Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.
Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars (NDPs) are biomolecules consisting of a nucleoside monophosphate sugar molecule, which is formed from the condensation of a nucleotide and a sugar molecule through a pyrophosphate bond.
A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of guanosine diphosphate.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Uridine Diphosphate (UDP) sugars are nucleotide sugars that serve as essential glycosyl donors in the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates, including proteoglycans and glycoproteins.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Adenine nucleotides are molecules that consist of an adenine base attached to a ribose sugar and one, two, or three phosphate groups, including adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which play crucial roles in energy transfer and signaling processes within cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ADP binding and are coupled to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI. The P2Y12 purinergic receptors are found in PLATELETS where they play an important role regulating PLATELET ACTIVATION.
Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2Y RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2Y receptor subtypes.
Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.
An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.
Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.
NAD+ Nucleosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) into nicotinamide and ADP-ribose, which plays a role in regulating NAD+ levels and modulating cellular signaling pathways.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.

Cloning, expression and characterization of YSA1H, a human adenosine 5'-diphosphosugar pyrophosphatase possessing a MutT motif. (1/44)

The human homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YSA1 protein, YSA1H, has been expressed as a thioredoxin fusion protein in Escherichia coli. It is an ADP-sugar pyrophosphatase with similar activities towards ADP-ribose and ADP-mannose. Its activities with ADP-glucose and diadenosine diphosphate were 56% and 20% of that with ADP-ribose respectively, whereas its activity towards other nucleoside 5'-diphosphosugars was typically 2-10%. cADP-ribose was not a substrate. The products of ADP-ribose hydrolysis were AMP and ribose 5-phosphate. K(m) and k(cat) values with ADP-ribose were 60 microM and 5.5 s(-1) respectively. The optimal activity was at alkaline pH (7.4-9.0) with 2.5-5 mM Mg(2+) or 100-250 microM Mn(2+) ions; fluoride was inhibitory, with an IC(50) of 20 microM. The YSA1H gene, which maps to 10p13-p14, is widely expressed in all human tissues examined, giving a 1.4 kb transcript. The 41.6 kDa fusion protein behaved as an 85 kDa dimer on gel filtration. After cleavage with enterokinase, the 24.4 kDa native protein fragment ran on SDS/PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kDa. Immunoblot analysis with a polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant YSA1H revealed the presence of a protein of apparent molecular mass 33 kDa in various human cells, including erythrocytes. The sequence of YSA1H contains a MutT sequence signature motif. A major proposed function of the MutT motif proteins is to eliminate toxic nucleotide metabolites from the cell. Hence the function of YSA1H might be to remove free ADP-ribose arising from NAD(+) and protein-bound poly- and mono-(ADP-ribose) turnover to prevent the occurrence of non-enzymic protein glycation.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a new member of the Nudix hydrolases from human and mouse. (2/44)

Proteins containing the Nudix box "GX(5)EX(7)REUXEEXGU" (where U is usually Leu, Val, or Ile) are Nudix hydrolases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of a variety of nucleoside diphosphate derivatives. Here we report cloning and characterization of a human cDNA encoding a novel nudix hydrolase NUDT5 for the hydrolysis of ADP-sugars. The deduced amino acid sequence of NUDT5 contains 219 amino acids, including a conserved Nudix box sequence. The recombinant NUDT5 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity. At the optimal pH of 7, the purified recombinant NUDT5 catalyzed hydrolysis of two major substrates ADP-ribose and ADP-mannose with K(m) values of 32 and 83 microM, respectively; the V(max) for ADP-mannose was about 1.5 times that with ADP-ribose. The murine NUDT5 homolog was also cloned and characterized. mNudT5 has 81% amino acid identity to NUDT5 with catalytic activities similar to NUDT5 under the optimal pH of 9. Both NUDT5 and mNudT5 transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in tissues analyzed with preferential abundance in liver. The genomic structures of both NUDT5 and mNudT5 were determined and located on human chromosome 10 and mouse chromosome 2, respectively. The role of NUDT5 in maintaining levels of free ADP-ribose in cells is discussed.  (+info)

Selection and characteristics of a Vibrio cholerae mutant lacking the A (ADP-ribosylating) portion of the cholera enterotoxin. (3/44)

After mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine and selection by immuno-halo techniques, an avirulent mutant, designated Texas Star-SR, which produces no detectable A (active; ADP-ribosylating) region of the cholera enterotoxin (choleragen) but produces the B region (choleragenoid) in amounts similar to the hypertoxinogenic wild-type parent Vibrio cholerae (biotype E1 Tor serotype Ogawa), has been isolated. The mutant retains the colonizing ability, motility, prototrophy, and serologic characteristics of the parent. In relevant intestinal experimental models, it has been shown to be avirulent and to induce protection against challenge with virulent cholera vibrios. The mutant appears to be suitable for further evaluation in volunteers as a candidate living enteric vaccine against cholera and related enterotoxic enteropathies.  (+info)

Chemical and metabolic properties of adenosine diphosphate ribose derivatives of nuclear proteins. (4/44)

1. ADP-ribose is found in rat liver nuclei covalently bound to histone F1, to a non-histone protein, and to a small peptide. 2. A single unit of ADP-ribose, covalently bound to phosphoserine, was isolated from an enzymic hydrolysate of histone F1. ADP-ribose-bearing peptides were isolated from a tryptic digest of the histone. 3. It is proposed that the 1'-hydroxyl group of ADP-ribose is linked to the phosphate group of phosphoserine in histone F1. 4. The incorporation of 32P into ADP-ribose on histone F1 a parallels the DNA content through the cell cycle. An increased incorporation of the nucleotide into the other derivatives is observed during S phase. 5. It is suggested that the ADP-ribose derivative of histone F1 has a role in maintaining the G0 state and that one or both of the other derivatives is concerned with control of DNA synthesis.  (+info)

Biosynthesis pathway of ADP-L-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose in Escherichia coli. (5/44)

The steps involved in the biosynthesis of the ADP-L-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose (ADP-L-beta-D-heptose) precursor of the inner core lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have not been completely elucidated. In this work, we have purified the enzymes involved in catalyzing the intermediate steps leading to the synthesis of ADP-D-beta-D-heptose and have biochemically characterized the reaction products by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. We have also constructed a deletion in a novel gene, gmhB (formerly yaeD), which results in the formation of an altered LPS core. This mutation confirms that the GmhB protein is required for the formation of ADP-D-beta-D-heptose. Our results demonstrate that the synthesis of ADP-D-beta-D-heptose in Escherichia coli requires three proteins, GmhA (sedoheptulose 7-phosphate isomerase), HldE (bifunctional D-beta-D-heptose 7-phosphate kinase/D-beta-D-heptose 1-phosphate adenylyltransferase), and GmhB (D,D-heptose 1,7-bisphosphate phosphatase), as well as ATP and the ketose phosphate precursor sedoheptulose 7-phosphate. A previously characterized epimerase, formerly named WaaD (RfaD) and now renamed HldD, completes the pathway to form the ADP-L-beta-D-heptose precursor utilized in the assembly of inner core LPS.  (+info)

Mechanism of action of choleragen. Evidence for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity with arginine as an acceptor. (6/44)

Choleragen catalyzed the hydrolysis of NAD to ADP-ribose and nicotinamide; nicotinamide production was dramatically increased by L-arginine methyl ester and to a lesser extent by D- or L-arginine, but not by other basic amino acids. Guanidine was also effective. Nicotinamide formation in the presence of L-arginine methyl ester was greatest under conditions previously shown to accelerate the hydrolysis of NAD by choleragen (Moss, J., Manganiello, V. C., and Vaughan, M. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73, 4424-4427). After incubation of [adenine-U14C]NAD and L[3H]arginine with coleragen, a product was isolated by thin layer chromatography that contained adenine and arginine in a 1:1 ratio and has been tentatively identified as ADP-ribose-L-arginine. Parallel experiments with [carbonyl-14C]NAD have demonstrated that formation of the ADP-ribosyl-L-arginine derivative was associated with the production of [carbonyl-14C]nicotinamide. As guanidine itself was active and D- and L-arginine was equally effective in promoting nicotinamide production, whereas citrulline, which possesses a ureido rather than a guanidino function, was inactive, it seems probable that the guanidino group rather than the alpha-amino moiety participated in the linkage to ADP-ribose. Based on the assumption that the ADP-ribosylation of L-arginine by choleragen is a model for the NAD-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase by choleragen, it is proposed that the active A protomer of choleragen catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of an arginine, or related amino acid residue in a protein, which is the cyclase itself or is critical to its activation by choleragen.  (+info)

Mutants of Neurospora deficient in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) glycohydrolase. (7/44)

A new screening technique has been developed for the rapid identification of Neurospora crassa mutants that are deficient in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide glycohydrolase (NADase) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate glycohydrolase (NADPase) activities. Using this procedure, five single-gene mutants were isolated whose singular difference from wild type appeared to be the absence of NAD(P)ase (EC 3.2.2.6). All five mutants were found to be genetically allelic and did not complement in heterocaryons. This gene, nada [NAD(P)ase], was localized in linkage group IV. One of the nada alleles was found to specify an enzyme that was critically temperature sensitive and had altered substrate affinity. Mutations at the nada locus did not affect the genetic program for the expression of NAD(P)ase during cell differentiation, nor did they have a general effect on NAD catabolism. Nada mutations did not have simultaneous effects on other glycohydrolase activities. Tests of dominance (in heterocaryons) and in vitro mixing experiments did not provide evidence that nada mutations alter activators or inhibitors of NAD(P)ase. Thus, the nada gene appears to specify only the structure of N. crassa NAD(P)ase.  (+info)

Macromolecular enzymatic product of NAD+ in liver mitochondria. (8/44)

Rat liver mitochondria contain a Mg2+-requiring system that transfers the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ to an acceptor protein. The enzyme system was extracted in a soluble form and the ADP-ribosylated protein product was isolated by hydroxyapatite and Sephadex chromatography. The ADP-ribosylated protein product has a molecular weight of 100,000 and can be dissociated into subunits of 50,000 daltons by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Incubation of the isotopically labeled ADP-ribosylated protein with nicotinamide and a mitochondrial extract yields labeled NAD+, indicating apparent reversibility of the reaction. Enzymatic degradation of the ADP-ribosylated protein with snake venom phosphodiesterase liberates AMP and ADP-ribose or its isomer. Identification of these products and reversibility of the reaction show that the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ is the molecular species that is transferred to the acceptor protein. A fraction of the protein-bound ADP-ribose appears to be present as an an oligomer. The enzymatic protein-ADP-ribosylating reaction is inhibited by nicotinamide, ADP-ribose, the fluorophosphate of AMP, and picrylsulfonic acid.  (+info)

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) sugars, also known as sugar nucleotides, are molecules that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. These molecules consist of a sugar molecule, usually glucose or galactose, linked to a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP).

The ADP portion of the molecule provides the energy needed for the transfer of the sugar moiety to other molecules during the process of glycosylation. The reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called glycosyltransferases, which transfer the sugar from the ADP-sugar donor to an acceptor molecule, such as a protein or lipid.

ADP-sugars are important in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signal transduction, and protein folding. Abnormalities in the metabolism of ADP-sugars have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Nucleoside diphosphate sugars (NDP-sugars) are essential activated sugars that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. They consist of a sugar molecule linked to a nucleoside diphosphate, which is formed from a nucleotide by removal of one phosphate group.

NDP-sugars are created through the action of enzymes called nucleoside diphosphate sugars synthases or transferases, which transfer a sugar molecule from a donor to a nucleoside diphosphate, forming an NDP-sugar. The resulting NDP-sugar can then be used as a substrate for various glycosyltransferases that catalyze the addition of sugars to other molecules, such as proteins or lipids.

NDP-sugars are involved in many important biological processes, including cell signaling, protein targeting, and immune response. They also play a critical role in maintaining the structural integrity of cells and tissues.

UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose, two important nucleotide sugars involved in carbohydrate metabolism. This enzyme plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance between these two molecules, which are essential for the synthesis of various glycoconjugates, such as glycoproteins and proteoglycans. UGE is widely distributed in nature and has been identified in various organisms, including humans. In humans, deficiency or mutations in this enzyme can lead to a rare genetic disorder known as galactosemia, which is characterized by an impaired ability to metabolize the sugar galactose, resulting in several health issues.

Guanosine diphosphate sugars (GDP-sugars) are nucleotide sugars that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, such as glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Nucleotide sugars are formed by the attachment of a sugar molecule to a nucleoside diphosphate, in this case, guanosine diphosphate (GDP).

GDP-sugars serve as activated donor substrates for glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sugar moieties onto various acceptor molecules, including proteins and lipids. The GDP-sugar synthesis pathway involves several enzymatic steps, starting with the conversion of nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) to nucleoside diphosphate (NDP), followed by the attachment of a sugar moiety from a donor molecule, such as UDP-glucose or TDP-rhamnose.

Examples of GDP-sugars include:

1. GDP-mannose: A nucleotide sugar that serves as a donor substrate for the addition of mannose residues to glycoproteins and proteoglycans.
2. GDP-fucose: A nucleotide sugar that is involved in the biosynthesis of fucosylated glycoconjugates, which have important functions in cell recognition, signaling, and development.
3. GDP-rhamnose: A nucleotide sugar that plays a role in the synthesis of rhamnosylated glycoconjugates, found in bacterial cell walls and some plant polysaccharides.
4. GDP-glucose: A nucleotide sugar that is used as a donor substrate for the addition of glucose residues to various acceptors, including proteins and lipids.

Dysregulation of GDP-sugar metabolism has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and bacterial and viral infections. Therefore, understanding the synthesis, regulation, and function of GDP-sugars is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a chemical compound that plays a crucial role in energy transfer within cells. It is a nucleotide, which consists of a adenosine molecule (a sugar molecule called ribose attached to a nitrogenous base called adenine) and two phosphate groups.

In the cell, ADP functions as an intermediate in the conversion of energy from one form to another. When a high-energy phosphate bond in ADP is broken, energy is released and ADP is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which serves as the main energy currency of the cell. Conversely, when ATP donates a phosphate group to another molecule, it is converted back to ADP, releasing energy for the cell to use.

ADP also plays a role in blood clotting and other physiological processes. In the coagulation cascade, ADP released from damaged red blood cells can help activate platelets and initiate the formation of a blood clot.

Adenosine is a purine nucleoside that is composed of a sugar (ribose) and the base adenine. It plays several important roles in the body, including serving as a precursor for the synthesis of other molecules such as ATP, NAD+, and RNA.

In the medical context, adenosine is perhaps best known for its use as a pharmaceutical agent to treat certain cardiac arrhythmias. When administered intravenously, it can help restore normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) by slowing conduction through the atrioventricular node and interrupting the reentry circuit responsible for the arrhythmia.

Adenosine can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help differentiate between narrow-complex tachycardias of supraventricular origin and those that originate from below the ventricles (such as ventricular tachycardia). This is because adenosine will typically terminate PSVT but not affect the rhythm of VT.

It's worth noting that adenosine has a very short half-life, lasting only a few seconds in the bloodstream. This means that its effects are rapidly reversible and generally well-tolerated, although some patients may experience transient symptoms such as flushing, chest pain, or shortness of breath.

Uridine diphosphate sugars (UDP-sugars) are nucleotide sugars that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of glycans, which are complex carbohydrates found on the surface of many cell types. UDP-sugars consist of a uridine diphosphate molecule linked to a sugar moiety, such as glucose, galactose, or xylose. These molecules serve as activated donor substrates for glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sugar residues to acceptor molecules, including proteins and other carbohydrates. UDP-sugars are essential for various biological processes, such as cell recognition, signaling, and protein folding. Dysregulation of UDP-sugar metabolism has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and congenital disorders of glycosylation.

Platelet aggregation is the clumping together of platelets (thrombocytes) in the blood, which is an essential step in the process of hemostasis (the stopping of bleeding) after injury to a blood vessel. When the inner lining of a blood vessel is damaged, exposure of subendothelial collagen and tissue factor triggers platelet activation. Activated platelets change shape, become sticky, and release the contents of their granules, which include ADP (adenosine diphosphate).

ADP then acts as a chemical mediator to attract and bind additional platelets to the site of injury, leading to platelet aggregation. This forms a plug that seals the damaged vessel and prevents further blood loss. Platelet aggregation is also a crucial component in the formation of blood clots (thrombosis) within blood vessels, which can have pathological consequences such as heart attacks and strokes if they obstruct blood flow to vital organs.

Adenosine A2A receptor is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the endogenous purine nucleoside, adenosine. It is a subtype of the A2 receptor along with the A2B receptor and is widely distributed throughout the body, particularly in the brain, heart, and immune system.

The A2A receptor plays an essential role in various physiological processes, including modulation of neurotransmission, cardiovascular function, and immune response. In the brain, activation of A2A receptors can have both excitatory and inhibitory effects on neuronal activity, depending on the location and context.

In the heart, A2A receptor activation has a negative chronotropic effect, reducing heart rate, and a negative inotropic effect, decreasing contractility. In the immune system, A2A receptors are involved in regulating inflammation and immune cell function.

Pharmacologically, A2A receptor agonists have been investigated for their potential therapeutic benefits in various conditions, including Parkinson's disease, chronic pain, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cancer. Conversely, A2A receptor antagonists have also been studied as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, and addiction.

Adenosine A1 receptor is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine. When activated, it inhibits the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the cell by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity. This results in various physiological effects, such as decreased heart rate and reduced force of heart contractions, increased potassium conductance, and decreased calcium currents. The Adenosine A1 receptor is widely distributed throughout the body, including the brain, heart, kidneys, and other organs. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including cardiovascular function, neuroprotection, and inflammation.

Blood platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, colorless cell fragments in our blood that play an essential role in normal blood clotting. They are formed in the bone marrow from large cells called megakaryocytes and circulate in the blood in an inactive state until they are needed to help stop bleeding. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets become activated and change shape, releasing chemicals that attract more platelets to the site of injury. These activated platelets then stick together to form a plug, or clot, that seals the wound and prevents further blood loss. In addition to their role in clotting, platelets also help to promote healing by releasing growth factors that stimulate the growth of new tissue.

Adenine nucleotides are molecules that consist of a nitrogenous base called adenine, which is linked to a sugar molecule (ribose in the case of adenosine monophosphate or AMP, and deoxyribose in the case of adenosine diphosphate or ADP and adenosine triphosphate or ATP) and one, two, or three phosphate groups. These molecules play a crucial role in energy transfer and metabolism within cells.

AMP contains one phosphate group, while ADP contains two phosphate groups, and ATP contains three phosphate groups. When a phosphate group is removed from ATP, energy is released, which can be used to power various cellular processes such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. The reverse reaction, in which a phosphate group is added back to ADP or AMP to form ATP, requires energy input and often involves the breakdown of nutrients such as glucose or fatty acids.

In addition to their role in energy metabolism, adenine nucleotides also serve as precursors for other important molecules, including DNA and RNA, coenzymes, and signaling molecules.

Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the immune system by helping to regulate the levels of certain chemicals called purines within cells. Specifically, ADA helps to break down adenosine, a type of purine, into another compound called inosine. This enzyme is found in all tissues of the body, but it is especially active in the immune system's white blood cells, where it helps to support their growth, development, and function.

ADA deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that can lead to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a condition in which babies are born with little or no functional immune system. This makes them extremely vulnerable to infections, which can be life-threatening. ADA deficiency can be treated with enzyme replacement therapy, bone marrow transplantation, or gene therapy.

Purinergic P2Y12 receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to and are activated by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). These receptors play an important role in regulating platelet activation and aggregation, which is crucial for the normal hemostatic response to vascular injury.

The P2Y12 receptor is a key component of the platelet signaling pathway that leads to the activation of integrin αIIbβ3, which mediates platelet aggregation. Inhibition of the P2Y12 receptor with drugs such as clopidogrel or ticagrelor is a standard treatment for preventing thrombosis in patients at risk of arterial occlusion, such as those with acute coronary syndrome or following percutaneous coronary intervention.

P2Y12 receptors are also expressed on other cell types, including immune cells and neurons, where they play roles in inflammation, neurotransmission, and other physiological processes.

Adenosine diphosphate glucose (ADP-glucose) is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of glycogen, which is a complex carbohydrate that serves as a primary form of energy storage in animals, fungi, and bacteria. In this process, ADP-glucose is formed from glucose-1-phosphate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the action of the enzyme ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Once synthesized, ADP-glucose is then used as a substrate for the enzyme glycogen synthase, which catalyzes the addition of glucose units to an existing glycogen molecule, leading to its growth and expansion. This pathway plays a crucial role in regulating cellular energy metabolism and maintaining glucose homeostasis within the body.

Adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) is a type of G-protein coupled receptor that binds to adenosine, a purine nucleoside, and plays a role in various physiological processes. The activation of A3R leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity, which results in decreased levels of intracellular cAMP. This, in turn, modulates several downstream signaling pathways that are involved in anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects.

A3R is widely expressed in various tissues, including the brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, and immune cells. In the central nervous system, A3R activation has been shown to have neuroprotective effects, such as reducing glutamate release, protecting against excitotoxicity, and modulating neuroinflammation. Additionally, A3R agonists have been investigated for their potential therapeutic benefits in various pathological conditions, including pain management, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Overall, the Adenosine A3 receptor is an important target for drug development due to its role in modulating inflammation and cellular responses in various tissues and diseases.

Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is not strictly referred to as "Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose" in the medical or biochemical context, although the term ADP-ribose is a component of it. Poly(ADP-ribose) is a polymer of ADP-ribose units that are synthesized by enzymes called poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs).

Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, the process of adding PAR polymers to target proteins, plays a crucial role in various cellular processes such as DNA repair, genomic stability, and cell death. In medical research, alterations in PAR metabolism have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) is of significant interest in biomedical sciences.

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is a nucleotide that is the monophosphate ester of adenosine, consisting of the nitrogenous base adenine attached to the 1' carbon atom of ribose via a β-N9-glycosidic bond, which in turn is esterified to a phosphate group. It is an important molecule in biological systems as it plays a key role in cellular energy transfer and storage, serving as a precursor to other nucleotides such as ADP and ATP. AMP is also involved in various signaling pathways and can act as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

Adenosine A2B receptor (A2BAR) is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds the endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine. It is a subtype of the A2 class of adenosine receptors, which also includes A2A receptor.

The A2BAR is widely expressed in various tissues and cells, including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, immune cells, and epithelial cells. Activation of the A2BAR by adenosine leads to a variety of cellular responses, such as relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, inhibition of platelet aggregation, modulation of inflammatory responses, and stimulation of fibroblast proliferation and collagen production.

The A2BAR has been implicated in several physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as cardiovascular function, pain perception, neuroprotection, tumor growth and metastasis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, the development of selective A2BAR agonists or antagonists has been an area of active research for therapeutic interventions in these conditions.

Adenosine kinase (ADK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of adenosine levels in cells. The medical definition of adenosine kinase is:

"An enzyme (EC 2.7.1.20) that catalyzes the phosphorylation of adenosine to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP) using ATP as the phosphate donor. This reaction helps maintain the balance between adenosine and its corresponding nucleotides in cells, and it plays a significant role in purine metabolism, cell signaling, and energy homeostasis."

Adenosine kinase is widely distributed in various tissues, including the brain, heart, liver, and muscles. Dysregulation of adenosine kinase activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Therefore, modulating adenosine kinase activity has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating these diseases.

Purinergic P2Y receptor antagonists are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that block the activity of P2Y purinergic receptors, which are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of various cells throughout the body. These receptors are activated by extracellular nucleotides such as ATP and ADP, and play important roles in regulating a variety of physiological processes, including inflammation, platelet aggregation, and neurotransmission.

P2Y receptor antagonists are used in the treatment of several medical conditions. For example, they can be used to prevent platelet aggregation and thrombosis in patients with cardiovascular disease or those at risk for stroke. They may also have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of chronic pain, inflammatory disorders, and neurological conditions such as epilepsy and Parkinson's disease.

Some examples of P2Y receptor antagonists include clopidogrel (Plavix), ticlopidine (Ticlid), and cangrelor (Kengreal), which are used to prevent platelet aggregation and thrombosis, and suramin, a non-selective P2 receptor antagonist that has been investigated for its potential anti-cancer effects.

Platelet function tests are laboratory tests that measure how well platelets, which are small blood cells responsible for clotting, function in preventing or stopping bleeding. These tests are often used to investigate the cause of abnormal bleeding or bruising, or to monitor the effectiveness of antiplatelet therapy in patients with certain medical conditions such as heart disease or stroke.

There are several types of platelet function tests available, including:

1. Platelet count: This test measures the number of platelets present in a sample of blood. A low platelet count can increase the risk of bleeding.
2. Bleeding time: This test measures how long it takes for a small cut to stop bleeding. It is used less frequently than other tests due to its invasiveness and variability.
3. Platelet aggregation tests: These tests measure how well platelets clump together (aggregate) in response to various agents that promote platelet activation, such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, or epinephrine.
4. Platelet function analyzer (PFA): This test measures the time it takes for a blood sample to clot under shear stress, simulating the conditions in an injured blood vessel. The PFA can provide information about the overall platelet function and the effectiveness of antiplatelet therapy.
5. Thromboelastography (TEG) or rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM): These tests measure the kinetics of clot formation, strength, and dissolution in whole blood samples. They provide information about both platelet function and coagulation factors.

These tests can help healthcare providers diagnose bleeding disorders, assess the risk of bleeding during surgery or other invasive procedures, monitor antiplatelet therapy, and guide treatment decisions for patients with abnormal platelet function.

Platelet aggregation inhibitors are a class of medications that prevent platelets (small blood cells involved in clotting) from sticking together and forming a clot. These drugs work by interfering with the ability of platelets to adhere to each other and to the damaged vessel wall, thereby reducing the risk of thrombosis (blood clot formation).

Platelet aggregation inhibitors are often prescribed for people who have an increased risk of developing blood clots due to various medical conditions such as atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, stroke, or a history of heart attack. They may also be used in patients undergoing certain medical procedures, such as angioplasty and stenting, to prevent blood clot formation in the stents.

Examples of platelet aggregation inhibitors include:

1. Aspirin: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that irreversibly inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which is involved in platelet activation and aggregation.
2. Clopidogrel (Plavix): A P2Y12 receptor antagonist that selectively blocks ADP-induced platelet activation and aggregation.
3. Prasugrel (Effient): A third-generation thienopyridine P2Y12 receptor antagonist, similar to clopidogrel but with faster onset and greater potency.
4. Ticagrelor (Brilinta): A direct-acting P2Y12 receptor antagonist that does not require metabolic activation and has a reversible binding profile.
5. Dipyridamole (Persantine): An antiplatelet agent that inhibits platelet aggregation by increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in platelets, which leads to decreased platelet reactivity.
6. Iloprost (Ventavis): A prostacyclin analogue that inhibits platelet aggregation and causes vasodilation, often used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
7. Cilostazol (Pletal): A phosphodiesterase III inhibitor that increases cAMP levels in platelets, leading to decreased platelet activation and aggregation, as well as vasodilation.
8. Ticlopidine (Ticlid): An older P2Y12 receptor antagonist with a slower onset of action and more frequent side effects compared to clopidogrel or prasugrel.

Adenosine A2 receptors are a type of G-protein coupled receptor that binds the endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine. They are divided into two subtypes, A2a and A2b, which have different distributions in the body and couple to different G proteins.

A2a receptors are found in high levels in the brain, particularly in the striatum, and play a role in regulating the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate. They also have anti-inflammatory effects and are being studied as potential targets for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis.

A2b receptors, on the other hand, are found in a variety of tissues including the lung, blood vessels, and immune cells. They play a role in regulating inflammation and vasodilation, and have been implicated in the development of conditions such as asthma and pulmonary fibrosis.

Both A2a and A2b receptors are activated by adenosine, which is released in response to cellular stress or injury. Activation of these receptors can lead to a variety of downstream effects, depending on the tissue and context in which they are expressed.

Adenosine A2 receptor agonists are pharmaceutical agents that bind to and activate the A2 subtype of adenosine receptors, which are G-protein coupled receptors found in various tissues throughout the body. Activation of these receptors leads to a variety of physiological effects, including vasodilation, increased coronary blood flow, and inhibition of platelet aggregation.

A2 receptor agonists have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in several medical conditions, such as:

1. Heart failure: A2 receptor agonists can improve cardiac function and reduce symptoms in patients with heart failure by increasing coronary blood flow and reducing oxygen demand.
2. Atrial fibrillation: These agents have been shown to terminate or prevent atrial fibrillation, a common abnormal heart rhythm disorder, through their effects on the electrical properties of cardiac cells.
3. Asthma and COPD: A2 receptor agonists can help relax airway smooth muscle and reduce inflammation in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
4. Pain management: Some A2 receptor agonists have been found to have analgesic properties, making them potential candidates for pain relief in various clinical settings.

Examples of A2 receptor agonists include regadenoson, which is used as a pharmacological stress agent during myocardial perfusion imaging, and dipyridamole, which is used to prevent blood clots in patients with certain heart conditions. However, it's important to note that these agents can have side effects, such as hypotension, bradycardia, and bronchoconstriction, so their use must be carefully monitored and managed by healthcare professionals.

Platelet activation is the process by which platelets (also known as thrombocytes) become biologically active and change from their inactive discoid shape to a spherical shape with pseudopodia, resulting in the release of chemical mediators that are involved in hemostasis and thrombosis. This process is initiated by various stimuli such as exposure to subendothelial collagen, von Willebrand factor, or thrombin during vascular injury, leading to platelet aggregation and the formation of a platelet plug to stop bleeding. Platelet activation also plays a role in inflammation, immune response, and wound healing.

Adenosine A2 receptor antagonists are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that block the action of adenosine at A2 receptors. Adenosine is a naturally occurring molecule in the body that acts as a neurotransmitter and has various physiological effects, including vasodilation and inhibition of heart rate.

Adenosine A2 receptor antagonists work by binding to A2 receptors and preventing adenosine from activating them. This results in the opposite effect of adenosine, leading to vasoconstriction and increased heart rate. These drugs are used for a variety of medical conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and heart failure.

Examples of Adenosine A2 receptor antagonists include theophylline, caffeine, and some newer drugs such asistradefylline and tozadenant. These drugs have different pharmacological properties and are used for specific medical conditions. It is important to note that adenosine A2 receptor antagonists can have side effects, including restlessness, insomnia, and gastrointestinal symptoms, and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Ribose is a simple carbohydrate, specifically a monosaccharide, which means it is a single sugar unit. It is a type of sugar known as a pentose, containing five carbon atoms. Ribose is a vital component of ribonucleic acid (RNA), one of the essential molecules in all living cells, involved in the process of transcribing and translating genetic information from DNA to proteins. The term "ribose" can also refer to any sugar alcohol derived from it, such as D-ribose or Ribitol.

Purinergic P1 receptors are a type of G-protein coupled receptor that bind to nucleotides such as adenosine. These receptors are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including modulation of neurotransmitter release, cardiovascular function, and immune response. There are four subtypes of P1 receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3) that have different signaling pathways and functions. Activation of these receptors can lead to a variety of cellular responses, including inhibition or stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity, changes in intracellular calcium levels, and activation of various protein kinases. They play important roles in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, and immune system.

Adenosine A1 receptor antagonists are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that block the action of adenosine at A1 receptors. Adenosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside that acts as a neurotransmitter and modulator of various physiological processes, including cardiovascular function, neuronal excitability, and immune response.

Adenosine exerts its effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of cells, including A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors. The activation of A1 receptors leads to a variety of physiological responses, such as vasodilation, negative chronotropy (slowing of heart rate), and negative inotropy (reduced contractility) of the heart, as well as inhibition of neurotransmitter release in the brain.

Adenosine A1 receptor antagonists work by binding to and blocking the action of adenosine at A1 receptors, thereby preventing or reducing its effects on these physiological processes. These drugs have been investigated for their potential therapeutic uses in various conditions, such as heart failure, cardiac arrest, and neurological disorders.

Examples of adenosine A1 receptor antagonists include:

* Dipyridamole: a vasodilator used to treat peripheral arterial disease and to prevent blood clots.
* Caffeine: a natural stimulant found in coffee, tea, and chocolate, which acts as a weak A1 receptor antagonist.
* Rolofylline: an experimental drug that has been investigated for its potential use in treating acute ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury.
* KW-3902: another experimental drug that has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in heart failure, cardiac arrest, and neurodegenerative disorders.

It's important to note that adenosine A1 receptor antagonists may have side effects and potential risks, and their use should be monitored and managed by healthcare professionals.

Alkyl and aryl transferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or aryl groups from one molecule to another. These enzymes play a role in various biological processes, including the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics, as well as the biosynthesis of certain natural compounds.

Alkyl transferases typically catalyze the transfer of methyl or ethyl groups, while aryl transferases transfer larger aromatic rings. These enzymes often use cofactors such as S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) or acetyl-CoA to donate the alkyl or aryl group to a recipient molecule.

Examples of alkyl and aryl transferases include:

1. Methyltransferases: enzymes that transfer methyl groups from SAM to various acceptor molecules, such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and small molecules.
2. Histone methyltransferases: enzymes that methylate specific residues on histone proteins, which can affect chromatin structure and gene expression.
3. N-acyltransferases: enzymes that transfer acetyl or other acyl groups to amino groups in proteins or small molecules.
4. O-acyltransferases: enzymes that transfer acyl groups to hydroxyl groups in lipids, steroids, and other molecules.
5. Arylsulfatases: enzymes that remove sulfate groups from aromatic rings, releasing an alcohol and sulfate.
6. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs): enzymes that transfer the tripeptide glutathione to electrophilic centers in xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, facilitating their detoxification and excretion.

Polyisoprenyl phosphates are a type of organic compound that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of various essential biomolecules in cells. They are formed by the addition of isoprene units, which are five-carbon molecules with a branched structure, to a phosphate group.

In medical terms, polyisoprenyl phosphates are primarily known for their role as intermediates in the biosynthesis of dolichols and farnesylated proteins. Dolichols are long-chain isoprenoids that function as lipid carriers in the synthesis of glycoproteins, which are proteins that contain carbohydrate groups attached to them. Farnesylated proteins, on the other hand, are proteins that have been modified with a farnesyl group, which is a 15-carbon isoprenoid. This modification plays a role in the localization and function of certain proteins within the cell.

Abnormalities in the biosynthesis of polyisoprenyl phosphates and their downstream products have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and genetic syndromes. Therefore, understanding the biology and regulation of these compounds is an active area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

Apyrase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates (like ATP or GTP) to nucleoside diphosphates (like ADP or GDP), releasing inorganic phosphate in the process. It can also hydrolyze nucleoside diphosphates to nucleoside monophosphates, releasing inorganic pyrophosphate.

This enzyme is widely distributed in nature and has been found in various organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals. In humans, apyrases are present in different tissues, such as the brain, platelets, and red blood cells. They play essential roles in several biological processes, including signal transduction, metabolism regulation, and inflammatory response modulation.

There are two major classes of apyrases: type I (also known as nucleoside diphosphate kinase) and type II (also known as NTPDase). Type II apyrases have higher substrate specificity for nucleoside triphosphates, while type I apyrases can hydrolyze both nucleoside tri- and diphosphates.

In the medical field, apyrases are sometimes used in research to study platelet function or neurotransmission, as they can help regulate purinergic signaling by controlling extracellular levels of ATP and ADP. Additionally, some studies suggest that apyrase activity might be involved in certain pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and neurological disorders.

Adenosine A1 receptor agonists are medications or substances that bind to and activate the adenosine A1 receptors, which are found on the surface of certain cells in the body, including those in the heart, brain, and other organs.

Adenosine is a naturally occurring molecule in the body that helps regulate various physiological processes, such as cardiovascular function and neurotransmission. The adenosine A1 receptor plays an important role in modulating the activity of the heart, including reducing heart rate and lowering blood pressure.

Adenosine A1 receptor agonists are used clinically to treat certain medical conditions, such as supraventricular tachycardia (a rapid heart rhythm originating from above the ventricles), and to prevent cerebral vasospasm (narrowing of blood vessels in the brain) following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Examples of adenosine A1 receptor agonists include adenosine, regadenoson, and capadenoson. These medications work by mimicking the effects of naturally occurring adenosine on the A1 receptors, leading to a decrease in heart rate and blood pressure.

It's important to note that adenosine A1 receptor agonists can have side effects, such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and flushing, which are usually transient and mild. However, they should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as they can also have more serious side effects in certain individuals.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of intracellular levels of nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. These nucleotides are essential for various cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, translation, and energy metabolism.

NDK catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from a nucleoside triphosphate (most commonly ATP or GTP) to a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP), converting it into a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP). The reaction can be summarized as follows:

NTP + NDP ↔ NDP + NTP

The enzyme has several isoforms, which are differentially expressed in various tissues and cellular compartments. In humans, there are nine known isoforms of NDK, classified into three subfamilies: NM23-H (NME1), NM23-H2 (NME2), and NME4-8. These isoforms share a conserved catalytic core but differ in their regulatory domains and cellular localization.

NDK has been implicated in several physiological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Dysregulation of NDK activity has been associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and viral infections.

Ticlopidine is defined as a platelet aggregation inhibitor drug, which works by preventing certain types of blood cells (platelets) from sticking together to form clots. It is used to reduce the risk of stroke and heart attack in patients who have already had a stroke or have peripheral arterial disease.

Ticlopidine is a thienopyridine derivative that selectively inhibits platelet activation and aggregation by blocking the ADP (adenosine diphosphate) receptor on the platelet surface. This action prevents the formation of platelet plugs, which can lead to the development of blood clots in the arteries.

Ticlopidine is available in oral form as tablets and is typically taken twice daily. Common side effects include diarrhea, skin rash, and itching. More serious side effects, such as neutropenia (low white blood cell count), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), and aplastic anemia, are rare but can be life-threatening.

Due to the risk of serious side effects, ticlopidine is usually reserved for use in patients who cannot tolerate or have failed other antiplatelet therapies, such as aspirin or clopidogrel. It is important to monitor patients taking ticlopidine closely for signs of adverse reactions and to follow the prescribing instructions carefully.

Blood platelet disorders are conditions that affect the number and/or function of platelets, which are small blood cells that help your body form clots to stop bleeding. Normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. A lower-than-normal platelet count is called thrombocytopenia, while a higher-than-normal platelet count is called thrombocytosis.

There are several types of platelet disorders, including:

1. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP): A condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys platelets, leading to a low platelet count. ITP can be acute (lasting less than six months) or chronic (lasting longer than six months).
2. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP): A rare but serious condition that causes blood clots to form in small blood vessels throughout the body, leading to a low platelet count, anemia, and other symptoms.
3. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS): A condition that is often caused by a bacterial infection, which can lead to the formation of blood clots in the small blood vessels of the kidneys, resulting in kidney damage and a low platelet count.
4. Hereditary platelet disorders: Some people inherit genetic mutations that can affect the number or function of their platelets, leading to bleeding disorders such as von Willebrand disease or Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
5. Medication-induced thrombocytopenia: Certain medications can cause a decrease in platelet count as a side effect.
6. Platelet dysfunction disorders: Some conditions can affect the ability of platelets to function properly, leading to bleeding disorders such as von Willebrand disease or storage pool deficiency.

Symptoms of platelet disorders may include easy bruising, prolonged bleeding from cuts or injuries, nosebleeds, blood in urine or stools, and in severe cases, internal bleeding. Treatment for platelet disorders depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other therapies.

NAD+ nucleosidase, also known as NMN hydrolase or nicotinamide mononucleotide hydrolase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) to produce nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is a crucial coenzyme involved in various redox reactions in the body, and its biosynthesis involves several steps, one of which is the conversion of nicotinamide to NMN by the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT).

The hydrolysis of NMN to nicotinamide and PRPP by NAD+ nucleosidase is a rate-limiting step in the salvage pathway of NAD+ biosynthesis, which recycles nicotinamide back to NMN and then to NAD+. Therefore, NAD+ nucleosidase plays an essential role in maintaining NAD+ homeostasis in the body.

Deficiencies or mutations in NAD+ nucleosidase can lead to various metabolic disorders, including neurological and cardiovascular diseases, as well as aging-related conditions associated with decreased NAD+ levels.

Platelet adhesiveness refers to the ability of platelets, which are small blood cells that help your body form clots to prevent excessive bleeding, to stick to other cells or surfaces. This process is crucial in hemostasis, the process of stopping bleeding after injury to a blood vessel.

When the endothelium (the lining of blood vessels) is damaged, subendothelial structures are exposed, which can trigger platelet adhesion. Platelets then change shape and release chemical signals that cause other platelets to clump together, forming a platelet plug. This plug helps to seal the damaged vessel and prevent further bleeding.

Platelet adhesiveness is influenced by several factors, including the presence of von Willebrand factor (vWF), a protein in the blood that helps platelets bind to damaged vessels, and the expression of glycoprotein receptors on the surface of platelets. Abnormalities in platelet adhesiveness can lead to bleeding disorders or thrombotic conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hemiterpenes" is not a recognized term in medical or biochemistry terminology. The term "terpene" does refer to a large class of naturally occurring organic hydrocarbons, which are synthesized in various plants and animals. They are built from repeating units of isoprene (a five-carbon molecule), and can be further classified into monoterpenes (two isoprene units), sesquiterpenes (three isoprene units), diterpenes (four isoprene units), and so on.

However, the prefix "hemi-" means "half," which doesn't have a clear application in this context. It's possible there may be a misunderstanding or a typo in your question. If you meant to ask about a specific type of compound or a concept related to terpenes, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate answer.

Purinergic P1 receptor antagonists are a class of pharmaceutical drugs that block the activity of purinergic P1 receptors, which are a type of G-protein coupled receptor found in many tissues throughout the body. These receptors are activated by extracellular nucleotides such as adenosine and ATP, and play important roles in regulating a variety of physiological processes, including cardiovascular function, neurotransmission, and immune response.

Purinergic P1 receptor antagonists work by binding to these receptors and preventing them from being activated by nucleotides. This can have various therapeutic effects, depending on the specific receptor subtype that is targeted. For example, A1 receptor antagonists have been shown to improve cardiac function in heart failure, while A2A receptor antagonists have potential as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agents.

However, it's important to note that the use of purinergic P1 receptor antagonists is still an area of active research, and more studies are needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Aspirin is the common name for acetylsalicylic acid, which is a medication used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX), which is involved in the production of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that cause inflammation and pain. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet effect, which means it can help prevent blood clots from forming. This makes it useful for preventing heart attacks and strokes.

Aspirin is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and chewable tablets. It is also available in prescription strengths for certain medical conditions. As with any medication, aspirin should be taken as directed by a healthcare provider, and its use should be avoided in children and teenagers with viral infections due to the risk of Reye's syndrome, a rare but serious condition that can affect the liver and brain.

Purinergic receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind and respond to purines and pyrimidines, which are nucleotides and nucleosides. These receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and inflammation. There are two main types of purinergic receptors: P1 receptors, which are activated by adenosine, and P2 receptors, which are activated by ATP and other nucleotides.

P2 receptors are further divided into two subtypes: P2X and P2Y. P2X receptors are ionotropic receptors that form cation channels upon activation, allowing the flow of ions such as calcium and sodium into the cell. P2Y receptors, on the other hand, are metabotropic receptors that activate G proteins upon activation, leading to the activation or inhibition of various intracellular signaling pathways.

Purinergic receptors have been found to play a role in many diseases and conditions, including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. They are also being studied as potential targets for drug development.

Xanthines are a type of natural alkaloids that are found in various plants, including tea leaves, cocoa beans, and mate. The most common xanthines are caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. These compounds have stimulant effects on the central nervous system and are often used in medication to treat conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory issues.

Caffeine is the most widely consumed xanthine and is found in a variety of beverages like coffee, tea, and energy drinks. It works by blocking adenosine receptors in the brain, which can lead to increased alertness and reduced feelings of fatigue.

Theophylline is another xanthine that is used as a bronchodilator to treat asthma and other respiratory conditions. It works by relaxing smooth muscles in the airways, making it easier to breathe.

Theobromine is found in cocoa beans and is responsible for the stimulant effects of chocolate. While it has similar properties to caffeine and theophylline, it is less potent and has a milder effect on the body.

It's worth noting that while xanthines can have beneficial effects when used in moderation, they can also cause negative side effects such as insomnia, nervousness, and rapid heart rate if consumed in large quantities or over an extended period of time.

... nucleoside diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070 - adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.075 - adenosine ... guanosine diphosphate mannose MeSH D09.408.620.569.727 - uridine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.100 - uridine ... poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.200 - cytidine diphosphate diglycerides MeSH D09.408.620.569.400 - ... guanosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.400.410 - guanosine diphosphate fucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.400.500 - ...
... adenosine diphosphosugar phosphorylase, ADP sugar phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate ... doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, ...
The sugar ribose unit was also replaced with a cyclopentyl group to avoid possible instability of the glycosidic bond. The ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors are a drug class of antiplatelet agents, used in the treatment of acute ... P2Y12 receptor is a G-coupled receptor and is activated by adenosine diphosphate. ADP binds to the P2Y12 receptor that leads to ... "Platelet Adenosine Diphosphate P2Y12 Receptor Antagonism: Benefits and Limitations of Current Treatment Strategies and Future ...
The diphosphate group of ADP is attached to the 5' carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenine attaches to the 1' carbon. ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ...
... fructose sugar phosphorylated on carbons 1 and 6 Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (or fructose 2,6-diphosphate), abbreviated Fru-2,6- ... an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + H2O adenosine 5'-phosphate + phosphate Fructose 1 ... 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), an important substrate involved in carbon fixation ...
... adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP) and adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP). They are involved in many cellular ... The best-characterized form is TPP, a coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids. While its role is well-known, the ... The mitochondrial PDH and OGDH are part of biochemical pathways that result in the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), ... Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), also called thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), participates as a coenzyme in metabolic reactions, ...
Cellular processes, especially muscles, then convert the ATP into adenosine diphosphate (ADP), freeing the energy to do work.[ ... It is a part of the metabolic process that converts sugar, fat, and protein into cellular energy. In order to use energy, a ... Adenosine mediates pain through adenosine receptors. MADD causes an increase of free adenosine during heavy activity which may ... In the brain, excess adenosine decreases alertness and causes sleepiness. In this way, adenosine may play a role in fatigue ...
... by adding a third phosphorus group to adenosine diphosphate. In 1954, they reproduced the process in a laboratory, making them ... the first to successfully demonstrate the chemical function of photosynthesis, producing sugar and starch from inputs of carbon ... The group demonstrated how energy from sunlight is used to form adenosine triphosphate, the energy transport messenger within ...
As a substituent it takes the form of the prefix cytidylyl-. CMP can be phosphorylated to cytidine diphosphate by the enzyme ... CMP consists of the phosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase cytosine; hence, a ribonucleoside ... CMP kinase, with adenosine triphosphate or guanosine triphosphate donating the phosphate group. Since cytidine triphosphate is ...
ATP is synthesized in the mitochondrion by addition of a third phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in a process ... Phosphorylation of sugars is often the first stage in their catabolism. Phosphorylation allows cells to accumulate sugars ... Phosphorylation of glucose is a key reaction in sugar metabolism. The chemical equation for the conversion of D-glucose to D- ... The liver's crucial role in controlling blood sugar concentrations by breaking down glucose into carbon dioxide and glycogen is ...
... is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) when the phosphate is removed. The reaction ... It is as a signal for insulin release that glucokinase exerts the largest effect on blood sugar levels and overall direction of ... 6 carbon sugars) and similar molecules. Therefore, the general glucokinase reaction is more accurately described as: Hexose + ...
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) adenosine monophosphate (AMP) adenosine triphosphate (ATP) An organic compound derived from adenine ... deoxyribose A monosaccharide sugar derived from ribose by the loss of a single oxygen atom. D-deoxyribose, in its pentose ring ... adenosine (A) One of the four standard nucleosides used in RNA molecules, consisting of an adenine base with its N9 nitrogen ... cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) cyclosis See cytoplasmic streaming. cytidine (C, Cyd) One of the four standard ...
Important molecules: ADP - Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (Adenosine pyrophosphate (APP)) is an important organic compound in ... Glucose - An important simple sugar used by cells as a source of energy and as a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the ... A molecule of ADP consists of three important structural components: a sugar backbone attached to a molecule of adenine and two ... Lactic acid fermentation - An anaerobic metabolic process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted ...
... adenosine diphosphate MeSH D13.695.667.138.124.070 - adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.667.138.124.070.075 - adenosine ... adenosine diphosphate MeSH D13.695.827.068.124.070 - adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.827.068.124.070.075 - adenosine ... nucleoside diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.827.708.070 - adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.827.708.070.075 - adenosine ... guanosine diphosphate MeSH D13.695.667.454.340.350 - guanosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.667.454.340.350.400 - guanosine ...
ATP can undergo hydrolysis in two ways: Firstly, the removal of terminal phosphate to form adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ... When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g., sucrose being broken down into glucose ... the removal of a terminal diphosphate to yield adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and pyrophosphate. The latter usually undergoes ... Invertase is a sucrase used industrially for the hydrolysis of sucrose to so-called invert sugar. Lactase is essential for ...
... adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and orthophosphate (Pi): citrate + ATP + CoA → oxaloacetate + Acetyl-CoA + ADP + Pi This enzyme ... and sugars; and, mevalonate-derived isoprenoids (e.g., sesquiterpenes, sterols, brassinosteroids); malonyl and acyl-derivatives ... Srere PA, Lipmann F (1953). "An enzymatic reaction between citrate, adenosine triphosphate and coenzyme A". Journal of the ...
When consumed in metabolic processes, it converts either to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or to adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ... carbon atom of the sugar to a triphosphate group. In its many reactions related to metabolism, the adenine and sugar groups ... Adenosine-tetraphosphatase Adenosine methylene triphosphate ATPases ATP test Creatine Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) ... Gajewski, E.; Steckler, D.; Goldberg, R. (1986). "Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5 ...
ATP synthase uses the energy from the flowing hydrogen ions to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate into adenosine triphosphate ... which builds sugar molecules from carbon dioxide. The two phases are linked by the energy carriers adenosine triphosphate (ATP ... ATP is the phosphorylated version of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which stores energy in a cell and powers most cellular ... to subsequently produce food in the form of sugars. Water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are used in photosynthesis, and sugar ...
ATP is created during cellular respiration from adenosine diphosphate (ATP with one less phosphate group). Ribose is a building ... Puckering, otherwise known as the sugar ring conformation (specifically ribose sugar), can be described by the amplitude of ... Z-DNA contains sugars in both the north and south ranges. When only a single atom is displaced, it is referred to as an " ... Like most sugars, ribose exists as a mixture of cyclic forms in equilibrium with its linear form, and these readily ...
... copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase and EC 4.2.3.141, sclareol synthase EC 3.1.7.5: geranylgeranyl diphosphate diphosphatase EC 3.1 ... adenosine tuberculosinyltransferase. EC 3.1.7.9: Now known to be a partial activity of EC 2.5.1.153, adenosine ... UDP-sugar diphosphatase EC 3.6.1.46: Now EC 3.6.5.1, heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase EC 3.6.1.47: Now EC 3.6.5.3, protein- ... adenosine deaminase EC 3.5.4.5: cytidine deaminase EC 3.5.4.6: AMP deaminase EC 3.5.4.7: ADP deaminase EC 3.5.4.8: ...
... also known as a nitrogenous base-and are termed ribonucleotides if the sugar is ribose, or deoxyribonucleotides if the sugar is ... First, the diphosphate from UDP is produced, which in turn is phosphorylated to UTP. Both steps are fueled by ATP hydrolysis: ... Fumarate is then cleaved off forming adenosine monophosphate. This step is catalyzed by adenylosuccinate lyase. Inosine ... These chain-joins of sugar and phosphate molecules create a 'backbone' strand for a single- or double helix. In any one strand ...
... which transmits a signal by converting adenosine triphosphate to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). cAMP is known as a ... diphosphate It has key regulatory roles in essentially all cells. It is the most polyphyletic known enzyme: six distinct ... produce cAMP that serves as an internal signal to activate expression of genes for importing and metabolizing other sugars. ... All classes of adenylyl cyclase catalyse the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to 3',5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) and ...
The building blocks of ATP synthesis are the by-products of its breakdown; adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate ... "Glycolysis" refers to the breakdown of sugar. In this system, the breakdown of sugar supplies the necessary energy from which ... When sugar is metabolized anaerobically, it is only partially broken down and one of the byproducts is lactic acid. This ... Those processes convert energy into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the form suitable for muscular activity. There are ...
Histidine biosynthesis is carefully regulated by feedback inhibition/ R5P can be converted to adenosine diphosphate ribose, ... R5P consists of a five-carbon sugar, ribose, and a phosphate group at the five-position carbon. It can exist in open chain form ... They are composed of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and at least one phosphate group. Nucleotides contain either a purine ... It is a crucial source for NADPH generation for reductive biosynthesis (e.g. fatty acid synthesis) and pentose sugars. The ...
The nucleoside, adenosine, is then deaminated and hydrolyzed to form hypoxanthine via adenosine deaminase and nucleosidase ... The conversion of a nucleoside-diphosphate (NDP) to a nucleoside-triphosphate (NTP) is catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate ... Unlike in purine synthesis, the sugar/phosphate group from PRPP is not added to the nitrogenous base until towards the end of ... This enzyme converts NDPs (nucleoside-diphosphate) to dNDPs (deoxynucleoside-diphosphate). The nucleotides must be in the ...
In ribonucleotides, the sugar component is ribose while in deoxyribonucleotides, the sugar component is deoxyribose. Instead of ... Ribonucleoside diphosphate (NDP) is reduced by thioredoxin to a deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate (dNTP). The general reaction is ... Other variations include adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). ... Ribonucleoside diphosphate + NADPH + H+ -> Deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate + NADP+ + H2O To illustrate this equation, dATP and ...
PRPP provides the ribose sugar in de novo synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, used in the nucleotide bases that form RNA and ... In the transition state upon binding of both substrates, the diphosphate is transferred. The enzyme first releases AMP before ... which can ultimately be converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or guanosine triphosphate (GTP). PRPP plays a role in purine ...
... and begins the synthesis of a polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chain, which acts as a signal ... This model suggests that this "sugar plug" can also begin the signal for apoptosis. Roles of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in plant ... This leaves a pyrophosphate as the linking group between ribose sugars rather than single phosphate groups. This creates some ... leaving a single phosphate group linking deoxyribose sugars. PAR is synthesized using nicotinamide (NAM) as the leaving group. ...
The history of lamivudine can be traced back to the mid-1970s while Bernard Belleau was investigating sugar derivatives. ... Tenofovir is an acyclic adenosine derivative. The acyclic nature of the compound and its phosphonate moiety are unique ... including nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDP kinase), phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kinase and creatine kinase, resulting ... Dideoxynucleosides are analogues of nucleoside where the sugar ring lacks both 2´ and 3´-hydroxyl groups. Three years after the ...
Like the thienopyridines prasugrel, clopidogrel and ticlopidine, ticagrelor blocks adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptors of ... Ticagrelor is a nucleoside analogue: the cyclopentane ring is similar to the sugar ribose, and the nitrogen rich aromatic ring ... system resembles the nucleobase purine, giving the molecule an overall similarity to adenosine. The substance has low ...
... nucleoside diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070 - adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.075 - adenosine ... guanosine diphosphate mannose MeSH D09.408.620.569.727 - uridine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.100 - uridine ... poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.200 - cytidine diphosphate diglycerides MeSH D09.408.620.569.400 - ... guanosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.400.410 - guanosine diphosphate fucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.400.500 - ...
Adenosine diphosphate sugar pyrophosphatase prevents glycogen biosynthesis in Escherichia coli  Moreno Bruna, Beatriz ; Baroja ... An adenosine diphosphate sugar pyrophosphatase (ASPPase, EC 3.6.1.21) has been characterized by using Escherichia coli. This ... Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphatase: a plastidial phosphodiesterase that prevents starch biosynthesis  Rodríguez ...
Fred Engelbrecht and Thomas Wendt from the ExploHeidelberg Teaching Lab describe some experiments on sugar detection to ... adenosine-5-diphosphate (ADP) is formed (Step 2). ... or sugars such as glucose, lactose or sucrose. Once the sugars ... a) Detection of a reducing sugar (Fehlings reaction). *Pipette a 1 ml sample of solutions A to E into each of five different ... Solutions A and C give a red precipitate during the Fehlings reaction, and can therefore be identified as the reducing sugar ...
ATP is made by adding phosphate groups to adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate. It is the energy currency of cells ... Phosphates hold the sugar molecule and phosphate group together. ... then uses the energy in food to convert adenosine diphosphate ...
... a nucleotide consisting of the sugar ribose, the base adenine, and three phosphate groups, to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) uses ... The sugar produced is glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, so it takes six rounds of the Calvin cycle to produce one molecule of glucose ... The molecule that remains is adenosine diphosphate, or ADP. The formation and breaking of the bonds in these molecules provides ... In the second step, 3-phosphoglycerate is reduced to G3P, a 3-carbon sugar. In the third step, RuBP is regenerated. It takes ...
... is moved from a molecule called phosphoenolpyruvate to another molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP), resulting in ... During glycolysis, the simple sugar glucose is broken down to produce energy. Specifically, pyruvate kinase is involved in the ... molecules called pyruvate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the cells main energy source. ...
Definition Adenosine diphosphate ) mean are NADP^+ and NADPH depends the... Pentoses ( 5-carbon sugars ) as well as ribose 5- ... D. Formation of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate): chloroplast contains low energy carrier molecule ADP (Adenosine diphosphate). The ... Molecule ADP ( Adenosine diphosphate ) organelle known as the the end of cycle. That the starting material is regenerated by ... Energy of ATP ( Adenosine diphosphate ) oxidized state - NADP + Definition is then to... And NADH, and phycocyanins to trap ...
Inhibition of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase signaling leads ... Kemp, Bruce and Oakhill, Jonathan S.. (2017). Metabolism: Energy sensing through a sugar diphosphate. Nature. 548(7665), pp. 36 ... Metabolism: Energy sensing through a sugar diphosphate. Journal article. ... acuresearchbank.acu.edu.au/item/87y84/metabolism-energy-sensing-through-a-sugar-diphosphate ...
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phosphorus (P) are produced in the process. With the release of the end phosphate group, 7 ... ATP is made up of the nitrogenous base adenine, the five-carbon sugar ribose and three phosphate groups. Three phosphate units ... Adenosine Triphosphate. Encarta. Redmond, WA: Microsoft, 1997-2000.. With the release of the end phosphate group, 7 ... Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), a molecule found in all living organisms is the immediate source of usable energy for body cells ...
... an adenine ring and a ribose sugar) and three phosphate groups. When in use ATP is broken down to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) ... ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a high energy molecule in cells. It is generated within the mitochondria. ATP is composed of ...
The higher adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase activity facilitated the production of starch in P. deltoides than ... Stem and root of P. deltoides had higher concentrations of starch, soluble sugars and sucrose than P. cathayana under salinity ... 5 Adenosine diphosphate glucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase activity in the leaf and root of Populus deltoides and P. cathayana ... 5 Adenosine diphosphate glucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase activity in the leaf and root of Populus deltoides and P. cathayana ...
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a nucleoside phosphate comprised of a ribonucleoside and two phosphate groups. It means it has a ... When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, ... Adenosine triphosphate. Adenosine triphosphate/Full name. What is AMP molecule?. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is one of the ... In certain vital metabolic processes, AMP combines with inorganic phosphate to form ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and then ATP. ...
Through cellular respiration, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is converted into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which works as a fuel ... This splitting of sugars is also found in sugar substitutes like aspartame or acesulfame potassium. Sugars are the most complex ... These types of sugars can replace regular sugars in different types of recipes for even the most basic types of foods. There ... This sugar microarray technology can be useful in the future when determining what type of sugars bind best with proteins or ...
Two phosphate groups (adenosine diphosphate or ADP) link the ribose molecules.. *The nicotinamide moiety is attached to one of ... It has two ribose molecules (a type of sugar) as its backbone. ... adenosine triphosphate), the cells primary energy currency. ...
ATP is synthesised from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate.. *The last bond connecting the phosphate group is ... The phosphorylated sugar is broken down into two molecules of a 3-carbon sugar (triose sugar) each of which is then converted ... How can high blood sugar level in a person be controlled?. *Why does glucose not normally appear in urine even though it is ... Energy for cell division is synthesised and stored in form of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) to drive the cell through the entire ...
The addition of a second phosphate group to this core molecule results in adenosine diphosphate (ADP); the addition of a third ... You have read that nearly all of the energy used by living things comes to them in the bonds of the sugar, glucose. Glycolysis ... For example, sugars other than glucose are fed into the glycolytic pathway for energy extraction. Other molecules that would ... At the heart of ATP is a molecule of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which is composed of an adenine molecule bonded to both a ...
Further work showed that uridine diphosphate glucose is involved in glycogen synthesis and adenosine diphosphate glucose in ... Other sugar nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate acetylglucosamine and guanosine diphosphate mannose were also isolated. ... That work ultimately led to his discovery of sugar nucleotides, which are key elements in the processes by which sugars stored ... 6-diphosphate and uridine diphosphate glucose. The latter substance was then found to act as glucose donor in the synthesis of ...
CP gives phosphate molecules to adenosine di-phosphate (ADP) to convert to ATP. After about ten seconds of maximal effort, ATP ... Fat calories and sugar calories are NOT interchangeable. Doing allot of SUGAR WORK will make you TIRED and HUNGRY so that ... and glucose as sugar. Technically sugar could be one of many different molecules including glucose, galactose, fructose, ... namely sugars, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Using the word sugar is vague and imprecise. ...
A) Ribonucleic acid B) Deoxyribonucleic acid C) Guanosine monophosphate D) Adenosine diphosphate E) Flavin adenine dinucleotide ... is composed of nucleotide polymers with the phosphate of one nucleotide bound to the ribose sugar of another. ... formation of bonds between a phosphate group and a sugar E) splicing of nucleic acid fragments ...
... adenosine diphosphate) or AMP (adenosine monophosphate) is produced. Energy derived from the metabolism of glucose is used to ... Both NAD+ and FAD+ are extensively used in energy extraction from sugars, and NADP plays an important role in anabolic ... adenosine diphosphate) or AMP (adenosine monophosphate).The negative charges on the phosphate group naturally repel each other ... The addition of a second phosphate group to this core molecule results in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP); the ...
Puerarin can inhibit adenosine diphosphate (adp)-induced and 5-ht (5-hydroxytryptamine) combined with adp-induced platelet ... 7. The effect of lowering blood sugar. Puerarin can resist the blood sugar-raising effect of adrenaline and has a certain blood ... sugar-lowering ability.. 8. The effect on body temperature. The total flavonoids of Pueraria lobata have a lasting and obvious ...
It serves to store energy in muscles which is released when it is hydrolyzed to adenosine diphosphate. ... A sugar that is the simplest form of carbohydrate. It is commonly referred to as blood sugar. The body breaks down ... Adenosine Triphosphate. ATP. A compound consisting of the nucleotide adenosine attached through its ribose group to three ... It acts as an energy source for muscles, and releases glucose from the liver to maintain blood sugar. ...
adenosine diphosphate Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic ... ADP consists of three important structural components: a sugar backb .... (ADP) to ATP. Importantly, the nucleoplasm contains ... adenosine triphosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an organic compound that provides energy to drive many processes in ... ATPase ATPases (, Adenosine 5-TriPhosphatase, adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, ATP ...
... adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), NaCl, NaAc, Na2HPO4, Na2CO3, glucosamine (Gl), glucose (Glu), ... fluorescence response of the sensing system to sugars and other interfering substances included bovine serum albumin (BSA), ...
The adenine ring and ribose sugar form adenosine, which is a purine nucleoside. In animals, adenosine acts as a neuromodulator ... In releasing energy to a cell, ATP turns into ADP (adenosine diphosphate). In storing energy for later use, ADP becomes ATP. ... The simple sugar glucose can be metabolized to release some energy and store the rest as ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is ... In being largely hydrocarbons, lipids are more complex in their metabolic redox than sugars. Energy from fat is not as easily ...
Adenosine is known as adenosine monophosphate when there is only one phosphate molecule present (AMP). Adenosine diphosphate is ... Adenine, a nitrogen base, and ribose, a sugar molecule, combine to form adenosine, which is then combined with three phosphate ... Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is Every Living Cells Source of Energy. (ATP) is a molecule that carries energy and is referred ... Adenosines most energy-dense chemical structure is ATP, which contains three phosphates. In the 1920s, ATP was first ...
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose D3.438.759.646.138.124.70.125 D3.633.100.759.646.138.124.70.125 Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars ... Adenosine Diphosphate D3.438.759.646.138.124 D3.633.100.759.646.138.124 Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose D3.438.759.646.138.124. ... Guanosine Diphosphate Mannose D3.438.759.646.454.340.350.500 D3.633.100.759.646.454.340.350.500 Guanosine Diphosphate Sugars ... Adenosine A1 D12.776.543.750.100.700.700.100 D12.776.543.750.695.700.700.100 Receptor, Adenosine A2A D12.776.543.750.100.700. ...
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose D3.438.759.646.138.124.70.125 D3.633.100.759.646.138.124.70.125 Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars ... Adenosine Diphosphate D3.438.759.646.138.124 D3.633.100.759.646.138.124 Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose D3.438.759.646.138.124. ... Guanosine Diphosphate Mannose D3.438.759.646.454.340.350.500 D3.633.100.759.646.454.340.350.500 Guanosine Diphosphate Sugars ... Adenosine A1 D12.776.543.750.100.700.700.100 D12.776.543.750.695.700.700.100 Receptor, Adenosine A2A D12.776.543.750.100.700. ...
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose D3.438.759.646.138.124.70.125 D3.633.100.759.646.138.124.70.125 Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars ... Adenosine Diphosphate D3.438.759.646.138.124 D3.633.100.759.646.138.124 Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose D3.438.759.646.138.124. ... Guanosine Diphosphate Mannose D3.438.759.646.454.340.350.500 D3.633.100.759.646.454.340.350.500 Guanosine Diphosphate Sugars ... Adenosine A1 D12.776.543.750.100.700.700.100 D12.776.543.750.695.700.700.100 Receptor, Adenosine A2A D12.776.543.750.100.700. ...
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose D3.438.759.646.138.124.70.125 D3.633.100.759.646.138.124.70.125 Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars ... Adenosine Diphosphate D3.438.759.646.138.124 D3.633.100.759.646.138.124 Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose D3.438.759.646.138.124. ... Guanosine Diphosphate Mannose D3.438.759.646.454.340.350.500 D3.633.100.759.646.454.340.350.500 Guanosine Diphosphate Sugars ... Adenosine A1 D12.776.543.750.100.700.700.100 D12.776.543.750.695.700.700.100 Receptor, Adenosine A2A D12.776.543.750.100.700. ...
  • ATP is made by adding phosphate groups to adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate. (beforethemusicdies.com)
  • In living things, the unit of energy is a molecule called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. (coursehero.com)
  • The conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide consisting of the sugar ribose, the base adenine, and three phosphate groups, to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) uses water and releases energy and a phosphate ion. (coursehero.com)
  • In this step, a cluster of oxygen and phosphorus atoms (a phosphate group) is moved from a molecule called phosphoenolpyruvate to another molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP), resulting in molecules called pyruvate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) are phosphorylated compounds present in organisms. (lukimiko.com)
  • D. Formation of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate): chloroplast contains low energy carrier molecule ADP (Adenosine diphosphate). (lukimiko.com)
  • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), a molecule found in all living organisms is the immediate source of usable energy for body cells and their function. (hypertextbook.com)
  • ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a high energy molecule in cells. (eatandthink2win.com)
  • Adenosine 5′-triphosphate, or ATP, is the most abundant energy carrier molecule in cells. (quick-advices.com)
  • Chemical energy produced by the mitochondria is stored in a small molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (quick-advices.com)
  • All cells use adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for energy. (quick-advices.com)
  • What is adenosine triphosphate? (quick-advices.com)
  • Mitochondria break down carbohydrates to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (quick-advices.com)
  • This ability to shuttle electrons is crucial in metabolic pathways, particularly in producing ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the cell's primary energy currency. (genf20-plus.com)
  • ATP (adenosine triphosphate) functions as the energy currency for cells. (texasgateway.org)
  • The simple sugar glucose can be metabolized to release some energy and store the rest as ATP (adenosine triphosphate). (ishinobu.com)
  • Biochemically, P plays a key role in the plant's energy transfer system "highenergy" bond compounds i.e...adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and phosphocreatine, which release energy for plant metabolic activity, and things like flowering and reproduction take a lot of energy. (ning.com)
  • It is also a precursor of the nucleotides adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (inchikey.info)
  • ATP, also called adenosine triphosphate, acts as a way to store energy for future cellular processes or provide immediate energy for the cell's needs. (blogspot.com)
  • Throw on one more phosphate group and you get adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. (sciencing.com)
  • adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (singularityhub.com)
  • Along the way, some of the energy stored in glucose is transferred to other molecules, such as ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). (stemcelldaily.com)
  • Wholesle Adenosine Disodium Triphosphate/ATP Powder Pharmaceutical Raw Material, Find Details and Price about ATP Health Supplement from Wholesle Adenosine Disodium Triphosphate/ATP Powder Pharmaceutical Raw Material - Anhui GSH Bio-Technology Co., Ltd. (gsh-world.com)
  • At the same time is the main source of energy in the body, when in viv absorption, secretion, muscle contraction and synthesis of biochemical reactions necessary energys, that is decomposed into adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate and phosphate-based, also release energy. (gsh-world.com)
  • It is formed either inside or on the surface of cells via the breakdown of nucleotides (the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA) or adenine phosphates: energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate or ATP is known as the body's "energy currency. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is a high-energy molecule that serves as the primary source of energy for cells. (vumc.org)
  • The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy molecules adenosine triphosphate ATP and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADH. (vumc.org)
  • The end products of glycolysis are: pyruvic acid pyruvate , adenosine triphosphate ATP , reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADH , protons hydrogen ions H 2+ , and water H 2O. (vumc.org)
  • Adenosine Triphosphate Energy is stored in the bonds joining the phosphate groups yellow. (vumc.org)
  • Adenosine Triphosphate ATP Adenosine Triphosphate ATP is a nucleotide, that is used in various biochemical reactions as a coenzyme. (vumc.org)
  • The immediate source of energy for all runners, and for all muscular activity, is adenosine triphosphate, ATP. (commonsciencespace.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is split in this process, using energy from its splitting. (whatismeaningof.com)
  • In its most traditional definition, the mitochondrion is the energy-generating organelle of the cell, responsible for the final steps of metabolizing organic substances to produce energy for the cell in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The enzyme hexokinase (HK) catalyzes the reaction between glucose and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to form glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). (cdc.gov)
  • In biological systems, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the basic energy currency. (initmagazine.com)
  • Your cells run on ATP, adenosine triphosphate. (mkhydrate2health.com)
  • The ultimate products of food catabolism are CO 2 and H 2 O, with the energy released in the citric acid cycle used to drive the endergonic synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) plus hydrogen phosphate ion, HOPO 3 2- . (openstax.org)
  • Like most oxidations, this stage releases a large amount of energy, which is used in the fourth stage, the electron-transport chain, to accomplish the endergonic phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) with hydrogen phosphate ion (HOPO 3 2- , abbreviated P i ) to give adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (openstax.org)
  • As its name suggests, adenosine triphosphate is comprised of adenosine bound to three phosphate groups ( Figure 1 ). (umn.edu)
  • In certain vital metabolic processes, AMP combines with inorganic phosphate to form ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and then ATP. (quick-advices.com)
  • As protons flow through the channel domain of ATP synthase, a motor force is generated, which is used to rotate a large, rotating catalytic domain facing the matrix, which couples adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to an inorganic phosphate moiety (P i ) to yield ATP[ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When cells require energy, ATP molecules are hydrolyzed, releasing energy and producing adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). (initmagazine.com)
  • These bonds are "high-energy" because the products of such bond breaking-adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and one inorganic phosphate group (P i )-have considerably lower free energy than the reactants: ATP and a water molecule. (umn.edu)
  • Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is one of the components of RNA and also the organic component of the energy-carrying molecule ATP. (quick-advices.com)
  • In the hydrolysis of ATP, free energy is supplied when a phosphate group or two are detached, and either ADP (adenosine diphosphate) or AMP (adenosine monophosphate) is produced. (texasgateway.org)
  • An adenosine with one phosphate group attached is called adenosine monophosphate, or AMP -- and it is also now called a nucleotide. (sciencing.com)
  • The flour in the bread is a starch, which consists of long strands of sugar molecules that help with fermentation that takes place. (myhomeworkgeeks.com)
  • ADP stands for adenosine diphosphate, and it's not only one of the most important molecules in the body, it's also one of the most numerous. (sciencing.com)
  • The equation shows that one molecule of glucose (a six-carbon sugar) is converted into two molecules of pyruvate (a three-carbon compound) by a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • This is carrier of sugar molecules such as glucose, galactose or their derivatives. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • It is the process by which glucose, a simple sugar, is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate. (vumc.org)
  • Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a nucleoside phosphate comprised of a ribonucleoside and two phosphate groups. (quick-advices.com)
  • Its nucleoside contains a purine base, i.e. an adenine attached to the ribose sugar. (quick-advices.com)
  • Adenosine is a nucleoside that is composed of a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety. (inchikey.info)
  • It is also a purine nucleoside.Adenosine belongs in all living cells and is an important component of RNA. (inchikey.info)
  • When the adenine is joined with a sugar molecule, it becomes a nucleoside called adenosine. (sciencing.com)
  • Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside found in every cell of the body. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • Adenosine is a nucleoside consisting of the nitrogenous base adenine and a five-carbon sugar, ribose. (umn.edu)
  • Reports indicate that oregano oil inhibits arachidonic acid-induced and ADP (adenosine diphosphate)-induced platelet aggregation. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Diabetes mellitus (or simply diabetes ) is a syndrome characterised by disordered glucose metabolism and overly high blood sugar levels (hyperglycaemia). (scienceinschool.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological characteristics and roles of T. spiralis pyruvate kinase M (TsPKM) in sugar metabolism, larval molting and development of T. spiralis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Adenosine DisodiumTriphosphate (ATP) is a kind of coenzyme, to improve the role of metabolism involved in body fat, protein, sugar, nucleic acid and the metabolism of nucleotides. (gsh-world.com)
  • ATP is composed of adenosine (an adenine ring and a ribose sugar) and three phosphate groups. (eatandthink2win.com)
  • This molecule is made of a nitrogen base (adenine), a ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups. (quick-advices.com)
  • The ATP molecule consists of a ribose sugar and an adenine base with three phosphates attached. (texasgateway.org)
  • The three phosphate groups, in order of closest to furthest from the ribose sugar, are alpha, beta, and gamma. (umn.edu)
  • One series of experiments detects whether or not a solution contains starch, proteins, or sugars such as glucose, lactose or sucrose. (scienceinschool.org)
  • Using different reagent solutions, students should determine which of the five samples contain sugar, starch or protein. (scienceinschool.org)
  • Stem and root of P. deltoides had higher concentrations of starch, soluble sugars and sucrose than P. cathayana under salinity stress. (plant-ecology.com)
  • The higher adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase activity facilitated the production of starch in P. deltoides than in P. cathayana . (plant-ecology.com)
  • We highlight that both cultivars have higher soluble sugar concentration and less starch content for proximate composition. (lidsen.com)
  • ATP is made up of the nitrogenous base adenine, the five-carbon sugar ribose and three phosphate groups. (hypertextbook.com)
  • In comparison to nucleic acids and proteins, sugars are the most difficult types of biopolymers to study because of their complexity and how there are so many possibilities as to what type of sugar they may form. (myhomeworkgeeks.com)
  • These techniques also show how the sugars may interact with different types of proteins. (myhomeworkgeeks.com)
  • Glycated proteins differ from non-glycated proteins by the attachment of a sugar moiety(s) at various binding sites by means of a ketoamine bond. (cdc.gov)
  • Mitochondria most readily produce ATP by the oxidation of NADH and FADH 2 yielded from the breakdown of sugars such as glucose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sugar is a type of carbohydrate that the human body needs to create energy through processes like cellular respiration, which is also a process that is found in fermentation. (myhomeworkgeeks.com)
  • It means it has a ribose as its sugar and two phosphate groups attached. (quick-advices.com)
  • It has an adenosine backbone with three phosphate groups attached. (umn.edu)
  • Endonucleases and exonucleases are enzymes that cleave the phosphate-sugar backbone of nucleic acids, allowing for diverse genetic processes. (initmagazine.com)
  • These mitochondria take the sugar and fat out of your food system and turn that into ATP. (mkhydrate2health.com)
  • Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phosphorus (P) are produced in the process. (hypertextbook.com)
  • In the first catabolic stage, commonly called digestion , food is broken down in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine by hydrolysis of ester, acetal (glycoside), and amide (peptide) bonds to yield fatty acids, simple sugars, and amino acids. (openstax.org)
  • When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose. (quick-advices.com)
  • During glycolysis, the simple sugar glucose is broken down to produce energy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is produced during glycolysis through the transfer of a phosphate group from glucose to ADP (adenosine diphosphate). (vumc.org)
  • But at the minute, these processes are powered through an inefficient process of growing biomass, converting it to sugar, and feeding it to the microbes. (singularityhub.com)
  • The body then uses the energy in food to convert adenosine diphosphate back to ATP. (beforethemusicdies.com)
  • In the light independent stage of photosynthesis, the NADPH formed helps to convert the absorbed carbon dioxide (CO 2) into carbohydrates (sugar). (lukimiko.com)
  • Complex carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars that the cell uses for energy. (libretexts.org)
  • A blood sugar spike can be prevented by eating a diet that balances macronutrients like protein, fat, and carbohydrates. (whatismeaningof.com)
  • Through chemical synthesis, sugar substitutes also play a large role in some diets, mainly catered towards diabetics, people who are obese, and people with hypoglycemia so that they could obtain the necessary energy needed from sugar without the health consequences of normal sugar. (myhomeworkgeeks.com)
  • This causes the body to need abnormally high amounts of insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels, and diabetes develops when the beta cells cannot meet this demand. (scienceinschool.org)
  • A sugar-based molecule naturally produced by the body can help cells grow, differentiate into different types, self-destruct if need be and much more. (scienceweekdigest.com)
  • ADK breaks adenosine down by to AMP, reducing its levels inside cells. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • A lack of ADK increases adenosine inside cells and has been associated with diabetes, epilepsy, and cancer. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • Determining the glycome, or the sugar code of what two common sugars may form, can be done through microarray techniques. (myhomeworkgeeks.com)
  • This chemical also helps balance blood sugar levels, reduces inflammation and fat production, prevents insulin resistance, and controls body temperature and energy use. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • When there is not enough P certain sugars will build up causing the formation of the purple pigment (anthocyanin) that you see. (ning.com)
  • Sugars are made in the organelle known as the. (lukimiko.com)
  • A summary of the most common chemical descriptors (InChI Key and SMILES codes) for Adenosine are summarized together with 3D and 2D structures and relevant physico-chemical properties. (inchikey.info)
  • Adenosine is a natural chemical found ubiquitously in every cell of the human body. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • When in use ATP is broken down to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) to provide energy. (eatandthink2win.com)
  • Adenosine acts quickly and is rapidly broken down afterward. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • During that cycle, ATP is broken down to its little sister ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and phosphate, and energy is released. (commonsciencespace.com)
  • ATP is a nucleotide consisting of the sugar ribose, the base adenine, and three phosphate groups. (coursehero.com)
  • In the human body, simple sugars such as glucose and fructose are the most abundant, although there are also different sugars such as maltose and dextrose. (myhomeworkgeeks.com)
  • Fred Engelbrecht and Thomas Wendt from the ExploHeidelberg Teaching Lab describe some experiments on sugar detection to demonstrate the problems that people with diabetes face every day. (scienceinschool.org)
  • Fatigue is one of these vague signs of high blood sugar that people with diabetes frequently experience. (whatismeaningof.com)
  • These experiments, therefore, give students an idea of how diabetes sufferers can monitor their sugar status. (scienceinschool.org)
  • By undergoing hydrolysis, where a phosphate group is removed by breaking a phosphoanhydride bond, ATP is converted into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and energy is released. (blogspot.com)
  • Yeast requires sugar to go through the process of fermentation, that helps the bread rise prior to being baked and while being baked. (myhomeworkgeeks.com)
  • The hormone responsible for controlling blood sugar levels is insulin and high blood sugar levels can result from inadequate or nonexistent insulin production. (whatismeaningof.com)
  • When blood sugar levels rise, the body works overtime to produce enough insulin to return to normal. (whatismeaningof.com)
  • Adenosine diphosphate, or ADP, is a different molecule created when ATP expels one of its three phosphates to produce energy. (whatismeaningof.com)
  • Also, medicinal amounts of oregano may have additive effects when used with other supplements and herbs that lower blood sugar levels. (selfgrowth.com)
  • As noted in Section 21.8 , the acetyl group in acetyl CoA is linked to the sulfur atom of phosphopantetheine, which is itself linked to adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. (openstax.org)