Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase: An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Uridine Diphosphate SugarsUridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.UTP-Glucose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of UDPglucose from UTP plus glucose 1-phosphate. EC 2.7.7.9.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 6-phospho-D-gluconate and NADP+ to yield D-ribulose 5-phosphate, carbon dioxide, and NADPH. The reaction is a step in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.1.1.43.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.PaperFomites: Inanimate objects that carry pathogenic microorganisms and thus can serve as the source of infection. Microorganisms typically survive on fomites for minutes or hours. Common fomites include CLOTHING, tissue paper, hairbrushes, and COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.

Granule-bound starch synthase I in isolated starch granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively. (1/45)

Isoforms of starch synthase belonging to the granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) class synthesize the amylose component of starch in plants. Other granule-bound isoforms of starch synthase, such as starch synthase II (SSII), are unable to synthesize amylose. The kinetic properties of GBSSI and SSII that are responsible for these functional differences have been investigated using starch granules from embryos of wild-type peas and rug5 and lam mutant peas, which contain, respectively, both GBSSI and SSII, GBSSI but not SSII and SSII but not GBSSI. We show that GBSSI in isolated granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively, adding more than one glucose molecule for each enzyme-glucan encounter. Granule-bound SSII can elongate malto-oligosaccharides, but has a lower affinity for these than GBSSI and does not elongate processively. As a result of these properties GBSSI synthesizes longer malto-oligosaccharides than SSII. The significance of these results with respect to the roles of GBSSI and SSII in vivo is discussed.  (+info)

Cloning, expression and characterization of YSA1H, a human adenosine 5'-diphosphosugar pyrophosphatase possessing a MutT motif. (2/45)

The human homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YSA1 protein, YSA1H, has been expressed as a thioredoxin fusion protein in Escherichia coli. It is an ADP-sugar pyrophosphatase with similar activities towards ADP-ribose and ADP-mannose. Its activities with ADP-glucose and diadenosine diphosphate were 56% and 20% of that with ADP-ribose respectively, whereas its activity towards other nucleoside 5'-diphosphosugars was typically 2-10%. cADP-ribose was not a substrate. The products of ADP-ribose hydrolysis were AMP and ribose 5-phosphate. K(m) and k(cat) values with ADP-ribose were 60 microM and 5.5 s(-1) respectively. The optimal activity was at alkaline pH (7.4-9.0) with 2.5-5 mM Mg(2+) or 100-250 microM Mn(2+) ions; fluoride was inhibitory, with an IC(50) of 20 microM. The YSA1H gene, which maps to 10p13-p14, is widely expressed in all human tissues examined, giving a 1.4 kb transcript. The 41.6 kDa fusion protein behaved as an 85 kDa dimer on gel filtration. After cleavage with enterokinase, the 24.4 kDa native protein fragment ran on SDS/PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kDa. Immunoblot analysis with a polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant YSA1H revealed the presence of a protein of apparent molecular mass 33 kDa in various human cells, including erythrocytes. The sequence of YSA1H contains a MutT sequence signature motif. A major proposed function of the MutT motif proteins is to eliminate toxic nucleotide metabolites from the cell. Hence the function of YSA1H might be to remove free ADP-ribose arising from NAD(+) and protein-bound poly- and mono-(ADP-ribose) turnover to prevent the occurrence of non-enzymic protein glycation.  (+info)

A possible role for pyrophosphate in the coordination of cytosolic and plastidial carbon metabolism within the potato tuber. (3/45)

The early stages of tuber development are characterized by cell division, high metabolic activity, and the predominance of invertase as the sucrose (Suc) cleaving activity. However, during the subsequent phase of starch accumulation the cleavage of Suc occurs primarily by the action of Suc synthase. The mechanism that is responsible for this switch in Suc cleaving activities is currently unknown. One striking difference between the invertase and Suc synthase mediated cleavage of Suc is the direct involvement of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in the latter case. There is presently no convincing explanation of how the PPi required to support this process is generated in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. The major site of PPi production in a maturing potato tubers is likely to be the reaction catalyzed by ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, the first committed step of starch biosynthesis in amyloplasts. We present data based on the analysis of the PPi levels in various transgenic plants altered in starch and Suc metabolism that support the hypothesis that PPi produced in the plastid is used to support cytosolic Suc breakdown and that PPi is an important coordinator of cytosolic and plastidial metabolism in potato tubers.  (+info)

Legume embryos develop in a hypoxic environment. (4/45)

Specific morphological and biochemical characteristics of seeds can cause oxygen deficiency within maternal and embryonic tissues. In this study, optical sensors were used to measure O(2) profiles across developing seeds of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum and developmental and environmental modulations of internal O(2) levels were studied. In addition, the metabolic state of developing embryos was analysed by monitoring adenylate energy charge, adenylate nucleotides and the levels of nucleotide sugars. Within the seed coat O(2) concentration decreased sharply to approximately 3% towards the inner border. Lowest O(2) levels were detected within the endospermal cavity between the seed coat and embryo. It is probable that low seed coat permeability provides an hypoxic environment for legume embryo development. The O(2) concentration in embryonic tissue changed during development with the lowest levels in the early stages. Measured in darkness, the levels were below 3%, but increased upon illumination indicating that photosynthesis significantly contributes to internal O(2) levels. Only in very young embryos were ATP levels and energy charge low. Otherwise they were maintained at a constant higher value. ADP-glucose and UDP-glucose did not show large fluctuations. Throughout embryo development fermentative activity did not play a major role. Obviously, specific mechanisms prevent seed tissues from becoming anoxic during development. The possible role of low oxygen on seed metabolism and on the control of seed development in legumes is discussed.  (+info)

Starch synthesis and carbon partitioning in developing endosperm. (5/45)

The biosynthesis of starch is the major determinant of yield in cereal grains. In this short review, attention is focused on the synthesis of the soluble substrate for starch synthesis, ADPglucose (ADPG). Consideration is given to the pathway of ADPG production, its subcellular compartmentation, and the role of metabolite transporters in mediating its delivery to the site of starch synthesis. As ADPG is an activated sugar, the dependence of its production on respiration, changes which occur during development, and the constraints which ATP production may place on carbon partitioning into different end-products are discussed.  (+info)

A low-starch barley mutant, riso 16, lacking the cytosolic small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, reveals the importance of the cytosolic isoform and the identity of the plastidial small subunit. (6/45)

To provide information on the roles of the different forms of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm and the nature of the genes encoding their subunits, a mutant of barley, Riso 16, lacking cytosolic AGPase activity in the endosperm was identified. The mutation specifically abolishes the small subunit of the cytosolic AGPase and is attributable to a large deletion within the coding region of a previously characterized small subunit gene that we have called Hv.AGP.S.1. The plastidial AGPase activity in the mutant is unaffected. This shows that the cytosolic and plastidial small subunits of AGPase are encoded by separate genes. We purified the plastidial AGPase protein and, using amino acid sequence information, we identified the novel small subunit gene that encodes this protein. Studies of the Riso 16 mutant revealed the following. First, the reduced starch content of the mutant showed that a cytosolic AGPase is required to achieve the normal rate of starch synthesis. Second, the mutant makes both A- and B-type starch granules, showing that the cytosolic AGPase is not necessary for the synthesis of these two granule types. Third, analysis of the phylogenetic relationships between the various small subunit proteins both within and between species, suggest that the cytosolic AGPase single small subunit gene probably evolved from a leaf single small subunit gene.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a critical region in the glycogen synthase from Escherichia coli. (7/45)

The cysteine-specific reagent 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) inactivates the Escherichia coli glycogen synthase (Holmes, E., and Preiss, J. (1982) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 216, 736-740). To find the responsible residue, all cysteines, Cys(7), Cys(379), and Cys(408), were substituted combinatorially by Ser. 5,5'-Dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) modified and inactivated the enzyme if and only if Cys(379) was present and it was prevented by the substrate ADP-glucose (ADP-Glc). Mutations C379S and C379A increased the S(0.5) for ADP-Glc 40- and 77-fold, whereas the specific activity was decreased 5.8- and 4.3-fold, respectively. Studies of inhibition by glucose 1-phosphate and AMP indicated that Cys(379) was involved in the interaction of the enzyme with the phosphoglucose moiety of ADP-Glc. Other mutations, C379T, C379D, and C379L, indicated that this site is intolerant for bulkier side chains. Because Cys(379) is in a conserved region, other residues were scanned by mutagenesis. Replacement of Glu(377) by Ala and Gln decreased V(max) more than 10,000-fold without affecting the apparent affinity for ADP-Glc and glycogen binding. Mutation of Glu(377) by Asp decreased V(max) only 57-fold indicating that the negative charge of Glu(377) is essential for catalysis. The activity of the mutation E377C, on an enzyme form without other Cys, was chemically restored by carboxymethylation. Other conserved residues in the region, Ser(374) and Gln(383), were analyzed by mutagenesis but found not essential. Comparison with the crystal structure of other glycosyltransferases suggests that this conserved region is a loop that is part of the active site. The results of this work indicate that this region is critical for catalysis and substrate binding.  (+info)

Protein phosphorylation in amyloplasts regulates starch branching enzyme activity and protein-protein interactions. (8/45)

Protein phosphorylation in amyloplasts and chloroplasts of Triticum aestivum (wheat) was investigated after the incubation of intact plastids with gamma-(32)P-ATP. Among the soluble phosphoproteins detected in plastids, three forms of starch branching enzyme (SBE) were phosphorylated in amyloplasts (SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb), and both forms of SBE in chloroplasts (SBEI and SBEIIa) were shown to be phosphorylated after sequencing of the immunoprecipitated (32)P-labeled phosphoproteins using quadrupole-orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometry. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the phosphorylated SBE forms indicated that the proteins are all phosphorylated on Ser residues. Analysis of starch granule-associated phosphoproteins after incubation of intact amyloplasts with gamma-(32)P-ATP indicated that the granule-associated forms of SBEII and two granule-associated forms of starch synthase (SS) are phosphorylated, including SSIIa. Measurement of SBE activity in amyloplasts and chloroplasts showed that phosphorylation activated SBEIIa (and SBEIIb in amyloplasts), whereas dephosphorylation using alkaline phosphatase reduced the catalytic activity of both enzymes. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation had no effect on the measurable activity of SBEI in amyloplasts and chloroplasts, and the activities of both granule-bound forms of SBEII in amyloplasts were unaffected by dephosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments using peptide-specific anti-SBE antibodies showed that SBEIIb and starch phosphorylase each coimmunoprecipitated with SBEI in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, suggesting that these enzymes may form protein complexes within the amyloplast in vivo. Conversely, dephosphorylation of immunoprecipitated protein complex led to its disassembly. This article reports direct evidence that enzymes of starch metabolism (amylopectin synthesis) are regulated by protein phosphorylation and indicate a wider role for protein phosphorylation and protein-protein interactions in the control of starch anabolism and catabolism.  (+info)

ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase 1 (ADG1); FUNCTIONS IN: glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase activity; INVOLVED IN: photoperiodism, flowering, starch biosynthetic process; LOCATED IN: heterotetrameric ADPG pyrophosphorylase complex, apoplast, chloroplast, chloroplast stroma; EXPRESSED IN: 28 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 14 growth stages; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (InterPro:IPR011831), ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, conserved site (InterPro:IPR005836), Nucleotidyl transferase (InterPro:IPR005835); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunit 1 (TAIR:AT5G19220.1); Has 1807 Blast hits to 1807 proteins in 277 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria - 0; Metazoa - 736; Fungi - 347; Plants - 385; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 339 (source: NCBI BLink ...
Involved in the biosynthesis of ADP-glucose, a building block, required in the biosynthesis of maltose-1-phosphate (M1P) and in the elongation reactions to produce linear alpha-1,4-glucans. Catalyzes the reaction between ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) to produce pyrophosphate and ADP-Glc.
MORÁN ZORZANO, María Teresa (2006) ADPglucose metabolism in bacteria and plants. PhD thesis, UPNA.. Texto completo no está disponible desde este repositorio ...
I am new to Cedar Park and needed to find a new vet for my pets, one of whom has special needs. As soon as I took the tour, I was hooked. Friendly, knowledgeable staff, and the cleanest vet clinic Ive been in.-Chelaine. Loved the TLC and patience given!-Kathy. The staff and Dr.s are always friendly and we are taken back almost as soon as we get there.-Anonymous. I have been coming to Dr. Schubert for 8 years and she has shown nothing but genuine concern and caring for my animals, through life and death. The staff is also personable and caring, always putting your pet first.-Anonymous. You definitely get the feeling as though they treat your pet as if it were their own.-Sean. We are new to having a fur companion and had lots of questions and concerns regarding our puppy. CCPC addressed the ones that we could remember along with what to expect and their recommendations. -Christel. My pets are part of my family, and Dr. Bouloy really understands. He and his staff are always caring and never too ...
Thymidine diphosphate glucose (often abbreviated dTDP-glucose or TDP-glucose) is a nucleotide-linked sugar consisting of deoxythymidine diphosphate linked to glucose. It is the starting compound for the syntheses of many deoxysugars. DTDP-glucose is produced by the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase and is synthesized from dTTP and glucose-1-phosphate. Pyrophosphate is a byproduct of the reaction. DTDP-glucose goes on to form a variety of compounds in nucleotide sugars metabolism. Many bacteria utilize dTDP-glucose to form exotic sugars that are incorporated into their lipopolysaccharides or into secondary metabolites such as antibiotics. During the syntheses of many of these exotic sugars, dTDP-glucose undergoes a combined oxidation/reduction reaction via the enzyme dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase, producing dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-glucose. Xue M. He & Hung-wen Liu (2002). "Formation of unusual sugars: Mechanistic studies and biosynthetic applications". Annu Rev Biochem. 71: 701-754. ...
Check Anette Preiss and Hohenheim Universität: free people check with all available information for the name on the internet, Yasni.com Free People Search
Author: Trethewey, R. N. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1999; Keywords: adpglucose pyrophosphorylase|br/|glycolysis|br/|invertase|br/|partitioning|br/|potato tubers|br/|starch metabolism|br/|sugar signalling|br/|increased adpglucose pyrophosphorylase|br/|yeast-derived invertase|br/|solanum-tuberosum|br/|tobacco plants|br/|gene-expression|br/|metabolism|br/|glucose|br/|leads|br/|carbohydrate|br/|accumulation; Title: Induction of the activity of glycolytic enzymes correlates with enhanced hydrolysis of sucrose in the cytosol of transgenic potato tubers
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
1972). Plant Physiol. 49, 249-251. Macdonald, F. , (1983a). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 755, 81-89. Macdonald, F. , and ap Rees, T. (1983b). Phytochemistry 22, 1141-1143. Macdonald, F. , and Preiss, J. (1983). Plant Physiol. 73, 175-178. Manners, D. J. (1985). In "Biochemistry of Storage Carbohydrates in Green Plants" (P. M. Dey and R. A. ), pp. 149-203. Academic Press, New York. Mettler, I. , and Beevers, H. (1980). Plant Physiol. 66, 555-560. , and Copeland, L. (1984). Plant Physiol. 74, 1030-1034. In "Regulation of Carbon Partitioning in Photosynthetic Tissues" (R. L. Heath and J. ), pp. 231-253. Waverly Press, Baltimore. Ziegler, H. (1975). Encycl. Plant Physiol. 1, 59-136. Recent Advances in Sugar Transport 2 W. J. LUCAS M. A. MADORE I. Introduction II. Sucrose: The Ubiquitous Transport Sugar A. Chemical Structure B. Surface Structure C. Carrier Recognition III. Carrier-Mediated Sugar Transport Mechanisms A. Photosynthesizing Tissues B. Storage Tissues IV. Group Translocator Concept for Sucrose ...
"We would be very, very thankful if you brought it back," Lindsay Preiss said. "I'm just asking someone to please have it in your heart to do the right thing and give it back."
Harn Chee Hark , Bae Jung Myung , Lee Sang Sook , MIN Sung Ran , LIU Jang Ryol Plant and cell physiology 41(11), 1235-1242, 2000-11 参考文献28件 被引用文献4件 ...
Copyright in the material you requested is held by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (unless otherwise noted). This email ability is provided as a courtesy, and by using it you agree that you are requesting the material solely for personal, non-commercial use, and that it is subject to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Terms of Use. The information provided in order to email this topic will not be used to send unsolicited email, nor will it be furnished to third parties. Please refer to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Privacy Policy for further information ...
Previous studies have indicated that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGlc PPase) from the cyanobacteriumAnabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is more similar to higher-plant than to enteric bacterial enzymes
50 µCi quantities of [Glucose-14C(U)]-Uridine Diphosphate Glucose are available for your research. Application of [14C]Uridine can be found in: pyrimidine salvage and catabolism in mangrove species in plant science research, long-term effect of NaCl on the activity of uridine and uracil salvage for nucleotide synthesis in plant science research, glutathione-induced growth of embryogenic tissue of white spruce correlating with changes in pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism in plant science research, etc.. Special Information ...
50 µCi quantities of [Glucose-14C(U)]-Uridine Diphosphate Glucose are available for your research. Application of [14C]Uridine can be found in: pyrimidine salvage and catabolism in mangrove species in plant science research, long-term effect of NaCl on the activity of uridine and uracil salvage for nucleotide synthesis in plant science research, glutathione-induced growth of embryogenic tissue of white spruce correlating with changes in pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism in plant science research, etc.. Special Information ...
10 µCi quantities of [Glucose-14C(U)]-Uridine Diphosphate Glucose are available for your research. Application of [14C]Uridine can be found in: pyrimidine salvage and catabolism in mangrove species in plant science research, long-term effect of NaCl on the activity of uridine and uracil salvage for nucleotide synthesis in plant science research, glutathione-induced growth of embryogenic tissue of white spruce correlating with changes in pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism in plant science research, etc. Special Information ...
Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully
Flegr J, Hampl R, Černochová D, Preiss M, Bičíková M, Sieger L, Příplatová L, Kaňková Š, Klose J. The relation of cortisol and sex hormone levels to results of psychological, performance, IQ and memory tests in military men and women. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2012 Jan; 33(2): 224-235 ...
Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.
Jessup M Shively, Gordon C Cannon, Sabine Heinhorst, Donald A Bryant, Shiladitya DasSarma, Dennis Bazylinski, Jack Preiss, Alexander Steinbüchel, Roberto Docampo, Christiane ...
casSAR Dugability of Q7XNX6 | SUS7 | Sucrose synthase 7 - Also known as SUS7_ORYSJ, SUS7. Sucrose-cleaving enzyme that provides UDP-glucose and fructose for various metabolic pathways.
1BGT: Crystal structure of the DNA modifying enzyme beta-glucosyltransferase in the presence and absence of the substrate uridine diphosphoglucose.
Ribbon representation of the structure of an enzyme known as ATP-PRT from TB bacteria (blue), bound to an allosteric activator (pink).
Maize (is activated by Fru-6-P (F-6-P) and inhibited by inorganic phosphate (Pi) whereas the AGPase is activated by Fru-1 6 but inhibited by AMP. (small subunit homotetramer; Jin et al. 2005 HA14-1 Although both buildings reveal inactive conformations because of high concentrations of ammonium sulfate in the crystallization buffer important info about potential substrate-binding sites was forecasted by molecular modeling predicated on the known buildings of thymidilyltransferases. While this course of enzymes most likely binds glucose phosphates very much the same as AGPases thymidilyltransferases arent governed allosterically. Both HA14-1 AGPase crystal buildings claim that the enzyme features being a dimer of dimers like the system suggested for the enzyme based on ligand-binding research (Haugen and Preiss 1979 All obtainable evidence network marketing leads to the final outcome that tetramers are necessary for AGPase catalytic activity. Both obtainable AGPase crystal buildings present two ...
Two absolutely conserved histidines and a third highly conserved histidine are noted in 11 bacterial and plant ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases. These histidines were individually mutagenized in the E. coli enzyme to glutamine in order to determine their function. Glutamine mutations at residues 143 and 156 produced functional enzymes in cell extracts with slightly lower than wild-type specific catalytic activities and with same heat stability characteristics of the wild-type enzyme. Substitution of residue 83 with glutamine however produced an enzyme having decreased thermal stability. Additional mutageneses at residue 83 with asparagine, arginine, or aspartate gave rise to enzymes having a progressively decreasing trend in thermal stability. These mutants are more susceptible to proteolysis than wild-type enzyme. Kinetic analysis of H83Q and H83N indicates that histidine 83 is not involved in the catalytic mechanism or in substrate binding but possibly in maintenance of the active catalytic structure.
Different studies concerning starch metabolism in potato and tomato have suggested that AGPase activity plays an important role in regulation (Geigenberger et al., 1999; Sweetlove et al., 1999; Geigenberger, 2011). AGPase activity is known to be modulated via several different mechanisms. AGPase is sensitive to allosteric regulation, being inhibited by inorganic phosphate and activated by 3-phosphoglycerate (3PGA; Sowokinos, 1981; Sowokinos and Preiss, 1982). Additionally, it has been demonstrated to be transcriptionally regulated by sugars, nitrate, phosphate, and trehalose-6-phosphate (Müller-Röber et al., 1990; Nielsen et al., 1998; Kolbe et al., 2005; Michalska et al., 2009). Moreover, it has been described that AGPase is also redox regulated (Tiessen et al., 2002; Centeno et al., 2011), with malic acid potentially being a key component in this process at least in photosynthetically active tissues (Szecowka et al., 2012).. In tomato, as previously mentioned, a differential regulation of ...
I am a semi-retired Virtual Assistant. I do transcription work when I am not writing mysteries and documenting my family history. I am a member of the Genealogy Club of Newtown, CT, Fredericksburg Regional Genealogical Society, Manatee (FL) Genealogical Society, Anna Maria (FL) Historical Society, Ulysses (NY) Historical Society, and Historic Fredericksburg Foundation, Inc. I am a member of the Central Virginia Chapter of Sisters in Crime, Old Town Sleuths, and the CRRL Inklings Writing Group ...
The resulting altered UMP ratio indirectly influences starch biosynthesis. In wild-type plants, a portion of the cellular glucose-1-phosphate is not used for starch biosynthesis but is converted to sucrose with the help of UDP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) and sucrose synthase. UGPase needs UTP for the synthesis of UDP-glucose. The reduced de novo synthesis of UMP would, by extension, lead to a reduced UTP content and therfore prevent the reconversion of glucose-1-phosphate to sucrose. More glucose-1-phosphate will, therefore, be available for starch biosynthesis, resulting in a 10-20% increase in tuber weight maintaining a constant density ...
Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase, and ADP:aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. ... doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphosugar ...
Blood glucose storage into Beta-cells lead to glycolysis and cause ATP generation. The elevated ATP/adenosine diphosphate ratio ... This test can be used to diagnose diabetes or pre-diabetes Random plasma glucose test-the doctor checks one's blood glucose ... This test is used to detect diabetes or pre-diabetes Oral glucose tolerance test- measures an individual's blood glucose after ... "Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)". American Diabetes Association. Retrieved 2017-11-07. "Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Glucose)". ...
Creatine phosphate stores energy so ATP can be rapidly regenerated within the muscle cells from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ... Glycogen is the intramuscular storage form of glucose, used to generate energy quickly once intramuscular creatine stores are ... They include molecules such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glycogen and creatine phosphate. ATP binds to the myosin head and ...
... adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.075 --- adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125 --- ... uridine diphosphate glucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.375 --- uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.800 ... poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.200 --- cytidine diphosphate diglycerides MeSH D09.408.620.569.400 --- ... adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125.040 --- o-acetyl-adp-ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125.195 --- ...
This enzyme catalyzes a reaction that combines phosphocreatine and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into ATP and creatine. This ... Rate of glucose appearance is dictated by the amount of glucose being absorbed at the gut as well as liver (hepatic) glucose ... Plasma glucose is said to be maintained when there is an equal rate of glucose appearance (entry into the blood) and glucose ... which removes a phosphate group from glucose-6-P to release free glucose. In order for glucose to exit a cell membrane, the ...
Animals use the energy released in the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to convert ADP to ATP, which can then be used ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... while the adenosine attaches to the 1' carbon. ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ...
... adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, ... Ghosh HP, Preiss J (1966). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. A regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis of starch ... diphosphate + ADP-glucose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, whereas its two ... alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. Other names in common use include ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase, glucose 1- ...
... is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) when the phosphate is removed. The reaction ... Phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate by GK facilitates storage of glucose as glycogen and disposal by glycolysis. ... certain glucose-sensing neurons alter their firing rates in response to rising or falling levels of glucose. These glucose- ... Glucose-sensitive neurons of the hypothalamus In response to rising or falling levels of glucose, cells in the hypothalamus ...
Important molecules: ADP - Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (Adenosine pyrophosphate (APP)) is an important organic compound in ... Glucose - An important simple sugar used by cells as a source of energy and as a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the ... Lactic acid fermentation - An anaerobic metabolic process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted ... Often called "cellular power plants", mitochondria generate most of cells' supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the body's ...
ATP can undergo hydrolysis in two ways: the removal of terminal phosphate to form adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic ... When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and ... or the removal of a terminal diphosphate to yield adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and pyrophosphate. The latter usually undergoes ... Animals such as cows (ruminants) are able to hydrolyze cellulose into cellobiose and then glucose because of symbiotic bacteria ...
Inhibition of this step prevents the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which results ... Glycogen deposits in the muscle are a result of the interruption of normal glucose breakdown that regulates the breakdown of ... such as glucose) for energy. Unlike most other glycogen storage diseases, it directly affects glycolysis. The mutation impairs ... treatment is that the low-carb high fat diet forces the body to use fatty acids as a primary energy source instead of glucose. ...
... adenosine diphosphate) molecule, contributing 2 O overall Charges are balanced by the difference between ADP and ATP. In the ... Glucose Hexokinase ATP ADP Glucose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase Fructose 6-phosphate phosphofructokinase-1 ATP ADP ... Since glucose leads to two triose sugars in the preparatory phase, each reaction in the pay-off phase occurs twice per glucose ... This causes liver glycogen to be converted back to G6P, and then converted to glucose by the liver-specific enzyme glucose 6- ...
Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule, contributing 2 O overall ... D-Glucose (Glc) Hexokinase (HK). a transferase α-D-Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) ... Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term[1] for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H ... When glucose has been converted into G6P by hexokinase or glucokinase, it can either be converted to glucose-1-phosphate (G1P) ...
... causing the active site of the synthase domain to change shape and phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate - turning it into ATP. ... The generation of glucose from compounds like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, glycerate 3-phosphate and amino acids is called ... Bouché C, Serdy S, Kahn C, Goldfine A (2004). "The cellular fate of glucose and its relevance in type 2 diabetes". Endocr Rev. ... Insulin is produced in response to rises in blood glucose levels. Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then ...
It allows protons to pass through the membrane and uses the free energy difference to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate (ADP ... Molecules such as glucose are metabolized to produce acetyl CoA as an energy-rich intermediate. The oxidation of acetyl ... An example of this would be the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane ... The theory suggests essentially that most adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in respiring cells comes from the ...
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Leucine l-isoleucine l-valine Guanosine diphosphate Additionally, Mice GLDH shows substrate ... This regulation is relaxed in response to caloric restriction and low blood glucose. Under these circumstances, glutamate ... Allosteric inhibitors: Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Palmitoyl-CoA Zn2+ Activators: ... necessary to regulate the metabolism of amino acids as a method of controlling insulin secretion and regulating blood glucose ...
... and begins the synthesis of a polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chain, which acts as a signal ... since glucose oxidation is inhibited. But more recently it was suggested that inhibition of hexokinase activity leads to ...
... and Guanosine Diphosphate (GDP) to produce Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP), respectively. The net ... One example of an exception to this "rule" is the metabolism of glucose. Glycolysis results in the breakdown of glucose, but ... As glucose enters a cell, it is immediately phosphorylated by ATP to glucose 6-phosphate in the irreversible first step. In ... about a net release of energy in the form of a high energy phosphate bond formed with the energy carriers Adenosine Diphosphate ...
ATP synthase uses the energy from the flowing hydrogen ions to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate into adenosine triphosphate ... Alternatively, glucose monomers in the chloroplast can be linked together to make starch, which accumulates into the starch ... ATP is the phosphorylated version of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which stores energy in a cell and powers most cellular ... Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate can double up to form larger sugar molecules like glucose and fructose. These molecules are ...
The end result is a phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate as well as adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The enzymes can also help to ... Hexokinase is the most common enzyme that makes use of glucose when it first enters the cell. It converts D-glucose to glucose- ... Nucleoside diphosphate kinase catalyzes production of thymidine triphosphate, dTTP, which is used in DNA synthesis. Because of ... This is an important step in glycolysis because it traps glucose inside the cell due to the negative charge. In its ...
... an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + H2O adenosine 5'-phosphate + phosphate Fructose 1 ... phosphate Glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase, a type of enzyme called a phosphotransferase and is involved in mammalian starch ... 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), an important substrate involved in carbon fixation ... 6-bisphosphate, fructose sugar phosphorylated on carbons 1 and 6 Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (or fructose 2,6-diphosphate), ...
Abamectine Abietic acid Acetic acid Acetylcholine Actin Actinomycin D Adenine Adenosine Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine ... Gastrin Gelatin Geraniol Globulin Glucagon Glucosamine Glucose - C6H12O6 Glucose oxidase Glutamic acid Glutamine Glutathione ... monophosphate (AMP) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Adenylate cyclase Adonitol Adrenaline, epinephrine Adrenocorticotropic hormone ...
George A, Bell JE (December 1980). "Effects of adenosine 5'-diphosphate on bovine glutamate dehydrogenase: diethyl ... At initial diagnosis, hypoglycemia is corrected with intravenous glucose to normalize plasma glucose concentration and prevent ... The adenosine moiety binds down into a hydrophobic pocket with the ribose phosphate groups pointing up toward the pivot helix. ... As suggested for ADP it could be due to a competition between ATP and the adenosine moiety of the coenzyme at the active site. ...
On the other hand, suppression of the carbon source leads to the accumulation, of adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP). It ... It can also be converted into ThDP by thiamine-diphosphate kinase. Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) was chemically synthesized in ... ThTP is accumulated in the presence of glucose during amino acid starvation. ...
"Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5′-diphosphate" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 261 (27): ... The equation for the oxidation of glucose to lactic acid is:. C. 6H. 12O. 6 → 2 CH. 3CH(OH)COOH + 2 ATP. Anaerobic respiration ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. Found in all forms of life, ATP ... Adenosine 5′-(γ-thiotriphosphate) is an extremely common ATP analog in which one of the gamma-phosphate oxygens is replaced by ...
Their function is to convert the potential energy of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in ... This is thought to be caused by a blockage in the enzyme thiamine-diphosphate kinase, and therefore treatment in some patients ... Disorders of oxidative phosphorylation, the process by which cells produce their main energy source of adenosine triphosphate ( ... and thiamine diphosphate are commonly found but there is a reduced or absent level of thiamine triphosphate. ...
... guanosine diphosphate-glucose (GDP-Glc), thymidine diphosphate-glucose (TDP-Glc), and uridine diphosphate-glucose (UDP-Glc). In ... Purification and Properties of the Adenosine Diphosphate-Glucose and Uridine Diphosphate-Glucose Pyrophosphorylases of ... Purification and Properties of the Adenosine Diphosphate-Glucose and Uridine Diphosphate-Glucose Pyrophosphorylases of ... Purification and Properties of the Adenosine Diphosphate-Glucose and Uridine Diphosphate-Glucose Pyrophosphorylases of ...
Starch-Deficient Maize Mutant Lacking Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Activity. By Chia-Yin Tsai, Oliver E. ... Starch-Deficient Maize Mutant Lacking Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Activity. By Chia-Yin Tsai, Oliver E. ... Starch-Deficient Maize Mutant Lacking Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Activity Message Subject. (Your Name) has ... it completely lacks adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase activity in both endosperm and embryo tissue. ...
Adenosine diphosphate is an organic molecule that plays an important role in cellular metabolism, the process through which ... As glucose is degraded, the process generates ADP molecules. They end up being converted to ATP to supply the major source of ... Mitochondria convert adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a form of chemical energy. ... Adenosine diphosphate is a nucleotide composed of adenosine, which is comprised of the base adenine and the sugar ribose. ADP ...
... to produce equimolar amounts of glucose-1-phosphate and AMP. The enzyme responsible for this activity, referred to as ADPG ... to produce equimolar amounts of glucose-1-phosphate and AMP. The enzyme responsible for this activity, referred to as ADPG ...
... adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, ... Ghosh HP, Preiss J (1966). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. A regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis of starch ... diphosphate + ADP-glucose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, whereas its two ... alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. Other names in common use include ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase, glucose 1- ...
Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase, and ADP:aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. ... doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphosugar ...
What is adenosine diphosphate? Meaning of adenosine diphosphate medical term. What does adenosine diphosphate mean? ... Looking for online definition of adenosine diphosphate in the Medical Dictionary? adenosine diphosphate explanation free. ... ATP is also used to produce high-energy phosphorylated intermediary metabolites, such as glucose 6-phosphate. ... adenosine diphosphate. see ADP.. adenosine triphosphate. ; ATP; adenosine diphosphate; ADP intracellular biochemicals; ATP ...
Adenosine diphosphate. AGPase. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. AMP. Adenosine monophosphate. AOX. Alternative oxidase ... Née G, Zaffagnini M, Trost P et al (2009) Redox regulation of chloroplastic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase: a new role for f ... Ballicora MA, Frueauf JB, Fu Y et al (2000) Activation of the potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase by thioredoxin. J Biol ... Scheibe R, Anderson LE (1981) Dark modulation of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in ...
IR: insulin receptor; Y: tyrosine; S: serine; ATP: adenosine triphosphate; ADP: adenosine diphosphate; IRS1: insulin receptor ... Such inhibitory effects cause the glucose level in the cells to increase, prompting glucose uptake to halt; thus, the glucose ... IR: insulin receptor; Y: tyrosine; S: serine; ATP: adenosine triphosphate; ADP: adenosine diphosphate; IRS1: insulin receptor ... They also hypothesised that stevioside may only exert its glucose-depleting effects in specific high-blood-glucose conditions ( ...
ADENOSINE-5-DIPHOSPHATE. C10 H15 N5 O10 P2. XTWYTFMLZFPYCI-KQYNXXCUSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ... The mutant hexokinases bind both glucose 6-phosphate and glucose with high affinity to their N and C-terminal halves, and ADP, ... MUTANT MONOMER OF RECOMBINANT HUMAN HEXOKINASE TYPE I COMPLEXED WITH GLUCOSE, GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE, AND ADP. *DOI: 10.2210/ ... New Insights from the Crystal Structure of Recombinant Human Brain Hexokinase Complexed with Glucose and Glucose-6-Phosphate. ...
... in the stroma to form transiently stored starch which is degraded during the night and enters the cytosol as maltose or glucose ... in the stroma to form transiently stored starch which is degraded during the night and enters the cytosol as maltose or glucose ... glucose 6-phosphate; Pi, orthophosphate; ADP, adenosine diphosphate; ADP-G, ADP-glucose; Glc, glucose; Malt, maltose; Frc, ... Glucose transport across the membrane could be measured using 14C-glucose. Addition of high concentrations of unlabeled hexoses ...
ATP = adenosine triphosphate; ADP = adenosine diphosphate; G6PD = glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; NADP+ = nicotinamide ... Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a relatively common enzymopathy, but there are few publications relating ... 3. Abreu MP, Freire CCS, Miura RS: Anesthesia in Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Deficient Patient. Case Report; Rev Bras ... This report aimed at presenting a case of a Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient patient, undergoing ambulatory ...
Shanghai China). Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA) and k-carrageenan were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, USA ... glucose (GLU), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), creatine kinase (CK), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), triglycerides (TG) and ... 6-keto-PGF1α, 6-keto prostaglandin F1α; AA, arachidonic acid; ADP, adenosine diphosphate; AEE, aspirin eugenol ester; ALB, ... glucose; GPT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; P, phosphorus; PGI2, prostacyclin I2; PPP, platelet- ...
Adenosine Diphosphate * Adenosine Triphosphate * Glucose * Gatifloxacin * Moxifloxacin ... Moxifloxacin, but not ciprofloxacin or gatifloxacin significantly reduced the effect of 20mM glucose on the ATP/ADP ratio. The ... 100 μM of moxifloxacin abolished the NAD(P)H increase elicited by 20mM glucose, while gatifloxacin diminished it and ... Moxifloxacin also diminished the glucose-induced decrease of FAD-fluorescence, which reflects the intramitochondrial production ...
What is Adenosine diphosphate sugars? Meaning of Adenosine diphosphate sugars medical term. What does Adenosine diphosphate ... Looking for online definition of Adenosine diphosphate sugars in the Medical Dictionary? Adenosine diphosphate sugars ... ATP is also used to produce high-energy phosphorylated intermediary metabolites, such as glucose 6-phosphate. ... Related to Adenosine diphosphate sugars: adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist. adenosine. [ah-den ...
See also Adenosine diphosphate; Krebs cycle.. The Gale Encyclopedia of Science ×. Cite this article Pick a style below, and ... Forty percent of the glucose "burned" in cell respiration provides the organism with energy to drive its activities, while 60% ... Much of the energy released in each step is recaptured in the high-energy bonds of a chemical called adenosine triphosphate ( ... Much of the energy released in each step is recaptured in the high-energy bonds of a chemical called adenosine triphosphate ( ...
Glucose + 2 NAD+ + 2 Pi + 2 ADP → 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H2O. Steps 1 and 3 require the input of energy derived from ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5 carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1 carbon ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ...
A) Pathways mainly affected during hypoxia and glucose starvation. ADP, adenosine diphosphate; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; PDH ... Glucose starvation in the same HFK cultures elicited the exact opposite combination of changes in the optical metabolic ... Control of brown adipose tissue glucose and lipid metabolism by PPARγ. Front. Endocrinol. 2, 84 (2011).. ... Transport characteristics of HL-1 cells: A new model for the study of adenosine physiology in cardiomyocytes. Biochem. Cell ...
Characterization of adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase from developing maize seeds. HANNAH L. C. ... Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Small and Large Subunits of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Oriental Melon * * ... Isolation and analysis of a cDNA clone encoding the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from wheat. AINSWORTH C. ... The encoded primary sequence of a rice seed ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase subunit and its homology to a bacterial enzyme ...
Aggregation of blood platelets by adenosine diphosphate and its reversal. Nature 1962;194:927-929pmid:13871375. ... 15 mmol/L glucose, whereas it differed in the presence of 5 vs. 25 mmol/L glucose (P , 0.0001) and 15 vs. 25 mmol/L glucose (P ... 15 mmol/L glucose, whereas they differed in the presence of 5 vs. 25 mmol/L glucose (P , 0.0001) and 15 vs. 25 mmol/L glucose ( ... At 5 mmol/L glucose (n = 6): L-ASA vs. baseline, P , 0.001 (Student paired t test). At 25 mmol/L glucose (n = 6): L-ASA vs. ...
Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose 7. Glucose (Dextrose) 8. Oxidoreductases 9. benphothiamine (benfotiamine) ...
... serving as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases or adenosine diphosphate-ribosyltransferases. The mammalian ... Sirtuins in glucose and lipid metabolism.. Ye X1, Li M1, Hou T1, Gao T1, Zhu WG1, Yang Y1. ... In this review, we summarize the background of glucose and lipid metabolism concerning sirtuins and discuss the functions of ... SIRT6 plays important roles in several pathways concerning glucose and lipid metabolism. SIRT6 binds with HIF-1α and inhibits ...
Platelet aggregation to Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and Collagen - blood test for Platelet function test ... Insulin levels in blood in response to Glucose Challenge - Oral Glucose tolerance test (OGTT ) and Intra venous glucose ...
... channels couple the cellular metabolic state to electrical activity and are a critical link between blood glucose concentration ... Adenosine Diphosphate as an Intracellular Regulator of Insulin Secretion. By C. G. Nichols, S.-L. Shyng, A. Nestorowicz, B. ... Adenosine Diphosphate as an Intracellular Regulator of Insulin Secretion. By C. G. Nichols, S.-L. Shyng, A. Nestorowicz, B. ... Adenosine Diphosphate as an Intracellular Regulator of Insulin Secretion Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
ATP stands for "adenosine triphosphate," and ADP stands for "adenosine diphosphate." They bo... Full Answer , Filed Under: * ... This is done with glucose. So, when something is eaten and goes into the digestive system, the glucose creates ATP which can be ... ATP stands for Adenosine Triphosphate. It is made up of an adenosine molecule and three inorganic phosphates, or a triphosphate ... When one of the three phosphates are removed the resulting compound is called ADP, Adenosine Diphosphate. ...
  • Insulin resistance is also closely related to hyperinsulinemia, though high blood glucose is observed in the former while high insulin is observed in the latter. (hindawi.com)
  • We evaluated the changes in body weight, fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, blood coagulation profile, and platelet function. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment with camel milk or bovine milk reversed these abnormalities, resulting in weight gain, decreased blood glucose levels, and improved glucose tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • As a result, the concentrations of ATP and free ADP reflect the concentration of blood glucose. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In partial support of the above hypothesis, patients with a mutant glucokinase of abnormal affinity to glucose have an abnormal set point for glucose homeostasis ( 3 , 4 , 5 ), and other patients with K ATP channels with abnormally low affinity for ADP fail to turn off insulin release properly at low concentrations of blood glucose ( 6 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Reductions in intramuscular levels of ATP, phosphocreatine and glycogen, and low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) can impair skeletal muscle performance. (gssiweb.org)
  • At lower power outputs observed during prolonged endurance exercise, the oxidative ("aerobic") metabolism of carbohydrates (muscle glycogen and blood glucose, derived from liver glycogen/gluconeogenesis, or the gut when carbohydrate is ingested) and lipids (fatty acids derived from intramuscular and adipose tissue triglyceride stores) provides virtually all of the ATP required for the energy-dependent processes in skeletal muscle. (gssiweb.org)
  • Hypoglycemia is the most frequent metabolic abnormality in the newborn, but no consensus exists on what level of blood glucose is able to protect the brain and influence the child's neural development and which is the best course of management in cases labeled as hypoglycemia. (intechopen.com)
  • Since hyperglycemia is involved in the "aspirin resistance" occurring in diabetes, we aimed at evaluating whether high glucose interferes with the aspirin-induced inhibition of thromboxane synthesis and/or activation of the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) pathway in platelets. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, high glucose acutely reduces the antiaggregating effect of aspirin, does not modify the aspirin-induced inhibition of thromboxane synthesis, and inhibits the aspirin-induced activation of the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of mitochondrial superoxide overproduction in beta cells exposed to hyperglycemia could prevent a positive feed-forward loop of glucotoxicity that drives impaired glucose tolerance toward frank type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • The hamster SUR, containing the analogous mutation, had normal ATP sensitivity, but unlike wild-type channels, inhibition by ATP was not antagonized by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). (sciencemag.org)
  • BcsA-B undergoes feedback inhibition by UDP, competitive versus UDP-glucose. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Upon fixation of carbon dioxide in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells, triose phosphates either enter the cytosol for mainly sucrose formation or remain in the stroma to form transiently stored starch which is degraded during the night and enters the cytosol as maltose or glucose to be further metabolized to sucrose. (frontiersin.org)
  • Five (5) different solutions (distilled water (DW), sucrose, lactose, glucose and yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae), four (4) respirometers (test tubes, 1 mL graduated cylinder, pipettes, tubing and binding clips) and pipette pump were used. (ukessays.com)
  • Similar effects were seen with 30 mmol/l L-glucose, sucrose and galactose. (ovid.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds and Type II diabetes mellitus . (genecards.org)
  • Skeletal muscle burns 90 mg (0.5 mmol ) of glucose each minute during continuous activity (such as when repetitively extending the human knee), generating ≈24 W of mechanical energy, and since muscle energy conversion is only 22-26% efficient, ≈76 W of heat energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A physiological mixture of amino acids greatly stimulated insulin release at 0-30 mmol/l glucose but affected the concentration of free ADP only to a minor degree and significantly so only at ≤2 mmol/l glucose. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • With a background of 4 mmol/l amino acid, increasing glucose from 4 to 8 mmol/l led to a decrease of free ADP from ∼44 to ∼31 μmol/l. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Fasting human blood was incubated with different concentrations of D-glucose (5, 15 and 30 mmol/l) and other sugars without or with in vitro stimuli. (ovid.com)
  • Results from analyses showed no differences in relative changes for glucose, lactate and glycerol during baseline, ischaemia and reperfusion. (diva-portal.org)
  • Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder signified by high levels of glucose in the blood and can be categorised into two main groups. (hindawi.com)
  • DeFronzo [ 5 ] states that insulin resistance and Type II diabetes have been linked to clusters of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders including hypertension, obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction. (hindawi.com)
  • The additional resistance caused by glucose deprivation in cancer cells has clinical significance since solid tumors are known to have low level of glucose due to diffusion limited blood supply and higher metabolic activity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • DNA repair protein Ku, which is known to play a major role in cellular resistance to radiation, was significantly increased in glucose deprived cancer cells that showed enhanced radiation resistance. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Pert, J. H. 1979-05-06 00:00:00 An inexpensive, statically controlled cooling rate device consisting of a cassette of aluminum plates and cardboard insulation in a plastic bag was used to freeze platelets in liquid nitrogen with glycerol‐glucose as cryopro‐tectant. (deepdyve.com)
  • where they have some kind of warm and fuzzy picture where there is a plant and it's giving off the glucose and oxygen and, here is the fuzzy bunny. (brightstorm.com)
  • Typically, CO 2 and water are converted in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight into glucose, water while oxygen is released to the atmosphere to be used by other living organisms including ourselves. (al.us)
  • Recent studies have indicated that nutrient deprivation particularly glucose may play a major role in tumor cell tolerance to a generally oxidative stress environment in solid tumors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results have demonstrated, for the first time, that glucose deprivation mediated stress increased the expression of nuclear Ku and resistance to radiation induced oxidative stress in human cancer cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)