Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase: An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Uridine Diphosphate SugarsUridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.
(1/45) Granule-bound starch synthase I in isolated starch granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively.

Isoforms of starch synthase belonging to the granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) class synthesize the amylose component of starch in plants. Other granule-bound isoforms of starch synthase, such as starch synthase II (SSII), are unable to synthesize amylose. The kinetic properties of GBSSI and SSII that are responsible for these functional differences have been investigated using starch granules from embryos of wild-type peas and rug5 and lam mutant peas, which contain, respectively, both GBSSI and SSII, GBSSI but not SSII and SSII but not GBSSI. We show that GBSSI in isolated granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively, adding more than one glucose molecule for each enzyme-glucan encounter. Granule-bound SSII can elongate malto-oligosaccharides, but has a lower affinity for these than GBSSI and does not elongate processively. As a result of these properties GBSSI synthesizes longer malto-oligosaccharides than SSII. The significance of these results with respect to the roles of GBSSI and SSII in vivo is discussed.  (+info)

(2/45) Cloning, expression and characterization of YSA1H, a human adenosine 5'-diphosphosugar pyrophosphatase possessing a MutT motif.

The human homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YSA1 protein, YSA1H, has been expressed as a thioredoxin fusion protein in Escherichia coli. It is an ADP-sugar pyrophosphatase with similar activities towards ADP-ribose and ADP-mannose. Its activities with ADP-glucose and diadenosine diphosphate were 56% and 20% of that with ADP-ribose respectively, whereas its activity towards other nucleoside 5'-diphosphosugars was typically 2-10%. cADP-ribose was not a substrate. The products of ADP-ribose hydrolysis were AMP and ribose 5-phosphate. K(m) and k(cat) values with ADP-ribose were 60 microM and 5.5 s(-1) respectively. The optimal activity was at alkaline pH (7.4-9.0) with 2.5-5 mM Mg(2+) or 100-250 microM Mn(2+) ions; fluoride was inhibitory, with an IC(50) of 20 microM. The YSA1H gene, which maps to 10p13-p14, is widely expressed in all human tissues examined, giving a 1.4 kb transcript. The 41.6 kDa fusion protein behaved as an 85 kDa dimer on gel filtration. After cleavage with enterokinase, the 24.4 kDa native protein fragment ran on SDS/PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kDa. Immunoblot analysis with a polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant YSA1H revealed the presence of a protein of apparent molecular mass 33 kDa in various human cells, including erythrocytes. The sequence of YSA1H contains a MutT sequence signature motif. A major proposed function of the MutT motif proteins is to eliminate toxic nucleotide metabolites from the cell. Hence the function of YSA1H might be to remove free ADP-ribose arising from NAD(+) and protein-bound poly- and mono-(ADP-ribose) turnover to prevent the occurrence of non-enzymic protein glycation.  (+info)

(3/45) A possible role for pyrophosphate in the coordination of cytosolic and plastidial carbon metabolism within the potato tuber.

The early stages of tuber development are characterized by cell division, high metabolic activity, and the predominance of invertase as the sucrose (Suc) cleaving activity. However, during the subsequent phase of starch accumulation the cleavage of Suc occurs primarily by the action of Suc synthase. The mechanism that is responsible for this switch in Suc cleaving activities is currently unknown. One striking difference between the invertase and Suc synthase mediated cleavage of Suc is the direct involvement of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in the latter case. There is presently no convincing explanation of how the PPi required to support this process is generated in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. The major site of PPi production in a maturing potato tubers is likely to be the reaction catalyzed by ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, the first committed step of starch biosynthesis in amyloplasts. We present data based on the analysis of the PPi levels in various transgenic plants altered in starch and Suc metabolism that support the hypothesis that PPi produced in the plastid is used to support cytosolic Suc breakdown and that PPi is an important coordinator of cytosolic and plastidial metabolism in potato tubers.  (+info)

(4/45) Legume embryos develop in a hypoxic environment.

Specific morphological and biochemical characteristics of seeds can cause oxygen deficiency within maternal and embryonic tissues. In this study, optical sensors were used to measure O(2) profiles across developing seeds of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum and developmental and environmental modulations of internal O(2) levels were studied. In addition, the metabolic state of developing embryos was analysed by monitoring adenylate energy charge, adenylate nucleotides and the levels of nucleotide sugars. Within the seed coat O(2) concentration decreased sharply to approximately 3% towards the inner border. Lowest O(2) levels were detected within the endospermal cavity between the seed coat and embryo. It is probable that low seed coat permeability provides an hypoxic environment for legume embryo development. The O(2) concentration in embryonic tissue changed during development with the lowest levels in the early stages. Measured in darkness, the levels were below 3%, but increased upon illumination indicating that photosynthesis significantly contributes to internal O(2) levels. Only in very young embryos were ATP levels and energy charge low. Otherwise they were maintained at a constant higher value. ADP-glucose and UDP-glucose did not show large fluctuations. Throughout embryo development fermentative activity did not play a major role. Obviously, specific mechanisms prevent seed tissues from becoming anoxic during development. The possible role of low oxygen on seed metabolism and on the control of seed development in legumes is discussed.  (+info)

(5/45) Starch synthesis and carbon partitioning in developing endosperm.

The biosynthesis of starch is the major determinant of yield in cereal grains. In this short review, attention is focused on the synthesis of the soluble substrate for starch synthesis, ADPglucose (ADPG). Consideration is given to the pathway of ADPG production, its subcellular compartmentation, and the role of metabolite transporters in mediating its delivery to the site of starch synthesis. As ADPG is an activated sugar, the dependence of its production on respiration, changes which occur during development, and the constraints which ATP production may place on carbon partitioning into different end-products are discussed.  (+info)

(6/45) A low-starch barley mutant, riso 16, lacking the cytosolic small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, reveals the importance of the cytosolic isoform and the identity of the plastidial small subunit.

To provide information on the roles of the different forms of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm and the nature of the genes encoding their subunits, a mutant of barley, Riso 16, lacking cytosolic AGPase activity in the endosperm was identified. The mutation specifically abolishes the small subunit of the cytosolic AGPase and is attributable to a large deletion within the coding region of a previously characterized small subunit gene that we have called Hv.AGP.S.1. The plastidial AGPase activity in the mutant is unaffected. This shows that the cytosolic and plastidial small subunits of AGPase are encoded by separate genes. We purified the plastidial AGPase protein and, using amino acid sequence information, we identified the novel small subunit gene that encodes this protein. Studies of the Riso 16 mutant revealed the following. First, the reduced starch content of the mutant showed that a cytosolic AGPase is required to achieve the normal rate of starch synthesis. Second, the mutant makes both A- and B-type starch granules, showing that the cytosolic AGPase is not necessary for the synthesis of these two granule types. Third, analysis of the phylogenetic relationships between the various small subunit proteins both within and between species, suggest that the cytosolic AGPase single small subunit gene probably evolved from a leaf single small subunit gene.  (+info)

(7/45) Identification and characterization of a critical region in the glycogen synthase from Escherichia coli.

The cysteine-specific reagent 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) inactivates the Escherichia coli glycogen synthase (Holmes, E., and Preiss, J. (1982) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 216, 736-740). To find the responsible residue, all cysteines, Cys(7), Cys(379), and Cys(408), were substituted combinatorially by Ser. 5,5'-Dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) modified and inactivated the enzyme if and only if Cys(379) was present and it was prevented by the substrate ADP-glucose (ADP-Glc). Mutations C379S and C379A increased the S(0.5) for ADP-Glc 40- and 77-fold, whereas the specific activity was decreased 5.8- and 4.3-fold, respectively. Studies of inhibition by glucose 1-phosphate and AMP indicated that Cys(379) was involved in the interaction of the enzyme with the phosphoglucose moiety of ADP-Glc. Other mutations, C379T, C379D, and C379L, indicated that this site is intolerant for bulkier side chains. Because Cys(379) is in a conserved region, other residues were scanned by mutagenesis. Replacement of Glu(377) by Ala and Gln decreased V(max) more than 10,000-fold without affecting the apparent affinity for ADP-Glc and glycogen binding. Mutation of Glu(377) by Asp decreased V(max) only 57-fold indicating that the negative charge of Glu(377) is essential for catalysis. The activity of the mutation E377C, on an enzyme form without other Cys, was chemically restored by carboxymethylation. Other conserved residues in the region, Ser(374) and Gln(383), were analyzed by mutagenesis but found not essential. Comparison with the crystal structure of other glycosyltransferases suggests that this conserved region is a loop that is part of the active site. The results of this work indicate that this region is critical for catalysis and substrate binding.  (+info)

(8/45) Protein phosphorylation in amyloplasts regulates starch branching enzyme activity and protein-protein interactions.

Protein phosphorylation in amyloplasts and chloroplasts of Triticum aestivum (wheat) was investigated after the incubation of intact plastids with gamma-(32)P-ATP. Among the soluble phosphoproteins detected in plastids, three forms of starch branching enzyme (SBE) were phosphorylated in amyloplasts (SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb), and both forms of SBE in chloroplasts (SBEI and SBEIIa) were shown to be phosphorylated after sequencing of the immunoprecipitated (32)P-labeled phosphoproteins using quadrupole-orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometry. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the phosphorylated SBE forms indicated that the proteins are all phosphorylated on Ser residues. Analysis of starch granule-associated phosphoproteins after incubation of intact amyloplasts with gamma-(32)P-ATP indicated that the granule-associated forms of SBEII and two granule-associated forms of starch synthase (SS) are phosphorylated, including SSIIa. Measurement of SBE activity in amyloplasts and chloroplasts showed that phosphorylation activated SBEIIa (and SBEIIb in amyloplasts), whereas dephosphorylation using alkaline phosphatase reduced the catalytic activity of both enzymes. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation had no effect on the measurable activity of SBEI in amyloplasts and chloroplasts, and the activities of both granule-bound forms of SBEII in amyloplasts were unaffected by dephosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments using peptide-specific anti-SBE antibodies showed that SBEIIb and starch phosphorylase each coimmunoprecipitated with SBEI in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, suggesting that these enzymes may form protein complexes within the amyloplast in vivo. Conversely, dephosphorylation of immunoprecipitated protein complex led to its disassembly. This article reports direct evidence that enzymes of starch metabolism (amylopectin synthesis) are regulated by protein phosphorylation and indicate a wider role for protein phosphorylation and protein-protein interactions in the control of starch anabolism and catabolism.  (+info)

*  Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase
... adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, ... Ghosh HP, Preiss J (1966). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. A regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis of starch ... diphosphate + ADP-glucose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, whereas its two ... alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. Other names in common use include ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase, glucose 1- ...
*  Aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase
Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase, and ADP:aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. ... doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphosugar ...
*  Adenosine diphosphate
Animals use the energy released in the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to convert ADP to ATP, which can then be used ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... while the adenosine attaches to the 1' carbon. ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D09)
... adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.075 --- adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125 --- ... uridine diphosphate glucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.375 --- uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.800 ... poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.200 --- cytidine diphosphate diglycerides MeSH D09.408.620.569.400 --- ... adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125.040 --- o-acetyl-adp-ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125.195 --- ...
*  Neonatal diabetes mellitus
Blood glucose storage into Beta-cells lead to glycolysis and cause ATP generation. The elevated ATP/adenosine diphosphate ratio ... This test can be used to diagnose diabetes or pre-diabetes Random plasma glucose test-the doctor checks one's blood glucose ... This test is used to detect diabetes or pre-diabetes Oral glucose tolerance test- measures an individual's blood glucose after ... "Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)". American Diabetes Association. Retrieved 2017-11-07. "Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Glucose)". ...
*  Weakness
Creatine phosphate stores energy so ATP can be rapidly regenerated within the muscle cells from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ... Glycogen is the intramuscular storage form of glucose, used to generate energy quickly once intramuscular creatine stores are ... They include molecules such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glycogen and creatine phosphate. ATP binds to the myosin head and ...
*  Exercise physiology
This enzyme catalyzes a reaction that combines phosphocreatine and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into ATP and creatine. This ... Rate of glucose appearance is dictated by the amount of glucose being absorbed at the gut as well as liver (hepatic) glucose ... Plasma glucose is said to be maintained when there is an equal rate of glucose appearance (entry into the blood) and glucose ... which removes a phosphate group from glucose-6-P to release free glucose. In order for glucose to exit a cell membrane, the ...
*  Glucokinase
... is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) when the phosphate is removed. The reaction ... Phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate by GK facilitates storage of glucose as glycogen and disposal by glycolysis. ... certain glucose-sensing neurons alter their firing rates in response to rising or falling levels of glucose. These glucose- ... Glucose-sensitive neurons of the hypothalamus In response to rising or falling levels of glucose, cells in the hypothalamus ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D13)
... adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.667.138.124.070.075 --- adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.667.138.124.070. ... adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.827.068.124.070.075 --- adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.827.068.124.070. ... adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D13.695.827.708.070.075 --- adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.827.708.070.125 --- ... uridine diphosphate galactose MeSH D13.695.740.850.600.677.350 --- uridine diphosphate glucose MeSH D13.695.740.850.600.677.375 ...
*  Outline of cell biology
Important molecules: ADP - Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (Adenosine pyrophosphate (APP)) is an important organic compound in ... Glucose - An important simple sugar used by cells as a source of energy and as a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the ... Lactic acid fermentation - An anaerobic metabolic process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted ... Often called "cellular power plants", mitochondria generate most of cells' supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the body's ...
*  Hydrolysis
ATP can undergo hydrolysis in two ways: the removal of terminal phosphate to form adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic ... When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and ... or the removal of a terminal diphosphate to yield adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and pyrophosphate. The latter usually undergoes ... Animals such as cows (ruminants) are able to hydrolyze cellulose into cellobiose and then glucose because of symbiotic bacteria ...
*  Phosphofructokinase deficiency
Inhibition of this step prevents the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which results ... Glycogen deposits in the muscle are a result of the interruption of normal glucose breakdown that regulates the breakdown of ... such as glucose) for energy. Unlike most other glycogen storage diseases, it directly affects glycolysis. The mutation impairs ... treatment is that the low-carb high fat diet forces the body to use fatty acids as a primary energy source instead of glucose. ...
*  Glycolysis
... adenosine diphosphate) molecule, contributing 2 O overall Charges are balanced by the difference between ADP and ATP. In the ... Glucose Hexokinase ATP ADP Glucose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase Fructose 6-phosphate phosphofructokinase-1 ATP ADP ... Since glucose leads to two triose sugars in the preparatory phase, each reaction in the pay-off phase occurs twice per glucose ... This causes liver glycogen to be converted back to G6P, and then converted to glucose by the liver-specific enzyme glucose 6- ...
*  Metabolism
... causing the active site of the synthase domain to change shape and phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate - turning it into ATP. ... The generation of glucose from compounds like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, glycerate 3-phosphate and amino acids is called ... Bouché C, Serdy S, Kahn C, Goldfine A (2004). "The cellular fate of glucose and its relevance in type 2 diabetes". Endocr Rev. ... Insulin is produced in response to rises in blood glucose levels. Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then ...
*  Chemiosmosis
It allows protons to pass through the membrane and uses the free energy difference to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate (ADP ... Molecules such as glucose are metabolized to produce acetyl CoA as an energy-rich intermediate. The oxidation of acetyl ... An example of this would be the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane ... The theory suggests essentially that most adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in respiring cells comes from the ...
*  Glutamate dehydrogenase
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Leucine l-isoleucine l-valine Guanosine diphosphate Additionally, Mice GLDH shows substrate ... This regulation is relaxed in response to caloric restriction and low blood glucose. Under these circumstances, glutamate ... Allosteric inhibitors: Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Palmitoyl-CoA Zn2+ Activators: ... necessary to regulate the metabolism of amino acids as a method of controlling insulin secretion and regulating blood glucose ...
*  Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase
... and begins the synthesis of a polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chain, which acts as a signal ... since glucose oxidation is inhibited. But more recently it was suggested that inhibition of hexokinase activity leads to ...
*  Metabolic pathway
... and Guanosine Diphosphate (GDP) to produce Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP), respectively. The net ... One example of an exception to this "rule" is the metabolism of glucose. Glycolysis results in the breakdown of glucose, but ... As glucose enters a cell, it is immediately phosphorylated by ATP to glucose 6-phosphate in the irreversible first step. In ... about a net release of energy in the form of a high energy phosphate bond formed with the energy carriers Adenosine Diphosphate ...
*  Chloroplast
ATP synthase uses the energy from the flowing hydrogen ions to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate into adenosine triphosphate ... Alternatively, glucose monomers in the chloroplast can be linked together to make starch, which accumulates into the starch ... ATP is the phosphorylated version of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which stores energy in a cell and powers most cellular ... Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate can double up to form larger sugar molecules like glucose and fructose. These molecules are ...
*  Kinase
The end result is a phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate as well as adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The enzymes can also help to ... Hexokinase is the most common enzyme that makes use of glucose when it first enters the cell. It converts D-glucose to glucose- ... Nucleoside diphosphate kinase catalyzes production of thymidine triphosphate, dTTP, which is used in DNA synthesis. Because of ... This is an important step in glycolysis because it traps glucose inside the cell due to the negative charge. In its ...
*  Bisphosphate
... an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + H2O adenosine 5'-phosphate + phosphate Fructose 1 ... phosphate Glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase, a type of enzyme called a phosphotransferase and is involved in mammalian starch ... 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), an important substrate involved in carbon fixation ... 6-bisphosphate, fructose sugar phosphorylated on carbons 1 and 6 Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (or fructose 2,6-diphosphate), ...
*  List of biomolecules
Abamectine Abietic acid Acetic acid Acetylcholine Actin Actinomycin D Adenine Adenosine Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine ... Gastrin Gelatin Geraniol Globulin Glucagon Glucosamine Glucose - C6H12O6 Glucose oxidase Glutamic acid Glutamine Glutathione ... monophosphate (AMP) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Adenylate cyclase Adonitol Adrenaline, epinephrine Adrenocorticotropic hormone ...
*  Glutamate dehydrogenase 1
George A, Bell JE (December 1980). "Effects of adenosine 5'-diphosphate on bovine glutamate dehydrogenase: diethyl ... At initial diagnosis, hypoglycemia is corrected with intravenous glucose to normalize plasma glucose concentration and prevent ... The adenosine moiety binds down into a hydrophobic pocket with the ribose phosphate groups pointing up toward the pivot helix. ... As suggested for ADP it could be due to a competition between ATP and the adenosine moiety of the coenzyme at the active site. ...
*  Thiamine triphosphate
On the other hand, suppression of the carbon source leads to the accumulation, of adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP). It ... It can also be converted into ThDP by thiamine-diphosphate kinase. Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) was chemically synthesized in ... ThTP is accumulated in the presence of glucose during amino acid starvation. ...
*  Flavin group
The flavin moiety is often attached with an adenosine diphosphate to form flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and, in other ... glucose oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and acyl CoA dehydrogenase. FADH and FADH2 are reduced forms of FAD. FADH2 is produced as a ...
*  Index of biochemistry articles
... adenosine - adenosine diphosphate (ADP) - adenosine monophosphate (AMP) - adenosine triphosphate (ATP) - adenovirus - ... glucose - glutamate - glutamate receptor - Glutamic acid - Glutamine - Glycerine - Glycine - glycine receptor - glycolipid - ...
Molecular cloning and expression of the gene encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from the cyanobacteriumAnabaenasp. strain...  Molecular cloning and expression of the gene encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from the cyanobacteriumAnabaenasp. strain...
Previous studies have indicated that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGlc PPase) from the cyanobacteriumAnabaena sp. strain ... Ghosh HP, Preiss J: Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase: A regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis of starch in ... Activation and inhibition of the adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase ofEscherichia coli B. Biochemistry 5: 1833- ... Anderson JM, Hnilo J, Larson R, Okita TW, Morell M, Preiss J: The encoded primary sequence of a rice seed ADP-glucose ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00029147
Functional analysis of conserved histidines in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Escherichia coli. - Semantic Scholar  Functional analysis of conserved histidines in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Escherichia coli. - Semantic Scholar
Two absolutely conserved histidines and a third highly conserved histidine are noted in 11 bacterial and plant ADP-glucose ... Adenosine Diphosphate. *Glucose. *Histidine. *Aspartic Acid. *Asparagine. *Proteolysis. *Glutamine. Cited By. Showing 1-3 of 3 ... Crystal structure of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.. *Xiangshu Jin, Miguel A Ballicora, Jack Preiss, James H ... Functional analysis of conserved histidines in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Escherichia coli.. *. Meredith A Hill, Jochen ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Functional-analysis-of-conserved-histidines-in-ADP-Hill-Preiss/14056a7c74bf62a66d9acb771c2bd24e1a8ed4b4
Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphatase: a plastidial phosphodiesterase that prevents starch biosynthesis  Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphatase: a plastidial phosphodiesterase that prevents starch biosynthesis
... to produce equimolar amounts of glucose-1-phosphate and AMP. The enzyme responsible for this activity, referred to as ADPG ... to produce equimolar amounts of glucose-1-phosphate and AMP. The enzyme responsible for this activity, referred to as ADPG ...
more infohttp://academica-e.unavarra.es/handle/2454/31888
Escherichia Coli ADPglucose Synthetase Substrate-Inhibitor Binding Sites Studied by Site(S) Directed Chemical Modification and...  Escherichia Coli ADPglucose Synthetase Substrate-Inhibitor Binding Sites Studied by Site(S) Directed Chemical Modification and...
... a-glucose 1-P ⇌ ADPglucose + PPiADPglucose is the glucosyl donor for starch synthesis in... ... ADPglucose synthetase catalyzes the synthesis of ADPglucose from α-glucose 1-P and ATP (reaction 1) (1) ATP + ... J. Preiss, Regulation of adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, Adv. Enyzmol. Related areas Mol Biol. 46: 317-381 ( ... ADPglucose synthetase catalyzes the synthesis of ADPglucose from α-glucose 1-P and ATP (reaction 1) (1) ATP + a-glucose 1-P ⇌ ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4613-1787-6_58
CiNii 論文 - 
 		
 		
 			
 		 	
 		 		
 		 			Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Small and Large Subunits of ADP-Glucose...  CiNii 論文 - Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Small and Large Subunits of ADP-Glucose...
Characterization of adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase from developing maize seeds. HANNAH L. C. ... Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Small and Large Subunits of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Oriental Melon * * ... Isolation and analysis of a cDNA clone encoding the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from wheat. AINSWORTH C. ... The encoded primary sequence of a rice seed ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase subunit and its homology to a bacterial enzyme ...
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10002034272
Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase - Wikipedia  Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase - Wikipedia
... adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, ... Ghosh HP, Preiss J (1966). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. A regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis of starch ... diphosphate + ADP-glucose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, whereas its two ... alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. Other names in common use include ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase, glucose 1- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose-1-phosphate_adenylyltransferase
Amylolytic fermentation | Article about amylolytic fermentation by The Free Dictionary  Amylolytic fermentation | Article about amylolytic fermentation by The Free Dictionary
process by which the living cell is able to obtain energy through the breakdown of glucose glucose, dextrose, or grape sugar, ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and glucose-6-phosphate are formed during this process. The latter, under the action of the enzyme ... the first reaction in the conversion of glucose is the addition to the glucose of the phosphoric acid group from adenosine ... process by which the living cell is able to obtain energy through the breakdown of glucoseglucose,. dextrose,. or grape sugar, ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/amylolytic+fermentation
Frontiers | Recovery from stolbur disease in grapevine involves changes in sugar transport and metabolism | Plant Science  Frontiers | Recovery from stolbur disease in grapevine involves changes in sugar transport and metabolism | Plant Science
Its cleavage activity produces fructose and both uridine diphoshate-glucose (UDPG) and adenosine diphosphate-glucose (ADPG); ... Sucrose synthase utilizes sucrose to produce fructose and nucleoside diphosphate-glucose (mainly UDPG and ADPG; Winter and ... Accumulation of glucose and fructose in grapevine is mainly attributed to the cleavage activity of invertases (Davies and ... as a glucose donor to the growing polymer chain (Amor et al., 1995). Among SUS isoforms (at least five in grapevine), four were ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2013.00171/full
Aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase - Wikipedia  Aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase - Wikipedia
Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase, and ADP:aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. ... doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphosugar ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldose-1-phosphate_adenylyltransferase
Frontiers | Starch Trek: The Search for Yield | Plant Science  Frontiers | Starch Trek: The Search for Yield | Plant Science
Starch polymer formation (Figure 1B) involves the synthesis of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-glucose by ADP-glucose ... ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase-A Key Enzyme for Yield in Both Storage Organs and Leaves. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (Figure ... 2002). Enhanced ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity in wheat endosperm increases seed yield. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. ... Sucrose is degraded to glucose 6-phosphate, which is transported into amyloplasts by the glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2018.01930/full
Internet Scientific Publications  Internet Scientific Publications
ATP = adenosine triphosphate; ADP = adenosine diphosphate; G6PD = glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; NADP+ = nicotinamide ... Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a relatively common enzymopathy, but there are few publications relating ... 3. Abreu MP, Freire CCS, Miura RS: Anesthesia in Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Deficient Patient. Case Report; Rev Bras ... This report aimed at presenting a case of a Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient patient, undergoing ambulatory ...
more infohttp://ispub.com/IJA/11/2/4771
Charles Darwins Illness - Butterflies and Wheels  Charles Darwin's Illness - Butterflies and Wheels
... adenosine diphosphate), glucose and oxygen.[26] Regardless of the particular enzyme abnormality the end result is much the same ... A further mechanism is the conversion of two molecules of ADP to one of ATP and one of AMP (adenosine monophosphate). AMP is ... Mitochondria provide most of the energy for cellular function, producing ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from ADP ( ...
more infohttp://www.butterfliesandwheels.org/2011/charles-darwin%E2%80%99s-illness/
Genetic basis of maize kernel starch content revealed by high-density single nucleotide polymorphism markers in a recombinant...  Genetic basis of maize kernel starch content revealed by high-density single nucleotide polymorphism markers in a recombinant...
Starch-deficient maize mutant lacking adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. Science. 1966;151(3708):341-3. ... Although starch metabolism is complex, it is clear that four classes of enzymes, adenosine diphosphate glucose ... Glucose has a fundamental role in starch metabolism, and thus variation in ZmGAL expression may regulate the amount of glucose ... which converts glucose-1-phosphate to ADP-glucose, the precursor for starch synthesis [3, 5-7]. wx1, encoding granule-bound SS ...
more infohttps://0-bmcplantbiol-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/s12870-015-0675-2
Mapping metabolic changes by noninvasive, multiparametric, high-resolution imaging using endogenous contrast | Science Advances  Mapping metabolic changes by noninvasive, multiparametric, high-resolution imaging using endogenous contrast | Science Advances
A) Pathways mainly affected during hypoxia and glucose starvation. ADP, adenosine diphosphate; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; PDH ... Glucose starvation in the same HFK cultures elicited the exact opposite combination of changes in the optical metabolic ... Control of brown adipose tissue glucose and lipid metabolism by PPARγ. Front. Endocrinol. 2, 84 (2011).. ... Transport characteristics of HL-1 cells: A new model for the study of adenosine physiology in cardiomyocytes. Biochem. Cell ...
more infohttp://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/3/eaap9302.full
Carlos Eugenio Cardini - NeglectedScience  Carlos Eugenio Cardini - NeglectedScience
Adenosine diphosphate glucose and glucoside biosynthesis. Nature 195:1202, 1962 EPONYMY Leloir pathway or Leloir cycle or ... Biosynthesis of plant glycosides from uridine diphosphate glucose. Nature 182 (4647):1446-7, 1958 ... With L.F. Leloir described an alternative mechanism for synthesis of glycogen from UDP-glucose and glycogen synthase (1957) ... With L.F. Leloir suggested the involvement of uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine in chitin synthesis (1953) ...
more infohttp://www.neglectedscience.com/alphabetical-list/c/carlos-eugenio-cardini
High glucose levels enhance platelet activation: involvement of multiple mechanisms  High glucose levels enhance platelet activation: involvement of multiple mechanisms
High glucose levels enhanced adenosine diphosphate (ADP)- and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP)-induced platelet P- ... Fasting human blood was incubated with different concentrations of D-glucose (5, 15 and 30 mmol/l) and other sugars without or ... In conclusion, high glucose levels enhanced platelet reactivity to agonist stimulation through elevated osmolality. This ... Similar effects were seen with 30 mmol/l L-glucose, sucrose and galactose. Hyperglycaemia also increased TRAP-induced platelet- ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/bjha/200605030/00002328-200605030-00015
The Basics of Cellular Respiration  The Basics of Cellular Respiration
This is the process of breaking glucose into two molecules. It starts with glucose, ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and NAD. ... ADP, or adenosine diphosphate is also one of the starting molecules of cellular respiration. It is formed when one of the ... The first one is glucose, which is a sugar made of a 6 carbon ring. This is the starting molecule for cellular respiration and ... Cellular respiration uses glucose to produce the ATP our body needs to perform essential functions. I am going to treat this as ...
more infohttp://www.interactive-biology.com/4072/the-basics-of-cellular-respiration/
Sirtuins in glucose and lipid metabolism.  - PubMed - NCBI  Sirtuins in glucose and lipid metabolism. - PubMed - NCBI
... serving as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases or adenosine diphosphate-ribosyltransferases. The mammalian ... Sirtuins in glucose and lipid metabolism.. Ye X1, Li M1, Hou T1, Gao T1, Zhu WG1, Yang Y1. ... In this review, we summarize the background of glucose and lipid metabolism concerning sirtuins and discuss the functions of ... SIRT6 plays important roles in several pathways concerning glucose and lipid metabolism. SIRT6 binds with HIF-1α and inhibits ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27659520
Flagellar Motors - The Thunderbolts Project ™  Flagellar Motors - The Thunderbolts Project ™
This results in the formation of an ADP molecule (adenosine diphosphate), that is then "recharged" by the oxidation of glucose ... ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is the molecule that energizes most cellular functions. It acts like a battery for living ...
more infohttps://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/2017/12/15/flagellar-motors-3/
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Xiao-Guang Chen  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Xiao-Guang Chen
... the leaf photosynthetic rate and sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and the storage root's adenosine diphosphate glucose ... and adenosine (10) on the basis of spectroscopic data analysiS. All compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Xiao-Guang_Chen
  • ADPglucose synthetase catalyzes the synthesis of ADPglucose from α-glucose 1-P and ATP (reaction 1) (1) ATP + a-glucose 1-P ⇌ ADPglucose + PP i ADPglucose is the glucosyl donor for starch synthesis in plants and for glycogen synthesis in bacteria and ADPglucose synthetase has been shown to be the major regulatory enzyme for a 1,4 glucan sythesis in bacteria as well as in plants. (springer.com)
  • adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since hyperglycemia is involved in the "aspirin resistance" occurring in diabetes, we aimed at evaluating whether high glucose interferes with the aspirin-induced inhibition of thromboxane synthesis and/or activation of the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) pathway in platelets. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, high glucose acutely reduces the antiaggregating effect of aspirin, does not modify the aspirin-induced inhibition of thromboxane synthesis, and inhibits the aspirin-induced activation of the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In absence of glucose, cAMP concentration is high and cAMP binds to the catabolite activator protein (CAP), allowing the latter to bind to the promoter and initiate mRNA synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Starch is deposited as water-insoluble semicrystalline granules, which are chemically comprised of two homopolymers of α- d -glucose, amylose and amylopectin, in the maize endosperm. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We have studied the glucose-lactose shift in E. coli at the protein level using a recently developed mass spectrometry platform. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The protein expression profile was followed in time across the glucose-lactose diauxic shift using label-free quantitation from the FTICR data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A distinct phosphodiesterasic activity (EC 3.1.4) was found in both mono- and dicotyledonous plants that catalyzes the hydrolytic breakdown of ADPglucose (ADPG) to produce equimolar amounts of glucose-1-phosphate and AMP. (unavarra.es)
  • Cells were grown in minimal medium containing two sugars (glucose and lactose) and analyzed using novel mass spectrometry cluster. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides the measurement of ketones, analysing the glucose concentration in blood is reported as helpful instrument for diagnosis and differentiation of ketosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 6 ] found greater blood glucose concentration in cows that conceived at first insemination in comparison with unsuccessfully bred cows, and hypothesized that blood glucose concentration within the first 3 weeks after parturition can be used as predictor for the likelihood of pregnancy after first insemination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of capillary blood for blood glucose measurement in dairy cows using the hand-held devices FreeStyle Precision (FSP, Abbott), GlucoMen LX Plus (GLX, A. Menarini) and the WellionVet GLUCO CALEA, (WGC, MED TRUST). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 40%. These results suggest that both ADP and ATP may be involved in regulating the activity of the glucose-sensitive K+ channel in intact B-cells. (ox.ac.uk)