Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Adenine NucleotidesAdenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ADP binding and are coupled to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI. The P2Y12 purinergic receptors are found in PLATELETS where they play an important role regulating PLATELET ACTIVATION.Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsAdenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Receptor, Adenosine A2B: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2Y RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2Y receptor subtypes.Platelet Function Tests: Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Receptors, Adenosine A2: A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase: An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Blood Platelet Disorders: Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.NAD+ NucleosidasePlatelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Platelet Storage Pool Deficiency: Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored.Clot Retraction: Retraction of a clot resulting from contraction of PLATELET pseudopods attached to FIBRIN strands. The retraction is dependent on the contractile protein thrombosthenin. Clot retraction is used as a measure of platelet function.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Platelet Factor 3: A phospholipid from the platelet membrane that contributes to the blood clotting cascade by forming a phospholipid-protein complex (THROMBOPLASTIN) which serves as a cofactor with FACTOR VIIA to activate FACTOR X in the extrinsic pathway of BLOOD COAGULATION.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide): A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases: A family of nucleotide diphosphate kinases that play a role in a variety of cellular signaling pathways that effect CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS. They are considered multifunctional proteins that interact with a variety of cellular proteins and have functions that are unrelated to their enzyme activity.Megakaryocyte Progenitor Cells: The parent cells that give rise to cells in the MEGAKARYOCYTE lineage, and ultimately BLOOD PLATELETS.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides: Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Bleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Dimethylallyltranstransferase: An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.1.Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Adenosine A3 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cyclic ADP-Ribose: A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.Thromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Adenosine A3 Receptor Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Uridine Diphosphate SugarsDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Farnesyltranstransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate from trans, trans-farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Ribonucleoside Diphosphate Reductase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.17.4.1.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)2-Chloroadenosine: 2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Phenylisopropyladenosine: N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Thromboxanes: Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.Uridine Diphosphate: A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 2: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CELL NUCLEUS.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase: An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Thiamine Pyrophosphate: The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.SesquiterpenesMegakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Thrombasthenia: A congenital bleeding disorder with prolonged bleeding time, absence of aggregation of platelets in response to most agents, especially ADP, and impaired or absent clot retraction. Platelet membranes are deficient in or have a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX).ThiophenesHydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic: Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.Cytidine Diphosphate: Cytidine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonyms: CRPP; cytidine pyrophosphate.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.PyruvatesBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Diterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Hemostatics: Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.Inosine Diphosphate: An inosine nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.Micrococcus luteus: A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Receptors, Purinergic P2X: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Thrombelastography: Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Erythritol: A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.Coformycin: A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.FructosephosphatesSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Theobromine: 3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Guanosine Diphosphate Mannose: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine: Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.Intramolecular Lyases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Arachidonic AcidsEndothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Pentostatin: A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Adenosine Phosphosulfate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Mentha: Mentha is a genus of the mint family (LAMIACEAE). It is known for species having characteristic flavor and aroma.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Tetrahymenina: A suborder of ciliate protozoa. Most organisms are free-living in fresh water and many species are used extensively for experimental studies.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Mevalonic AcidMethods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Piperazines
(1/6000) Inhibitory innervation of cat sphincter of Oddi.

1 Electrical stimulation with trains of 0.1-0.2 ms pulses of the cat isolated sphincter of Oddi inhibited the spontaneous contractile activity and lowered base-line tension considerably. A contraction usually followed the period of stimulation. 2 These inhibitory effects were prevented by tetrodotoxin 0.1-0.5 mug/ml but were not reduced by hexamethonilm, morphine, or blockade of alpha- or beta-adrenoreceptors of cholinoceptors with phenoxy-benzamine propranolol or atropine, respectively. 3 Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) inhibited the spontaneous sphincter activity and caused relaxation thus mimicking the effects of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (C8-CCK), isoprenaline and prostaglandin E1 and E2. 4 ATP alone (greater than 100 mug/ml) or ATP (greater than 10 mug/ml) plus dipyridamole (1 mug/ml), relaxed the sphincter to the same degrees as did the field stimulation. 5 In sphincter maximally contracted by acetylcholine, the effect of stimulation was more marked than that recorded in uncontracted preparations. 6 The present findings suggest that the sphincter of Oddi receives inhibitory nerves that are neither cholinergic nor adrenergic.  (+info)

(2/6000) Conformational changes generated in GroEL during ATP hydrolysis as seen by time-resolved infrared spectroscopy.

Changes in the vibrational spectrum of the chaperonin GroEL in the presence of ADP and ATP have been followed as a function of time using rapid scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The interaction of nucleotides with GroEL was triggered by the photochemical release of the ligands from their corresponding biologically inactive precursors (caged nucleotides; P3-1-(2-nitro)phenylethyl nucleotide). Binding of either ADP or ATP induced the appearance of small differential signals in the amide I band of the protein, sensitive to protein secondary structure, suggesting a subtle and localized change in protein conformation. Moreover, conformational changes associated with ATP hydrolysis were detected that differed markedly from those observed upon nucleotide binding. Both, high-amplitude absorbance changes and difference bands attributable to modifications in the interaction between oppositely charged residues were observed during ATP hydrolysis. Once this process had occurred, the protein relaxed to an ADP-like conformation. Our results suggest that the secondary structure as well as salt bridges of GroEL are modified during ATP hydrolysis, as compared with the ATP and ADP bound protein states.  (+info)

(3/6000) Magnesium ion-induced changes in the binding mode of adenylates to chloroplast coupling factor 1.

The effect of Mg2+ on the binding of adenylates to isolated chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF1) was studied using CD spectrometry and ultrafiltration. At adenylate concentrations smaller than 100 muM, one mole of CF1 binds three moles of ATP (or ADP) regardless of the presence of Mg2+. In the presence of Mg2+, the first two ATP's bind to CF1 independently with the same binding constant of 2.5 X 10(-1) muM-1, then the third ATP binds with a much higher affinity of 10 muM-1. In the absence of Mg2+, the first ATP binds to CF1 with a binding constant of 2.5 X 10(-1) muM-1 then the other two ATP's bind less easily with the same binding constant of 4.0 X 10(-2) muM-1. The binding mode of ADP to CF1 is quite similar to that of ATP. In the presence of Mg2+, the binding constants of the first two ADP's are both 7.6 X 10(-2) muM-1, that of the third ADP being 4.0 muM-1. In the absence of Mg2+, the binding constant of the first ADP is 7.6 X 10(-2) muM-1, the constants of the other two ADP's both being 4.0 X 10(-2) muM-1. AMP caused a negligible change in CD.  (+info)

(4/6000) Mutations of Arg198 in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase cause inhibition of hydrolysis of the phosphoenzyme intermediate formed from inorganic phosphate.

Arg198 of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase was substituted with lysine, glutamine, glutamic acid, alanine, and isoleucine by site-directed mutagenesis. Kinetic analysis was performed with microsomal membranes isolated from COS-1 cells which were transfected with the mutated cDNAs. The rate of dephosphorylation of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme was determined by first phosphorylating the Ca2+-ATPase with 32Pi and then diluting the sample with non-radioactive Pi. This rate was reduced substantially in the mutant R198Q, more strongly in the mutants R198A and R1981, and most strongly in the mutant R198E, but to a much lesser extent in R198K. The reduction in the rate of dephosphorylation was consistent with the observed decrease in the turnover rate of the Ca2+-ATPase accompanied by the steady-state accumulation of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme formed from ATP. These results indicate that the positive charge and high hydrophilicity of Arg198 are critical for rapid hydrolysis of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme.  (+info)

(5/6000) Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase.

Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations.  (+info)

(6/6000) Depolarization-evoked Ca2+ release in a non-excitable cell, the rat megakaryocyte.

1. The effect of membrane potential on [Ca2+]i in rat megakaryocytes was studied using simultaneous whole-cell patch clamp and fura-2 fluorescence recordings. 2. Depolarization from -75 to 0 mV had no effect on [Ca2+]i in unstimulated cells, but evoked one or more spikes of Ca2+ increase (peak increase: 714 +/- 95 nM) during activation of metabotropic purinoceptors by 1 microM ADP. 3. The depolarization-evoked Ca2+ increase was present in Ca2+-free medium and also following removal of Na+. Thus depolarization mobilizes Ca2+ from an intracellular store without a requirement for altered Na+-Ca2+ exchange activity. 4. Intracellular dialysis with heparin blocked the depolarization-evoked Ca2+ increase, indicating a role for functional IP3 receptors. 5. Under current clamp, ADP caused the membrane potential to fluctuate between -43 +/- 1 and -76 +/- 1 mV. Under voltage clamp, depolarization from -75 to -45 mV evoked a transient [Ca2+]i increase (398 +/- 91 nM) during exposure to ADP. 6. We conclude that during stimulation of metabotropic purinoceptors, membrane depolarization over the physiological range can stimulate Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in the rat megakaryocyte, a non-excitable cell type. This may represent an important mechanism by which electrogenic influences can control patterns of [Ca2+]i increase.  (+info)

(7/6000) Platelet aggregation and incident ischaemic heart disease in the Caerphilly cohort.

BACKGROUND: Platelets are involved in myocardial infarction but evidence of prediction of infarction by measures of platelet function are sparce. METHODS: Platelet aggregation to thrombin and to ADP in platelet rich plasma was recorded for 2176 men aged 49-65 years in the Caerphilly cohort study. RESULTS: Results from 364 men were excluded, 80 of whom had not fasted before venepuncture; most of the others were excluded because antiplatelet medication had been taken shortly before the platelet tests. During the five years following the platelet tests 113 ischaemic heart disease (IHD) events which fulfilled the World Health Organisation criteria were identified--42 fatal and 71 non-fatal. No measure of platelet aggregation was found to be significantly predictive of incident IHD. The possibility that platelet function is predictive for only a limited time after it is characterised, and that prediction falls off with time, was tested. When IHD events are grouped by their time of occurrence after aggregation had been measured, the test results show a gradient suggestive of prediction of early IHD events. Thus, 24% of the men who had an event within 500 days of the test had had a high secondary response to ADP while only 12% of those whose IHD event had been 1000 or more days after the test had shown a high platelet response at baseline. The trend in these proportions is not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet aggregation to thrombin and ADP in platelet rich plasma was recorded in the Caerphilly cohort study. No measure of aggregation was found to be predictive of IHD.  (+info)

(8/6000) Binding of the transition state analog MgADP-fluoroaluminate to F1-ATPase.

Escherichia coli F1-ATPase from mutant betaY331W was potently inhibited by fluoroaluminate plus MgADP but not by MgADP alone. beta-Trp-331 fluorescence was used to measure MgADP binding to catalytic sites. Fluoroaluminate induced a very large increase in MgADP binding affinity at catalytic site one, a smaller increase at site two, and no effect at site three. Mutation of either of the critical catalytic site residues beta-Lys-155 or beta-Glu-181 to Gln abolished the effects of fluoroaluminate on MgADP binding. The results indicate that the MgADP-fluoroaluminate complex is a transition state analog and independently demonstrate that residues beta-Lys-155 and (particularly) beta-Glu-181 are important for generation and stabilization of the catalytic transition state. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-inhibited enzyme, with 1% residual steady-state ATPase, showed normal transition state formation as judged by fluoroaluminate-induced MgADP binding affinity changes, consistent with a proposed mechanism by which dicyclohexylcarbodiimide prevents a conformational interaction between catalytic sites but does not affect the catalytic step per se. The fluorescence technique should prove valuable for future transition state studies of F1-ATPase.  (+info)

*  Multiple electrode aggregometry
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a platelet agonist. When it is added to saline-diluted whole blood in the test cuvette, it ... Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is a platelet inhibitor that causes an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in platelets ...
*  Adenosine diphosphate
... (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... while the adenosine attaches to the 1' carbon. ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5' carbon of the sugar backbone, ...
*  Adenosine diphosphate ribose
... is an ester molecule formed into chains by the enzyme poly ADP ribose polymerase. It binds to and ... Adenosine diphosphate Ribose Fonfria E, Marshall IC, Benham CD, et al. (September 2004). "TRPM2 channel opening in response to ...
*  Adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors are a drug class of antiplatelet agents, used in the treatment of acute ... P2Y12 receptor is a G-coupled receptor and is activated by adenosine diphosphate. ADP binds to the P2Y12 receptor that leads to ... "Platelet Adenosine Diphosphate P2Y12 Receptor Antagonism: Benefits and Limitations of Current Treatment Strategies and Future ... Natural ligands like adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were shown to inhibit platelet aggregation and has been identified as a weak ...
*  Adenosine thiamine diphosphate
... (AThDP), or thiaminylated adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a naturally occurring thiamine adenine ...
*  Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase
... adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, ... Ghosh HP, Preiss J (1966). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. A regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis of starch ... I. Purification and properties of the adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase of Arthrobacter species NRRL B1973". J. Biol ... diphosphate + ADP-glucose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, whereas its two ...
*  Ammonia kinase
Dowler MJ, Nakada HI (1968). "Yeast phosphoramidate-adenosine diphosphate phosphotransferase". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (7): 1434-40 ... Other names in common use include phosphoramidate-adenosine diphosphate phosphotransferase, and phosphoramidate-ADP- ...
*  Aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase
doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase, and ADP:aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphosugar ...
*  Bioenergetic systems
The building blocks of ATP synthesis are the by-products of its breakdown; adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate ... Those processes convert energy into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the form suitable for muscular activity. There are ...
*  ADP-phosphoglycerate phosphatase
This enzyme is also called adenosine diphosphate phosphoglycerate phosphatase. Zancan GT, Recondo EF, Leloir LF (1964). " ... "Enzymic dephosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate phosphoglyceric acid". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 92: 125-131. doi:10.1016/0926 ...
*  Colin Nichols
"Adenosine Diphosphate as an Intracellular Regulator of Insulin Secretion". Science. 272 (5269): 1785-7. doi:10.1126/science. ... Nichols, C. G.; Lederer, W. J. (1991). "Adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in the cardiovascular system". The ...
*  Mildred Cohn
"Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectra of adenosine diphosphate and triphosphate. I. Effect of PH". The Journal of Biological ... She was a pioneer in the use of nuclear magnetic resonance for studying enzyme reactions, particularly in Adenosine ... 235: 3250-3. Cohn, Mildred; Hughes, T. R. (1962). "Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of adenosine di- and triphosphate. II. ...
*  ABCC8
1996). "Adenosine diphosphate as an intracellular regulator of insulin secretion". Science. 272 (5269): 1785-7. doi:10.1126/ ... Aguilar-Bryan L, Bryan J (1999). "Molecular biology of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels". Endocr. Rev. 20 (2 ...
*  Parthanatos
Noncovalent Interactions of Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) with Histones. Biochemistry-US. 31: 1397-1385. Fatokun AA, ...
*  ATP synthase
It is formed from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). The overall reaction catalyzed by ATP synthase is: ... ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the most commonly used ... Gresser MJ, Myers JA, Boyer PD (October 1982). "Catalytic site cooperativity of beef heart mitochondrial F1 adenosine ... 8. Properties of a factor conferring oligomycin sensitivity on mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase". The Journal of ...
*  ADP deaminase
Other names in common use include adenosine diphosphate deaminase, and adenosinepyrophosphate deaminase. Deutsch A; Nilsson R ( ... 1954). "On the dephosphorylation and deamination of adenosine triphosphate by actomyosin gel". Acta Chem. Scand. 8: 1898-1906. ...
*  ATP hydrolysis
The product is adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and an inorganic phosphate, orthophosphate (Pi). ADP can be further hydrolyzed to ... give energy, adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and another orthophosphate (Pi). ATP hydrolysis is the final link between the ... hydrolysis is the reaction by which chemical energy that has been stored in the high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds in adenosine ...
*  NAD+ nucleosidase
"Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide glycohydrolases and poly adenosine diphosphate ribose synthesis in rat liver". Biochem. ...
*  Regrelor
... was synthesized from adenosine diphosphate (ADP), an endogenous chemical involved in metabolism. The authors noted ... Nave, C.R. (2005). "Adenosine Triphosphate". Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet]. Georgia State University. Douglass, JG; ...
*  Hemostasis
Platelets release cytoplasmic granules such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), serotonin and thromboxane A2. Adenosine diphosphate ...
*  DNA repair
PARP1 synthesizes polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chains on itself. Next the chromatin ... Inside mitochondria, reactive oxygen species (ROS), or free radicals, byproducts of the constant production of adenosine ...
*  ADP-thymidine kinase
... and adenosine diphosphate-thymidine phosphotransferase. Falke D, Labenz J, Brauer D, Muller WE (1982). "Adenosine diphosphate: ...
*  Tetrafluoroberyllate
It does this by attempting to react with adenosine diphosphate because it resembles phosphate. However once it does this it ...
*  Kinase
The end result is a phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate as well as adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The enzymes can also help to ... Nucleoside diphosphate kinase catalyzes production of thymidine triphosphate, dTTP, which is used in DNA synthesis. Because of ... After creation of the dTMP molecule, another kinase, thymidylate kinase, can act upon dTMP to create the diphosphate form, dTDP ... Here, a reaction between adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphatidylinositol is coordinated. ...
*  Deoxyadenosine diphosphate
... is a nucleoside diphosphate. It is related to the common nucleic acid ATP, or adenosine triphosphate ... This makes it also similar to adenosine diphosphate except with a hydroxyl group removed. Deoxyadenosine diphosphate is ... Cofactor Guanosine Cyclic adenosine monophosphate dADP - Compound Summary, PubChem.. ...
*  Metabolism
... causing the active site of the synthase domain to change shape and phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate - turning it into ATP. ... One central coenzyme is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the universal energy currency of cells. This nucleotide is used to ... "Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Uses a Modified Mevalonate Pathway for Biosynthesis of Isopentenyl Diphosphate". J Bacteriol. 188 ... sequential addition of monosaccharides by glycosyltransferase from a reactive sugar-phosphate donor such as uridine diphosphate ...
Biomolecules | Free Full-Text | Strategies for the Use of Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors in...  Biomolecules | Free Full-Text | Strategies for the Use of Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors in...
... adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have offered patients carrying cancers with mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 ... Strategies for the Use of Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy. Cecilia E. Ström. ... Treatments with Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have offered patients carrying cancers with ... Ström, C.E.; Helleday, T. Strategies for the Use of Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors in Cancer ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/2218-273X/2/4/635
Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors -Pipeline Insights, 2015 | Global Market Research Reports  Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors -Pipeline Insights, 2015 | Global Market Research Reports
... provides the in-depth analysis of the pipeline assets across the Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) ... Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors- Pipeline Insights, 2015, ... Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors Assessment by Molecule Type • Poly Adenosine Diphosphate ( ... Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors Assessment by Molecule Type • Poly Adenosine Diphosphate ( ...
more infohttp://www.gosreports.com/poly-adenosine-diphosphate-adp-ribose-polymerase-parp-inhibitors-pipeline-insights-2015/
Impact of Prasugrel Reload Dosing Regimens on High On-Treatment Platelet Reactivity Rates in Patients on Maintenance Prasugrel...  Impact of Prasugrel Reload Dosing Regimens on High On-Treatment Platelet Reactivity Rates in Patients on Maintenance Prasugrel...
adenosine diphosphate. HPR. high on-treatment platelet reactivity. LTA. light transmission aggregometry. MPA. maximal platelet ... 2010) Consensus and future directions on the definition of high on-treatment platelet reactivity to adenosine diphosphate. J Am ... using 5 and 20 μmol/l adenosine diphosphate (ADP) as stimuli. In the present analysis, established cutoff points that have been ...
more infohttp://interventions.onlinejacc.org/content/6/2/182
The platelet surface expression of glycoprotein V is regulated by two  by Alan D. Michelson, Stephen E. Benoit et al.  "The platelet surface expression of glycoprotein V is regulated by two " by Alan D. Michelson, Stephen E. Benoit et al.
Actins; Adenosine Diphosphate; Adult; Amino Acid Sequence; Blood Platelets; Calcium; Cathepsins; Cell Compartmentation; Cell ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/292/
Livestock Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Adenosine (LMDB00019)  Livestock Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Adenosine (LMDB00019)
For instance, adenosine plays an important role in energy transfer - as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate ... Adenosine. Description. Adenosine is a nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives ... When administered intravenously, adenosine causes transient heart block in the AV node. Because of the effects of adenosine on ... ADP). It also plays a role in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP. Adenosine itself is both a ...
more infohttp://lmdb.ca/metabolites/LMDB00019
Effects of in vitro hemodilution of canine blood on platelet function analysis using the PFA-100 | IslandScholar  Effects of in vitro hemodilution of canine blood on platelet function analysis using the PFA-100 | IslandScholar
CT was determined in duplicate on the PFA-100 using collagen/adenosine-5'-diphosphate cartridges. RESULTS: Compared with the ...
more infohttp://www.islandscholar.ca/islandora/object/ir:252
Adenosine diphosphate - Wikipedia  Adenosine diphosphate - Wikipedia
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5' carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1' carbon ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_diphosphate
Adenosine diphosphate - wikidoc  Adenosine diphosphate - wikidoc
Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleotide adenine. ADP ... monophosphates (AMP, GMP, UMP, CMP) , diphosphates (ADP, GDP, UDP, CDP) , triphosphates (ATP, GTP, UTP, CTP) , cyclic (cAMP, ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... Adenosine/Deoxyadenosine , Guanosine/Deoxyguanosine , Uridine , Thymidine , Cytidine/Deoxycytidine Nucleotides: ...
more infohttps://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Adenosine_diphosphate
Adenosine diphosphate - Biology-Online Dictionary  Adenosine diphosphate - Biology-Online Dictionary
It is the end-product when adenosine triphosphate ATP loses one of its phosphate groups. The energy released in the process is ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Adenosine_diphosphate&oldid=101671" ... Adenosine diphosphate. From Biology-Online Dictionary. (Redirected from Adenosine Diphosphate ADP). Jump to: navigation, search ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Adenosine_Diphosphate_ADP
Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars
     Summary Report | CureHunter  Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars Summary Report | CureHunter
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate. ... Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: 110. *Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: 3 ... Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: 110. *Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: 3 ... Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars. Subscribe to New Research on Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars Esters formed between the aldehydic ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD000247.do
Adenosine Diphosphate
      - ADP
     Summary Report | CureHunter  Adenosine Diphosphate - ADP Summary Report | CureHunter
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at ... Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP). Subscribe to New Research on Adenosine Diphosphate Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An ... Adenosine; ADP, Magnesium; Adenosine 5' Pyrophosphate; Diphosphate, Adenosine; Adenosine Pyrophosphate; Magnesium ADP; MgADP; ... 2',3' O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-diphosphate. *2',3'-(O-(2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexadienylidine))adenosine 5'-diphosphate ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD000244.do
Adenosine diphosphate | definition of adenosine diphosphate by Medical dictionary  Adenosine diphosphate | definition of adenosine diphosphate by Medical dictionary
What is adenosine diphosphate? Meaning of adenosine diphosphate medical term. What does adenosine diphosphate mean? ... Looking for online definition of adenosine diphosphate in the Medical Dictionary? adenosine diphosphate explanation free. ... adenosine diphosphate. see ADP.. adenosine triphosphate. ; ATP; adenosine diphosphate; ADP intracellular biochemicals; ATP ... Related to adenosine diphosphate: adenosine monophosphate. adenosine. [ah-den´o-sēn] 1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/adenosine+diphosphate
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose Cyclase - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org  Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose Cyclase - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose Cyclase. A Membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of Cyclic ADP-Ribose ( ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/adenosine-diphosphate-ribose-cyclase.html
Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood c | IJN  Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood c | IJN
... decorated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (ANPs) or fibrinogen (FNPs) were used to fabricate hemostatic NPs that can shorten ... Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood clotting times, influencing the structures and varying the ... Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood clotting times, influencing the structures and varying the ... Abstract: Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) decorated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (ANPs) or fibrinogen (FNPs) were used to ...
more infohttps://www.dovepress.com/adenosine-diphosphate-decorated-chitosan-nanoparticles-shorten-blood-c-peer-reviewed-article-IJN
Adenosine Diphosphate ELISA & Assay Kits  Adenosine Diphosphate ELISA & Assay Kits
Compare and order Adenosine Diphosphate ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. ... Search Adenosine Diphosphate ELISA Kits for other reactivities: Chicken,. Dog (Canine),. Pig (Porcine),. Wild boar (Sus scrofa ... Adenosine Diphosphate ELISA Kit. 32 products by 10 suppliers: Blue Gene , Cloud-Clone , Abbexa , Biovision , BioAssay Systems ... Images for product: Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) ELISA Kit Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) ELISA Kit ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/regulation-of-cell-size-pathway-78/adp-elisa-kit-13198/
Adenosine diphosphate ribose - Wikipedia  Adenosine diphosphate ribose - Wikipedia
Adenosine diphosphate ribose is an ester molecule formed into chains by the enzyme poly ADP ribose polymerase. It binds to and ... Adenosine diphosphate Ribose Fonfria E, Marshall IC, Benham CD, et al. (September 2004). "TRPM2 channel opening in response to ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_diphosphate_ribose
Adenosine diphosphate antagonist | Article about adenosine diphosphate antagonist by The Free Dictionary  Adenosine diphosphate antagonist | Article about adenosine diphosphate antagonist by The Free Dictionary
Find out information about adenosine diphosphate antagonist. 1. any muscle that opposes the action of another 2. a drug that ... counteracts the effects of another drug A molecule that bears sufficient structural... Explanation of adenosine diphosphate ... Related to adenosine diphosphate antagonist: adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist. antagonist. 1. any muscle that opposes ... Adenosine diphosphate antagonist , Article about adenosine diphosphate antagonist by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2. ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/adenosine+diphosphate+antagonist
RCSB PDB 









- 1E2F: Human thymidylate kinase complexed with thymidine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate and a...  RCSB PDB - 1E2F: Human thymidylate kinase complexed with thymidine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate and a...
ADENOSINE-5'-DIPHOSPHATE. C10 H15 N5 O10 P2 XTWYTFMLZFPYCI-KQYNXXCUSA-N ... Human thymidylate kinase complexed with thymidine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate and a magnesium-ion. *DOI: 10.2210/ ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/litView.do?structureId=1E2F
Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After...  Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After...
Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After ... Treatment with adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors-longitudinal assessment of treatment patterns and events after acute ... Early Cessation of Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Inhibitors Among Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients Treated With ... Factors Associated With Initial Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Receptor Inhibitor Selection at Enrollment [ Time Frame: Day 0 ( ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01088503?term=Stroke&lup_s=03%2F11%2F2013&lup_d=14&show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14&show_locs=Y
Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After...  Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After...
Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After ... Treatment with adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors-longitudinal assessment of treatment patterns and events after acute ... Early Cessation of Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Inhibitors Among Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients Treated With ... Factors Associated With Initial Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Receptor Inhibitor Selection at Enrollment [ Time Frame: Day 0 ( ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT01088503?term=angina&lup_s=03%2F27%2F2013&lup_d=14&show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14
Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase activity and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in differentiating cardiac muscle ...  Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase activity and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in differentiating cardiac muscle ...
Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase activity and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in differentiating cardiac muscle ... Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase activity and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in differentiating cardiac muscle ... Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase activity and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in differentiating cardiac muscle ... Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase activity and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in differentiating cardiac muscle ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/154/2/387
Adenosine-diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes...  Adenosine-diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes...
The use of adenosine-diphosphate receptor antagonists in patients with diabetes needs to be guided by the information available ... Adenosine-diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists are drugs which prevent the aggregation ('clumping') of platelets and ... Adenosine-diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes ... Adenosine-diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. ...
more infohttps://www.cochrane.org/CD005449/ENDOC_adenosine-diphosphate-adp-receptor-antagonists-for-the-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
Roles of Glia Limitans Astrocytes and Carbon Monoxide in Adenosine Diphosphate-Induced Pial Arteriolar Dilation in Newborn Pigs...  Roles of Glia Limitans Astrocytes and Carbon Monoxide in Adenosine Diphosphate-Induced Pial Arteriolar Dilation in Newborn Pigs...
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is an important signaling molecule in the brain, and dilation in response to ADP is astrocyte- ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a regulator of cerebral blood flow.18 ADP can produce endothelium-dependent cerebral ... Water-soluble adenosine 5′-diphosphate monosodium salt was purchased from Calbiochem. The HO inhibitor chromium mesoporphyrin ( ... Endothelium-dependent responses of cerebral arterioles to adenosine 5′-diphosphate. J Vasc Res. 1992; 29: 353-358. ...
more infohttp://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/40/3/930
British Library EThOS: Investigations into the genetic basis of platelet responsiveness to adenosine diphosphate and thrombin...  British Library EThOS: Investigations into the genetic basis of platelet responsiveness to adenosine diphosphate and thrombin...
Investigations into the genetic basis of platelet responsiveness to adenosine diphosphate and thrombin receptor activating ...
more infohttp://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.444830
  • We measured the respiratory control index (RCI) and the adenosine 5-diphosphate (ADP)/oxygen ratio as indicators of mitochondrial respiratory activity, as well as the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the mitochondria of fetal brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It employs one cofactor, thiamin diphosphate (TPP), and plays a key role in catabolism of oxalate, a highly toxic compound that is a product of the oxidation of carbohydrates in many bacteria and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) decorated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (ANPs) or fibrinogen (FNPs) were used to fabricate hemostatic NPs that can shorten blood clotting time and prevent severe local hemorrhage. (dovepress.com)