Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsUDPglucose 4-Epimerase: A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.Guanosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of guanosine diphosphate.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Uridine Diphosphate SugarsPlatelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Adenine NucleotidesAdenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ADP binding and are coupled to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI. The P2Y12 purinergic receptors are found in PLATELETS where they play an important role regulating PLATELET ACTIVATION.Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Receptor, Adenosine A2B: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2Y RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2Y receptor subtypes.Platelet Function Tests: Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Receptors, Adenosine A2: A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase: An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.Blood Platelet Disorders: Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.NAD+ NucleosidasePlatelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
(1/44) Cloning, expression and characterization of YSA1H, a human adenosine 5'-diphosphosugar pyrophosphatase possessing a MutT motif.

The human homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YSA1 protein, YSA1H, has been expressed as a thioredoxin fusion protein in Escherichia coli. It is an ADP-sugar pyrophosphatase with similar activities towards ADP-ribose and ADP-mannose. Its activities with ADP-glucose and diadenosine diphosphate were 56% and 20% of that with ADP-ribose respectively, whereas its activity towards other nucleoside 5'-diphosphosugars was typically 2-10%. cADP-ribose was not a substrate. The products of ADP-ribose hydrolysis were AMP and ribose 5-phosphate. K(m) and k(cat) values with ADP-ribose were 60 microM and 5.5 s(-1) respectively. The optimal activity was at alkaline pH (7.4-9.0) with 2.5-5 mM Mg(2+) or 100-250 microM Mn(2+) ions; fluoride was inhibitory, with an IC(50) of 20 microM. The YSA1H gene, which maps to 10p13-p14, is widely expressed in all human tissues examined, giving a 1.4 kb transcript. The 41.6 kDa fusion protein behaved as an 85 kDa dimer on gel filtration. After cleavage with enterokinase, the 24.4 kDa native protein fragment ran on SDS/PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kDa. Immunoblot analysis with a polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant YSA1H revealed the presence of a protein of apparent molecular mass 33 kDa in various human cells, including erythrocytes. The sequence of YSA1H contains a MutT sequence signature motif. A major proposed function of the MutT motif proteins is to eliminate toxic nucleotide metabolites from the cell. Hence the function of YSA1H might be to remove free ADP-ribose arising from NAD(+) and protein-bound poly- and mono-(ADP-ribose) turnover to prevent the occurrence of non-enzymic protein glycation.  (+info)

(2/44) Cloning and characterization of a new member of the Nudix hydrolases from human and mouse.

Proteins containing the Nudix box "GX(5)EX(7)REUXEEXGU" (where U is usually Leu, Val, or Ile) are Nudix hydrolases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of a variety of nucleoside diphosphate derivatives. Here we report cloning and characterization of a human cDNA encoding a novel nudix hydrolase NUDT5 for the hydrolysis of ADP-sugars. The deduced amino acid sequence of NUDT5 contains 219 amino acids, including a conserved Nudix box sequence. The recombinant NUDT5 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity. At the optimal pH of 7, the purified recombinant NUDT5 catalyzed hydrolysis of two major substrates ADP-ribose and ADP-mannose with K(m) values of 32 and 83 microM, respectively; the V(max) for ADP-mannose was about 1.5 times that with ADP-ribose. The murine NUDT5 homolog was also cloned and characterized. mNudT5 has 81% amino acid identity to NUDT5 with catalytic activities similar to NUDT5 under the optimal pH of 9. Both NUDT5 and mNudT5 transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in tissues analyzed with preferential abundance in liver. The genomic structures of both NUDT5 and mNudT5 were determined and located on human chromosome 10 and mouse chromosome 2, respectively. The role of NUDT5 in maintaining levels of free ADP-ribose in cells is discussed.  (+info)

(3/44) Selection and characteristics of a Vibrio cholerae mutant lacking the A (ADP-ribosylating) portion of the cholera enterotoxin.

After mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine and selection by immuno-halo techniques, an avirulent mutant, designated Texas Star-SR, which produces no detectable A (active; ADP-ribosylating) region of the cholera enterotoxin (choleragen) but produces the B region (choleragenoid) in amounts similar to the hypertoxinogenic wild-type parent Vibrio cholerae (biotype E1 Tor serotype Ogawa), has been isolated. The mutant retains the colonizing ability, motility, prototrophy, and serologic characteristics of the parent. In relevant intestinal experimental models, it has been shown to be avirulent and to induce protection against challenge with virulent cholera vibrios. The mutant appears to be suitable for further evaluation in volunteers as a candidate living enteric vaccine against cholera and related enterotoxic enteropathies.  (+info)

(4/44) Chemical and metabolic properties of adenosine diphosphate ribose derivatives of nuclear proteins.

1. ADP-ribose is found in rat liver nuclei covalently bound to histone F1, to a non-histone protein, and to a small peptide. 2. A single unit of ADP-ribose, covalently bound to phosphoserine, was isolated from an enzymic hydrolysate of histone F1. ADP-ribose-bearing peptides were isolated from a tryptic digest of the histone. 3. It is proposed that the 1'-hydroxyl group of ADP-ribose is linked to the phosphate group of phosphoserine in histone F1. 4. The incorporation of 32P into ADP-ribose on histone F1 a parallels the DNA content through the cell cycle. An increased incorporation of the nucleotide into the other derivatives is observed during S phase. 5. It is suggested that the ADP-ribose derivative of histone F1 has a role in maintaining the G0 state and that one or both of the other derivatives is concerned with control of DNA synthesis.  (+info)

(5/44) Biosynthesis pathway of ADP-L-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose in Escherichia coli.

The steps involved in the biosynthesis of the ADP-L-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose (ADP-L-beta-D-heptose) precursor of the inner core lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have not been completely elucidated. In this work, we have purified the enzymes involved in catalyzing the intermediate steps leading to the synthesis of ADP-D-beta-D-heptose and have biochemically characterized the reaction products by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. We have also constructed a deletion in a novel gene, gmhB (formerly yaeD), which results in the formation of an altered LPS core. This mutation confirms that the GmhB protein is required for the formation of ADP-D-beta-D-heptose. Our results demonstrate that the synthesis of ADP-D-beta-D-heptose in Escherichia coli requires three proteins, GmhA (sedoheptulose 7-phosphate isomerase), HldE (bifunctional D-beta-D-heptose 7-phosphate kinase/D-beta-D-heptose 1-phosphate adenylyltransferase), and GmhB (D,D-heptose 1,7-bisphosphate phosphatase), as well as ATP and the ketose phosphate precursor sedoheptulose 7-phosphate. A previously characterized epimerase, formerly named WaaD (RfaD) and now renamed HldD, completes the pathway to form the ADP-L-beta-D-heptose precursor utilized in the assembly of inner core LPS.  (+info)

(6/44) Mechanism of action of choleragen. Evidence for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity with arginine as an acceptor.

Choleragen catalyzed the hydrolysis of NAD to ADP-ribose and nicotinamide; nicotinamide production was dramatically increased by L-arginine methyl ester and to a lesser extent by D- or L-arginine, but not by other basic amino acids. Guanidine was also effective. Nicotinamide formation in the presence of L-arginine methyl ester was greatest under conditions previously shown to accelerate the hydrolysis of NAD by choleragen (Moss, J., Manganiello, V. C., and Vaughan, M. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73, 4424-4427). After incubation of [adenine-U14C]NAD and L[3H]arginine with coleragen, a product was isolated by thin layer chromatography that contained adenine and arginine in a 1:1 ratio and has been tentatively identified as ADP-ribose-L-arginine. Parallel experiments with [carbonyl-14C]NAD have demonstrated that formation of the ADP-ribosyl-L-arginine derivative was associated with the production of [carbonyl-14C]nicotinamide. As guanidine itself was active and D- and L-arginine was equally effective in promoting nicotinamide production, whereas citrulline, which possesses a ureido rather than a guanidino function, was inactive, it seems probable that the guanidino group rather than the alpha-amino moiety participated in the linkage to ADP-ribose. Based on the assumption that the ADP-ribosylation of L-arginine by choleragen is a model for the NAD-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase by choleragen, it is proposed that the active A protomer of choleragen catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of an arginine, or related amino acid residue in a protein, which is the cyclase itself or is critical to its activation by choleragen.  (+info)

(7/44) Mutants of Neurospora deficient in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) glycohydrolase.

A new screening technique has been developed for the rapid identification of Neurospora crassa mutants that are deficient in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide glycohydrolase (NADase) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate glycohydrolase (NADPase) activities. Using this procedure, five single-gene mutants were isolated whose singular difference from wild type appeared to be the absence of NAD(P)ase (EC 3.2.2.6). All five mutants were found to be genetically allelic and did not complement in heterocaryons. This gene, nada [NAD(P)ase], was localized in linkage group IV. One of the nada alleles was found to specify an enzyme that was critically temperature sensitive and had altered substrate affinity. Mutations at the nada locus did not affect the genetic program for the expression of NAD(P)ase during cell differentiation, nor did they have a general effect on NAD catabolism. Nada mutations did not have simultaneous effects on other glycohydrolase activities. Tests of dominance (in heterocaryons) and in vitro mixing experiments did not provide evidence that nada mutations alter activators or inhibitors of NAD(P)ase. Thus, the nada gene appears to specify only the structure of N. crassa NAD(P)ase.  (+info)

(8/44) Macromolecular enzymatic product of NAD+ in liver mitochondria.

Rat liver mitochondria contain a Mg2+-requiring system that transfers the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ to an acceptor protein. The enzyme system was extracted in a soluble form and the ADP-ribosylated protein product was isolated by hydroxyapatite and Sephadex chromatography. The ADP-ribosylated protein product has a molecular weight of 100,000 and can be dissociated into subunits of 50,000 daltons by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Incubation of the isotopically labeled ADP-ribosylated protein with nicotinamide and a mitochondrial extract yields labeled NAD+, indicating apparent reversibility of the reaction. Enzymatic degradation of the ADP-ribosylated protein with snake venom phosphodiesterase liberates AMP and ADP-ribose or its isomer. Identification of these products and reversibility of the reaction show that the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ is the molecular species that is transferred to the acceptor protein. A fraction of the protein-bound ADP-ribose appears to be present as an an oligomer. The enzymatic protein-ADP-ribosylating reaction is inhibited by nicotinamide, ADP-ribose, the fluorophosphate of AMP, and picrylsulfonic acid.  (+info)

*  List of MeSH codes (D09)
... adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.075 --- adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125 --- ... guanosine diphosphate mannose MeSH D09.408.620.569.727 --- uridine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.100 --- uridine ... poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.200 --- cytidine diphosphate diglycerides MeSH D09.408.620.569.400 --- ... guanosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.400.410 --- guanosine diphosphate fucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.400.500 --- ...
*  Aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase
... adenosine diphosphosugar phosphorylase, ADP sugar phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate ... doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, ...
*  Adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor
The sugar ribose unit was also replaced with a cyclopentyl group to avoid possible unstability of the glycosidic bond. The ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors are a drug class of antiplatelet agents, used in the treatment of acute ... P2Y12 receptor is a G-coupled receptor and is activated by adenosine diphosphate. ADP binds to the P2Y12 receptor that leads to ... "Platelet Adenosine Diphosphate P2Y12 Receptor Antagonism: Benefits and Limitations of Current Treatment Strategies and Future ...
*  Adenosine diphosphate
The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5' carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1' carbon ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D13)
... adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.667.138.124.070.075 --- adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.667.138.124.070. ... adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.827.068.124.070.075 --- adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.827.068.124.070. ... adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.827.708.070.075 --- adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.827.708.070.125 --- ... guanosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.667.454.340.350.400 --- guanosine diphosphate fucose MeSH D13.695.667.454.340.350.500 ...
*  Bisphosphate
... fructose sugar phosphorylated on carbons 1 and 6 Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (or fructose 2,6-diphosphate), abbreviated Fru-2,6- ... an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + H2O adenosine 5'-phosphate + phosphate Fructose 1 ... 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), an important substrate involved in carbon fixation ...
*  Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency type 1
Cellular processes, especially muscles, then convert the ATP into adenosine diphosphate (ADP), freeing the energy to do work.[ ... It is a part of the metabolic process that converts sugar, fat, and protein into cellular energy. In order to use energy, a ... Adenosine mediates pain through adenosine receptors. MADD causes an increase of free adenosine during heavy activity which may ... In the brain, excess adenosine decreases alertness and causes sleepiness. In this way, adenosine may play a role in fatigue ...
*  Cytidine monophosphate
As a substituent it takes the form of the prefix cytidylyl-. CMP can be phosphorylated to cytidine diphosphate by the enzyme ... CMP consists of the phosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase cytosine; hence, a ribonucleoside ... CMP kinase, with adenosine triphosphate or guanosine triphosphate donating the phosphate group. Since cytidine triphosphate is ...
*  Daniel I. Arnon
... by adding a third phosphorus group to adenosine diphosphate. In 1954, Arnon reproduced the process in a laboratory, making him ... the first to successfully demonstrate the chemical function of photosynthesis, producing sugar and starch from inputs of carbon ... His work was able to demonstrate how energy from sunlight is used to form adenosine triphosphate, the energy transport ...
*  Adenosine
... and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Adenosine itself is ... Adenosine is a purine nucleoside composed of a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety ... In the US, Adenosine is marketed as Adenocard. In India Adenosine is sold as Adenoscan (Cipla) All adenosine receptor subtypes ... When adenosine enters the circulation, it is broken down by adenosine deaminase, which is present in red cells and the vessel ...
*  Glucokinase
... is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) when the phosphate is removed. The reaction ... It is as a signal for insulin release that glucokinase exerts the largest effect on blood sugar levels and overall direction of ... 6 carbon sugars) and similar molecules. Therefore, the general glucokinase reaction is more accurately described as: Hexose + ...
*  Outline of cell biology
Important molecules: ADP - Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (Adenosine pyrophosphate (APP)) is an important organic compound in ... Glucose - An important simple sugar used by cells as a source of energy and as a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the ... A molecule of ADP consists of three important structural components: a sugar backbone attached to a molecule of adenine and two ... Lactic acid fermentation - An anaerobic metabolic process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted ...
*  Chloroplast
ATP synthase uses the energy from the flowing hydrogen ions to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate into adenosine triphosphate ... which builds sugar molecules from carbon dioxide. The two phases are linked by the energy carriers adenosine triphosphate (ATP ... ATP is the phosphorylated version of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which stores energy in a cell and powers most cellular ... to subsequently produce food in the form of sugars. Water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are used in photosynthesis, and sugar ...
*  Hydrolysis
ATP can undergo hydrolysis in two ways: the removal of terminal phosphate to form adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic ... When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and ... or the removal of a terminal diphosphate to yield adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and pyrophosphate. The latter usually undergoes ... Invertase is a sucrase used industrially for the hydrolysis of sucrose to so-called invert sugar. Lactase is essential for ...
*  Adenosine triphosphate
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) Adenosine-tetraphosphatase Adenosine methylene triphosphate ATPases ... carbon atom of the sugar to a triphosphate group. In its many reactions related to metabolism, the adenine and sugar groups ... Gajewski, E.; Steckler, D.; Goldberg, R. (1986). "Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5 ... Energy ATP and Exercise PubChem entry for Adenosine Triphosphate KEGG entry for Adenosine Triphosphate. ...
*  Thiamine
Adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP) or thiaminylated adenosine diphosphate exists in small amounts in vertebrate liver, but ... The best-characterized form is thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), a coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids. In yeast, ... and adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP). While the coenzyme role of thiamine diphosphate is well-known and extensively ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP) or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate has recently been discovered in Escherichia ...
*  Neonatal diabetes mellitus
The elevated ATP/adenosine diphosphate ratio causes closure of the KATP channel, and inhibit potassium efflux (a lot of ... Their kidneys are working overtime to filter and uptake excess sugar. However, their kidneys cannot keep up, excess sugar is ... Characterization of hyperglycemia is high blood glucose, high levels of sugar in the urine, frequent urination and increase ... is a polypeptide that activates adenylate cyclase and increases the cyclic adenosine monophosphate or cAMP. cAMP is a second ...
*  Bioenergetic systems
The building blocks of ATP synthesis are the by-products of its breakdown; adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate ... "Glycolysis" refers to the breakdown of sugar. In this system, the breakdown of sugar supplies the necessary energy from which ... When sugar is metabolized anaerobically, it is only partially broken down and one of the byproducts is lactic acid. This ... Those processes convert energy into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the form suitable for muscular activity. There are ...
*  Nucleic acid metabolism
The nucleoside, adenosine, is then deaminated and hydrolyzed to form hypoxanthine via adenosine deaminase and nucleosidase ... The conversion of a nucleoside-diphosphate (NDP) to a nucleoside-triphosphate (NTP) is catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate ... Unlike in purine synthesis, the sugar/phosphate group from PRPP is not added to the nitrogenous base until towards the end of ... This enzyme converts NDPs (nucleoside-diphosphate) to dNDPs (deoxynucleoside-diphosphate). The nucleotides must be in the ...
*  Ticagrelor
Like the thienopyridines prasugrel, clopidogrel and ticlopidine, ticagrelor blocks adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptors of ... Ticagrelor is a nucleoside analogue: the cyclopentane ring is similar to the sugar ribose, and the nitrogen rich aromatic ring ... system resembles the nucleobase purine, giving the molecule an overall similarity to adenosine. The substance has low ...
*  Vidarabine
As you can see from figure 1.1 that it is a stereoisomer of adenosine. It has a half-life of 60 minutes, and its solubility is ... Soc., 1957, p. 19-C. Glaudemans, C. P. J.; Fletcher, Jr., H. G. Syntheses with Partially Benzylated Sugars. II. A Simple ... This prevents the reduction of nucleotide diphosphates, causing a reduction of viral replication. Vidarabine is more toxic and ... The use of an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase to increase the half-life of vidarabine has also been tried, and drugs such as ...
*  Nucleoside triphosphate
The first phosphate group linked to the sugar is termed the α-phosphate, the second is the β-phosphate, and the third is the γ- ... The conversion of NTPs to dNTPs can only be done in the diphosphate form. Typically a NTP has one phosphate removed to become a ... "ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate , Boundless Biology". courses.lumenlearning.com-US. Retrieved 2017-11-12. Carvalho AT, Szeler K, ... Conventionally, the carbon numbers in a sugar are followed by the prime symbol (') to distinguish them from the carbons of the ...
*  Ribonucleotide
In ribonucleotides, the sugar component is ribose while in deoxyribonucleotides, the sugar component is deoxyribose. Instead of ... Ribonucleoside diphosphate (NDP) is reduced by thioredoxin to a deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate (dNTP). The general reaction is ... Other variations include adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). ... Ribonucleoside diphosphate + NADPH + H+ -> Deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate + NADP+ + H2O To illustrate this equation, dATP and ...
*  Ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase
PRPP provides the ribose sugar in de novo synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, used in the nucleotide bases that form RNA and ... In the transition state upon binding of both substrates, the diphosphate is transferred. The enzyme first releases AMP before ... which can ultimately be converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or guanosine triphosphate (GTP). PRPP plays a role in purine ...
*  Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase
... and begins the synthesis of a polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chain, which acts as a signal ... This model suggests that this "sugar plug" can also begin the signal for apoptosis. DNA damage theory of aging Maximum life ... This leaves a pyrophosphate as the linking group between ribose sugars rather than single phosphate groups. This creates some ... leaving a single phosphate group linking deoxyribose sugars. PAR is synthesized using nicotinamide (NAM) as the leaving group. ...
*  Metabolism
... causing the active site of the synthase domain to change shape and phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate - turning it into ATP. ... which reduces the coenzyme NADPH and produces pentose sugars such as ribose, the sugar component of nucleic acids. Fats are ... Each nucleotide is composed of a phosphate attached to a ribose or deoxyribose sugar group which is attached to a nitrogenous ... Once inside, the major route of breakdown is glycolysis, where sugars such as glucose and fructose are converted into pyruvate ...
Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors -Pipeline Insights, 2015 | Global Market Research Reports  Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors -Pipeline Insights, 2015 | Global Market Research Reports
... provides the in-depth analysis of the pipeline assets across the Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) ... Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors- Pipeline Insights, 2015, ... Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors Assessment by Molecule Type • Poly Adenosine Diphosphate ( ... Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors Assessment by Molecule Type • Poly Adenosine Diphosphate ( ...
more infohttp://www.gosreports.com/poly-adenosine-diphosphate-adp-ribose-polymerase-parp-inhibitors-pipeline-insights-2015/
Adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol synonyms, adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol...  Adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol synonyms, adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol...
Antonyms for adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol. 2 words related to adenosine: biochemistry, nucleoside. ... What are synonyms for adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol? ... Synonyms for adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol in Free Thesaurus. ... Adenosine diphosphate sugars. *Adenosine diphosphate sugars. *Adenosine diphosphate sugars. *Adenosine diphosphoribose ...
more infohttps://www.freethesaurus.com/adenosine+deaminase+conjugated+with+polyethylene+glycol
Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars
     Summary Report | CureHunter  Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars Summary Report | CureHunter
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate. ... Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: 110. *Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: 3 ... Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: 110. *Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: 3 ... Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars. Subscribe to New Research on Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars Esters formed between the aldehydic ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD000247.do
Network Portal - Gene PA3472  Network Portal - Gene PA3472
adenosine diphosphate sugar pyrophosphatase (NCBI). 327, 368. PA5233. PA5233. flagellar protein (NCBI). 9, 368. ...
more infohttp://networks.systemsbiology.net/pae/gene/PA3472
List of MeSH codes (D09) - Wikipedia  List of MeSH codes (D09) - Wikipedia
... adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.075 --- adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125 --- ... guanosine diphosphate mannose MeSH D09.408.620.569.727 --- uridine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.100 --- uridine ... poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.200 --- cytidine diphosphate diglycerides MeSH D09.408.620.569.400 --- ... guanosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.400.410 --- guanosine diphosphate fucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.400.500 --- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D09)
Adenosine Diphosphate
      - ADP
     Summary Report | CureHunter  Adenosine Diphosphate - ADP Summary Report | CureHunter
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at ... Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP). Subscribe to New Research on Adenosine Diphosphate Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An ... Adenosine; ADP, Magnesium; Adenosine 5' Pyrophosphate; Diphosphate, Adenosine; Adenosine Pyrophosphate; Magnesium ADP; MgADP; ... 2',3' O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-diphosphate. *2',3'-(O-(2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexadienylidine))adenosine 5'-diphosphate ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD000244.do
Glycolysis | Encyclopedia.com  Glycolysis | Encyclopedia.com
... into two three-carbon compounds with the production of a small amount of adenosine triphosphate [1] (ATP) . Glycolysis has two ... Glycolysis Glycolysis is the sequence of enzymatic reactions that oxidize the six-carbon sugar glucose ... phosphorylation-direct transfer of a phosphate group from each 3-carbon fragment of the sugar to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), ... phosphorylation-direct transfer of a phosphate group from each 3-carbon fragment of the sugar to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biochemistry/biochemistry/glycolysis
ToxicCarnival | The Safety Zone  ToxicCarnival | The Safety Zone
Mitochondria in other cells turn that O2, sugar, and adenosine diphosphate into H2O, CO2, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP ...
more infohttp://cenblog.org/the-safety-zone/tag/toxiccarnival/
Electric eels inspire bio-battery idea  › News in Science (ABC Science)  Electric eels inspire bio-battery idea › News in Science (ABC Science)
Stripping off one phosphate group drives cellular activities and in the process turns ATP into adenosine diphosphate, or ADP. ... Sugar helps recycle ADP back into ATP.. Implanted generator. Scientists would divert the sugar naturally produced in the body ... Sugar is plentiful. Sunlight is even more plentiful. Eventually, the researchers want to use photosynthesis, the process plants ... A cell with four pumps and channels was easier to make but only about 4% as efficient at converting sugar to electricity. ...
more infohttp://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2008/10/22/2398277.htm
Quantum, Micro, and What Matters  Quantum, Micro, and What Matters
These structures use sugar to convert Adenosine Di-Phosphate to Adenosine Tri-Phosphate. That extra Phosphate is used ...
more infohttps://dongould.wordpress.com/2016/04/18/quantum-micro-and-what-matters/
Adenosine diphosphate - Wikipedia  Adenosine diphosphate - Wikipedia
The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5' carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1' carbon ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_diphosphate
Aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase - Wikipedia  Aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase - Wikipedia
... adenosine diphosphosugar phosphorylase, ADP sugar phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate ... doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldose-1-phosphate_adenylyltransferase
Life before oxygen | Watts Up With That?  Life before oxygen | Watts Up With That?
... gets the electrons into Adenosine diphosphate-triphosphate ATP where it can form sugars from CH2O, the fuel of life.. We could ... The 18O was found in the oxygen gas produced by the plant, but was not found in the sugars formed during photosynthesis.. This ... So the fact is that the oxygen in CO2 stays with the carbon atoms in sugar, while the oxygen atoms from water are expelled. ... All the oxygen in sugar comes from CO2 in a number of steps, in this overall balanced equation, starting with six carbon ...
more infohttps://wattsupwiththat.com/2016/11/30/life-before-oxygen/
Adenosine diphosphate | definition of adenosine diphosphate by Medical dictionary  Adenosine diphosphate | definition of adenosine diphosphate by Medical dictionary
What is adenosine diphosphate? Meaning of adenosine diphosphate medical term. What does adenosine diphosphate mean? ... Looking for online definition of adenosine diphosphate in the Medical Dictionary? adenosine diphosphate explanation free. ... adenosine monophosphate. adenosine. [ah-den´o-sēn] 1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar d-ribose and adenine. It is a ... adenosine diphosphate. see ADP.. adenosine triphosphate. ; ATP; adenosine diphosphate; ADP intracellular biochemicals; ATP ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/adenosine+diphosphate
Frontiers | Recovery from stolbur disease in grapevine involves changes in sugar transport and metabolism | Plant Science  Frontiers | Recovery from stolbur disease in grapevine involves changes in sugar transport and metabolism | Plant Science
Callose as well as sugars are involved in several plant defense processes and signaling. In the present work we have examined ... In the present work we have examined the possible involvement of callose, as well as callose synthase, sugar transporter, and ... the possible involvement of callose, as well as callose synthase, sugar transporter, and cell wall invertase genes, during the ... Callose as well as sugars are involved in several plant defense processes and signaling. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2013.00171/full
Additional pages  Product Categories   - Healthmatics | Page 334  Additional pages Product Categories - Healthmatics | Page 334
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.. MSH ... An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by ... An adenine nucleotide comprised of three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety, found in all living cells. Adenosine ... Cell surface receptors that bind to adenosine. These receptors have an enhanced affinity for adenosine and preferentially bind ...
more infohttp://healthmatics.info/products-page/additional-pages/page/334/
Darkness unveils vital metabolic fuel switch between sugar and fat  Darkness unveils vital metabolic fuel switch between sugar and fat
Injecting mice with 5 -AMP s more glamorous molecular cousins - adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), both ... A series of experiments pinpointed 5-prime adenosine monophosphate (5 -AMP) as the key molecular mediator of the constant ... Darkness unveils vital metabolic fuel switch between sugar and fat. 19.01.2006 ... and as blood sugar is consumed, their bodies switch to burning fat. "How does the body know when to switch? 5 -AMP is the ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/medicine-health/report-54079.html
Adenosine triphosphate - New World Encyclopedia  Adenosine triphosphate - New World Encyclopedia
... a five-carbon sugar). Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) has one phosphate group attached to adenosine, and adenosine diphosphate ( ... Adenosine monophosphate. AMP. Adenosine diphosphate. ADP. Adenosine triphosphate. ATP. The three linked phosphoryl groups, ... ATP consists of adenosine and three attached phosphate groups (triphosphate). Adenosine itself is composed of two major ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the chemical compound known in biochemistry as the "molecular currency" of intracellular energy ...
more infohttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Adenosine_triphosphate
Darkness unveils vital metabolic fuel switch between sugar and fat ( Constant darkness throws a molecular sw...)  Darkness unveils vital metabolic fuel switch between sugar and fat ( Constant darkness throws a molecular sw...)
... sugar,and,fat,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters ... Injecting mice with 5'-AMP's more glamorous molecular cousins ?adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), both ... Darkness unveils vital metabolic fuel switch between sugar and fat. Constant darkness throws a molecular switch in mammals that ... A series of experiments pinpointed 5-prime adenosine monophosphate (5'-AMP) as the key molecular mediator of the constant ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-news/Darkness-unveils-vital-metabolic-fuel-switch-between-sugar-and-fat-2445-1/
Phosphate: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia Article  Phosphate: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia Article
Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleoside diphosphate. It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleoside ... It is an ester of phosphoric acid and the nucleoside adenosine. AMP consists of a phosphate group, the sugar ribose, and the ... The phosphate-phosphate bonds formed when compounds such as adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate are created.... ... Any salt or ester containing two phosphate groups is called a diphosphate. As a food additive, diphosphates are known as E450 ...
more infohttp://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Phosphate
Darkness unveils vital metabolic fuel switch between sugar and fat - AnabolicMinds.com  Darkness unveils vital metabolic fuel switch between sugar and fat - AnabolicMinds.com
Injecting mice with 5'-AMP's more glamorous molecular cousins adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), both ... Darkness unveils vital metabolic fuel switch between sugar and fat Constant darkness throws a molecular switch in mammals that ... A series of experiments pinpointed 5-prime adenosine monophosphate (5'-AMP) as the key molecular mediator of the constant ... Darkness unveils vital metabolic fuel switch between sugar and fat ...
more infohttp://anabolicminds.com/forum/news-articles/38765-darkness-unveils-vital.html
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3,5-cAMP) | definition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP,...  Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP) | definition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP,...
What is cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP)? Meaning of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, ... What does cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP) mean? ... cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP) explanation free. ... Looking for online definition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP, 3',5'-cAMP) in the Medical Dictionary? ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cyclic+adenosine+monophosphate+
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for ADP (HMDB0001341)  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for ADP (HMDB0001341)
Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine 5'-monophosphate → ADP + Uridine 5'-diphosphate. details. Adenosine triphosphate + Cytidine ... ADP consists of the pyrophosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase adenine. ADP is the product of ATP ... Adenosine triphosphate + Adenosine → ADP + Adenosine monophosphate. details. Adenosine triphosphate + Deoxycytidine → ADP + ... Vigue C, Vigue L, Huszar G: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations and ATP/adenosine diphosphate ratios in human sperm of ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0001341
Metabolism  Metabolism
... adenosine diphosphate (ADP), combines with a phosphate group.. BLOOD SUGAR:. The glucose in the blood. ... Also known as dextrose, grape sugar, and corn sugar. See also blood sugar. ... What we think of as 'sugar' (i.e., table sugar) is actually sucrose; 'blood sugar,' on the other hand, is glucose. ... SUGARS:. One of the three principal types of carbohydrate, along with starches and cellulose. Sugars can be defined as any of ...
more infohttp://www.scienceclarified.com/everyday/Real-Life-Chemistry-Vol-5/Metabolism.html
  • GTP is essential to signal transduction, in particular with G-proteins, in second-messenger mechanisms where it is converted to guanosine diphosphate (GDP) through the action of GTPases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase to increase the half-life of vidarabine has also been tried, and drugs such as dCF and EHNA have been used with a small amount of success. (wikipedia.org)
  • When it is administered intravenously, adenosine causes transient heart block in the atrioventricular (AV) node. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphosugar phosphorylase, ADP sugar phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase, and ADP:aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Active mammals - a bear foraging for food or a human running a marathon - also undergo a similar switch, burning glucose first to fuel their efforts, and as blood sugar is consumed, their bodies switch to burning fat. (innovations-report.com)
  • It is a part of the metabolic process that converts sugar, fat, and protein into cellular energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since sugar has more energy than carbon dioxide and water, they cannot combine directly. (wisegeek.org)
  • In 1954, Arnon reproduced the process in a laboratory, making him the first to successfully demonstrate the chemical function of photosynthesis, producing sugar and starch from inputs of carbon dioxide and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Callose as well as sugars are involved in several plant defense processes and signaling. (frontiersin.org)