Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.
An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of UDPglucose from UTP plus glucose 1-phosphate. EC 2.7.7.9.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.

Granule-bound starch synthase I in isolated starch granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively. (1/45)

Isoforms of starch synthase belonging to the granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) class synthesize the amylose component of starch in plants. Other granule-bound isoforms of starch synthase, such as starch synthase II (SSII), are unable to synthesize amylose. The kinetic properties of GBSSI and SSII that are responsible for these functional differences have been investigated using starch granules from embryos of wild-type peas and rug5 and lam mutant peas, which contain, respectively, both GBSSI and SSII, GBSSI but not SSII and SSII but not GBSSI. We show that GBSSI in isolated granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively, adding more than one glucose molecule for each enzyme-glucan encounter. Granule-bound SSII can elongate malto-oligosaccharides, but has a lower affinity for these than GBSSI and does not elongate processively. As a result of these properties GBSSI synthesizes longer malto-oligosaccharides than SSII. The significance of these results with respect to the roles of GBSSI and SSII in vivo is discussed.  (+info)

Cloning, expression and characterization of YSA1H, a human adenosine 5'-diphosphosugar pyrophosphatase possessing a MutT motif. (2/45)

The human homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YSA1 protein, YSA1H, has been expressed as a thioredoxin fusion protein in Escherichia coli. It is an ADP-sugar pyrophosphatase with similar activities towards ADP-ribose and ADP-mannose. Its activities with ADP-glucose and diadenosine diphosphate were 56% and 20% of that with ADP-ribose respectively, whereas its activity towards other nucleoside 5'-diphosphosugars was typically 2-10%. cADP-ribose was not a substrate. The products of ADP-ribose hydrolysis were AMP and ribose 5-phosphate. K(m) and k(cat) values with ADP-ribose were 60 microM and 5.5 s(-1) respectively. The optimal activity was at alkaline pH (7.4-9.0) with 2.5-5 mM Mg(2+) or 100-250 microM Mn(2+) ions; fluoride was inhibitory, with an IC(50) of 20 microM. The YSA1H gene, which maps to 10p13-p14, is widely expressed in all human tissues examined, giving a 1.4 kb transcript. The 41.6 kDa fusion protein behaved as an 85 kDa dimer on gel filtration. After cleavage with enterokinase, the 24.4 kDa native protein fragment ran on SDS/PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kDa. Immunoblot analysis with a polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant YSA1H revealed the presence of a protein of apparent molecular mass 33 kDa in various human cells, including erythrocytes. The sequence of YSA1H contains a MutT sequence signature motif. A major proposed function of the MutT motif proteins is to eliminate toxic nucleotide metabolites from the cell. Hence the function of YSA1H might be to remove free ADP-ribose arising from NAD(+) and protein-bound poly- and mono-(ADP-ribose) turnover to prevent the occurrence of non-enzymic protein glycation.  (+info)

A possible role for pyrophosphate in the coordination of cytosolic and plastidial carbon metabolism within the potato tuber. (3/45)

The early stages of tuber development are characterized by cell division, high metabolic activity, and the predominance of invertase as the sucrose (Suc) cleaving activity. However, during the subsequent phase of starch accumulation the cleavage of Suc occurs primarily by the action of Suc synthase. The mechanism that is responsible for this switch in Suc cleaving activities is currently unknown. One striking difference between the invertase and Suc synthase mediated cleavage of Suc is the direct involvement of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in the latter case. There is presently no convincing explanation of how the PPi required to support this process is generated in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. The major site of PPi production in a maturing potato tubers is likely to be the reaction catalyzed by ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, the first committed step of starch biosynthesis in amyloplasts. We present data based on the analysis of the PPi levels in various transgenic plants altered in starch and Suc metabolism that support the hypothesis that PPi produced in the plastid is used to support cytosolic Suc breakdown and that PPi is an important coordinator of cytosolic and plastidial metabolism in potato tubers.  (+info)

Legume embryos develop in a hypoxic environment. (4/45)

Specific morphological and biochemical characteristics of seeds can cause oxygen deficiency within maternal and embryonic tissues. In this study, optical sensors were used to measure O(2) profiles across developing seeds of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum and developmental and environmental modulations of internal O(2) levels were studied. In addition, the metabolic state of developing embryos was analysed by monitoring adenylate energy charge, adenylate nucleotides and the levels of nucleotide sugars. Within the seed coat O(2) concentration decreased sharply to approximately 3% towards the inner border. Lowest O(2) levels were detected within the endospermal cavity between the seed coat and embryo. It is probable that low seed coat permeability provides an hypoxic environment for legume embryo development. The O(2) concentration in embryonic tissue changed during development with the lowest levels in the early stages. Measured in darkness, the levels were below 3%, but increased upon illumination indicating that photosynthesis significantly contributes to internal O(2) levels. Only in very young embryos were ATP levels and energy charge low. Otherwise they were maintained at a constant higher value. ADP-glucose and UDP-glucose did not show large fluctuations. Throughout embryo development fermentative activity did not play a major role. Obviously, specific mechanisms prevent seed tissues from becoming anoxic during development. The possible role of low oxygen on seed metabolism and on the control of seed development in legumes is discussed.  (+info)

Starch synthesis and carbon partitioning in developing endosperm. (5/45)

The biosynthesis of starch is the major determinant of yield in cereal grains. In this short review, attention is focused on the synthesis of the soluble substrate for starch synthesis, ADPglucose (ADPG). Consideration is given to the pathway of ADPG production, its subcellular compartmentation, and the role of metabolite transporters in mediating its delivery to the site of starch synthesis. As ADPG is an activated sugar, the dependence of its production on respiration, changes which occur during development, and the constraints which ATP production may place on carbon partitioning into different end-products are discussed.  (+info)

A low-starch barley mutant, riso 16, lacking the cytosolic small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, reveals the importance of the cytosolic isoform and the identity of the plastidial small subunit. (6/45)

To provide information on the roles of the different forms of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm and the nature of the genes encoding their subunits, a mutant of barley, Riso 16, lacking cytosolic AGPase activity in the endosperm was identified. The mutation specifically abolishes the small subunit of the cytosolic AGPase and is attributable to a large deletion within the coding region of a previously characterized small subunit gene that we have called Hv.AGP.S.1. The plastidial AGPase activity in the mutant is unaffected. This shows that the cytosolic and plastidial small subunits of AGPase are encoded by separate genes. We purified the plastidial AGPase protein and, using amino acid sequence information, we identified the novel small subunit gene that encodes this protein. Studies of the Riso 16 mutant revealed the following. First, the reduced starch content of the mutant showed that a cytosolic AGPase is required to achieve the normal rate of starch synthesis. Second, the mutant makes both A- and B-type starch granules, showing that the cytosolic AGPase is not necessary for the synthesis of these two granule types. Third, analysis of the phylogenetic relationships between the various small subunit proteins both within and between species, suggest that the cytosolic AGPase single small subunit gene probably evolved from a leaf single small subunit gene.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a critical region in the glycogen synthase from Escherichia coli. (7/45)

The cysteine-specific reagent 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) inactivates the Escherichia coli glycogen synthase (Holmes, E., and Preiss, J. (1982) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 216, 736-740). To find the responsible residue, all cysteines, Cys(7), Cys(379), and Cys(408), were substituted combinatorially by Ser. 5,5'-Dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) modified and inactivated the enzyme if and only if Cys(379) was present and it was prevented by the substrate ADP-glucose (ADP-Glc). Mutations C379S and C379A increased the S(0.5) for ADP-Glc 40- and 77-fold, whereas the specific activity was decreased 5.8- and 4.3-fold, respectively. Studies of inhibition by glucose 1-phosphate and AMP indicated that Cys(379) was involved in the interaction of the enzyme with the phosphoglucose moiety of ADP-Glc. Other mutations, C379T, C379D, and C379L, indicated that this site is intolerant for bulkier side chains. Because Cys(379) is in a conserved region, other residues were scanned by mutagenesis. Replacement of Glu(377) by Ala and Gln decreased V(max) more than 10,000-fold without affecting the apparent affinity for ADP-Glc and glycogen binding. Mutation of Glu(377) by Asp decreased V(max) only 57-fold indicating that the negative charge of Glu(377) is essential for catalysis. The activity of the mutation E377C, on an enzyme form without other Cys, was chemically restored by carboxymethylation. Other conserved residues in the region, Ser(374) and Gln(383), were analyzed by mutagenesis but found not essential. Comparison with the crystal structure of other glycosyltransferases suggests that this conserved region is a loop that is part of the active site. The results of this work indicate that this region is critical for catalysis and substrate binding.  (+info)

Protein phosphorylation in amyloplasts regulates starch branching enzyme activity and protein-protein interactions. (8/45)

Protein phosphorylation in amyloplasts and chloroplasts of Triticum aestivum (wheat) was investigated after the incubation of intact plastids with gamma-(32)P-ATP. Among the soluble phosphoproteins detected in plastids, three forms of starch branching enzyme (SBE) were phosphorylated in amyloplasts (SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb), and both forms of SBE in chloroplasts (SBEI and SBEIIa) were shown to be phosphorylated after sequencing of the immunoprecipitated (32)P-labeled phosphoproteins using quadrupole-orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometry. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the phosphorylated SBE forms indicated that the proteins are all phosphorylated on Ser residues. Analysis of starch granule-associated phosphoproteins after incubation of intact amyloplasts with gamma-(32)P-ATP indicated that the granule-associated forms of SBEII and two granule-associated forms of starch synthase (SS) are phosphorylated, including SSIIa. Measurement of SBE activity in amyloplasts and chloroplasts showed that phosphorylation activated SBEIIa (and SBEIIb in amyloplasts), whereas dephosphorylation using alkaline phosphatase reduced the catalytic activity of both enzymes. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation had no effect on the measurable activity of SBEI in amyloplasts and chloroplasts, and the activities of both granule-bound forms of SBEII in amyloplasts were unaffected by dephosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments using peptide-specific anti-SBE antibodies showed that SBEIIb and starch phosphorylase each coimmunoprecipitated with SBEI in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, suggesting that these enzymes may form protein complexes within the amyloplast in vivo. Conversely, dephosphorylation of immunoprecipitated protein complex led to its disassembly. This article reports direct evidence that enzymes of starch metabolism (amylopectin synthesis) are regulated by protein phosphorylation and indicate a wider role for protein phosphorylation and protein-protein interactions in the control of starch anabolism and catabolism.  (+info)

ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase 1 (ADG1); FUNCTIONS IN: glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase activity; INVOLVED IN: photoperiodism, flowering, starch biosynthetic process; LOCATED IN: heterotetrameric ADPG pyrophosphorylase complex, apoplast, chloroplast, chloroplast stroma; EXPRESSED IN: 28 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 14 growth stages; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (InterPro:IPR011831), ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, conserved site (InterPro:IPR005836), Nucleotidyl transferase (InterPro:IPR005835); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunit 1 (TAIR:AT5G19220.1); Has 1807 Blast hits to 1807 proteins in 277 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria - 0; Metazoa - 736; Fungi - 347; Plants - 385; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 339 (source: NCBI BLink ...
Involved in the biosynthesis of ADP-glucose, a building block, required in the biosynthesis of maltose-1-phosphate (M1P) and in the elongation reactions to produce linear alpha-1,4-glucans. Catalyzes the reaction between ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) to produce pyrophosphate and ADP-Glc.
MORÁN ZORZANO, María Teresa (2006) ADPglucose metabolism in bacteria and plants. PhD thesis, UPNA.. Texto completo no está disponible desde este repositorio ...
I am new to Cedar Park and needed to find a new vet for my pets, one of whom has special needs. As soon as I took the tour, I was hooked. Friendly, knowledgeable staff, and the cleanest vet clinic Ive been in.-Chelaine. Loved the TLC and patience given!-Kathy. The staff and Dr.s are always friendly and we are taken back almost as soon as we get there.-Anonymous. I have been coming to Dr. Schubert for 8 years and she has shown nothing but genuine concern and caring for my animals, through life and death. The staff is also personable and caring, always putting your pet first.-Anonymous. You definitely get the feeling as though they treat your pet as if it were their own.-Sean. We are new to having a fur companion and had lots of questions and concerns regarding our puppy. CCPC addressed the ones that we could remember along with what to expect and their recommendations. -Christel. My pets are part of my family, and Dr. Bouloy really understands. He and his staff are always caring and never too ...
Thymidine diphosphate glucose (often abbreviated dTDP-glucose or TDP-glucose) is a nucleotide-linked sugar consisting of deoxythymidine diphosphate linked to glucose. It is the starting compound for the syntheses of many deoxysugars. DTDP-glucose is produced by the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase and is synthesized from dTTP and glucose-1-phosphate. Pyrophosphate is a byproduct of the reaction. DTDP-glucose goes on to form a variety of compounds in nucleotide sugars metabolism. Many bacteria utilize dTDP-glucose to form exotic sugars that are incorporated into their lipopolysaccharides or into secondary metabolites such as antibiotics. During the syntheses of many of these exotic sugars, dTDP-glucose undergoes a combined oxidation/reduction reaction via the enzyme dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase, producing dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-glucose. Xue M. He & Hung-wen Liu (2002). Formation of unusual sugars: Mechanistic studies and biosynthetic applications. Annu Rev Biochem. 71: 701-754. ...
Two mutants of Arabidopsis have been isolated that affect ADPG pyrophosphorylase (ADGase) activity. Previously, it has been shown that ADG2 encodes the large subunit of ADGase. This study characterizes the adg1 mutant phenotype and ADG1 gene structure. RNA blot analyses indicate that the adg1-1 muta …
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Author: Trethewey, R. N. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1999; Keywords: adpglucose pyrophosphorylase|br/|glycolysis|br/|invertase|br/|partitioning|br/|potato tubers|br/|starch metabolism|br/|sugar signalling|br/|increased adpglucose pyrophosphorylase|br/|yeast-derived invertase|br/|solanum-tuberosum|br/|tobacco plants|br/|gene-expression|br/|metabolism|br/|glucose|br/|leads|br/|carbohydrate|br/|accumulation; Title: Induction of the activity of glycolytic enzymes correlates with enhanced hydrolysis of sucrose in the cytosol of transgenic potato tubers
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
Literature References: The coenzyme of the galactowaldenase system which catalyzes the conversion of galactose-1-phosphate into glucose-1-phosphate. Isoln from bakers yeast: Caputto et al., J. Biol. Chem. 184, 333 (1950). Also present in animal tissue. Synthesis: Michelson, Todd, J. Chem. Soc. 1956, 3459; Moffatt, Khorana, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 3756 (1958). Reviews: Leloir, Cardini in The Enzymes vol. 2A, P. D. Boyer et al., Eds. (Academic Press, New York, 2nd ed., 1960) pp 39-61; A. M. Michelson, The Chemistry of Nucleosides and Nucleotides (Academic Press, New York, 1963) pp 153-250; D. W. Hutchison, Nucleotides and Coenzymes (John Wiley, New York, 1964) pp 36-82. ...
Lunn, J. E.; Feil, R.; Hendriks, J. H. M.; Gibon, Y.; Morcuende, R.; Osuna, D.; Scheible, W.-R.; Carillo, P.; Hajirezaei, M.-R.; Stitt, M.: Sugar-induced increases in trehalose 6-phosphate are correlated with redox activation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and higher rates of starch synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochemical Journal 397 (1), S. 139 - 148 (2006 ...
Lunn, J. E.; Feil, R.; Hendriks, J. H. M.; Gibon, Y.; Morcuende, R.; Osuna, D.; Scheible, W.-R.; Carillo, P.; Hajirezaei, M.-R.; Stitt, M.: Sugar-induced increases in trehalose 6-phosphate are correlated with redox activation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and higher rates of starch synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochemical Journal 397 (1), S. 139 - 148 (2006 ...
1972). Plant Physiol. 49, 249-251. Macdonald, F. , (1983a). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 755, 81-89. Macdonald, F. , and ap Rees, T. (1983b). Phytochemistry 22, 1141-1143. Macdonald, F. , and Preiss, J. (1983). Plant Physiol. 73, 175-178. Manners, D. J. (1985). In Biochemistry of Storage Carbohydrates in Green Plants (P. M. Dey and R. A. ), pp. 149-203. Academic Press, New York. Mettler, I. , and Beevers, H. (1980). Plant Physiol. 66, 555-560. , and Copeland, L. (1984). Plant Physiol. 74, 1030-1034. In Regulation of Carbon Partitioning in Photosynthetic Tissues (R. L. Heath and J. ), pp. 231-253. Waverly Press, Baltimore. Ziegler, H. (1975). Encycl. Plant Physiol. 1, 59-136. Recent Advances in Sugar Transport 2 W. J. LUCAS M. A. MADORE I. Introduction II. Sucrose: The Ubiquitous Transport Sugar A. Chemical Structure B. Surface Structure C. Carrier Recognition III. Carrier-Mediated Sugar Transport Mechanisms A. Photosynthesizing Tissues B. Storage Tissues IV. Group Translocator Concept for Sucrose ...
"We would be very, very thankful if you brought it back," Lindsay Preiss said. "I'm just asking someone to please have it in your heart to do the right thing and give it back."
Harn Chee Hark , Bae Jung Myung , Lee Sang Sook , MIN Sung Ran , LIU Jang Ryol Plant and cell physiology 41(11), 1235-1242, 2000-11 参考文献28件 被引用文献4件 ...
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Previous studies have indicated that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGlc PPase) from the cyanobacteriumAnabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is more similar to higher-plant than to enteric bacterial enzymes
50 µCi quantities of [Glucose-14C(U)]-Uridine Diphosphate Glucose are available for your research. Application of [14C]Uridine can be found in: pyrimidine salvage and catabolism in mangrove species in plant science research, long-term effect of NaCl on the activity of uridine and uracil salvage for nucleotide synthesis in plant science research, glutathione-induced growth of embryogenic tissue of white spruce correlating with changes in pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism in plant science research, etc.. Special Information ...
50 µCi quantities of [Glucose-14C(U)]-Uridine Diphosphate Glucose are available for your research. Application of [14C]Uridine can be found in: pyrimidine salvage and catabolism in mangrove species in plant science research, long-term effect of NaCl on the activity of uridine and uracil salvage for nucleotide synthesis in plant science research, glutathione-induced growth of embryogenic tissue of white spruce correlating with changes in pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism in plant science research, etc.. Special Information ...
10 µCi quantities of [Glucose-14C(U)]-Uridine Diphosphate Glucose are available for your research. Application of [14C]Uridine can be found in: pyrimidine salvage and catabolism in mangrove species in plant science research, long-term effect of NaCl on the activity of uridine and uracil salvage for nucleotide synthesis in plant science research, glutathione-induced growth of embryogenic tissue of white spruce correlating with changes in pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism in plant science research, etc. Special Information ...
Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully
Flegr J, Hampl R, Černochová D, Preiss M, Bičíková M, Sieger L, Příplatová L, Kaňková Š, Klose J. The relation of cortisol and sex hormone levels to results of psychological, performance, IQ and memory tests in military men and women. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2012 Jan; 33(2): 224-235 ...
PMID:22319597 Complexity of murine cardiomyocyte miRNA biogenesis, sequence variant expression and function Humphreys DT, Hynes CJ, Patel HR, Wei GH, Cannon L, Fatkin D, Suter CM, Clancy JL, Preiss T PLoS One. 7:e30933(2012). ...
Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.
Principal Investigator:SAGISAKA Shonosuke, Project Period (FY):1990 - 1992, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:応用生物化学・栄養化学
Jessup M Shively, Gordon C Cannon, Sabine Heinhorst, Donald A Bryant, Shiladitya DasSarma, Dennis Bazylinski, Jack Preiss, Alexander Steinbüchel, Roberto Docampo, Christiane ...
The first cassette comprises fragments of both the asparagine synthetase-1 gene (Asn1) and the polyphenol oxidase-5 gene (Ppo5), arranged as inverted repeats between the Agp promoter of the ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (Agp) and the Gbss promoter of the granule-bound starch synthase gene (Gbss) and results in silencing of both the Ppo5 and Asn1 genes ...
casSAR Dugability of Q7XNX6 | SUS7 | Sucrose synthase 7 - Also known as SUS7_ORYSJ, SUS7. Sucrose-cleaving enzyme that provides UDP-glucose and fructose for various metabolic pathways.
P. Willeit, L. Tschiderer, E. Allara, K. Reuber, L. Seekircher, L. Gao, X. Liao, E. Lonn, H. C. Gerstein, S. Yusuf, F. P. Brouwers, F. W. Asselbergs, W. van Gilst, S. A. Anderssen, D. E. Grobbee, J. J. P. Kastelein, F. L. J. Visseren, G. Ntaios, A. I. Hatzitolios, C. Savopoulos, P. T. Nieuwkerk, E. Stroes, M. Walters, P. Higgins, J. Dawson, P. Gresele, G. Guglielmini, R. Migliacci, M. Ezhov, M. Safarova, T. Balakhonova, E. Sato, M. Amaha, T. Nakamura, K. Kapellas, L. M. Jamieson, M. Skilton, J. A. Blumenthal, A. Hinderliter, A. Sherwood, P. J. Smith, M. A. van Agtmael, P. Reiss, M. G. A. van Vonderen, S. Kiechl, G. Klingenschmid, M. Sitzer, C. D. A. Stehouwer, H. Uthoff, Z. Y. Zou, A. R. Cunha, M. F. Neves, M. D. Witham, H. W. Park, M. S. Lee, J. H. Bae, E. Bernal, K. Wachtell, S. E. Kjeldsen, M. H. Olsen, D. Preiss, N. Sattar, E. Beishuizen, M. V. Huisman, M. A. Espeland, Caroline Schmidt, S. Agewall, E. Ok, G. Aşçi, E. de Groot, M. P. C. Grooteman, P. J. Blankestijn, M. L. Bots, M. J. ...
1BGT: Crystal structure of the DNA modifying enzyme beta-glucosyltransferase in the presence and absence of the substrate uridine diphosphoglucose.
Ribbon representation of the structure of an enzyme known as ATP-PRT from TB bacteria (blue), bound to an allosteric activator (pink).
Maize (is activated by Fru-6-P (F-6-P) and inhibited by inorganic phosphate (Pi) whereas the AGPase is activated by Fru-1 6 but inhibited by AMP. (small subunit homotetramer; Jin et al. 2005 HA14-1 Although both buildings reveal inactive conformations because of high concentrations of ammonium sulfate in the crystallization buffer important info about potential substrate-binding sites was forecasted by molecular modeling predicated on the known buildings of thymidilyltransferases. While this course of enzymes most likely binds glucose phosphates very much the same as AGPases thymidilyltransferases arent governed allosterically. Both HA14-1 AGPase crystal buildings claim that the enzyme features being a dimer of dimers like the system suggested for the enzyme based on ligand-binding research (Haugen and Preiss 1979 All obtainable evidence network marketing leads to the final outcome that tetramers are necessary for AGPase catalytic activity. Both obtainable AGPase crystal buildings present two ...
Two absolutely conserved histidines and a third highly conserved histidine are noted in 11 bacterial and plant ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases. These histidines were individually mutagenized in the E. coli enzyme to glutamine in order to determine their function. Glutamine mutations at residues 143 and 156 produced functional enzymes in cell extracts with slightly lower than wild-type specific catalytic activities and with same heat stability characteristics of the wild-type enzyme. Substitution of residue 83 with glutamine however produced an enzyme having decreased thermal stability. Additional mutageneses at residue 83 with asparagine, arginine, or aspartate gave rise to enzymes having a progressively decreasing trend in thermal stability. These mutants are more susceptible to proteolysis than wild-type enzyme. Kinetic analysis of H83Q and H83N indicates that histidine 83 is not involved in the catalytic mechanism or in substrate binding but possibly in maintenance of the active catalytic structure.
Different studies concerning starch metabolism in potato and tomato have suggested that AGPase activity plays an important role in regulation (Geigenberger et al., 1999; Sweetlove et al., 1999; Geigenberger, 2011). AGPase activity is known to be modulated via several different mechanisms. AGPase is sensitive to allosteric regulation, being inhibited by inorganic phosphate and activated by 3-phosphoglycerate (3PGA; Sowokinos, 1981; Sowokinos and Preiss, 1982). Additionally, it has been demonstrated to be transcriptionally regulated by sugars, nitrate, phosphate, and trehalose-6-phosphate (Müller-Röber et al., 1990; Nielsen et al., 1998; Kolbe et al., 2005; Michalska et al., 2009). Moreover, it has been described that AGPase is also redox regulated (Tiessen et al., 2002; Centeno et al., 2011), with malic acid potentially being a key component in this process at least in photosynthetically active tissues (Szecowka et al., 2012).. In tomato, as previously mentioned, a differential regulation of ...
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The resulting altered UMP ratio indirectly influences starch biosynthesis. In wild-type plants, a portion of the cellular glucose-1-phosphate is not used for starch biosynthesis but is converted to sucrose with the help of UDP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) and sucrose synthase. UGPase needs UTP for the synthesis of UDP-glucose. The reduced de novo synthesis of UMP would, by extension, lead to a reduced UTP content and therfore prevent the reconversion of glucose-1-phosphate to sucrose. More glucose-1-phosphate will, therefore, be available for starch biosynthesis, resulting in a 10-20% increase in tuber weight maintaining a constant density ...
The entry of carbon from sucrose into cellular metabolism in plants can potentially be catalyzed by either sucrose synthase (SUS) or invertase (INV).
Kernels of wild-type maize (Zea mays L.) shrunken-1 (sh1), deficient in the predominant form of endosperm sucrose synthase and shrunken-2 (sh2), deficient in 95% of the endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase were grown in culture on sucrose, glucose, or fructose as the carbon source. Analysis of the endosperm extracts by gas-liquid chromatography revealed that sucrose was present in the endosperms of all genotypes, regardless of carbon supply, indicating that all three genotypes are capable of synthesizing sucrose from reducing sugars. The finding that sucrose was present in sh1 kernels grown on reducing sugars is evidence that shrunken-1 encoded sucrose synthase is not necessary for sucrose synthesis. Shrunken-1 kernels developed to maturity and produced viable seeds on all carbon sources, but unlike wild-type and sh2 kernels grown in vitro, sucrose was not the superior carbon source. This latter result provides further evidence that the role of sucrose synthase in maize endosperm is primarily ...
This enzyme catalyzes a reaction that combines phosphocreatine and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into ATP and creatine. This ... Plasma glucoseEdit. Plasma glucose is said to be maintained when there is an equal rate of glucose appearance (entry into the ... Rate of glucose appearance is dictated by the amount of glucose being absorbed at the gut as well as liver (hepatic) glucose ... which removes a phosphate group from glucose-6-P to release free glucose. In order for glucose to exit a cell membrane, the ...
Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase, and ADP:aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. ... doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphosugar ...
... diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase". Journal of Bacteriology. 127 (1): 193-203. doi:10.1128/JB.127.1.193-203.1976. ISSN 0021 ... Preiss, J; Crawford, K; Downey, J; Lammel, C; Greenberg, E (July 1976). "Kinetic properties of Serratia marcescens adenosine 5 ... ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase from strains of S. marcescens demonstrated optimal activity in buffer at pH 7.5 and 8.0, ... Serratia utilizes a metabolic enzyme ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase with distinct kinetic properties from those found in ...
Glucose + 2 NAD+ + 2 Pi + 2 ADP → 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H2O. Steps 1 and 3 require the input of energy derived from ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5' carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1' carbon ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ...
... adenosine diphosphate glucose-starch glucosyltransferase, adenosine diphosphoglucose-starch glucosyltransferase, ADP-glucose ... FRYDMAN RB, CARDINI CE (1965). "Studies on adenosine diphosphate d-glucose: α-1,4-glucan α-4-glucosyltransferase of sweet-corn ... Leloir LF, de Fekete MA, Cardini CE (1961). "Starch and oligosaccharide synthesis from uridine diphosphate glucose". J. Biol. ... Formation of beta-(1,4)-glucans from GDP-glucose and beta-(1,3)-glucans from UDP-glucose". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 138 (2): 620 ...
Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule, contributing 2 O overall ... D-Glucose (Glc) Hexokinase (HK). a transferase α-D-Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) ... Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term[1] for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H ... When glucose has been converted into G6P by hexokinase or glucokinase, it can either be converted to glucose-1-phosphate (G1P) ...
... is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) when the phosphate is removed. The reaction ... Phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate by GK facilitates storage of glucose as glycogen and disposal by glycolysis. ... certain glucose-sensing neurons alter their firing rates in response to rising or falling levels of glucose. These glucose- ... Glucose-sensitive neurons of the hypothalamus In response to rising or falling levels of glucose, cells in the hypothalamus ...
Creatine phosphate stores energy so ATP can be rapidly regenerated within the muscle cells from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ... Glycogen is the intramuscular storage form of glucose, used to generate energy quickly once intramuscular creatine stores are ... They include molecules such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glycogen and creatine phosphate. ATP binds to the myosin head and ...
... adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125 - adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125.040 - o- ... uridine diphosphate glucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.375 - uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.800 - ... poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.200 - cytidine diphosphate diglycerides MeSH D09.408.620.569.400 - ... nucleoside diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070 - adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.075 - ...
Blood glucose storage into Beta-cells lead to glycolysis and cause ATP generation. The elevated ATP/ adenosine diphosphate ... This test can be used to diagnose diabetes or pre-diabetes Random plasma glucose test-the doctor checks one's blood glucose ... This test is used to detect diabetes or pre-diabetes Oral glucose tolerance test- measures an individual's blood glucose after ... "Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)". American Diabetes Association. Retrieved 2017-11-07. "Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Glucose)". ...
Important molecules: ADP - Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (Adenosine pyrophosphate (APP)) is an important organic compound in ... Glucose - An important simple sugar used by cells as a source of energy and as a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the ... Lactic acid fermentation - An anaerobic metabolic process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted ... Often called "cellular power plants", mitochondria generate most of cells' supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the body's ...
... adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, ... Ghosh HP, Preiss J (1966). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. A regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis of starch ... diphosphate + ADP-glucose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, whereas its two ... alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. Other names in common use include ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase, glucose 1- ...
Inhibition of this step prevents the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which results ... Glycogen deposits in the muscle are a result of the interruption of normal glucose breakdown that regulates the breakdown of ... such as glucose) for energy. Unlike most other glycogen storage diseases, it directly affects glycolysis. The mutation impairs ... treatment is that the low-carb high fat diet forces the body to use fatty acids as a primary energy source instead of glucose. ...
ATP can undergo hydrolysis in two ways: Firstly, the removal of terminal phosphate to form adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ... When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g., sucrose being broken down into glucose ... the removal of a terminal diphosphate to yield adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and pyrophosphate. The latter usually undergoes ... Ruminants such as cows are able to hydrolyze cellulose into cellobiose and then glucose because of symbiotic bacteria that ...
... dissociating to contribute 2 H+ overall Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) molecule ... Glucose Hexokinase ATP ADP Glucose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase Fructose 6-phosphate Phosphofructokinase-1 ATP ADP ... and will only phosphorylate the glucose entering the cell to form glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), when the glucose in the blood is ... Since glucose leads to two triose sugars in the preparatory phase, each reaction in the pay-off phase occurs twice per glucose ...
"Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5′-diphosphate" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 261 (27): ... The equation for the oxidation of glucose to lactic acid is:. C. 6H. 12O. 6 → 2 CH. 3CH(OH)COOH + 2 ATP. Anaerobic respiration ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. Found in all forms of life, ATP ... Adenosine 5′-(γ-thiotriphosphate) is an extremely common ATP analog in which one of the gamma-phosphate oxygens is replaced by ...
... causing the active site of the synthase domain to change shape and phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate - turning it into ATP. ... where it can be used for the production of glucose. Other than fat, glucose is stored in most tissues, as an energy resource ... The generation of glucose from compounds like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, glycerate 3-phosphate and amino acids is called ... Insulin is produced in response to rises in blood glucose levels. Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then ...
It allows protons to pass through the membrane and uses the free energy difference to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate (ADP ... Molecules such as glucose are metabolized to produce acetyl CoA as an energy-rich intermediate. The oxidation of acetyl ... An example of this would be the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the movement of hydrogen ions (H+) across a ... Peter D. Mitchell proposed the chemiosmotic hypothesis in 1961 . The theory suggests essentially that most adenosine ...
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Leucine l-isoleucine l-valine Guanosine diphosphate Other Inhibitors: EGCG Additionally, Mice GLDH ... This regulation is relaxed in response to caloric restriction and low blood glucose. Under these circumstances, glutamate ... Allosteric inhibitors: Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Palmitoyl-CoA Zn2+ Activators: ... necessary to regulate the metabolism of amino acids as a method of controlling insulin secretion and regulating blood glucose ...
... and begins the synthesis of a polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chain, which acts as a signal ... since glucose oxidation is inhibited. But more recently it was suggested that inhibition of hexokinase activity leads to ...
... and guanosine diphosphate (GDP) to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), respectively. The net ... One example of an exception to this "rule" is the metabolism of glucose. Glycolysis results in the breakdown of glucose, but ... As glucose enters a cell, it is immediately phosphorylated by ATP to glucose 6-phosphate in the irreversible first step. In ... about a net release of energy in the form of a high energy phosphate bond formed with the energy carriers adenosine diphosphate ...
The ATP synthase uses the energy to transform adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into adenosine triphosphate, in a phosphorylation ... The energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose, ultimately derived from food, is released by the cell in the citric acid ... Gresser MJ, Myers JA, Boyer PD (25 October 1982). "Catalytic site cooperativity of beef heart mitochondrial F1 adenosine ... I. Purification and properties of soluble dinitrophenol-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase". J. Biol. Chem. 235 (11): 3322-9. ...
ATP synthase uses the energy from the flowing hydrogen ions to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate into adenosine triphosphate ... Alternatively, glucose monomers in the chloroplast can be linked together to make starch, which accumulates into the starch ... ATP is the phosphorylated version of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which stores energy in a cell and powers most cellular ... Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate can double up to form larger sugar molecules like glucose and fructose. These molecules are ...
The end result is a phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate as well as adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The enzymes can also help to ... Hexokinase is the most common enzyme that makes use of glucose when it first enters the cell. It converts D-glucose to glucose- ... Nucleoside diphosphate kinase catalyzes production of thymidine triphosphate, dTTP, which is used in DNA synthesis. Because of ... This is an important step in glycolysis because it traps glucose inside the cell due to the negative charge. In its ...
... an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + H2O adenosine 5'-phosphate + phosphate Fructose 1 ... phosphate Glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase, a type of enzyme called a phosphotransferase and is involved in mammalian starch ... 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), an important substrate involved in carbon fixation ... 6-bisphosphate, fructose sugar phosphorylated on carbons 1 and 6 Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (or fructose 2,6-diphosphate), ...
In E. coli, ThTP is accumulated in the presence of glucose during amino acid starvation. On the other hand, suppression of the ... It can also be converted into ThDP by thiamine-diphosphate kinase. Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) was chemically synthesized in ... carbon source leads to the accumulation, of adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP). It has been shown that in brain ThTP is ...
George A, Bell JE (December 1980). "Effects of adenosine 5'-diphosphate on bovine glutamate dehydrogenase: diethyl ... At initial diagnosis, hypoglycemia is corrected with intravenous glucose to normalize plasma glucose concentration and prevent ... The adenosine moiety binds down into a hydrophobic pocket with the ribose phosphate groups pointing up toward the pivot helix. ... As suggested for ADP it could be due to a competition between ATP and the adenosine moiety of the coenzyme at the active site. ...
Abamectine Abietic acid Acetic acid Acetylcholine Actin Actinomycin D Adenine Adenosmeme Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine ... C6H12O6 Glucose oxidase Glutamic acid Glutamine Glutamate (neurotransmitter) Glutathione Gluten Glycan Glycerin (glycerol) ... Gastrin Gelatin Geraniol Ghrelin Globulin Glucagon Glucagon-like peptide 1 Glucagon-like peptide 2 Glucosamine Glucose - ... Cortisol Creatine Creatine kinase Crystallin Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) α-Cyclodextrin Cyclodextrin ...
Histidine biosynthesis is carefully regulated by feedback inhibition/ R5P can be converted to adenosine diphosphate ribose, ... Adenosine triphosphate). Formation of each molecule is controlled by the flow of glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) in two different ... Glucose 6-phosphate is converted to fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) during glycolysis. ... Evans WR, San Pietro A (January 1966). "Phosphorolysis of adenosine diphosphoribose". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. ...
Their function is to convert the potential energy of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in ... This is thought to be caused by a blockage in the enzyme thiamine-diphosphate kinase, and therefore treatment in some patients ... Disorders of oxidative phosphorylation, the process by which cells produce their main energy source of adenosine triphosphate ( ... and thiamine diphosphate are commonly found but there is a reduced or absent level of thiamine triphosphate. ...
... and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Switching between the open and closed dimer conformations induces conformational changes in ... The chvE-gguAB gene in Agrobacterium tumefaciens encodes glucose and galactose importers that are also associated with ... The ATPase subunits utilize the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding and hydrolysis to energize the translocation of ... ABC transporters are active transporters, that is, they require energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to ...
Adenosine thiamine diphosphateEdit. Adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP) or thiaminylated adenosine diphosphate exists in ... Thiamine is required for metabolism including that of glucose, amino acids, and lipids.[2] ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphateEdit. Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP) or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate has ... and adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP). While the coenzyme role of thiamine diphosphate is well-known and extensively ...
ATP can undergo hydrolysis in two ways: the removal of terminal phosphate to form adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic ... When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and ... or the removal of a terminal diphosphate to yield adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and pyrophosphate. The latter usually undergoes ... The best-known disaccharide is sucrose (table sugar). Hydrolysis of sucrose yields glucose and fructose. Invertase is a sucrase ...
ADP受體/P2Y12(英語:P2Y12)抑制劑(英語:Adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor)類 ... Livingstone, Frank B. Frequencies of hemoglobin variants: thalassemia, the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, G6PD ...
cellular response to glucose stimulus. • steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway. • negative regulation of cell ... Fosfestrol (diethylstilbestrol diphosphate). *Furostilbestrol (diethylstilbestrol difuroate). *GTx-758. *Hexestrol *Hexestrol ... Female GPER knockout mice display hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance, reduced body growth, and increased blood ... 2008). "Deletion of the G protein-coupled Receptor GPR30 Impairs Glucose Tolerance, Reduces Bone Growth, Increases Blood ...
Défhosfáit adanóisín Adenosine diphosphate (ADP). *Aonfhosfáit adanóisín Adenosine monophosphate (AMP). *Trífhosfáit adanóisín ... Glúcós Glucose. *Ocsaíodáis glúcós Glucose oxidase. *Glútan Gluten. *Aigéad glútamach Glutamic acid ...
... guanosine diphosphate (GDP), and guanosine triphosphate (GTP). These forms play important roles in various biochemical ... adenosine). *Agonists: 2-(1-Hexynyl)-N-methyladenosine. *2-Cl-IB-MECA. *2'-MeCCPA ...
The ATP synthase uses the energy to transform adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into adenosine triphosphate, in a phosphorylation ... produced by the oxidative phosphorylation of the 10 NADH and 2 succinate molecules made by converting one molecule of glucose ... I. Purification and properties of soluble dinitrophenol-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase". J. Biol. Chem. 235 (11): 3322-9. ... thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In most eukaryotes, this takes place inside ...
Glucose hii inaweza kubadilishwa kuwa pyruvate ambayo hutoa adenosine triphosphate (ATP) na kupumua kwa seli. Oksijeni pia ... Glycerate diphosphate Hizi ni kupunguzwa na NADPH kwa molekuli mbili za glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GALP). Glyceraldehyde 3- ... Haya molekuli ya glycerate 3-phosphate (GP) ni phosphorylated na ATP katika molekuli ya glycerate diphosphate. ... baadhi ya bakteria na baadhi ya protistans hutumia nishati kutoka jua ili kuzalisha glucose kutoka kaboni dioksidi na maji. ...
... converting glucose to lactate. The liver regenerates the glucose, using a process called gluconeogenesis. This process is not ... Because they contain at least one phosphate group, the compounds marked nucleoside monophosphate, nucleoside diphosphate and ... as well as forming the base molecule for adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy-carrier molecule found in all living ... Glucose is mainly metabolized by a very important ten-step pathway called glycolysis, the net result of which is to break down ...
... and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This CK enzyme reaction is reversible and thus ATP can be generated from PCr and ADP. ... UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. *Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. Guanylyltransferase. *mRNA capping ... CK catalyses the conversion of creatine and utilizes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to create phosphocreatine (PCr) ...
Ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase EC 5.5.1.14. Syn-copalyl-diphosphate synthase EC 5.5.1.15. Terpentedienyl-diphosphate synthase ... Adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4). *GTP cyclohydrolase I (EC 3.5.4.16). *Category:EC 3.5.5 (In nitriles) *Nitrilase (EC 3.5.5.1) ... UDP-glucose 4-epimerase. *Category:EC 5.1.99. *Methylmalonyl CoA epimerase. Category:EC 5.2 (cis-trans-isomerases)Edit. * ...
Because two acetyl-CoA molecules are produced from each glucose molecule, two cycles are required per glucose molecule. ... The GTP that is formed by GDP-forming succinyl-CoA synthetase may be utilized by nucleoside-diphosphate kinase to form ATP (the ... and proteins into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and carbon dioxide. In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino ... Glucose + 10 NAD+ + 2FAD + 2 ADP + 2 GDP + 4 Pi + 2 H2O. → 10 NADH + 2FADH2 + 10 H+ + 2 ATP + 2 GTP + 6 CO2. ...
1hi5: EOSINOPHIL-DERIVED NEUROTOXIN (EDN) -ADENOSINE-5'-DIPHOSPHATE COMPLEX *. 1k2a: Modified Form of Eosinophil-derived ...
This, like most of the remainder of transcription, is an energy-dependent process, consuming adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or ... UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. *Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. Guanylyltransferase. *mRNA capping ...
Creatine phosphate stores energy so ATP can be rapidly regenerated within the muscle cells from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ... Glycogen is the intramuscular storage form of glucose, used to generate energy quickly once intramuscular creatine stores are ... They include molecules such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glycogen and creatine phosphate. ATP binds to the myosin head and ...
The flavin moiety is often attached with an adenosine diphosphate to form flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and, in other ... glucose oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and acyl CoA dehydrogenase. ...
Langan TA (1969). "Action of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent histone kinase in vivo". J. Biol. Chem. 244 (20): 5763-, 5 ... UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. *Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. Guanylyltransferase. *mRNA capping ...
It allows protons to pass through the membrane and uses the free energy difference to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate (ADP ... Molecules such as glucose are metabolized to produce acetyl CoA as an energy-rich intermediate. The oxidation of acetyl ... An example of this would be the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the movement of hydrogen ions (H+) across a ... Peter D. Mitchell proposed the chemiosmotic hypothesis in 1961.[1] The theory suggests essentially that most adenosine ...
Main articles: Adenosine triphosphate and NADPH. ATP is the phosphorylated version of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which stores ... Alternatively, glucose monomers in the chloroplast can be linked together to make starch, which accumulates into the starch ... ATP synthase uses the energy from the flowing hydrogen ions to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate into adenosine triphosphate ... Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate can double up to form larger sugar molecules like glucose and fructose. These molecules are ...
Starting with glucose, 1 ATP is used to donate a phosphate to glucose to produce glucose 6-phosphate. Glycogen can be converted ... Fructose 1,6-diphosphate then splits into two phosphorylated molecules with three carbon chains which later degrades into ... adenosine triphosphate), by substrate-level phosphorylation, NADH and FADH2 ... Fermentation is less efficient at using the energy from glucose: only 2 ATP are produced per glucose, compared to the 38 ATP ...
... adenosine - adenosine diphosphate (ADP) - adenosine monophosphate (AMP) - adenosine triphosphate (ATP) - adenovirus - ... glucose - glutamate - glutamate receptor - Glutamic acid - Glutamine - Glycerine - Glycine - glycine receptor - glycolipid - ...
When there is excess glucose, coenzyme A is used in the cytosol for synthesis of fatty acids. This process is implemented by ... Coenzyme A, three ADP, one monophosphate, and one diphosphate are harvested from biosynthesis. New research shows that coenzyme ... In humans, CoA biosynthesis requires cysteine, pantothenate (vitamin B5), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In its acetyl form ...
... guanosine diphosphate-glucose (GDP-Glc), thymidine diphosphate-glucose (TDP-Glc), and uridine diphosphate-glucose (UDP-Glc). In ... Purification and Properties of the Adenosine Diphosphate-Glucose and Uridine Diphosphate-Glucose Pyrophosphorylases of ... Purification and Properties of the Adenosine Diphosphate-Glucose and Uridine Diphosphate-Glucose Pyrophosphorylases of ... Purification and Properties of the Adenosine Diphosphate-Glucose and Uridine Diphosphate-Glucose Pyrophosphorylases of ...
Starch-Deficient Maize Mutant Lacking Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Activity. By Chia-Yin Tsai, Oliver E. ... Starch-Deficient Maize Mutant Lacking Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Activity. By Chia-Yin Tsai, Oliver E. ... Starch-Deficient Maize Mutant Lacking Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Activity Message Subject. (Your Name) has ... it completely lacks adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase activity in both endosperm and embryo tissue. ...
... to produce equimolar amounts of glucose-1-phosphate and AMP. The enzyme responsible for this activity, referred to as ADPG ... to produce equimolar amounts of glucose-1-phosphate and AMP. The enzyme responsible for this activity, referred to as ADPG ...
Adenosine diphosphate. AGPase. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. AMP. Adenosine monophosphate. AOX. Alternative oxidase ... Née G, Zaffagnini M, Trost P et al (2009) Redox regulation of chloroplastic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase: a new role for f ... Ballicora MA, Frueauf JB, Fu Y et al (2000) Activation of the potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase by thioredoxin. J Biol ... Scheibe R, Anderson LE (1981) Dark modulation of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in ...
Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. A regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis of starch in spinach leaf chloroplasts ...
IR: insulin receptor; Y: tyrosine; S: serine; ATP: adenosine triphosphate; ADP: adenosine diphosphate; IRS1: insulin receptor ... Such inhibitory effects cause the glucose level in the cells to increase, prompting glucose uptake to halt; thus, the glucose ... IR: insulin receptor; Y: tyrosine; S: serine; ATP: adenosine triphosphate; ADP: adenosine diphosphate; IRS1: insulin receptor ... They also hypothesised that stevioside may only exert its glucose-depleting effects in specific high-blood-glucose conditions ( ...
ADENOSINE-5-DIPHOSPHATE. C10 H15 N5 O10 P2. XTWYTFMLZFPYCI-KQYNXXCUSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ... The mutant hexokinases bind both glucose 6-phosphate and glucose with high affinity to their N and C-terminal halves, and ADP, ... MUTANT MONOMER OF RECOMBINANT HUMAN HEXOKINASE TYPE I COMPLEXED WITH GLUCOSE, GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE, AND ADP. *DOI: 10.2210/ ... New Insights from the Crystal Structure of Recombinant Human Brain Hexokinase Complexed with Glucose and Glucose-6-Phosphate. ...
Adenosine diphosphate is an organic molecule that plays an important role in cellular metabolism, the process through which ... As glucose is degraded, the process generates ADP molecules. They end up being converted to ATP to supply the major source of ... Mitochondria convert adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a form of chemical energy. ... Adenosine diphosphate is a nucleotide composed of adenosine, which is comprised of the base adenine and the sugar ribose. ADP ...
ATP = adenosine triphosphate; ADP = adenosine diphosphate; G6PD = glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; NADP+ = nicotinamide ... Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a relatively common enzymopathy, but there are few publications relating ... 3. Abreu MP, Freire CCS, Miura RS: Anesthesia in Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Deficient Patient. Case Report; Rev Bras ... This report aimed at presenting a case of a Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient patient, undergoing ambulatory ...
Shanghai China). Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA) and k-carrageenan were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, USA ... glucose (GLU), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), creatine kinase (CK), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), triglycerides (TG) and ... 6-keto-PGF1α, 6-keto prostaglandin F1α; AA, arachidonic acid; ADP, adenosine diphosphate; AEE, aspirin eugenol ester; ALB, ... glucose; GPT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; P, phosphorus; PGI2, prostacyclin I2; PPP, platelet- ...
... has been shown to catalyse glucose phosphorylation using ADP as phosphoryl donor. The ancestral ADPGK gene appears to have been ... Adenosine Diphosphate * ADP-dependent glucokinase * Glucokinase * Glucose ... Recombinant human ADPGK was confirmed to catalyse ADP-dependent glucose phosphorylation in vitro, with an apparent K (M) for ... Thus, human ADPGK catalyses ADP-dependent phosphorylation of glucose in vitro, but despite its high expression in human tumour ...
Adenosine Diphosphate * Adenosine Triphosphate * Glucose * Gatifloxacin * Moxifloxacin ... Moxifloxacin, but not ciprofloxacin or gatifloxacin significantly reduced the effect of 20mM glucose on the ATP/ADP ratio. The ... 100 μM of moxifloxacin abolished the NAD(P)H increase elicited by 20mM glucose, while gatifloxacin diminished it and ... Moxifloxacin also diminished the glucose-induced decrease of FAD-fluorescence, which reflects the intramitochondrial production ...
... in the stroma to form transiently stored starch which is degraded during the night and enters the cytosol as maltose or glucose ... in the stroma to form transiently stored starch which is degraded during the night and enters the cytosol as maltose or glucose ... glucose 6-phosphate; Pi, orthophosphate; ADP, adenosine diphosphate; ADP-G, ADP-glucose; Glc, glucose; Malt, maltose; Frc, ... Glucose transport across the membrane could be measured using 14C-glucose. Addition of high concentrations of unlabeled hexoses ...
Glucose + 2 NAD+ + 2 Pi + 2 ADP → 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H2O. Steps 1 and 3 require the input of energy derived from ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5 carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1 carbon ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ...
... adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, ... Ghosh HP, Preiss J (1966). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. A regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis of starch ... diphosphate + ADP-glucose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, whereas its two ... alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. Other names in common use include ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase, glucose 1- ...
... the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPases), starch synthases (SS), starch branching enzymes (SBE), debranching enzymes (DBE ... the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPases), starch synthases (SS), starch branching enzymes (SBE), debranching enzymes (DBE ... Recondo, E., and Leloir, L. F. (1961). Adenosine diphosphate glucose and starch synthesis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 6, 85 ... Adenosine diphosphoglucose (ADP-glucose), the glucose donor for starch synthesis (Recondo and Leloir, 1961) is synthesized by ...
A) Pathways mainly affected during hypoxia and glucose starvation. ADP, adenosine diphosphate; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; PDH ... Glucose starvation in the same HFK cultures elicited the exact opposite combination of changes in the optical metabolic ... Control of brown adipose tissue glucose and lipid metabolism by PPARγ. Front. Endocrinol. 2, 84 (2011).. ... Transport characteristics of HL-1 cells: A new model for the study of adenosine physiology in cardiomyocytes. Biochem. Cell ...
Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase, and ADP:aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. ... doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphosugar ...
Characterization of adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase from developing maize seeds. HANNAH L. C. ... Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Small and Large Subunits of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Oriental Melon * * ... Isolation and analysis of a cDNA clone encoding the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from wheat. AINSWORTH C. ... The encoded primary sequence of a rice seed ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase subunit and its homology to a bacterial enzyme ...
Aggregation of blood platelets by adenosine diphosphate and its reversal. Nature 1962;194:927-929pmid:13871375. ... 15 mmol/L glucose, whereas it differed in the presence of 5 vs. 25 mmol/L glucose (P , 0.0001) and 15 vs. 25 mmol/L glucose (P ... 15 mmol/L glucose, whereas they differed in the presence of 5 vs. 25 mmol/L glucose (P , 0.0001) and 15 vs. 25 mmol/L glucose ( ... At 5 mmol/L glucose (n = 6): L-ASA vs. baseline, P , 0.001 (Student paired t test). At 25 mmol/L glucose (n = 6): L-ASA vs. ...
What is adenosine diphosphate? Meaning of adenosine diphosphate medical term. What does adenosine diphosphate mean? ... Looking for online definition of adenosine diphosphate in the Medical Dictionary? adenosine diphosphate explanation free. ... ATP is also used to produce high-energy phosphorylated intermediary metabolites, such as glucose 6-phosphate. ... adenosine diphosphate. see ADP.. adenosine triphosphate. ; ATP; adenosine diphosphate; ADP intracellular biochemicals; ATP ...
Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose 7. Glucose (Dextrose) 8. Oxidoreductases 9. benphothiamine (benfotiamine) ...
... serving as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases or adenosine diphosphate-ribosyltransferases. The mammalian ... Sirtuins in glucose and lipid metabolism.. Ye X1, Li M1, Hou T1, Gao T1, Zhu WG1, Yang Y1. ... In this review, we summarize the background of glucose and lipid metabolism concerning sirtuins and discuss the functions of ... SIRT6 plays important roles in several pathways concerning glucose and lipid metabolism. SIRT6 binds with HIF-1α and inhibits ...
Platelet aggregation to Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and Collagen - blood test for Platelet function test ... Insulin levels in blood in response to Glucose Challenge - Oral Glucose tolerance test (OGTT ) and Intra venous glucose ...
ACE-I = angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ACS = acute coronary syndrome; ADP = adenosine diphosphate; ARB = angiotensin ... FPG = fasting plasma glucose; FG = Fasting Glucose; IFG = impaired fasting glucose; IGT = impaired glucose tolerance; 2hG = 2-h ... FPG = fasting plasma glucose; IGT = impaired glucose tolerance; IFG = impaired fasting glucose; 2hPG = 2-h post-load plasma ... Table 4. Cut-points for diagnosing DM, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired fasting glucose based on other blood specimens ...
Ive advertised the goal of this is to generate ATP from ADP, adenosine diphosphate. But the first thing here, this is an ... Glucose has inherent in it almost 680 kilocalories per mole of energy. Its pretty high up here. But by the time we get from ... You see, heres glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate. And, the fact of the matter is, theres no oxidation reduction ... We invested to begin with, with the one glucose, we invested two ATPs. That was early on. Then the return was first two NADHs, ...
ATP stands for "adenosine triphosphate," and ADP stands for "adenosine diphosphate." They bo... Full Answer , Filed Under: * ... This is done with glucose. So, when something is eaten and goes into the digestive system, the glucose creates ATP which can be ... ATP stands for Adenosine Triphosphate. It is made up of an adenosine molecule and three inorganic phosphates, or a triphosphate ... When one of the three phosphates are removed the resulting compound is called ADP, Adenosine Diphosphate. ...
... breaking down glucose and using high-energy electrons to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP ...
What is Adenosine diphosphate sugars? Meaning of Adenosine diphosphate sugars medical term. What does Adenosine diphosphate ... Looking for online definition of Adenosine diphosphate sugars in the Medical Dictionary? Adenosine diphosphate sugars ... ATP is also used to produce high-energy phosphorylated intermediary metabolites, such as glucose 6-phosphate. ... Related to Adenosine diphosphate sugars: adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist. adenosine. [ah-den ...
See also Adenosine diphosphate; Krebs cycle.. The Gale Encyclopedia of Science ×. Cite this article Pick a style below, and ... Forty percent of the glucose "burned" in cell respiration provides the organism with energy to drive its activities, while 60% ... Much of the energy released in each step is recaptured in the high-energy bonds of a chemical called adenosine triphosphate ( ... Much of the energy released in each step is recaptured in the high-energy bonds of a chemical called adenosine triphosphate ( ...
  • It is interconvertible with the cell's energy currency, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wisegeek.com)
  • Mitochondria convert adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a form of chemical energy. (wisegeek.com)
  • ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • adenosine diphosphate (ADP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-pyrophosphate, produced by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-triphosphate, occurring in all cells, where it stores energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a product of the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The currency of energy in the cell is ATP, adenosine triphosphate, we see its structure here, and this happens to be one of the four precursors of the RNA. (mit.edu)
  • Much of the energy released in each step is recaptured in the high-energy bonds of a chemical called adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a compound found in all cells, which serves as an energy storage site. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is made up of an adenosine molecule and three inorganic phosphates, or a triphosphate. (reference.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate is the molecule that provides energy to cells for almost all processes that need energy. (reference.com)
  • ATP stands for "adenosine triphosphate," and ADP stands for "adenosine diphosphate. (reference.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is a molecule that stores all the energy required for cells to function. (reference.com)
  • As you may know, the plant generates energy the same way we do: breaking down glucose and using high-energy electrons to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP). (madsci.org)
  • Washed erythrocytes are hemolyzed and the hemolysate is mixed with glucose, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • During the process, one glucose molecule combines with six oxygen molecules to produce six carbon dioxide molecules, six water molecules, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule that cells use to store or transfer energy. (wisegeek.com)
  • The enzyme hexokinase (HK) catalyzes the reaction between glucose and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to form glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). (cdc.gov)
  • Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is the energy currency of life, the way that individual cells store and use chemical energy. (reference.com)
  • In animals and other eukaryotic heterotrophs, organelles known as mitochondria use the energy from food to convert depleted adenosine diphosphate back into adenosine triphosphate. (reference.com)
  • All of these systems re-synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the universal energy source in all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels couple the cellular metabolic state to electrical activity and are a critical link between blood glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin secretion. (sciencemag.org)
  • It serves two fundamental purposes in living beings: first is the removal of the electrons generated during catabolism and second, is generation of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). (iloveindia.com)
  • This implies that the main purpose of anaerobic respiration is producing ATP (adenosine triphosphate) which is essential for a cell to produce energy. (iloveindia.com)
  • As you may, and should, recall from the section on mitochondria, these organelles are chiefly responsible for converting the chemical energy in macromolecules, like glucose , into molecules of ATP , adenosine triphosphate, that can be used by the cell for energy. (shmoop.com)
  • ATP , or adenosine triphosphate, is the molecule that energizes most cellular functions. (thunderbolts.info)
  • The mitochondria of the cells use the energy, released from nutrients, to form Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules from Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) molecules. (alison.com)
  • This pump is driven by the energy stored in ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate) molecules manufactured in the mitochondria. (benbest.com)
  • The most significant example of an energy carrier is adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which is formed when a simpler compound, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), combines with a phosphate group. (scienceclarified.com)
  • For more energy, your body creates more adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which supplies energy for cells. (parade.com)
  • 1. adenosine diphosphate: a nucleotide that functions in the transfer of energy during the catabolism of glucose, formed by the removal of a phosphate from adenosine triphosphate and composed of adenine, ribose, and two phosphate groups. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The energy released during metabolic or photosynthetic processes is captured in the energy-rich phosphate bonds of certain molecules, most commonly in the high-energy bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (infoplease.com)
  • In this step, a cluster of oxygen and phosphorus atoms (a phosphate group) is moved from a molecule called phosphoenolpyruvate to another molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP), resulting in molecules called pyruvate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In rats with RF, brain levels of creatine phosphate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and glucose are increased, whereas levels of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and lactate are decreased. (medscape.com)
  • Nave, C.R. Adenosine Triphosphate. (wikidoc.org)
  • Sustained production of muscular force and power during exercise is dependent on the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that provides energy for a number of cellular processes during muscle contraction. (gssiweb.org)
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the immediate source of chemical energy for muscle contraction. (gssiweb.org)
  • The energy is essentially created by the conversion of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) to ADP (adenosine diphosphate). (prohealth.com)
  • The most common metabolite coenzyme is adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. (livestrong.com)
  • This true cellular energy currency is adenosine triphosphate, better known as ATP. (maximumyield.com)
  • Mitochondria in other cells turn that O2, sugar, and adenosine diphosphate into H2O, CO2, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (cenblog.org)
  • As glucose is degraded, the process generates ADP molecules. (wisegeek.com)
  • [3] Animals use the energy released in the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to convert ADP to ATP, which can then be used to fuel necessary growth and cell maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are formed by glucose molecules linked by linear α-1,4 bonds with interspersed α-1,6 bonds that form branching points. (frontiersin.org)
  • During this anaerobic condition, the six-carbon glucose molecule is only partly broken down to two molecules of the three-carbon sugar called lactic acid lactic acid, CH 3 CHOHCO 2 H, a colorless liquid organic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Molecules of glucose are used to build more complex carbohydrates, like starch and cellulose. (wisegeek.com)
  • During this stage, the glucose molecule is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate , an organic acid that can supply cells with energy. (wisegeek.com)
  • Glycolysis of a single glucose molecule consumes two ATP molecules, and produces four in total, leading to a net energy gain of two ATP. (wisegeek.com)
  • Fermentation is the process through which glucose molecules are split into two molecules of pyruvic acid. (iloveindia.com)
  • As such, fermentation produces two ATP molecules, which are further used to split a glucose molecule into two three-carbon atom chains. (iloveindia.com)
  • Thus, these two phosphate groups on each chain are later divided between two molecules known as adenosine diphosphate (ADP). (iloveindia.com)
  • In this way, one molecule of glucose can be converted into about 38 molecules of ATP. (shmoop.com)
  • Most of the energy (ATP) generated in the mitochondria requires oxygen, but in the absence of oxygen some energy can be generated in the cytoplasm outside of the mitochondria by glycolysis , wherein a glucose molecule produces two molecules of ATP and lactate. (benbest.com)
  • Phosphofructokinase , enzyme that is important in regulating the process of fermentation, by which one molecule of the simple sugar glucose is broken down to two molecules of pyruvic acid . (britannica.com)
  • Thus, a molecule of adenosine with three phosphate molecules attached becomes adenosine with two phosphate molecules attached, and energy is released during the reaction. (prohealth.com)
  • In plants, the glucose resulting from photosynthesis is split into two pyruvate molecules. (maximumyield.com)
  • Pyruvate then enters the mitochondria where it is transformed by dozens of orchestrated reactions to generate 30 ATP molecules for every starting glucose molecule. (maximumyield.com)
  • One molecule of glucose produces 36-38 molecules of ATP. (cenblog.org)
  • Thus, human ADPGK catalyses ADP-dependent phosphorylation of glucose in vitro, but despite its high expression in human tumour cell lines it appears not to make a quantifiable contribution to glycolysis under the conditions evaluated. (nih.gov)
  • The ten-step catabolic pathway of glycolysis is the initial phase of free-energy release in the breakdown of glucose and can be split into two phases, the preparatory phase and payoff phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the enzymes of lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation are identical to the enzymes that bring about the metabolic conversion known as glycolysis glycolysis , term given to the metabolic pathway utilized by most microorganisms (yeast and bacteria) and by all "higher" animals (including humans) for the degradation of glucose. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are three separate stages of glucose oxidation: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport system. (wisegeek.com)
  • In a process called glycolysis , which occurs in the cytoplasm just outside the mitochondrion, electrons are stripped from glucose and passed through the outer mitochondrial membrane into the intermembrane space . (shmoop.com)
  • This results in the formation of an ADP molecule (adenosine diphosphate), that is then "recharged" by the oxidation of glucose through glycolysis . (thunderbolts.info)
  • The net breakdown of ATP from glycolysis results in ADP, AMP (Adenosine MonoPhosphate), phosphate, lactate and acid accumulation (acidosis). (benbest.com)
  • In glycolysis, glucose is the fuel molecule being oxidized. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although some cells are highly dependent on glycolysis for the generation of ATP, the amount of ATP generated per glucose molecule is actually quite small. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In contrast, the complete aerobic metabolism of glucose to carbon dioxide by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle yields up to thirty-eight ATPs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Therefore, in the majority of cells the most important function of glycolysis is to metabolize glucose to generate three-carbon compounds that can be utilized by other pathways. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During glycolysis, the simple sugar glucose is broken down to produce energy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Phosphoglucomutase catalyzes what is outwardly an intramolecular transfer of phosphate during the formation of glucose-6-phosphate from glucose-1-phosphate during glycolysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glucose rapidly equilibrates across the plasma membrane and is phosphorylated with the help of glucokinase, which determines flux through glycolysis ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway in mitochondria that converts glucose/glycogen into pyruvate and hydrogen. (prohealth.com)
  • adenosine monophosphate (AMP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-phosphate, involved in energy metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Identification of the mutant block indicates that the greater portion of starch in the endosperm of normal maize is synthesized by way of enzyme systems that utilize adenosine diphosphate glucose as a substrate, and that the latter is formed chiefly by adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. (sciencemag.org)
  • In enzymology, a glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.27) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } diphosphate + ADP-glucose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, whereas its two products are diphosphate and ADP-glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A novel murine enzyme, ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADPGK), has been shown to catalyse glucose phosphorylation using ADP as phosphoryl donor. (nih.gov)
  • In the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), G-6-P is oxidized by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) to 6-phosphogluconate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). (cdc.gov)
  • This enzyme catalyzes a reaction that combines phosphocreatine and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into ATP and creatine . (wikipedia.org)
  • As the hydride ion is passed from one enzyme to another in the chain, energy is made available to power the formation of ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. (infoplease.com)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glucose-1-phosphate to glucose-6-phosphate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thus, glucose-6-phosphate is formed, and the enzyme again assumes its phosphorylated form. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plant ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) is a heterotetrameric enzyme composed of two large and two small subunits. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Adenosine diphosphate is a nucleotide composed of adenosine, which is comprised of the base adenine and the sugar ribose . (wisegeek.com)
  • A nucleotide, C 10 H 15 N 5 O 10 P 2 , that is composed of adenosine and two linked phosphate groups, and that is converted to ATP for the storage of energy in living cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Adenosine diphosphate , abbreviated ADP , is a nucleotide . (wikidoc.org)
  • Glucose is a simple saccharide that the body transforms to energy as ATP and stores in muscles, liver and other tissues in a form of glycogen . (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Reductions in intramuscular levels of ATP, phosphocreatine and glycogen, and low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) can impair skeletal muscle performance. (gssiweb.org)
  • At lower power outputs observed during prolonged endurance exercise, the oxidative ("aerobic") metabolism of carbohydrates (muscle glycogen and blood glucose, derived from liver glycogen/gluconeogenesis, or the gut when carbohydrate is ingested) and lipids (fatty acids derived from intramuscular and adipose tissue triglyceride stores) provides virtually all of the ATP required for the energy-dependent processes in skeletal muscle. (gssiweb.org)
  • The ATP is initially derived from either carbohydrate (in the form of glucose or glycogen (a form of glucose stored in cells)) or fatty acids. (prohealth.com)
  • Further work showed that uridine diphosphate glucose is involved in glycogen synthesis and adenosine diphosphate glucose in that of starch. (nobelprize.org)
  • On the other hand, trehalose, trehalose diphosphate, sodium pyruvate, and ribose-5-P did not effect the ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase. (asm.org)
  • Samples from 19 pigs were analysed for lactate, glucose, pyruvate and glycerol during equilibration, baseline, ischaemia and reperfusion periods. (diva-portal.org)
  • Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is an organic molecule involved in the central part of the metabolism of the cell that generates energy. (wisegeek.com)
  • The first group (Type I) is often used to describe the onset of diabetes, which is triggered by the inability of the pancreas to produce sufficient amounts of insulin for glucose uptake and metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • Adenosine diphosphate ( ADP ), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate ( APP ), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify genes involved in banana starch metabolism and investigate their evolutionary history, we analyzed six gene families playing a crucial role in plant starch biosynthesis and degradation: the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPases), starch synthases (SS), starch branching enzymes (SBE), debranching enzymes (DBE), α-amylases (AMY) and β-amylases (BAM). (frontiersin.org)
  • Adenosine nucleotides are involved in the energy metabolism of all cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sirtuins in glucose and lipid metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we summarize the background of glucose and lipid metabolism concerning sirtuins and discuss the functions of sirtuins in glucose and lipid metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • SIRT6 plays important roles in several pathways concerning glucose and lipid metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Under anaerobic conditions, the metabolism of each glucose molecule yields only two ATPs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The phosphorylation process is linked to cell metabolism in that metabolic degradation of food, e.g., glucose, allows formation of the coenzyme NADH. (infoplease.com)
  • With his early collaborators, Ranwel Caputto, Carlos E. Cardini, Raúl Trucco and Alejandro C. Paladini work was started on the metabolism of galactose which led to the isolation of glucose 1,6-diphosphate and uridine diphosphate glucose. (nobelprize.org)
  • Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate, the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. (genecards.org)
  • Hexokinases catalyze the first essential step of glucose metabolism, the conversion of the substrate glucose into glucose-6-phosphate. (genecards.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Glucose metabolism . (genecards.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increases in intramuscular levels of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), inorganic phosphate, magnesium and hydrogen ions and reactive oxygen species can impair muscle function. (gssiweb.org)
  • Crude extracts of Mycobacterium smegmatis catalyzed the synthesis of adenosine diphosphate-glucose (ADP-Glc), cytidine diphosphate-glucose, guanosine diphosphate-glucose (GDP-Glc), thymidine diphosphate-glucose (TDP-Glc), and uridine diphosphate-glucose (UDP-Glc). (asm.org)
  • First, in a series of reactions the cosubstrate uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid (UDPGA) is formed. (wikipathways.org)
  • The glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) then catalyze the transfer of glucuronic acid from UDPGA to a substrate resulting in a glucuronidated substrate and leaving uridine 5'-diphosphate. (wikipathways.org)
  • Other sugar nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate acetylglucosamine and guanosine diphosphate mannose were also isolated. (nobelprize.org)
  • Since hyperglycemia is involved in the "aspirin resistance" occurring in diabetes, we aimed at evaluating whether high glucose interferes with the aspirin-induced inhibition of thromboxane synthesis and/or activation of the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) pathway in platelets. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, high glucose acutely reduces the antiaggregating effect of aspirin, does not modify the aspirin-induced inhibition of thromboxane synthesis, and inhibits the aspirin-induced activation of the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The hamster SUR, containing the analogous mutation, had normal ATP sensitivity, but unlike wild-type channels, inhibition by ATP was not antagonized by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). (sciencemag.org)
  • BcsA-B undergoes feedback inhibition by UDP, competitive versus UDP-glucose. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • Insulin resistance is also closely related to hyperinsulinemia, though high blood glucose is observed in the former while high insulin is observed in the latter. (hindawi.com)
  • We evaluated the changes in body weight, fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, blood coagulation profile, and platelet function. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment with camel milk or bovine milk reversed these abnormalities, resulting in weight gain, decreased blood glucose levels, and improved glucose tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • As a result, the concentrations of ATP and free ADP reflect the concentration of blood glucose. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In partial support of the above hypothesis, patients with a mutant glucokinase of abnormal affinity to glucose have an abnormal set point for glucose homeostasis ( 3 , 4 , 5 ), and other patients with K ATP channels with abnormally low affinity for ADP fail to turn off insulin release properly at low concentrations of blood glucose ( 6 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mitochondria use the by-products of glucose oxidation to produce ATP. (wisegeek.com)
  • The final stage of glucose oxidation also takes place within the mitochondria, where a group of proteins, called the electron transport system, help transform the energy of the electrons captured by NADH and FADH 2 into ATP. (wisegeek.com)
  • There is a series of adenosine diphosphate receptors found on the platelets, and when ADP interacts with them, there is further activation of the platelets. (wisegeek.com)
  • [1] ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine receptors . (wikidoc.org)
  • Ballicora MA, Frueauf JB, Fu Y et al (2000) Activation of the potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase by thioredoxin. (springer.com)
  • The subunit structure of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • it completely lacks adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase activity in both endosperm and embryo tissue. (sciencemag.org)
  • lacking ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. (nii.ac.jp)
  • ADP-glucose (Glc) pyrophosphorylase (ADP-Glc PPase) catalyzes the first committed step in starch biosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Brittle 1, encoded by BT1, is a transporter of adenosine diphosphate-glucose, which plays an important role in the biosynthesis of starch in the endosperm of cereals. (bireme.br)
  • A molecule of glucose, which is broken down by an organism into carbon dioxide and water in a process called glucose oxidation. (wisegeek.com)
  • When a single molecule of glucose is oxidized, the cell gains about 30 to 32 ATP. (wisegeek.com)
  • The purified ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase was inhibited by fructose-6-P, fructose-1, 6-diphosphate, glucose-6-P, and phosphoenolpyruvate. (asm.org)
  • A red cell hemolysate is incubated with adenosine diphosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Droplets can be generated within a minute following the addition of phosphoenolpyruvate as a substrate, and they can be dissolved within tens of seconds by adding glucose as the second substrate. (rsc.org)
  • G6PD in a hemolysate catalyzes the oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • In this assay the formation of glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) is measured by linking its further oxidation to 6-phosphogluconate (6-PG) to the reduction of NADP through the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) reaction. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • What is Glucose Oxidation? (wisegeek.com)
  • Glucose oxidation is a chemical process that provides energy for an organism to carry out all of its required activities. (wisegeek.com)
  • A strand of DNA, which is created by the energy that is produced through glucose oxidation. (wisegeek.com)
  • Glucose oxidation is an aerobic process, a chemical reaction that requires oxygen. (wisegeek.com)
  • This report aimed at presenting a case of a Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient patient, undergoing ambulatory anesthesia with inhalatory anesthesia associated to caudal block. (ispub.com)
  • Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a relatively common enzymopathy, but there are few publications relating such condition to anesthesia 1 . (ispub.com)
  • Adapted with permission from Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. (ispub.com)
  • Androgen-stimulated UDP-glucose dehydrogenase expression limits prostate androgen availability without impacting hyaluronan levels. (wikipathways.org)
  • Results from analyses showed no differences in relative changes for glucose, lactate and glycerol during baseline, ischaemia and reperfusion. (diva-portal.org)
  • adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ATP is also used to produce high-energy phosphorylated intermediary metabolites, such as glucose 6-phosphate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Forty percent of the glucose " burned " in cell respiration provides the organism with energy to drive its activities, while 60% of the oxidized glucose is dissipated as heat. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This breakdown also releases energy, which is used to add a phosphate ion to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to create ATP. (wisegeek.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate's chemical structure contains a relatively complex carbon-based molecule, including cyclic carbon subgroups, but the main function comes from the phosphate groups, or rather, the last phosphate group, which is the one shed when ATP provides energy to the cell. (reference.com)
  • Skeletal muscle burns 90 mg (0.5 mmol ) of glucose each minute during continuous activity (such as when repetitively extending the human knee), [11] generating ≈24 W of mechanical energy, and since muscle energy conversion is only 22-26% efficient, [12] ≈76 W of heat energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiration is a process through which energy is released from glucose or another organic chemicals. (iloveindia.com)
  • This involves the combination of glucose and other nutrients with oxygen, releasing the stored energy. (alison.com)
  • The liberation of phosphate from ATP is a source of cellular energy that results in ADP (Adenosine DiPhosphate) and hydrogen ion (acid). (benbest.com)
  • The ATP converts to ADP (adenosine diphosphate), to supply energy to the body, and then the muscle cells recycle the ADP back to ATP. (parade.com)
  • Beta-1,3- glucan is different from energy-storing glucose-containing polysaccharides because the connection between the glucose units is different, more specifically, it is the beta-1,3-linkage, which makes this compound so unique. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • The energy from the sun is being converted to chemical energy, thereby producing organic compound (like glucose). (ukessays.com)
  • They are doing photosynthesis in order to get the energy to make the building materials, the glucose, etcetera, so that they can make the building materials they need to make stuff like the cellulose, cell wall, etcetera. (brightstorm.com)
  • Which is using that energy to grab carbon dioxide from the air, and squish it together to form glucose. (brightstorm.com)
  • Glucose is often thought of as an energy source. (maximumyield.com)
  • Upon fixation of carbon dioxide in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells, triose phosphates either enter the cytosol for mainly sucrose formation or remain in the stroma to form transiently stored starch which is degraded during the night and enters the cytosol as maltose or glucose to be further metabolized to sucrose. (frontiersin.org)
  • Five (5) different solutions (distilled water (DW), sucrose, lactose, glucose and yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae), four (4) respirometers (test tubes, 1 mL graduated cylinder, pipettes, tubing and binding clips) and pipette pump were used. (ukessays.com)
  • Similar effects were seen with 30 mmol/l L-glucose, sucrose and galactose. (ovid.com)
  • The latter substance was then found to act as glucose donor in the synthesis of trehalose (with Enrico Cabib, 1953 ) and sucrose (with Carlos E. Cardini and J.Chiriboga, 1955). (nobelprize.org)
  • A physiological mixture of amino acids greatly stimulated insulin release at 0-30 mmol/l glucose but affected the concentration of free ADP only to a minor degree and significantly so only at ≤2 mmol/l glucose. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • With a background of 4 mmol/l amino acid, increasing glucose from 4 to 8 mmol/l led to a decrease of free ADP from ∼44 to ∼31 μmol/l. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Fasting human blood was incubated with different concentrations of D-glucose (5, 15 and 30 mmol/l) and other sugars without or with in vitro stimuli. (ovid.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds and Type II diabetes mellitus . (genecards.org)
  • This ATP is used in the process of generating glucose from carbon dioxide, starting the process of producing the plant food we consume. (wisegeek.com)
  • The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5' carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1' carbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • When muscle tissue receives sufficient oxygen supply, it fully metabolizes its fuel glucose to water and carbon dioxide. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During this process, glucose, a simple sugar molecule obtained from food, is broken down into carbon dioxide and water. (wisegeek.com)
  • In the reaction, the phosphorylated form of phosphoglucomutase transfers the phosphate to carbon atom 6 of glucose-1-phosphate, forming glucose-1,6-diphosphate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The de-phosphorylated phosphoglucomutase then takes on the phosphate group at carbon atom 1 of glucose-1,6-diphosphate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Unlike the cellular respiration whose end products are carbon dioxide and water, the product of fermentation are carbon dioxide and ethanol due to the fact that glucose is not completely broken down. (ukessays.com)
  • And he is eating the glucose in oxygen and breathing out the carbon dioxide and water. (brightstorm.com)
  • Hexokinase (in the presence of magnesium) catalyzes the reaction of ATP and glucose to G-6-P and ADP. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • It does this by shedding a phosphate group, becoming adenosine diphosphate, or ADP, a highly energetic reaction that powers all of a cell's molecular machinery. (reference.com)
  • glucose-1,6-diphos-phate acts as a coenzyme of the reaction, which requires the presence of Mg 2+ ions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An adenosine monophospate or AMP group is transferred in the reaction that produces 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, while an adenosine diphosphate or ADP group is transferred when glucose-6-phosphate is made. (livestrong.com)
  • Preincubation with amifostine reversed the high-glucose effects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These results identify a mechanism by which high glucose interferes with the aspirin action. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • a few studies have evaluated the effects of acute platelet exposure to high glucose in in vitro models ( 17 - 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Objectives In this study, we have investigated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on myocardial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative/nitrative stress, cell death, and interrelated signaling pathways, using a mouse model of type I diabetic cardiomyopathy and primary human cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Furthermore, CBD also attenuated the high glucose-induced increased reactive oxygen species generation, nuclear factor-κB activation, and cell death in primary human cardiomyocytes. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The present study was designed to investigate how high glucose levels influence platelet function. (ovid.com)
  • High glucose levels enhanced adenosine diphosphate (ADP)- and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP)-induced platelet P-selectin expression, and TRAP-induced platelet fibrinogen binding. (ovid.com)
  • In conclusion, high glucose levels enhanced platelet reactivity to agonist stimulation through elevated osmolality. (ovid.com)
  • As the glucose is oxidized by the glycolytic enzymes, the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) is converted from its oxidized to reduced form (NAD + to NADH). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The ability of a mitochondrion to convert glucose and ADP , adenosine diphosphate, into ATP is intricately connected to the structure of the mitochondrial membranes. (shmoop.com)
  • Isolation and analysis of a cDNA clone encoding the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from wheat. (nii.ac.jp)
  • When one of the three phosphates are removed the resulting compound is called ADP, Adenosine Diphosphate. (reference.com)
  • An organic compound, C 10 H 15 N 5 O 10 P 2 , that is composed of adenosine and two phosphate groups. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphosugar phosphorylase, ADP sugar phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase, and ADP:aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insensitivity of barley endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase to 3-phosphoglycerate and orthophosphate regulation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Since viability of platelets in vitro is limited to a few hours, studies in vitro are designed only to evaluate whether acute increases in glucose concentrations influence platelet responses to aspirin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 8 ) to cover a whole range of glucose concentrations with and without amino acids. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We found that increasing concentrations of glucose are associated with an exponential decline of the concentration of free ADP, while the concentration of ATP remained nearly constant. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The reduction of NADP is measured spectrophotometrically and is proportional to the enzymatic conversion of ATP and glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Isolation and expression analysis of cDNA clones encoding a small and a large subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from sugar beet. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Allosteric sites of the large subunit of the spinach leaf ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A derivative of ADP is adenosine diphosphate ribose, in which the sugar ribose is linked to the final phosphate of ADP by an ester linkage. (wisegeek.com)
  • We propose that glucose-induced insulin release may be regulated similarly by two components: glucokinase and K ATP channels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The glucose sensitivity of these cells is close to normal, as the maximal activity of glucokinase is ∼10 times that of hexokinase ( 10 , 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In vertebrates there are four major glucose-phosphorylating isoenzymes, designated hexokinase I, II, III and IV (glucokinase). (genecards.org)
  • A distinct phosphodiesterasic activity (EC 3.1.4) was found in both mono- and dicotyledonous plants that catalyzes the hydrolytic breakdown of ADPglucose (ADPG) to produce equimolar amounts of glucose-1-phosphate and AMP. (unavarra.es)
  • Catalyzes the phosphorylation of D-glucose to D-glucose 6-phosphate using ADP as the phosphate donor. (genecards.org)
  • Recombinant human ADPGK was confirmed to catalyse ADP-dependent glucose phosphorylation in vitro, with an apparent K (M) for glucose of 0.29 mM. (nih.gov)
  • The P2Y 1 agonist adenosine 5′-[ β -thio]diphosphate trilithium salt (ADP β S) inhibited M-current by up to 52% with an IC 50 of 84 nM. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There are pharmaceutical adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors that slow the activation of the platelets. (wisegeek.com)
  • Characterization of adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase from developing maize seeds. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Exposure of the monomer crystals to ADP in the complete absence of glucose 6-phosphate reveals a second binding site for adenine nucleotides at the putative active site (C-half), with conformational changes extending 15 A to the contact interface between the N and C-halves. (rcsb.org)
  • In the absence of glucose, K ATP channels are quite active and dictate the membrane potential. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder signified by high levels of glucose in the blood and can be categorised into two main groups. (hindawi.com)
  • DeFronzo [ 5 ] states that insulin resistance and Type II diabetes have been linked to clusters of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders including hypertension, obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction. (hindawi.com)