A condition characterized by focal DYSTONIA that progresses to involuntary spasmodic contractions of the muscles of the legs, trunk, arms, and face. The hands are often spared, however, sustained axial and limb contractions may lead to a state where the body is grossly contorted. Onset is usually in the first or second decade. Familial patterns of inheritance, primarily autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance, have been identified. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1078)
Deformities of the hand, or a part of the hand, acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease.
Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)
Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.
A dead body, usually a human body.
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.
A genus of fish, in the family GYMNOTIFORMES, capable of producing an electric shock that immobilizes fish and other prey. The species Electrophorus electricus is also known as the electric eel, though it is not a true eel.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Apparatus that provides mechanical circulatory support during open-heart surgery, by passing the heart to facilitate surgery on the organ. The basic function of the machine is to oxygenate the body's venous supply of blood and then pump it back into the arterial system. The machine also provides intracardiac suction, filtration, and temperature control. Some of the more important components of these machines include pumps, oxygenators, temperature regulators, and filters. (UMDNS, 1999)
In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
Relating to the size of solids.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The absence of light.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
An aspartate aminotransferase found in the CYTOPLASM.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.

Cloning, expression and characterization of YSA1H, a human adenosine 5'-diphosphosugar pyrophosphatase possessing a MutT motif. (1/44)

The human homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YSA1 protein, YSA1H, has been expressed as a thioredoxin fusion protein in Escherichia coli. It is an ADP-sugar pyrophosphatase with similar activities towards ADP-ribose and ADP-mannose. Its activities with ADP-glucose and diadenosine diphosphate were 56% and 20% of that with ADP-ribose respectively, whereas its activity towards other nucleoside 5'-diphosphosugars was typically 2-10%. cADP-ribose was not a substrate. The products of ADP-ribose hydrolysis were AMP and ribose 5-phosphate. K(m) and k(cat) values with ADP-ribose were 60 microM and 5.5 s(-1) respectively. The optimal activity was at alkaline pH (7.4-9.0) with 2.5-5 mM Mg(2+) or 100-250 microM Mn(2+) ions; fluoride was inhibitory, with an IC(50) of 20 microM. The YSA1H gene, which maps to 10p13-p14, is widely expressed in all human tissues examined, giving a 1.4 kb transcript. The 41.6 kDa fusion protein behaved as an 85 kDa dimer on gel filtration. After cleavage with enterokinase, the 24.4 kDa native protein fragment ran on SDS/PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kDa. Immunoblot analysis with a polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant YSA1H revealed the presence of a protein of apparent molecular mass 33 kDa in various human cells, including erythrocytes. The sequence of YSA1H contains a MutT sequence signature motif. A major proposed function of the MutT motif proteins is to eliminate toxic nucleotide metabolites from the cell. Hence the function of YSA1H might be to remove free ADP-ribose arising from NAD(+) and protein-bound poly- and mono-(ADP-ribose) turnover to prevent the occurrence of non-enzymic protein glycation.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a new member of the Nudix hydrolases from human and mouse. (2/44)

Proteins containing the Nudix box "GX(5)EX(7)REUXEEXGU" (where U is usually Leu, Val, or Ile) are Nudix hydrolases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of a variety of nucleoside diphosphate derivatives. Here we report cloning and characterization of a human cDNA encoding a novel nudix hydrolase NUDT5 for the hydrolysis of ADP-sugars. The deduced amino acid sequence of NUDT5 contains 219 amino acids, including a conserved Nudix box sequence. The recombinant NUDT5 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity. At the optimal pH of 7, the purified recombinant NUDT5 catalyzed hydrolysis of two major substrates ADP-ribose and ADP-mannose with K(m) values of 32 and 83 microM, respectively; the V(max) for ADP-mannose was about 1.5 times that with ADP-ribose. The murine NUDT5 homolog was also cloned and characterized. mNudT5 has 81% amino acid identity to NUDT5 with catalytic activities similar to NUDT5 under the optimal pH of 9. Both NUDT5 and mNudT5 transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in tissues analyzed with preferential abundance in liver. The genomic structures of both NUDT5 and mNudT5 were determined and located on human chromosome 10 and mouse chromosome 2, respectively. The role of NUDT5 in maintaining levels of free ADP-ribose in cells is discussed.  (+info)

Selection and characteristics of a Vibrio cholerae mutant lacking the A (ADP-ribosylating) portion of the cholera enterotoxin. (3/44)

After mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine and selection by immuno-halo techniques, an avirulent mutant, designated Texas Star-SR, which produces no detectable A (active; ADP-ribosylating) region of the cholera enterotoxin (choleragen) but produces the B region (choleragenoid) in amounts similar to the hypertoxinogenic wild-type parent Vibrio cholerae (biotype E1 Tor serotype Ogawa), has been isolated. The mutant retains the colonizing ability, motility, prototrophy, and serologic characteristics of the parent. In relevant intestinal experimental models, it has been shown to be avirulent and to induce protection against challenge with virulent cholera vibrios. The mutant appears to be suitable for further evaluation in volunteers as a candidate living enteric vaccine against cholera and related enterotoxic enteropathies.  (+info)

Chemical and metabolic properties of adenosine diphosphate ribose derivatives of nuclear proteins. (4/44)

1. ADP-ribose is found in rat liver nuclei covalently bound to histone F1, to a non-histone protein, and to a small peptide. 2. A single unit of ADP-ribose, covalently bound to phosphoserine, was isolated from an enzymic hydrolysate of histone F1. ADP-ribose-bearing peptides were isolated from a tryptic digest of the histone. 3. It is proposed that the 1'-hydroxyl group of ADP-ribose is linked to the phosphate group of phosphoserine in histone F1. 4. The incorporation of 32P into ADP-ribose on histone F1 a parallels the DNA content through the cell cycle. An increased incorporation of the nucleotide into the other derivatives is observed during S phase. 5. It is suggested that the ADP-ribose derivative of histone F1 has a role in maintaining the G0 state and that one or both of the other derivatives is concerned with control of DNA synthesis.  (+info)

Biosynthesis pathway of ADP-L-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose in Escherichia coli. (5/44)

The steps involved in the biosynthesis of the ADP-L-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose (ADP-L-beta-D-heptose) precursor of the inner core lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have not been completely elucidated. In this work, we have purified the enzymes involved in catalyzing the intermediate steps leading to the synthesis of ADP-D-beta-D-heptose and have biochemically characterized the reaction products by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. We have also constructed a deletion in a novel gene, gmhB (formerly yaeD), which results in the formation of an altered LPS core. This mutation confirms that the GmhB protein is required for the formation of ADP-D-beta-D-heptose. Our results demonstrate that the synthesis of ADP-D-beta-D-heptose in Escherichia coli requires three proteins, GmhA (sedoheptulose 7-phosphate isomerase), HldE (bifunctional D-beta-D-heptose 7-phosphate kinase/D-beta-D-heptose 1-phosphate adenylyltransferase), and GmhB (D,D-heptose 1,7-bisphosphate phosphatase), as well as ATP and the ketose phosphate precursor sedoheptulose 7-phosphate. A previously characterized epimerase, formerly named WaaD (RfaD) and now renamed HldD, completes the pathway to form the ADP-L-beta-D-heptose precursor utilized in the assembly of inner core LPS.  (+info)

Mechanism of action of choleragen. Evidence for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity with arginine as an acceptor. (6/44)

Choleragen catalyzed the hydrolysis of NAD to ADP-ribose and nicotinamide; nicotinamide production was dramatically increased by L-arginine methyl ester and to a lesser extent by D- or L-arginine, but not by other basic amino acids. Guanidine was also effective. Nicotinamide formation in the presence of L-arginine methyl ester was greatest under conditions previously shown to accelerate the hydrolysis of NAD by choleragen (Moss, J., Manganiello, V. C., and Vaughan, M. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73, 4424-4427). After incubation of [adenine-U14C]NAD and L[3H]arginine with coleragen, a product was isolated by thin layer chromatography that contained adenine and arginine in a 1:1 ratio and has been tentatively identified as ADP-ribose-L-arginine. Parallel experiments with [carbonyl-14C]NAD have demonstrated that formation of the ADP-ribosyl-L-arginine derivative was associated with the production of [carbonyl-14C]nicotinamide. As guanidine itself was active and D- and L-arginine was equally effective in promoting nicotinamide production, whereas citrulline, which possesses a ureido rather than a guanidino function, was inactive, it seems probable that the guanidino group rather than the alpha-amino moiety participated in the linkage to ADP-ribose. Based on the assumption that the ADP-ribosylation of L-arginine by choleragen is a model for the NAD-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase by choleragen, it is proposed that the active A protomer of choleragen catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of an arginine, or related amino acid residue in a protein, which is the cyclase itself or is critical to its activation by choleragen.  (+info)

Mutants of Neurospora deficient in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) glycohydrolase. (7/44)

A new screening technique has been developed for the rapid identification of Neurospora crassa mutants that are deficient in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide glycohydrolase (NADase) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate glycohydrolase (NADPase) activities. Using this procedure, five single-gene mutants were isolated whose singular difference from wild type appeared to be the absence of NAD(P)ase (EC 3.2.2.6). All five mutants were found to be genetically allelic and did not complement in heterocaryons. This gene, nada [NAD(P)ase], was localized in linkage group IV. One of the nada alleles was found to specify an enzyme that was critically temperature sensitive and had altered substrate affinity. Mutations at the nada locus did not affect the genetic program for the expression of NAD(P)ase during cell differentiation, nor did they have a general effect on NAD catabolism. Nada mutations did not have simultaneous effects on other glycohydrolase activities. Tests of dominance (in heterocaryons) and in vitro mixing experiments did not provide evidence that nada mutations alter activators or inhibitors of NAD(P)ase. Thus, the nada gene appears to specify only the structure of N. crassa NAD(P)ase.  (+info)

Macromolecular enzymatic product of NAD+ in liver mitochondria. (8/44)

Rat liver mitochondria contain a Mg2+-requiring system that transfers the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ to an acceptor protein. The enzyme system was extracted in a soluble form and the ADP-ribosylated protein product was isolated by hydroxyapatite and Sephadex chromatography. The ADP-ribosylated protein product has a molecular weight of 100,000 and can be dissociated into subunits of 50,000 daltons by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Incubation of the isotopically labeled ADP-ribosylated protein with nicotinamide and a mitochondrial extract yields labeled NAD+, indicating apparent reversibility of the reaction. Enzymatic degradation of the ADP-ribosylated protein with snake venom phosphodiesterase liberates AMP and ADP-ribose or its isomer. Identification of these products and reversibility of the reaction show that the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ is the molecular species that is transferred to the acceptor protein. A fraction of the protein-bound ADP-ribose appears to be present as an an oligomer. The enzymatic protein-ADP-ribosylating reaction is inhibited by nicotinamide, ADP-ribose, the fluorophosphate of AMP, and picrylsulfonic acid.  (+info)

Author: Sullivan, B. M. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1997-01-01; Keywords: Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose/*metabolism|br/|Animals|br/|Hippocampus/drug effects/*metabolism|br/|Male|br/|Molsidomine/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology|br/|Nerve Tissue Proteins/*metabolism|br/|Nitric Oxide/*pharmacology|br/|Nitric Oxide Donors/pharmacology|br/|Nitroprusside/pharmacology|br/|Rats|br/|Rats, Sprague-Dawley|br/|Subcellular Fractions/metabolism|br/|Synapses/drug effects/*metabolism|br/|Tissue Distribution/physiology; Title: Modification of hippocampal synaptic proteins by nitric oxide-stimulated ADP ribosylation
Treatments with Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have offered patients carrying cancers with mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes a new and in many cases effective option for disease control. There is potentially a large patient population that may also benefit from PARP inhibitor treatment, either in monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy. Here, we describe the multifaceted role of PARP inhibitors and discuss which treatment options could potentially be useful to gain disease control without potentiating side effects.
Uridine Diphosphate Sugars information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
A Membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of Cyclic ADP-Ribose (cADPR) from Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the Hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-Ribose, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of Cyclic ADP-Ribose 2 phosphate (2-P-cADPR) from NADP ...
Definition of adenosine diphosphate in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is adenosine diphosphate? Meaning of adenosine diphosphate as a finance term. What does adenosine diphosphate mean in finance?
Title:Cytochromes P450 and Skin Cancer: Role of Local Endocrine Pathways. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Andrzej T. Slominski, Michal A. Zmijewski, Igor Semak, Blazej Zbytek, Alexander Pisarchik, Wei Li, Jordan Zjawiony and Robert C. Tuckey. Affiliation:Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 930 Madison Avenue, RM525, Memphis, TN 38163.. Keywords:CYP, melatonin, secosteroids, skin cancer, steroids, vitamin D.. Abstract:Skin is the largest body organ forming a metabolically active barrier between external and internal environments. The metabolic barrier is composed of cytochromes P450 (CYPs) that regulate its homeostasis through activation or inactivation of biologically relevant molecules. In this review we focus our attention on local steroidogenic and secosteroidogenic systems in relation to skin cancer, e.g., prevention, attenuation of tumor progression and therapy. The local steroidogenic system is composed of locally expressed CYPs ...
Keywords: Tumor cell intrusion, Cell migration, HGF, Microtubules, Polarity indicators, Tankyrase Background In the last 10 years two digestive enzymes owed to the poly(adenosine diphosphate)-ribose polymerase (PARP) superfamily, tankyrase 1 (TNKS) and 2 (TNKS2), had been determined as crucial government bodies of spindle rod set up through poly(adenosine diphosphate)-ribosylation (PARsylation) of many microtubule-related protein within the spindle equipment [1, 2]. Poly (adenosine diphosphate)-ribose (PAR) devices possess also been certified as essential spindle constituents, with TNKS and TNKS2 (TNKS/2 hereinafter) becoming the excellent government bodies of spindle-associated PAR activity [3]. TNKS/2 downregulation can be regularly reported to produce extravagant mitotic phenotypes, including microtubule problems and supernumerary spindles [4]. TNKS/2 are also needed for appropriate sibling telomere quality [5] and centrosome function [6, 7]. Completely, these findings added to the archetypal ...
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reference: Structural Basis for Lack of ADP-Ribosyltransferase Activity in Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-13/Zinc Finger Antiviral Protein., Karlberg T, Klepsch M, Thorsell AG, Andersson CD, Linusson A, Schuler H, J Biol Chem. 2015 Jan 29. pii: jbc.M114.630160. PMID: 25635049 ...
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... adenosine diphosphosugar phosphorylase, ADP sugar phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate ... doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, ...
... nucleoside diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070 - adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.075 - adenosine ... guanosine diphosphate mannose MeSH D09.408.620.569.727 - uridine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.100 - uridine ... poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.200 - cytidine diphosphate diglycerides MeSH D09.408.620.569.400 - ... guanosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.400.410 - guanosine diphosphate fucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.400.500 - ...
The sugar ribose unit was also replaced with a cyclopentyl group to avoid possible instability of the glycosidic bond. The ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors are a drug class of antiplatelet agents, used in the treatment of acute ... P2Y12 receptor is a G-coupled receptor and is activated by adenosine diphosphate. ADP binds to the P2Y12 receptor that leads to ... OCLC 870265462.[page needed] Angiolillo, Dominick J.; Luis Ferreiro, José (January 2010). "Platelet Adenosine Diphosphate P2Y12 ...
The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5' carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1' carbon ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ...
... fructose sugar phosphorylated on carbons 1 and 6 Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (or fructose 2,6-diphosphate), abbreviated Fru-2,6- ... an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + H2O adenosine 5'-phosphate + phosphate Fructose 1 ... 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), an important substrate involved in carbon fixation ...
Cellular processes, especially muscles, then convert the ATP into adenosine diphosphate (ADP), freeing the energy to do work.[ ... It is a part of the metabolic process that converts sugar, fat, and protein into cellular energy. In order to use energy, a ... Adenosine mediates pain through adenosine receptors. MADD causes an increase of free adenosine during heavy activity which may ... In the brain, excess adenosine decreases alertness and causes sleepiness. In this way, adenosine may play a role in fatigue ...
As a substituent it takes the form of the prefix cytidylyl-. CMP can be phosphorylated to cytidine diphosphate by the enzyme ... CMP consists of the phosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase cytosine; hence, a ribonucleoside ... CMP kinase, with adenosine triphosphate or guanosine triphosphate donating the phosphate group. Since cytidine triphosphate is ...
... by adding a third phosphorus group to adenosine diphosphate. In 1954, Arnon reproduced the process in a laboratory, making him ... the first to successfully demonstrate the chemical function of photosynthesis, producing sugar and starch from inputs of carbon ... His work was able to demonstrate how energy from sunlight is used to form adenosine triphosphate, the energy transport ...
... is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) when the phosphate is removed. The reaction ... It is as a signal for insulin release that glucokinase exerts the largest effect on blood sugar levels and overall direction of ... 6 carbon sugars) and similar molecules. Therefore, the general glucokinase reaction is more accurately described as: Hexose + ...
Important molecules: ADP - Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (Adenosine pyrophosphate (APP)) is an important organic compound in ... Glucose - An important simple sugar used by cells as a source of energy and as a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the ... A molecule of ADP consists of three important structural components: a sugar backbone attached to a molecule of adenine and two ... Lactic acid fermentation - An anaerobic metabolic process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted ...
"Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5′-diphosphate" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 261 (27): ... carbon atom of the sugar to a triphosphate group. In its many reactions related to metabolism, the adenine and sugar groups ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. Found in all forms of life, ATP ... In terms of its structure, ATP consists of an adenine attached by the 9-nitrogen atom to the 1′ carbon atom of a sugar (ribose ...
... adenosine diphosphate MeSH D13.695.667.138.124.070 - adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.667.138.124.070.075 - adenosine ... adenosine diphosphate MeSH D13.695.827.068.124.070 - adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.827.068.124.070.075 - adenosine ... nucleoside diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.827.708.070 - adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.827.708.070.075 - adenosine ... guanosine diphosphate MeSH D13.695.667.454.340.350 - guanosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.667.454.340.350.400 - guanosine ...
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) Adenosine-tetraphosphatase Adenosine methylene triphosphate ATPases ... carbon atom of the sugar to a triphosphate group. In its many reactions related to metabolism, the adenine and sugar groups ... When consumed in metabolic processes, it converts either to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or to adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ... Gajewski, E.; Steckler, D.; Goldberg, R. (1986). "Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5 ...
... adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and orthophosphate (Pi): citrate + ATP + CoA → oxaloacetate + Acetyl-CoA + ADP + Pi This enzyme ... and sugars; and, mevalonate-derived isoprenoids (e.g., sesquiterpenes, sterols, brassinosteroids); malonyl and acyl-derivatives ... Srere PA, Lipmann F (1953). "An enzymatic reaction between citrate, adenosine triphosphate and coenzyme A". Journal of the ...
ATP synthase uses the energy from the flowing hydrogen ions to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate into adenosine triphosphate ... which builds sugar molecules from carbon dioxide. The two phases are linked by the energy carriers adenosine triphosphate (ATP ... ATP is the phosphorylated version of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which stores energy in a cell and powers most cellular ... to subsequently produce food in the form of sugars. Water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are used in photosynthesis, and sugar ...
ATP can undergo hydrolysis in two ways: Firstly, the removal of terminal phosphate to form adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ... When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g., sucrose being broken down into glucose ... the removal of a terminal diphosphate to yield adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and pyrophosphate. The latter usually undergoes ... Invertase is a sucrase used industrially for the hydrolysis of sucrose to so-called invert sugar. Lactase is essential for ...
ATP is created during cellular respiration from adenosine diphosphate (ATP with one less phosphate group). Ribose is a building ... Puckering, otherwise known as the sugar ring conformation (specifically ribose sugar), can be described by the amplitude of ... Z-DNA contains sugars in both the north and south ranges. When only a single atom is displaced, it is referred to as an " ... Like most sugars, ribose exists as a mixture of cyclic forms in equilibrium with its linear form, and these readily ...
Adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP) or thiaminylated adenosine diphosphate exists in small amounts in vertebrate liver, but ... The best-characterized form is thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), a coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids. In yeast, ... and adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP). While the coenzyme role of thiamine diphosphate is well-known and extensively ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP) or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate has recently been discovered in Escherichia ...
... also known as a nitrogenous base-and are termed ribonucleotides if the sugar is ribose, or deoxyribonucleotides if the sugar is ... First, the diphosphate from UDP is produced, which in turn is phosphorylated to UTP. Both steps are fueled by ATP hydrolysis: ... Fumarate is then cleaved off forming adenosine monophosphate. This step is catalyzed by adenylosuccinate lyase. Inosine ... These chain-joins of sugar and phosphate molecules create a 'backbone' strand for a single- or double helix. In any one strand ...
The building blocks of ATP synthesis are the by-products of its breakdown; adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate ... "Glycolysis" refers to the breakdown of sugar. In this system, the breakdown of sugar supplies the necessary energy from which ... When sugar is metabolized anaerobically, it is only partially broken down and one of the byproducts is lactic acid. This ... Those processes convert energy into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the form suitable for muscular activity. There are ...
The nucleoside, adenosine, is then deaminated and hydrolyzed to form hypoxanthine via adenosine deaminase and nucleosidase ... The conversion of a nucleoside-diphosphate (NDP) to a nucleoside-triphosphate (NTP) is catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate ... Unlike in purine synthesis, the sugar/phosphate group from PRPP is not added to the nitrogenous base until towards the end of ... This enzyme converts NDPs (nucleoside-diphosphate) to dNDPs (deoxynucleoside-diphosphate). The nucleotides must be in the ...
Histidine biosynthesis is carefully regulated by feedback inhibition/ R5P can be converted to adenosine diphosphate ribose, ... R5P consists of a five-carbon sugar, ribose, and a phosphate group at the five-position carbon. It can exist in open chain form ... They are composed of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and at least one phosphate group. Nucleotides contain either a purine ... It is a crucial source for NADPH generation for reductive biosynthesis (e.g. fatty acid synthesis) and pentose sugars. The ...
In ribonucleotides, the sugar component is ribose while in deoxyribonucleotides, the sugar component is deoxyribose. Instead of ... Ribonucleoside diphosphate (NDP) is reduced by thioredoxin to a deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate (dNTP). The general reaction is ... Other variations include adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). ... Ribonucleoside diphosphate + NADPH + H+ -> Deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate + NADP+ + H2O To illustrate this equation, dATP and ...
The first phosphate group linked to the sugar is termed the α-phosphate, the second is the β-phosphate, and the third is the γ- ... The conversion of NTPs to dNTPs can only be done in the diphosphate form. Typically a NTP has one phosphate removed to become a ... "ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate , Boundless Biology". courses.lumenlearning.com-US. Retrieved 2017-11-12. Carvalho AT, Szeler K, ... Conventionally, the carbon numbers in a sugar are followed by the prime symbol (') to distinguish them from the carbons of the ...
PRPP provides the ribose sugar in de novo synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, used in the nucleotide bases that form RNA and ... In the transition state upon binding of both substrates, the diphosphate is transferred. The enzyme first releases AMP before ... which can ultimately be converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or guanosine triphosphate (GTP). PRPP plays a role in purine ...
... and begins the synthesis of a polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chain, which acts as a signal ... This model suggests that this "sugar plug" can also begin the signal for apoptosis. Roles of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in plant ... This leaves a pyrophosphate as the linking group between ribose sugars rather than single phosphate groups. This creates some ... leaving a single phosphate group linking deoxyribose sugars. PAR is synthesized using nicotinamide (NAM) as the leaving group. ...
The history of lamivudine can be traced back to the mid-1970s while Bernard Belleau was investigating sugar derivatives. ... Tenofovir is an acyclic adenosine derivative. The acyclic nature of the compound and its phosphonate moiety are unique ... including nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDP kinase), phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kinase and creatine kinase, resulting ... Dideoxynucleosides are analogues of nucleoside where the sugar ring lacks both 2´ and 3´-hydroxyl groups. Three years after the ...
As you can see from figure 1.1 that it is a stereoisomer of adenosine. It has a half-life of 60 minutes, and its solubility is ... These compounds led to the synthesis of a new generation, sugar modified nucleoside analog vidarabine, and the related compound ... This prevents the reduction of nucleotide diphosphates, causing a reduction of viral replication. Vidarabine is more toxic and ... The use of an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase to increase the half-life of vidarabine has also been tried, and drugs such as ...
This enzyme catalyzes a reaction that combines phosphocreatine and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into ATP and creatine. This ... By oxidizing fatty acids, this spares glucose utilization and helps to maintain blood sugar level during exercise. Exercise for ... All of these systems re-synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the universal energy source in all cells. The most ...
Their function is to convert the potential energy of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in ... This is thought to be caused by a blockage in the enzyme thiamine-diphosphate kinase, and therefore treatment in some patients ... low blood sugar), and tremors. Severe, sudden metabolic acidosis is a common cause of mortality.[12] ... Disorders of oxidative phosphorylation, the process by which cells produce their main energy source of adenosine triphosphate ( ...
... contains a thymine base joined to a ribose pentose sugar. ...
... and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Switching between the open and closed dimer conformations induces conformational changes in ... In MsbA, the sugar head groups are sequestered within the chamber during the "power stroke". The cavity is lined with charged ... For MsbA, in particular, the size of the chamber is large enough to accommodate the sugar groups from lipopolysaccharides (LPS ... The ATPase subunits utilize the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding and hydrolysis to energize the translocation of ...
Adenosine thiamine diphosphateEdit. Adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP) or thiaminylated adenosine diphosphate exists in ... The best-characterized form is thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), a coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids. In yeast, ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphateEdit. Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP) or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate has ... and adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP). While the coenzyme role of thiamine diphosphate is well-known and extensively ...
ATP can undergo hydrolysis in two ways: the removal of terminal phosphate to form adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic ... When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and ... or the removal of a terminal diphosphate to yield adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and pyrophosphate. The latter usually undergoes ... The best-known disaccharide is sucrose (table sugar). Hydrolysis of sucrose yields glucose and fructose. Invertase is a sucrase ...
Défhosfáit adanóisín Adenosine diphosphate (ADP). *Aonfhosfáit adanóisín Adenosine monophosphate (AMP). *Trífhosfáit adanóisín ... Siúcraí Sugars (in general). *superoxide. T[cuir in eagar , athraigh foinse]. *T2 Toxin ...
The ATP synthase uses the energy to transform adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into adenosine triphosphate, in a phosphorylation ... but initially only sugar phosphates were known to be involved.[94] However, in the early 1940s, the link between the oxidation ... I. Purification and properties of soluble dinitrophenol-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase". J. Biol. Chem. 235 (11): 3322-9. ... thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In most eukaryotes, this takes place inside ...
Glycerate diphosphate Hizi ni kupunguzwa na NADPH kwa molekuli mbili za glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GALP). Glyceraldehyde 3- ... Glucose hii inaweza kubadilishwa kuwa pyruvate ambayo hutoa adenosine triphosphate (ATP) na kupumua kwa seli. Oksijeni pia ... sugar and oxygen, leave the leaf. ... Wote adenosine triphosphate (ATP) na NADPH huzalishwa. Katika ... Haya molekuli ya glycerate 3-phosphate (GP) ni phosphorylated na ATP katika molekuli ya glycerate diphosphate. ...
... and it is produced by ATP synthase from inorganic phosphate and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, the di meaning two phosphate groups ... These enzymes reduce the sugar residue from ribose to deoxyribose by removing oxygen.[1] ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often called the "molecular unit of currency": ... Walker for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the other ...
This enzyme catalyzes a reaction that combines phosphocreatine and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into ATP and creatine. This ... By oxidizing fatty acids, this spares glucose utilization and helps to maintain blood sugar level during exercise. ... All of these systems re-synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the universal energy source in all cells. The most ... Lastly, adenylate kinase catalyzes a reaction by which 2 ADP are combined to form ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This ...
Sugars are carbohydrates, but not all carbohydrates are sugars. There are more carbohydrates on Earth than any other known type ... Because they contain at least one phosphate group, the compounds marked nucleoside monophosphate, nucleoside diphosphate and ... as well as forming the base molecule for adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy-carrier molecule found in all living ... Sugar can be characterized by having reducing or non-reducing ends. A reducing end of a carbohydrate is a carbon atom that can ...
Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule, contributing 2 O overall ... Hexokinase responds to the glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) level in the cell, or, in the case of glucokinase, to the blood sugar ... The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy molecules ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH ( ... When the blood sugar falls the pancreatic beta cells cease insulin production, but, instead, stimulate the neighboring ...
Category:EC 3.2 (act on sugars - glycosylases)Edit. *Category:EC 3.2.1 *Amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) ... Ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase EC 5.5.1.14. Syn-copalyl-diphosphate synthase EC 5.5.1.15. Terpentedienyl-diphosphate synthase ... Adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4). *GTP cyclohydrolase I (EC 3.5.4.16). *Category:EC 3.5.5 (In nitriles) *Nitrilase (EC 3.5.5.1) ...
One of the primary sources of acetyl-CoA is from the breakdown of sugars by glycolysis which yield pyruvate that in turn is ... The GTP that is formed by GDP-forming succinyl-CoA synthetase may be utilized by nucleoside-diphosphate kinase to form ATP (the ... and proteins into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and carbon dioxide. In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino ... Through catabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins, the two-carbon organic product acetyl-CoA (a form of acetate) is produced ...
During the blood clotting process, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) plays a crucial role in the activation and recruitment of ... sugars] that have actions akin to those of ATP Eltzschig, Holger K.; Sitkovsky, Michail V.; Robson, Simon C. (13 December 2012 ... Anti-platelet drugs Many anti-platelet drugs such as Prasugrel, Ticagrelor, and Ticlopidine are adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ... Chapter 17: Adenosine and Pain. Adenosine a key link between metabolism and brain activity. New York, NY: Springer. p. 352. doi ...
Main articles: Adenosine triphosphate and NADPH. ATP is the phosphorylated version of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which stores ... Sugars and starches. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate can double up to form larger sugar molecules like glucose and fructose. These ... ATP synthase uses the energy from the flowing hydrogen ions to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate into adenosine triphosphate ... which builds sugar molecules from carbon dioxide. The two phases are linked by the energy carriers adenosine triphosphate (ATP ...
Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the ... Fructose 1,6-diphosphate then splits into two phosphorylated molecules with three carbon chains which later degrades into ... adenosine triphosphate), by substrate-level phosphorylation, NADH and FADH2 ... Glycolysis can be literally translated as "sugar splitting".[3]. Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. Main article: Pyruvate ...
... causing the active site of the synthase domain to change shape and phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate - turning it into ATP. ... which reduces the coenzyme NADPH and produces pentose sugars such as ribose, the sugar component of nucleic acids. Fats are ... Each nucleotide is composed of a phosphate attached to a ribose or deoxyribose sugar group which is attached to a nitrogenous ... Once inside, the major route of breakdown is glycolysis, where sugars such as glucose and fructose are converted into pyruvate ...
... adenosine - adenosine diphosphate (ADP) - adenosine monophosphate (AMP) - adenosine triphosphate (ATP) - adenovirus - ... sugar - sulfur - supercoil - superfamily - superoxide - surface immunoglobulin - surface plasmon resonance - suspension ( ...
... dissociating to contribute 2 H+ overall Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) molecule ... Since glucose leads to two triose sugars in the preparatory phase, each reaction in the pay-off phase occurs twice per glucose ... When the blood sugar falls the pancreatic beta cells cease insulin production, but, instead, stimulate the neighboring ... Hexokinase responds to the glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) level in the cell, or, in the case of glucokinase, to the blood sugar ...
PARP1 synthesizes polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chains on itself. Next the chromatin ... Spontaneous damage can include the loss of a base, deamination, sugar ring puckering and tautomeric shift. Constitutive ( ... Inside mitochondria, reactive oxygen species (ROS), or free radicals, byproducts of the constant production of adenosine ...
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate. ... Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: 110. *Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: 3 ... Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: 110. *Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: 3 ... Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars. Subscribe to New Research on Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars Esters formed between the aldehydic ...
Adenosine diphosphate sugars explanation free. What is Adenosine diphosphate sugars? Meaning of Adenosine diphosphate sugars ... Looking for online definition of Adenosine diphosphate sugars in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to Adenosine diphosphate sugars: adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist. adenosine. [ah-den ... adenosine diphosphate. (redirected from Adenosine diphosphate sugars). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. ...
We let the sugar adenosine adenosine diphosphate adp. Complications of pid bleeding into the posterior band seen in patients ... Adenosine triphosphate atp a figure, they should consist of carbon. J orthop trauma. In the very serious. J bone joint surg am ...
Stripping off one phosphate group drives cellular activities and in the process turns ATP into adenosine diphosphate, or ADP. ... Sugar helps recycle ADP back into ATP.. Implanted generator. Scientists would divert the sugar naturally produced in the body ... Sugar is plentiful. Sunlight is even more plentiful. Eventually, the researchers want to use photosynthesis, the process plants ... A cell with four pumps and channels was easier to make but only about 4% as efficient at converting sugar to electricity. ...
... into two three-carbon compounds with the production of a small amount of adenosine triphosphate [1] (ATP) . Glycolysis has two ... Glycolysis Glycolysis is the sequence of enzymatic reactions that oxidize the six-carbon sugar glucose ... phosphorylation-direct transfer of a phosphate group from each 3-carbon fragment of the sugar to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), ... phosphorylation-direct transfer of a phosphate group from each 3-carbon fragment of the sugar to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), ...
... adenosine diphosphosugar phosphorylase, ADP sugar phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate ... doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, ...
... nucleoside diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070 - adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.075 - adenosine ... guanosine diphosphate mannose MeSH D09.408.620.569.727 - uridine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.100 - uridine ... poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.200 - cytidine diphosphate diglycerides MeSH D09.408.620.569.400 - ... guanosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.400.410 - guanosine diphosphate fucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.400.500 - ...
The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5 carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1 carbon ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ...
... gets the electrons into Adenosine diphosphate-triphosphate ATP where it can form sugars from CH2O, the fuel of life.. We could ... The 18O was found in the oxygen gas produced by the plant, but was not found in the sugars formed during photosynthesis.. This ... So the fact is that the oxygen in CO2 stays with the carbon atoms in sugar, while the oxygen atoms from water are expelled. ... All the oxygen in sugar comes from CO2 in a number of steps, in this overall balanced equation, starting with six carbon ...
What is adenosine diphosphate? Meaning of adenosine diphosphate medical term. What does adenosine diphosphate mean? ... Looking for online definition of adenosine diphosphate in the Medical Dictionary? adenosine diphosphate explanation free. ... adenosine monophosphate. adenosine. [ah-den´o-sēn] 1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar d-ribose and adenine. It is a ... adenosine diphosphate. see ADP.. adenosine triphosphate. ; ATP; adenosine diphosphate; ADP intracellular biochemicals; ATP ...
Stripping off one phosphate group drives cellular activities and in the process turns ATP into adenosine diphosphate, or ADP. ... Sugar helps recycle ADP back into ATP. Scientists would divert the sugar naturally produced in the body into the implanted ... Sugar is plentiful. Sunlight is even more plentiful. Eventually, the researchers want to use photosynthesis, the process plants ... A cell with four pumps and channels was easier to make but only about four percent as efficient at converting sugar to ...
Mitochondria in other cells turn that O2, sugar, and adenosine diphosphate into H2O, CO2, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP ...
Adenosine diphosphate is an organic molecule that plays an important role in cellular metabolism, the process through which ... Adenosine diphosphate is a nucleotide composed of adenosine, which is comprised of the base adenine and the sugar ribose. ADP ... A derivative of ADP is adenosine diphosphate ribose, in which the sugar ribose is linked to the final phosphate of ADP by an ... Mitochondria convert adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a form of chemical energy. ...
Adenosine 5-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at ... Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP). Subscribe to New Research on Adenosine Diphosphate Adenosine 5-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An ... Adenosine; ADP, Magnesium; Adenosine 5 Pyrophosphate; Diphosphate, Adenosine; Adenosine Pyrophosphate; Magnesium ADP; MgADP; ... 2,3 O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5-diphosphate. *2,3-(O-(2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexadienylidine))adenosine 5-diphosphate ...
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) sugar pyrophosphatase Current Synonym true false 2913441012 Adenosine diphosphate sugar ... Adenosine diphosphate sugar pyrophosphatase (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Adenosine diphosphate sugar ...
... phospholipids and sugar phosphates. Phosphorus as phosphate is a major buffer ... adenosine diphosphate (ADP), phospholipids and sugar phosphates. Phosphorus as phosphate is a major buffer of acid in urine by ...
Callose as well as sugars are involved in several plant defense processes and signaling. In the present work we have examined ... In the present work we have examined the possible involvement of callose, as well as callose synthase, sugar transporter, and ... the possible involvement of callose, as well as callose synthase, sugar transporter, and cell wall invertase genes, during the ... Callose as well as sugars are involved in several plant defense processes and signaling. ...
adenosine. . ADP consists of the pyrophosphate. group, the pentose. sugar. ribose. , and the nucleobase. adenine. .. ADP is the ... adenosine diphosphate - adenosine 5 diphosphate Abbreviation: ADP See: adenosine triphosphate … Glossary of Biotechnology ... adenosine diphosphate - adenosine diphosphate. См. АДФ. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». ... adenosine diphosphate - (ADP; ah den o sĭn) The nucleoside diphosphate usually formed upon the breakdown of ATP when it ...
Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars Antitubercular Agents Aminopyrine Blood Flow Velocity Traffic Accidents Carcinoid Tumor ...
8-oxo-7,8-dihydrodeoxyguanosine diphosphate Chemical Compounds * Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars Chemical Compounds ... The human NUDT5, which has an intrinsic activity to cleave ADP sugars to AMP and sugar phosphate, possesses the ability to ... The human NUDT5, which has an intrinsic activity to cleave ADP sugars to AMP and sugar phosphate, possesses the ability to ... The human NUDT5, which has an intrinsic activity to cleave ADP sugars to AMP and sugar phosphate, possesses the ability to ...
adenosine diphosphate sugar pyrophosphatase (NCBI). 327, 368. PA5233. PA5233. flagellar protein (NCBI). 9, 368. ...
Injecting mice with 5 -AMP s more glamorous molecular cousins - adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), both ... A series of experiments pinpointed 5-prime adenosine monophosphate (5 -AMP) as the key molecular mediator of the constant ... Darkness unveils vital metabolic fuel switch between sugar and fat. 19.01.2006 ... and as blood sugar is consumed, their bodies switch to burning fat. "How does the body know when to switch? 5 -AMP is the ...
Further work showed that uridine diphosphate glucose is involved in glycogen synthesis and adenosine diphosphate glucose in ... Other sugar nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate acetylglucosamine and guanosine diphosphate mannose were also isolated. ... 6-diphosphate and uridine diphosphate glucose. The latter substance was then found to act as glucose donor in the synthesis of ...
... a five-carbon sugar). Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) has one phosphate group attached to adenosine, and adenosine diphosphate ( ... Adenosine monophosphate. AMP. Adenosine diphosphate. ADP. Adenosine triphosphate. ATP. The three linked phosphoryl groups, ... ATP consists of adenosine and three attached phosphate groups (triphosphate). Adenosine itself is composed of two major ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the chemical compound known in biochemistry as the "molecular currency" of intracellular energy ...
These structures use sugar to convert Adenosine Di-Phosphate to Adenosine Tri-Phosphate. That extra Phosphate is used ...
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.. MSH ... An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by ... An adenine nucleotide comprised of three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety, found in all living cells. Adenosine ... Cell surface receptors that bind to adenosine. These receptors have an enhanced affinity for adenosine and preferentially bind ...
... sugar,and,fat,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters ... Injecting mice with 5-AMPs more glamorous molecular cousins ?adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), both ... Darkness unveils vital metabolic fuel switch between sugar and fat. Constant darkness throws a molecular switch in mammals that ... A series of experiments pinpointed 5-prime adenosine monophosphate (5-AMP) as the key molecular mediator of the constant ...
Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleoside diphosphate. It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleoside ... It is an ester of phosphoric acid and the nucleoside adenosine. AMP consists of a phosphate group, the sugar ribose, and the ... The phosphate-phosphate bonds formed when compounds such as adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate are created.... ... Any salt or ester containing two phosphate groups is called a diphosphate. As a food additive, diphosphates are known as E450 ...
Injecting mice with 5-AMPs more glamorous molecular cousins adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), both ... Darkness unveils vital metabolic fuel switch between sugar and fat Constant darkness throws a molecular switch in mammals that ... A series of experiments pinpointed 5-prime adenosine monophosphate (5-AMP) as the key molecular mediator of the constant ... Darkness unveils vital metabolic fuel switch between sugar and fat ...
Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine 5-monophosphate → ADP + Uridine 5-diphosphate. details. Adenosine triphosphate + Cytidine ... ADP consists of the pyrophosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase adenine. ADP is the product of ATP ... Adenosine triphosphate + Adenosine → ADP + Adenosine monophosphate. details. Adenosine triphosphate + Deoxycytidine → ADP + ... Vigue C, Vigue L, Huszar G: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations and ATP/adenosine diphosphate ratios in human sperm of ...
  • Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • adenosine diphosphate (ADP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-pyrophosphate, produced by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-triphosphate, occurring in all cells, where it stores energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate atp a figure, they should consist of carbon. (goodsamatlanta.org)
  • The pumps and channels are powered by the same fuel that drives every human cell: adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. (abc.net.au)
  • ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondria in other cells turn that O2, sugar, and adenosine diphosphate into H2O, CO2, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (cenblog.org)
  • a product of the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is interconvertible with the cell's energy currency, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wisegeek.com)
  • Mitochondria convert adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a form of chemical energy. (wisegeek.com)
  • Nave, C.R. Adenosine Triphosphate. (academic.ru)
  • Injecting mice with 5 -AMP s more glamorous molecular cousins - adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), both vital to providing energy to cells, and the signaling molecule cyclic AMP -- did not produce the same effect. (innovations-report.com)
  • ATP consists of adenosine and three attached phosphate groups (triphosphate). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The most significant example of an energy carrier is adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which is formed when a simpler compound, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), combines with a phosphate group. (scienceclarified.com)
  • This is stored in a molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by adding a phosphate group to another molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP). (wisegeek.org)
  • Depending on the number of phosphate groups attached to the sugar moiety, a nucleotide may be called nucleoside monophosphate (if with only one phosphate group), nucleoside diphosphate (with two phosphate groups), or nucleoside triphosphate (when with three phosphate groups). (biologyonline.com)
  • ADP can be derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (biologyonline.com)
  • It is the end-product when adenosine triphosphate ATP loses one of its phosphate groups. (biologyonline.com)
  • Adenosine is the major molecular component of the nucleotides adnosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate and of the nucleic acids deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid. (bodybuildingpro.com)
  • It might be adenosine diphosphate, or perhaps ADP abbreviated, and may be transformed to adenosine triphosphate by having a further phosphate back around the end, producing an unstable particle willing to conduct the work you require it to perform, just like a pressurized spring season. (agencyfish.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate serves as the principle energy carrier for the cell's reactions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • GMP (guanosine monophosphate), GDP (guanosine diphosphate), and GTP (guanosine triphosphate). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When one or more than one phosphorus / phosphoric acid forms bond with adenosine generated from the bond between a nitrogenous base and a pentose sugar Adenosine Monophosphate, Diphosphate, Triphosphate are created. (shadowpower24.com)
  • Full form of ATP is Adenosine Triphosphate. (shadowpower24.com)
  • A coenzyme and an important intermediate in cellular metabolism as the partially dephosphorylated form of adenosine triphosphate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ADP is produced from adenosine triphosphate and reconverted to this compound in coupled reactions concerned with the energy metabolism of living systems. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ADP is also produced from 5 ′ -adenylic acid by the transfer of a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate in a reaction that is catalyzed by an enzyme, myokinase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is a nucleotide that functions in the transfer of energy during the catabolism of glucose, formed by the removal of phosphate from adenosine triphosphate and composed of adenine, ribose, and two phosphate groups. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • In this step, a cluster of oxygen and phosphorus atoms (a phosphate group) is moved from a molecule called phosphoenolpyruvate to another molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP), resulting in molecules called pyruvate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The purpose of respiration is to provide the cell with the appropriate molecules for creating energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate, ATP. (livestrong.com)
  • Once enough protons relocate outside the cell membrane, the cell is ready to begin producing adenosine triphosphate. (livestrong.com)
  • These protons then cross back across the cell membrane, driving the addition of a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate, an adenosine molecule with only 2 phosphate groups, to make adenosine triphosphate. (livestrong.com)
  • Term Definition How I m Going to Remember the Meaning Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Autotroph Heterotroph Photosynthesis Compound that cells use to store and release energy A living thing that makes its own food A living thing that gets its food by consuming other living things Process by which autotrophs use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrates and oxygen ATP makes a cell able to do work. (sciencedocbox.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and Guanosine triphosphate and diphosphate (GTP and GDP): are important in the collection and utilization of free energy in the living cells. (online-sciences.com)
  • Others consist of the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP). (great-home-decorations.com)
  • When our muscles perform work (or any other tissue in the body does pretty much anything) a molecule of Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is changed into a molecule of Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and energy is released to perform a function. (divermag.com)
  • TAGS Cellular Respiration, Adenosine triphosphate, Fig. (coursehero.com)
  • Thymidine can be phosphorylated with phosphoric acid groups, creating Thymidine monophosphate (TMP), Thymidine diphosphate (TDP) or Thymidine triphosphate (TTP). (conservapedia.com)
  • Cytodine can be phosphorylated with phosphoric acid groups, creating Cytodine monophosphate (CMP), Cytodine diphosphate (CDP) or Cytodine triphosphate (CTP). (conservapedia.com)
  • Uridine can be phosphorylated with phosphoric acid groups, creating Uridine monophosphate (UMP), Uridine diphosphate (UDP) or Uridine triphosphate (UTP). (conservapedia.com)
  • Guanosine can be phosphorylated with phosphoric acid groups, creating Guanosine monophosphate (GMP), Guanosine diphosphate (GDP) or Guanosine triphosphate (GTP). (conservapedia.com)
  • Nucleotides are the structural units of RNA , DNA , and several cofactors - CoA , flavin adenine dinucleotide, flavin mononucleotide , adenosine triphosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate . (bionity.com)
  • The nucleoside may bond to one, two or three functional group(s) of phosphate(s), forming respectively a monophosphate, diphosphate or triphosphate nucleotide. (bionity.com)
  • There are three phosphate groups in ATP molecule (Adenosine Triphosphate), when removing one phosphate molecule, ADP molecule is formed (Adenosine Diphosphate). (bartleby.com)
  • ATP is adenosine triphosphate , C10H16N5O13P3, a high energy complex, giving the necessary power to push metabolistic reactions in the body. (bartleby.com)
  • Specifically, the mitochondria is where pyruvate --derived from glucose-- is converted into ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) through cellular respiration. (bartleby.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the perspective of biochemistry , ATP is classified as a nucleoside triphosphate , which indicates that it consists of three components, a nitrogenous base ( adenine ), the sugar ribose, and the triphosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of its structure, ATP consists of an adenine attached by the 9-nitrogen atom to the 1′ carbon atom of a sugar ( ribose ), which in turn is attached at the 5′ carbon atom of the sugar to a triphosphate group. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its many reactions related to metabolism, the adenine and sugar groups remain unchanged, but the triphosphate is converted to di- and monophosphate, giving respectively the derivatives ADP and AMP . (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinds of adenosine phosphate, all of which are inter convertible, are adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and adenosine triphosphate. (bodybuildingpro.com)
  • An enzyme in skeletal muscle that catalyzes the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine diphosphate and inorganic phosphate. (bodybuildingpro.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the primary source of energy for cells. (musclesmotivation.com)
  • Uridine-5'-Triphosphate Trisodium Salt is a nucleoside diphosphate. (thomassci.com)
  • ddNTP.GIF a nucleoside triphosphate analog that causes termination of an elongating DNA molecule when incorporated by DNA polymerase because of the absence of a 3´-hydroxyl residue on the sugar portion of the compound, which is necessary for the formation of the 3' to 5' phosphate linkage in an elongating DNA chain. (factbites.com)
  • Their effect is more readily seen with G proteins because guanosine diphosphate (GDP) is always tightly bound in the site after the hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). (factbites.com)
  • This process requires adenosine triphosphate , amino acid activating enzymes, and guanosine triphosphate . (factbites.com)
  • It regulates the activity of several enzymes in glucose metabolism, increases the concentration of intracellular adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine, promotes potassium influx, and increases intracellular red blood cells. (haihangchem.com)
  • Once Creatine is bound to a phosphate group, it is permanently stored in a cell as phosphocreatine until it is used to produce chemical energy called Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). (mirznanii.com)
  • During brief explosive-type exercises, the energy supplied to rephosphorylate adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is determined largely by the amount of phosphocreatine stored in the muscle. (mirznanii.com)
  • In living cells, energy for immediate use is stored as molecules of ATP or adenosine triphosphate. (jimmypattonofficial.com)
  • Living cells accomplish this by using the compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (opentextbc.ca)
  • The answer lies with an energy-supplying molecule called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. (libretexts.org)
  • Adenosine triphosphate or ATP is often called the energy currency of the cell because this molecule plays a key role in metabolism, particularly in energy transfer within cells. (thoughtco.com)
  • As indicated by the molecular name, adenosine triphosphate consists of three phosphate groups (tri- prefix before phosphate) connected to adenosine. (thoughtco.com)
  • Learn the IUPAC name for adenosine triphosphate. (thoughtco.com)
  • ADP, ATP are three interconvertible compounds in which adenosine is attached through its ribose group to one (monophosphate), two (diphosphate), and three (triphosphate) phosphoric acid molecules. (chemicalland21.com)
  • adenosine monophosphate (AMP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-phosphate, involved in energy metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The human NUDT5, which has an intrinsic activity to cleave ADP sugars to AMP and sugar phosphate, possesses the ability to degrade 8-oxo-dGDP to the monophosphate. (elsevier.com)
  • A series of experiments pinpointed 5-prime adenosine monophosphate (5 -AMP) as the key molecular mediator of the constant darkness effect, switching mice from a glucose-burning, fat-storing state to a fat-burning, glucose-conserving lethargy. (innovations-report.com)
  • Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) has one phosphate group attached to adenosine, and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) has two attached phosphate groups. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • ADP can be degraded to produce adenosine monophosphate (AMP, an adenine nucleotide with only one phosphate). (biologyonline.com)
  • Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camping) hails from ATP and it is an additional messenger used in transmission transduction and flipping on selected protein kinases. (agencyfish.com)
  • CD39 is an ectoenzyme that hydrolyzes ATP and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and is localized on the surface of endothelial cells and circulating platelets. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates multiple signaling pathways involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in response to changes in hormonal and nutrient status. (edu.au)
  • Cyclic AMP (cAMP=3´, 5´-adenosine monophosphate) and Cyclic GMP (cGMP = 3´, 5´- guanosine monophosphate): they serve as chemical mediators for hormonal action of many hormones . (online-sciences.com)
  • In at least some tissues, the nucleosides undergo phosphorolysis with nucleoside phosphorylases to yield the base and ribose 1-P (or deoxyribose 1-P). Since R 1-P and R 5-P are in equilibrium, the sugar phosphate can either be reincorporated into nucleotides or metabolized via the Hexose Monophosphate Pathway. (utah.edu)
  • At the heart of ATP is a molecule of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which is composed of an adenine molecule bonded to both a ribose molecule and a single phosphate group (Figure 4.2.1). (libretexts.org)
  • Removing a phosphate group results in adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and removing two groups produces adenosine monophosphate (AMP). (thoughtco.com)
  • Stripping off one phosphate group drives cellular activities and in the process turns ATP into adenosine diphosphate, or ADP. (abc.net.au)
  • Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2`-, 3`-, or 5`-position. (healthmatics.info)
  • A nucleotide is an organic compound made up of three subunits: a nucleobase , a five-carbon sugar , and a phosphate group . (biologyonline.com)
  • Helix that provides structural support to the pentose sugar in the phosphate group definition chain of the phosphate is! (taleacoast.com)
  • ATP then loses a phosphate group and becomes Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP). (mirznanii.com)
  • Cells store energy by adding a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) molecules. (jimmypattonofficial.com)
  • the addition of a third phosphate group forms adenosine tri phosphate (ATP). (libretexts.org)
  • A nucleotide consists of either a nitrogenous heterocyclic base (purine or pyrimidine) , a pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and a phosphate group attached at the 5' position on the sugar. (chemicalland21.com)
  • A nucleoside consists of only a pentose sugar linked to a purine or pyrimidine base, without a phosphate group. (chemicalland21.com)
  • Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphosugar phosphorylase, ADP sugar phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase, and ADP:aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • With his early collaborators, Ranwel Caputto, Carlos E. Cardini, Raúl Trucco and Alejandro C. Paladini work was started on the metabolism of galactose which led to the isolation of glucose 1,6-diphosphate and uridine diphosphate glucose. (nobelprize.org)
  • Further work showed that uridine diphosphate glucose is involved in glycogen synthesis and adenosine diphosphate glucose in that of starch. (nobelprize.org)
  • Active mammals - a bear foraging for food or a human running a marathon - also undergo a similar switch, burning glucose first to fuel their efforts, and as blood sugar is consumed, their bodies switch to burning fat. (innovations-report.com)
  • Plant sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) contains a glycosyltransferase domain, which specifically catalyzes reactions with the nucleotide sugar uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-G) as a donor substrate. (bvsalud.org)
  • Unlike plant SPS, bacterial SPS is predicted to bind other nucleotide sugars, such as adenosine diphosphate glucose (ADP-G). This study aimed to identify the UDP-G binding site of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) SPS (SoSPS1) and to improve its affinity for ADP-G by site-directed mutagenesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • With an ORAC value of 2.9 million units, compared to 3000 for COQ 10, and with a molecular structure that lends a strong presence in the membranes of the cell and mitochondria it is likely that it was always a factor in controlling the unavoidable excess of oxygen radicals created by the mitochondria in using sugar and glucose on COQ10 to convert adenosine di phosphate to adenosine tri phosphate. (myshopify.com)
  • During glycolysis, the simple sugar glucose is broken down to produce energy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cells were grown in minimal medium containing two sugars (glucose and lactose) and analyzed using novel mass spectrometry cluster. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When the growth medium is rich in glucose, E. coli uses glycolysis to convert glucose into pyruvate, requiring adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) as cofactors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They build glucose or other sugars ultimately you recycle the building materials that you're using and you send the now used up NADPH which become NADP positive and you send the used up ATP it's now adenosine diphosphate and unattached phosphate ion and those go back to be recharged by the light dependent reactions to begin the cycle again. (brightstorm.com)
  • Fasting human blood was incubated with different concentrations of D-glucose (5, 15 and 30 mmol/l) and other sugars without or with in vitro stimuli. (ovid.com)
  • High glucose levels enhanced adenosine diphosphate (ADP)- and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP)-induced platelet P-selectin expression, and TRAP-induced platelet fibrinogen binding. (ovid.com)
  • Recent research looks at glycemic index (foods that rapidly raise blood sugar [glucose] levels) and the effect of these foods on acne. (visualwriter.com)
  • Simple sugars like , glucose, can exist as single units, and are referred to as Mono saccharides. (blogspot.com)
  • Glucose is the main form in which sugar is used by cells, and load levels are tightly controlled. (blogspot.com)
  • ATP comes from a variety of sources, including sugars like glucose. (musclesmotivation.com)
  • UDP-α-D-Glucose is an endogenous nucleotide sugar involved in glycosyltransferase reactions in metabolism. (thomassci.com)
  • The glgC mutant had 98% lower ADP-glucose, synthesized no glycogen and produced appreciably more soluble sugars (mainly sucrose) than wild type (WT). (elsevier.com)
  • When we digest sugar, enzymes in the small intestine break it down into glucose. (jimmypattonofficial.com)
  • You have read that nearly all of the energy used by living things comes to them in the bonds of the sugar, glucose. (libretexts.org)
  • Glycolysis begins with the six-carbon, ring-shaped structure of a single glucose molecule and ends with two molecules of a three-carbon sugar called pyruvate. (libretexts.org)
  • Glycolysis consists of two parts: The first part prepares the six-carbon ring of glucose for separation into two three-carbon sugars. (libretexts.org)
  • Adenosine nucleotides are involved in the energy metabolism of all cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other sugar nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate acetylglucosamine and guanosine diphosphate mannose were also isolated. (nobelprize.org)
  • When combined with the sugar ribose in a glycosidic linkage, guanine forms a derivative called guanosine (a nucleoside), which in turn can be phosphorylated with from one to three phosphoric acid groups, yielding the three nucleotides nucleotide , organic substance that serves as a monomer in forming nucleic acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nucleotides are nucleosides phosphorylated on one or more of the hydroxyl groups of the sugar ( ribose or deoxyribose). (online-sciences.com)
  • The involvement of extracellular nucleotides and adenosine in an array of cell-specific responses has long been known and appreciated, but the integrative view of purinergic signalling as a multistep coordinated cascade has emerged recently. (nih.gov)
  • In the most common nucleotides the base is a derivative of purine or pyrimidine , and the sugar is the pentose deoxyribose or ribose . (bionity.com)
  • Ribose is a five-carbon sugar found in RNA and AMP is one of the nucleotides in RNA. (libretexts.org)
  • It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. (healthmatics.info)
  • The nucleic acids are classified into two large groups according to the type of sugar they contain. (online-sciences.com)
  • Sugar-phosphate backbone forms the structural framework of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA. (taleacoast.com)
  • Phosphorus atom many nucleic acids repeated pattern of a sugar group and a group. (taleacoast.com)
  • 1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar d -ribose and adenine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ADP consists of the pyrophosphate group , the pentose sugar ribose , and the nucleobase adenine . (academic.ru)
  • Depending on the pentose sugar component, a nucleoside may be a ribonucleoside or a deoxyribonucleoside. (biologyonline.com)
  • The nucleoside is a pentose sugar backbone with a purine base adenine attached to it (at the 1′ carbon). (biologyonline.com)
  • The phosphate groups are bonded in series to the 5′ carbon of the pentose sugar. (biologyonline.com)
  • It has two phosphate groups attached to the 5' and 3' positions of the pentose sugar ribose (instead of pyrophosphoric acid at the 5' position, as found in ADP), and the nucleobase adenine. (ecmdb.ca)
  • Po 3 − 4 ) provides structural support to the pentose sugar in the chain. (taleacoast.com)
  • Adenosine is made by attaching the 9' nitrogen atom of the purine base adenine to the 1' carbon of the pentose sugar ribose. (thoughtco.com)
  • Adenosine diphosphate ( ADP ), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate ( APP ), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine ribonucleoside diphosphates. (hmdb.ca)
  • A ribonucleoside is a nucleoside with a ribose sugar component. (biologyonline.com)
  • Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a nucleoside phosphate comprised of a ribonucleoside and two phosphate groups. (biologyonline.com)
  • According to the nucleobase element, your ribonucleoside may very well be adenosine , guanosine , cytidine , uridine , and also 5-methyluridine . (agencyfish.com)
  • A ribonucleoside which consists of the nitrogenous base adenine linked to the sugar ribose . (bioscience.ws)
  • Uracil can also bind with a ribose sugar to form a ribonucleoside, uridine. (conservapedia.com)
  • A purine ribonucleoside 5'-diphosphate having adenine as the nucleobase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is an organic molecule involved in the central part of the metabolism of the cell that generates energy. (wisegeek.com)
  • C 10 H 15 N 5 O 10 P 2 A coenzyme composed of adenosine and two molecules of phosphoric acid that is important in intermediate cellular metabolism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For example, sugar usage clearly corresponds to an increase in acne in some people, but past research only claimed that sugar may change metabolism, not cause acne. (visualwriter.com)
  • Fructose-1,6-diphosphate is a sugar metabolism intermediate existing in the human body. (haihangchem.com)
  • In this case, sunlight provides the power to combine carbon dioxide from the atmosphere with water to produce sugar molecules, which the plant uses as food. (wisegeek.org)
  • When a person or other animal eats plant material, the sugar molecules are broken down, producing carbon dioxide and water. (wisegeek.org)
  • Glycolysis is a process that uses sugar to create ATP molecules. (goldshard.fr)
  • A compound consisting of the nucleotide adenosine attached through its ribose group to one, two, or three phosphoric acid molecules. (bodybuildingpro.com)
  • A compound consisting of the nucleotide adenosine attached through its ribose group to three phosphoric acid molecules. (bodybuildingpro.com)
  • The sugar molecules are modified by the presence of a purine or pyrimidine nucleoside or "base" attached to the first, or 1', carbon and the oxygen-phosphorus-oxygen bond links the third, or 3', carbon to the fifth, or 5', carbon of the adjacent sugar molecule. (factbites.com)
  • Cellular respiration and other catabolic pathways unleash energy stored in sugar and other complex molecules. (slideserve.com)
  • In the first part of the glycolysis pathway, energy is used to make adjustments so that the six-carbon sugar molecule can be split evenly into two three-carbon pyruvate molecules. (libretexts.org)
  • The sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) molecules in the nucleic acid are all oriented in the same direction. (chemicalland21.com)
  • Eventually, the researchers want to use photosynthesis, the process plants use to turn sunlight into sugar, instead of using the body's own supply. (abc.net.au)
  • Photosynthesis, however, is a complex process that creates the sugar indirectly in a series of steps, using the power of the Sun. (wisegeek.org)
  • Adenosine diphosphate (Simply known as, ADP) is the chemical that plants make ATP from, during photosynthesis. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Photosynthesis is a process found in plant cells which converts light energy into chemical energy in the form of sugars that the plant can store and use at any time. (brightstorm.com)
  • In general photosynthesis is the using of the light energy in order to make sugars and oxygen gas. (brightstorm.com)
  • Both NAD + and FAD + are extensively used in energy extraction from sugars, and NADP plays an important role in anabolic reactions and photosynthesis. (opentextbc.ca)
  • Bacterial respiration begins with a step, glycolysis, that is primarily concerned with the breakdown of sugar to create ATP and important byproducts. (livestrong.com)
  • The electron transport chain in bacteria uses the products of glycolysis, a process that breaks down sugars, to create a proton gradient across the outside of the cell membrane. (livestrong.com)
  • Assignment on how one sugar molecule goes through (1) Glycolysis, (2) The Krebs Cycle, and (3) The Electron Transport Chain to make ATP Betsy Eapen Odessa College, Department of Microbiology We got most of the energy from the food we eat to function our daily activity. (bartleby.com)
  • adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • First, it metabolizes simple six-carbon sugars to smaller three-carbon compounds that are then either fully metabolized by the mitochondria to produce carbon dioxide and a large amount of ATP or used for the synthesis of fat for storage. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Phosphorus is the second most abundant inorganic element in the body and is a part of many important compounds, including deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ), ribonucleic acid ( RNA ), (S)-2-amino-3-[5-tert-butyl-3-(phosphonomethoxy)-4-isoxazolyl]propionic acid ( ATPO ), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), phospholipids and sugar phosphates. (nrv.gov.au)
  • In cells, that energy comes from the catabolism of compounds in the metabolic pool, including sugars, glycerol (related to fats), and fatty acids. (scienceclarified.com)
  • Furthermore, data on the ability of various cells to retain micromolar ATP levels in their pericellular space, as well as to release other related compounds (adenosine, UTP, dinucleotide polyphosphates and nucleotide sugars) gain another important insight into our understanding of mechanisms regulating a signalling cascade. (nih.gov)
  • The present invention relates to compounds comprising a salt of a diphosphate phosphoramidate of a nucleoside drug, e.g. clofarabine. (sumobrain.com)
  • Reversed phase LC coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer has been frequently used as for targeted measurements of specific acyl-CoA compounds, because acyl-CoA compounds undergo a common fragmentation, the neutral loss of adenosine diphosphate, which is the basis of multiple reaction monitoring for acyl-CoA measurements. (mcponline.org)
  • Ribose is a pentose (five-carbon sugar) that is a component of the ribonucleic acid (RNA), where it alternates with phosphate groups to form the 'back-bone' of the RNA polymer and binds to nitrogenous bases. (chemicalland21.com)
  • A compound derived from nucleic acid, composed of adenine and a sugar, D - ribose. (bodybuildingpro.com)
  • The scientists first measured platelet reactions to adenosine diphosphate , a compound that abets platelet clumping. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The present invention relates to a new crystal form of compound I and a preparation method therefor, a pharmaceutical composition comprising the crystal form, and a use of the crystal form in preparing an A3 adenosine receptor agonist an. (sumobrain.com)
  • A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. (bionity.com)
  • If a sugar, either ribose or 2-deoxyribose , is added to a nitrogen base, the resulting compound is called a nucleoside . (utah.edu)
  • Each nucleoside can be hydorlysed by the enzyme nucleosidase into a nitrogenous base (pyrimidine or purine) and a pentose sugarpentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose). (online-sciences.com)
  • A nucleoside is composed of a purine or a pyrimidine base to which a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) is attached. (online-sciences.com)
  • The sugar is present in the β-D configuration and is attached by its carbon No. 1 to N 1 of pyrimidine or N 9 of purine bases through N-glycosidic linkage. (online-sciences.com)
  • The prime mark after the numeral is required to differentiate position on the sugar moiety from the numbered position on a purine or pyrimidine base, which would not be followed by the prime mark. (online-sciences.com)
  • Carbon 1 of the sugar is attached to nitrogen 9 of a purine base or to nitrogen 1 of a pyrimidine base. (utah.edu)
  • Cytidine is a pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base cytosine linked to the five-carbon sugar d-ribose. (thomassci.com)
  • In addition, the levels of organic acids in the TCA cycle and carbohydrates including sucrose, starch and soluble sugar altered in transgenic rice under different nitrogen source concentrations. (bvsalud.org)
  • They try to delay this by loading with carbohydrates before the race (done correctly this increases the amount of glycogen in the cells) and by consuming sugar during the race. (divermag.com)
  • The Carbohydrates are sugar. (blogspot.com)
  • It is used before sugars (carbohydrates) and before fats. (mirznanii.com)
  • For this to occur, the carbohydrates must first be broken down into simple sugars, while the lipids must be broken ​into fatty acids and glycerol. (thoughtco.com)
  • ATP is also synthesized through several so-called "replenishment" reactions catalyzed by the enzyme families of NDKs (nucleoside diphosphate kinases), which use other nucleoside triphosphates as a high-energy phosphate donor, and the ATP guanido-phosphotransferase family, which uses creatine. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • For instance, a cell converts a sugar molecule into carbon dioxide and water over the course of about two dozen separate chemical reactions. (scienceclarified.com)
  • and finally, (v) extracellular adenosine inactivation via adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase reactions and/or nucleoside uptake by the cells. (nih.gov)
  • ATP may be produced from simple and complex sugars as well as from lipids via redox reactions. (thoughtco.com)
  • Synthesis of cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose analogues: a C2'endo/syn "southern" ribose conformation underlies activity at the sea urchin cADPR receptor. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide. (docplayer.net)
  • Our aim in this study was to determine the binding affinities of nucleotide sugar donors CMP-sialic acid and UDP-galactose using a coupled transferase assay to inform future work to modulate polysaccharide synthesis by this enzyme. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adenosine : a purine nucleoside composed of adenine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. (chemicalland21.com)
  • On-clopidogrel platelet reactivity was assessed 3 days after PCI by TEG and VerifyNow using adenosine diphosphate as an agonist. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate. (curehunter.com)
  • ADP consists of three important structural components: a sugar backbone attached to adenine and two phosphate groups bonded to the 5 carbon atom of ribose . (wikipedia.org)
  • The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5' carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1' carbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenosine itself is composed of two major molecular entities, adenine (a nitrogen-containing molecule) and ribose (a five-carbon sugar). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Since sugar has more energy than carbon dioxide and water, they cannot combine directly. (wisegeek.org)
  • For example, adenosine with phosphate attached to carbon 5 of the sugar ribose would be designated adenosine-5- phosphate. (online-sciences.com)
  • If the phosphate is attached to carbon 3 of the ribose, the nucleotide would then be designed adenosine-3-phosphate. (online-sciences.com)
  • A nucleotide of deoxyadenosine with phosphate moiety attached to the carbon 5 position of the sugar would be designed deoxyadenosine-5-phosphate. (online-sciences.com)
  • During the light-independent reaction (Calvin cycle), carbon dioxide, ATP, and NADPH + H+ react, forming phosphoglyceraldehyde, which is then converted into sugars. (docplayer.net)
  • A nucleotide is comprised of a ring of nitrogen, carbon and oxygen atoms, a five carbon sugar (together referred to as a nucleoside) and one or more phosphate groups. (bionity.com)
  • Generally, the phosphate is in ester linkage to carbon 5' of the sugar. (utah.edu)
  • Their carbon atoms are numbered: the 5' carbon atom is always on the side of the sugar molecule that faces the leading end, while the 3' carbon atom always faces the tail end. (chemicalland21.com)
  • Ribose Ribose is a five carbon sugar (pentose) that is critical to living creatures. (statemaster.com)
  • In mitochondria, through the process of cellular respiration breaks down sugar into energy that plant cells can use to live and grow. (jimmypattonofficial.com)
  • When it is broken down by hydrolysis, it yields ADP (adenosine diphosphate), inorganic phosphorus, and energy. (chemicalland21.com)
  • It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine . (academic.ru)
  • Inherited disorder caused by insufficient adenosine deaminase activity, resulting in a compromised immune system . (bioscience.ws)
  • Adenosine diphosphate is a nucleotide composed of adenosine, which is comprised of the base adenine and the sugar ribose . (wisegeek.com)
  • Correlations were well between the two tests in the adenosine diphosphate induced platelet reactivity (Spearman r = 0. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In contrast, Gly12 p21 was predominantly guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound because of a dramatic stimulation of Gly12 p21-associated guanosine triphosphatase ( GTPase ) activity. (factbites.com)
  • GTP is also essential to signal transduction , where it is converted to GDP ( guanosine diphosphate) through the action of GTPases . (factbites.com)
  • An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position. (curehunter.com)
  • There is a series of adenosine diphosphate receptors found on the platelets, and when ADP interacts with them, there is further activation of the platelets. (wisegeek.com)
  • There are pharmaceutical adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors that slow the activation of the platelets. (wisegeek.com)
  • In most patients with platelet SPD, the platelets aggregate initially to adenosine diphosphate or epinephrine, but second-phase aggregation is frequently markedly diminished. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In contrast to traditional paradigms that focus on purine-inactivating mechanisms, it has now become clear that "classical" intracellular ATP-regenerating enzymes, adenylate kinase, nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase and ATP synthase can also be co-expressed on the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. (healthmatics.info)
  • One of the purinergic P1 receptors that prefers adenosine to other endogenous purines. (healthmatics.info)
  • The three conserved (GPCR Family) widely expressed types of Adenosine Receptors (A1, A2, A3) exhibit specific patterns of ligand binding and unique tissue distributions. (healthmatics.info)
  • Cell surface receptors that bind to adenosine. (healthmatics.info)
  • These receptors have an enhanced affinity for adenosine and preferentially bind to this nucleoside compared to other purine moieties present within the body. (healthmatics.info)
  • [1] ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine receptors . (wikidoc.org)
  • The sugar component may either be ribose or deoxyribose . (biologyonline.com)
  • A deoxyribonucleoside is a nucleoside with a deoxyribose sugar. (biologyonline.com)
  • To indicate that the sugar is 2'-deoxyribose, a d- is placed before the name. (utah.edu)
  • Deoxyribose is a modified form of another sugar called ribose. (taleacoast.com)
  • Each strand has a backbone made of alternating sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate groups. (taleacoast.com)
  • In this instance, each chemical reaction makes a relatively modest change in the sugar molecule-for example, the removal of a single oxygen atom or a single hydrogen atom-and each is accompanied by the release of energy, a result of the breaking of chemical bonds between atoms. (scienceclarified.com)
  • When one of these bonds is broken, energy is released, and ATP becomes adenosine diphosphate (ADP). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Adenosine diphosphate isn't the star of the cell when it comes to energy, but it is certainly important! (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Lower energy form of ATP, having two (instead of the three in ATP) phosphhate groups attached to the adenine base and ribose sugar. (bioscience.ws)
  • The energy to do this is provided by sugar and other nutrients that are delivered to the cells by the blood. (divermag.com)
  • It serves to store energy in muscles, which is released when it is hydrolyzed to adenosine diphosphate. (bodybuildingpro.com)
  • When muscles are used to lift weight, run or perform any type of work the ATP is broken down to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and energy is released. (mirznanii.com)
  • When the energy is used, one of the phosphates attached to ATP is released, giving ADP or adenosine diphosphate. (jimmypattonofficial.com)
  • What breaks down sugar to release energy? (jimmypattonofficial.com)
  • Intracellular Ca[sup]2+ overload plays an important role in the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced ALI, and cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR) is an important regulator of intracellular Ca[sup]2+ mobilization. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Response to clopidogrel and Aspirin was assessed by Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Test (20 umol/L) and Aspirin Test (Acetyl Acid) (ASP) 20 umol/L, respectively, using the Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer (Dynabyte Medical, Munich, Germany). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Its composed of adenosine, a ribose sugar, and three phosphates. (bartleby.com)
  • Adding one or more phosphates to the sugar portion of a nucleoside results in a nucleotide . (utah.edu)
  • One existing functional assay is the measurement of PLT aggregation in response to stimulants such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, and epinephrine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These are purine ribobucleotides with diphosphate group linked to the ribose moiety. (hmdb.ca)