Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsRibose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.NAD+ NucleosidaseAdenosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.Cyclic ADP-Ribose: A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Adenine NucleotidesAdenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ADP binding and are coupled to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI. The P2Y12 purinergic receptors are found in PLATELETS where they play an important role regulating PLATELET ACTIVATION.Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Receptor, Adenosine A2B: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2Y RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2Y receptor subtypes.Platelet Function Tests: Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Receptors, Adenosine A2: A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Ribosemonophosphates: Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase: An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.Blood Platelet Disorders: Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Platelet Storage Pool Deficiency: Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored.Clot Retraction: Retraction of a clot resulting from contraction of PLATELET pseudopods attached to FIBRIN strands. The retraction is dependent on the contractile protein thrombosthenin. Clot retraction is used as a measure of platelet function.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Platelet Factor 3: A phospholipid from the platelet membrane that contributes to the blood clotting cascade by forming a phospholipid-protein complex (THROMBOPLASTIN) which serves as a cofactor with FACTOR VIIA to activate FACTOR X in the extrinsic pathway of BLOOD COAGULATION.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide): A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases: A family of nucleotide diphosphate kinases that play a role in a variety of cellular signaling pathways that effect CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS. They are considered multifunctional proteins that interact with a variety of cellular proteins and have functions that are unrelated to their enzyme activity.Megakaryocyte Progenitor Cells: The parent cells that give rise to cells in the MEGAKARYOCYTE lineage, and ultimately BLOOD PLATELETS.Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides: Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)PentosephosphatesBleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.Dimethylallyltranstransferase: An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.1.Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Adenosine A3 Receptor Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Adenosine A3 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Thromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.

Activation of Go-proteins by membrane depolarization traced by in situ photoaffinity labeling of galphao-proteins with [alpha32P]GTP-azidoanilide. (1/1280)

Evidence for depolarization-induced activation of G-proteins in membranes of rat brain synaptoneurosomes has been previously reported (Cohen-Armon, M., and Sokolovsky, M. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 2595-2605; Cohen-Armon, M., and Sokolovsky, M. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 9824-9838). In the present work we identify the activated G-proteins as Go-proteins by tracing their depolarization-induced in situ photoaffinity labeling with [alpha32P]GTP-azidoanilide (GTPAA). Labeled GTPAA was introduced into transiently permeabilized rat brain-stem synaptoneurosomes. The resealed synaptoneurosomes, while being UV-irradiated, were depolarized. Relative to synaptoneurosomes at resting potential, the covalent binding of [alpha32P]GTPAA to Galphao1- and Galphao3-proteins, but not to Galphao2- isoforms, was enhanced by 5- to 7-fold in depolarized synaptoneurosomes, thereby implying an accelerated exchange of GDP for [alpha32P]GTPAA. Their depolarization-induced photoaffinity labeling was independent of stimulation of Go-protein-coupled receptors and could be reversed by membrane repolarization, thus excluding induction by transmitters release. It was, however, dependent on depolarization-induced activation of the voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC), regardless of Na+ current. The alpha subunit of VGSC was cross-linked and co-immunoprecipitated with Galphao-proteins in depolarized brain-stem and cortical synaptoneurosomes. VGSC alpha subunit most efficiently cross-linked with guanosine 5'-O-2-thiodiphosphate-bound rather than to guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)-bound Galphao-proteins in isolated synaptoneurosomal membranes. These findings support a possible involvement of VGSC in depolarization-induced activation of Go-proteins.  (+info)

CD38 signaling in B lymphocytes is controlled by its ectodomain but occurs independently of enzymatically generated ADP-ribose or cyclic ADP-ribose. (2/1280)

CD38 is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed by many cell types including lymphocytes. Signaling through CD38 on B lymphocytes can mediate B cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine secretion. Additionally, coligation of CD38 and the B cell Ag receptor can greatly augment B cell Ag receptor responses. Interestingly, the extracellular domain of CD38 catalyzes the conversion of NAD+ into nicotinamide, ADP-ribose (ADPR), and cyclic ADPR (cADPR). cADPR can induce intracellular calcium release in an inositol trisphosphate-independent manner and has been hypothesized to regulate CD38-mediated signaling. We demonstrate that replacement of the cytoplasmic tail and the transmembrane domains of CD38 did not impair CD38 signaling, coreceptor activity, or enzyme activity. In contrast, independent point mutations in the extracellular domain of CD38 dramatically impaired signal transduction. However, no correlation could be found between CD38-mediated signaling and the capacity of CD38 to catalyze an enzyme reaction and produce cADPR, ADPR, and/or nicotinamide. Instead, we propose that CD38 signaling and coreceptor activity in vitro are regulated by conformational changes induced in the extracellular domain upon ligand/substrate binding, rather than on actual turnover or generation of products.  (+info)

Lymphocyte migration through brain endothelial cell monolayers involves signaling through endothelial ICAM-1 via a rho-dependent pathway. (3/1280)

Lymphocyte extravasation into the brain is mediated largely by the Ig superfamily molecule ICAM-1. Several lines of evidence indicate that at the tight vascular barriers of the central nervous system (CNS), endothelial cell (EC) ICAM-1 not only acts as a docking molecule for circulating lymphocytes, but is also involved in transducing signals to the EC. In this paper, we examine the signaling pathways in brain EC following Ab ligation of endothelial ICAM-1, which mimics adhesion of lymphocytes to CNS endothelia. ICAM-1 cross-linking results in a reorganization of the endothelial actin cytoskeleton to form stress fibers and activation of the small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein Rho. ICAM-1-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the actin-associated molecule cortactin and ICAM-1-mediated, Ag/IL-2-stimulated T lymphocyte migration through EC monolayers were inhibited following pretreatment of EC with cytochalasin D. Pretreatment of EC with C3 transferase, a specific inhibitor of Rho proteins, significantly inhibited the transmonolayer migration of T lymphocytes, endothelial Rho-GTP loading, and endothelial actin reorganization, without affecting either lymphocyte adhesion to EC or cortactin phosphorylation. These data show that brain vascular EC are actively involved in facilitating T lymphocyte migration through the tight blood-brain barrier of the CNS and that this process involves ICAM-1-stimulated rearrangement of the endothelial actin cytoskeleton and functional EC Rho proteins.  (+info)

Evidence of a role for cyclic ADP-ribose in long-term synaptic depression in hippocampus. (4/1280)

Ca2+ released from presynaptic and postsynaptic intracellular stores plays important roles in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, including long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength. At Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus, presynaptic ryanodine receptor-gated stores appear to mobilize some of the Ca2+ necessary to induce LTD. Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) has recently been proposed as an endogenous activator of ryanodine receptors in sea urchin eggs and several mammalian cell types. Here, we provide evidence that cADPR-mediated signaling pathways play a key role in inducing LTD. We show that biochemical production of cGMP increases cADPR concentration in hippocampal slices in vitro, and that blockade of cGMP-dependent protein kinase, cADPR receptors, or ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ stores each prevent the induction of LTD at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. A lack of effect of postsynaptic infusion of either cADPR antagonist indicates a probable presynaptic site of action.  (+info)

Poly-ADP ribose polymerase activates nuclear proteasome to degrade oxidatively damaged histones. (5/1280)

The 20S proteasome has been shown to be largely responsible for the degradation of oxidatively modified proteins in the cytoplasm. Nuclear proteins are also subject to oxidation, and the nucleus of mammalian cells contains proteasome. In human beings, tumor cells frequently are subjected to oxidation as a consequence of antitumor chemotherapy, and K562 human myelogenous leukemia cells have a higher nuclear proteasome activity than do nonmalignant cells. Adaptation to oxidative stress appears to be one element in the development of long-term resistance to many chemotherapeutic drugs and the mechanisms of inducible tumor resistance to oxidation are of obvious importance. After hydrogen peroxide treatment of K562 cells, degradation of the model proteasome peptide substrate suc-LLVY-MCA and degradation of oxidized histones in nuclei increases significantly within minutes. Both increased proteolytic susceptibility of the histone substrates (caused by modification by oxidation) and activation of the proteasome enzyme complex occur independently during oxidative stress. This rapid up-regulation of 20S proteasome activity is accompanied by, and depends on, poly-ADP ribosylation of the proteasome, as shown by inhibitor experiments, 14C-ADP ribose incorporation assays, immunoblotting, in vitro reconstitution experiments, and immunoprecipitation of (activated) proteasome with anti-poly-ADP ribose polymerase antibodies. The poly-ADP ribosylation-mediated activated nuclear 20S proteasome is able to remove oxidatively damaged histones more efficiently and therefore is proposed as an oxidant-stimulatable defense or repair system of the nucleus in K562 leukemia cells.  (+info)

Rho and Rho kinase mediate thrombin-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis and migration. (6/1280)

Aberrant regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration is associated with the pathophysiology of vascular disorders such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, restenosis, and graft rejection. To elucidate molecular mechanisms that regulate proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells, we determined whether signaling through the small G protein Rho is involved in thrombin- and phenylephrine-stimulated proliferation and migration of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). Thrombin and the thrombin peptide SFLLRNP stimulated DNA synthesis of RASMCs as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Both ligands also increased cell migration as measured by the Boyden chamber method. L-Phenylephrine failed to induce either of these responses but increased inositol phosphate accumulation and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in these cells, which indicated that the cells were responsive to alpha1-adrenergic stimulation. The C3 exoenzyme, which ADP-ribosylates and inactivates Rho, fully inhibited both thrombin-stimulated proliferation and migration but had no effect on inositol phosphate accumulation. In addition, Y-27632, an inhibitor of the Rho effector p160ROCK/Rho kinase, decreased thrombin-stimulated DNA synthesis and migration. To directly examine Rho activation, Rho-[35S]GTPgammaS binding was measured. The addition of the thrombin peptide SFLLRNP, but not phenylephrine, to RASMC lysates resulted in a significant increase in Rho-[35S]GTPgammaS binding. Thrombin and SFLLRNP, but not phenylephrine, also increased membrane-associated Rho in intact RASMCs, consistent with selective activation of Rho by thrombin. These results indicate that thrombin activates Rho in RASMCs and establish Rho as a critical mediator of thrombin receptor effects on DNA synthesis and cell migration in these cells.  (+info)

Identification of critical, conserved vicinal aspartate residues in mammalian and bacterial ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolases. (7/1280)

NAD:arginine ADP-ribosyltransferases and ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolases catalyze opposing arms of a putative ADP-ribosylation cycle. ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolases from mammalian tissues and Rhodospirillum rubrum exhibit three regions of similarity in deduced amino acid sequence. We postulated that amino acids in these consensus regions could be critical for hydrolase function. To test this hypothesis, hydrolase, cloned from rat brain, was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in Escherichia coli and purified by glutathione-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Conserved amino acids in each of these regions were altered by site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Asp-60 or Asp-61 with Ala, Gln, or Asn, but not Glu, significantly reduced enzyme activity. The double Asp-60 --> Glu/Asp-61 --> Glu mutant was inactive, as were Asp-60 --> Gln/Asp-61 --> Gln or Asp-60 --> Asn/Asp-61 --> Asn. The catalytically inactive single and double mutants appeared to retain conformation, since they bound ADP-ribose, a substrate analogue and an inhibitor of enzyme activity, with affinity similar to that of the wild-type hydrolase and with the expected stoichiometry of one. Replacing His-65, Arg-139, Asp-285, which are also located in the conserved regions, with alanine did not change specific activity. These data clearly show that the conserved vicinal aspartates 60 and 61 in rat ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase are critical for catalytic activity, but not for high affinity binding of the substrate analogue, ADP-ribose.  (+info)

An antagonist of cADP-ribose inhibits arrhythmogenic oscillations of intracellular Ca2+ in heart cells. (8/1280)

Oscillations of Ca2+ in heart cells are a major underlying cause of important cardiac arrhythmias, and it is known that Ca2+-induced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores (the sarcoplasmic reticulum) is fundamental to the generation of such oscillations. There is now evidence that cADP-ribose may be an endogenous regulator of the Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (the ryanodine receptor), raising the possibility that cADP-ribose may influence arrhythmogenic mechanisms in the heart. 8-Amino-cADP-ribose, an antagonist of cADP-ribose, suppressed oscillatory activity associated with overloading of intracellular Ca2+ stores in cardiac myocytes exposed to high doses of the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist isoproterenol or the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain. The oscillations suppressed by 8-amino-cADP-ribose included intracellular Ca2+ waves, spontaneous action potentials, after-depolarizations, and transient inward currents. Another antagonist of cADP-ribose, 8-bromo-cADP-ribose, was also effective in suppressing isoproterenol-induced oscillatory activity. Furthermore, in the presence of ouabain under conditions in which there was no arrhythmogenesis, exogenous cADP-ribose was found to be capable of triggering spontaneous contractile and electrical activity. Because enzymatic machinery for regulating the cytosolic cADP-ribose concentration is present within the cell, we propose that 8-amino-cADP-ribose and 8-bromo-cADP-ribose suppress cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations by antagonism of endogenous cADP-ribose, which sensitizes the Ca2+ release channels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum to Ca2+.  (+info)

PARP catalysed ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification involved in several physiological and pathological processes, including cellular stress. In order to visualise both Poly-, and Mono-, ADP-ribosylation in vivo, we engineered specific fluorescent probes. Using them, we show that amino-acid starvation triggers an unprecedented display of mono-ADP-ribosylation that governs the formation ... read more of Sec body, a recently identified stress assembly that forms in Drosophila cells. We show that dPARP16 catalytic activity is necessary and sufficient for both amino-acid starvation induced mono-ADP-ribosylation and subsequent Sec body formation and cell survival. Importantly, dPARP16 catalyses the modification of Sec16, a key Sec body component, and we show that it is a critical event for the formation of this stress assembly. Taken together our findings establish a novel example for the role of mono-ADP-ribosylation in the formation of stress assemblies, and link this modification ...
Two nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) analogues modified at the 6 position of the purine ring were synthesized, and their substrate properties toward Aplysia californica ADP-ribosyl cyclase were investigated. 6-N-Methyl NAD(+) (6-N-methyl nicotinamide adenosine 5-dinucleotide 10) hydrolyzes to give the linear 6-N-methyl ADPR (adenosine 5-diphosphoribose, 11), whereas 6-thio NHD(+) (nicotinamide 6-mercaptopurine 5-dinucleotide, 17) generates a cyclic dinucleotide. Surprisingly, NMR correlation spectra confirm this compound to be the N1 cyclic product 6-thio N1-cIDPR (6-thio cyclic inosine 5-diphosphoribose, 3), although the corresponding 6-oxo analogue is well-known to cyclize at N7. In Jurkat T cells, unlike the parent cyclic inosine 5-diphosphoribose N1-cIDPR 2, 6-thio N1-cIDPR antagonizes both cADPR- and N1-cIDPR-induced Ca(2+) release but possesses weak agonist activity at higher concentration. 3 is thus identified as the first C-6 modified cADPR (cyclic adenosine 5-diphosphoribose)
Adenosine-5-diphosphoribose sodium salt dihydrate;68414-18-6;Adenosine-5-diphosphoribose sodium salt dihydrate;TS84182.Tetrahedron
Arginine adenosine-5′-diphosphoribosylation (ADP-ribosylation) is an enzyme-catalyzed potentially reversible posttranslational changes where the ADP-ribose moiety is transferred from NAD+ towards the guanidino CHR2797 moiety of arginine. proteins with binding companions e.g. toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of actin at R177 blocks actin polymerization sterically. In case there is the nucleotide-gated P2X7 ion route ADP-ribosylation at R125 near the ligand-binding site causes route Rabbit Polyclonal to SF3B3. gating. Arginine-specific ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) bring a quality R-S-EXE theme that distinguishes these enzymes from structurally related enzymes which catalyze ADP-ribosylation of additional amino acid part chains DNA or little substances. Arginine-specific ADP-ribosylation could be inhibited by little molecule arginine analogues such as for example CHR2797 agmatine or meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) which themselves can serve as focuses on for arginine-specific ARTs. ...
Certain microbial toxins are ADP-ribosyltransferases, acting on specific substrate proteins. Although these toxins have been of great utility in studies of cellular regulatory processes, a simple procedure to directly study toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosy
Considering that many substances used in dentistry today carry a heavy toxicological burden on patients, we believe that testing a material before using it for a particular patient is the correct appr
BACKGROUND: Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) has been shown to act as a potent cytosolic mediator in a variety of tissues, regulating the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores by a mechanism that involves ryanodine receptors. There is controversy over the effects of cADPR in cardiac muscle, although one possibility is that endogenous cADPR increases the Ca2+ sensitivity of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. We investigated this possibility using 8-amino-cADPR, which has been found to antagonize the Ca2+-releasing effects of cADPR on sea urchin egg microsomes and in mammalian cells (Purkinje neurons, Jurkat T cells, smooth muscle and PC12 cells). RESULTS: In intact cardiac myocytes isolated from guinea-pig ventricle, cytosolic injection of 8-amino-cADPR substantially reduced contractions and Ca2+ transients accompanying action potentials (stimulated at 1Hertz). These reductions were not seen with injection of HEPES buffer, with heat-inactivated 8-amino-cADPR, or in cells
Earlier we demonstrated that meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a specific inhibitor of arginine mono-ADP-ribosylation blocks proliferation and differentiation of chick skeletal myogenic cells in...
Mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase that mediates mono-ADP-ribosylation of target proteins (By similarity). Plays a role in nuclear envelope stability and nuclear remodeling during spermiogenesis (PubMed:25673562).
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BFA induces the ADP-ribosylation of BARS-50 and GAPDH in permeabilized cells. (A) RBL cells were permeabilized with 3 U/ml SLO and exposed to 10 μg/ml BFA
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens ADP-ribosylation factor-like 5C (ARL5C) as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
DABBS Eric r. , YAZAWA Katsukiyo , TANAKA Yasushi , MIKAMI Yuzuru , MIYAJI Makoto , ANDERSEN Susan j. , MORISAKI Naoko , IWASAKI Shigeo , SHIDA Osamu , TAKAGI Hiroaki , KADOWAKI Kiyoshi Journal of antibiotics 48(8), 815-819, 1995-08-25 J-STAGE 参考文献12件 被引用文献2件 ...
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The transplant core (Core B) is crucial for all three projects in this proposal. The mission of this core is to provide the high quality rhesus macaques of appr...
ADP-ribosylation of proteins occurs in many eukaryotes, and it is also the mechanism of action of a growing number of important bacterial toxins. To date, however, there is only one well-characterized ADP-ribosylation system where the ADP-ribosyltransferase and the substrate protein are both bacterial in origin, namely within the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. The present paper demonstrates the endogenous ADP-ribosylation of two proteins of Mr 32,000 and 20,000 within Pseudomonas maltophilia, a Gram-negative aerobe. The proteins have been partially purified: two apparently separate species of modified protein can be separated by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration (V0 and Mr 158,000 - Vi). The substrate protein(s) either has, or is co-eluted with, NAD+ glycohydrolase activity. The modification is mono-ADP-ribosyl in nature. The linkage between the acceptor amino acid and the ADP-ribose moiety is alkali-labile and stable to hydroxylamine, possibly indicating an ...
The quantitative determination of pertussis-toxin-sensitive guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins) in cell membranes is still a problem. Pertussis-toxin-catalysed [32P]ADP-ribosylation strongly relies on the substrate quality of the alpha-subunits and is influenced by the concentration of nucleotides, beta gamma-subunits, the physicochemical properties of the membranes influencing the availability of Gi alpha for pertussis toxin, and covalent modification of Gi alpha. Quantification of immunoreactive material on Western blots can be only imprecisely performed by two-dimensional densitometry. In order to generate a method for quantification of pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins in membranes we have developed a fast and sensitive radioimmunoassay. The C-terminal decapeptide of retinal transducin alpha (KENLKDCGLF) was 125I-labelled and used as tracer. Polyclonal antiserum (DS 4) was raised against this peptide. Gi alpha proteins were determined by competition of solubilized membranes ...
Looking for online definition of ADP-ribosylation factor-like tumour-suppressor protein 1 in the Medical Dictionary? ADP-ribosylation factor-like tumour-suppressor protein 1 explanation free. What is ADP-ribosylation factor-like tumour-suppressor protein 1? Meaning of ADP-ribosylation factor-like tumour-suppressor protein 1 medical term. What does ADP-ribosylation factor-like tumour-suppressor protein 1 mean?
Implications for Modulating the Function of Sir2 Proteins. The p53 tumor suppressor protein has been implicated to be a regulated target for both acetylation and deacetylation in vivo. In particular, several studies have demonstrated that the targeted acetylation of lysine residues at the C terminus of p53 by the transcription coactivators CBP/p300 and P/CAF promotes the stability and transcriptional activation properties of p53 (20-23). More recent studies have shown that the Sir2 homologue from humans, SIRT1, specifically deacetylates p53 in vivo to negatively regulate its activities associated with cellular senescence, apoptosis, and DNA repair (24-27). In light of these recent findings, it may be attractive to develop specific inhibitors to SIRT1 to elevate p53 function in cancer cells. In addition, Sir2-specific inhibitors may be useful as reagents to probe other functions for Sir2 proteins in vivo. Using a cell-based chemical screen, Schreiber and colleagues (28) have identified several ...
An enzyme that catalyzes the Transfer of the ADP-Ribose moiety from NAD+ or NADP+ to specific protein substrates with Arginine, Arginine-type compounds, Agmatine, or Guanidine as acceptors. This mono-ADP-ribosylation reaction is the mechanism of action common to several Bacterial Toxins affecting profound changes in cellular Metabolism, such as activation of Adenylate Cyclase, Regulation of protein synthesis at the level of Elongation Factor 2, and Ion Transport across biological Membranes ...
Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme inactivates the small GTP-binding protein family Rho by ADP-ribosylating asparagine 41, which depolymerizes the actin cytoskeleton. C3 thus represents a major family of the bacterial toxins that transfer the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to specific amino acids in acceptor proteins to modify key biological activities in eukaryotic cells, including protein synthesis, differentiation, transformation, and intracellular signaling. The 1.7 A resolution C3 exoenzyme structure establishes the conserved features of the core NAD-binding beta-sandwich fold with other ADP-ribosylating toxins despite little sequence conservation. Importantly, the central core of the C3 exoenzyme structure is distinguished by the absence of an active site loop observed in many other ADP-ribosylating toxins. Unlike the ADP-ribosylating toxins that possess the active site loop near the central core, the C3 exoenzyme replaces the active site loop with an alpha-helix, alpha3. Moreover, structural ...
ADP-ribosylation is the addition of one or more ADP-ribose moieties to a protein. It is a reversible post-translational modification that is involved in many cellular processes, including cell signaling, DNA repair, gene regulation and apoptosis. Improper ADP-ribosylation has been implicated in some forms of cancer. It is also the basis for the toxicity of bacterial compounds such as cholera toxin, diphtheria toxin, and others. The first suggestion of ADP-ribosylation surfaced during the early 1960s. At this time, Pierre Chambon and coworkers observed the incorporation of ATP into hen liver nuclei extract. After extensive studies on the acid insoluble fraction, several different research laboratories were able to identify ADP-ribose, derived from NAD+, as the incorporated group. Several years later, the enzymes responsible for this incorporation were identified and given the name poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Originally, this group was thought to be a linear sequence of ADP-ribose units ...
Ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ART4 gene. ART4 has also been designated as CD297 (cluster of differentiation 297). This gene encodes a protein that contains a mono-ADP-ribosylation (ART) motif. It is a member of the ADP-ribosyltransferase gene family but enzymatic activity has not been demonstrated experimentally. Antigens of the Dombrock blood group system are located on the gene product, which is glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored to the erythrocyte membrane. Allelic variants, some of which lead to adverse transfusion reactions, are known. Several antigens have been recognised in this family. These are DO*A, DO*JO1, DO*A-WL, DO*DOYA, DO*B, DO*B-WL, DO*B-SH-Q149K, DO*B-(WL)-I175N, DO*HY1, DO*HY2 and DO*DOMR. Model organisms have been used in the study of ART4 function. A conditional knockout mouse line called Art4tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi was generated at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen ...
NAD glycohydrolases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of NAD to produce ADP-ribose and nicotinamide. Regulation of these enzymes has not been fully elucidated. We have identified a NAD-glycohydrolase activity associated with the outer surface of the plasma membrane in human lung epithelial cell line A549. This activity is negatively regulated by its substrate beta-NAD but not by alpha-NAD. Partial restoration of NADase activity after incubation of the cells with arginine or histidine, known ADP-ribose acceptors, suggests that inhibition be regulated by ADP-ribosylation. A549 do not undergo to apoptosis upon NAD treatment indicating that this effect be likely mediated by a cellular component(s) lacking in epithelial cells. ...
endomembrane system, intracellular, GTPase activator activity, Rab GTPase binding, activation of GTPase activity, intracellular protein transport, regulation of vesicle fusion
Pierisin-1 is an 850-aa cytotoxic protein found in the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and has been suggested to consist of an N-terminal region with ADP-ribosyltransferase domain and of a C-terminal region that might have a receptor-binding domain.
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Pearson D, Hienzsch A, Wagner M, Globisch D, Reiter V, Özden D, Carell T Chem. Commun. 47 (18) 5196 [2011-00-00; online 2011-00-00] RNA nucleosides are often naturally modified into complex non-canonical structures with key biological functions. Here we report LC-MS quantification of the Ar(p) and Gr(p) 2-ribosylated nucleosides in tRNA using deuterium labelled standards, and the first detection of Gr(p) in complex fungi. Fellow QC bibliography QC xrefs PubMed 21448475. DOI 10.1039/c1cc11011j. Crossref 10.1039/c1cc11011j. ...
This multiunctional enzyme catalyses both the synthesis and hydrolysis of cyclic ADP-ribose, a calcium messenger that can mobilize intracellular Ca2+ stores and activate Ca2+ influx to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. In addition, the enzyme also catalyses EC 2.4.99.20, 2-phospho-ADP-ribosyl cyclase/2-phospho-cyclic-ADP-ribose transferase. cf. EC 3.2.2.5, NAD+ glycohydrolase ...
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View mouse Macrod2 Chr2:140395309-142392966 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
basis of record Boxshall, G. (2001). Copepoda (excl. Harpacticoida), in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 252-268 (look up in IMIS) [details] ...
Nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a newly described Ca2+-mobilizing nucleotide that appears to target intracellular Ca2+-release channels distinct from those sensitive to inositol trisphosphate or ryanodine/cyclic ADP-ribose. Little, however, is known concerning the regulation of cellular NAADP levels. In the present study, we have characterized the metabolism of NAADP by brain membranes. From HPLC and MS analyses we show that loss of NAADP was associated with the appearance of a major product that is likely to be nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide (NAAD), the dephosphorylated form of NAADP. Dephosphorylation of NAADP, but not 3-NAADP, was dramatically attenuated by Ca2+ chelators and stimulated by Ca2+ over a physiological range in a calmodulin-insensitive manner. In contrast, NADP was metabolized predominantly to ADP-ribose phosphate via glycohydrolase activity, although slower Ca2+-dependent dephosphorylation of both NADP and 2-AMP could also be demonstrated. This is the
CD38 is a 42-kilodalton glycoprotein expressed extensively on B and T lymphocytes. CD38 exhibits a structural homology to Aplysia adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosyl cyclase. This enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a metabolite of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +) with calcium-mobilizing activity. A complementary DNA encoding the extracellular domain of murine CD38 was constructed and expressed, and the resultant recombinant soluble CD38 was purified to homogeneity. Soluble CD38 catalyzed the formation and hydrolysis of cADPR when added to NAD+. Purified cADPR augmented the proliferative response of activated murine B cells, potentially implicating the enzymatic activity of CD38 in lymphocyte function ...
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D. Jones, B. Bax, S. Cockcroft; ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases in signal transduction and membrane traffic: independent functions?. Biochem Soc Trans 1 August 1999; 27 (4): 642-647. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0270642. Download citation file:. ...
COPⅠ囊泡:最初研究者利用三磷酸鳥苷(GTP)衍生物GTPγS(一種富含高爾基體膜的細胞質與抗水解的GTP衍生物)共培養時,發現高爾基體池之間存在一種囊泡轉運結構[9](後來在真核細胞中也證實此結構的存在[10])。除了脂質成分外,參與此囊泡形成的成份還有7種外被體蛋白(即外被體α、β、β′、γ、δ、ε、ζ)。這些外被體蛋白相互作用形成的復合物就是COPⅠ囊泡[11][12]。亞單位α、β′、ε在結構上與網格蛋白及COPⅡ囊泡的外層組分具有較高的一致性,形成復合物的內層組分稱為B亞復合物(主要負責與靶蛋白結合),而亞單位β、γ、δ、ζ 與網格蛋白及COPⅡ囊泡的內層組分相似,形成復合物的內層組分稱為F亞復合物,該亞復合物主要負責與靶蛋白結合,並且直接與COPⅠ囊泡形成的招募者ADP核糖基化因子(英语:ADP ribosylation factor)(ADP ribosylation ...
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Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) mobilize Ca2+ from two different types of intracellular stores and through completely independent mechanisms. The two Ca2+ messengers are also structurally distinct. cADPR is a cyclic nucleotide derived from NAD, whi …
Bruno, Tony F. et al " Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exoenzyme S Is a Mitogen but Not a Superantigen for Human T Lymphocytes." Infection and Immunity 66.7 (1998): 3072-3079. Web. 15 Dec. 2019. ...
Abstract: Cellular cross-talk between ubiquitination and other posttranslational modifications contributes to the regulation of numerous processes. One example is ADP-ribosylation of the carboxyl terminus of ubiquitin by the E3 DTX3L/ADP-ribosyltransferase PARP9 heterodimer, but the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show that independently of PARP9, the conserved carboxyl-terminal RING and DTC (Deltex carboxyl-terminal) domains of DTX3L and other human Deltex proteins (DTX1 to DTX4) catalyze ADP-ribosylation of ubiquitins Gly76. Structural studies reveal a hitherto unknown function of the DTC domain in binding NAD+. Deltex RING domain recruits E2 thioesterified with ubiquitin and juxtaposes it with NAD+ bound to the DTC domain to facilitate ADP-ribosylation of ubiquitin. This ubiquitin modification prevents its activation but is reversed by the linkage nonspecific deubiquitinases. Our study provides mechanistic insights into ADP-ribosylation of ubiquitin by Deltex E3s and will enable future ...
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The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
I dont try to connect two of them, but Ive tried activate one neuron by Exp2Syn controlled by netstim. So it works. I wouldnt like publish this model on ModelDB until it is properly tested. So you can download it from my webpage http://nisms.krinc.ru/rth/izh/izhcur.zip and test it. Ill very appr ...
"Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide glycohydrolases and poly adenosine diphosphate ribose synthesis in rat liver". Biochem. ... ADP-ribose + nicotinamide Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are NAD+ and H2O, whereas its two products are ADP-ribose and ...
PARP1 synthesizes polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chains on itself. Next the chromatin ... Li D, Bi FF, Cao JM, Cao C, Li CY, Liu B, Yang Q (2014). "Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 transcriptional regulation: a novel ... In further steps, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is required and may be an early step in MMEJ. There is pairing of ... The PARP1 protein, attached to both DDB1 and DDB2, then PARylates (creates a poly-ADP ribose chain) on DDB2 that attracts the ...
Noncovalent Interactions of Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) with Histones. Biochemistry-US. 31: 1397-1385. Fatokun AA, ... ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase. Biochemistry 50: 2850-2859. Wang Y, Dawson VL, Dawson TM. 2009. Poly(ADP-ribose) signals to ... Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer is a death signal. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 103: 18308-18313 Yu SW, Wang H, Poitras MF, Coombs C, ... Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is a mediator of necrotic cell death by ATP depletion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96: 13978-13982 ...
Complex I is also blocked by adenosine diphosphate ribose - a reversible competitive inhibitor of NADH oxidation - by binding ... by ADP-ribose". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1320 (3): 256-64. doi:10.1016/S0005-2728(97)00029-7. PMID 9230920. Viollet B, ...
... is an ester molecule formed into chains by the enzyme poly ADP ribose polymerase. It binds to and ... Adenosine diphosphate Ribose Fonfria E, Marshall IC, Benham CD, et al. (September 2004). "TRPM2 channel opening in response to ... oxidative stress is dependent on activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase". Br. J. Pharmacol. 143 (1): 186-92. doi:10.1038/sj. ...
Stern AI, Avron M (1966). "An adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase from Euglena gracilis". ... D-ribose-5-phosphate adenylyltransferase. Other names in common use include ADP ribose phosphorylase, and adenosine ... ADP-ribose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ADP and D-ribose 5-phosphate, whereas its two products are phosphate and ... In enzymology, a ribose-5-phosphate adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.35) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ADP + D ...
ADP-ribose). Miwa, M.; Sugimura, T. (1971). "Splitting of the ribose-ribose linkage of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) by a ... linkage of ribose-ribose bond to produce free ADP-ribose Specific to (1-2') linkage of ribose-ribose bond of poly( ... ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase". J. Biol. Chem. 272: 11895-11901. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.18.11895. PMID 9115250. Poly(ADP-ribose) ... Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.143) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction hydrolyses ...
... and begins the synthesis of a polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chain, which acts as a signal ... ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). NAD+ is required as substrate for generating ADP-ribose monomers. It has been thought that ... Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a family of proteins involved in a number of cellular processes such as DNA repair, ... Bürkle A, Brabeck C, Diefenbach J, Beneke S (May 2005). "The emerging role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in longevity". Int ...
The sugar ribose unit was also replaced with a cyclopentyl group to avoid possible unstability of the glycosidic bond. The ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors are a drug class of antiplatelet agents, used in the treatment of acute ... P2Y12 receptor is a G-coupled receptor and is activated by adenosine diphosphate. ADP binds to the P2Y12 receptor that leads to ... "Platelet Adenosine Diphosphate P2Y12 Receptor Antagonism: Benefits and Limitations of Current Treatment Strategies and Future ...
... a sugar backbone attached to adenine and two phosphate groups bonded to the 5 carbon atom of ribose. The diphosphate group of ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ...
... adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125 --- adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125.040 ... cyclic adp-ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125.600 --- poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.200 --- cytidine ... nucleoside diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070 --- adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.075 --- ... uridine diphosphate n-acetylglucosamine MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.150 --- uridine diphosphate n-acetylmuramic acid MeSH D09.408. ...
This is distinct from adenosine diphosphate, where the two phosphate groups are attached in a chain to the 5' carbon atom in ... bisphosphate is a form of an adenosine nucleotide with two phosphate groups attached to different carbons in the ribose ring. ... Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate is produced as a product of sulfotransferase enzymes from the donation of a sulfate group from the ... This product is then hydrolysed by 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase to give adenosine monophosphate, which can then be ...
ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NUDT9 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... "Entrez Gene: NUDT9 nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 9". Lin S, Gasmi L, Xie Y, et al. (2002). "Cloning ... expression and characterisation of a human Nudix hydrolase specific for adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (ADP-ribose)". Biochim. ... 2004). "Interaction of C17orf25 with ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase NUDT9 detected via yeast two-hybrid method". Sheng Wu Hua Xue ...
As a substituent it takes the form of the prefix cytidylyl-. CMP can be phosphorylated to cytidine diphosphate by the enzyme ... CMP consists of the phosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase cytosine; hence, a ribonucleoside ... CMP kinase, with adenosine triphosphate or guanosine triphosphate donating the phosphate group. Since cytidine triphosphate is ...
In E. coli AThTP is synthesized from thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) according to the following reaction catalyzed by thiamine ... ADP-ribose) polymerase-1(PARP-1) activity". J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 57 (2): 192-6. PMID 21697640. Makarchikov AF, Brans A ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate, is a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide. It ... diphosphate adenylyl transferase: ThDP + ATP (ADP) ↔ AThTP + PPi (Pi) The molecule is made up of thiamine and adenosine joined ...
... and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Adenosine itself is ... Adenosine is a purine nucleoside composed of a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety ... In the US, Adenosine is marketed as Adenocard. In India Adenosine is sold as Adenoscan (Cipla) All adenosine receptor subtypes ... When adenosine enters the circulation, it is broken down by adenosine deaminase, which is present in red cells and the vessel ...
Important molecules: ADP - Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (Adenosine pyrophosphate (APP)) is an important organic compound in ... a sugar backbone attached to a molecule of adenine and two phosphate groups bonded to the 5 carbon atom of ribose. ATP - A ... Often called "cellular power plants", mitochondria generate most of cells' supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the body's ... and mediating biochemical reactions that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is a major energy intermediate in living ...
... adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.667.138.124.070.125 --- adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D13.695.667.138.124.070. ... adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.827.068.124.070.125 --- adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D13.695.827.068.124.070. ... adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.827.708.070.125 --- adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D13.695.827.708.070.125.040 ... cyclic adp-ribose MeSH D13.695.827.708.070.125.600 --- poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D13.695.827.708.260 --- cytidine ...
ATP and diphosphate, whereas its two products are ATP and 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate. This enzyme belongs to the ... Other names in common use include phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphorylase, adenosine triphosphate phosphoribosyltransferase, ... diphosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ATP + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate Thus, the two substrates of this ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)-ATP:diphosphate phospho-alpha-D-ribosyl-transferase. ...
Cellular processes, especially muscles, then convert the ATP into adenosine diphosphate (ADP), freeing the energy to do work.[ ... nucleotidase removes the ribose and phosphorus from AMP, increasing levels of adenosine measured in muscle cells by ~16-25×, ... Adenosine mediates pain through adenosine receptors. MADD causes an increase of free adenosine during heavy activity which may ... In the brain, excess adenosine decreases alertness and causes sleepiness. In this way, adenosine may play a role in fatigue ...
Adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP) or thiaminylated adenosine diphosphate exists in small amounts in vertebrate liver, but ... a major route for the biosynthesis of the pentose sugars deoxyribose and ribose. The mitochondrial PDH and OGDH are part of ... and adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP). While the coenzyme role of thiamine diphosphate is well-known and extensively ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP) or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate has recently been discovered in Escherichia ...
... is an analog of adenosine with the D-ribose replaced with D-arabinose. As you can see from figure 1.1 that it is a ... This prevents the reduction of nucleotide diphosphates, causing a reduction of viral replication. Vidarabine is more toxic and ... The use of an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase to increase the half-life of vidarabine has also been tried, and drugs such as ... This is where ara-ATP is incorporated into the DNA strand replacing many of the adenosine bases. This results in the prevention ...
Horecker BL, Hurwitz J, Heppel LA (1957). "The synthesis of ribose 5-pyrophosphate and ribose 5-triphosphate". J. Am. Chem. Soc ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is nucleoside-diphosphate phosphohydrolase. Other names in common use include ... thiaminpyrophosphatase, UDPase, inosine diphosphatase, adenosine diphosphatase, IDPase, ADPase, adenosinepyrophosphatase, ... GIBSON DM, AYENGAR P, SANADI DR (1955). "A phosphatase specific for nucleoside diphosphates". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 16 (4): ...
The nucleoside, adenosine, is then deaminated and hydrolyzed to form hypoxanthine via adenosine deaminase and nucleosidase ... The conversion of a nucleoside-diphosphate (NDP) to a nucleoside-triphosphate (NTP) is catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate ... DNA, however, requires deoxyribose, which is missing the 2'-hydroxyl (-OH group) on the ribose. The reaction to remove this -OH ... This enzyme converts NDPs (nucleoside-diphosphate) to dNDPs (deoxynucleoside-diphosphate). The nucleotides must be in the ...
Like the thienopyridines prasugrel, clopidogrel and ticlopidine, ticagrelor blocks adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptors of ... Ticagrelor is a nucleoside analogue: the cyclopentane ring is similar to the sugar ribose, and the nitrogen rich aromatic ring ... system resembles the nucleobase purine, giving the molecule an overall similarity to adenosine. The substance has low ...
... contains a thymine base joined to a ribose pentose sugar. ...
Glossary: ADP-D-ribose = adenosine 5′-(5-deoxy-D-ribofuranos-5-yl diphosphate). Other name(s): NAD glycohydrolase; nicotinamide ... Reaction: NAD+ + H2O = ADP-D-ribose + nicotinamide. ... bifunctional ADP-ribosyl cyclase/cyclic ADP-ribose hydrolase). ...
Adenosine diphosphate ribose is an ester molecule formed into chains by the enzyme poly ADP ribose polymerase. It binds to and ... Adenosine diphosphate Ribose Fonfria E, Marshall IC, Benham CD, et al. (September 2004). "TRPM2 channel opening in response to ... oxidative stress is dependent on activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase". Br. J. Pharmacol. 143 (1): 186-92. doi:10.1038/sj. ...
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose Cyclase. A Membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of Cyclic ADP-Ribose ( ... cADPR) from Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the Hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-Ribose, as ... well, and sometimes the synthesis of Cyclic ADP-Ribose 2 phosphate (2-P-cADPR) from NADP. ...
... adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have offered patients carrying cancers with mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 ... Strategies for the Use of Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy. Cecilia E. Ström. ... Treatments with Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have offered patients carrying cancers with ... Ström, C.E.; Helleday, T. Strategies for the Use of Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors in Cancer ...
... diphosphate ribose (ADPR) is an intracellular signalling molecule generated from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). ... Adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose (ADPR) is an intracellular signalling molecule generated from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ... Synthesis of phosphonoacetate analogues of the second messenger adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose (ADPR)† ... Synthesis of phosphonoacetate analogues of the second messenger adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose (ADPR) O. Baszczyňski, J. M. ...
Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase activity and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in differentiating cardiac muscle ... Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase activity and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in differentiating cardiac muscle ... Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase activity and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in differentiating cardiac muscle ... Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase activity and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in differentiating cardiac muscle ...
Poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have recently been found to be remarkably toxic to cells ... Poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have recently been found to be remarkably toxic to cells ... Novel poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, AZD2461, down-regulates VEGF and induces apoptosis in ...
Cyclic Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose Analogues. / Galione, Antony (Inventor); Potter, Barry (Inventor).. IPC No.: C07H19/20. ... title = "Cyclic Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose Analogues",. abstract = "A compound having formula (1) where at least one of X,3, ... Galione, A & Potter, B 1998, Cyclic Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose Analogues, Patent No. WO9843992 (A1), IPC No. C07H19/20. ... The compound 7-deaza-8-bromo-cyclic adenosine 5-diphosphate ribose has been shown to be a stable hydrolysis-resistant cADPR ...
D-ribose 5-phosphate + ATP =, 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate (PRPP) + adenosine 5-monophosphate Stable Identifier ... D-ribose 5-phosphate + ATP => 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate (PRPP) + adenosine 5-monophosphate (Homo sapiens) ... D-ribose 5-phosphate + ATP => 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate (PRPP) + adenosine 5-monophosphate (Bos taurus) ... D-ribose 5-phosphate + ATP => 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate (PRPP) + adenosine 5-monophosphate (Canis familiaris) ...
Note: *The Download PDF brochure only consist of Table of Content (ToC), Research Framework of the actual report, and Research Methodology adopted for it ...
Synthesis of Terminal Ribose Analogues of Adenosine 5′-Diphosphate Ribose as Probes for the Transient Receptor Potential Cation ... Synthesis of Terminal Ribose Analogues of Adenosine 5′-Diphosphate Ribose as Probes for the Transient Receptor Potential Cation ... Potter B, Watt JM, Baszczynski O. Synthesis of Terminal Ribose Analogues of Adenosine 5′-Diphosphate Ribose as Probes for the ... Synthesis of Terminal Ribose Analogues of Adenosine 5′-Diphosphate Ribose as Probes for the Transient Receptor Potential Cation ...
Adenosine diphosphate ribose is a strong basic compound (based on its pKa). Adenosine diphosphate ribose exists in all ... NAD + water → hydron + Niacinamide + Adenosine diphosphate ribose NAD + water ↔ hydron + Niacinamide + Adenosine diphosphate ... Adenosine diphosphate ribose belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine nucleotide sugars. These are purine ... ADP-ribose + H(2)O = AMP + D-ribose 5- phosphate. Gene Name:. YSA1. Uniprot ID:. Q01976 Molecular weight:. 26086.80078. ...
BRCA1 CpG island hypermethylation predicts sensitivity to poly(adenosine diphosphate)-ribose polymerase inhibitors. Journal of ... BRCA1 CpG island hypermethylation predicts sensitivity to poly(adenosine diphosphate)-ribose polymerase inhibitors. In: Journal ... BRCA1 CpG island hypermethylation predicts sensitivity to poly(adenosine diphosphate)-ribose polymerase inhibitors. / Veeck, ... title = "BRCA1 CpG island hypermethylation predicts sensitivity to poly(adenosine diphosphate)-ribose polymerase inhibitors", ...
Adenosine diphosphate ribose Resource Information The topic Adenosine diphosphate ribose represents a specific aggregation or ... Data Citation of the Topic Adenosine diphosphate ribose. Copy and paste the following RDF/HTML data fragment to cite this ... Adenosine diphosphate ribose,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent ... Adenosine diphosphate ribose,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent ...
You are here: Home » Latest News » Archives for Adenosine diphosphate ribose. Tag Archives: Adenosine diphosphate ribose. ... Posted in News , Tagged Adenosine diphosphate ribose, Cassandra Balinas, Dr Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik, Hélène Cabanas, impaired ...
Neuroprotective effect of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor ...
... provides the in-depth analysis of the pipeline assets across the Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) ... Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors- Pipeline Insights, 2015, ... Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors Overview. • Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose ... Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors Assessment by Molecule Type • Poly Adenosine Diphosphate ( ...
... adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1; HPF1: Histone PARylation factor 1; PARG: poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase; RNF146: ... Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase as therapeutic target: lessons learned from its inhibitors.. Cseh AM1,2, Fábián Z ... Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase as therapeutic target: lessons learned from its inhibitors ... Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase as therapeutic target: lessons learned from its inhibitors ...
Recently, a metabolite of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+ (NAD+), termed cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose (cADPr), has ... Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose, Calcium, Cell Line, Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid, Cyclic ADP-Ribose, Humans, Signal ... Characterization of cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose-induced Ca2+ release in T lymphocyte cell lines. ... Characterization of cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose-induced Ca2+ release in T lymphocyte cell lines. ...
Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) mobilize Ca2+ from two different types of ... Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose / biosynthesis * Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose / chemistry * Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose / ... A unified mechanism of enzymatic synthesis of two calcium messengers: cyclic ADP-ribose and NAADP Biol Chem. Jul-Aug 1999;380(7 ... Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) mobilize Ca2+ from two different types of ...
... diphosphate ribose (cADPR) analogs based on the cyclic inosine 5-diphosphate ribose (cIDPR) template were synthesized by ... Replacing the base N9-ribose with a butyl chain generates inhibitors of cADPR hydrolysis by the human ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 ... Taken together, these analogs confirm that the northern ribose is critical for CD38 activity and inhibition, provide new ... catalytic domain (shCD38), illustrating the nonessential nature of the southern ribose for binding. Butyl substitution ...
Inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase by the active form of vitamin D. / Mabley, Jon G.; Wallace, Rebecca ... Inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase by the active form of vitamin D. In: International journal of ... Mabley JG, Wallace R, Pacher P, Murphy K, Szabó C. Inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase by the active ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase by the active form of ...
Note. FUS = fused in sarcoma; KD = knockdown; PARP = adenosine diphosphate [ADP] ribose polymerase; HR = homologous ...
ADP-ribose polymerase:. Adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase. AP-1:. Activator protein 1. ...
The enzyme poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) involved in the process of repair of DNA in damaged cells. ... Malkoc E et al, 2014: Efficacy of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibition in extracorporeal shock wave-induced ... adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibition in extracorporeal shock wave-induced renal injury. ... However, its activation in damaged cells can lead to adenosine triphosphate depletion and death. Thus, we designed a study to ...
  • Binding of the nucleotide adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose (ADPR) to the cytosolic NUDT9 homology (NUDT9H) domain activates the channel. (bath.ac.uk)
  • A detailed understanding of how ADPR interacts with the TRPM2 ligand binding domain is lacking, hampering the rational design of modulators, but the terminal ribose of ADPR is known to be essential for activation. (bath.ac.uk)
  • To study its role in more detail, we designed synthetic routes to novel analogues of ADPR and 2′-deoxy-ADPR that were modified only by removal of a single hydroxyl group from the terminal ribose. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Adenosine diphosphate ribose exists in all eukaryotes, ranging from yeast to humans. (ymdb.ca)
  • Rib-ADP stands for the adenosine diphosphate-ribose moiety. (anl.gov)
  • Arginine adenosine-5'-diphosphoribosylation (ADP-ribosylation) is an enzyme-catalyzed, potentially reversible posttranslational modification, in which the ADP-ribose moiety is transferred from NAD(+) to the guanidino moiety of arginine. (nih.gov)
  • ADP-ribosylarginine specific hydrolases (ARHs) can restore target protein function by hydrolytic removal of the entire ADP-ribose moiety. (nih.gov)
  • ADP-ribosylation of arginine is a reversible posttranslational modification (PTM) of proteins in which the ADP-ribose moiety is transferred from NAD+ to the guanidino group of arginine under release of nicotinamide (Fig. 1). (nih.gov)
  • The presence of high levels of PAR in cells following DNA strand breakage is very transient because the polymer is rapidly degraded by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). (asm.org)
  • (aappublications.org)
  • To study the role of ADP-ribosylation, this reaction was inhibited by depletion of NAD+ (the ADP-ribose donor) or by using selective pharmacological blockers in permeabilized cells. (nih.gov)
  • Pancreatic cancer cells utilize the nonoxidative transketolase (TK) enzyme pathway, incorporating carbon atoms from glucose to make ribose , the sugar that forms the backbone of RNA and DNA required for cancer cell proliferation and tumor metastasis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Among the immediate eukaryotic cellular responses to DNA damage is the modification of histones and nuclear proteins by ADP-ribose polymers catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). (asm.org)
  • Here, we overview our current knowledge on extranuclear functions of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases with a particular focus on the mitochondrial ones and discuss potential fields of future clinical applications. (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, RAP80 contains a poly-ADP-ribose-interacting domain that binds PARsylated BRCA1 and helps to maintain the stability of PARP1-BRCA1-RAP80 complexes. (aacrjournals.org)
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