Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.
An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
Uridine Diphosphate (UDP) sugars are nucleotide sugars that serve as essential glycosyl donors in the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates, including proteoglycans and glycoproteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.

Granule-bound starch synthase I in isolated starch granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively. (1/45)

Isoforms of starch synthase belonging to the granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) class synthesize the amylose component of starch in plants. Other granule-bound isoforms of starch synthase, such as starch synthase II (SSII), are unable to synthesize amylose. The kinetic properties of GBSSI and SSII that are responsible for these functional differences have been investigated using starch granules from embryos of wild-type peas and rug5 and lam mutant peas, which contain, respectively, both GBSSI and SSII, GBSSI but not SSII and SSII but not GBSSI. We show that GBSSI in isolated granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively, adding more than one glucose molecule for each enzyme-glucan encounter. Granule-bound SSII can elongate malto-oligosaccharides, but has a lower affinity for these than GBSSI and does not elongate processively. As a result of these properties GBSSI synthesizes longer malto-oligosaccharides than SSII. The significance of these results with respect to the roles of GBSSI and SSII in vivo is discussed.  (+info)

Cloning, expression and characterization of YSA1H, a human adenosine 5'-diphosphosugar pyrophosphatase possessing a MutT motif. (2/45)

The human homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YSA1 protein, YSA1H, has been expressed as a thioredoxin fusion protein in Escherichia coli. It is an ADP-sugar pyrophosphatase with similar activities towards ADP-ribose and ADP-mannose. Its activities with ADP-glucose and diadenosine diphosphate were 56% and 20% of that with ADP-ribose respectively, whereas its activity towards other nucleoside 5'-diphosphosugars was typically 2-10%. cADP-ribose was not a substrate. The products of ADP-ribose hydrolysis were AMP and ribose 5-phosphate. K(m) and k(cat) values with ADP-ribose were 60 microM and 5.5 s(-1) respectively. The optimal activity was at alkaline pH (7.4-9.0) with 2.5-5 mM Mg(2+) or 100-250 microM Mn(2+) ions; fluoride was inhibitory, with an IC(50) of 20 microM. The YSA1H gene, which maps to 10p13-p14, is widely expressed in all human tissues examined, giving a 1.4 kb transcript. The 41.6 kDa fusion protein behaved as an 85 kDa dimer on gel filtration. After cleavage with enterokinase, the 24.4 kDa native protein fragment ran on SDS/PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kDa. Immunoblot analysis with a polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant YSA1H revealed the presence of a protein of apparent molecular mass 33 kDa in various human cells, including erythrocytes. The sequence of YSA1H contains a MutT sequence signature motif. A major proposed function of the MutT motif proteins is to eliminate toxic nucleotide metabolites from the cell. Hence the function of YSA1H might be to remove free ADP-ribose arising from NAD(+) and protein-bound poly- and mono-(ADP-ribose) turnover to prevent the occurrence of non-enzymic protein glycation.  (+info)

A possible role for pyrophosphate in the coordination of cytosolic and plastidial carbon metabolism within the potato tuber. (3/45)

The early stages of tuber development are characterized by cell division, high metabolic activity, and the predominance of invertase as the sucrose (Suc) cleaving activity. However, during the subsequent phase of starch accumulation the cleavage of Suc occurs primarily by the action of Suc synthase. The mechanism that is responsible for this switch in Suc cleaving activities is currently unknown. One striking difference between the invertase and Suc synthase mediated cleavage of Suc is the direct involvement of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in the latter case. There is presently no convincing explanation of how the PPi required to support this process is generated in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. The major site of PPi production in a maturing potato tubers is likely to be the reaction catalyzed by ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, the first committed step of starch biosynthesis in amyloplasts. We present data based on the analysis of the PPi levels in various transgenic plants altered in starch and Suc metabolism that support the hypothesis that PPi produced in the plastid is used to support cytosolic Suc breakdown and that PPi is an important coordinator of cytosolic and plastidial metabolism in potato tubers.  (+info)

Legume embryos develop in a hypoxic environment. (4/45)

Specific morphological and biochemical characteristics of seeds can cause oxygen deficiency within maternal and embryonic tissues. In this study, optical sensors were used to measure O(2) profiles across developing seeds of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum and developmental and environmental modulations of internal O(2) levels were studied. In addition, the metabolic state of developing embryos was analysed by monitoring adenylate energy charge, adenylate nucleotides and the levels of nucleotide sugars. Within the seed coat O(2) concentration decreased sharply to approximately 3% towards the inner border. Lowest O(2) levels were detected within the endospermal cavity between the seed coat and embryo. It is probable that low seed coat permeability provides an hypoxic environment for legume embryo development. The O(2) concentration in embryonic tissue changed during development with the lowest levels in the early stages. Measured in darkness, the levels were below 3%, but increased upon illumination indicating that photosynthesis significantly contributes to internal O(2) levels. Only in very young embryos were ATP levels and energy charge low. Otherwise they were maintained at a constant higher value. ADP-glucose and UDP-glucose did not show large fluctuations. Throughout embryo development fermentative activity did not play a major role. Obviously, specific mechanisms prevent seed tissues from becoming anoxic during development. The possible role of low oxygen on seed metabolism and on the control of seed development in legumes is discussed.  (+info)

Starch synthesis and carbon partitioning in developing endosperm. (5/45)

The biosynthesis of starch is the major determinant of yield in cereal grains. In this short review, attention is focused on the synthesis of the soluble substrate for starch synthesis, ADPglucose (ADPG). Consideration is given to the pathway of ADPG production, its subcellular compartmentation, and the role of metabolite transporters in mediating its delivery to the site of starch synthesis. As ADPG is an activated sugar, the dependence of its production on respiration, changes which occur during development, and the constraints which ATP production may place on carbon partitioning into different end-products are discussed.  (+info)

A low-starch barley mutant, riso 16, lacking the cytosolic small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, reveals the importance of the cytosolic isoform and the identity of the plastidial small subunit. (6/45)

To provide information on the roles of the different forms of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm and the nature of the genes encoding their subunits, a mutant of barley, Riso 16, lacking cytosolic AGPase activity in the endosperm was identified. The mutation specifically abolishes the small subunit of the cytosolic AGPase and is attributable to a large deletion within the coding region of a previously characterized small subunit gene that we have called Hv.AGP.S.1. The plastidial AGPase activity in the mutant is unaffected. This shows that the cytosolic and plastidial small subunits of AGPase are encoded by separate genes. We purified the plastidial AGPase protein and, using amino acid sequence information, we identified the novel small subunit gene that encodes this protein. Studies of the Riso 16 mutant revealed the following. First, the reduced starch content of the mutant showed that a cytosolic AGPase is required to achieve the normal rate of starch synthesis. Second, the mutant makes both A- and B-type starch granules, showing that the cytosolic AGPase is not necessary for the synthesis of these two granule types. Third, analysis of the phylogenetic relationships between the various small subunit proteins both within and between species, suggest that the cytosolic AGPase single small subunit gene probably evolved from a leaf single small subunit gene.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a critical region in the glycogen synthase from Escherichia coli. (7/45)

The cysteine-specific reagent 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) inactivates the Escherichia coli glycogen synthase (Holmes, E., and Preiss, J. (1982) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 216, 736-740). To find the responsible residue, all cysteines, Cys(7), Cys(379), and Cys(408), were substituted combinatorially by Ser. 5,5'-Dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) modified and inactivated the enzyme if and only if Cys(379) was present and it was prevented by the substrate ADP-glucose (ADP-Glc). Mutations C379S and C379A increased the S(0.5) for ADP-Glc 40- and 77-fold, whereas the specific activity was decreased 5.8- and 4.3-fold, respectively. Studies of inhibition by glucose 1-phosphate and AMP indicated that Cys(379) was involved in the interaction of the enzyme with the phosphoglucose moiety of ADP-Glc. Other mutations, C379T, C379D, and C379L, indicated that this site is intolerant for bulkier side chains. Because Cys(379) is in a conserved region, other residues were scanned by mutagenesis. Replacement of Glu(377) by Ala and Gln decreased V(max) more than 10,000-fold without affecting the apparent affinity for ADP-Glc and glycogen binding. Mutation of Glu(377) by Asp decreased V(max) only 57-fold indicating that the negative charge of Glu(377) is essential for catalysis. The activity of the mutation E377C, on an enzyme form without other Cys, was chemically restored by carboxymethylation. Other conserved residues in the region, Ser(374) and Gln(383), were analyzed by mutagenesis but found not essential. Comparison with the crystal structure of other glycosyltransferases suggests that this conserved region is a loop that is part of the active site. The results of this work indicate that this region is critical for catalysis and substrate binding.  (+info)

Protein phosphorylation in amyloplasts regulates starch branching enzyme activity and protein-protein interactions. (8/45)

Protein phosphorylation in amyloplasts and chloroplasts of Triticum aestivum (wheat) was investigated after the incubation of intact plastids with gamma-(32)P-ATP. Among the soluble phosphoproteins detected in plastids, three forms of starch branching enzyme (SBE) were phosphorylated in amyloplasts (SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb), and both forms of SBE in chloroplasts (SBEI and SBEIIa) were shown to be phosphorylated after sequencing of the immunoprecipitated (32)P-labeled phosphoproteins using quadrupole-orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometry. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the phosphorylated SBE forms indicated that the proteins are all phosphorylated on Ser residues. Analysis of starch granule-associated phosphoproteins after incubation of intact amyloplasts with gamma-(32)P-ATP indicated that the granule-associated forms of SBEII and two granule-associated forms of starch synthase (SS) are phosphorylated, including SSIIa. Measurement of SBE activity in amyloplasts and chloroplasts showed that phosphorylation activated SBEIIa (and SBEIIb in amyloplasts), whereas dephosphorylation using alkaline phosphatase reduced the catalytic activity of both enzymes. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation had no effect on the measurable activity of SBEI in amyloplasts and chloroplasts, and the activities of both granule-bound forms of SBEII in amyloplasts were unaffected by dephosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments using peptide-specific anti-SBE antibodies showed that SBEIIb and starch phosphorylase each coimmunoprecipitated with SBEI in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, suggesting that these enzymes may form protein complexes within the amyloplast in vivo. Conversely, dephosphorylation of immunoprecipitated protein complex led to its disassembly. This article reports direct evidence that enzymes of starch metabolism (amylopectin synthesis) are regulated by protein phosphorylation and indicate a wider role for protein phosphorylation and protein-protein interactions in the control of starch anabolism and catabolism.  (+info)

Adenosine diphosphate glucose (ADP-glucose) is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of glycogen, which is a complex carbohydrate that serves as a primary form of energy storage in animals, fungi, and bacteria. In this process, ADP-glucose is formed from glucose-1-phosphate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the action of the enzyme ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Once synthesized, ADP-glucose is then used as a substrate for the enzyme glycogen synthase, which catalyzes the addition of glucose units to an existing glycogen molecule, leading to its growth and expansion. This pathway plays a crucial role in regulating cellular energy metabolism and maintaining glucose homeostasis within the body.

Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, also known as ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase or AGPase, is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in carbohydrate metabolism, specifically in the synthesis of starch. It catalyzes the reaction between ATP and glucose-1-phosphate to produce ADP-glucose and pyrophosphate. This reaction is the first committed step in the biosynthetic pathway of starch in plants, algae, and some bacteria. In humans, defects in this enzyme can lead to a rare genetic disorder called glycogen storage disease type Ib.

Uridine Diphosphate Glucose (UDP-glucose) is a nucleotide sugar that plays a crucial role in the synthesis and metabolism of carbohydrates in the body. It is formed from uridine triphosphate (UTP) and glucose-1-phosphate through the action of the enzyme UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.

UDP-glucose serves as a key intermediate in various biochemical pathways, including glycogen synthesis, where it donates glucose molecules to form glycogen, a large polymeric storage form of glucose found primarily in the liver and muscles. It is also involved in the biosynthesis of other carbohydrate-containing compounds such as proteoglycans and glycolipids.

Moreover, UDP-glucose is an essential substrate for the enzyme glucosyltransferase, which is responsible for adding glucose molecules to various acceptor molecules during the process of glycosylation. This post-translational modification is critical for the proper folding and functioning of many proteins.

Overall, UDP-glucose is a vital metabolic intermediate that plays a central role in carbohydrate metabolism and protein function.

Uridine diphosphate sugars (UDP-sugars) are nucleotide sugars that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of glycans, which are complex carbohydrates found on the surface of many cell types. UDP-sugars consist of a uridine diphosphate molecule linked to a sugar moiety, such as glucose, galactose, or xylose. These molecules serve as activated donor substrates for glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sugar residues to acceptor molecules, including proteins and other carbohydrates. UDP-sugars are essential for various biological processes, such as cell recognition, signaling, and protein folding. Dysregulation of UDP-sugar metabolism has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and congenital disorders of glycosylation.

Uridine Diphosphate (UDP) Glucose Dehydrogenase is an enzyme that plays a role in carbohydrate metabolism. Its systematic name is UDP-glucose:NAD+ oxidoreductase, and it catalyzes the following chemical reaction:

UDP-glucose + NAD+ -> UDP-glucuronate + NADH + H+

This enzyme helps convert UDP-glucose into UDP-glucuronate, which is a crucial component in the biosynthesis of various substances in the body, such as glycosaminoglycans and other glyconjugates. The reaction also results in the reduction of NAD+ to NADH, which is an essential coenzyme in numerous metabolic processes.

UDP-glucose dehydrogenase is widely distributed in various tissues, including the liver, kidney, and intestine. Deficiencies or mutations in this enzyme can lead to several metabolic disorders, such as glucosuria and hypermethioninemia.

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a chemical compound that plays a crucial role in energy transfer within cells. It is a nucleotide, which consists of a adenosine molecule (a sugar molecule called ribose attached to a nitrogenous base called adenine) and two phosphate groups.

In the cell, ADP functions as an intermediate in the conversion of energy from one form to another. When a high-energy phosphate bond in ADP is broken, energy is released and ADP is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which serves as the main energy currency of the cell. Conversely, when ATP donates a phosphate group to another molecule, it is converted back to ADP, releasing energy for the cell to use.

ADP also plays a role in blood clotting and other physiological processes. In the coagulation cascade, ADP released from damaged red blood cells can help activate platelets and initiate the formation of a blood clot.

Adenosine is a purine nucleoside that is composed of a sugar (ribose) and the base adenine. It plays several important roles in the body, including serving as a precursor for the synthesis of other molecules such as ATP, NAD+, and RNA.

In the medical context, adenosine is perhaps best known for its use as a pharmaceutical agent to treat certain cardiac arrhythmias. When administered intravenously, it can help restore normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) by slowing conduction through the atrioventricular node and interrupting the reentry circuit responsible for the arrhythmia.

Adenosine can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help differentiate between narrow-complex tachycardias of supraventricular origin and those that originate from below the ventricles (such as ventricular tachycardia). This is because adenosine will typically terminate PSVT but not affect the rhythm of VT.

It's worth noting that adenosine has a very short half-life, lasting only a few seconds in the bloodstream. This means that its effects are rapidly reversible and generally well-tolerated, although some patients may experience transient symptoms such as flushing, chest pain, or shortness of breath.

Nucleotidyltransferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nucleotides to an acceptor molecule, such as RNA or DNA. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including DNA replication, repair, and recombination, as well as RNA synthesis and modification.

The reaction catalyzed by nucleotidyltransferases typically involves the donation of a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) to an acceptor molecule, resulting in the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the nucleotides. The reaction can be represented as follows:

NTP + acceptor → NMP + pyrophosphate

where NTP is the nucleoside triphosphate donor and NMP is the nucleoside monophosphate product.

There are several subclasses of nucleotidyltransferases, including polymerases, ligases, and terminases. These enzymes have distinct functions and substrate specificities, but all share the ability to transfer nucleotides to an acceptor molecule.

Examples of nucleotidyltransferases include DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase, telomerase, and ligase. These enzymes are essential for maintaining genome stability and function, and their dysregulation has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Paper chromatography is a type of chromatography technique that involves the separation and analysis of mixtures based on their components' ability to migrate differently upon capillary action on a paper medium. This simple and cost-effective method utilizes a paper, typically made of cellulose, as the stationary phase. The sample mixture is applied as a small spot near one end of the paper, and then the other end is dipped into a developing solvent or a mixture of solvents (mobile phase) in a shallow container.

As the mobile phase moves up the paper by capillary action, components within the sample mixture separate based on their partition coefficients between the stationary and mobile phases. The partition coefficient describes how much a component prefers to be in either the stationary or mobile phase. Components with higher partition coefficients in the mobile phase will move faster and further than those with lower partition coefficients.

Once separation is complete, the paper is dried and can be visualized under ultraviolet light or by using chemical reagents specific for the components of interest. The distance each component travels from the origin (point of application) and its corresponding solvent front position are measured, allowing for the calculation of Rf values (retardation factors). Rf is a dimensionless quantity calculated as the ratio of the distance traveled by the component to the distance traveled by the solvent front.

Rf = (distance traveled by component) / (distance traveled by solvent front)

Paper chromatography has been widely used in various applications, such as:

1. Identification and purity analysis of chemical compounds in pharmaceuticals, forensics, and research laboratories.
2. Separation and detection of amino acids, sugars, and other biomolecules in biological samples.
3. Educational purposes to demonstrate the principles of chromatography and separation techniques.

Despite its limitations, such as lower resolution compared to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and less compatibility with volatile or nonpolar compounds, paper chromatography remains a valuable tool for quick, qualitative analysis in various fields.

Glucosyltransferases (GTs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a glucose molecule from an activated donor to an acceptor molecule, resulting in the formation of a glycosidic bond. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, cell wall synthesis, and protein glycosylation. In some cases, GTs can also contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by facilitating the attachment of bacteria to host tissues through the formation of glucans, which are polymers of glucose molecules.

GTs can be classified into several families based on their sequence similarities and catalytic mechanisms. The donor substrates for GTs are typically activated sugars such as UDP-glucose, TDP-glucose, or GDP-glucose, which serve as the source of the glucose moiety that is transferred to the acceptor molecule. The acceptor can be a wide range of molecules, including other sugars, proteins, lipids, or small molecules.

In the context of human health and disease, GTs have been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, inflammation, and microbial infections. For example, some GTs can modify proteins on the surface of cancer cells, leading to increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Additionally, GTs can contribute to bacterial resistance to antibiotics by modifying the structure of bacterial cell walls or by producing biofilms that protect bacteria from host immune responses and antimicrobial agents.

Overall, Glucosyltransferases are essential enzymes involved in various biological processes, and their dysregulation has been associated with several human diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of GTs is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these enzymes and treat related pathological conditions.

Platelet aggregation is the clumping together of platelets (thrombocytes) in the blood, which is an essential step in the process of hemostasis (the stopping of bleeding) after injury to a blood vessel. When the inner lining of a blood vessel is damaged, exposure of subendothelial collagen and tissue factor triggers platelet activation. Activated platelets change shape, become sticky, and release the contents of their granules, which include ADP (adenosine diphosphate).

ADP then acts as a chemical mediator to attract and bind additional platelets to the site of injury, leading to platelet aggregation. This forms a plug that seals the damaged vessel and prevents further blood loss. Platelet aggregation is also a crucial component in the formation of blood clots (thrombosis) within blood vessels, which can have pathological consequences such as heart attacks and strokes if they obstruct blood flow to vital organs.

Adenosine A2A receptor is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the endogenous purine nucleoside, adenosine. It is a subtype of the A2 receptor along with the A2B receptor and is widely distributed throughout the body, particularly in the brain, heart, and immune system.

The A2A receptor plays an essential role in various physiological processes, including modulation of neurotransmission, cardiovascular function, and immune response. In the brain, activation of A2A receptors can have both excitatory and inhibitory effects on neuronal activity, depending on the location and context.

In the heart, A2A receptor activation has a negative chronotropic effect, reducing heart rate, and a negative inotropic effect, decreasing contractility. In the immune system, A2A receptors are involved in regulating inflammation and immune cell function.

Pharmacologically, A2A receptor agonists have been investigated for their potential therapeutic benefits in various conditions, including Parkinson's disease, chronic pain, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cancer. Conversely, A2A receptor antagonists have also been studied as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, and addiction.

Adenosine A1 receptor is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine. When activated, it inhibits the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the cell by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity. This results in various physiological effects, such as decreased heart rate and reduced force of heart contractions, increased potassium conductance, and decreased calcium currents. The Adenosine A1 receptor is widely distributed throughout the body, including the brain, heart, kidneys, and other organs. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including cardiovascular function, neuroprotection, and inflammation.

Blood platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, colorless cell fragments in our blood that play an essential role in normal blood clotting. They are formed in the bone marrow from large cells called megakaryocytes and circulate in the blood in an inactive state until they are needed to help stop bleeding. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets become activated and change shape, releasing chemicals that attract more platelets to the site of injury. These activated platelets then stick together to form a plug, or clot, that seals the wound and prevents further blood loss. In addition to their role in clotting, platelets also help to promote healing by releasing growth factors that stimulate the growth of new tissue.

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) sugars, also known as sugar nucleotides, are molecules that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. These molecules consist of a sugar molecule, usually glucose or galactose, linked to a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP).

The ADP portion of the molecule provides the energy needed for the transfer of the sugar moiety to other molecules during the process of glycosylation. The reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called glycosyltransferases, which transfer the sugar from the ADP-sugar donor to an acceptor molecule, such as a protein or lipid.

ADP-sugars are important in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signal transduction, and protein folding. Abnormalities in the metabolism of ADP-sugars have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders.

... adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, ... Ghosh HP, Preiss J (1966). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. A regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis of starch ... diphosphate + ADP-glucose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, whereas its two ... alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. Other names in common use include ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase, glucose 1- ...
Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase, and ADP:aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. ... doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphosugar ...
Animals use the energy released in the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to convert ADP to ATP, which can then be used ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ...
... diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase". Journal of Bacteriology. 127 (1): 193-203. doi:10.1128/JB.127.1.193-203.1976. ISSN 0021 ... Preiss, J; Crawford, K; Downey, J; Lammel, C; Greenberg, E (July 1976). "Kinetic properties of Serratia marcescens adenosine 5 ... ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase from strains of S. marcescens demonstrated optimal activity in buffer at pH 7.5 and 8.0, ... Serratia utilizes a metabolic enzyme, ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase, with distinct kinetic properties from those found in ...
... adenosine diphosphate glucose-starch glucosyltransferase, adenosine diphosphoglucose-starch glucosyltransferase, ADP-glucose ... FRYDMAN RB, CARDINI CE (1965). "Studies on adenosine diphosphate d-glucose: α-1,4-glucan α-4-glucosyltransferase of sweet-corn ... Leloir LF, de Fekete MA, Cardini CE (1961). "Starch and oligosaccharide synthesis from uridine diphosphate glucose". J. Biol. ... Formation of beta-(1,4)-glucans from GDP-glucose and beta-(1,3)-glucans from UDP-glucose". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 138 (2): 620 ...
... converting it to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The shape and the function of this protein is thus altered enabling it to take ... part in converting glycogen into glucose which is used for fuel for muscular contractions. When the protein has completed its ... Explained simply, the cycle works like this: a protein kinase moves a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to a ...
Creatine phosphate stores energy so ATP can be rapidly regenerated within the muscle cells from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ... Glycogen is the intramuscular storage form of glucose, used to generate energy quickly once intramuscular creatine stores are ... They include molecules such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glycogen and creatine phosphate. ATP binds to the myosin head and ...
Creatine phosphate stores energy so ATP can be rapidly regenerated within the muscle cells from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ... Glycogen is the intramuscular storage form of glucose, used to generate energy quickly once intramuscular creatine stores are ... They include molecules such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glycogen and creatine phosphate. ATP binds to the myosin head and ...
... adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125 - adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125.040 - o- ... uridine diphosphate glucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.375 - uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid MeSH D09.408.620.569.727.800 - ... poly adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.200 - cytidine diphosphate diglycerides MeSH D09.408.620.569.400 - ... nucleoside diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070 - adenosine diphosphate sugars MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.075 - ...
... adenosine diphosphate, uridine triphosphate, uridine diphosphate and UDP-glucose.To date, 8 P2Y receptors have been cloned in ... P2Y receptors are a family of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors, stimulated by nucleotides such as adenosine triphosphate ...
Creatine phosphate stores energy so ATP can be rapidly regenerated within the muscle cells from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ... Glycogen is the intramuscular storage form of glucose, used to generate energy quickly once intramuscular creatine stores are ... They include molecules such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glycogen and creatine phosphate. ATP binds to the myosin head and ...
This enzyme catalyzes a reaction that combines phosphocreatine and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into ATP and creatine. This ... Plasma glucose is said to be maintained when there is an equal rate of glucose appearance (entry into the blood) and glucose ... Rate of glucose appearance is dictated by the amount of glucose being absorbed at the gut as well as liver (hepatic) glucose ... which removes a phosphate group from glucose-6-P to release free glucose. In order for glucose to exit a cell membrane, the ...
ATP can undergo hydrolysis in two ways: Firstly, the removal of terminal phosphate to form adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ... When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g., sucrose being broken down into glucose ... the removal of a terminal diphosphate to yield adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and pyrophosphate. The latter usually undergoes ... Ruminants such as cows are able to hydrolyze cellulose into cellobiose and then glucose because of symbiotic bacteria that ...
... is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) when the phosphate is removed. The reaction ... Phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate by GK facilitates storage of glucose as glycogen and disposal by glycolysis. ... certain glucose-sensing neurons alter their firing rates in response to rising or falling levels of glucose. These glucose- ... Glucose-sensitive neurons of the hypothalamus In response to rising or falling levels of glucose, cells in the hypothalamus ...
ATP is synthesized in the mitochondrion by addition of a third phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in a process ... glucose is phosphorylated to glucose 6-phosphate during transport across the membrane by ATP-D-glucose 6-phosphotransferase and ... Phosphorylation of glucose is a key reaction in sugar metabolism. The chemical equation for the conversion of D-glucose to D- ... glucose-6-phosphate in the first step of glycolysis is given by: D-glucose + ATP → D-glucose 6-phosphate + ADP ΔG° = −16.7 kJ/ ...
Important molecules: ADP - Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (Adenosine pyrophosphate (APP)) is an important organic compound in ... Glucose - An important simple sugar used by cells as a source of energy and as a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the ... Lactic acid fermentation - An anaerobic metabolic process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted ... Often called "cellular power plants", mitochondria generate most of cells' supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the body's ...
Inhibition of this step prevents the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which results ... Glycogen deposits in the muscle are a result of the interruption of normal glucose breakdown that regulates the breakdown of ... such as glucose) for energy. Unlike most other glycogen storage diseases, it directly affects glycolysis. The mutation impairs ... treatment is that the low-carb high fat diet forces the body to use fatty acids as a primary energy source instead of glucose. ...
... dissociating to contribute 2H+ overall Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) molecule, ... Glucose Hexokinase ATP ADP Glucose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase Fructose 6-phosphate Phosphofructokinase-1 ATP ADP ... and will only phosphorylate the glucose entering the cell to form glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), when the glucose in the blood is ... Since glucose leads to two triose sugars in the preparatory phase, each reaction in the pay-off phase occurs twice per glucose ...
... causing the active site of the synthase domain to change shape and phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate - turning it into ATP. ... where it can be used for the production of glucose. Other than fat, glucose is stored in most tissues, as an energy resource ... The generation of glucose from compounds like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, glycerate 3-phosphate and amino acids is called ... Insulin is produced in response to rises in blood glucose levels. Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then ...
... and begins the synthesis of a polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chain, which acts as a signal ... since glucose oxidation is inhibited. But more recently it was suggested that inhibition of hexokinase activity leads to ...
... and guanosine diphosphate (GDP) to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), respectively.: 91-93 ... One example of an exception to this "rule" is the metabolism of glucose. Glycolysis results in the breakdown of glucose, but ... As glucose enters a cell, it is immediately phosphorylated by ATP to glucose 6-phosphate in the irreversible first step. In ... about a net release of energy in the form of a high energy phosphate bond formed with the energy carriers adenosine diphosphate ...
... allows protons to pass through the membrane and uses the free energy difference to convert phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate ... Molecules such as glucose are metabolized to produce acetyl CoA as a fairly energy-rich intermediate. The oxidation of acetyl ... An important example is the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the movement of hydrogen ions (H+) across a membrane ... In brief, the hypothesis was that most adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in respiring cells comes from the electrochemical ...
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Leucine l-isoleucine l-valine Guanosine diphosphate Other Inhibitors: EGCG Additionally, Mice GLDH ... This regulation is relaxed in response to caloric restriction and low blood glucose. Under these circumstances, glutamate ... Allosteric inhibitors: Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Palmitoyl-CoA Zn2+ Activators: ... necessary to regulate the metabolism of amino acids as a method of controlling insulin secretion and regulating blood glucose ...
The ATP synthase uses the energy to transform adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into adenosine triphosphate, in a phosphorylation ... The energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose is released by the cell in the citric acid cycle producing carbon dioxide, ... Gresser MJ, Myers JA, Boyer PD (25 October 1982). "Catalytic site cooperativity of beef heart mitochondrial F1 adenosine ... I. Purification and properties of soluble dinitrophenol-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase". J. Biol. Chem. 235 (11): 3322-9. ...
ATP synthase uses the energy from the flowing hydrogen ions to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate into adenosine triphosphate ... Alternatively, glucose monomers in the chloroplast can be linked together to make starch, which accumulates into the starch ... ATP is the phosphorylated version of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which stores energy in a cell and powers most cellular ... Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate can double up to form larger sugar molecules like glucose and fructose. These molecules are ...
The end result is a phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate as well as adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The enzymes can also help to ... Hexokinase is the most common enzyme that makes use of glucose when it first enters the cell. It converts D-glucose to glucose- ... Nucleoside diphosphate kinase catalyzes production of thymidine triphosphate, dTTP, which is used in DNA synthesis. Because of ... This is an important step in glycolysis because it traps glucose inside the cell due to the negative charge. In its ...
... an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + H2O adenosine 5'-phosphate + phosphate Fructose 1 ... phosphate Glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase, a type of enzyme called a phosphotransferase and is involved in mammalian starch ... 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), an important substrate involved in carbon fixation ... 6-bisphosphate, fructose sugar phosphorylated on carbons 1 and 6 Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (or fructose 2,6-diphosphate), ...
In E. coli, ThTP is accumulated in the presence of glucose during amino acid starvation. On the other hand, suppression of the ... It can also be converted into ThDP by thiamine-diphosphate kinase. Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) was chemically synthesized in ... carbon source leads to the accumulation, of adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP). It has been shown that in brain ThTP is ...
Abamectine Abietic acid Acetic acid Acetylcholine Actin Actinomycin D Adenine Adenosmeme Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine ... C6H12O6 Glucose oxidase Glutamic acid Glutamine Glutamate (neurotransmitter) Glutathione Gluten Glycan Glycerin (glycerol) ... Gastrin Gelatin Geraniol Ghrelin Globulin Glucagon Glucagon-like peptide 1 Glucagon-like peptide 2 Glucosamine Glucose - ... Cortisol Creatine Creatine kinase Crystallin Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) α-Cyclodextrin Cyclodextrin ...
Histidine biosynthesis is carefully regulated by feedback inhibition/ R5P can be converted to adenosine diphosphate ribose, ... Adenosine triphosphate). Formation of each molecule is controlled by the flow of glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) in two different ... Glucose 6-phosphate is converted to fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) during glycolysis. ... Evans WR, San Pietro A (January 1966). "Phosphorolysis of adenosine diphosphoribose". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. ...
... adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, ... Ghosh HP, Preiss J (1966). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. A regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis of starch ... diphosphate + ADP-glucose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, whereas its two ... alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. Other names in common use include ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase, glucose 1- ...
MUTANT MONOMER OF RECOMBINANT HUMAN HEXOKINASE TYPE I COMPLEXED WITH GLUCOSE, GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE, AND ADP ... ADENOSINE-5-DIPHOSPHATE. C10 H15 N5 O10 P2. XTWYTFMLZFPYCI-KQYNXXCUSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ... The mutant hexokinases bind both glucose 6-phosphate and glucose with high affinity to their N and C-terminal halves, and ADP, ... New Insights from the Crystal Structure of Recombinant Human Brain Hexokinase Complexed with Glucose and Glucose-6-Phosphate. ...
... with the ultimate goal to produce pyruvate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)[14]. Glycolysis is a common pathway in glucose ... but also reduce the activity of GAPDH after adenosine diphosphate ribosylation. Both pathways inhibit glycolysis and lead to ... Differential regulation of glucose transport and transporters by glucose in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. ... High glucose downregulates glucose transport activity in retinal capillary pericytes but not endothelial cells. Invest ...
... to form glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). In the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD ... LBXGLU - Glucose, plasma (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXGLU. SAS Label: Glucose, plasma (mg/dL). English Text: Glucose, plasma (mg/ ... Glucose The enzyme hexokinase (HK) catalyzes the reaction between glucose and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ... Plasma glucose: SI(mmol/L). English Text: Plasma glucose: SI(mmol/L). Target: Both males and females 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS. Code ...
In anaerobic glycolysis, substrate-linked phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) occurs ... In the lens, energy production largely depends on glucose metabolism. Glucose enters the lens from the aqueous humor both by ... of lens glucose is metabolized by this route. This pathway, which is stimulated in the presence of elevated levels of glucose, ... Most of the glucose transported into the lens is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) by the enzyme hexokinase. This ...
... is moved from a molecule called phosphoenolpyruvate to another molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP), resulting in ... During glycolysis, the simple sugar glucose is broken down to produce energy. Specifically, pyruvate kinase is involved in the ... molecules called pyruvate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the cells main energy source. ...
D-glucose is specifically phosphorylated by the hexokinase to glucose-6-phosphate; simultaneously, adenosine-5-diphosphate ( ... To monitor their blood glucose level, patients use a test-strip glucose-monitoring system that acts like a black box but is ... The glucose-6-phosphate is oxidised by the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase to gluconate-6-phosphate. ... The monosaccharide glucose is the most important source of energy in the living eukaryotic organism and is used by cells in ...
... and glucose are increased, whereas levels of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and lactate are ... In rats with RF, brain levels of creatine phosphate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), ...
The liberation of phosphate from ATP is a source of cellular energy that results in ADP (Adenosine DiPhosphate) and hydrogen ... Insulin can increase glucose uptake by cells, but glucose is omitted from UW Solution in order to reduce cellular acidosis ( ... ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate) rapidly degrades to adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine, all of which easily cross cell membranes ... To counteract loss of ATP, adenosine (adenine connected to ribose) is added to provide more substrate for ATP synthesis. ...
The effect of glucose on adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation Article * The effect of glucose on the platelet ... Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Academic Article * Adenosine and its nucleotides stimulate proliferation of ... Aspirin: its effect on platelet glycolysis and release of adenosine diphosphate. Academic Article ... Effects of reserpine and serotonin on adenine nucleotide metabolism and glucose oxidation of washed rabbit platelets Article ...
ADP, adenosine diphosphate; GPIIb/IIIa, glucoprotein IIb/IIIa; PRI, platelet reactivity index; TRAP, thrombin receptor ... This is a prospective, randomized trial evaluating the effects of optimized glucose control (target glucose, 80-120mg/dL) with ... ADP, adenosine diphosphate; GPIIb/IIIa, glucoprotein IIb/IIIa; TRAP, thrombin receptor activating peptide. ... The primary endpoint was assessment of platelet aggregation after stimulation with adenosine diphosphate 20 μM at 12-month ...
Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphatase: a plastidial phosphodiesterase that prevents starch biosynthesis  Rodríguez ... Adenosine diphosphate sugar pyrophosphatase prevents glycogen biosynthesis in Escherichia coli  Moreno Bruna, Beatriz ; Baroja ... An adenosine diphosphate sugar pyrophosphatase (ASPPase, EC 3.6.1.21) has been characterized by using Escherichia coli. This ... to produce equimolar amounts of glucose-1-phosphate and AMP. ... ...
citrate/glucose; ADP: adenosine diphosphate; AKT: AKT serine/threonine kinase; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ANOVA: ... UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; UPLC: ultra-performance liquid ...
adenosine diphosphate. Term. How do cells get ATP?. Definition. By breaking down glucose from food ( cell Respiration).. ...
Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase. *ADP-Glucose Synthase. *ADP Glucose Synthase. *Synthase, ADP-Glucose ... An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. ... "Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase" by people in this ...
It serves to store energy in muscles which is released when it is hydrolyzed to adenosine diphosphate. ... Technically it is a polysaccharide molecule completely made with glucose. Glucose is a simple saccharide that the body ... Adenosine Triphosphate. ATP. A compound consisting of the nucleotide adenosine attached through its ribose group to three ... Beta-1,3- glucan is different from energy-storing glucose-containing polysaccharides because the connection between the glucose ...
... it becomes glucose monophosphate. In a similar manner, when phosphate is added to adenosine diphosphate it results in adenosine ... Now when the phosphorylation of glucose happens in the first stage of glycolysis, glucose gets converted into glucose-6- ... All that energy can be used to initiate the synthesis of ATP by phosphorylation of adenosine-5-diphosphate (ADP) and the ATP ... Glucose and Glycolysis. Glycolysis is a very important process in which the glucose is broken down into two molecules of ...
For example, in the presence of pentavalent arsenic, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) forms ADP-arsenate instead of ATP; the high- ... Maternal arsenic exposure and impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Jul. 117(7):1059-64. [ ... Trivalent arsenic inhibits cellular glucose uptake, gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and further production of acetyl CoA ...
ATP is broken down and a phosphate is released along with adenosine di-phosphate (ADP). The ADP will be recycled as a phosphate ... The mitochondria convert glucose, fatty acids, and ketones into ATP through the Krebs Cycle or TCA cycle.. Creatine interacts ... Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) is the energy source used by muscle cells to fuel muscle contraction. ... where glucose is used to produce ATP). [1][2] When activity begins we already have a large supply of ATP and CP, but muscle ...
... thereby generating energy for the production of adenosine triphosphate [3] (ATP) molecules. ... This high energy phosphate bond is later transferred to adenosine diphosphate [ADP] to form adenosine triphosphate [ATP].) As ... When glucose is converted to pyruvate during glycolysis , two adenosine triphosphates (ATPs ) are formed, but most of the ... as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) becomes adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP provides chemical energy for metabolic reactions. The ...
ADP stands for Adenosine diphosphate. Why is glucose converted to pyruvate? How is glycolysis kept functioning during cellular ... It is produced during glycolysis through the transfer of a phosphate group from glucose to ADP (adenosine diphosphate). This ... This process produces two types of molecules: glucose-6-phosphate and glucose-3-phosphate. Glucose is also used as a medication ... What Is The Reactant And Product Of Glucose Glucose is the product of glucose metabolism. Some organisms, such as ...
Adenosine diphosphate, with help from creatine phosphate, can be converted to ATP, but sustains activity only temporarily. ... Glucose is subsequently used for aerobic or anaerobic metabolism, and glycogen provides reserves for moderate exercise. Short ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), in small amounts, is used rapidly at the onset of activity but is quickly depleted. ... ATP = adenosine triphosphate; DHA = docosahexaenoic acid; EPA = eicosapentaenoic acid. References. *National Research Council ...
Glucose + Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide $\rightarrow$ Pyruvate + Water + Adenosine ... Glucose + ATP. Glucose-6-phosphate + ADP. -1 ATP. 2. Phosphoglucose isomerase. Glucose-6-phosphate. Fructose-6-phosphate. None ... Glucose $\rightarrow$ Glucose-6-phosphate. Hexokinase. -1. 0. 2. Glucose-6-phosphate $\rightarrow$ Fructose-6-phosphate. ... Glucose + ATP -, Glucose-6-phosphate + ADP. Irreversible. 2. Phosphoglucoisomerase. Glucose-6-phosphate ,-, Fructose-6- ...
The higher adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase activity facilitated the production of starch in P. deltoides than ... 5 Adenosine diphosphate glucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase activity in the leaf and root of Populus deltoides and P. cathayana ... 5 Adenosine diphosphate glucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase activity in the leaf and root of Populus deltoides and P. cathayana ... Phosphorylation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase during wheat seeds development. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11, 1058. DOI: ...
It encodes a large subunit of the adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, a heterotetrameric, and rate-limiting enzyme ... Fructose, Glucose, and Sucrose: High-Performance Chromatography with Refractive Index Detector (HPLC-RID) Shimadzu Prominence ... Regarding "UENF SD 08", we can highlight the protein, fructose, glucose and total lipid as a more abundant components. These ... D-Glucose and D-Fructose purchased from Sigma-Aldrich) were used to make the calibration curve. Each sugar calibration curve ...
Its mechanism of action is the inhibition of S. mutans adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-glucose pyrophosphorylation, which catalyzes ... Furthermore, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylation can be seen as a molecular target for controlling the virulence of S. mutans.[15] ... Some types of carbohydrates, such as sucrose and glucose, are easily fermented by bacteria to produce acid, which causes a ... studies are needed for elderly people who are designed to use easily fermented carbohydrates such as sucrose and glucose.. ...
MeSH headings : Acetates / metabolism; Adenosine Diphosphate / metabolism; Adipose Tissue / drug effects; Adipose Tissue / ... Glucose / metabolism; Glycerol / metabolism; Lipid Metabolism; Liver / drug effects; Liver / metabolism; Male; Mitochondria / ...
  • The enzyme hexokinase (HK) catalyzes the reaction between glucose and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to form glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). (cdc.gov)
  • In anaerobic glycolysis, substrate-linked phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) occurs at 2 steps along the pathway from glucose metabolism to lactate. (aao.org)
  • In this step, a cluster of oxygen and phosphorus atoms (a phosphate group) is moved from a molecule called phosphoenolpyruvate to another molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP), resulting in molecules called pyruvate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In rats with RF, brain levels of creatine phosphate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and glucose are increased, whereas levels of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and lactate are decreased. (medscape.com)
  • This pump is driven by the energy stored in ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate) molecules manufactured in the mitochondria. (benbest.com)
  • In a similar manner, when phosphate is added to adenosine diphosphate it results in adenosine triphosphate. (vedantu.com)
  • The Krebs cycle is part of the aerobic degradative process in eukaryotes known as cellular respiration, which is a process that generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by oxidizing energy-rich fuel molecules. (encyclopedia.com)
  • ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is a high-energy molecule that serves as the primary source of energy for cells. (vumc.org)
  • The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy molecules adenosine triphosphate ATP and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADH. (vumc.org)
  • The end products of glycolysis are: pyruvic acid pyruvate , adenosine triphosphate ATP , reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADH , protons hydrogen ions H 2+ , and water H 2O. (vumc.org)
  • Adenosine Triphosphate Energy is stored in the bonds joining the phosphate groups yellow. (vumc.org)
  • Adenosine Triphosphate ATP Adenosine Triphosphate ATP is a nucleotide, that is used in various biochemical reactions as a coenzyme. (vumc.org)
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), in small amounts, is used rapidly at the onset of activity but is quickly depleted. (todaysveterinarypractice.com)
  • Along the way, some of the energy stored in glucose is transferred to other molecules, such as ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). (stemcelldaily.com)
  • ATP (adenosine triphosphate) functions as the energy currency for cells. (texasgateway.org)
  • Identify four things ATP - ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate. (sciencespo-lille.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) is the principal cellular transporter of chemical energy. (xaktly.com)
  • It is done through the formation of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from ADP (adenosine diphosphate). (brussels-scientific.com)
  • In its most traditional definition, the mitochondrion is the energy-generating organelle of the cell, responsible for the final steps of metabolizing organic substances to produce energy for the cell in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Throw on one more phosphate group and you get adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. (sciencing.com)
  • In biological systems, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the basic energy currency. (initmagazine.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the body's primary source of fuel and is the purest form of biological energy. (healthyprinciples.co.uk)
  • ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is molecule that transfers energy from breakdown of food b. (edu.vn)
  • This pathway is much less efficient than the aerobic citric acid cycle (also called the tricarboxylic acid cycle or the Krebs cycle), because only 2 net molecules of ATP are produced for each glucose molecule utilized, whereas the aerobic citric acid cycle produces an additional 36 molecules of ATP from each metabolized glucose molecule (oxidative metabolism). (aao.org)
  • Most of the energy (ATP) generated in the mitochondria requires oxygen, but in the absence of oxygen some energy can be generated in the cytoplasm outside of the mitochondria by glycolysis , wherein a glucose molecule produces two molecules of ATP and lactate. (benbest.com)
  • Technically it is a polysaccharide molecule completely made with glucose . (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • As glucose is a very small molecule, thus, it has the ability to diffuse out through the membrane of the cell. (vedantu.com)
  • Now when the phosphorylation of glucose happens in the first stage of glycolysis, glucose gets converted into glucose-6-phosphate which is relatively a bigger molecule than glucose. (vedantu.com)
  • In the absence of oxygen, when anaerobic respiration occurs, such as in fermentation, glucose is degraded to lactate and lactic acid , and only a small fraction of the available energy of the original glucose molecule is released. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Each turn of the Krebs cycle therefore begins when one of the two acetyl-CoA molecules derived from the original 6-carbon glucose molecule yields its acetyl group to the 4-carbon compound oxaloacetate to form the 6-carbon tricarboxylic acid (citrate) molecule. (encyclopedia.com)
  • What Is The Three Carbon Product Of Glycolysis Glycolysis, or the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of glucose and one molecule of carbon dioxide, is a process that occurs in all living cells. (vumc.org)
  • As the name suggests, glycolysis involves the splitting of a six-carbon glucose molecule into two three-carbon molecules called pyruvate. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • The equation shows that one molecule of glucose (a six-carbon sugar) is converted into two molecules of pyruvate (a three-carbon compound) by a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • When the adenine is joined with a sugar molecule, it becomes a nucleoside called adenosine. (sciencing.com)
  • In high-glucose conditions, hexokinase becomes inhibited by products of glycolysis, and aldose reductase becomes relatively increased, converting more glucose to sorbitol. (aao.org)
  • During glycolysis, the simple sugar glucose is broken down to produce energy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The net breakdown of ATP from glycolysis results in ADP, AMP (Adenosine MonoPhosphate), phosphate, lactate and acid accumulation (acidosis). (benbest.com)
  • Aspirin: its effect on platelet glycolysis and release of adenosine diphosphate. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Glycolysis is a very important process in which the glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate in many steps with the help of various enzymes initiating the reaction at several stages. (vedantu.com)
  • In glycolysis, the 6-carbon glucose is connected to two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules, and then to the 2-carbon acetyl-CoA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is produced during glycolysis through the transfer of a phosphate group from glucose to ADP (adenosine diphosphate). (vumc.org)
  • What Are The Energy Containing Products Of Glycolysis Glycolysis is the process of breaking down glucose into smaller molecules. (vumc.org)
  • The answer is glycolysis, a series of biochemical reactions that break down glucose into smaller molecules, releasing energy in the process. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • Glycolysis is a central pathway for glucose catabolism because it connects glucose with other metabolic pathways. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • The glycolysis equation summarizes the process of breaking down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, along with the production of ATP and NADH. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • In the hydrolysis of ATP, free energy is supplied when a phosphate group or two are detached, and either ADP (adenosine diphosphate) or AMP (adenosine monophosphate) is produced. (texasgateway.org)
  • To gratitude it, glucose offers the power to rebuild ADP and a phosphate group into ATP. (imsyaf.com)
  • Then adenosine can accept a phosphate group, or two, or three. (sciencing.com)
  • An adenosine with one phosphate group attached is called adenosine monophosphate, or AMP -- and it is also now called a nucleotide. (sciencing.com)
  • Add another phosphate group and you get adenosine diphosphate, or ADP. (sciencing.com)
  • For example, when phosphate is added to glucose, it becomes glucose monophosphate. (vedantu.com)
  • Other names in common use include ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase, glucose 1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, ADP-glucose synthase, ADP-glucose synthetase, ADPG pyrophosphorylase, ADP:alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase and AGPase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic studies of Escherichia coli K 12 mutants with alterations in glycogenesis and properties of an altered adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. (yale.edu)
  • The higher adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase activity facilitated the production of starch in P. deltoides than in P. cathayana . (plant-ecology.com)
  • It is the process by which glucose, a simple sugar, is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate. (vumc.org)
  • We first review the basics of microglial metabolism and the effects of common metabolites, such as glucose, lipids, ketone bodies, glutamine, pyruvate and lactate, on microglial inflammatory and phagocytic properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ADP stands for adenosine diphosphate, and it's not only one of the most important molecules in the body, it's also one of the most numerous. (sciencing.com)
  • In the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), G-6-P is oxidized by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) to 6-phosphogluconate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). (cdc.gov)
  • See Figure 3-2 for an overall diagram of glucose metabolism in the lens. (aao.org)
  • In the lens, energy production largely depends on glucose metabolism. (aao.org)
  • Figure 3-2 Simplified scheme of glucose metabolism in the lens. (aao.org)
  • Diabetes mellitus (or simply diabetes ) is a syndrome characterised by disordered glucose metabolism and overly high blood sugar levels (hyperglycaemia). (scienceinschool.org)
  • What Is The Reactant And Product Of Glucose Glucose is the product of glucose metabolism. (vumc.org)
  • Glucose is subsequently used for aerobic or anaerobic metabolism, and glycogen provides reserves for moderate exercise. (todaysveterinarypractice.com)
  • Short bursts of explosive activity, known as supramaximal exercise , can be sustained only as long as glycogen provides glucose for anaerobic metabolism. (todaysveterinarypractice.com)
  • Energy derived from the metabolism of glucose is used to convert ADP to ATP during cellular respiration. (texasgateway.org)
  • Combining experimental results from batch fermentations with genome analysis, reconstruction of central carbon metabolism and metabolic flux analysis (MFA), this study shed light on glucose catabolism of the thermophilic alkalitolerant bacterium C. celer . (biomedcentral.com)
  • One series of experiments detects whether or not a solution contains starch, proteins, or sugars such as glucose, lactose or sucrose. (scienceinschool.org)
  • Students receive five samples, labelled A to E, which contain starch, protein (bovine serum albumin), the monosaccharide glucose, or the disaccharides lactose or sucrose. (scienceinschool.org)
  • In the process, for example, amylase breaks down starch into glucose molecules. (initmagazine.com)
  • In enzymology, a glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.27) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } diphosphate + ADP-glucose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, whereas its two products are diphosphate and ADP-glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Intensive glucose control with insulin in patients with an acute coronary syndrome reduces platelet reactivity during hospitalization, compared to conventional control. (revespcardiol.org)
  • However, the effect of strict, long-term glucose control on platelet reactivity in these patients remains uncertain. (revespcardiol.org)
  • The primary endpoint was assessment of platelet aggregation after stimulation with adenosine diphosphate 20 μM at 12-month follow-up. (revespcardiol.org)
  • This initial interaction (platelet adhesion) sets the stage for other adhesive reactions that allow the platelets to interact with other agonists in the vicinity of vessel injury, such as adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), subendothelial collagen, and thrombin. (medscape.com)
  • Glucose is a simple saccharide that the body transforms to energy as ATP and stores in muscles, liver and other tissues in a form of glycogen . (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Adenosine diphosphate , with help from creatine phosphate, can be converted to ATP, but sustains activity only temporarily. (todaysveterinarypractice.com)
  • As protons flow through the channel domain of ATP synthase, a motor force is generated, which is used to rotate a large, rotating catalytic domain facing the matrix, which couples adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to an inorganic phosphate moiety (P i ) to yield ATP[ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When cells require energy, ATP molecules are hydrolyzed, releasing energy and producing adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). (initmagazine.com)
  • During photosynthesis, light energy converts carbon dioxide and water the reactants into glucose and oxygen the products. (vumc.org)
  • Caloramator celer is a strict anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium capable of converting glucose to hydrogen (H 2 ), carbon dioxide, acetate, ethanol and formate by a mixed acid fermentation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The glucose is then turned again into carbon dioxide, which is used in photosynthesis. (imsyaf.com)
  • In the human body, simple sugars such as glucose and fructose are the most abundant, although there are also different sugars such as maltose and dextrose. (myhomeworkgeeks.com)
  • Mitochondria most readily produce ATP by the oxidation of NADH and FADH 2 yielded from the breakdown of sugars such as glucose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The liberation of phosphate from ATP is a source of cellular energy that results in ADP (Adenosine DiPhosphate) and hydrogen ion (acid). (benbest.com)
  • The mitochondria convert glucose, fatty acids, and ketones into ATP through the Krebs Cycle or TCA cycle. (tigerfitness.com)
  • These fuel molecules, glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, are broken down and fed into the Krebs cycle, becoming oxidized to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) before entering the cycle. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Before glucose, fatty acids, and most amino acids can be oxidized to CO2 and H2O in the Krebs cycle, they must first be broken down to acetyl CoA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Our digestive system's enzymes, such as amylase for carbohydrates , trypsin for proteins, and lipase for lipids, catalyze reactions that transform these macromolecules into glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, respectively. (initmagazine.com)
  • The monosaccharide glucose is the most important source of energy in the living eukaryotic organism and is used by cells in aerobic or anaerobic respiration. (scienceinschool.org)
  • Once the sugars are identified, further experiments determine, using an enzymatic reaction, which samples contain lactose or glucose. (scienceinschool.org)
  • Light reaction does not produce NADPH ATP Glucose protons 4. (sciencespo-lille.com)
  • The principle of these experiments is the same as in assays to determine blood glucose levels for the diagnosis of diabetes, or to measure glucose and/or lactose levels, for example in fruit juices, milk and dairy products. (scienceinschool.org)
  • It also plays a role in regulating blood glucose levels and responding to hormonal signals. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • NADH serves as an electron carrier, transferring electrons from glucose to the electron transport chain, where they are used to generate ATP. (vumc.org)
  • The flow of electrons throughout photosynthesis is a half of what drives glucose synthesis, and mobile respiration has its own electron transport chain. (imsyaf.com)
  • The process also involves the oxidation of glucose and the reduction of NAD+, resulting in the formation of two NADH molecules. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • The breakdown of glucose is used to change ADP to ATP. (imsyaf.com)
  • Glucose and maltose are the main types of sugar that help bread go through fermentation. (myhomeworkgeeks.com)
  • Most of the glucose transported into the lens is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) by the enzyme hexokinase. (aao.org)
  • Some types of carbohydrates, such as sucrose and glucose, are easily fermented by bacteria to produce acid, which causes a decrease in the pH (acidity) of saliva. (jioh.org)
  • the light-dependent reactions can occur only in the light, the light-independent reactions only in the dark: B) photorespiration is more efficient at producing glucose than is photosynthesis: C) the light-dependent reactions produce the energy-rich compounds that are used to run the light-independent reactions: D) all of the above are true following structures: (diagrams at right and below from Taiz & Zeiger). (sciencespo-lille.com)
  • Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase" by people in this website by year, and whether "Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase" by people in Profiles. (wakehealth.edu)
  • The increase in NADH concentration is directly proportional to the glucose concentration and can be measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm. (cdc.gov)
  • A distinct phosphodiesterasic activity (EC 3.1.4) was found in both mono- and dicotyledonous plants that catalyzes the hydrolytic breakdown of ADPglucose (ADPG) to produce equimolar amounts of glucose-1-phosphate and AMP. (unavarra.es)
  • This pathway, which is stimulated in the presence of elevated levels of glucose, is involved in the generation of NADPH or reducing power. (aao.org)
  • In the energy-investing phase, two molecules of ATP are used to activate glucose and convert it into fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • A large amount of free energy is released when the phosphate-phosphate bond in ATP is broken in order to form adenosine diphosphate ADP. (vedantu.com)
  • If mannose and glucose were to bind together, they have the ability to form a disaccharide in about 80 different ways (Flitsch, 2003). (myhomeworkgeeks.com)
  • Exposure of the monomer crystals to ADP in the complete absence of glucose 6-phosphate reveals a second binding site for adenine nucleotides at the putative active site (C-half), with conformational changes extending 15 A to the contact interface between the N and C-halves. (rcsb.org)
  • By breaking down glucose from food ( cell Respiration). (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Why is glucose the main substrate of cellular respiration? (vumc.org)
  • ATP , most complex organisms use a process called oxidative phosphorylation of ADP , adenosine di- phosphate. (xaktly.com)
  • Diabetes mellitus was assessed by measures of plasma glucose, serum insulin, and serum C-peptide in participants aged 12 years and over in the morning examination session only. (cdc.gov)
  • Also known as the pentose phosphate pathway , the HMP shunt is the less active pathway for utilization of G6P in the lens-on average, less than 5% of lens glucose is metabolized by this route. (aao.org)
  • The process also involves the transfer of phosphate groups from ATP to glucose and from intermediate compounds to ADP, resulting in a net gain of two ATP molecules. (stemcelldaily.com)
  • Alpha-Linolenic Acid Supplementation Prevents Exercise-Induced Improvements in White Adipose Tissue Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis in Obese Zucker Rats. (uoguelph.ca)
  • The mutant hexokinases bind both glucose 6-phosphate and glucose with high affinity to their N and C-terminal halves, and ADP, also with high affinity, to a site near the N terminus of the polypeptide chain. (rcsb.org)
  • Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) is the energy source used by muscle cells to fuel muscle contraction. (tigerfitness.com)
  • But how do cells extract energy from glucose? (stemcelldaily.com)
  • Glucose is the most abundant and versatile carbohydrate in nature. (stemcelldaily.com)