adenosine kinase (EC.2.7.1.20) is the major route of adenosine metabolism in this parasite. The enzyme is significantly more active than any other enzyme of the purine salvage in T. gondii and has been established as a potential chemotherapeutic target for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Several 6-benzylthioinosines have already been identified as subversive substrates of the T. gondii but not human adenosine kinase. Therefore, these compounds are preferentially metabolized to their respective nucleotides and become selectively toxic against the parasites but not its host. In the present study, we report the testing of the metabolism of several carbocyclic 6-benzylthioinosines, as well as their efficacy as anti-toxoplasmic agents in cell culture. All the carbocyclic 6-benzylthioinosine analogues were metabolized to their 5-monophosphate derivatives, albeit to different degrees. These results indicate that these compounds are not only ligands but also substrates of T. gondii ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Chelsey Pye, Nehal M Elsherbiny, Ahmed S Ibrahim, Gregory I Liou, Ahmed Chadli, Mohamed Al-Shabrawey, Ahmed A Elmarakby].
Utilizing decision making biomarkers in drug development requires thorough assay validation. non-human primate toxicology study using these assays, we demonstrated a 1500-fold and a 3000-fold increase in total A42 in plasma, a 4-fold and 8-fold increase in total A42 in CSF together with a 95% and 96% reduction of free A42 in CSF following weekly intravenous injections of 10?mg/kg and 100?mg/kg, respectively. Levels of A40 were unchanged. The accuracy of these data is supported by previous pre-clinical studies as well as predictive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics modeling. In contrast, when analyzing the same non-human primate samples excluding the pre-treatment steps, we were not able to distinguish between free and total A42. Our data clearly demonstrate the importance of thorough evaluation of antibody interference and appropriate validation to monitor different types of biomarkers in the presence of a therapeutic antibody. and collected into pre-chilled polypropylene Eppendorf tubes (0.5?mL ...
This immunocytochemical study evaluates the presence of IgG1C4, IgA and IgE immunoglobulins in active lesions of 25 localized cutaneous leishmaniasis patients from three bioclimatic areas (Awa, Afa and Bsha) in Mrida State, Venezuela. regularly in patients through the Awa region than in those through the Bsha area. The predominant expression of isotypes IgG2 and IgG1 suggests a preferential Th1 like immune response. Anti-immunoserum stained just parasites and their particles, suggesting that a lot of from the immunostaining was non-specific. 1989; Islam 1991). Consequently, its been broadly reported how the isotype serum antibodies could be utilized as an sign for Th lymphocyte subset dominance (Finkelman 1990). Histopathological and immunocytochemical research demonstrating the great quantity of plasma cells and IgM, IgG and IgE antibodies complexed to antigens in the infiltrate of human and experimental lesions suggest that the humoral response might influence the elimination of the parasite ...
Adenosine kinase (AK) and hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HXGPRT) are the two key enzymes involved in the purine salvage pathway in Toxoplasma gondii. In this study, we targeted the genes encoding AK and HXGPRT in T. gondii for inhibition by exposing the parasites to the corresponding double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). We report here that dsRNAs targeting both AK and HXGPRT were effective at eliciting suppression of the corresponding gene in cultured tachyzoites. When both of these genes were targeted by dsRNA simultaneously, the average doubling for the dsRNA-treated parasites at 24 h, 30 h, and 42 h was 1.85, 2.62, and 4.27, respectively, significantly lower than that of mock-treated parasites. The data show that transfection of dsRNAs into cells can efficiently regulate gene expression in T. gondii. Application of dsRNA to disrupt gene expression in T. gondii would be useful for elucidating gene function as a step towards the development of therapeutic reagents ...
β-Cell proliferation is rare in both adults who are healthy and adults who have diabetes, and the molecular underpinnings of the natural resistance of β-cells to undergo mitosis are complex (5), difficult to study (6), and species dependent (7). Nonetheless, several small molecules have been reported to induce human β-cell proliferation (8-10), among them the adenosine kinase inhibitor 5-iodotubercidin (5-IT) (11). The latter compound was previously identified to promote β-cell and δ-cell proliferation in murine (and porcine) islets (12).. In this issue of Diabetes, Dirice et al. (8) convincingly demonstrate that 5-IT also stimulates human β-cell proliferation in vitro, as well as upon transplantation of human islets into mice in vivo. Notably, the authors report that this effect appears to be specific to endocrine pancreatic cells, in particular the β-cells (Fig. 1), and they did not find any increase in cell proliferation in several nonpancreatic tissues (8). Of significance, long-term ...
Adenosine (Ado) salvage is essential in plant development. The lack of Ado kinase activity (ADK) in Arabidopsis thaliana adk1 adk2 double mutants results in embryonic lethality; reduction of ADK expression causes a pleiotropic phenotype due to the accumulation of Ado inhibiting transmethylation activities. The phenotype of ADK mutants shows that this enzyme plays a critical role in Ado salvage but the functional significance of the other putative Ado recycling enzymes Ado deaminase (ADA) and Ado nucleosidase (ADN) in Arabidopsis thaliana have yet to be elucidated. ADA catalyzes the irreversible deamination of Ado to inosine. The locus At4g04880 (AtADA) of A. thaliana is annotated as encoding a putative ADA, based on its amino acid sequence similarity and the presence of important, conserved catalytic residues. However, indirect and direct spectrophotometric activity assays of the recombinant enzyme demonstrated that the gene product of this locus does not possess ADA activity; complementation ...
The aminopyrimidopyrimidine nucleoside 4-amino-8-(beta-D-ribofuranosylamino)pyrimido[5,4-d]pyrimidine (APP), which was previously shown to possess experimental antitumor and antiviral activity, was metabolized within WI-L2 human lymphoblastoid cells to a derivative identified as the beta-D-ribonucleotide (APP-MP). In a subline of WI-L2 cells deficient in adenosine kinase, this metabolite was not formed and APP was not cytotoxic, suggesting that APP is converted by adenosine kinase to its 5-monophosphate. Because no evidence of di- or triphosphates was seen, the monophosphate appeared to be the active species. Treatment of WI-L2 or L1210 cells with APP (10 microM) for 30 min caused extensive depletion of both purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides. Purine and pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides were also depleted. Cells were not protected from the cytotoxicity of APP by hypoxanthine plus uridine, but uridine plus adenosine plus 2-deoxycoformycin gave considerable protection. This result was ...
85] SNÁŠEL, J., P. NAUŠ, J. DOSTÁL, A. HNÍZDA, J. FANFRLÍK, J. BRYNDA, A. BOURDERIOUX, M. DUŠEK, H. DVOŘÁKOVÁ, J. STOLAŘÍKOVÁ, H. ZÁBRANSKÁ, R. POHL, P. KONEČNÝ, P. DŽUBÁK, I. VOTRUBA, M. HAJDÚCH, P. ŘEZÁČOVÁ, V. VEVERKA, M. HOCEK a I. PICHOVÁ. Structural Basis for Inhibition of Mycobacterial and Human Adenosine Kinase by 7-Substituted 7-(Het)aryl-7-deazaadenine Ribonucleosides. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2014, 57 (20), 8268-8279. ISSN: 0022-2623. IF: 5.447. PMID: 25259627 ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Denise E Fedele, Nicolette Gouder, Martin Güttinger, Laetitia Gabernet, Louis Scheurer, Thomas Rülicke, Florence Crestani, Detlev Boison].
Pu-erh tea is definitely believed to possess health benefits, the growth inhibition activity of Pu-erh tea about breast cancer cell offers not been investigated. P-JNK, P-p53 Tonabersat (Ser15), g21, CyclinD1 and CyclinE by Pu-erh tea remove. Our outcomes indicate that Pu-erh tea drinking water remove prevents cell expansion of MDA-MB-231 cells through the induction of […]. ...
Bjursell MK, Blom HJ, Cayuela JA, Engvall ML, Lesko N, Balasubramaniam S,Brandberg G, Halldin M, Falkenberg M, Jakobs C, Smith D, Struys E, von Döbeln U, Gustafsson CM, Lundeberg J, Wedell A. Adenosine Kinase Deficiency Disrupts the Methionine Cycle and Causes Hypermethioninemia, Encephalopathy, and Abnormal Liver Function. Am J Hum Genet. 2011 Sep 28. PubMed PMID:21963049. Phenotype […]. ...
Masclaux-Daubresse C, Reisdorf-Cren M, Pageau K, Lelandais M, Grandjean O, Kronenberger J, Valadier MH, Feraud M, Jouglet T, Suzuki ...
Originally Posted by ADK_Forever No kidding? Originally Posted by ADK_Forever Since youre so dense, Ill show you point for point... Here is what you
Iodotubercidin is an adenosine kinase inhibitor that through its ability to increase levels of endogenous adenosine can enhance adenosines receptor-mediated effects. We investigated whether iodotubercidin can inhibit [3H]adenosine accumulation by inhibiting transport processes in addition to inhibition of intracellular trapping of labeled adenine nucleotides. Under conditions in which extensive metabolism of intracellular adenosine was present, [3H]adenosine accumulation by DDT1 MF-2 cells was almost completely inhibited by iodotubercidin and the adenosine deaminase inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine or by the nucleoside transport inhibitor nitrobenzylthioinosine. By using similar conditions, [3H]adenosine accumulation was significantly greater in Na+ buffer than in buffer containing N-methyl-D-glucamine in place of Na+; however, this effect may be explained by an observed 40% inhibition of adenosine kinase activity by N-methyl-D-glucamine. By using uptake intervals of 14 sec to ...
Schwann Cells: Provide the insulation (myelin) to neurons in the peripheral nervous system.. The accumulation of adenosine during waking periods is thus associated with the depletion of the ATP reserves stored as glycogen in the brain. The increased adenosine levels trigger non-REM sleep, during which the brain is less active, thus placing it in a recovery phase that is absolutely essential-among other things, to let it rebuild its stores of glycogen. Because adenosine is continuously metabolized by the enzyme adenosine desaminase, the decline in adenosine production during sleep quickly causes a general decline in adenosine concentrations in the brain, eventually producing conditions more favourable to awakening.. The human body clock is another factor. ...
Study tour, meskipun itu artinya karya wisata atau belajar sambil jalan - jalan atau apalah gituu. Tapi menurut gue STUDY TOUR itu kayak travelling bareng temen sekolah seangkatan & bareng guru - guru. Meskipun siih biasanya disuruh nyimpulin atau buat makalah atau apalah gitu yang bertema tentang STUDY TOUR yang barusan dilakuin. STUDY TOUR itu sihh sebenernyaa asik banget, karna bisa seru - seruan bareng temen sekolah yang gokil abiss. Dan itu kamu pasti dapet uang saku buat beli oleh - oleh atau buat beli barang yg kamu perluin saat perjalanan STUDY TOUR. Sebelum STUDY TOUR itu biasanya beli barang - barang yang diperluin, dan biasanya hal itu tercapai, dan itu bahagiaa bgt rasanya. itu pendapat gue tentang "STUDY TOUR", kalo kamu gimana? ...
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Bayangkan orang yang jadi marah kepada empunya mulut itu adalah isteri atau suami sendiri. Tentulah buah mulut itu akan menjadi punca perbalahan yang mungkin akan membawa kepada perpisahan. Katakanlah seorang suami (isteri) menceritakan kepada isterinya (suami) tentang adik-beradiknya yang membuat dia rasa tidak puas hati. Isteri (suami) pula menambah tokok untuk menampakkan lagi keburukan sifat adik beradik suami (isteri). Jangan disangka suami (isteri) itu bertambah benci kepada adik-beradiknya. Sebaliknya dia akan menjadi marah kepada isterinya (suaminya). Walaupun suami (isteri) tidak menyebutnya, tetapi dia akan mempertahankan adik beradiknya itu dalam hati. Kalau selalu terjadi begini, suami (isteri) akan bertambah baik kepada adik beradiknya tetapi benci pada isterinya (suaminya). Apa yang dikatakan dalam pepatah Melayu itu betul: Carik-carik bulu ayam, akhirnya bercantum juga ...
Protein sangat penting bagi tubuh. Ia mengandung unsur semacam C, O, H dan N yang tidak dipunyai oleh karbohidrat juga lemak. Karakter protein ini menjadikan ia khas. Selain itu, protein juga mengandung senyawa lain di antaranya belerang, fosfor bahkan ada pula yang menyimpan unsur logam semacam besi di setiap molekul-molekul penyusunnya. Mencermati kandungannya yang kompleks,…
Suatu pengatur yg sifatnya merekat secara otomatis mengendalikan temperatur dari bahan bakar minyak yg meninggalkan alat pemanas utk memelihara sifat perekatnya didlm.adapun batas dekat suatu permukaan adalah kekuatan yg lain,kekautan A disediakan pergerakan lapisan pelindung.kekuatan ini disebut friksi.selalu berlawanan dgn gerakan itu.gerakan yg berlawanan itu ada ditiap mesin.peristiwa itu dpt dikurangi oleh pemberian minyak lumas tetapi tdk perna dgn sepenuhnya dipindahkan dlm mengangsur permukaan yg lain dibanding setelah pergerakan itu dimulai.kekuatan yg sedikit lebih besar ini disebut friksi yg statis.kekuatan yg harus digunakan utk memelihara satu permukaan yg lain. ...
Walau bagaimanapun, lama-kelamaan persepsi saya berubah. Ya, pasti ramai yang akan mengatakan sebabnya kerana memang dunia itu yang perlu saya gelumang, kalau tidak pasti tidak lulus dalam peperiksaan. Hakikatnya, bukan. Saya mula ingin menyelongkar dunia politik ini apabila kebanyakkan pensyarah saya tidak sahaja bersyarah di hadapan. Sebaliknya sentiasa memberi peluang kepada kami untuk menyuarakan pendapat. Bermula daripada situ, saya belajar berfikir dan menilai sendiri. Pemikiran saya lebih terbuka dan menjadikan saya neutral. Neutral bukan beerti lalang ya kawan-kawan. Pendirian saya adalah saya tidak mahu memihak mana-mana belah pihak sedangkan setiap daripadanya mempunyai agenda yang tersendiri ...
Arti dan makna apa itu MIGRASI ULANG- ALIK adalah dalam istilah Kependudukan. Kamus, arti dan daftar istilah Kependudukan lengkap dari berbagai sumber terpercaya.
Arti dan makna apa itu pangajeng- ajeng adalah dalam istilah Sansekerta. Kamus, arti dan daftar istilah Sansekerta lengkap dari berbagai sumber terpercaya.
Sabar...sabar dik.Adik Fatihah kena faham tujuan adik diciptakan di dunia bukanlah semata-mata untuk melaram melawa bergaya cantik jelita.Malah perbuatan adik itu hanya menambahkan kemungkaran sahaja.Jika adik percaya bahawa diri adik diciptakan semata-mata jadi penyeri sahaja,maka samalah adik macam pokok bunga plastik.Jadi penyeri sahaja.Tidak lebih dari itu.Tahukah adik,adik diciptakan di dunia semata-mata untuk buat satu PERKARA MULIA.Adik diciptakan bukan jadi penyeri malah bertambah-tambah lebih mulia dari itu.Untuk buat satu PERKARA MULIA.Itulah beza penciptaan adik dengan pokok bunga plastik.Penciptaan pokok bunga plastik hanyalah sebagai penyeri sahaja.Tetapi PENCIPTAAN DIRI ADIK ADALAH UNTUK BUAT TUGAS MULIA.Gunung-ganang,kambing,awan,bintang,matahari,planet-planet pun tidak dapat buat TUGAS MULIA INI tau. ...
Pada 2015, jumlah dagangan dua hala Malaysia-Iran susut kepada AS$700 juta berbanding tahun sebelumnya berikutan pelaksanaan sekatan antarabangsa ke atas negara itu. Selepas sekatan itu ditamatkan, jumlah dagangan dua hala itu melonjak 22.7 peratus kepada RM1.32 bilion pada tujuh bulan pertama tahun ini berbanding RM1.07 bilion bagi tempoh sama, tahun lalu ...
Oh, jadi ternyata tujuan akhir PKMP itu menghasilkan research paper yang nantinya akan dipresentasikan di forum ilmiah. Okay, next years challenge will be accepted. Kan, seenggaknya kalo para dosen itu bilang dari awal, kita akan menyesuaikan dengan tema-tema konferensi tertentu tahun depan; jadi penemuan tema dan lingkup penelitian juga akan lebih mudah. Hanya saja, penelitian itu…
Pilihan Forex semakin popular di kalangan pedagang kerana jenis dagangan ini boleh menghasilkan keuntungan tanpa had. Selain itu, prinsip-prinsip perdagangan agak mudah dan mudah difahami walaupun oleh pemula. Memilih dari pilihan urusniaga harian, tamat tempoh, dan pilihan binari, spekulator boleh menjual sebarang aset dari mata wang dan logam kepada saham syarikat terkenal. Pelaburan pilihan akan membuat keuntungan sekiranya keadaan kontrak itu dipenuhi. Dengan kata lain, seorang pedagang perlu meramalkan sama ada harga pengaktifan akan sama atau lebih tinggi atau lebih rendah daripada harga penutupan.. ...
Sekiranya melalui ujian ultrasound mendapati tiada janin di dalam kandungan, ujian air kencing juga perlu dilakukan. Kebiasaannya dalam ujian air kencing mendapati hormon BHCG meningkat dalam darah. Keadaan sedemikian perlu diawasi kerana risiko terdekat ialah pendarahan paling banyak dan melimpah boleh mengancam nyawa. ...
Berdengkur ialah bunyi bising semasa bernafas, di mana sebahagian daripada saluran pernafasan atas seseorang itu tersumbat. Ia berlaku apabila terdapat sekatan pada aliran udara di dalam saluran pernafasan di bahagian belakang mulut dan hidung. Bunyi itu dikeluarkan apabila tisu di bahagian atas saluran pernafasan bergesel dan bergetar di antara satu sama lain. Berdengkur bertambah kerap mengikut umur dan biasanya tidak membahayakan. ...
Ketua Pegawai Operasi (Bahagian Tenusu), Tony Lee, bagaimanapun berkata kumpulan itu belum membuat keputusan bila semakan kenaikan harga itu akan berkuat kuasa ...
Dalam Rm 1800 juga termasuk sepasang baju lace perempuan (Design pilihan hati) dan juga baju untuk lelaki untuk dimiliki terus!!di ulang taip..DIMILIKI terus!! Cakap pasal design pilihan hati..bermakna..Anda beli majalah pengantin,kalau anda berkenan dgn mana2 design dlm majalah itu,sile bawa design itu ke butik tersebut. dan dia akan design baju anda mengikut design tersebut..sekian~ *faham tak?* ayat berbelit sampai kpl sy dh terbelit2..I was like "Serius ke??"..and dia kata "Serius cik"..OOHH suke ...
KETIKA itu saya lihat Kylee tidak sedarkan diri, tidak bernafas lagi, lantas saya menarik Kylee keluar dari tab mandi dan terus memberikan bantuan CPR (pernafas
terlalu banyak keluar masuk pelajar dan CM terpaksa menaip senarai nama berhelai-helai... itu kerja biasa setiap hujung bulan ...
walaupun pertunangan ni berlaku secara tiba-tiba (ketika itu), namun ia sangat membawa makna kepada hubungan kami.. semoga ikatan ini akan terus kekal hingga ke jinjang pelamin..insyaAllah ...
Wymieszaj w jednej misce przesianą mąkę, cukier i proszek do pieczenia, a w drugiej połącz roztopione masło z mlekiem i jajkiem. Następnie wymieszaj zawartości obu misek (nie musi być na gładką masę), dodaj pokrojoną drobno czekoladę i pokrojone gruszki. Wymieszaj. Nałóż do papilotek i formy. Muffiny piecz przez 20-25 minut, we wcześniej rozgrzanym piekarniku do 200 stopni C ...
Adenosine is a candidate sleep substance. It can be both a distress signal of importance in pathology and a physiological regulator. Key factors in determining which of these possibilities pertain are: (i) the number of receptors expressed, and (ii) the mechanisms that establish extracellular adenosine levels. The roles of adenosine are studied by means of antagonists and/or animals (mostly mice) with targeted deletions of receptors or enzymes involved in adenosine metabolism. Whereas adaptive changes in the genetically modified mice can occur for the physiologically important effects, such adaptive changes are less likely to occur in situations where adenosine acts as a distress signal. The relevance to sleep will be covered only in general terms in this review and will be covered in other contributions to this volume.
Effects of increased myocardial adenosine concentrations in patients with acute myocardial-infarction receiving thrombolytic ...
Medzinárodná telekomunikačná únia (International Telecommunication Union, ITU) so sídlom v Ženeve je najstaršia odborná organizácia pridružená k OSN.. Význam ITU postupne rástol s rozširujúcim sa sortimentom telekomunikačných služieb a sietí. V roku 1947 sa ITU po vzniku OSN stala jednou z jej špecializovaných agentúr. Formálne je ITU medzivládnou organizáciou. Každý suverénny štát, ktorý je členom OSN, môže byť i členom ITU. ITU má dnes unikátnu organizačnú štruktúru: generálny sekretár ITU je iba legislatívnym zástupcom organizácie, výkonnú moc majú riaditelia troch sektorov - rádiokomunikácií, telekomunikácií a rozvoja.. Sídlo únie je od roku 1948 v Ženeve, kam sa presťahovalo z Bernu.. ...
Get the best price and selection of New Studio Recording Multi-pattern Large Diaphragm ADK Microphones Pro Audio at Musicians Friend. Many New Studio Recording Multi-pattern Large Diaphragm ADK...
Ya Allah, bahawasanya waktu Dhuha itu waktu Dhuha-Mu, Kecantikan ialah kecantikan-Mu, Keindahan itu keindahan-Mu, Kekuatan itu kekuatan-Mu, Kekuasaan itu kekuasaan-Mu, dan Perlindungan itu perlindungan-Mu. Ya Allah, jika rezekiku masih di langit, turunkanlah dan jika ada di dalam bumi, keluarkanlah, jika sukar permudahkanlah, jika haram sucikanlah, jika masih jauh dekatkanlah waktu Dhuha-Mu keagungan-Mu, keindahan-Mu, kekuatan-Mu dan kekuasaan-Mu, Limpahkanlah kepada kami segala yang telah Engkau limpahkan kepada hamba-hamba-Mu yang soleh." Amin ...
ITU HFBC software is consistent with the general principles set out in Article 12 and the specifications in Res.535(Rev.WRC-03) . It was developed in close consideration with Administrations, broadcasters, and existing HFBC regional coordination groups. ...
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Kat sini ai list down kan klinik/tempat yg tawarkan scan 3d/4d sekitar Malaysia. Maka dengan itu..call la dulu n tanya la macam2 sebelum ...
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Apa Itu Penyakit Psoriasis? | Penyakit psoriasis bukanlah penyakit kulit yang biasa, tetapi penyakit psoriasis sebenarnya bermula di bawah kulit.
harusnya untuk yang menu sebelumnya L/100KM (kalo yang real time ga pake KM).. akan tereset sendiri setelah isi lebih dari 15 Liter (kalo ga salah, di buku manual ada itu keterangannya)... tapi untuk perhitungan akurat lebih baik direset sendiri (teken 2-5 detik). kalo awalnya 20L/100KM itu itungan awal saja...sebenernya kalo yg itu adalah akumulasi total pemakaian dan biasanya dibanding dengan pengisian bensin kita adalah 90% akurat... jadi tambahkan sekitar 10 % hasil akhir ...
Sungguh mengagumkan urusan seorang mukmin. Sungguh seluruh perkara adalah kebaikan baginya. Yang demikian itu tidaklah dimiliki oleh seorangpun kecuali seorang mukmin. Jika mendapatkan kelapangan ia bersyukur maka yg demikian itu baik baginya. Dan jika ia ditimpa kemudaratan atau kesusahan ia bersabar, maka yang demikian itu baik baginya."( Hadis riwayat Muslim ) ...
Jangan tertipu taw, memang la dia tulis rendah lemak, tapi anda tahu kan, lemak lha penyedap makanan. Semakin banyak lemak, semakin sedaplah makanan itu (fakta). So kalau rendah lemak? Mestilah tak berapa sedap kan? Kalau tak berapa sedap, mesti lepas tu ramai orang tak nak beli kan? So untuk mengelakkan perkara itu, pengusaha makanan itu akan menambah perasa tiruan, garam, gula dan macam-macam ...
Capungjarum centil merupakan capung dengan ukuran sangat kecil. Warnanya menarik, hijau, orange, merah, abu,. pokoknya warnanya kayak lolipop,. warna - warni,. Kenapa kok namanya capungjarum centil? Kalau kata si pemberi nama itu diambil dari nama latinnya Agriocnemis femina, femina artinya feminim, kemudian yang feminim-feminim itu lebih enak kalau diganti dengan nama centil. Itu kata mbah…
Pernah suatu hari, terdapat seorang pemuda menawarkan diri untuk melaungkan azannya di waktu subuh dan dibenarkan oleh Rasululalh s.a.w. Ketika pemuda itu melaungkan azannya, berduyun-duyun jemaah membanjiri solat subuh. Paginya, malaikat turun ke bumi dan bertanya kepada Rasulullah s.a.w " Mengapa tidak solat subuh pagi tadi?" .. Rasulullah menjawab, berduyun jemaah bersolat jemaah pagi tadi kerana dek laungan azan dari pada pemuda itu mengantikan bilal. "Mengapa kami di langit tidak dengar azan seperti selalu"- Jawab Malaikat. Malangnya azan laungan tidak bergema di langit seperti selalu kerana suara azan yang dilaungkan oleh pemuda itu tidak ikhlas ...
hai, saya doktor dan saya juga suka mengembara. saya sudi share pengalaman saya untuk semua. sharing itu kan caring. caring itu loving :)
hai, saya doktor dan saya juga suka mengembara. saya sudi share pengalaman saya untuk semua. sharing itu kan caring. caring itu loving :)
01 Pebruari 2007 - 07:55 (Her Suharyanto) Diposting oleh: Editor (Rate: 0 / 0 votes) Serial News for Wealth Dalam jurnalistik ada satu (dari sekian banyak) kriteria untuk menentukan apakah satu peristiwa layak berita atau tidak. Kriteria itu adalah besarnya dampak atau magnitude dari berita itu. Semakin berita memiliki dampak besar, semakin besar pula nilai berita…
Lada Burung: Walaupun kecil namun mampu untuk menyengat sesiapa sahaja walaupun jasad orang itu sebesar harimau setinggi unta. Ibarat siapa makan lada dia terasa pedasnya. Lidah akan merasa pedas. Sebab itu kata-kata pedas memanaskan telinga. Sebab kata-kata yang keluar dari mulut dan lidah boleh jadi pedas sebab lidah biasa makan lada. Betul ke? :) ...
Meskipun saat ini banyak dijual berbagai macam krim yg mengklaim bisa menghapus dan memudarkan tato, tapi badan pengawas obat dan makanan Amerika tidak menyarankan masyarakat untuk menggunakannya. "Bahan kimia yg terkandung di dalam krim tersebut sangat aktif, sehingga bisa menyebabkan iritasi dan mengikis kulit," ujar Frank. ...
Di sebuah keluarga miskin, seorang ayah tampak kesal pada anak perempuannya yang berusia tiga tahun. Anak perempuannya baru saja menghabiskan uang untuk membeli kertas kado emas untuk membungkus sekotak kado. Keesokan harinya, anak perempuan itu memberikan kado itu sebagai hadiah ulang tahun pada sang ayah.
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MELAKA - Polis menahan seorang wanita selepas mengesyaki dia bukan sahaja menyembunyikan kematian suaminya akibat sakit tua malah bertindak membuang mayat suaminya itu ke dalam semak dalam kejadian di Kampung Solok Pantai Batu 4, Batu Berendam di sini Sabtu lalu ...
Tidak mungkin suatu set peraturan disiplin boleh meliputi segala perkara perihal disiplin dalam semua situasi bagi semua jenis industri. Maka peraturan itu haruslah fleksibel untuk industri yang berbeza bergantung kepada jenis pekerjaan dan saiz tenaga kerjanya ...
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ADPase (adenosine diphosphatase) was assayed in rat liver homogenates with [beta-32P]ADP as substrate. The activity had a pH optimum of 8.0 and was strongly activated by Mg2+. The intracellular localization was determined by analytical subcellular fractionation with single-step sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. Selective membrane perturbants were used to enhance the resolution of the various organelles. ADPase was localized to the mitochondria. Mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation and subfractionated by selective disruption of the inner and outer membranes. The intramitochondrial localization of ADPase was compared with various marker enzymes and was shown to be concentrated in the outer-membrane fractions. The effects of various inhibitors on the ADPase activity were determined and the possibility that the activity could be due to known enzyme systems was considered. It is concluded that ADP degradation is due to a hitherto unrecognized mitochondrial enzyme. ...
In this study, we utilized a network partition approach to identify substrate cycles in the context of metabolic modules. Substrate cycles have been found experimentally in many parts of metabolism, particularly across opposing reactions of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. However, due to the complexity of metabolic networks, comprehensive characterization has been difficult. In conjunction with large-scale metabolic models, computational approaches offer the benefit that they can systematically consider most (if not all) reactions in a cell type or organism.. Performing motif searches on large-scale networks is challenging, and often intractable, unless the motif is very small. One way to address this problem is to place a upper limit on the number of components in the motif, but this can be arbitrary [16]. On the other hand, finding substrate cycles by enumerating all directed cycles of any size is computationally intractable, because the number of cycles may grow non-linearly with the number ...
5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) is an intermediate in the generation of inosine monophosphate. AICAR is an analog of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) that is capable of stimulating AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activity. AICAR has been used clinically to treat and protect against cardiac ischemic injury. The drug was first used in the 1980s as a method to preserve blood flow to the heart during surgery. Currently, the drug has also been shown as a potential treatment for diabetes by increasing the metabolic activity of tissues by changing the physical composition of muscle. The nucleoside form of AICAR, acadesine, is an analog of adenosine that enters cardiac cells to inhibit adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase. It enhances the rate of nucleotide re-synthesis increasing adenosine generation from adenosine monophosphate only during conditions of myocardial ischemia. In cardiac myocytes, acadesine is phosphorylated to AICAR to activate AMPK without changing the levels ...
Introduction: Prior studies demonstrate that ischemic preconditioning (IP) alters adenosine metabolism. The significance of this effect is not fully understood, but evidence suggests that reduction in extracellular adenosine may represent use as an alternative fuel. Transformation into AMP/ADP may also replenish intracellular total adenine nucleotides (TAN), improving the potential high-energy phosphate bonds available in cells facing ischemia. In both cases, adenosine supports cell energy requirements and may be a key component of IPs protective mechanisms. There are no previous studies of brain adenosine in human patients undergoing remote IP.. Methods: In adults with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 3-4 remote IP sessions were conducted on non-consecutive days, 4-12 days after hemorrhage. Each session consisted of 4 5-min cycles of lower extremity blood pressure cuff inflation to 30mmHg above systolic blood pressure, followed by 5-min reperfusion. Patients had microdialysis (MD) ...
Obese patients with type 2 diabetes who consume higher amounts of fructose display reduced levels of liver adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-a compound involved in the energy transfer between cells. The findings, published in ...
satu lagi bukti kebenaran tanda akhir zaman dah semakin jelas muncul..(musim berubah2 @ xmenentu) menandakan hari pengakhiran itu semakin hampir.. dalam keadaan sekarang ni, bukan masalah kita x percaya ttg apa yang telah diperkatakan islam ttg akan berlakunya hari akhirat & tanda2 dekatnya hari kiamat itu.. & saya juga bukan nak memperdebat tanda2 akhir zaman ini..betul, kiamat itu pasti akan berlaku! tidak kiralah apa jua tanda2 yang telah keluar atau belum, kiamat itu pasti akan berlaku. tapi, kita juga jgn lupa bahawa kita kini berada di zaman yg penuh dgn cabaran.cabaran fitnah dajjal. cabaran umat2 akhir zaman yg bagaikan ingin kembali menjadi jahil seperti zaman dahulu kala. jahil dalam arus kemodenan yg diciptanya. zaman yang mana dahulu Rasulullah pernah menyebut bahawa umat islam pada zaman itu bagai buih di lautan. islam itu bermula sebagai sesuatu yg asing dan akan kembali menjadi sesuatu yang asing ...
Jelas abah miliki lebih dari itu. Jesteru itu potrait Ummu diserahkan sebagai pengganti diri dan Ummu sendiri tidak pernah melihat dan mengenali abah sebelum kami diijabkabulkan. Pernah arwah atok melawak, bagaimana kiranya bakal suami itu cacat anggota badan, bisu..ke..., sumbang ke...apa-apa sahaja yang boleh menyakitkan hati. Ummu sudah pasrah pada Allah dan jodoh itu datang sebaik sahaja peristiwa malam 27 Ramadhan. Ummu sudah pasti dan jawapan setuju dari Ummu itu terus disusuli dengan akad nikah selang beberapa hari selepas itu. Akad dilangsungkan dan Ummu hanya bersetuju di sebalik tabir. Selepas selesai segalanya, arwah atok memanggil Ummu untuk melihat suami buat pertama kali. Perkahwinan kami tiada kenduri besar dan ambil yang wajib sahaja. Arwah atok adalah seorang yang solih dan faham sangat selok belok perkahwinan yang dituntut oleh Allah. Suasana akad nikah kami sedikit pun tidak dicemari dengan kehadhiran mereka yang bakal mengurangkan berkahnya. Juga tidak dicemari dengan adat ...
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Pertanyan itu dijawab dengan mudah karena yang kerap kali jajan (Pengguna jasa pekerja sek, red)diluaran itu hanya laki-laki dan tak tertutup kemungkinan untuknya menderita virus mematikan itu. Dan bukan hanya itu saja cara untuk menebarkan virus tersebut juga dapat melalui jarum suntik yang tak pernah diganti-ganti (Satu jarum untuk bersama-sama, red).Dalam itu juga AJP HIV/AIDS ikut dalam penyidikan ke tempat-tempat keramaian yang kerap terjadi transaksi sek tersebut. ...
Sahabat, jangan sesekali kau merasa kandunganmu sia-sia. Itu anugerah tidak ternilai dari Allah. Dia telah memberi nikmat kepadamu - loya, muntah, sakit dan pening.. kemudian sakit segala badan, dan kemudian membesar perutmu. Dan kemudian diberi nikmat ditendang oleh kaki kecilnya, dan kau dilayan sebaik-baiknya oleh suami dan ahli keluarga sepanjang kandunganmu itu. Jangan kau merasa sia-sia segala sakit (nikmat) selama itu, kerana lahirnya sementara.. kerana itu seolah-olah menidakkan takdir-Nya, sedangnya masih ramai wanita di dunia ini yang tidak pernah merasakan nikmat itu. ...
Seperkara lagi, jika terdapat ADUN-ADUN parti pembangkang yang terlibat di dalam mogok lapar tersebut, tindakan mereka itu amat membazirkan masa dan tenaga. Alangkah baiknya jika mereka menggunakan 72 jam itu untuk turun ke kawasan-kawasan masing, bekerja dan bersama-sama rakyat di sana.. Jika ADUN-ADUN tersebut masih degil dan masih mahu meneruskan mogok lapar tersebut, penulis mensyorkan kepada pihak yang berkenaan supaya menolak gaji mereka kerana tidak berfungsi sebagai ADUN selama 72 jam.. Dan jika masih ada yang mahu meneruskan mogok lapar ini, penulis mensyorkan agar survillance (pemantauan) ketat dilakukan selama 24 jam untuk 3 hari itu termasuk cctv agar pemogok-pemogok itu benar-benar mogok lapar dan bukannya mengambil kesempatan untuk minum dan makan apabila tiada orang yang memerhatikan mereka!. Apa pun penulis menyarankan kepada kita semua supaya tidak terpengaruh dan terbeli dengan propanganda parti pembangkang ini. Ianya satu usaha yang tidak patut disokong langsung dan patut ...
Keharmonisan rumah tangga bisa lebih mesra jika tetap baik dalam berhubungan seksual, biasanya keharmonisan dalam rumah tangga akan menurun karena penyebab impotensi pada suami, jika sudah seperti itu segeralah konsumsi obat lemah syahwat. Jangan biarkan gairah seksual menurun , tapi jika sudah terlanjur maka kamu harus pintar mencari solusi bagaimana cara mengobati gairah seksual yang menurun , biasanya yang sangat manjur itu adalah obat pembangkit gairah seksual dijamin pasti dapat membangkitkan gairah seksual.. tapi ada baiknya juga jika anda mencari tahu alasan gairah seksual menurun . semoga dengan begitu semuanya bisa teratasi penyebab impotensi pada suami, jika sudah seperti itu segeralah konsumsi obat lemah syahwat. Jangan biarkan gairah seksual menurun , tapi jika sudah terlanjur maka kamu harus pintar mencari solusi bagaimana cara mengobati gairah seksual yang menurun , biasa yang sangat manjur itu adalah obat pembangkit gairah seksual dijamin pasti dapat membangkitkan gairah seksual.. ...
Keharmonisan rumah tangga bisa lebih mesra jika tetap baik dalam berhubungan seksual, biasanya keharmonisan dalam rumah tangga akan menurun karena penyebab impotensi pada suami, jika sudah seperti itu segeralah konsumsi obat lemah syahwat. Jangan biarkan gairah seksual menurun , tapi jika sudah terlanjur maka kamu harus pintar mencari solusi bagaimana cara mengobati gairah seksual yang menurun , biasanya yang sangat manjur itu adalah obat pembangkit gairah seksual dijamin pasti dapat membangkitkan gairah seksual.. tapi ada baiknya juga jika anda mencari tahu alasan gairah seksual menurun . semoga dengan begitu semuanya bisa teratasi penyebab impotensi pada suami, jika sudah seperti itu segeralah konsumsi obat lemah syahwat. Jangan biarkan gairah seksual menurun , tapi jika sudah terlanjur maka kamu harus pintar mencari solusi bagaimana cara mengobati gairah seksual yang menurun , biasa yang sangat manjur itu adalah obat pembangkit gairah seksual dijamin pasti dapat membangkitkan gairah seksual.. ...
OPPO warna gold," ujar Kanit Reskrim AKP Nevo, Selasa (10-10-2017).. AKP Nevo melanjutkan, peristiwa jambret itu bermula saat itu korban bernama Lestari warga Klender bersama dengan sejumlah temannya baru saja dari Bank BCA Klender dengan mengendarai motor berboncengan bertiga.. Namun pada saat dalam perjalanan pulang, korban yang saat itu memainkan HP diatas motor, tiba-tiba didatangi pelaku (dipepet) dua orang dari belakang menggunakan sepeda motor, dan langsung merampas HP korban.. "Dan kedua pelaku membawa HP korban kemudian dikakukan pengejaran dan kedua pelaku tertangkap berikut HP milik korban dan sepeda motor yang digunakan pelaku," ungkap AKP Nevo.. Atas perbuatannya itu, kedua pelaku berikut barang bukti diamankan ke Mapolsek Duren Sawit untuk dilakukan pengusutan lebih lanjut. Dan yang bersangkutan dijerat Pasal 365 KUHP tentang pencurian.. (Tribratanews.com). ...
ummi mmg cari yg jenis L shape ni...sbb tu je yg sesuai dgn kedudukan rumah ummi yg tak sebeso mana..jadila kan.....masa nak pilih tu..ummi rase mcm...eehh...pendek je sofa ni....kecik kot....takpelah...tapi hati dah bkenan....ambik jee...kene lak dgn bajet ummi kan....sambar jela....tengok2 bila letak kat ruang tamu...mak aiiihh...besonye...nasib tak ambik yg lagi panjang..hahaha....jenis kulit....warna gelap ala2 kelabu coklat rasenye...sesuai utk yg ade anak kecik...yg suke wat comot mcm anak2 ummi nie...senang nak bersihkan..keh keh....tempat sandar kepala boleh ditegakkan/dilaraskan ikut suke....tempat duduk boleh ditarik keluar kalau nak lagi luas....dah macam katil pn ade sofa ni...hahahaha....bantal kecik diorang bg 2...tapi ummi minta 4...hahahaha....bagi ummi dah cantik dah...tak tau la korang rase kureng lg....takpela..janji itu je yg ummi mampu takat nie...sbb banyak lg "idaman" ummi pasni...dan ummi kene kerja keras lagi ...
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) has launched m-health initiative to combat non-communicable diseases.
Kyriba Japan Co., Ltd. (Kyriba), the global leader in cloud-based Proactive Treasury Management, announced that ASATSU-DK INC. (ADK) selected Kyriba E
Sabda Rasulullah S.A.W "Bahawasanya mayat itu apabila telah diletakkan di dalam kuburnya dan ia benar-benar dapat mendengar suara alas kaki mereka (orang-orang yang mengiringkan jenazahnya), ketika mereka hendak meninggalkan kuburnya. Apabila mayat itu seorang mukmin, maka solatnya ada disamping kepalanya, puasa ada di sebelah kanannya, zakat ada di sebelah kirinya, dan kelakuan-kelakuan yang berupa kebaikan seperti sedekah, silaturrahim dan kebajikan yang lain itu semuanya ada didekat kedua kakinya" ...
Ngomong2 tentang tangga itu bukan anak tangga, lho, tapi ibu tangga :). Belum lagi kalau pindah gedung krn ganti matkul,,Maknyuuusss! Dan di Kampus Jatinangor tercinta ini, fakultas mana yang ada liftnya? bahkan fk yg termasuk fakultas terkaya aja ga dikasih lift. Jangan harap! Berharaplah yg lebih sehat. Capek neng, kalau ngomel2 terus.. mending dibawa positif aja, mikirin hal lain sambil ngos-ngosan naikin anak2 tangga itu. Alhamdulillah, 4 tahun naik turun tangga begitu belum ada laporan ada mahasiswa yg kenapa-napa karena asma eksaserbasi akut ataupun encok karena degenerasi saraf, otot atau sendi akibat hampir setiap hari "terpaksa" seperti itu ...
Selanjutnya menurut Yuda, awalnya pihaknya menyusun 100 tokoh yang pernah menjadi kepala daerah di era reformasi atau dipilih langsung oleh rakyat. Dari 100 tokoh itu, kemudian diseleksi menjadi 14 tokoh terbaik melalui beberapa focus grup discussion.. Sebanyak 14 tokoh terbaik itu kemudian dinilai oleh 100 juri melalui wawancara langsung atau melalui kuesioner antara Maret-April 2013 . Mereka yang menjadi juri berlatar belakang akademisi bergelar profesor, rektor/guru besar universitas terkemuka, politisi, pakar berbagai bidang bergelar doktor, politisi senior berbagai parpol, pimpinan LSM, tokoh masyarakat dan agama, jurnalis dan tokoh media massa, pengamat politik, serta tokoh pemuda dan mahasiswa.. Aspek yang dinilai, yakni integritas, intelektual/gagasan, visioner, leadership skill, pengalaman prestatif, keberanian mengambil keputusan, komunikasi publik, aspiratif dan responsif, penerimaan publik, dan penerimaan partai. Hanta menambahkan, riset itu dilakukan lantaran publik mulai jenuh ...
Pada pandangan penulis sebagai seorang doktor, laporan kesihatan Saiful Bukhari yang terbocor di Hospital Pusrawi, tidak boleh dijadikan bahan bukti terhadap kes liwat Anwar Ibrahim.. 1. Ianya terlalu ringkas, tidak lengkap dan tidak mengikut prosedur seperti yang ditetapkan oleh pemeriksaan forensik.. 2. Malah pemeriksaan ke atas Saiful Bukhari juga tidak lengkap. Hanya PR (per rectum) dilakukan iaitu menggunakan jari untuk memeriksa anal (dubur) pemuda tersebut. Prosedur sebenarnya lebih daripada itu iaitu termasuk memeriksa anal itu dengan alat proktoskop dan sebagainya.. 3. Dan biasanya, apabila seorang mangsa seksual datang ke klinik atau hospital swasta di mana kes-kes yang bakal dirujuk kepada pihak polis, akan dirujuk segera kepada pihak hospital kerajaan.. 4. Ini adalah kerana hospital kerajaan mempunyai kepakaran forensik serta lengkap dengan peralatan yang diperlukan.. 5. Referral itu dimestikan kerana jika pemeriksaan tidak dilakukan dengan betul dan tidak mengikut prosedur yang ...
Kesehatan merupakan aset yang sangat berharga dan karunia terbesar yang diberikan Tuhan,untuk itu sudah selayaknya kita menjaga dan memelihara kesehatan tersebut sebagai rasa syukur kita dan Ingat"setiap penyakit itu pasti ada obatnya" !!!Tetaplah berikhtiar dan berdoa untuk mencapai kesembuhan ...
Maksud GLC ? GLC ditakrif sebagai syarikat yang mempunyai objektif komersil yang primer dan kepentingannya dikawal secara langsung oleh Kerajaan Malaysia. Mengawal kepentingan merujuk kepada keupayaan atau kuasa Kerajaan (bukan sekadar peratus pemilikan) untuk melantik anggota Lembaga Pengarah, pengurusan atasan dan membuat keputusan utama terhadap GLC (contohnya, pemberian kontrak, strategi, penstrukturan semula dan pembiayaan, pemerolehan serta pemberhentian pelaburan), sama ada secara langsung atau melalui Syarikat Pelaburan Berkaitan Kerajaan (GLIC ...
Maksud GLC ? GLC ditakrif sebagai syarikat yang mempunyai objektif komersil yang primer dan kepentingannya dikawal secara langsung oleh Kerajaan Malaysia. Mengawal kepentingan merujuk kepada keupayaan atau kuasa Kerajaan (bukan sekadar peratus pemilikan) untuk melantik anggota Lembaga Pengarah, pengurusan atasan dan membuat keputusan utama terhadap GLC (contohnya, pemberian kontrak, strategi, penstrukturan semula dan pembiayaan, pemerolehan serta pemberhentian pelaburan), sama ada secara langsung atau melalui Syarikat Pelaburan Berkaitan Kerajaan (GLIC ...
Berbahagia itu yang dirasakan oleh anak-anak ini ketika Bu KY mengumumkan Ujian Akhir Semester Mata Kuliah Etik hari itu sistem open book. Boleh buka slide, buku, gadget, googling, even if you want to open your laptop! Silahkan. ASAL tidak sharing jawaban dengan teman. No cheating at all!! Do it by your self, with your own…
Atau dengan erti kata lain, makanan yang berlabel tu lah. Contohnya nak masak sweet sour kita gunakan kombinasi sos cili, tomato dan kicap...oh sangat menyirap sbb saya sangat sukakan swee sour dgn gabungan 3 sos itu kemudian tambah pulak garam dan gula. Rupa2nya tindakan itu boleh membahayakan kesihatan ...
Entah memang takdir atau hanya sebuah kebetulan, berawal dari itu akan merubah sesuatu hingga semuanya. Merubah hingga separuh kehidupan, namun semua itu Ia se...
Salah satunya yaitu Orang Sumeria di Mesopotamia atau Irak Selatan, yang telah mengenal tulisan sekitar 3000 tahun SM dan membuat kalender di masa 2400 tahun SM ini, membagi waktu satu tahun 12 bulan dan 360 hari, sama seperti kita sekarang. Pada jaman itu mereka telah memperhatikan lamanya peredaran bumi terhadap matahari. Dari hasil pengamatannya itu mereka menentukan bahwa masa peredaran bumi terhdap matahari adalah 360 hari. Disebabkan peredaran bumi terhadap matahari adalah 360 hari maka diputuskanlah bahwa 1 lingkaran adalah 360 derajat. ...
Keliatannya simple ya... iya... Tapi waktu bikin kuenya, nggak tiduuurrrr... hahahaha... bingung bikin bolong2nya itu!! huuhuuhuhu... Mana tekanan batin pula, soalnya yang pesen temen papa sebelah meja, wekekekeke... Itu temen2 sekantor papa pasti kalo mesen susah2, ga tau deh, seeemuanya kalo mesen pasti yang modelnya bikin keringetan, hahahaha... Jadi saya nobatkan kue ini menjadi kue…
Tips Mengencani Janda. Hal ini dapat terjadi pada siapa saja. Perahu Anda menjelajah dalam ketenangan, tapi dalam sekejap mata itu karam di atas batu. Wanita itu bercerai dan tetap secantik biasanya. Anda mungkin bertanya-tanya mengapa seorang pria akan membiarkan dia lewat begitu saja. Ketika berpacaran dengan wanita yang bercerai, hati-hati dan ambil tindakan pencegahan dini. Tegarkan diri sendiri dan mengevaluasi apa yang Anda inginkan. Anda dapat melakukan hal ini dengan mengidentifikasi tujuan dan sasaran dalam hubungan ini. Apakah perkawinan yang Anda inginkan atau hanya berselingkuh ? Hati-hati atau mungkin dia terlalu berisiko. Namun semua dikatakan dan dilakukan, dia mungkin satu dan satu-satunya kesempatan. Lebih baik untuk mencobanya. Mungkin dia adalah apa yang telah hilang seumur hidup Anda ...
Sebelum itu ada perbincangan AJK Kecemerlangan PMR dengan kaunselor. Kami (Sir pathi, YM Tg Muni, Ustz Fittriyyah, Su Samanaih dan CM) berbincang pasal perancangan program untuk calun PMR, bermula 10/9/2009 sehingga hari PMR, termasuk 2 hari cuti diantaranya ...
You are here صفحة الاستقبال > ITU Publications > Radiocommunication (ITU-R) > ITU-R Questions > Spectrum management > Methods and algorithms for frequency planning ...
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biosynthesis requires replication factors and adequate nucleotide pools from the mitochondria and cytoplasm. We performed gene expression profiling analysis of 542 human AML samples and identified 55% with upregulated mtDNA biosynthesis pathway expression compared to normal hematopoietic cells. Genes that support mitochondrial nucleotide pools, including mitochondrial nucleotide transporters and a subset of cytoplasmic nucleoside kinases, were also increased in AML compared to normal hematopoietic samples. Knockdown of cytoplasmic nucleoside kinases reduced mtDNA levels in AML cells, demonstrating their contribution in maintaining mtDNA. To assess cytoplasmic nucleoside kinase pathway activity, we employed a nucleoside analog 23-dideoxycytidine (ddC), which is phosphorylated to the activated anti-metabolite, 23-dideoxycytidine triphosphate (ddCTP) by cytoplasmic nucleoside kinases. ddC is a selective inhibitor of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase, POLG. ddC was ...
We examined how the endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine might influence gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor stability and which adenosine receptors (ARs) were involved. Upon repetitive activation (GABA 500 microM), GABA(A) receptors, microtransplanted into Xenopus oocytes from neurosurgically resected epileptic human nervous tissues, exhibited an obvious GABA(A)-current (I(GABA)) run-down, which was consistently and significantly reduced by treatment with the nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist CGS15943 (100 nM) or with adenosine deaminase (ADA) (1 units/ml), that inactivates adenosine. It was also found that selective antagonists of A2B (MRS1706, 10 nM) or A3 (MRS1334, 30 nM) receptors reduced I(GABA) run-down, whereas treatment with the specific A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (10 nM) was ineffective. The selective A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261 (10 nM) reduced or potentiated I(GABA) run-down in approximately 40% and approximately 20% of tested oocytes, respectively. The ...
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme involved in purine metabolism. It is needed for the breakdown of adenosine from food and for the turnover of nucleic acids in tissues. Present in virtually all mammalian cells, its primary function in humans is the development and maintenance of the immune system. Adenosine deaminase is considered one of the key enzymes of purine metabolism. Adenosine deaminase in humans is involved in the development and maintenance of the immune system. However, Adenosine deaminase association has also been observed with epithelial cell differentiation, neurotransmission, and gestation maintenance. It has also been proposed that Adenosine deaminase, in addition to adenosine breakdown, stimulates release of excitatory amino acids and is necessary to the coupling of A1 adenosine receptors and heterotrimeric G proteins.. ...
2.7.1.1 Hexokinase 2.7.1.2 Glucokinase 2.7.1.3 Ketohexokinase 2.7.1.4 Fructokinase 2.7.1.5 Rhamnulokinase 2.7.1.6 Galactokinase 2.7.1.7 Mannokinase 2.7.1.8 Glucosamine kinase 2.7.1.9 Deleted entry 2.7.1.10 Phosphoglucokinase 2.7.1.11 6-phosphofructokinase 2.7.1.12 Gluconokinase 2.7.1.13 Dehydrogluconokinase 2.7.1.14 Sedoheptulokinase 2.7.1.15 Ribokinase 2.7.1.16 Ribulokinase 2.7.1.17 Xylulokinase 2.7.1.18 Phosphoribokinase 2.7.1.19 Phosphoribulokinase 2.7.1.20 Adenosine kinase 2.7.1.21 Thymidine kinase 2.7.1.22 Ribosylnicotinamide kinase 2.7.1.23 NAD(+) kinase 2.7.1.24 Dephospho-CoA kinase 2.7.1.25 Adenylyl-sulfate kinase 2.7.1.26 Riboflavin kinase 2.7.1.27 Erythritol kinase (D-erythritol 4-phosphate-forming) 2.7.1.28 Triokinase 2.7.1.29 Glycerone kinase 2.7.1.30 Glycerol kinase 2.7.1.31 Glycerate 3-kinase 2.7.1.32 Choline kinase 2.7.1.33 Pantothenate kinase 2.7.1.34 Pantetheine kinase 2.7.1.35 Pyridoxal kinase 2.7.1.36 Mevalonate kinase 2.7.1.37 Transferred entry: 2.7.11.1, 2.7.11.8, 2.7.11.9, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2-deoxycoformycin. AU - Hershfield, M. S.. AU - Kurtzberg, J.. AU - Harden, E.. AU - Moore, J. O.. AU - Whang-Peng, J.. AU - Haynes, B. F.. PY - 1984/3/22. Y1 - 1984/3/22. N2 - Selective failure of lymphoid development occurs in genetic deficiency of adenosine deaminase (ADA). We examined the in vivo effects of a potent inhibitor of ADA, 2-deoxycoformycin, which was used to treat a patient with refractory acute leukemia. Unexpectedly, within 7 days of starting treatment, the leukemic phenotype underwent complete conversion from T lymphoblastic to promyelocytic, with kinetics that suggested a precursor-product relationship between the two cell populations. Pretreatment of T lymphoblasts and posttreatment of promyelocytes had the same abnormal karyotype. Upon culture in vitro, the former transformed spontaneously over several weeks into mature myeloid cells. We ...
The initial studies to test the hypothesis that adenosine release mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of methotrexate were performed in vitro. In these studies, methotrexate treatment increased adenosine release from cultured endothelial cells and fibroblasts and the adenosine released diminished stimulated neutrophil adhesion to the monolayers of cultured cells (Cronstein et al., 1991). Subsequent in vivo studies confirmed the hypothesis that adenosine mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of methotrexate; pharmacologically relevant doses of methotrexate induce intracellular AICAR accumulation in splenocytes, increase adenosine concentrations in inflammatory exudates, and diminish leukocyte accumulation at an inflamed site (Cronstein et al., 1993). Moreover, the increase in exudate adenosine concentration was responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug since adenosine receptor antagonists or adenosine deaminase, an enzyme which converts adenosine to the receptor-inactive ...
Adenosine kinase inhibition protects the kidney against streptozotocin-induced diabetes through anti-inflammatory and anti...  Adenosine kinase inhibition protects the kidney against streptozotocin-induced diabetes through anti-inflammatory and anti...
We hypothesized that inhibition of adenosine kinase exacerbates extracellular adenosine levels to reduce renal inflammation and ... the physiological effect of adenosine could be limited due to its phosphorylation by adenosine kinase. ... Adenosine kinase inhibition protects the kidney against streptozotocin-induced diabetes through anti-inflammatory and anti- ... Adenosine provides anti-inflammatory effects in cardiovascular disease via the activation of adenosine A2A receptors; however, ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/24841126
Effects of iodotubercidin on adenosine kinase activity and nucleoside transport in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells. | Journal of...  Effects of iodotubercidin on adenosine kinase activity and nucleoside transport in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells. | Journal of...
Iodotubercidin is an adenosine kinase inhibitor that through its ability to increase levels of endogenous adenosine can enhance ... Effects of iodotubercidin on adenosine kinase activity and nucleoside transport in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells.. F E ... Effects of iodotubercidin on adenosine kinase activity and nucleoside transport in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells.. F E ... Effects of iodotubercidin on adenosine kinase activity and nucleoside transport in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells.. F E ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/277/3/1397
Adenosine kinase inhibitors. 4. 6,8-Disubstituted purine nucle...  Adenosine kinase inhibitors. 4. 6,8-Disubstituted purine nucle...
Adenosine kinase inhibitors. 4. 6,8-Disubstituted purine nucleoside derivatives. Synthesis, conformation, and enzyme inhibition ... Adenosine kinase inhibitors. 4. 6,8-Disubstituted purine nucleoside derivatives. Synthesis, conformation, and enzyme inhibition ... 6,8-Disubstituted purine nucleosides were synthesized and evaluated as adenosine kinase inhibitors (AKIs). A method was ...
more infohttps://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/adenosine-kinase-inhibitors-4-6-8-disubstituted-purine-nucleoside-derivatives-synthesis-conformation-enzyme-inhibition-5f26d072
The yeast ISN1 (YOR155c) gene encodes a new type of IMP-specific 5-nucleotidase | BMC Biochemistry | Full Text  The yeast ISN1 (YOR155c) gene encodes a new type of IMP-specific 5'-nucleotidase | BMC Biochemistry | Full Text
Lecoq K, Belloc I, Desgranges C, Daignan-Fornier B: Role of adenosine kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae : Identification of ... while other purine salvage enzymes such as adenosine kinase or purine nucleoside phosphorylase are highly conserved from yeast ... sequencing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae we were able to identify several new purine salvage genes such as adenosine kinase or ... Giblet ER, Anderson AJ, Cohen F, Pollara B, Meuwissen HJ: Adenosine deaminase deficiency in two patients with severely impaired ...
more infohttps://bmcbiochem.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2091-4-4
Adenosine Kinase
     Summary Report | CureHunter  Adenosine Kinase Summary Report | CureHunter
It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20. ... An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. ... Adenosine Kinase. Subscribe to New Research on Adenosine Kinase An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from ... 06/15/1994 - "Protective effect of an adenosine kinase inhibitor in septic shock.". 06/15/1994 - "One novel adenosine kinase ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD000248-Adenosine-Kinase.do
Properties of rat heart adenosine kinase | Biochemical Journal  Properties of rat heart adenosine kinase | Biochemical Journal
Adenosine kinase was purified 870-fold from rat heart by a combination of gel filtration and affinity chromatography. The ... Properties of rat heart adenosine kinase. M N Fisher, E A Newsholme ... In vivo the enzyme is likely to be saturated with both MgATP and adenosine. Indeed, the adenosine concentration in rat heart in ... The Km for MgATP was calculated to be 0.8 mM and that for adenosine, at likely physiological concentrations of MgATP and free ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/221/2/521
Adenosine kinase mediates high affinity adenosine salvage in Trypanosoma brucei  Adenosine kinase mediates high affinity adenosine salvage in Trypanosoma brucei
... brucei can also salvage adenosine by adenosine kinase (AK). The efficient adenosine transport combined with a high-affinity AK ... Adenosine kinase mediates high affinity adenosine salvage in Trypanosoma brucei. Vodnala, Munender Umeå University, Faculty of ... T. brucei has a high affinity adenosine kinase (TbAK), which phosphorylates adenosine, deoxyadenosine (dAdo), inosine and their ... Trypanosoma brucei, adenosine kinase, thymidine kinase, methylthioadenosine phosphorylase, mouser ribonucleotide reductase, E. ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:148846
Adenosine kinase - Wikipedia  Adenosine kinase - Wikipedia
The role of adenosine kinase in regulating adenosine concentration. Biochem J 1985, 226: 343-344. Boison D: Adenosine as a ... Gupta RS: Adenosine-AMP exchange activity is an integral part of the mammalian adenosine kinase. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1996, 39 ... Adenosine kinase (AdK; EC 2.7.1.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of gamma-phosphate from Adenosine triphosphate ( ... Arch JR, Newsholme EA: Activities and some properties of 5-nucleotidase, adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase in tissues ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_kinase
Upregulation of adenosine kinase in astrocytes in experimental and human temporal lobe epilepsy  Upregulation of adenosine kinase in astrocytes in experimental and human temporal lobe epilepsy
Purpose: Adenosine kinase (ADK) represents the key metabolic enzyme for the regulation of extracellular adenosine levels in the ... Upregulation of adenosine kinase in astrocytes in experimental and human temporal lobe epilepsy. Journal. Epilepsia. Volume , ... astrocyte-based adenosine cycle and inflammation. Whether this interaction also can play a role in vivo needs to be further ...
more infohttp://dare.uva.nl/search?metis.record.id=344878
Frontiers | Adenosine Kinase Inhibition Protects against Cranial Radiation-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction | Frontiers in...  Frontiers | Adenosine Kinase Inhibition Protects against Cranial Radiation-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction | Frontiers in...
... via metabolic clearance through adenosine kinase (ADK). Adult rats exposed to cranial irradiation (10 Gy) showed significant ... via metabolic clearance through adenosine kinase (ADK). Adult rats exposed to cranial irradiation (10 Gy) showed significant ... Among other gliotransmitters, astrocytes control the availability of adenosine, an endogenous neuroprotectant and modulator of ... These results confirm an astrocyte-mediated mechanism where preservation of extracellular adenosine can exert neuroprotection ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2016.00042/full
Astrogliosis in epilepsy leads to overexpression of adenosine kinase, resulting in seizure aggravation. | Sigma-Aldrich  Astrogliosis in epilepsy leads to overexpression of adenosine kinase, resulting in seizure aggravation. | Sigma-Aldrich
Adenosine kinase (ADK) is considered to be the key regulator of the brains endogenous anticonvulsant, adenosine. In adult ... Astrogliosis in epilepsy leads to overexpression of adenosine kinase, resulting in seizure aggravation.. [Denise E Fedele, ... We therefore conclude that therapeutic strategies that augment the adenosine system after astrogliosis-induced upregulation of ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/15930047
Adenosine kinase elisa and antibody  Adenosine kinase elisa and antibody
Recombinant Protein and Adenosine kinase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Adenosine kinase 1. Adenosine kinase 1 ELISA Kit. Adenosine kinase 1 Recombinant. Adenosine kinase 1 Antibody. Also known as ... Adenosine kinase 2. Adenosine kinase 2 ELISA Kit. Adenosine kinase 2 Recombinant. Adenosine kinase 2 Antibody. Also known as ... Adenosine kinase ELISA Kit. Adenosine kinase Recombinant. Adenosine kinase Antibody. ado1 ELISA Kit. ado1 Recombinant. ado1 ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=adenosine-kinase
Adenosine Kinase Inhibitor - CAS 214697-26-4 - Calbiochem CAS 214697-26-4 | 116890  Adenosine Kinase Inhibitor - CAS 214697-26-4 - Calbiochem CAS 214697-26-4 | 116890
Calbiochem The Adenosine Kinase Inhibitor, also referenced under CAS 214697-26-4, controls the biological activity of Adenosine ... Kinase. This small molecule/inhibitor is primarily used for Phosphorylation & Dephosphorylation applications. - Find MSDS or ... Adenosine Kinase. Primary Target IC,sub,50,/sub,. 50.7 nM inhibiting adenosine kinase (AK) using intact IMR-32 cells and 1.7 nM ... The Adenosine Kinase Inhibitor, also referenced under CAS 214697-26-4, controls the biological activity of Adenosine Kinase. ...
more infohttp://www.emdmillipore.com/PR/en/product/Adenosine-Kinase-Inhibitor-CAS-214697-26-4-Calbiochem,EMD_BIO-116890
Human Active Adenosine Kinase Enzyme  Human Active Adenosine Kinase Enzyme
... is active enzyme characterised for its capacity to phosphorylate natural nucleosides adenosine and inosine and nucleoside ... adenosine kinase regulates intra- and extracellular cellular adenosine concentration. Inhibition of adenosine kinase results in ... Synonyms: ADK, Adenosine 5-phosphotransferase NOVOCIBs human adenosine kinase is an active and purified, 345-aa short form(14 ... Adenosine kinase is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of γ-phosphate from ATP to 5-hydroxyl of adenosine (AR), ...
more infohttp://www.novocib.com/Recombinant_Adenosine_Kinase.html
Cytokinin Metabolism of Pathogenic Fungus Leptosphaeria maculans Involves Isopentenyltransferase, Adenosine Kinase and...  Cytokinin Metabolism of Pathogenic Fungus Leptosphaeria maculans Involves Isopentenyltransferase, Adenosine Kinase and...
Cytokinin Metabolism of Pathogenic Fungus Leptosphaeria maculans Involves Isopentenyltransferase, Adenosine Kinase and ... Cytokinin Metabolism of Pathogenic Fungus Leptosphaeria maculans Involves Isopentenyltransferase, Adenosine Kinase and ... Cytokinin Metabolism of Pathogenic Fungus Leptosphaeria maculans Involves Isopentenyltransferase, Adenosine Kinase and ... Klíčová slova: cytokinin, Leptosphaeria maculans, isopentenyltransferase, adenosine kinase, cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase, ...
more infohttp://www.ueb.cas.cz/cs/content/cytokinin-metabolism-pathogenic-fungus-leptosphaeria-maculans-involves
Working memory and the homeostatic control of brain adenosine by adenosine kinase. - Semantic Scholar  Working memory and the homeostatic control of brain adenosine by adenosine kinase. - Semantic Scholar
... which can be achieved by up-regulating adenosine kinase (ADK), the key enzyme of metabolic adenosine clearance. However, mice ... These outcomes suggest that maintenance of cortical/hippocampal adenosine homeostasis is essential for effective spatial memory ... An alternative approach to reduce AR activation is to lower the extracellular tone of adenosine, ... while the rest of the brain remained as adenosine-deficient as in Adk-tg mice. The fb-Adk-def mice showed an even greater ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Working-memory-and-the-homeostatic-control-of-brain-Singer-McGarrity/7190233510d2689eae7fc6f610d18dab1d376d7b
Cytokinin Metabolism of Pathogenic Fungus Leptosphaeria maculans Involves Isopentenyltransferase, Adenosine Kinase and...  Cytokinin Metabolism of Pathogenic Fungus Leptosphaeria maculans Involves Isopentenyltransferase, Adenosine Kinase and...
Cytokinin Metabolism of Pathogenic Fungus Leptosphaeria maculans Involves Isopentenyltransferase, Adenosine Kinase and ... Cytokinin Metabolism of Pathogenic Fungus Leptosphaeria maculans Involves Isopentenyltransferase, Adenosine Kinase and ... Cytokinin Metabolism of Pathogenic Fungus Leptosphaeria maculans Involves Isopentenyltransferase, Adenosine Kinase and ... Keywords: cytokinin, Leptosphaeria maculans, isopentenyltransferase, adenosine kinase, cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase, zeatin ...
more infohttp://www.ueb.cas.cz/en/content/cytokinin-metabolism-pathogenic-fungus-leptosphaeria-maculans-involves
Adenosine Kinase | healthweblognews.info  Adenosine Kinase | healthweblognews.info
Posted in: Adenosine Kinase ⋅ Tagged: Phosphoramidon Disodium Salt IC50, Rabbit polyclonal to Ezrin. ... Posted in: Adenosine Kinase ⋅ Tagged: 1174046-72-0 manufacture, Rabbit Polyclonal to SH3GLB2. ... Posted in: Adenosine Kinase ⋅ Tagged: Obatoclax mesylate, Rabbit Polyclonal to OR2AG1/2 ... Posted in: Adenosine Kinase ⋅ Tagged: BLU9931 supplier, Rabbit Polyclonal to MAPK1/3 ...
more infohttp://healthweblognews.info/category/adenosine-kinase/
Identification of four adenosine kinase isoforms in tobacco BY-2 cells and their putative role in the cell cycle-regulated...  Identification of four adenosine kinase isoforms in tobacco BY-2 cells and their putative role in the cell cycle-regulated...
Adenosine kinase (ADK), a key enzyme in the regulation of the intracellular level of adenosine is also speculated to be ... article{331003, abstract = {Adenosine kinase (ADK), a key enzyme in the regulation of the intracellular level of adenosine is ... Identification of four adenosine kinase isoforms in tobacco BY-2 cells and their putative role in the cell cycle-regulated ... "Identification of Four Adenosine Kinase Isoforms in Tobacco BY-2 Cells and Their Putative Role in the Cell Cycle-regulated ...
more infohttps://biblio.ugent.be/publication/331003
Adenosine Kinase | healthweblognews.info | Page 3  Adenosine Kinase | healthweblognews.info | Page 3
Posted in: Adenosine Kinase ⋅ Tagged: 1110813-31-4 supplier, Rabbit Polyclonal to CNGA1. ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are dynamic and delicate regulators. May 18, 2017 12:46 pm ⋅ admin ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are dynamic and delicate regulators of T cell function and ... Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting c-Met are in medical trials ...
more infohttp://healthweblognews.info/category/adenosine-kinase/page/3/
  • Adenosine kinase is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of γ-phosphate from ATP to 5'-hydroxyl of adenosine (AR), an important modulator of central nervous system functions and a signal molecule involved in hypoxia, inflammation, and nociception. (novocib.com)
  • Other members of this family (also known as the RK family) include ribokinase (RK), inosine-guanosine kinase, fructokinase, and 1-phosphofructokinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • One unit of adenosine kinase converts 1.0 µmole of inosine and ATP to IMP and ADP per minute at pH 8 at 37 C, as measured by a coupled IMPDH enzyme system. (novocib.com)
  • Adenosine kinase was purified 870-fold from rat heart by a combination of gel filtration and affinity chromatography. (biochemj.org)
  • By using uptake intervals of 14 sec to represent the transport component of uptake, iodotubercidin decreased the affinity for adenosine, by about 3-fold, but had no effect on maximum velocity of transport. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We show in this study that the intracerebroventricular infusion of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), a pharmacological AMP-activated kinase activator, increased insulin-stimulated muscle glycogen synthesis and insulin sensitivity during a hyperinsulinemic clamp. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, in vitro data suggest the existence of an additional layer of modulatory crosstalk between the astrocyte-based adenosine cycle and inflammation. (uva.nl)
  • We have found that the pathogen Trypanosoma brucei, which causes African sleeping sickness, has a very efficient salvage of adenosine, deoxyadenosine and adenosine analogs such as adenine arabinoside (Ara-A). One of the conclusions made was that this nucleoside analog is phosphorylated by the T. brucei adenosine kinase and kills the parasite by causing nucleotide pool imbalances and by incorporation into nucleic acids. (diva-portal.org)
  • One of the subclones, S49-12, was completely devoid of adenosine kinase and was partially deficient in deoxyadenosine kinase. (utmb.edu)
  • DEAE chromatography of the wild-type cell extracts revealed two deoxyadenosine phosphorylating activities, one of which coeluted with adenosine kinase and was the enzyme missing in S49-12. (utmb.edu)
  • We therefore conclude that therapeutic strategies that augment the adenosine system after astrogliosis-induced upregulation of ADK constitute a neurochemical rationale for the prevention of seizures in epilepsy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • While ADK overexpression leads to increased susceptibility to seizures, the effects can be counteracted and moderated by adenosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • These innovative findings link radiation-induced changes in cognition and CNS functionality to altered purine metabolism and astrogliosis, thereby linking the importance of adenosine homeostasis in the brain to radiation injury. (frontiersin.org)
  • ADK is also a validated target for Drug Discovery: adenosine-regulating drugs have been extensively tested(1) as new analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents(4) to treat schizophrenia(7) or to limit brain injury after an ischemic stroke(8). (novocib.com)
  • Indeed, the adenosine concentration in rat heart in vivo is probably sufficient to cause substrate inhibition, and this would be increased by an increase in free Mg2+ concentration. (biochemj.org)
  • Enzymatic activity of adenosine kinase with particular nucleoside substrate is measured by spectrophotometric assays in a coupled lactate dehydrogenase / pyruvate kinase system. (novocib.com)
  • It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. (curehunter.com)
  • An alternative way to produce dNTPs is via salvage biosynthesis where deoxyribonucleosides are taken up from outside the cell and phosphorylated by deoxyribonucleoside kinases. (diva-portal.org)
  • Changes in the concentrations of adenosine and free Mg2+ may play a role in modifying the activity of the enzyme in vivo. (biochemj.org)
  • A low-methionine diet can be beneficial in patients with methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency if plasma methionine concentrations exceed 800 μmol/L. There is some evidence that this diet may also be beneficial in patients with S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and adenosine kinase deficiencies. (springer.com)
  • This subclone, however, contained wild-type levels of deoxycytidine kinase. (utmb.edu)
  • One potential adenosine regulating agent (ARA) target is adenosine kinase. (medchemexpress.cn)
  • Based on the properties afforded by adenosine in preventing seizures, in addition to its FDA approval in the treatment of other ailments such as tachycardia and chronic pain, adenosine is an ideal target for the development of anti-epileptic gene therapies. (wikipedia.org)