Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ADP binding and are coupled to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI. The P2Y12 purinergic receptors are found in PLATELETS where they play an important role regulating PLATELET ACTIVATION.
Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2Y RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2Y receptor subtypes.
Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.
An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC
An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored.
Retraction of a clot resulting from contraction of PLATELET pseudopods attached to FIBRIN strands. The retraction is dependent on the contractile protein thrombosthenin. Clot retraction is used as a measure of platelet function.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
A phospholipid from the platelet membrane that contributes to the blood clotting cascade by forming a phospholipid-protein complex (THROMBOPLASTIN) which serves as a cofactor with FACTOR VIIA to activate FACTOR X in the extrinsic pathway of BLOOD COAGULATION.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.
A family of nucleotide diphosphate kinases that play a role in a variety of cellular signaling pathways that effect CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS. They are considered multifunctional proteins that interact with a variety of cellular proteins and have functions that are unrelated to their enzyme activity.
The parent cells that give rise to cells in the MEGAKARYOCYTE lineage, and ultimately BLOOD PLATELETS.
Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC
Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate from trans, trans-farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.
A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.
A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CELL NUCLEUS.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.
A congenital bleeding disorder with prolonged bleeding time, absence of aggregation of platelets in response to most agents, especially ADP, and impaired or absent clot retraction. Platelet membranes are deficient in or have a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
Cytidine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonyms: CRPP; cytidine pyrophosphate.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.
An inosine nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.
A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.
The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.
A strong oxidizing agent.
A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.
A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Mentha is a genus of the mint family (LAMIACEAE). It is known for species having characteristic flavor and aroma.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.

Inhibitory innervation of cat sphincter of Oddi. (1/6000)

1 Electrical stimulation with trains of 0.1-0.2 ms pulses of the cat isolated sphincter of Oddi inhibited the spontaneous contractile activity and lowered base-line tension considerably. A contraction usually followed the period of stimulation. 2 These inhibitory effects were prevented by tetrodotoxin 0.1-0.5 mug/ml but were not reduced by hexamethonilm, morphine, or blockade of alpha- or beta-adrenoreceptors of cholinoceptors with phenoxy-benzamine propranolol or atropine, respectively. 3 Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) inhibited the spontaneous sphincter activity and caused relaxation thus mimicking the effects of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (C8-CCK), isoprenaline and prostaglandin E1 and E2. 4 ATP alone (greater than 100 mug/ml) or ATP (greater than 10 mug/ml) plus dipyridamole (1 mug/ml), relaxed the sphincter to the same degrees as did the field stimulation. 5 In sphincter maximally contracted by acetylcholine, the effect of stimulation was more marked than that recorded in uncontracted preparations. 6 The present findings suggest that the sphincter of Oddi receives inhibitory nerves that are neither cholinergic nor adrenergic.  (+info)

Conformational changes generated in GroEL during ATP hydrolysis as seen by time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. (2/6000)

Changes in the vibrational spectrum of the chaperonin GroEL in the presence of ADP and ATP have been followed as a function of time using rapid scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The interaction of nucleotides with GroEL was triggered by the photochemical release of the ligands from their corresponding biologically inactive precursors (caged nucleotides; P3-1-(2-nitro)phenylethyl nucleotide). Binding of either ADP or ATP induced the appearance of small differential signals in the amide I band of the protein, sensitive to protein secondary structure, suggesting a subtle and localized change in protein conformation. Moreover, conformational changes associated with ATP hydrolysis were detected that differed markedly from those observed upon nucleotide binding. Both, high-amplitude absorbance changes and difference bands attributable to modifications in the interaction between oppositely charged residues were observed during ATP hydrolysis. Once this process had occurred, the protein relaxed to an ADP-like conformation. Our results suggest that the secondary structure as well as salt bridges of GroEL are modified during ATP hydrolysis, as compared with the ATP and ADP bound protein states.  (+info)

Magnesium ion-induced changes in the binding mode of adenylates to chloroplast coupling factor 1. (3/6000)

The effect of Mg2+ on the binding of adenylates to isolated chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF1) was studied using CD spectrometry and ultrafiltration. At adenylate concentrations smaller than 100 muM, one mole of CF1 binds three moles of ATP (or ADP) regardless of the presence of Mg2+. In the presence of Mg2+, the first two ATP's bind to CF1 independently with the same binding constant of 2.5 X 10(-1) muM-1, then the third ATP binds with a much higher affinity of 10 muM-1. In the absence of Mg2+, the first ATP binds to CF1 with a binding constant of 2.5 X 10(-1) muM-1 then the other two ATP's bind less easily with the same binding constant of 4.0 X 10(-2) muM-1. The binding mode of ADP to CF1 is quite similar to that of ATP. In the presence of Mg2+, the binding constants of the first two ADP's are both 7.6 X 10(-2) muM-1, that of the third ADP being 4.0 muM-1. In the absence of Mg2+, the binding constant of the first ADP is 7.6 X 10(-2) muM-1, the constants of the other two ADP's both being 4.0 X 10(-2) muM-1. AMP caused a negligible change in CD.  (+info)

Mutations of Arg198 in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase cause inhibition of hydrolysis of the phosphoenzyme intermediate formed from inorganic phosphate. (4/6000)

Arg198 of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase was substituted with lysine, glutamine, glutamic acid, alanine, and isoleucine by site-directed mutagenesis. Kinetic analysis was performed with microsomal membranes isolated from COS-1 cells which were transfected with the mutated cDNAs. The rate of dephosphorylation of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme was determined by first phosphorylating the Ca2+-ATPase with 32Pi and then diluting the sample with non-radioactive Pi. This rate was reduced substantially in the mutant R198Q, more strongly in the mutants R198A and R1981, and most strongly in the mutant R198E, but to a much lesser extent in R198K. The reduction in the rate of dephosphorylation was consistent with the observed decrease in the turnover rate of the Ca2+-ATPase accompanied by the steady-state accumulation of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme formed from ATP. These results indicate that the positive charge and high hydrophilicity of Arg198 are critical for rapid hydrolysis of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme.  (+info)

Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase. (5/6000)

Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations.  (+info)

Depolarization-evoked Ca2+ release in a non-excitable cell, the rat megakaryocyte. (6/6000)

1. The effect of membrane potential on [Ca2+]i in rat megakaryocytes was studied using simultaneous whole-cell patch clamp and fura-2 fluorescence recordings. 2. Depolarization from -75 to 0 mV had no effect on [Ca2+]i in unstimulated cells, but evoked one or more spikes of Ca2+ increase (peak increase: 714 +/- 95 nM) during activation of metabotropic purinoceptors by 1 microM ADP. 3. The depolarization-evoked Ca2+ increase was present in Ca2+-free medium and also following removal of Na+. Thus depolarization mobilizes Ca2+ from an intracellular store without a requirement for altered Na+-Ca2+ exchange activity. 4. Intracellular dialysis with heparin blocked the depolarization-evoked Ca2+ increase, indicating a role for functional IP3 receptors. 5. Under current clamp, ADP caused the membrane potential to fluctuate between -43 +/- 1 and -76 +/- 1 mV. Under voltage clamp, depolarization from -75 to -45 mV evoked a transient [Ca2+]i increase (398 +/- 91 nM) during exposure to ADP. 6. We conclude that during stimulation of metabotropic purinoceptors, membrane depolarization over the physiological range can stimulate Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in the rat megakaryocyte, a non-excitable cell type. This may represent an important mechanism by which electrogenic influences can control patterns of [Ca2+]i increase.  (+info)

Platelet aggregation and incident ischaemic heart disease in the Caerphilly cohort. (7/6000)

BACKGROUND: Platelets are involved in myocardial infarction but evidence of prediction of infarction by measures of platelet function are sparce. METHODS: Platelet aggregation to thrombin and to ADP in platelet rich plasma was recorded for 2176 men aged 49-65 years in the Caerphilly cohort study. RESULTS: Results from 364 men were excluded, 80 of whom had not fasted before venepuncture; most of the others were excluded because antiplatelet medication had been taken shortly before the platelet tests. During the five years following the platelet tests 113 ischaemic heart disease (IHD) events which fulfilled the World Health Organisation criteria were identified--42 fatal and 71 non-fatal. No measure of platelet aggregation was found to be significantly predictive of incident IHD. The possibility that platelet function is predictive for only a limited time after it is characterised, and that prediction falls off with time, was tested. When IHD events are grouped by their time of occurrence after aggregation had been measured, the test results show a gradient suggestive of prediction of early IHD events. Thus, 24% of the men who had an event within 500 days of the test had had a high secondary response to ADP while only 12% of those whose IHD event had been 1000 or more days after the test had shown a high platelet response at baseline. The trend in these proportions is not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet aggregation to thrombin and ADP in platelet rich plasma was recorded in the Caerphilly cohort study. No measure of aggregation was found to be predictive of IHD.  (+info)

Binding of the transition state analog MgADP-fluoroaluminate to F1-ATPase. (8/6000)

Escherichia coli F1-ATPase from mutant betaY331W was potently inhibited by fluoroaluminate plus MgADP but not by MgADP alone. beta-Trp-331 fluorescence was used to measure MgADP binding to catalytic sites. Fluoroaluminate induced a very large increase in MgADP binding affinity at catalytic site one, a smaller increase at site two, and no effect at site three. Mutation of either of the critical catalytic site residues beta-Lys-155 or beta-Glu-181 to Gln abolished the effects of fluoroaluminate on MgADP binding. The results indicate that the MgADP-fluoroaluminate complex is a transition state analog and independently demonstrate that residues beta-Lys-155 and (particularly) beta-Glu-181 are important for generation and stabilization of the catalytic transition state. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-inhibited enzyme, with 1% residual steady-state ATPase, showed normal transition state formation as judged by fluoroaluminate-induced MgADP binding affinity changes, consistent with a proposed mechanism by which dicyclohexylcarbodiimide prevents a conformational interaction between catalytic sites but does not affect the catalytic step per se. The fluorescence technique should prove valuable for future transition state studies of F1-ATPase.  (+info)

The effect of long-chain acyl-CoA on subcellular adenine nucleotide systems was studied in the intact liver cell. Long-chain acyl-CoA content was varied by varying the nutritional state (fed and starved states) or by addition of oleate. Starvation led to an increase in the mitochondrial and a decrease in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio in liver both in vivo and in the isolated perfused organ as compared with the fed state. The changes were reversed on re-feeding glucose in liver in vivo or on infusion of substrates (glucose, glycerol) in the perfused liver, respectively. Similar changes in mitochondrial and cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios occurred on addition of oleate, but, importantly, not with a short-chain fatty acid such as octanoate. It is concluded that long-chain acyl-CoA exerts an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocation in the intact cell, as was previously postulated in the literature from data obtained with isolated mitochondria. The physiological relevance with ...
Definition of adenosine diphosphate in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is adenosine diphosphate? Meaning of adenosine diphosphate as a finance term. What does adenosine diphosphate mean in finance?
1NY3: Catalytically active MAP KAP kinase 2 structures in complex with staurosporine and ADP reveal differences with the autoinhibited enzyme
Structures of ATP- and ADP-bound NSFa, Side-view of ATP-bound NSF. b, Side-view ofADP-bound NSF. The six protomer chains are rainbow colored counterclockwise ba
Difference Between ATP And ADP. Youll read what is ATP, what is ADP, what is the main difference between ATP and ADP, and a comparison between ADP vs ATP.
个人简历. 2004年获博士学位,现为遗传与细胞研究所教授、博士生导师。2008-2010年在美国德克萨斯大学医学分校进行博士后研究。2012-2013年在美国德克萨斯大学医学分校进行国际合作研究。多年来从事炎症的信号转导及基因表达调控机制研究。包括两个主要研究方向:1)DNA氧化损伤修复过程偶联基因转录及天然免疫病理发展的分子机制;2)蛋白质的多聚ADP核糖化(PAR化)对基因表达调控的影响、参与炎性疾病病理发展的机制。共发表SCI论文40余篇。主持在研自然科学基金面上项目课题1项,吉林省科技厅自然科学基金1项,及国际合作基金1项。主持完成自然科学基金面上项目课题1项,参加完成自然科学基金面上项目课题1项,参加国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(973)项目2项。学习经历: 1986年--1990年:东北师范大学 生命科学学院 生物学专业 学士 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacterial DNA supercoiling and [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. T2 - Changes associated with salt shock. AU - Hsieh, L. S.. AU - Rouviere-Yaniv, J.. AU - Drlica, K.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - When Escherichia coli K-12 was shifted from a medium lacking salt to one containing 0.5 M NaCl, both the [ATP]/[ADP] ratio and negative supercoiling of plasmid DNA increased within a few minutes. After about 10 min both declined, eventually reaching a level slightly above that observed with cells growing exponentially in the absence of salt. Since in vitro the [ATP]/[ADP] ratio influences the level of supercoiling generated by gyrase (H. Westerhoff, M. ODea, A. Maxwell, and M. Gellert, Cell Biophys. 12:157-181, 1988), the physiological response of supercoiling to salt shock is most easily explained by the sensitivity of gyrase to changes in the intracellular [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. This raises the possibility that the [ATP]/[ADP] ratio is an important factor in the control of supercoiling.. AB - When ...
Comparison of platelet fibronectin, ADP-induced platelet aggregation and serum total nitric oxide (NOx) levels in angiographically determined coronary artery disease ...
The TReatment with ADP receptor iNhibitorS: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events after Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRANSLATE-ACS) study is a prospective, observational longitudinal study to evaluate the real world effectiveness and use of prasugrel and other ADP receptor inhibitor therapies among myocardial infarction (MI) participants treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during the index hospitalization. Participant management and treatment decisions are at the discretion of the care team per routine clinical practice. Approximately 17,000 participants will be enrolled at approximately 350 sites in the United States. Follow-up will be conducted through 15 months in approximately 15,650 participants.. TRANSLATE-ACS will complement the results of both randomized controlled clinical trials and current registries in addressing the real world treatment patterns and clinical outcomes for MI participants managed with PCI and initiated on ADP receptor inhibitor ...
Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5-position.
Adenosine diphosphate (or ADP) is the chemical that plants make ATP from, during photosynthesis. A chemical compound that can be converted to ATP with the addition of one phosphate group. ...
The only disclosure restriction on the PI is that the sponsor can review results communications prior to public release and can embargo communications regarding trial results for a period that is more than 60 days but less than or equal to 180 days. The sponsor cannot require changes to the communication and cannot extend the embargo ...
米酵菌酸的毒性很強。其抑制ADP/ATP轉運酶(英语:ADP/ATP translocase)(又稱粒線體ADP/ATP載體)的作用,使粒線體合成的ATP無法離開粒線體,因而未能提供細胞其他部份的能量[8]。2019年發現了米酵菌酸和ADP/ATP轉運酶的結合結構,顯示米酵菌酸鍵結於轉運酶的受質結合處,使得粒線體基質內的ATP無法與轉運酶結合[9]。 ...
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Synonyms for ADP in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for ADP. 2 synonyms for ADP: adenosine diphosphate, automatic data processing. What are synonyms for ADP?
The second mechanism of respiratory control (allosteric ATP-inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO)) is demonstrated for the first time in intact isolated rat liver and heart mitochondria. The problems of measuring the kinetics of allosteric ATP-inhibition in isolated mitochondria were investigated. And it was found that only at very high ATP/ADP ratios, this inhibition is obtained and requires an ATP-regenerating system consisting of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and pyruvate kinase (PK). The allosteric ATP-inhibition can be switched off probably by dephosphorylation of a serine at CcO subunit-I. The phosphorylation of CcO at serine, threonine and tyrosine was studied in isolated mitochondria by extracting complex IV of the respiratory chain (CcO) by BN-PAGE (blue-nativepolyacrylamide- gel-electrophoresis), SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with the corresponding antibodies against the phosphorylated amino acids. The extent of allosteric ATP-inhibition of CcO varied in different preparations of ...
Information on Middlesex University's Research Repository: a online collection of Middlesex University's research outputs
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View Notes - W3OutlineLec7 from BIOL D103 at UC Irvine. • Thymosin-Beta4 Sequesters ATP-actin Have plenty of ATP-actin BUTbut it would be
|Mechanism for increasing muscle endurance via the small molecules AICARAICAR is a nucleoside that is taken up into muscle and converted into the nucleotide ZMP, which mimics the effects of the natural ligand, 5-AMP, on AMPK. The latter is produced by adenylate kinase acting on ADP generated from ATP during muscle contraction. Activated AMPK in…
Interested in using Martini for ADP or ATP with actin?. The attached .zip -file contains topologies for ADP, ATP as well as ADP-actin and ATP-actin systems. PDB files are provided for ADP- and ATP-actin, as well as the F-actin strand. As an added bonus, theres a short bash script which allows the user to build fibers of arbitrary lengths from one of the PDB files (2zwh.pdb).. Download the files here!. ...
ADP can be replaced by GDP, ATP and GTP, to a limited extent. Divalent cations are necessary for activity, with Mg2+ followed by Co2+ being the most effective ...
LG Get product support for the LG T1603ADP5. Download T1603ADP5 manuals, documents, and software. View T1603ADP5 warranty information and schedule services.
At ADP, we believe that differences are what make us a stronger, smarter, more successful organization, and we believe the same to be true in our communities.
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鈉鉀泵可以將細胞外相對細胞内較低濃度的鉀離子送進細胞,並將細胞内相對細胞外較低濃度的鈉離子送出細胞。經由以具放射性的鈉、鉀離子標定,可以發現鈉、鉀離子都會經過這個通道,鈉、鉀離子的濃度在細胞膜兩側也都是相互依賴的,所以顯示了鈉、鉀離子都可以經過這個載體運輸。目前已知鈉鉀泵需消耗ATP,並可以將三個鈉離子送出細胞,同時將兩個鉀離子送進細胞。 鈉鉀泵在1950年被丹麥的科學家延斯·斯科(Jens Skou)發現,它代表了我們對離子進出細胞的認識的一個重要的里程碑。它也在細胞刺激上有著重要的意義,像神經細胞的衝動,就是用鈉鉀泵幫助維持細胞電位使神經衝動得以傳輸。 ...
鈉鉀泵可以將細胞外相對細胞内較低濃度的鉀離子送進細胞,並將細胞内相對細胞外較低濃度的鈉離子送出細胞。經由以具放射性的鈉、鉀離子標定,可以發現鈉、鉀離子都會經過這個通道,鈉、鉀離子的濃度在細胞膜兩側也都是相互依賴的,所以顯示了鈉、鉀離子都可以經過這個載體運輸。目前已知鈉鉀泵需消耗ATP,並可以將三個鈉離子送出細胞,同時將兩個鉀離子送進細胞。 鈉鉀泵在1950年被丹麥的科學家延斯·斯科(Jens Skou)發現,它代表了我們對離子進出細胞的認識的一個重要的里程碑。它也在細胞刺激上有著重要的意義,像神經細胞的衝動,就是用鈉鉀泵幫助維持細胞電位使神經衝動得以傳輸。 ...
அடினோசின் முப்பொசுபேற்று அல்லது அடினோசின் முப்பாசுப்பேட்டு (Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) என்பது அனைத்து உயிரினங்களின் கலங்களிலும் பயன்படுத்தப்படும் ஒரு முக்கியமான துணை நொதியமாகும். இது உயிரினங்களில் சக்திக்கான அளவீடாக உள்ளது. கலத்துக்கிடையில் அனுசேபத்துக்காக சக்தியை இடம் மாற்றும் முக்கியமான மூலக்கூறாக அடினோசின் முப்பொசுபேற்று விளங்குகின்றது. ஒளித்தொகுப்பு, காற்றுள்ள சுவாசம் ...
BioAssay record AID 336312 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiplatelet activity against bovine citreated platelet assessed as inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation up to 278 ug/ml after 6 mins.
flects ATP hydrolysis. This reduction is accompanied by a rise of intracellular ADP content and a decrease in ATP/ADP ratio, respectively. However, in parallel with the ongoing slight reduction of intracellular ATP level, the intracellular AMP content gradually raises. The regulatory significance of ATP/ADP ratio gradually decreases and becomes replaced by the control of ATP synthesis through the ATP/AMP ratio. At the last stage of hypoxia, when a linear decrease in ATP content is observed, the regulatory role of ATP/ADP and ATP/AMP ratios becomes minimal, and total adenine nucleotides plus energetic charges decrease [3,9]. The hypoxia-induced changes in adenine nucleotides pool resulting from disturbed electron flow and oxidative phosphorylation reactions precede changes in other functional and metabolic parameters responsible for the cell vital activity. Contrastingly, the compensatory role of glycolysis as an ATP supplier is effective only in early hypoxia. During the terminal period, despite ...
The effect of MgADP on the sarcomere length (SL) dependence of tension generation was investigated using skinned rat ventricular trabeculae. Increasing SL from 1.9 to 2.3 microm decreased the muscle width by approximately 11% and shifted the midpoint of the pCa-tension relationship (pCa(50)) leftward by about 0.2 pCa units. MgADP (0.1, 1, and 5 mmol/L) augmented maximal and submaximal Ca(2+)-activated tension and concomitantly diminished the SL-dependent shift of pCa(50) in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, pimobendan, a Ca(2+) sensitizer, which promotes Ca(2+) binding to troponin C (TnC), exhibited no effect on the SL-dependent shift of pCa(50), suggesting that TnC does not participate in the modulation of SL-dependent tension generation by MgADP. At a SL of 1. 9 microm, osmotic compression, produced by 5% wt/vol dextran (molecular weight approximately 464 000), reduced the muscle width by approximately 13% and shifted pCa(50) leftward to a similar degree as that observed when increasing
PAIVA NOVAES, Myriam Stella de; FERREIRA, F. D; NICOLAU, J. Adenine nucleotide contents and atpases activities in porcine deciduous dental pulp during the root formation, fully formed root and root resorption phases. Journal de Biologie Buccale, Paris, v. 17, p. 187-92, 1989 ...
13 sentence examples: 1. Adenosine diphosphate is one of the most important mediators of both physiological hemostasis and thrombosis. 2. Method Platelet aggregation was induced by adenosine diphosphate ( ADP ) in rabbits. 3. ADP ( adenosine diphosph
To compare the newer inductor of platelet aggregation cationic propyl gallate (CPG) with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) for the examination of aspirin (ASA) effectivity with optical aggregometry. In total,116 patients were prospectively enrolled with a stable cardiovascular disease, taking ASA 100 mg/day for |or=1 month. The control group consisted of 62 healthy volunteers. A platelet aggregation was investigated by optical aggregometry (aggregometer LASER 4x; BIO ART, Sint-Katelijne-Waver, Belgium). CPG and ADP were added as aggregating agents. The measured parameters were CPG-slope (%/min) and ADP max (%). Using the CPG-slope values from the control group, the CPG-slope cut-off value was determined to define a laboratory ASA-noneffectively treated patient. The values from control group followed a normal distribution (Shapiro-Wilk test). We calculated the cut-off value using the 1-tailed 95% confidence interval. The CPG-slope cut-off value was 79 %/min for an ASA-effectively treated patient. We marked the
The human body is powered, essentially, by a substance called Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). This substance is regarded as the energy unit of life. To use this energy source to, for example, contract a muscle, ATP is converted to Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP), resulting in a release of energy. Over time, ADP can be converted back into ADT using the energy obtained from food. ATP can be regarded as the charged state, and ADP can be regarded as the discharged state of a battery.. This process could be used in two ways.. Firstly, it may be possible to create an Organic Battery which converts chemical energy from this process into electrical energy. I found THIS link which seems to indicate that some work is already being done on this process. The only questions would be regarding how small such a power source could be, how efficient the energy transfer would be, and how the battery could be recharged in real-world conditions. This could potentially solve a difficult engineering problem, ...
Intravenous and oral administration of a chemically stable carboprostacyclin analogue, 15-cyclopentyl-ω-pentanor-5(E)-carbacyclin (ONO 41483), resulted in ex-vivo inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation in man. The maximum tolerated intravenous dose was 2.5 ng/kg/min for 1 hour and this produced a mean of 27.1% inhibition in 3 volunteers. For oral administration the tolerated single dose was 200 μg. At this dose, there was 56.3% inhibition of aggregation (mean of 3 results). High oral (400 μg) and intravenous doses (5 and 10 ng/kg/min for 1 hour) of ONO 41483, which caused marked inhibition of aggregation (ranging 39-100%), was accompanied by flushing of face and extremities, headache and phlebitis. However, none of the doses tested produced significant changes in arterial blood pressure or heart rate ...
Approach and Results-Our goal is to determine whether a novel antibody targeting the ligand-binding domain, ie, second extracellular loop (EL2) of the P2Y1R (EL2Ab) could inhibit platelet function and protect against thrombogenesis. Our results revealed that the EL2Ab does indeed inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EL2Ab was found to inhibit integrin GPIIb-IIIa activation, dense and α granule secretion, and phosphatidylserine exposure. These inhibitory effects translated into protection against thrombus formation, as evident by a prolonged time for occlusion in a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, but this was accompanied by a prolonged tail bleeding time. We also observed a dose-dependent displacement of the radiolabeled P2Y1R antagonist [3H]MRS2500 from its ligand-binding site by EL2Ab. ...
Dive into the research topics of Effect of ionic strength on the conformation of myosin subfragment 1-nucleotide complexes. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Summary: In Dugesia tigrina, complex I and the ADP phosphorylation system are involved in the loss of oxidative phosphorylation capacity when temperature decreases. These steps are able to adjust following cold acclimation, allowing the animals to occupy a wide thermal range. ...
PDRP is an unusual bifunctional ADP-dependent phosphotransferase involved in the regulation of C4 plant photosynthesis. Despite thirty years of research since its discovery, biophysical, kinetic, and structural characterisations have remained elusive. The discovery of a homologous protein (YdiA) in E. coli provides an unparalleled opportunity to obtain such characterisations. For the first time, YdiA has been cloned, overexpressed, and the biophysical characteristics have been determined. The protein was found to be dimeric by gel filtration, native-PAGE, and AUC. ITC was used to characterise binding affinity for the putative substrates. The protein binds in a largely temperature and pH-independent manner to ADP, AMP, phosphate, and pyrophosphate, in the uM range, with KdS of \.24 ± 0. 76, 5.23 ± l.l0, 15.54 ± 4.30, and 24.18 ± 2.70 respectively. The putative macromolecular substrate, PPS, was cloned, overexpressed, and characterised. This substrate was found to be dimeric at high ...
BioAssay record AID 54289 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested at 1 nM for the inhibition of ADP-induced (20 uM) platelet aggregation in bovine seminal vesicle microsomes; NI=No inhibition.
The primary role of creatine is recharging ATP, by donating a phosphate ion to the ADP molecule. Muscle fibres generate tension by cutting off a phosphate group from ATP (charged form), turning it into ADP (uncharged from).. Three energy systems provide energy to recharge ADP back into ATP: the ATP-phosphocreatine system, the lactic acid system and the aerobic system. The percentage each energy system contributes depends on the intensity and duration of the activity.. The ATP-phosphocreatine system is the major energy provider for high-intense, explosive actions. This system is limited however by the amount of phosphocreatine that is stored in the muscles. After approximately 10 seconds of high-intense activity all the phosphocreatine is depleted and the ATP-phosphocreatine system can no longer contribute to energy production (recharging ADP into ATP) until it is replenished (approximately 3 minutes of rest). The power output drops when phosphocreatine levels in the muscle cells gets depleted, ...
article{, author = {仲澤, 幹雄}, issue = {3}, journal = {新潟医学会雑誌, 新潟医学会雑誌}, month = {Mar}, note = {In the ischemia of isolated perfused hearts, heart ceased its beating within 10min and creatine phosphate (CP) rapidly disappeared. ATP was decreased and disappeared around at 20min of ischemia. Intracellular pH was decreased from 7.2 to 6.0 until 20min of ischemia and sustained this value during the ischemic period. If the heart was reperfused at 15 min after ischemia, CP was recovered completely but, because of the loss of total adenine nucleotide contents, ATP was not. Intracellular Na^+ content was increased during ischemia and it is believed that this Na^+, in turn, increases Ca ...
A Calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the Hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and Diphosphates. EC ...
Chapter 13 - ATP Hydrolysis as a source of energy The molecular details of ATP hydrolysis - ΔG when ATP is split into ADP and P - Motors move along a ΔG gradient - Motors move faster with higher [ATP] - Structure of ATP and the hydrolysis reaction - At least 8 distinct states are involved in motor stepping - Case study: the complete ATP hydrolysis cycle of Myosin II ...
Energy for this comes from ATP, the energy source of the cell. ATP binds to the cross bridges between myosin heads and actin filaments. The release of energy powers the swiveling of the myosin head. Muscles store little ATP and so must continuously recycle the discharged adenosine diphosphate molecule (ADP) into ATP rapidly. Muscle tissue also contains a stored supply of a fast acting recharge chemical, creatine phosphate which can assist initially producing the rapid regeneration of ADP into ATP ...
The difficulties encountered in the crystallization of membrane proteins in a form suitable for X-ray analysis have stimulated the development of algorithms to predict, from primary amino acid...
Immobilized Nucleotides for Affinity Chromatography Affinity Chromatography Kits for Adenosine Nucleotide binding Proteins Affinity Kit Components
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A method for forming a MEMS device is disclosed, where a final release step is performed just prior to a wafer bonding step to protect the MEMS device from contamination, physical contact, or other deleterious external events. Without additional changes to the MEMS structure between release and wafer bonding and singulation, except for an optional stiction treatment, the MEMS device is best protected and overall process flow is improved. The method is applicable to the production of any MEMS device and is particularly beneficial in the making of fragile micromirrors.
PA3467U-1ACA , PA3396U-1ACA,PA3165U-1ACA / PA3380E-1ACA / PA3380U-1ACA / PA3396E-1ACA / PA3432E-1AC3 / PA3432E-1ACA / PA3432U-1AC3 / PA3432U-1ACA / PA3467E / PA3467E-1ACA / PA3467U-1ACA / PA3468E / PA3468E-1ACA / PA3468U / PA3468U-1ACA/ PA3467 / PA3467U / SADP-65KB PA-1500-02 / PA-1600-01 / PA-1600-02 / PA-1650-1601 PA-1650-01 / PA-1650-02 / PA-1700-02 / PA-1750-01 / PA-1750 -04 / PA-1900-15 / 6500767/6500920 / 0335C1965 / 0220A1990 P / N 2521997/5534 / ADP45CB / 10244/102458/102918/103310/103739/103905/103907/105926/105927/105928 / ACE83-110087-3100 / ACE83-110114-7000 / ACE83-110114-7100 / ACE83-110128-0200. A000001200 / A000001210 / A000007020 / A000007030 / ACC10 / ADP-65DB / ADP-65HB / ADP-75FB-A / ADT-W61 / API1AD43 / K000000550 / K000004120 / K000005050 / K000019570 / K000025320 / K000027270 / K000029300 / K000032420 / K000032580 / K000040250 / K000040270 / K000040290 / K000040460 / K000041670 / K000042840 / K000043680 / SADP - 65KB / SADP-65KBB / V000055210 / V000055400 / V000061300 / ...
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Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
1H8E: Structure of Bovine Mitochondrial F1-ATPase with Nucleotide Bound to All Three Catalytic Sites: Implications for the Mechanism of Rotary Catalysis
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n-benzyladenosine 5-(trihydrogen diphosphate) (C17H21N5O10P2) from the PQR.
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Effect of Qter® treatment on ATP, protein content and cell growth in H9c2 cells.H9c2 cells were treated up to 72 hours with 100 nM Qter® and the ATP content w
Adenosine diphosphate (or ADP) is the chemical that plants make ATP from, during photosynthesis. A chemical compound that can ... Retrieved from "" ...
... adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, ... Ghosh HP, Preiss J (1966). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. A regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis of starch ... I. Purification and properties of the adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase of Arthrobacter species NRRL B1973". J. Biol ... diphosphate + ADP-glucose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, whereas its two ...
i) Adenosine DiPhosphate. *Army Doctrine Publication (UK, Canada, Australia). *Automatic/Automated Data Processing ...
Dowler MJ, Nakada HI (1968). "Yeast phosphoramidate-adenosine diphosphate phosphotransferase". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (7): 1434-40 ... Other names in common use include phosphoramidate-adenosine diphosphate phosphotransferase, and phosphoramidate-ADP- ...
doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)89846-5. Vignais, Pierre V.; Vignais, Paulette M.; Defaye, Genevieve (2002). "Adenosine diphosphate ...
doi:10.1016/0926-6569(64)90337-2. Passeron S, Recondo E, Dankert M (1964). "Biosynthesis of adenosine diphosphate D-hexoses". ... Dankert M, Goncalves IR, Recondo E (1964). "Adenosine diphosphate glucose: orthophosphate adenylyltransferase in wheat germ". ... adenosine diphosphate glucose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase, and ADP:aldose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. ... Other names in common use include sugar-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, ADPaldose phosphorylase, adenosine diphosphosugar ...
The building blocks of ATP synthesis are the by-products of its breakdown; adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate ... Those processes convert energy into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the form suitable for muscular activity. There are ...
This enzyme is also called adenosine diphosphate phosphoglycerate phosphatase. Zancan GT, Recondo EF, Leloir LF (1964). " ... "Enzymic dephosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate phosphoglyceric acid". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 92: 125-131. doi:10.1016/0926 ...
"Adenosine Diphosphate as an Intracellular Regulator of Insulin Secretion". Science. 272 (5269): 1785-7. doi:10.1126/science. ... Nichols, C. G.; Lederer, W. J. (1991). "Adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in the cardiovascular system". The ...
"Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectra of adenosine diphosphate and triphosphate. I. Effect of PH". The Journal of Biological ... She was a pioneer in the use of nuclear magnetic resonance for studying enzyme reactions, particularly in Adenosine ... "Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of adenosine di- and triphosphate. II. Effect of complexing with divalent metal ions". The ...
... adenosine diphosphate ribose) with histones". Biochemistry. 31 (5): 1379-1385. doi:10.1021/bi00120a014. PMID 1736995. Fatokun, ...
1hi5: EOSINOPHIL-DERIVED NEUROTOXIN (EDN) -ADENOSINE-5'-DIPHOSPHATE COMPLEX *. 1k2a: Modified Form of Eosinophil-derived ...
Preiss, J; Crawford, K; Downey, J; Lammel, C; Greenberg, E (July 1976). "Kinetic properties of Serratia marcescens adenosine 5 ... diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase". Journal of Bacteriology. 127 (1): 193-203. doi:10.1128/JB.127.1.193-203.1976. ISSN 0021 ...
Stern AI, Avron M (1966). "An adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose:orthophosphate adenylyltransferase from Euglena gracilis". ... Other names in common use include ADP ribose phosphorylase, and adenosine diphosphoribose phosphorylase. Evans WR, San Pietro A ... 1966). "Phosphorolysis of adenosine diphosphoribose". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 113 (1): 236-44. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(66)90178-0 ...
It appears to alter adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-mediated agglutination of platelets. Normally, β2-GP1 assumes an ...
The product is adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and an inorganic phosphate (Pi). ADP can be further hydrolyzed to give energy, ... "ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate". Retrieved 2018-05-16. Wackerhage, H.; Hoffmann, U.; Essfeld, D.; Leyk, D.; Mueller, K.; ... adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and another inorganic phosphate (Pi). ATP hydrolysis is the final link between the energy ... catabolic reaction process by which chemical energy that has been stored in the high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds in adenosine ...
"Differential Sensitivity of Various Markers of Platelet Activation with Adenosine Diphosphate". BioNanoScience. 9 (1): 53-58. ...
Dhawan, S; Hensley, P; Osborne Jr, JC; Fleming, PJ (1986). "Adenosine 5'-diphosphate-dependent subunit dissociation of bovine ... Kuzuguchi, T.; Morita, Y; Sagami, I; Sagami, H; Ogura, K (1999). "Human Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase. CDNA CLONING AND ... Miyagi, Y.; Matsumura, Y.; Sagami, H. (2007). "Human Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase is an Octamer in Solution". Journal of ... Activation by monovalent cations and an analysis of the effect of the adenosine triphosphate-magnesium ion complex on this ...
Other names in common use include adenosine diphosphate deaminase, and adenosinepyrophosphate deaminase. Deutsch A, Nilsson R ( ... 1954). "On the dephosphorylation and deamination of adenosine triphosphate by actomyosin gel". Acta Chem. Scand. 8: 1898-1906. ...
The process converts one ATP molecule to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and Pi.[clarification needed] In a transporter, ions use ... Active transport uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to transport a substance that moves against its concentration gradient.[page ...
George A, Bell JE (December 1980). "Effects of adenosine 5'-diphosphate on bovine glutamate dehydrogenase: diethyl ... The adenosine moiety binds down into a hydrophobic pocket with the ribose phosphate groups pointing up toward the pivot helix. ... As suggested for ADP it could be due to a competition between ATP and the adenosine moiety of the coenzyme at the active site. ... Inhibition by high [ADP] has been suggested previously to be due to competition between ADP and the adenosine moiety of the ...
"Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide glycohydrolases and poly adenosine diphosphate ribose synthesis in rat liver". Biochemical ...
... was synthesized from adenosine diphosphate (ADP), an endogenous chemical involved in metabolism. The authors noted ... Nave CR (2005). "Adenosine Triphosphate". Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet]. Georgia State University. Douglass JG, Patel ...
Platelets release cytoplasmic granules such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), serotonin and thromboxane A2. Adenosine diphosphate ...
PARP1 synthesizes polymeric adenosine diphosphate ribose (poly (ADP-ribose) or PAR) chains on itself. Next the chromatin ... Inside mitochondria, reactive oxygen species (ROS), or free radicals, byproducts of the constant production of adenosine ...
... and adenosine diphosphate-thymidine phosphotransferase. Falke D, Labenz J, Brauer D, Muller WE (1982). "Adenosine diphosphate: ...
The hydrolyzed product, adenosine 5'-diphosphate, orients the surface of GlnK for AmtB blockade. When nitrogen levels outside ...
It does this by attempting to react with adenosine diphosphate because it resembles phosphate. However once it does this it ...
The end result is a phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate as well as adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The enzymes can also help to ... Nucleoside diphosphate kinase catalyzes production of thymidine triphosphate, dTTP, which is used in DNA synthesis. Because of ... After creation of the dTMP molecule, another kinase, thymidylate kinase, can act upon dTMP to create the diphosphate form, dTDP ... Here, a reaction between adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphatidylinositol is coordinated. ...
... the NB-ARC domain is bound to Adenosine diphosphate (ADP). When a pathogen is sensed, the ADP is exchanged for Adenosine ...
Their function is to convert the potential energy of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in ... This is thought to be caused by a blockage in the enzyme thiamine-diphosphate kinase, and therefore treatment in some patients ... Disorders of oxidative phosphorylation, the process by which cells produce their main energy source of adenosine triphosphate ( ... and thiamine diphosphate are commonly found but there is a reduced or absent level of thiamine triphosphate. ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (diphosphate-forming). Other names in common use include ... formate + 2,5-diamino-6-hydroxy-4-(5-phosphoribosylamino)pyrimidine + diphosphate. Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ... GTP and H2O, whereas its 3 products are formate, 2,5-diamino-6-hydroxy-4-(5-phosphoribosylamino)pyrimidine, and diphosphate. ... Adenosine deaminase. *AMP deaminase. *Inosine monophosphate synthase. *DCMP deaminase. *GTP cyclohydrolase I ...
... triphosphate to adenosine 5'-diphosphate" (PDF). J Biol Chem 261 (27): 12733-7. PMID 3528161. ... 1995). "Adenosine 5'-(gamma-thiotriphosphate): an ATP analog that should be used with caution in muscle contraction studies". ... Gajewski E, Steckler D, Goldberg R (1986). "Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5'- ...
The chemical compound 5-methyluridine, also called ribothymidine, is a pyrimidine nucleoside. It is the ribonucleoside counterpart to the deoxyribonucleoside thymidine, which lacks a hydroxyl group at the 2' position. 5-Methyluridine contains a thymine base joined to a ribose pentose sugar. It exists in solid form as small white crystals or white crystalline powder, has a molecular weight of 258.23 u, and has a melting point of 185 °C. The stability of 5-methyluridine under standard temperature and pressure (STP) is very high. ...
Berg, P. and Joklik, W.K. (1954). "Enzymatic phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates". J. Biol. Chem. 210: 657-672. PMID ... Krebs, H.A. and Hems, R. (1953). "Some reactions of adenosine and inosine phosphates in animal tissues". Biochim. Biophys. Acta ... Ratliff, R.L., Weaver, R.H., Lardy, H.A. and Kuby, S.A. (1964). "Nucleoside triphosphate-nucleoside diphosphate ...
N-terminal ATPase domain - binds ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) and hydrolyzes it to ADP (Adenosine diphosphate). The NBD ...
... and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Switching between the open and closed dimer conformations induces conformational changes in ... The ATPase subunits utilize the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding and hydrolysis to energize the translocation of ... ABC transporters are active transporters, that is, they require energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to ... and the alternation is powered by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate or ATP. ATP binds to the A subunits and it is then ...
Adenosine thiamine diphosphateEdit. Adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP) or thiaminylated adenosine diphosphate exists in ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphateEdit. Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP) or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate has ... and adenosine thiamine diphosphate (AThDP). While the coenzyme role of thiamine diphosphate is well-known and extensively ... Thiamine diphosphateEdit. No physiological role is known for thiamine monophosphate (ThMP); however, the diphosphate is ...
ATP can undergo hydrolysis in two ways: the removal of terminal phosphate to form adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic ... or the removal of a terminal diphosphate to yield adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and pyrophosphate. The latter usually undergoes ... adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The ATP molecule contains pyrophosphate linkages (bonds formed when two phosphate units are ...
... proton gradient as an energy source for adding an inorganic phosphate group to a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to ... Kielley, WW (1961). "Myosin adenosine triphosphatase". In Boyer, P. D.; Lardy, H.; Myrbäck, K. The Enzymes. 5 (2nd ed.). New ... Martin SS, Senior AE (November 1980). "Membrane adenosine triphosphatase activities in rat pancreas". Biochimica et Biophysica ... ATPases (EC, adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ...
"Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5'-triphosphate to adenosine 5'-diphosphate" (PDF). J Biol Chem 261 (27): 12733- ... H. M. KLOUWEN ja A. W. M. APPELMAN, Synthesis of Adenosine Triphosphate in Isolated Nuclei and Intact Cells, Biochem. J. (1967 ...
"Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5′-diphosphate" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 261 (27): ...
ADP受體/P2Y12(英語:P2Y12)抑制劑(英語:Adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor)類 ...
Fosfestrol (diethylstilbestrol diphosphate). *Furostilbestrol (diethylstilbestrol difuroate). *GTx-758. *Hexestrol *Hexestrol ...
Défhosfáit adanóisín Adenosine diphosphate (ADP). *Aonfhosfáit adanóisín Adenosine monophosphate (AMP). *Trífhosfáit adanóisín ...
stimulant, adenosine receptor antagonist Codeine antitussive, analgesic Colchicine remedy for gout Emetine antiprotozoal agent ...
ADP( adenosine diphosphate). *NADP( Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). *RuDP( Ribulose Disphosphate). *RuBP( ...
... guanosine diphosphate (GDP), and guanosine triphosphate (GTP). These forms play important roles in various biochemical ... adenosine). *Agonists: 2-(1-Hexynyl)-N-methyladenosine. *2-Cl-IB-MECA. *2'-MeCCPA ...
The ATP synthase uses the energy to transform adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into adenosine triphosphate, in a phosphorylation ... I. Purification and properties of soluble dinitrophenol-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase". J. Biol. Chem. 235 (11): 3322-9. ... thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In most eukaryotes, this takes place inside ... "Catalytic site cooperativity of beef heart mitochondrial F1 adenosine triphosphatase. Correlations of initial velocity, bound ...
Glycerate diphosphate Hizi ni kupunguzwa na NADPH kwa molekuli mbili za glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GALP). Glyceraldehyde 3- ... Glucose hii inaweza kubadilishwa kuwa pyruvate ambayo hutoa adenosine triphosphate (ATP) na kupumua kwa seli. Oksijeni pia ... Haya molekuli ya glycerate 3-phosphate (GP) ni phosphorylated na ATP katika molekuli ya glycerate diphosphate. ...
Platelets release cytoplasmic granules such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), serotonin and thromboxane A2. Adenosine diphosphate ...
The effector of both the Gαs and Gαi/o pathways is the cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-generating enzyme adenylate ... that is rendered inactive when reversibly bound to Guanosine diphosphate (GDP) (or, alternatively, no guanine nucleotide) but ... adenosine, bombesin, bradykinin, endothelin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), melanocortins, ... all catalyze the conversion of cytosolic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cAMP, and all are directly stimulated by G-proteins of ...
"Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5′-diphosphate" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 261 (27): ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. Found in all forms of life, ATP ... Adenosine 5′-(γ-thiotriphosphate) is an extremely common ATP analog in which one of the gamma-phosphate oxygens is replaced by ... ATP replenishment by nucleoside diphosphate kinasesEdit. ATP can also be synthesized through several so-called "replenishment" ...
... and it is produced by ATP synthase from inorganic phosphate and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, the di meaning two phosphate groups ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often called the "molecular unit of currency": ... Walker for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the other ... Retrieved from "" ...
The dense granules of human platelets contain adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), ionized calcium (which ...
Comparison of Enzymes from Streptomyces and Escherichia coli and Effects of Nucleoside Diphosphates". Journal of Bacteriology ... "Polynucleotide Biosynthesis: Formation of a Sequence of Adenylate Units from Adenosine Triphosphate by an Enzyme from Thymus ...
ADP受体/P2Y12(英语:P2Y12)抑制剂(英语:Adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor)类 ...
Adenosine diphosphate (or ADP) is the chemical that plants make ATP from, during photosynthesis. A chemical compound that can ... Retrieved from "" ...
Complex I is also blocked by adenosine diphosphate ribose - a reversible competitive inhibitor of NADH oxidation - by binding ...
This enzyme catalyzes a reaction that combines phosphocreatine and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into ATP and creatine. This ... All of these systems re-synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the universal energy source in all cells. The most ... Lastly, adenylate kinase catalyzes a reaction by which 2 ADP are combined to form ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This ...
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5 carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1 carbon ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ...
Adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR) is an ester molecule formed into chains by the enzyme poly ADP ribose polymerase. ADPR is ... Adenosine diphosphate ADP-ribosylation Ribose Braidy N, Berg J, Clement J, Sachdev P (2019). "Role of Nicotinamide Adenine ...
Adenosine diphosphate is an organic molecule that plays an important role in cellular metabolism, the process through which ... Mitochondria convert adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a form of chemical energy. ... Adenosine diphosphate is a nucleotide composed of adenosine, which is comprised of the base adenine and the sugar ribose. ADP ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is an organic molecule involved in the central part of the metabolism of the cell that generates ...
Adenosine diphosphate (or ADP) is the chemical that plants make ATP from, during photosynthesis. A chemical compound that can ... Retrieved from "" ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S: an adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase distinct from toxin A. B H Iglewski, J Sadoff, ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S is an adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase distinct from Pseudomonas toxin A. Exoenzyme ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S: an adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase distinct from toxin A ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S: an adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase distinct from toxin A ...
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Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleotide adenine. ADP ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... Nave, C.R. Adenosine Triphosphate. Georgia State University: Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet]. 2005 [cited 2007 December ... Nave, C.R. Adenosine Triphosphate. Georgia State University: Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet]. 2005 [cited 2007 December ...
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What is adenosine diphosphate? Meaning of adenosine diphosphate medical term. What does adenosine diphosphate mean? ... Looking for online definition of adenosine diphosphate in the Medical Dictionary? adenosine diphosphate explanation free. ... adenosine diphosphate. see ADP.. adenosine triphosphate. ; ATP; adenosine diphosphate; ADP intracellular biochemicals; ATP ... Related to adenosine diphosphate: adenosine monophosphate. adenosine. [ah-den´o-sēn] 1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose ...
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose Cyclase. A Membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of Cyclic ADP-Ribose ( ...
Adenosine Diphosphate as an Intracellular Regulator of Insulin Secretion. By C. G. Nichols, S.-L. Shyng, A. Nestorowicz, B. ... Adenosine Diphosphate as an Intracellular Regulator of Insulin Secretion. By C. G. Nichols, S.-L. Shyng, A. Nestorowicz, B. ... Adenosine Diphosphate as an Intracellular Regulator of Insulin Secretion Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... inhibition by ATP was not antagonized by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Additional mutations in NBF2 resulted in the same ...
It is the end-product when adenosine triphosphate ATP loses one of its phosphate groups. The energy released in the process is ... Retrieved from "" ... Adenosine diphosphate. From Biology-Online Dictionary. (Redirected from Adenosine Diphosphate ADP). Jump to: navigation, search ...
1O0O: High-resolution crystal structures of ribonuclease A complexed with adenylic and uridylic nucleotide inhibitors. Implications for structure-based design of ribonucleolytic inhibitors
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate. ... Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: 110. *Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: 3 ... Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars*Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: 110. *Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: 3 ... Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars. Subscribe to New Research on Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars Esters formed between the aldehydic ...
Adenosine 5-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at ... Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP). Subscribe to New Research on Adenosine Diphosphate Adenosine 5-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An ... Adenosine; ADP, Magnesium; Adenosine 5 Pyrophosphate; Diphosphate, Adenosine; Adenosine Pyrophosphate; Magnesium ADP; MgADP; ... 2,3 O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5-diphosphate. *2,3-(O-(2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexadienylidine))adenosine 5-diphosphate ...
... decorated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (ANPs) or fibrinogen (FNPs) were used to fabricate hemostatic NPs that can shorten ... Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood clotting times, influencing the structures and varying the ... Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood clotting times, influencing the structures and varying the ... Abstract: Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) decorated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (ANPs) or fibrinogen (FNPs) were used to ...
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Inhaled Nitric Oxide Does Not Affect Adenosine 5′-Diphosphate-dependent Platelet Activation in Infants With Persistent ... Inhaled Nitric Oxide Does Not Affect Adenosine 5′-Diphosphate-dependent Platelet Activation in Infants With Persistent ... Inhaled Nitric Oxide Does Not Affect Adenosine 5′-Diphosphate-dependent Platelet Activation in Infants With Persistent ... Inhaled Nitric Oxide Does Not Affect Adenosine 5′-Diphosphate-dependent Platelet Activation in Infants With Persistent ...
... adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have offered patients carrying cancers with mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 ... Strategies for the Use of Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy. Cecilia E. Ström. ... Treatments with Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have offered patients carrying cancers with ... Ström, C.E.; Helleday, T. Strategies for the Use of Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors in Cancer ...
ADENOSINE-5-DIPHOSPHATE. C10 H15 N5 O10 P2 XTWYTFMLZFPYCI-KQYNXXCUSA-N ... Human thymidylate kinase complexed with thymidine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate and a magnesium-ion. *DOI: 10.2210/ ...
... diphosphate ribose (ADPR) is an intracellular signalling molecule generated from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). ... Adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose (ADPR) is an intracellular signalling molecule generated from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ... Synthesis of phosphonoacetate analogues of the second messenger adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose (ADPR)† ... Synthesis of phosphonoacetate analogues of the second messenger adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose (ADPR) O. Baszczyňski, J. M. ...
Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After ... Treatment with adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors-longitudinal assessment of treatment patterns and events after acute ... Early Cessation of Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Inhibitors Among Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients Treated With ... Factors Associated With Initial Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Receptor Inhibitor Selection at Enrollment [ Time Frame: Day 0 ( ...
What is adenosine 5-diphosphate? Meaning of adenosine 5-diphosphate medical term. What does adenosine 5-diphosphate mean? ... Looking for online definition of adenosine 5-diphosphate in the Medical Dictionary? adenosine 5-diphosphate explanation free. ... adenosine 5-diphosphate. (redirected from adenosine 5-diphosphate) a·den·o·sine 5-di·phos·phate (ADP), (ă-denō-sēn dī- ... adenosine diphosphate. An adenosine with 2 high-energy phosphates, which results from the hydrolysis of ATP, that occurs in ...
Find out information about adenosine diphosphate antagonist. 1. any muscle that opposes the action of another 2. a drug that ... counteracts the effects of another drug A molecule that bears sufficient structural... Explanation of adenosine diphosphate ... Related to adenosine diphosphate antagonist: adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist. antagonist. 1. any muscle that opposes ... Adenosine diphosphate antagonist , Article about adenosine diphosphate antagonist by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2. ...
Purification and Properties of the Adenosine Diphosphate-Glucose and Uridine Diphosphate-Glucose Pyrophosphorylases of ... Purification and Properties of the Adenosine Diphosphate-Glucose and Uridine Diphosphate-Glucose Pyrophosphorylases of ... Purification and Properties of the Adenosine Diphosphate-Glucose and Uridine Diphosphate-Glucose Pyrophosphorylases of ... Purification and Properties of the Adenosine Diphosphate-Glucose and Uridine Diphosphate-Glucose Pyrophosphorylases of ...
... - adenosine 5 diphosphate Abbreviation: ADP See: adenosine triphosphate … Glossary of Biotechnology ... adenosine diphosphate - adenosine diphosphate. См. АДФ. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». ... adenosine diphosphate - (ADP; ah den o sĭn) The nucleoside diphosphate usually formed upon the breakdown of ATP when it ... adenosine diphosphate - noun an ester of adenosine that is converted to ATP for energy storage • Syn: ↑ADP • Hypernyms: ↑ ...
A comparison of the cytidine 5′-diphosphate (CDP) and adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP) reductase activities from Ehrlich tumor ... Comparison of the Cytidine 5′-Diphosphate and Adenosine 5′-Diphosphate Reductase Activities of Mammalian Ribonucleotide ... Comparison of the Cytidine 5′-Diphosphate and Adenosine 5′-Diphosphate Reductase Activities of Mammalian Ribonucleotide ... Comparison of the Cytidine 5′-Diphosphate and Adenosine 5′-Diphosphate Reductase Activities of Mammalian Ribonucleotide ...
  • Adenosine diphosphate is a nucleotide composed of adenosine, which is comprised of the base adenine and the sugar ribose . (
  • Adenosine diphosphate , abbreviated ADP , is a nucleotide . (
  • adenosine diphosphate (ADP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-pyrophosphate, produced by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (
  • adenosine monophosphate (AMP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-phosphate, involved in energy metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. (
  • adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-triphosphate, occurring in all cells, where it stores energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds. (
  • It is a nucleotide that functions in the transfer of energy during the catabolism of glucose, formed by the removal of phosphate from adenosine triphosphate and composed of adenine, ribose, and two phosphate groups. (
  • Binding of the nucleotide adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose (ADPR) to the cytosolic NUDT9 homology (NUDT9H) domain activates the channel. (
  • Adenosine diphosphate ribose belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine nucleotide sugars. (
  • Adenosine 3', 5'-diphosphate or PAP is a nucleotide that is closely related to ADP. (
  • Depending on the number of phosphate groups attached to the sugar moiety, a nucleotide may be called nucleoside monophosphate (if with only one phosphate group), nucleoside diphosphate (with two phosphate groups), or nucleoside triphosphate (when with three phosphate groups). (
  • ADP can be degraded to produce adenosine monophosphate (AMP, an adenine nucleotide with only one phosphate). (
  • 5. ADP ( adenosine diphosphate ) A nucleotide consisting of adenine and ribose with two phosphate groups attached. (
  • It's a molecule in which adenosine, which is a nucleotide alsopresent in DNA and RNA, is linked to three (tri) phosphate groups. (
  • An adenosine diphosphate (ADP) a nucleotide with 2 phosphate groups and an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is formed when an additional phosphate group is attached to an ADP. (
  • AMP (Adenosine-5'-monophosphate), also known as Adenosine monophosphate or 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide used as a monomer in DNA and RNA. (
  • A nucleotide, C 10 H 15 N 5 O 10 P 2 , that is composed of adenosine and two linked phosphate groups, and that is converted to ATP for the storage of energy in living cells. (
  • ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). (
  • Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (
  • CD39 is an ectoenzyme that hydrolyzes ATP and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and is localized on the surface of endothelial cells and circulating platelets. (
  • Periodate-oxidized adenosine 5′-monophosphate, on incubation with the enzyme, had a greater effect on CDP reduction but little or no effect on ADP reduction. (
  • Three adenine compounds adenosine, adenosine, 5 /-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and 5 /- adenosine diphosphate (ADP) were found to protect against the erosion formations. (
  • Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camping) hails from ATP and it is an additional messenger used in transmission transduction and flipping on selected protein kinases. (
  • 8. All form ATP adenosine monophosphate ( AMP ) or adenosine diphosphate ( ADP ) and inorganic phosphate. (
  • Adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR) is an ester molecule formed into chains by the enzyme poly ADP ribose polymerase. (
  • Treatments with Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have offered patients carrying cancers with mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes a new and in many cases effective option for disease control. (
  • Poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have recently been found to be remarkably toxic to cells with defects in homologous recombination, particularly cells with BRCA-mutated backgrounds. (
  • Following DNA damage, poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1), the founding member of the PARP superfamily of proteins, is activated by DNA nicks and rapidly uses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to polymerize adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose and covalently modify target proteins to orchestrate DNA repair. (
  • DelveInsight's, Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors- Pipeline Insights, 2015, provides the in-depth analysis of the pipeline assets across the Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors. (
  • The Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors Report helps to identify emerging players with potentially strong product information and create effective counter-strategies to gain competitive advantage. (
  • DelveInsight's, Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors- Pipeline Insights, 2015 Report covers the Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors pipeline molecules at various stages of development like Pre-registration phase, clinical phases (Phase III, Phase II & Phase I), pre-clinical and discovery phases. (
  • The Report also provides Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors related therapeutic assessments by molecule type, route of administration, monotherapy and combination products. (
  • The Report also highlights the discontinued and inactive projects in pipeline for Poly Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors. (
  • Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase as therapeutic target: lessons learned from its inhibitors. (
  • The compound 7-deaza-8-bromo-cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose has been shown to be a stable hydrolysis-resistant cADPR antagonist. (
  • Galione, A & Potter, B 1998, Cyclic Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose Analogues , Patent No. WO9843992 (A1), IPC No. C07H19/20. (
  • Intracellular Ca[sup]2+ overload plays an important role in the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced ALI, and cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR) is an important regulator of intracellular Ca[sup]2+ mobilization. (
  • Characterization of cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose-induced Ca2+ release in T lymphocyte cell lines. (
  • Recently, a metabolite of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+ (NAD+), termed "cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose" (cADPr), has been described to release Ca2+ from caffeine-sensitive internal stores of cells. (
  • Adenosine 5′-diphosphate has also been used to compare prasugrel versus clopidogrel antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome. (
  • Response to clopidogrel and Aspirin was assessed by Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Test (20 umol/L) and Aspirin Test (Acetyl Acid) (ASP) 20 umol/L, respectively, using the Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer (Dynabyte Medical, Munich, Germany). (
  • Analysis of the available data demonstrated that adenosine-diphosphate receptor antagonists (such as clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor, ticlopidine) were not more effective than other blood thinning drugs or placebo for death from any cause, death related to cardiovascular disease, heart attacks or strokes. (
  • Adenosine-diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists like clopidogrel, ticlopidine, prasugrel and ticagrelor impair platelet aggregation and fibrinogen-mediated platelet cross-linking and may be effective in preventing CVD. (
  • A total of 990 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated with aspirin were randomized to receive the new reversible oral adenosine diphosphate inhibitor AZD6140 (90 or 180 mg twice daily) or clopidogrel (300-mg loading dose plus 75 mg once daily) for up to 12 weeks. (
  • Objectives Our goal was to compare the safety and initial efficacy of AZD6140, the first reversible oral adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist, with clopidogrel in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). (
  • On-clopidogrel platelet reactivity was assessed 3 days after PCI by TEG and VerifyNow using adenosine diphosphate as an agonist. (
  • 4. The primary endpoint was the highest value of adenosine diphosphate -induced PA measured with LTA in the weeks after complete cessation of clopidogrel in both groups. (
  • There are pharmaceutical adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors that slow the activation of the platelets. (
  • Comparing Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting and Instrumental Variable Methods for the Evaluation of Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Inhibitors After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. (
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:This study used data from the Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Inhibitors-Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRANSLATE-ACS) study. (
  • General (including evidence of efficacy) P2Y12 inhibitors Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is one of the main platelet-activating factors. (
  • These include thromboxane (TxA2) antagonists, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) P2Y12 receptor antagonists, and glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors. (
  • The extent of the transfer of the adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose (ADPR) moiety of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide onto elongation factor 2 (EF-2) catalyzed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PA-toxin) was dependent upon the presence of a reducing agent, dithiotheritol (DTT). (
  • Effects of arginine and some analogues of the partial adenosine triphosphate-adenosine diphosphate exchange reaction catalysed by arginine kinase. (
  • Potter, B , Watt, JM & Baszczynski, O 2019, ' Synthesis of Terminal Ribose Analogues of Adenosine 5′-Diphosphate Ribose as Probes for the Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel TRPM2 ', Journal of Organic Chemistry , vol. 84, no. 10, pp. 6143-6157. (
  • It is used in comparison studies of the functions of adenosine analogues on various biological processes. (
  • It is the end-product when adenosine triphosphate ATP loses one of its phosphate groups. (
  • Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a nucleoside phosphate comprised of a ribonucleoside and two phosphate groups. (
  • The two phosphate groups of ADP are added in series to the 5' carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine molecule attaches to the 1' carbon. (
  • An organic compound, C 10 H 15 N 5 O 10 P 2 , that is composed of adenosine and two phosphate groups. (
  • There is a series of adenosine diphosphate receptors found on the platelets, and when ADP interacts with them, there is further activation of the platelets. (
  • Adenosine-diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists are drugs which prevent the aggregation ('clumping') of platelets and consequently reduce the formation of blood clots. (
  • Although functionally intact platelets are required, the stability of platelet integrity, e.g. adenosine diphosphate (ADP) mediated responsiveness, has never been thoroughly investigated in citrated WB under ex vivo conditions. (
  • In most patients with platelet SPD, the platelets aggregate initially to adenosine diphosphate or epinephrine, but second-phase aggregation is frequently markedly diminished. (
  • 12. The investigators found that in patients at high risk for thromboembolism even when given aspirin during carotid endarterectomy, platelets were highly sensitive to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). (
  • The adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (ATP/ADP) ratio was measured by luminescence. (
  • Crude extracts of Mycobacterium smegmatis catalyzed the synthesis of adenosine diphosphate-glucose (ADP-Glc), cytidine diphosphate-glucose, guanosine diphosphate-glucose (GDP-Glc), thymidine diphosphate-glucose (TDP-Glc), and uridine diphosphate-glucose (UDP-Glc). (
  • A comparison of the cytidine 5′-diphosphate (CDP) and adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP) reductase activities from Ehrlich tumor cells was made to determine if the properties of the enzyme for these substrates were the same, except for the allosteric effector. (
  • According to the nucleobase element, your ribonucleoside may very well be adenosine , guanosine , cytidine , uridine , and also 5-methyluridine . (
  • Mitochondria convert adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a form of chemical energy. (
  • One existing functional assay is the measurement of PLT aggregation in response to stimulants such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, and epinephrine. (
  • A purine ribonucleoside 5'-diphosphate having adenine as the nucleobase. (
  • Adenosine diphosphate ( ADP ), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate ( APP ), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells . (
  • Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is an organic molecule involved in the central part of the metabolism of the cell that generates energy. (
  • Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is an important signaling molecule in the brain, and dilation in response to ADP is astrocyte-dependent in rats and newborn pigs. (
  • What type of molecule is adenosine triphosphate? (
  • Which of these is not a component of a molecule of adenosine triphosphate? (
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S is an adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase distinct from Pseudomonas toxin A. Exoenzyme S catalyzes the transfer of radioactivity from all portions of radiolabeled NAD+ except nicotinamide. (
  • Adenosine 5′-diphosphate has been used to study the release, neuronal effects and removal of extracellular β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD+) in the rat brain. (
  • Mono-(adenosine 5'-diphosphate) (ADP)-ribosylation, which transfers an ADP-ribose from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to an acceptor protein, is an important post-translational modification of cellular proteins. (
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels couple the cellular metabolic state to electrical activity and are a critical link between blood glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin secretion. (
  • The purified ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase was inhibited by fructose-6-P, fructose-1, 6-diphosphate, glucose-6-P, and phosphoenolpyruvate. (
  • it completely lacks adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase activity in both endosperm and embryo tissue. (
  • Identification of the mutant block indicates that the greater portion of starch in the endosperm of normal maize is synthesized by way of enzyme systems that utilize adenosine diphosphate glucose as a substrate, and that the latter is formed chiefly by adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. (
  • Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. (
  • On the other hand, trehalose, trehalose diphosphate, sodium pyruvate, and ribose-5-P did not effect the ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase. (
  • ADP is also produced from 5 ′ -adenylic acid by the transfer of a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate in a reaction that is catalyzed by an enzyme, myokinase. (
  • The platelet aggregation induced by ADP( Adenosine diphosphate ) and collagen were established in vivo and in vitro and the effect of EMS on platelet aggregation was observed. (
  • A condensation product of adenosine with pyrophosphoric acid, formed from adenosine triphosphate by the hydrolysis of the terminal phosphate group of the latter compound. (
  • adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. (
  • Correlations were well between the two tests in the adenosine diphosphate induced platelet reactivity (Spearman r = 0. (
  • Reduced adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated platelet aggregation responses were demonstrated in carriers of CYP2C 19 low-function alleles in a study of 429 Amish patients (JAMA 2009;302:849-57). (
  • To compare the newer inductor of platelet aggregation cationic propyl gallate (CPG) with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) for the examination of aspirin (ASA) effectivity with optical aggregometry. (
  • Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) induced platelet aggregation was initiated by a normal shape change, but the rate of the first wave of aggregation had decreased. (
  • The topic Adenosine diphosphate ribose represents a specific aggregation or gathering of resources found in College of Physicians of Philadelphia . (
  • 2. Method Platelet aggregation was induced by adenosine diphosphate ( ADP ) in rabbits. (
  • 6. The adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated platelet aggregation (PA) was assessed by conventional aggregometry. (
  • 7. Adenosine diphosphate ( ADP) was analyzed by reversed phase HPLC, and rabbit platelet aggregation was measured turbimetrically. (
  • 11. Methods:Forty-six UAP patients and 46 healthy subjects were evaluated with 6 psychological scales, and their adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation function was determined. (
  • The scientists first measured platelet reactions to adenosine diphosphate , a compound that abets platelet clumping. (
  • Adenosine diphosphate ribose is a strong basic compound (based on its pKa). (
  • ADP is produced from adenosine triphosphate and reconverted to this compound in coupled reactions concerned with the energy metabolism of living systems. (
  • Much of the energy released in each step is recaptured in the high-energy bonds of a chemical called adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a compound found in all cells, which serves as an energy storage site. (
  • Adenosine nucleotides are involved in the energy metabolism of all cells. (
  • A coenzyme and an important intermediate in cellular metabolism as the partially dephosphorylated form of adenosine triphosphate. (
  • C 10 H 15 N 5 O 10 P 2 A coenzyme composed of adenosine and two molecules of phosphoric acid that is important in intermediate cellular metabolism. (
  • ATP (Adenosine-5'-triphosphate), also known as Adenosine triphosphate, is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme and transports energy within cells for metabolism. (
  • a product of the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate. (
  • An adenosine with 2 high-energy phosphates, which results from the hydrolysis of ATP, that occurs in many metabolic processes. (
  • It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine . (
  • Comparison of cationic propyl gallate and adenosine diphosphate for the measurement of aspirin effectivity with optical aggregometry. (
  • A derivative of ADP is adenosine diphosphate ribose, in which the sugar ribose is linked to the final phosphate of ADP by an ester linkage. (
  • Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a regulator of cerebral blood flow. (
  • [1] ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine receptors . (
  • We measured the respiratory control index (RCI) and the adenosine 5-diphosphate (ADP)/oxygen ratio as indicators of mitochondrial respiratory activity, as well as the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the mitochondria of fetal brain. (
  • Adenosine diphosphate (or ADP ) is the chemical that plants make ATP from, during photosynthesis . (
  • In the oxygenic photosynthesis water is used as an electron source and the electron transfer is accompanied by proton gradients, which drive the production of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate), the universal energy currency, from ADP (Adenosine diphosphate). (