Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Adenine NucleotidesAdenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ADP binding and are coupled to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI. The P2Y12 purinergic receptors are found in PLATELETS where they play an important role regulating PLATELET ACTIVATION.Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsAdenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Receptor, Adenosine A2B: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2Y RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2Y receptor subtypes.Platelet Function Tests: Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Receptors, Adenosine A2: A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase: An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Blood Platelet Disorders: Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.NAD+ NucleosidasePlatelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Platelet Storage Pool Deficiency: Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored.Clot Retraction: Retraction of a clot resulting from contraction of PLATELET pseudopods attached to FIBRIN strands. The retraction is dependent on the contractile protein thrombosthenin. Clot retraction is used as a measure of platelet function.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Platelet Factor 3: A phospholipid from the platelet membrane that contributes to the blood clotting cascade by forming a phospholipid-protein complex (THROMBOPLASTIN) which serves as a cofactor with FACTOR VIIA to activate FACTOR X in the extrinsic pathway of BLOOD COAGULATION.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide): A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases: A family of nucleotide diphosphate kinases that play a role in a variety of cellular signaling pathways that effect CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS. They are considered multifunctional proteins that interact with a variety of cellular proteins and have functions that are unrelated to their enzyme activity.Megakaryocyte Progenitor Cells: The parent cells that give rise to cells in the MEGAKARYOCYTE lineage, and ultimately BLOOD PLATELETS.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides: Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Bleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Dimethylallyltranstransferase: An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.1.Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Adenosine A3 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cyclic ADP-Ribose: A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.Thromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Adenosine A3 Receptor Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Uridine Diphosphate SugarsDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Farnesyltranstransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate from trans, trans-farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Ribonucleoside Diphosphate Reductase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.17.4.1.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)2-Chloroadenosine: 2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Phenylisopropyladenosine: N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.beta-Thromboglobulin: A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Thromboxanes: Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.Uridine Diphosphate: A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 2: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CELL NUCLEUS.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase: An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Thiamine Pyrophosphate: The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.SesquiterpenesMegakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Thrombasthenia: A congenital bleeding disorder with prolonged bleeding time, absence of aggregation of platelets in response to most agents, especially ADP, and impaired or absent clot retraction. Platelet membranes are deficient in or have a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX).ThiophenesHydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic: Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.Cytidine Diphosphate: Cytidine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonyms: CRPP; cytidine pyrophosphate.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.PyruvatesBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Diterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Hemostatics: Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.Inosine Diphosphate: An inosine nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.Micrococcus luteus: A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Receptors, Purinergic P2X: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Thrombelastography: Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Erythritol: A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.Coformycin: A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.FructosephosphatesSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Theobromine: 3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Guanosine Diphosphate Mannose: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine: Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.Intramolecular Lyases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Arachidonic AcidsEndothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Pentostatin: A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Adenosine Phosphosulfate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Mentha: Mentha is a genus of the mint family (LAMIACEAE). It is known for species having characteristic flavor and aroma.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Chlorpromazine: The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Mevalonic AcidMethods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Inhibitory innervation of cat sphincter of Oddi. (1/6000)

1 Electrical stimulation with trains of 0.1-0.2 ms pulses of the cat isolated sphincter of Oddi inhibited the spontaneous contractile activity and lowered base-line tension considerably. A contraction usually followed the period of stimulation. 2 These inhibitory effects were prevented by tetrodotoxin 0.1-0.5 mug/ml but were not reduced by hexamethonilm, morphine, or blockade of alpha- or beta-adrenoreceptors of cholinoceptors with phenoxy-benzamine propranolol or atropine, respectively. 3 Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) inhibited the spontaneous sphincter activity and caused relaxation thus mimicking the effects of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (C8-CCK), isoprenaline and prostaglandin E1 and E2. 4 ATP alone (greater than 100 mug/ml) or ATP (greater than 10 mug/ml) plus dipyridamole (1 mug/ml), relaxed the sphincter to the same degrees as did the field stimulation. 5 In sphincter maximally contracted by acetylcholine, the effect of stimulation was more marked than that recorded in uncontracted preparations. 6 The present findings suggest that the sphincter of Oddi receives inhibitory nerves that are neither cholinergic nor adrenergic.  (+info)

Conformational changes generated in GroEL during ATP hydrolysis as seen by time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. (2/6000)

Changes in the vibrational spectrum of the chaperonin GroEL in the presence of ADP and ATP have been followed as a function of time using rapid scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The interaction of nucleotides with GroEL was triggered by the photochemical release of the ligands from their corresponding biologically inactive precursors (caged nucleotides; P3-1-(2-nitro)phenylethyl nucleotide). Binding of either ADP or ATP induced the appearance of small differential signals in the amide I band of the protein, sensitive to protein secondary structure, suggesting a subtle and localized change in protein conformation. Moreover, conformational changes associated with ATP hydrolysis were detected that differed markedly from those observed upon nucleotide binding. Both, high-amplitude absorbance changes and difference bands attributable to modifications in the interaction between oppositely charged residues were observed during ATP hydrolysis. Once this process had occurred, the protein relaxed to an ADP-like conformation. Our results suggest that the secondary structure as well as salt bridges of GroEL are modified during ATP hydrolysis, as compared with the ATP and ADP bound protein states.  (+info)

Magnesium ion-induced changes in the binding mode of adenylates to chloroplast coupling factor 1. (3/6000)

The effect of Mg2+ on the binding of adenylates to isolated chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF1) was studied using CD spectrometry and ultrafiltration. At adenylate concentrations smaller than 100 muM, one mole of CF1 binds three moles of ATP (or ADP) regardless of the presence of Mg2+. In the presence of Mg2+, the first two ATP's bind to CF1 independently with the same binding constant of 2.5 X 10(-1) muM-1, then the third ATP binds with a much higher affinity of 10 muM-1. In the absence of Mg2+, the first ATP binds to CF1 with a binding constant of 2.5 X 10(-1) muM-1 then the other two ATP's bind less easily with the same binding constant of 4.0 X 10(-2) muM-1. The binding mode of ADP to CF1 is quite similar to that of ATP. In the presence of Mg2+, the binding constants of the first two ADP's are both 7.6 X 10(-2) muM-1, that of the third ADP being 4.0 muM-1. In the absence of Mg2+, the binding constant of the first ADP is 7.6 X 10(-2) muM-1, the constants of the other two ADP's both being 4.0 X 10(-2) muM-1. AMP caused a negligible change in CD.  (+info)

Mutations of Arg198 in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase cause inhibition of hydrolysis of the phosphoenzyme intermediate formed from inorganic phosphate. (4/6000)

Arg198 of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase was substituted with lysine, glutamine, glutamic acid, alanine, and isoleucine by site-directed mutagenesis. Kinetic analysis was performed with microsomal membranes isolated from COS-1 cells which were transfected with the mutated cDNAs. The rate of dephosphorylation of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme was determined by first phosphorylating the Ca2+-ATPase with 32Pi and then diluting the sample with non-radioactive Pi. This rate was reduced substantially in the mutant R198Q, more strongly in the mutants R198A and R1981, and most strongly in the mutant R198E, but to a much lesser extent in R198K. The reduction in the rate of dephosphorylation was consistent with the observed decrease in the turnover rate of the Ca2+-ATPase accompanied by the steady-state accumulation of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme formed from ATP. These results indicate that the positive charge and high hydrophilicity of Arg198 are critical for rapid hydrolysis of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme.  (+info)

Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase. (5/6000)

Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations.  (+info)

Depolarization-evoked Ca2+ release in a non-excitable cell, the rat megakaryocyte. (6/6000)

1. The effect of membrane potential on [Ca2+]i in rat megakaryocytes was studied using simultaneous whole-cell patch clamp and fura-2 fluorescence recordings. 2. Depolarization from -75 to 0 mV had no effect on [Ca2+]i in unstimulated cells, but evoked one or more spikes of Ca2+ increase (peak increase: 714 +/- 95 nM) during activation of metabotropic purinoceptors by 1 microM ADP. 3. The depolarization-evoked Ca2+ increase was present in Ca2+-free medium and also following removal of Na+. Thus depolarization mobilizes Ca2+ from an intracellular store without a requirement for altered Na+-Ca2+ exchange activity. 4. Intracellular dialysis with heparin blocked the depolarization-evoked Ca2+ increase, indicating a role for functional IP3 receptors. 5. Under current clamp, ADP caused the membrane potential to fluctuate between -43 +/- 1 and -76 +/- 1 mV. Under voltage clamp, depolarization from -75 to -45 mV evoked a transient [Ca2+]i increase (398 +/- 91 nM) during exposure to ADP. 6. We conclude that during stimulation of metabotropic purinoceptors, membrane depolarization over the physiological range can stimulate Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in the rat megakaryocyte, a non-excitable cell type. This may represent an important mechanism by which electrogenic influences can control patterns of [Ca2+]i increase.  (+info)

Platelet aggregation and incident ischaemic heart disease in the Caerphilly cohort. (7/6000)

BACKGROUND: Platelets are involved in myocardial infarction but evidence of prediction of infarction by measures of platelet function are sparce. METHODS: Platelet aggregation to thrombin and to ADP in platelet rich plasma was recorded for 2176 men aged 49-65 years in the Caerphilly cohort study. RESULTS: Results from 364 men were excluded, 80 of whom had not fasted before venepuncture; most of the others were excluded because antiplatelet medication had been taken shortly before the platelet tests. During the five years following the platelet tests 113 ischaemic heart disease (IHD) events which fulfilled the World Health Organisation criteria were identified--42 fatal and 71 non-fatal. No measure of platelet aggregation was found to be significantly predictive of incident IHD. The possibility that platelet function is predictive for only a limited time after it is characterised, and that prediction falls off with time, was tested. When IHD events are grouped by their time of occurrence after aggregation had been measured, the test results show a gradient suggestive of prediction of early IHD events. Thus, 24% of the men who had an event within 500 days of the test had had a high secondary response to ADP while only 12% of those whose IHD event had been 1000 or more days after the test had shown a high platelet response at baseline. The trend in these proportions is not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet aggregation to thrombin and ADP in platelet rich plasma was recorded in the Caerphilly cohort study. No measure of aggregation was found to be predictive of IHD.  (+info)

Binding of the transition state analog MgADP-fluoroaluminate to F1-ATPase. (8/6000)

Escherichia coli F1-ATPase from mutant betaY331W was potently inhibited by fluoroaluminate plus MgADP but not by MgADP alone. beta-Trp-331 fluorescence was used to measure MgADP binding to catalytic sites. Fluoroaluminate induced a very large increase in MgADP binding affinity at catalytic site one, a smaller increase at site two, and no effect at site three. Mutation of either of the critical catalytic site residues beta-Lys-155 or beta-Glu-181 to Gln abolished the effects of fluoroaluminate on MgADP binding. The results indicate that the MgADP-fluoroaluminate complex is a transition state analog and independently demonstrate that residues beta-Lys-155 and (particularly) beta-Glu-181 are important for generation and stabilization of the catalytic transition state. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-inhibited enzyme, with 1% residual steady-state ATPase, showed normal transition state formation as judged by fluoroaluminate-induced MgADP binding affinity changes, consistent with a proposed mechanism by which dicyclohexylcarbodiimide prevents a conformational interaction between catalytic sites but does not affect the catalytic step per se. The fluorescence technique should prove valuable for future transition state studies of F1-ATPase.  (+info)

The effect of long-chain acyl-CoA on subcellular adenine nucleotide systems was studied in the intact liver cell. Long-chain acyl-CoA content was varied by varying the nutritional state (fed and starved states) or by addition of oleate. Starvation led to an increase in the mitochondrial and a decrease in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio in liver both in vivo and in the isolated perfused organ as compared with the fed state. The changes were reversed on re-feeding glucose in liver in vivo or on infusion of substrates (glucose, glycerol) in the perfused liver, respectively. Similar changes in mitochondrial and cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios occurred on addition of oleate, but, importantly, not with a short-chain fatty acid such as octanoate. It is concluded that long-chain acyl-CoA exerts an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocation in the intact cell, as was previously postulated in the literature from data obtained with isolated mitochondria. The physiological relevance with ...
1NY3: Catalytically active MAP KAP kinase 2 structures in complex with staurosporine and ADP reveal differences with the autoinhibited enzyme
Structures of ATP- and ADP-bound NSFa, Side-view of ATP-bound NSF. b, Side-view ofADP-bound NSF. The six protomer chains are rainbow colored counterclockwise ba
个人简历. 2004年获博士学位,现为遗传与细胞研究所教授、博士生导师。2008-2010年在美国德克萨斯大学医学分校进行博士后研究。2012-2013年在美国德克萨斯大学医学分校进行国际合作研究。多年来从事炎症的信号转导及基因表达调控机制研究。包括两个主要研究方向:1)DNA氧化损伤修复过程偶联基因转录及天然免疫病理发展的分子机制;2)蛋白质的多聚ADP核糖化(PAR化)对基因表达调控的影响、参与炎性疾病病理发展的机制。共发表SCI论文40余篇。主持在研自然科学基金面上项目课题1项,吉林省科技厅自然科学基金1项,及国际合作基金1项。主持完成自然科学基金面上项目课题1项,参加完成自然科学基金面上项目课题1项,参加国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(973)项目2项。学习经历: 1986年--1990年:东北师范大学 生命科学学院 生物学专业 学士 ...
The TReatment with ADP receptor iNhibitorS: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events after Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRANSLATE-ACS) study is a prospective, observational longitudinal study to evaluate the real world effectiveness and use of prasugrel and other ADP receptor inhibitor therapies among myocardial infarction (MI) participants treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during the index hospitalization. Participant management and treatment decisions are at the discretion of the care team per routine clinical practice. Approximately 17,000 participants will be enrolled at approximately 350 sites in the United States. Follow-up will be conducted through 15 months in approximately 15,650 participants.. TRANSLATE-ACS will complement the results of both randomized controlled clinical trials and current registries in addressing the real world treatment patterns and clinical outcomes for MI participants managed with PCI and initiated on ADP receptor inhibitor ...
Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5-position.
Adenosine diphosphate (or ADP) is the chemical that plants make ATP from, during photosynthesis. A chemical compound that can be converted to ATP with the addition of one phosphate group. ...
The only disclosure restriction on the PI is that the sponsor can review results communications prior to public release and can embargo communications regarding trial results for a period that is more than 60 days but less than or equal to 180 days. The sponsor cannot require changes to the communication and cannot extend the embargo ...
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Synonyms for ADP in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for ADP. 2 synonyms for ADP: adenosine diphosphate, automatic data processing. What are synonyms for ADP?
The second mechanism of respiratory control (allosteric ATP-inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO)) is demonstrated for the first time in intact isolated rat liver and heart mitochondria. The problems of measuring the kinetics of allosteric ATP-inhibition in isolated mitochondria were investigated. And it was found that only at very high ATP/ADP ratios, this inhibition is obtained and requires an ATP-regenerating system consisting of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and pyruvate kinase (PK). The allosteric ATP-inhibition can be switched off probably by dephosphorylation of a serine at CcO subunit-I. The phosphorylation of CcO at serine, threonine and tyrosine was studied in isolated mitochondria by extracting complex IV of the respiratory chain (CcO) by BN-PAGE (blue-nativepolyacrylamide- gel-electrophoresis), SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with the corresponding antibodies against the phosphorylated amino acids. The extent of allosteric ATP-inhibition of CcO varied in different preparations of ...
View Notes - W3OutlineLec7 from BIOL D103 at UC Irvine. • Thymosin-Beta4 Sequesters ATP-actin Have plenty of ATP-actin BUTbut it would be
|Mechanism for increasing muscle endurance via the small molecules AICARAICAR is a nucleoside that is taken up into muscle and converted into the nucleotide ZMP, which mimics the effects of the natural ligand, 5-AMP, on AMPK. The latter is produced by adenylate kinase acting on ADP generated from ATP during muscle contraction. Activated AMPK in…
Interested in using Martini for ADP or ATP with actin?. The attached .zip -file contains topologies for ADP, ATP as well as ADP-actin and ATP-actin systems. PDB files are provided for ADP- and ATP-actin, as well as the F-actin strand. As an added bonus, theres a short bash script which allows the user to build fibers of arbitrary lengths from one of the PDB files (2zwh.pdb).. Download the files here!. ...
LG Get product support for the LG T1603ADP5. Download T1603ADP5 manuals, documents, and software. View T1603ADP5 warranty information and schedule services.
At ADP, we believe that differences are what make us a stronger, smarter, more successful organization, and we believe the same to be true in our communities.
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鈉鉀泵可以將細胞外相對細胞内較低濃度的鉀離子送進細胞,並將細胞内相對細胞外較低濃度的鈉離子送出細胞。經由以具放射性的鈉、鉀離子標定,可以發現鈉、鉀離子都會經過這個通道,鈉、鉀離子的濃度在細胞膜兩側也都是相互依賴的,所以顯示了鈉、鉀離子都可以經過這個載體運輸。目前已知鈉鉀泵需消耗ATP,並可以將三個鈉離子送出細胞,同時將兩個鉀離子送進細胞。 鈉鉀泵在1950年被丹麥的科學家延斯·斯科(Jens Skou)發現,它代表了我們對離子進出細胞的認識的一個重要的里程碑。它也在細胞刺激上有著重要的意義,像神經細胞的衝動,就是用鈉鉀泵幫助維持細胞電位使神經衝動得以傳輸。 ...
鈉鉀泵可以將細胞外相對細胞内較低濃度的鉀離子送進細胞,並將細胞内相對細胞外較低濃度的鈉離子送出細胞。經由以具放射性的鈉、鉀離子標定,可以發現鈉、鉀離子都會經過這個通道,鈉、鉀離子的濃度在細胞膜兩側也都是相互依賴的,所以顯示了鈉、鉀離子都可以經過這個載體運輸。目前已知鈉鉀泵需消耗ATP,並可以將三個鈉離子送出細胞,同時將兩個鉀離子送進細胞。 鈉鉀泵在1950年被丹麥的科學家延斯·斯科(Jens Skou)發現,它代表了我們對離子進出細胞的認識的一個重要的里程碑。它也在細胞刺激上有著重要的意義,像神經細胞的衝動,就是用鈉鉀泵幫助維持細胞電位使神經衝動得以傳輸。 ...
BioAssay record AID 336312 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiplatelet activity against bovine citreated platelet assessed as inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation up to 278 ug/ml after 6 mins.
The effect of MgADP on the sarcomere length (SL) dependence of tension generation was investigated using skinned rat ventricular trabeculae. Increasing SL from 1.9 to 2.3 microm decreased the muscle width by approximately 11% and shifted the midpoint of the pCa-tension relationship (pCa(50)) leftward by about 0.2 pCa units. MgADP (0.1, 1, and 5 mmol/L) augmented maximal and submaximal Ca(2+)-activated tension and concomitantly diminished the SL-dependent shift of pCa(50) in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, pimobendan, a Ca(2+) sensitizer, which promotes Ca(2+) binding to troponin C (TnC), exhibited no effect on the SL-dependent shift of pCa(50), suggesting that TnC does not participate in the modulation of SL-dependent tension generation by MgADP. At a SL of 1. 9 microm, osmotic compression, produced by 5% wt/vol dextran (molecular weight approximately 464 000), reduced the muscle width by approximately 13% and shifted pCa(50) leftward to a similar degree as that observed when increasing
PAIVA NOVAES, Myriam Stella de; FERREIRA, F. D; NICOLAU, J. Adenine nucleotide contents and atpases activities in porcine deciduous dental pulp during the root formation, fully formed root and root resorption phases. Journal de Biologie Buccale, Paris, v. 17, p. 187-92, 1989 ...
13 sentence examples: 1. Adenosine diphosphate is one of the most important mediators of both physiological hemostasis and thrombosis. 2. Method Platelet aggregation was induced by adenosine diphosphate ( ADP ) in rabbits. 3. ADP ( adenosine diphosph
To compare the newer inductor of platelet aggregation cationic propyl gallate (CPG) with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) for the examination of aspirin (ASA) effectivity with optical aggregometry. In total,116 patients were prospectively enrolled with a stable cardiovascular disease, taking ASA 100 mg/day for |or=1 month. The control group consisted of 62 healthy volunteers. A platelet aggregation was investigated by optical aggregometry (aggregometer LASER 4x; BIO ART, Sint-Katelijne-Waver, Belgium). CPG and ADP were added as aggregating agents. The measured parameters were CPG-slope (%/min) and ADP max (%). Using the CPG-slope values from the control group, the CPG-slope cut-off value was determined to define a laboratory ASA-noneffectively treated patient. The values from control group followed a normal distribution (Shapiro-Wilk test). We calculated the cut-off value using the 1-tailed 95% confidence interval. The CPG-slope cut-off value was 79 %/min for an ASA-effectively treated patient. We marked the
The human body is "powered", essentially, by a substance called Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). This substance is regarded as the "energy unit" of life. To use this energy source to, for example, contract a muscle, ATP is converted to Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP), resulting in a release of energy. Over time, ADP can be converted back into ADT using the energy obtained from food. ATP can be regarded as the "charged" state, and ADP can be regarded as the "discharged" state of a battery.. This process could be used in two ways.. Firstly, it may be possible to create an "Organic Battery" which converts chemical energy from this process into electrical energy. I found THIS link which seems to indicate that some work is already being done on this process. The only questions would be regarding how small such a power source could be, how efficient the energy transfer would be, and how the battery could be recharged in real-world conditions. This could potentially solve a difficult engineering problem, ...
Intravenous and oral administration of a chemically stable carboprostacyclin analogue, 15-cyclopentyl-ω-pentanor-5(E)-carbacyclin (ONO 41483), resulted in ex-vivo inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation in man. The maximum tolerated intravenous dose was 2.5 ng/kg/min for 1 hour and this produced a mean of 27.1% inhibition in 3 volunteers. For oral administration the tolerated single dose was 200 μg. At this dose, there was 56.3% inhibition of aggregation (mean of 3 results). High oral (400 μg) and intravenous doses (5 and 10 ng/kg/min for 1 hour) of ONO 41483, which caused marked inhibition of aggregation (ranging 39-100%), was accompanied by flushing of face and extremities, headache and phlebitis. However, none of the doses tested produced significant changes in arterial blood pressure or heart rate ...
Approach and Results-Our goal is to determine whether a novel antibody targeting the ligand-binding domain, ie, second extracellular loop (EL2) of the P2Y1R (EL2Ab) could inhibit platelet function and protect against thrombogenesis. Our results revealed that the EL2Ab does indeed inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EL2Ab was found to inhibit integrin GPIIb-IIIa activation, dense and α granule secretion, and phosphatidylserine exposure. These inhibitory effects translated into protection against thrombus formation, as evident by a prolonged time for occlusion in a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, but this was accompanied by a prolonged tail bleeding time. We also observed a dose-dependent displacement of the radiolabeled P2Y1R antagonist [3H]MRS2500 from its ligand-binding site by EL2Ab. ...
Summary: In Dugesia tigrina, complex I and the ADP phosphorylation system are involved in the loss of oxidative phosphorylation capacity when temperature decreases. These steps are able to adjust following cold acclimation, allowing the animals to occupy a wide thermal range. ...
PDRP is an unusual bifunctional ADP-dependent phosphotransferase involved in the regulation of C4 plant photosynthesis. Despite thirty years of research since its discovery, biophysical, kinetic, and structural characterisations have remained elusive. The discovery of a homologous protein (YdiA) in E. coli provides an unparalleled opportunity to obtain such characterisations. For the first time, YdiA has been cloned, overexpressed, and the biophysical characteristics have been determined. The protein was found to be dimeric by gel filtration, native-PAGE, and AUC. ITC was used to characterise binding affinity for the putative substrates. The protein binds in a largely temperature and pH-independent manner to ADP, AMP, phosphate, and pyrophosphate, in the uM range, with KdS of \.24 ± 0. 76, 5.23 ± l.l0, 15.54 ± 4.30, and 24.18 ± 2.70 respectively. The putative macromolecular substrate, PPS, was cloned, overexpressed, and characterised. This substrate was found to be dimeric at high ...
BioAssay record AID 54289 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested at 1 nM for the inhibition of ADP-induced (20 uM) platelet aggregation in bovine seminal vesicle microsomes; NI=No inhibition.
The primary role of creatine is recharging ATP, by donating a phosphate ion to the ADP molecule. Muscle fibres generate tension by cutting off a phosphate group from ATP (charged form), turning it into ADP (uncharged from).. Three energy systems provide energy to recharge ADP back into ATP: the ATP-phosphocreatine system, the lactic acid system and the aerobic system. The percentage each energy system contributes depends on the intensity and duration of the activity.. The ATP-phosphocreatine system is the major energy provider for high-intense, explosive actions. This system is limited however by the amount of phosphocreatine that is stored in the muscles. After approximately 10 seconds of high-intense activity all the phosphocreatine is depleted and the ATP-phosphocreatine system can no longer contribute to energy production (recharging ADP into ATP) until it is replenished (approximately 3 minutes of rest). The power output drops when phosphocreatine levels in the muscle cells gets depleted, ...
A Calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the Hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and Diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5 ...
Chapter 13 - ATP Hydrolysis as a source of energy The molecular details of ATP hydrolysis - ΔG when ATP is split into ADP and P - Motors move along a ΔG gradient - Motors move faster with higher [ATP] - Structure of ATP and the hydrolysis reaction - At least 8 distinct states are involved in motor stepping - Case study: the complete ATP hydrolysis cycle of Myosin II ...
Energy for this comes from ATP, the energy source of the cell. ATP binds to the cross bridges between myosin heads and actin filaments. The release of energy powers the swiveling of the myosin head. Muscles store little ATP and so must continuously recycle the discharged adenosine diphosphate molecule (ADP) into ATP rapidly. Muscle tissue also contains a stored supply of a fast acting recharge chemical, creatine phosphate which can assist initially producing the rapid regeneration of ADP into ATP ...
The difficulties encountered in the crystallization of membrane proteins in a form suitable for X-ray analysis have stimulated the development of algorithms to predict, from primary amino acid...
Immobilized Nucleotides for Affinity Chromatography Affinity Chromatography Kits for Adenosine Nucleotide binding Proteins Affinity Kit Components
A method for forming a MEMS device is disclosed, where a final release step is performed just prior to a wafer bonding step to protect the MEMS device from contamination, physical contact, or other deleterious external events. Without additional changes to the MEMS structure between release and wafer bonding and singulation, except for an optional stiction treatment, the MEMS device is best protected and overall process flow is improved. The method is applicable to the production of any MEMS device and is particularly beneficial in the making of fragile micromirrors.
PA3467U-1ACA , PA3396U-1ACA,PA3165U-1ACA / PA3380E-1ACA / PA3380U-1ACA / PA3396E-1ACA / PA3432E-1AC3 / PA3432E-1ACA / PA3432U-1AC3 / PA3432U-1ACA / PA3467E / PA3467E-1ACA / PA3467U-1ACA / PA3468E / PA3468E-1ACA / PA3468U / PA3468U-1ACA/ PA3467 / PA3467U / SADP-65KB PA-1500-02 / PA-1600-01 / PA-1600-02 / PA-1650-1601 PA-1650-01 / PA-1650-02 / PA-1700-02 / PA-1750-01 / PA-1750 -04 / PA-1900-15 / 6500767/6500920 / 0335C1965 / 0220A1990 P / N 2521997/5534 / ADP45CB / 10244/102458/102918/103310/103739/103905/103907/105926/105927/105928 / ACE83-110087-3100 / ACE83-110114-7000 / ACE83-110114-7100 / ACE83-110128-0200. A000001200 / A000001210 / A000007020 / A000007030 / ACC10 / ADP-65DB / ADP-65HB / ADP-75FB-A / ADT-W61 / API1AD43 / K000000550 / K000004120 / K000005050 / K000019570 / K000025320 / K000027270 / K000029300 / K000032420 / K000032580 / K000040250 / K000040270 / K000040290 / K000040460 / K000041670 / K000042840 / K000043680 / SADP - 65KB / SADP-65KBB / V000055210 / V000055400 / V000061300 / ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
1H8E: Structure of Bovine Mitochondrial F1-ATPase with Nucleotide Bound to All Three Catalytic Sites: Implications for the Mechanism of Rotary Catalysis
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n-benzyladenosine 5-(trihydrogen diphosphate) (C17H21N5O10P2) from the PQR.
Effect of Qter® treatment on ATP, protein content and cell growth in H9c2 cells.H9c2 cells were treated up to 72 hours with 100 nM Qter® and the ATP content w
The thienopyridine anti-platelet drugs, such as clopidogrel, require metabolic activation in vivo to effectively block platelet aggregation. The study of the activation of these compounds has been hampered by the lability and reactivity of the ring-opened active metabolite. Many studies have relied solely on the disappearance of the parent drug as an indicator of bioactivation by a particular cytochrome P450 (CYP). We have developed an alternative method for studying the formation of the active metabolite. Conditions were optimized whereby washed human platelets can be incubated in the presence of an individual, recombinant CYP and clopidogrel. At various time points during this incubation, an aliquot is removed and platelet aggregation is measured using 2-(Methylthio)adenosine 5′-diphosphate (2MeSADP) or adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP) as the agonist. Inhibition of platelet aggregation, compared to the control lacking active enzyme, suggests the formation of the thienopyridine active ...
An uncoupling protein (UCP) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that is a regulated proton channel or transporter. An uncoupling protein is thus capable of dissipating the proton gradient generated by NADH-powered pumping of protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the mitochondrial intermembrane space. The energy lost in dissipating the proton gradient via UCPs is not used to do biochemical work. Instead, heat is generated. This is what links UCP to thermogenesis. UCPs are positioned in the same membrane as the ATP synthase, which is also a proton channel. The two proteins thus work in parallel with one generating heat and the other generating ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate, the last step in oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria respiration is coupled to ATP synthesis (ADP phosphorylation) but is regulated by UCPs. There are five types of homologs known in mammals: UCP1, also known as thermogenin UCP2 UCP3 SLC25A27, also known as "UCP4" SLC25A14, also known as "UCP5" Uncoupling ...
Ticagrelor (AZD6140) is the first reversibly binding oral P2Y(12) receptor antagonist that blocks ADP-induced platelet aggregation.
LABORATORY ADHERENCE TO ISTH GUIDELINES ON PLATELET AGGREGATION TESTING. INITIAL REVIEW OF RESULTS FROM AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY. Conference Paper ...
The synthesis of [2-3H]ATP with specific activity high enough to use for 3H NMR spectroscopy at micromolar concentrations was accomplished by tritiodehalog
Low-dose, long-term aspirin use irreversibly blocks the formation of thromboxane A2 in platelets, producing an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation.. ...
Spinal cord damage (SCI) frequently results in everlasting disability or decline of movement (paralyE-7438sis) and feeling below the website of damage leading
The kit is intended for determination of intracellular ATP (adenosine triphosphate) in living cells. Extracellular ATP in the samples is enzymatically degraded. If the samples also contain somatic cells and the intention is to determine microbial ATP, we recommend 266-112 Microbial ATP Kit including a Cell Lysing Reagent for most animal cells. 266-311 ATP Biomass Kit can be used, if there is only one type of cells and no extracellular ATP in the samples. All living cells contain ATP where it plays the role of energy currency between different cellular processes. When cells die of natural causes, ATP is normally degraded. The intracellular concentration of ATP is carefully regulated to similar levels in all types of cells. ATP is therefore a good estimate of the total intracellular volume. Most bacterial cells contain approx. 2×10 -18 mol ATP per cell, while most eukaryotic cells, as a result of their larger size, contain 10 -15 mol ATP or more. ATP Biomass Kit HS, Intracellular ATP Kit HS and ...
Chemiosmotic coupling: The mechanism by which adenosine diphosphate|ADP is phosphorylated to adenosine triphosphate|ATP in mitochondria and chloroplast|...
View Notes - toothdecay from CHEMISTRY 371 at Rutgers. makes it an energy-rich molecule. Under physiological conditions, the reaction of one mole of ATP with water to produce adenosine diphosphate
ATP je sestavljen iz adenozina (adeninski obroč, povezan s sladkorjem ribozo) in treh fosfatnih skupin (trifosfat). Fosfatne skupine označujemo z alfa (α), beta (β) in gama (γ) glede na njihovo oddaljenost od riboze, začenši s fosfatno skupino alfa, ki je najbližje ribozi. ATP je dobro topen v vodi in dokaj stabilen v območju pH od 6,8 do 7,4, medtem ko pri ekstremnih vrednostih pH hitro poteče hidroliza. ATP je tako najbolje shranjevati v obliki brezvodne soli. ATP v nepufrani vodi razpade na ADP in fosfat. To je posledica šibkejših vezi med fosfatnimi skupinami znotraj molekule ATP v primerjavi z vodikovimi vezmi, ki se vzpostavijo med produkti hidrolize ATP (ADP + fosfat) in vodo. ATP in ADP sta v vodi v kemijskem ravnotežju (večina je v obliki ADP). Sistem, ki je oddaljen od ravnotežja, vsebuje Gibbsovo prosto energijo in je sposoben opravljanja delo. Celice vzdržujejo razmerje ATP/ADP približno 10 velikostnih razredov stran od ravnotežja, kar pomeni, da je koncentracija ...
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What is Peak ATP? What does it do and how does it work? What is the preferred dosage? Are there any good studies in humans to support it?
The effect of the local anaesthetic, butacaine, on adenine nucleotide binding and translocation in rat liver mitochondria partially depleted of their adenine nucleotide content was investigated. The range of butacaine concentrations that inhibit adenine nucleotide translocation and the extent of the inhibition are similar to the values obtained for native mitochondria. Butacaine does not alter either the total number of atractyloside-sensitive binding sites of depleted mitochondria, or the affinity of these sites for ADP or ATP under conditions where a partial inhibition of the rate of adenine nucleotide translocation is observed. The data are consistent with an effect of butacaine on the process by which adenine nucleotides are transported across the mitochondrial inner membrane rather than on the binding of adenine nucleotides to sites on the adenine nucleotide carrier. The results are briefly discussed in relation to the use of local anaesthetics in investigations of the mechanism of adenine ...
Five prenylflavonoids and two prenylchalcones from Artocarpus lowii King, A. scortechinii King and A. teysmanii Miq., and acetylated derivatives of cycloheterophyllin and artonin E were investigated for their ability to inhibit arachidonic acid (AA), collagen and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood by using an electrical impedance method. Among the tested compounds, only cycloheterophyllin inhibited AA-induced platelet aggregation with an IC50 value of 100.9 lM. It also showed strong inhibition against ADP-induced aggregation, with an IC50 value of 57.1 lM. Isobavachalcone, 20,40-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-30-prenyldihydrochalcone, cycloartobiloxanthone, artonin E and artonin E triacetate showed selective inhibition against ADP-induced aggregation, with IC50 values ranging from 55.3 to 192.0 lM, but did not show such effect against other inducers. ...
This is the first study to demonstrate that the level of platelet inhibition achieved with currently used, weight-adjusted GP IIb/IIIa antagonists in patients undergoing a PCI is significantly associated with the risk of experiencing a MACE. Our observations also reinforce the findings of previous smaller studies that used various techniques to analyze platelet function inhibition and found substantial interpatient variability in response to GP IIb/IIIa antagonist therapy.3 7 8 9 10 11 12 GP IIb/IIIa antagonists prevent thrombus formation in proportion to their blockade of the ≈80 000 GP IIb/IIIa receptors present on the platelet surface.13 Early studies found that inhibition of , ≈50% of the GP IIb/IIIa receptors was needed to detect significant inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, whereas blockade of ≥80% of the receptors completely abolished ADP-induced platelet aggregation, suggesting a steep dose-response curve.14 Moreover, the GP IIb/IIIa receptor blockade necessary to ...
Activation and aggregation of blood platelets is crucial for hemostasis and thrombosis. In the vascular system adenine nucleotides are important signaling molecules playing a key role in hemostasis. ADP was the first low molecular weight agent recognized to cause blood platelets activation and aggregation. NTPDases and adenylate kinase (AK) are the main enzymes involved in metabolism of extracellular adenine nucleotides. The majority of studies concentrated on the role of NTPDase1 (apyrase) in the inhibition of platelets aggregation. Up to now, there are still insufficient data concerning the role of AK in this process. We found that adenylate kinase activity in the serum of patients with myocardial infarction is significantly increased when compared to the healthy volunteers. The elevated activity of AK is connected to appearance of another isoform of that enzyme, expressed in patients with myocardial infarction. The influence of AK on the pig blood platelets aggregation induced by 20 μM ADP or 7.5
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Platelet ADP Receptor Antagonist, Adenosine Receptor Antagonist, P2Y12 Receptor Antagonist, P2Y Receptor Antagonist, P2Y Receptor Inhibitor, Thienopyridine, Clopidogrel, Plavix, Thiophene, Prasugrel, Effient, Brilinta, Ticagrelor.
Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors- Pipeline Insights, 2015, provides the in-depth analysis of the pipeline assets across the Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors. The main objective of this report to track competitor pipeline molecules, related research activities, technology, collaborations, in-licensing and out-licensing deals.
The second part of this thesis explores the suitability of the 96-well plate format to study platelet aggregation, and to assess inhibition, using aspirin and the P2Y12 antagonist, cangrelor. The 96-well plate format has successfully demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation with cangrelor and of arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation with aspirin, except when using high concentrations of AA. The apparent failure of aspirin to inhibit AA-induced platelet aggregation at a high concentration could have been due to the fact that endogenous ADP, which may have leaked from red blood cells (RBCs), may have overcome the inhibition. Dual antiplatelet therapy, using aspirin in conjunction with cangrelor, has confirmed this explanation and also demonstrated that more inhibition is obtained when antiplatelet agents are used in pairs. When the glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa antagonist MK-0852 was used to block the final aggregation pathway, it ...
Pharmacodynamic assessment. to determine the dose of clopidogrel to achieve a mean 30-50% inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation in neonates or
A novel method using platelets as a biosensor was developed to study which cytochromes P450 convert the important antiplatelet drugs clopidogrel and prasugrel to their active metabolites in vitro. Generation of the AM of the thienopyridine in situ in the presence of platelets increases the likelihood that more of the AM formed would be captured by the P2Y12 platelet receptor before being lost through nonproductive side reactions. The method is not dependent on separation of the numerous stereoisomers (four enantiomeric pairs have been identified for clopidogrel and prasugrel) generated by cytochrome P450 oxidation and ring opening of the thienopyridine (Pereillo et al., 2002; Hasegawa et al., 2005) and allowed us to study in finer detail the cytochrome P450 requirements for this multistep transformation.. Conditions were found whereby the thienopyridine, purified P450 Baculosomes, and washed platelets could be incubated together without changes in the ADP-induced aggregation of these platelets ...
Looking for duty ratio? Find out information about duty ratio. In a pulse radar or similar system, the ratio of average to peak pulse power. Also known as duty cycle. In a pulse radar, or similar, system the ratio of... Explanation of duty ratio
What is the subunit composition? Larsen, T. M., L. T. Laughlin, H. M. Holden, L. Rayment, G. H. Reed. 1994. Structure of rabbit muscle pyruvate kinase complexed with Mn2+, K+, and pyruvate. Biochemistry 33:6301-6309.. ...
ADP cycling supplies the energy needed to do work in a biological system, the thermodynamic process of transferring energy from one source to another. There are two types of energy: potential energy and kinetic energy. Potential energy can be thought of as stored energy, or usable energy that is available to do work. Kinetic energy is the energy of an object as a result of its motion. The significance of ATP is in its ability to store potential energy within the phosphate bonds. The energy stored between these bonds can then be transferred to do work. For example, the transfer of energy from ATP to the protein myosin causes a conformational change when connecting to actin during muscle contraction. It takes multiple reactions between myosin and actin to effectively produce one muscle contraction, and, therefore, the availability of large amounts of ATP is required to produce each muscle contraction. For this reason, biological processes have evolved to produce efficient ways to replenishment the ...
London, United Kingdom - PRP is the concentration of platelets derived from the plasma of your own blood. Platelets are widely known to play a large r
The paper begins with an introduction to human vitality and ATP, delving into phosphorylation and the energy cycle of ATP turning into ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) and then back into ATP. Youll learn about phosphate tails, about the mitochondrial membranes at the center of eukaryotic cells and the movement of hydrogen ions between the membranes, and how an osmotic gradient or charge difference controls the adding and removing of those phosphate tails. Whew! Luckily, the authors have provided special summary sections at the end of these discussions restating the discussion in laymen terms.. Next we look at the similar process in plants, called photophosphorylation, which in a sense is the process where plants "eat" sunlight in order to power the same ADP-,ATP-,ADP cycle. A pigment in the plant, Chlorophyll A, absorbs the light, causing the molecules of Chlorophyll A to get excited, releasing an electron, producing hydrogen ions which work inside a structure called a chloroplast (plants dont have ...
Dawson, J D. and Sauer, L A., "The effect of different incubation temperatures on the adenine nucleotide content of ehrlich-lettre ascites tumor cells." (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 33 ...
Definition of adenylate kinase - An enzyme that catalyses the reversible reaction by which adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is converted to adenosine monophosphate (AMP
PRP, a type of regenerative therapy with the patients own blood, uses components called platelets in the blood to rejuvenate the body from within.
The tachinid A. xylota is a common parasitoid of larvae of Trirhabda virgata and T. borealis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in central New York [USA]. Flies aggregated on herbaceous vegetation along the borders between old fields and more shaded habitats (shrubby fields or woodlots). Aggregations comprised from less than 100 to a few thousand individuals, almost all of which were male. Males continuously perched and moved about in sun flecks on the vegetation and frequently grappled with each other. In the old field adjacent to the primary aggregation site, the tachinid sex ratio was strongly skewed toward females. Aggregations of A. xylota are probably involved in mating.
It has long been known that chronic exposure of palmitate to islets or β-cell lines causes lipotoxicity leading to blunted GSIS (1,3-5). Our current studies clearly demonstrate that this palmitate-induced impairment of insulin secretion is restored by supplement of EPA. The results also indicated that this palmitate-EPA regulation is not due to cell toxicity or apoptosis (data not shown) but mediated through two major key molecules: SREBP-1c and UCP-2. Several factors are known to be important for function of β-cells, such as ATP-to-ADP ratio, IRS-2/Akt insulin signaling, and granuphilin. These factors are all consistently disturbed by palmitate and improved by additional EPA through up- and downregulation of SREBP-1c, respectively. Taken together with overexpression and knockout experiments of SREBP-1, it can be concluded that SREBP-1c plays a crucial role in β-cell lipotoxicity as a causative upstream factor.. Contribution of UCP-2 to ATP depletion and impaired insulin secretion has been ...
So why does hydrolyzing a single molecule of ATP provide 60mV of energy? That value comes from the fact that your cells have a lot more ATP than they would have at equilibrium: the relative concentrations of ATP and ADP, [ATP]/[ADP], are *way* out of equilibrium. How far from equilibrium? The equilibrium ratio is 0.0000001, your cytosol is at 1000- thats 10 orders of magnitude away from equilibrium! Hydrolyzing ATP provides energy (free energy) as [ATP]/[ADP] falls to equilibrium- 57 kJ/mol, or 590 mV, assuming a single ATP molecule gives all its energy to a single charge (the calculation is correct, but I cant account for the discrepancy with the resting potential). So how do your cells keep making ATP, and where does *that* energy come from ...
EnzyChrom ADP Assay Kit product information; EnzyChrom ADP Assay Kit is available 1 time from supplier quantichrom at Gentaur.com shop
Product Page for Peak ATP with GlycoCarn 60 Vcaps made by life-extension offering price, ingredients and full item description from betterlife
Hello we have the following unique algo aa,a,nd we would like to know if it could be interesting in Bio. Does somebody can help ...
Glutamat 5-kinaza (EC 2.7.2.11, ATP-L-glutamatna 5-fosfotransferaza, ATP:gama-L-glutamatna fosfotransferaza, gama-glutamatna kinaza, gama-glutamilna kinaza, glutamatna kinaza) je enzim sa sistematskim imenom ATP:L-glutamat 5-fosfotransferaza.[1] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conformationally Restricted Creatine Analogs and Substrate Specificity of Rabbit Muscle Creatine Kinase. AU - Dietrich, Robert F.. AU - Miller, Robert B.. AU - Kenyon, George L.. AU - Leyh, Thomas S.. AU - Reed, George H.. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. N2 - Several conformationally restricted analogues of creatine have been both synthesized and examined as potential substrates or inhibitors of rabbit muscle creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2). When an asymmetric center was included in a creatine analogue in the position α to the carboxyl group, the enzyme had a pronounced preference for the R enantiomer. Thus, whereas (R)-N-amidinoazetidine-2-carboxylic acid (7) has been shown to be a good substrate (Ks = 72 mM, Km = 39 mM, and Vmax = 29% relative to that of creatine) for creatine kinase, the corresponding S enantiomer 6 showed only barely detectable reactivity (Fmax(rel) ≪ 1%). When the corresponding ring-opened analogue, N-methyl-N-amidino-alanine, was examined as a substrate, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ATP synthesis by the F0F1 ATP synthase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3 reconstituted into liposomes with bacteriorhodopsin. T2 - 2. Relationships between proton motive force and ATP synthesis. AU - Pitard, Bruno. AU - Richard, Peter. AU - Duñach, Mireia. AU - Rigaud, Jean Louis. PY - 1996/2. Y1 - 1996/2. N2 - The correlation between the rate of ATP synthesis and light-induced proton flux was investigated in proteoliposomes reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3. By variation of the actinic light intensity it was found that ATP synthase activity depended in a sigmoidal manner on the amplitude of the transmembrane light-induced pH gradient. Maximal rates of ATP synthesis (up to 200 nmol ATP · min-1 · mg protein-1 were obtained at saturating light intensities under a steady-state pH gradient of about pH 1.25. It was demonstrated that this was the maximal ΔpH attainable at 40°C in reconstituted proteoliposomes, due to the feedback ...
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
The technique involves drawing blood from the patient, it is then spun down in a centrifuge for 6 minutes at a pre-calculated speed to retrieve the most viable fibrin platelets. After centrifugation, the platelet and fibrin component of the blood is extracted. Platelet Rich Plasma stimulates new cell growth in the patients body wherever it is injected. It helps the body heal itself the natural way without using chemicals or foreign substances of any kind, and with no down time. The possibility of an allergic reaction is almost nil because the plasma comes from the patients own body.. PRP facials with micro needling:. The PRP facial stimulates collagen production in the skin using micro-needling. PRP will stimulate new cell growth, add volume to the skin to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, minimize the appearance of scars and stretch marks. Micro-needling breaks up any present scar tissue, and the PRP deposits the proteins back into the skin tissue to aid in the growth of new ...
Adenine Ribose 3 Phosphate groups ATP Adenosine ATP Structure ATP = Adenosine TriPhosphate High Energy Bonds ADP ATP Energy Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate
Cangrelor, a short-acting, potent and selective small molecule P2Y12 purinoceptor antagonist and platelet ADP receptor antagonist, is being developed by Chiesi
Synonyms for adenosine 5'-diphosphate in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adenosine 5'-diphosphate. 1 synonym for adenosine diphosphate: ADP. What are synonyms for adenosine 5'-diphosphate?
Phototherapy- The platelets are the specialized blood cells, which are primarily recruited in the blood stream to heal damaged tissues.
... (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phosphate is 1.66X10^5 at 37 degrees celcius, and Standard Delta H is -20.1 kJ/mol. Calculate Standard Delta S for the hydrolysis at 37 degrees celcius. On the assumption that Standard Delta H and Standard Delta S are temperature independent, calculate K at 25 degree celcius. ...
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This treatment involves the collection of your blood (approximately 8 ml) which is then spun down using a centrifuge to separate out the plasma and platelet portion using the separator gel as a special filter. The PRP portion of your blood is then injected back into the injury. The product injected is 100% your own blood by-product (autologous).. If you have any questions please do not hesitate to ask your physician.. ...
A PRP separator-concentrator comprising a housing, a separation assembly, and a concentration assembly. The concentration assembly has a concentration sump. An axially concentric rigid stationary outl
Creatine is an amino acid derivative that plays an important role in energy storage. Its phosphorylated form, phosphocreatine, is responsible for phosphorylating adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This is an important reaction because ATP acts as a phosphate donor which is responsible for catalyzing various reactions in the brain and muscle tissues that are essential for maintaining high function.
One of the hallmarks of aging is that energy production in every body cell decreases with age. How tired we feel most of the time is the barometer telling us how we are doing. The key thing to notice is that some people are toast in their fifties, and others are going strong into the 80s and 90s. Do we have any say in the matter? The answer is a resounding YES!. Virtually all energy produced by us from our food is produced by tiny organelles in each cell known as Mitochondria. They take in proteins, fats and carbohydrates and build an energy carrier molecule called Adenosine TriPhosphate or ATP. ATP is shuttled out into the cell to perform any and all functions that require energy to perform (thats virtually everything), it gives up a phosphate molecule (becoming Adenosine DiPhosphate) to impart that energy, and then is shuttled back to the mitochondria to be pumped back up by adding a phosphate molecule to become ATP again. How fast and effectively this happens determines how strong and ...
Karim, S.M.M.,Adaikan, P.G.,Lau, L.C.,Tai, M.Y. (1981). Inhibition of platelet aggregation with intravenous and oral administration of carboprostacyclin in man. Prostaglandins 21 (5) : 521-527. [email protected] Repository ...
im at $279 adp on greenbar and have been here since june of this year Greg, this guy forgot to mention hes a Swift driver. But thats pretty good for...
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In this study we have investigated the role of extracellular ATP on thrombin induced-platelet aggregation (TIPA) in washed human platelets. ATP inhibited TIPA in a dose-dependent manner and this inhibition was abolished ...
In this study we have investigated the role of extracellular ATP on thrombin induced-platelet aggregation (TIPA) in washed human platelets. ATP inhibited TIPA in a dose-dependent manner and this inhibition was abolished ...
Adenosine-5-triphosphate - adenozynotrifosforan (ATP), nukleotyd adenionowy (składa się z adenozyny i trzech grup fosforanowych. ATP jest wielofunkcyjnym nu...
Inhibition of full-length human KRas4B (amino acids 1 to 188)-SOS interaction assessed as inhibition of SOS-mediated nucleotide release ...
Adenosine diphosphate (or ADP) is the chemical that plants make ATP from, during photosynthesis. A chemical compound that can ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adenosine_diphosphate&oldid=4619663" ...
1hi5: EOSINOPHIL-DERIVED NEUROTOXIN (EDN) -ADENOSINE-5'-DIPHOSPHATE COMPLEX *. 1k2a: Modified Form of Eosinophil-derived ...
... adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, ... Ghosh HP, Preiss J (1966). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. A regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis of starch ... I. Purification and properties of the adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase of Arthrobacter species NRRL B1973". J. Biol ... diphosphate + ADP-glucose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, whereas its two ...
Dowler MJ, Nakada HI (1968). "Yeast phosphoramidate-adenosine diphosphate phosphotransferase". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (7): 1434-40 ... Other names in common use include phosphoramidate-adenosine diphosphate phosphotransferase, and phosphoramidate-ADP- ...
doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase, and ADP:aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphosugar ...
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a platelet agonist. When it is added to saline-diluted whole blood in the test cuvette, it ... Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is a platelet inhibitor that causes an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in platelets ...
The building blocks of ATP synthesis are the by-products of its breakdown; adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate ... Those processes convert energy into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the form suitable for muscular activity. There are ...
This enzyme is also called adenosine diphosphate phosphoglycerate phosphatase. Zancan GT, Recondo EF, Leloir LF (1964). " ... "Enzymic dephosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate phosphoglyceric acid". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 92: 125-131. doi:10.1016/0926 ...
"Adenosine Diphosphate as an Intracellular Regulator of Insulin Secretion". Science. 272 (5269): 1785-7. doi:10.1126/science. ... Nichols, C. G.; Lederer, W. J. (1991). "Adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in the cardiovascular system". The ...
"Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectra of adenosine diphosphate and triphosphate. I. Effect of PH". The Journal of Biological ... She was a pioneer in the use of nuclear magnetic resonance for studying enzyme reactions, particularly in Adenosine ... 235: 3250-3. Cohn, Mildred; Hughes, T. R. (1962). "Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of adenosine di- and triphosphate. II. ...
Stern AI, Avron M (1966). "An adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase from Euglena gracilis". ... Other names in common use include ADP ribose phosphorylase, and adenosine diphosphoribose phosphorylase. Evans WR, San Pietro A ... 1966). "Phosphorolysis of adenosine diphosphoribose". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 113 (1): 236-44. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(66)90178-0 ...
1996). "Adenosine diphosphate as an intracellular regulator of insulin secretion". Science. 272 (5269): 1785-7. doi:10.1126/ ... Aguilar-Bryan L, Bryan J (1999). "Molecular biology of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels". Endocr. Rev. 20 (2 ...
Noncovalent Interactions of Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) with Histones. Biochemistry-US. 31: 1397-1385. Fatokun AA, ...
It is formed from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). The overall reaction catalyzed by ATP synthase is: ... ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the most commonly used ... Gresser MJ, Myers JA, Boyer PD (October 1982). "Catalytic site cooperativity of beef heart mitochondrial F1 adenosine ... 8. Properties of a factor conferring oligomycin sensitivity on mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase". The Journal of ...
Dhawan, S; Hensley, P; Osborne Jr, JC; Fleming, PJ (1986). "Adenosine 5'-diphosphate-dependent subunit dissociation of bovine ... Kuzuguchi, T.; Morita, Y; Sagami, I; Sagami, H; Ogura, K (1999). "Human Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase. CDNA CLONING AND ... Miyagi, Y.; Matsumura, Y.; Sagami, H. (2007). "Human Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase is an Octamer in Solution". Journal of ... Activation by monovalent cations and an analysis of the effect of the adenosine triphosphate-magnesium ion complex on this ...
"Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5′-diphosphate" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 261 (27): ...
Other names in common use include adenosine diphosphate deaminase, and adenosinepyrophosphate deaminase. Deutsch A; Nilsson R ( ... 1954). "On the dephosphorylation and deamination of adenosine triphosphate by actomyosin gel". Acta Chem. Scand. 8: 1898-1906. ...
George A, Bell JE (December 1980). "Effects of adenosine 5'-diphosphate on bovine glutamate dehydrogenase: diethyl ... The adenosine moiety binds down into a hydrophobic pocket with the ribose phosphate groups pointing up toward the pivot helix. ... As suggested for ADP it could be due to a competition between ATP and the adenosine moiety of the coenzyme at the active site. ... Inhibition by high [ADP] has been suggested previously to be due to competition between ADP and the adenosine moiety of the ...
The product is adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and an inorganic phosphate, orthophosphate (Pi). ADP can be further hydrolyzed to ... give energy, adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and another orthophosphate (Pi). ATP hydrolysis is the final link between the ... hydrolysis is the reaction by which chemical energy that has been stored in the high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds in adenosine ...
Main articles: Adenosine triphosphate and NADPH. ATP is the phosphorylated version of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which stores ... ATP synthase uses the energy from the flowing hydrogen ions to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate into adenosine triphosphate ... The two phases are linked by the energy carriers adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate ( ...
"Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide glycohydrolases and poly adenosine diphosphate ribose synthesis in rat liver". Biochem. ...
... was synthesized from adenosine diphosphate (ADP), an endogenous chemical involved in metabolism. The authors noted ... Nave, C.R. (2005). "Adenosine Triphosphate". Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet]. Georgia State University. Douglass, JG; ...
Platelets release cytoplasmic granules such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), serotonin and thromboxane A2. Adenosine diphosphate ...
PARP1 synthesizes polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chains on itself. Next the chromatin ... Inside mitochondria, reactive oxygen species (ROS), or free radicals, byproducts of the constant production of adenosine ...
... and adenosine diphosphate-thymidine phosphotransferase. Falke D, Labenz J, Brauer D, Muller WE (1982). "Adenosine diphosphate: ...
Their function is to convert the potential energy of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in ... This is thought to be caused by a blockage in the enzyme thiamine-diphosphate kinase, and therefore treatment in some patients ... Disorders of oxidative phosphorylation, the process by which cells produce their main energy source of adenosine triphosphate ( ... and thiamine diphosphate are commonly found but there is a reduced or absent level of thiamine triphosphate. ...
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a platelet agonist. When it is added to saline-diluted whole blood in the test cuvette, it ... Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is a platelet inhibitor that causes an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in platelets ...
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5 carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1 carbon ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ...
Adenosine diphosphate ribose is an ester molecule formed into chains by the enzyme poly ADP ribose polymerase. It binds to and ... Adenosine diphosphate Ribose Fonfria E, Marshall IC, Benham CD, et al. (September 2004). "TRPM2 channel opening in response to ...
Adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP), or thiaminylated adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a naturally occurring thiamine adenine ...
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors are a drug class of antiplatelet agents, used in the treatment of acute ... P2Y12 receptor is a G-coupled receptor and is activated by adenosine diphosphate. ADP binds to the P2Y12 receptor that leads to ... "Platelet Adenosine Diphosphate P2Y12 Receptor Antagonism: Benefits and Limitations of Current Treatment Strategies and Future ... Natural ligands like adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were shown to inhibit platelet aggregation and has been identified as a weak ...
Adenosine diphosphate (or ADP) is the chemical that plants make ATP from, during photosynthesis. A chemical compound that can ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adenosine_diphosphate&oldid=4619663" ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S: an adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase distinct from toxin A. B H Iglewski, J Sadoff, ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S is an adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase distinct from Pseudomonas toxin A. Exoenzyme ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S: an adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase distinct from toxin A ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S: an adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase distinct from toxin A ...
... diphosphate , C10H16N5O13P3 , CID 128882 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents ...
Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleotide adenine. ADP ... monophosphates (AMP, GMP, UMP, CMP) , diphosphates (ADP, GDP, UDP, CDP) , triphosphates (ATP, GTP, UTP, CTP) , cyclic (cAMP, ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... Adenosine/Deoxyadenosine , Guanosine/Deoxyguanosine , Uridine , Thymidine , Cytidine/Deoxycytidine Nucleotides: ...
Adenosine 5′-diphosphate monopotassium salt dihydrate for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS ... Adenosine 5′-diphosphate is a P2Y receptor agonist. Adenosine 5′-diphosphate has been used to study the release, neuronal ... Adenosine 5′-diphosphate has also been used to compare prasugrel versus clopidogrel antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary ... A-AM, Adenosines/P2 Nucleotide Receptor - Agonists, Adenosines/P2 Nucleotide Receptors (Purinergics), Agonists, Bioactive Small ...
... diphosphate lithium salt for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and ...
What is adenosine diphosphate? Meaning of adenosine diphosphate medical term. What does adenosine diphosphate mean? ... Looking for online definition of adenosine diphosphate in the Medical Dictionary? adenosine diphosphate explanation free. ... adenosine diphosphate. see ADP.. adenosine triphosphate. ; ATP; adenosine diphosphate; ADP intracellular biochemicals; ATP ... Related to adenosine diphosphate: adenosine monophosphate. adenosine. [ah-den´o-sēn] 1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose ...
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose Cyclase. A Membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of Cyclic ADP-Ribose ( ...
Adenosine Diphosphate as an Intracellular Regulator of Insulin Secretion. By C. G. Nichols, S.-L. Shyng, A. Nestorowicz, B. ... Adenosine Diphosphate as an Intracellular Regulator of Insulin Secretion. By C. G. Nichols, S.-L. Shyng, A. Nestorowicz, B. ... Adenosine Diphosphate as an Intracellular Regulator of Insulin Secretion Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... inhibition by ATP was not antagonized by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Additional mutations in NBF2 resulted in the same ...
It is the end-product when adenosine triphosphate ATP loses one of its phosphate groups. The energy released in the process is ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Adenosine_diphosphate&oldid=101671" ... Adenosine diphosphate. From Biology-Online Dictionary. (Redirected from Adenosine Diphosphate ADP). Jump to: navigation, search ...
1O0O: High-resolution crystal structures of ribonuclease A complexed with adenylic and uridylic nucleotide inhibitors. Implications for structure-based design of ribonucleolytic inhibitors
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate. ... Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: 110. *Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: 3 ... Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: 110. *Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: 3 ... Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars. Subscribe to New Research on Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars Esters formed between the aldehydic ...
Adenosine 5-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at ... Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP). Subscribe to New Research on Adenosine Diphosphate Adenosine 5-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An ... Adenosine; ADP, Magnesium; Adenosine 5 Pyrophosphate; Diphosphate, Adenosine; Adenosine Pyrophosphate; Magnesium ADP; MgADP; ... 2,3 O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5-diphosphate. *2,3-(O-(2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexadienylidine))adenosine 5-diphosphate ...
... decorated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (ANPs) or fibrinogen (FNPs) were used to fabricate hemostatic NPs that can shorten ... Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood clotting times, influencing the structures and varying the ... Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood clotting times, influencing the structures and varying the ... Abstract: Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) decorated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (ANPs) or fibrinogen (FNPs) were used to ...
Compare and order Adenosine Diphosphate ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. ... Search Adenosine Diphosphate ELISA Kits for other reactivities: Chicken,. Dog (Canine),. Pig (Porcine),. Wild boar (Sus scrofa ... Adenosine Diphosphate ELISA Kit. 32 products by 10 suppliers: Blue Gene , Cloud-Clone , Abbexa , Biovision , BioAssay Systems ... Images for product: Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) ELISA Kit Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) ELISA Kit ...
... adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have offered patients carrying cancers with mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 ... Strategies for the Use of Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy. Cecilia E. Ström. ... Treatments with Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have offered patients carrying cancers with ... Ström, C.E.; Helleday, T. Strategies for the Use of Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors in Cancer ...
ADENOSINE-5-DIPHOSPHATE. C10 H15 N5 O10 P2 XTWYTFMLZFPYCI-KQYNXXCUSA-N ... Human thymidylate kinase complexed with thymidine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate and a magnesium-ion. *DOI: 10.2210/ ...
... diphosphate ribose (ADPR) is an intracellular signalling molecule generated from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). ... Adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose (ADPR) is an intracellular signalling molecule generated from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ... Synthesis of phosphonoacetate analogues of the second messenger adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose (ADPR)† ... Synthesis of phosphonoacetate analogues of the second messenger adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose (ADPR) O. Baszczyňski, J. M. ...
Human thymidylate kinase complexed with thymidine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate and a magnesium-ion. ...
Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After ... Treatment with adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors-longitudinal assessment of treatment patterns and events after acute ... Early Cessation of Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Inhibitors Among Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients Treated With ... Factors Associated With Initial Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Receptor Inhibitor Selection at Enrollment [ Time Frame: Day 0 ( ...
  • Potter, B , Watt, JM & Baszczynski, O 2019, ' Synthesis of Terminal Ribose Analogues of Adenosine 5′-Diphosphate Ribose as Probes for the Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel TRPM2 ', Journal of Organic Chemistry , vol. 84, no. 10, pp. 6143-6157. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The theory suggests essentially that most adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in respiring cells comes from the electrochemical gradient across the inner membranes of mitochondria by using the energy of NADH and FADH2 formed from the breaking down of energy-rich molecules such as glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purinergic signalling system consists of transporters, enzymes and receptors responsible for the synthesis, release, action, and extracellular inactivation of (primarily) ATP and its extracellular breakdown product adenosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ticlopidine (trade name Ticlid) is an antiplatelet drug in the thienopyridine family which is an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of the mutant block indicates that the greater portion of starch in the endosperm of normal maize is synthesized by way of enzyme systems that utilize adenosine diphosphate glucose as a substrate, and that the latter is formed chiefly by adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. (sciencemag.org)
  • The other necessary substrate, from which the phosphate is derived, is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) when the phosphate is removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenylosuccinate lyase in humans and Bacillus subtilis can be competitively inhibited by the substrate analog adenosine phosphonobutyric acid 2'(3'), 5'-diphosphate (APBADP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle cramping The cause of cramping is unknown, but may be related to elevated lactate, increased calcium signaling across the sarcoplasmic reticulum caused by membrane instability from reduced levels of ATP, or increased levels of free adenosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of this would be the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane during cellular respiration or photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It allows protons to pass through the membrane and uses the free energy difference to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate (ADP), making ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleoside transporters (NTs) are a group of membrane transport proteins which transport nucleoside substrates including adenosine across the membranes of cells and/or vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extracellular nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates are substrates of the ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases), the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (E-NPPs) and alkaline phosphatases (APs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK /ɒkˈsɪd.ə.tɪv/, US /ˈɑːk.sɪˌdeɪ.tɪv/) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cocaine-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation is another deleterious effect, caused by alpha-adrenergic- and adenosine diphosphate-mediated increase in platelet aggregation. (wikipedia.org)