Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.Coformycin: A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.Pentostatin: A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Tetrahydrouridine: An inhibitor of nucleotide metabolism.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.Adenosylhomocysteinase: An enzyme which catalyzes the catabolism of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE to ADENOSINE and HOMOCYSTEINE. It may play a role in regulating the concentration of intracellular adenosylhomocysteine.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).AMP Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Cytosine Deaminase: An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DCMP Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of deoxycytidylic acid to deoxyuridylic acid and ammonia. It plays an important role in the regulation of the pool of deoxynucleotides in higher organisms. The enzyme also acts on some 5-substituted deoxycytidylic acids. EC 3.5.4.12.Receptor, Adenosine A2B: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Guanine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of guanine to form xanthine. EC 3.5.4.3.
(1/193) The extracellular versus intracellular mechanisms of inhibition of TCR-triggered activation in thymocytes by adenosine under conditions of inhibited adenosine deaminase.

The absence or low levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in humans result in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which is characterized by hypoplastic thymus, T lymphocyte depletion and autoimmunity. Deficiency of ADA causes increased levels of both intracellular and extracellular adenosine, although only the intracellular lymphotoxicity of accumulated adenosine is considered in the pathogenesis of ADA SCID. It is shown that extracellular but not intracellular adenosine selectively inhibits TCR-triggered up-regulation of activation markers and apoptotic events in thymocytes under conditions of ADA deficiency. The effects of intracellular adenosine are dissociated from effects of extracellular adenosine in experiments using an adenosine transporter blocker. We found that prevention of toxicity of intracellular adenosine led to survival of TCR-cross-linked thymocytes in long-term (4 days) assays, but it was not sufficient for normal T cell differentiation under conditions of inhibited ADA. Surviving TCR-cross-linked thymocytes had a non-activated phenotype due to extracellular adenosine-mediated, TCR-antagonizing signaling. Taken together the data suggest that both intracellular toxicity and signaling by extracellular adenosine may contribute to pathogenesis of ADA SCID. Accordingly, extracellular adenosine may act on thymocytes, which survived intracellular toxicity of adenosine during ADA deficiency by counteracting TCR signaling. This, in turn, could lead to failure of positive and negative selection of thymocytes, and to additional elimination of thymocytes or autoimmunity of surviving T cells.  (+info)

(2/193) Nucleotide pool imbalance and adenosine deaminase deficiency induce alterations of N-region insertions during V(D)J recombination.

Template-independent nucleotide additions (N regions) generated at sites of V(D)J recombination by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) increase the diversity of antigen receptors. Two inborn errors of purine metabolism, deficiencies of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), result in defective lymphoid development and aberrant pools of 2'-deoxynucleotides that are substrates for TdT in lymphoid precursors. We have asked whether selective increases in dATP or dGTP pools result in altered N regions in an extrachromosomal substrate transfected into T-cell or pre-B-cell lines. Exposure of the transfected cells to 2'-deoxyadenosine and an ADA inhibitor increased the dATP pool and resulted in a marked increase in A-T insertions at recombination junctions, with an overall decreased frequency of V(D)J recombination. Sequence analysis of VH-DH-JH junctions from the IgM locus in B-cell lines from ADA-deficient patients demonstrated an increase in A-T insertions equivalent to that found in the transfected cells. In contrast, elevation of dGTP pools, as would occur in PNP deficiency, did not alter the already rich G-C content of N regions. We conclude that the frequency of V(D)J recombination and the composition of N-insertions are influenced by increases in dATP levels, potentially leading to alterations in antigen receptors and aberrant lymphoid development. Alterations in N-region insertions may contribute to the B-cell dysfunction associated with ADA deficiency.  (+info)

(3/193) Quantification of extracellular and intracellular adenosine production: understanding the transmembranous concentration gradient.

BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of adenosine membrane transport cause vasodilation and enhance the plasma adenosine concentration. However, it is unclear why the plasma adenosine concentration rises rather than falls when membrane transport is inhibited. We tested the hypothesis that the cytosolic adenosine concentration exceeds the interstitial concentration under well-oxygenated conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: In isolated, isovolumically working guinea pig hearts (n=50), the release rate of adenosine and accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (after 20 minutes of 200 micromol/L homocysteine), a measure of the free cytosolic adenosine concentration, were determined in the absence and presence of specific and powerful blockers of adenosine membrane transport (nitrobenzylthioinosine 1 micromol/L), adenosine deaminase (erythro-9-hydroxy-nonyl-adenine 5 micromol/L), and adenosine kinase (iodotubericidine 10 micromol/L). Data analysis with a distributed multicompartment model revealed a total cardiac adenosine production rate of 2294 pmol. min-1. g-1, of which 8% was produced in the extracellular region. Because of a high rate of intracellular metabolism, however, 70.3% of extracellularly produced adenosine was taken up into cellular regions, an effect that was effectively eliminated by membrane transport block. The resulting approximately 2.8-fold increase of the interstitial adenosine concentration evoked near-maximal coronary dilation. CONCLUSIONS: We rejected the hypothesis that the cytosolic adenosine concentration exceeds the interstitial. Rather, there is significant extracellular production, and the parenchymal cell represents a sink, not a source, for adenosine under well-oxygenated conditions.  (+info)

(4/193) Diinosine pentaphosphate (IP5I) is a potent antagonist at recombinant rat P2X1 receptors.

1. The antagonist activity of a series of diinosine polyphosphates (IpnI, where n=3, 4, 5) was assessed against ATP-activated inward currents at rat P2X(1-4) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied under voltage-clamp conditions. 2. Diinosine polyphosphates were prepared by the enzymatic degradation of their corresponding diadenosine polyphosphates (e.g., Ap5A into Ip5I) using 5'-adenylic deaminase, and purified using reverse-phase chromatography. 3. Against ATP-responses at rP2X1 receptors, the potency order for antagonism was (pIC50): Ip5I (8.5)>Ip4I (6.3)>Ip3I (>4.5). Ip5I (10-100 nM) caused a concentration-dependent rightwards displacement of the ATP concentration-response curve without reducing the maximum ATP effect. However, the Schild plot was non-linear which indicated Ip5I is not a competitive antagonist. Blockade by micromolar concentrations of Ip5I was not surmountable. Ip4I also behaved as a non-surmountable antagonist. 4. Against ATP-responses at rP2X3 receptors, the potency order for antagonism was (pIC50): Ip4I (6. 0)>Ip5I (5.6)>Ip3I (>4.5). Blockade by Ip4I (pA2, 6.75) and Ip5I (pA2, 6.27) was surmountable at micromolar concentrations. 5. Diinosine polyphosphates failed to inhibit ATP-responses at rP2X2 receptors, whereas agonist responses at rP2X4 were reversibly potentiated by Ip4I and Ip5I. None of the parent diadenosine polyphosphates behave as antagonists at rP2X1 - 4 receptors. 6. Thus, Ip5I acted as a potent and relatively-selective antagonist at the rP2X1 receptor. This dinucleotide pentaphosphate represents a high-affinity antagonist for the P2X1 receptor, at which it acts in a competitive manner at low (100 nM) concentrations.  (+info)

(5/193) The anticonvulsant BW534U87 depresses epileptiform activity in rat hippocampal slices by an adenosine-dependent mechanism and through inhibition of voltage-gated Na+ channels.

1. The cellular and molecular actions of BW534U87 were studied using intracellular and extracellular recordings from the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices and whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings of recombinant human brain type IIA Na+ channels expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. 2. Normal excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials evoked in hippocampal slices were unaffected by BW534U87 or the adenosine deaminase inhibitor EHNA. However, epileptiform activity was depressed by BW534U87 (50 micronM) and this inhibition was reversed by the adenosine receptor antagonist 8-phenyl theophylline (8-PT, 30 micronM). EHNA (10 micronM) mimicked the effects of BW534U87. Furthermore, BW534U87 enhanced the inhibitory effects of exogenous adenosine on evoked synaptic potentials. BW534U87 (50 micronM) also voltage- and use-dependently inhibited action potentials elicited by current injection, independent of the adenosine system, since it was not affected by 8-PT. 3. In CHO cells expressing the recombinant human brain Na+ channel, BW534U87 produced a concentration- and voltage-dependent inhibition of Na+ currents with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 10 micronM at a Vh of -60 mV. Use-dependent inhibition was evident at high-frequencies (20x20 ms pulse train at 10 Hz). 4 In conclusion, BW534U87 blocks hippocampal epileptiform activity by a dual mechanism. The first action is similar to that produced by EHNA and is dependent on endogenous adenosine probably by inhibition of adenosine deaminase. Secondly, BW534U87 directly inhibits voltage-gated Na+ channels in a voltage- and frequency-dependent manner. Both actions of BW534U87 are activity-dependent and may synergistically contribute to its overall anticonvulsant effects in animal models of epilepsy.  (+info)

(6/193) A normal level of adenosine deaminase activity in the red cell lysates of carriers and patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease.

The red cell lysates of two children with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) exhibited a virtually total absence of adenosine deaminase (adenosine aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.4) when standard volumes were assayed. Under these conditions the parents exhibited depressed specific activity except for one mother, whose lysate showed a normal value for activity. Upon storage of the lysate at 4 degrees, a significant amount of activity appeared in one of the SCID children, and the activity of the heterozygous carriers was stimulated. With the use of a sensitive spectrophotometric assay based on conversion of inosine to uric acid, it was shown that the specific enzymatic activity in each of the SCID patients increased progressively as the volume of lysate assayed was lowered. With the smallest amount of lysate this specific activity was in the normal range. Similarly, the specific activity of each of the parents' lysates increased to the level of normal (or, in one case, about twice normal) as smaller volumes were assayed. The activity in the SCID patient was inhibitable by 2-fluoroadenosine and N6-methyladenosine, known competitive inhibitors of human red cell adenosine deaminase. The lysate from the SCID patient was also shown to inhibit adenosine deaminase partially purified from a normal individual. The results are interpreted in terms of a genetically programmed production of an adenosine deaminase inhibitor in at least one variant of the severe combined immunodeficiency disease.  (+info)

(7/193) Age-related changes in A(1)-adenosine receptor-mediated bradycardia.

The impact of age on functional sensitivity to A(1)-adenosine receptor activation was studied in Langendorff-perfused hearts from young (1-2 mo) and old (12-18 mo) male Wistar rats. Adenosine mediated bradycardia in young and old hearts, with sensitivity enhanced approximately 10-fold in old [negative logarithm of EC(50) (pEC(50)) = 4.56 +/- 0.11] versus young hearts (pEC(50) = 3.70 +/- 0. 09). Alternatively, the nonmetabolized A(1) agonists N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine and (R)-N(6)-phenylisopropyladenosine were equipotent in young (pEC(50) = 7.43 +/- 0.12 and 6.61 +/- 0.19, respectively) and old hearts (pEC(50) = 7.07 +/- 0.10 and 6.80 +/- 0. 11, respectively), suggesting a role for uptake and/or catabolism in age-related changes in adenosine sensitivity. In support of this suggestion, [(3)H]-adenosine uptake was approximately twofold greater in young than in old hearts (from 3-100 microM adenosine). However, although inhibition of adenosine deaminase and adenosine transport with 10 microM erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine hydrochloride and 10 microM S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine increased adenosine sensitivity three- to fourfold, it failed to abolish the sensitivity difference in old (pEC(50) = 4.95 +/- 0.08) versus young (pEC(50) = 4.29 +/- 0.13) hearts. Data indicate that 1) age increases functional A(1) receptor sensitivity to adenosine without altering the sensitivity of the A(1) receptor itself, and 2) age impairs adenosine transport and/or catabolism, but this does not explain differing functional sensitivity to adenosine. This increased functional sensitivity to adenosine may have physiological significance in the older heart.  (+info)

(8/193) Adenosine-mediated killing of cultured epithelial cancer cells.

Because micromolar concentrations of adenosine (Ado) have been documented recently in the interstitial fluid of carcinomas growing in animals, we examined the effects of low concentrations of Ado on the growth of cultured human carcinoma cells. Ado alone had little effect upon cell growth. In the presence of one of a number of Ado deaminase (ADA) inhibitors, Ado led to significant growth inhibition of all cell lines tested. Similar effects were found when ATP, ADP, or AMP was substituted for Ado. Surprisingly, the ADA inhibitor coformycin (CF) had a much greater potentiating effect than did 2'-deoxycoformycin (DCF), although DCF is a more potent ADA inhibitor. The growth inhibition of the Ado/CF combination was not abrogated by pyrimidines or caffeine, a nonspecific Ado receptor blocker. Toxicity was prevented by the addition of the Ado transport inhibitor dipyridamole or the Ado kinase inhibitor 5'-amino 5'-deoxyadenosine. S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase is not involved because neither homocysteine thiolactone nor an S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitor (adenosine dialdehyde) potentiated toxicity of the Ado/CF combination. Unexpectedly, substitution of 2'-deoxyadenosine (the toxic moiety in congenital ADA deficiency) for Ado, did not lead to equivalent toxicity. The Ado/CF combination inhibited DNA synthesis and brought about morphological changes consistent with apoptosis. Together, these findings indicate that the Ado-mediated killing proceeds via an intracellular route that requires the action of Ado kinase. The enhanced cofactor activity of CF may be attributable to its being a more potent inhibitor of AMP deaminase than is DCF.  (+info)

*  Adenosine deaminase
Coformycin was also described as a adenosine deaminase inhibitor but is alleged to be an antibiotic. Adenosine deaminase ... Adenosine deaminase (also known as adenosine aminohydrolase, or ADA) is an enzyme (EC 3.5.4.4) involved in purine metabolism. ... Adenosine deaminase deficiency leads to pulmonary fibrosis, suggesting that chronic exposure to high levels of adenosine can ... Blackburn MR (2003). "Too much of a good thing: adenosine overload in adenosine-deaminase-deficient mice". Trends in ...
*  Phosphodiesterase 2
EHNA is also a very potent adenosine deaminase inhibitor with an IC50 ~2 nM. This dual inhibition would lead to the ... Theoretically, this problem can be resolved if the effect of adenosine accumulated by EHNA, a result of adenosine deaminase ... "Adenosine deaminase inhibition enhances the inotropic response mediated by A1 adenosine receptor in hyperthyroid guinea pig ... Although EHNA potently inhibits adenosine deaminase, it has been successfully used with the proper controls as a tool to probe ...
*  EHNA
... is a potent adenosine deaminase inhibitor, which also acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that selectively inhibits ...
*  Vidarabine
The use of an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase to increase the half-life of vidarabine has also been tried, and drugs such as ... It is prone to deamination by adenosine deaminase to inosine. This metabolite still possesses antiviral activity, but is 10- ... As you can see from figure 1.1 that it is a stereoisomer of adenosine. It has a half-life of 60 minutes, and its solubility is ... This is the active form of vidarabine and is both an inhibitor and a substrate of viral DNA polymerase. When used as a ...
*  Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors
It is deaminated intracellularly by adenosine deaminase to dioxolane guanine (DXG). DXG-triphosphate, the active form of the ... protease inhibitors, entry inhibitors, co-receptor inhibitors and integrase inhibitors. The reverse transcriptase of HIV-1 has ... Inhibitors Discovery and Development of HIV Protease Inhibitors Reverse-transcriptase inhibitor Protease inhibitor Entry ... non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. Currently, there are several NRTIs in various stages ...
*  Purine nucleoside phosphorylase
Note: adenosine is first metabolized to inosine via the enzyme adenosine deaminase. Nucleoside phosphorylase is an enzyme which ... Attempts are being made to develop an inhibitor for the enzyme for use in cancer chemotherapy. This protein may use the ... PNPase, together with adenosine deaminase (ADA), serves a key role in purine catabolism, referred to as the salvage pathway. ... Adenosine uses the enzyme adenosine kinase, which is a very important enzyme in the cell. ...
*  Dipeptidyl peptidase-4
DPP-4 also binds the enzyme adenosine deaminase specifically and with high affinity. The significance of this interaction has ... The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: S09.003 Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV at the US National Library of ... Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), also known as adenosine deaminase complexing protein 2 or CD26 (cluster of differentiation 26) ... "Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
*  Adenosine
... it is broken down by adenosine deaminase, which is present in red cells and the vessel wall. Dipyridamole, an inhibitor of ... Adenosine deaminase deficiency is a known cause of immunodeficiency. The adenosine analog NITD008 has been reported to directly ... Adenosine receptor Adenosine reuptake inhibitor List of growth hormone secretagogues I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December ... In the US, Adenosine is marketed as Adenocard. In India Adenosine is sold as Adenoscan (Cipla) All adenosine receptor subtypes ...
*  List of OMIM disorder codes
APC Adenosine deaminase deficiency, partial; 102700; ADA Adenosine triphosphate, elevated, of erythrocytes; 102900; PKLR ... Lutheran inhibitor; 111150; KLF1 Bloom syndrome; 210900; RECQL3 Blue cone monochromacy; 303700; OPN1MW Blue-cone monochromacy; ... KRT1 Plasminogen activator inhibitor, type I; 613329; PAI1 Platelet disorder, familial, with associated myeloid malignancy; ... response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor in; 211980; EGFR Nonsmall cell lung cancer, somatic; 211980; IRF1 Nonsmall cell lung ...
*  Hepatitis D
However, editing by cellular enzyme adenosine deaminase-1 changes the stop codon to UGG, allowing the large-HDAg to be produced ... HDAg-L, in contrast, is produced during the later stages of an infection, acts as an inhibitor of viral replication, and is ...
*  Indirect agonist
Dipyridamole also inhibits the enzyme adenosine deaminase, the enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of adenosine. Fenfluramine ... Wang YX, Bowersox SS, Pettus M, Gao D (1999). "Antinociceptive properties of fenfluramine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in a ... Dipyridamole inhibits reuptake of adenosine, resulting in greater extracellular concentrations of adenosine. ...
*  Purine metabolism
... then adenosine deaminase creates inosine Alternatively, AMP deaminase creates inosinic acid, then a nucleotidase creates ... Purine synthesis inhibitors inhibit the proliferation of cells, especially leukocytes. These inhibitors include azathioprine, ... Also Methotrexate indirectly inhibits purine synthesis by blocking the metabolism of folic acid (it is an inhibitor of the ... and fifth step are catalyzed by trifunctional purine biosynthetic protein adenosine-3, which is encoded by the GART gene. Both ...
*  ICD-10 Chapter III: Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism -...
Adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA) (D81.4) Nezelof's syndrome (D81.5) Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNP) (D81.6 ... Defects in the complement system C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH) (D84.8) Other specified immunodeficiencies (D84.9) ...
*  Adenosine kinase
Arch JR, Newsholme EA: Activities and some properties of 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase in tissues ... Kowaluk EA, Jarvis MF: Therapeutic potential of adenosine kinase inhibitors. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2000, 9: 551-564. Zheng ... The role of adenosine kinase in regulating adenosine concentration. Biochem J 1985, 226: 343-344. Boison D: Adenosine as a ... Gupta RS: Adenosine-AMP exchange activity is an integral part of the mammalian adenosine kinase. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1996, 39 ...
*  RNA editing
These genes share close identity with the bacterial deaminases involved in nucleotide metabolism. The adenosine deaminase of E ... "The Sendai virus P gene expresses both an essential protein and an inhibitor of RNA synthesis by shuffling modules via mRNA ... Carter, C.W. (1998). "Nucleoside deaminases for cytidine and adenosine: comparisons with deaminases acting on RNA". In: ... Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are the RNA-editing enzymes involved in the hydrolytic deamination of Adenosine to ...
*  Chromosome 20 (human)
ADA: Adenosine Deaminase (Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency) ANDP: encoding protein Activity-dependent neuroprotector homeobox ... encoding protein cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor gamma PLAGL2: encoding protein Zinc finger protein PLAGL2 POLR3F: ... Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy Arterial tortuosity syndrome Adenosine deaminase deficiency Alagille syndrome Fatal ...
*  Nucleic acid metabolism
The nucleoside, adenosine, is then deaminated and hydrolyzed to form hypoxanthine via adenosine deaminase and nucleosidase ... ATP, a purine nucleotide, is an activator of pyrimidine synthesis, while CTP, a pyrimidine nucleotide, is an inhibitor of ... "Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency". Learn.Genetics. Retrieved 31 October 2014. Nucleic Acids Book (free online book on the ... and adenosine deaminase deficiency, which causes immunodeficiency. Once the nucleotides are synthesized they can exchange ...
*  Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase
... decreased purine nucleoside phosphorylase and adenosine deaminase activity". Blut. 39 (5): 309-15. doi:10.1007/BF01014193. PMID ... Liu Q, Hirono S, Moriguchi I (Aug 1990). "Quantitative structure-activity relationships for calmodulin inhibitors". Chemical & ...
*  Cytidine deaminase
Taysi S, Polat MF, Sari RA, Bakan E (2003). "Serum adenosine deaminase and cytidine deaminase activities in patients with ... Chung SJ, Fromme JC, Verdine GL (2005). "Structure of human cytidine deaminase bound to a potent inhibitor". J. Med. Chem. 48 ( ... Cytidine deaminase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDA gene. This gene encodes an enzyme involved in pyrimidine ... It is one of several deaminases responsible for maintaining the cellular pyrimidine pool. Mutations in this gene are associated ...
*  ARL6IP4
A to I RNA editing is catalyzed by a family of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) that specifically recognize ... 2002). "An SR-protein induced by HSVI binding to cells functioning as a splicing inhibitor of viral pre-mRNA". J. Mol. Biol. ... "An SR-protein induced by HSVI binding to cells functioning as a splicing inhibitor of viral pre-mRNA". J. Mol. Biol. 316 (4): ... adenosines within double-stranded regions of pre-mRNAs and deaminate them to inosine.Inosines are recognised as guanosine by ...
*  Concentrative nucleoside transporter 2
2007). "Adenosine deaminase 1 and concentrative nucleoside transporters 2 and 3 regulate adenosine on the apical surface of ... 2005). "Role of human nucleoside transporters in the cellular uptake of two inhibitors of IMP dehydrogenase, tiazofurin and ... Li JY, Boado RJ, Pardridge WM (2001). "Differential kinetics of transport of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine and adenosine via ...
*  Primary immunodeficiency
T-/B- SCID (both T and B cells absent): RAG 1/2 deficiency, DCLRE1C deficiency, adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, reticular ... C1-inhibitor deficiency (hereditary angioedema) Factor I deficiency (pyogenic infections) Factor H deficiency (haemolytic- ... deficiency Membrane attack complex inhibitor (CD59) deficiency Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria Immunodeficiency associated ...
*  Xanthine
Ukena D, Schudt C, Sybrecht GW (February 1993). "Adenosine receptor-blocking xanthines as inhibitors of phosphodiesterase ... It is created from guanine by guanine deaminase. It is created from hypoxanthine by xanthine oxidoreductase. It is also created ... correlation of behavioral effects with activity as adenosine receptor antagonists and as phosphodiesterase inhibitors". Life ... González MP, Terán C, Teijeira M (May 2008). "Search for new antagonist ligands for adenosine receptors from QSAR point of view ...
*  Post-transcriptional regulation
These enzymes include the Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, which convert specific adenosine residues to ... "miR-182-mediated downregulation of BRCA1 impacts DNA repair and sensitivity to PARP inhibitors". Mol. Cell. 41 (2): 210-20. doi ...
*  MicroRNA
Most commonly, enzymes known as adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze adenosine to inosine (A to I) transitions. ... MiR-712 targets tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3). TIMPs normally regulate activity of matrix metalloproteinases ... polyadenylated with multiple adenosines (a poly(A) tail), and spliced. Animal miRNAs are initially transcribed as part of one ... often flanked by adenosines, indicates that thousands of human genes are microRNA targets". Cell. 120 (1): 15-20. doi:10.1016/j ...
*  2016 in science
27 May - Strimvelis, an ex-vivo stem cell gene therapy for adenosine deaminase deficiency, and the first gene therapy for ... Scientists publish early human results of a potent BACE1 inhibitor for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. A ... "Merck Scientists Publish New Research Detailing the Early Development of Verubecestat, an Investigational BACE1 Inhibitor in ...
Adenosine Deaminase (Inhibitors Agonists Modulators Antagonists)-MedChemExpress.com  Adenosine Deaminase (Inhibitors Agonists Modulators Antagonists)-MedChemExpress.com
AMPD2 inhibitor 1 Inhibitor AMPD2 inhibitor 1 is an adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 (AMPD2) inhibitor, used in the research ... Adenosine deaminase Adenosine deaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible deamination of adenosine and 2'- ... Inhibitor ,98.0% EHNA hydrochloride is a specific inhibitor of adenosine deaminase, prevents dAdo degradation and increases ... Adenosine deaminase is considered one of the key enzymes of purine metabolism. Adenosine deaminase in humans is involved in the ...
more infohttps://www.medchemexpress.com/Targets/Adenosine%20Deaminase.html
Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2...  Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2'...
T1 - Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2 ... Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2'- ... Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2'- ... Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2'- ...
more infohttps://tmu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/conversion-of-a-stem-cell-leukemia-from-a-t-lymphoid-to-a-myeloid
Effects of iodotubercidin on adenosine kinase activity and nucleoside transport in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells. | Journal of...  Effects of iodotubercidin on adenosine kinase activity and nucleoside transport in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells. | Journal of...
... accumulation by DDT1 MF-2 cells was almost completely inhibited by iodotubercidin and the adenosine deaminase inhibitor erythro ... Iodotubercidin is an adenosine kinase inhibitor that through its ability to increase levels of endogenous adenosine can enhance ... Under conditions in which extensive metabolism of intracellular adenosine was present, [3H]adenosine ... Effects of iodotubercidin on adenosine kinase activity and nucleoside transport in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells.. F E ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/277/3/1397
Effects of adenosine deaminase and A1 receptor deficiency in normoxic and ischaemic mouse hearts  Effects of adenosine deaminase and A1 receptor deficiency in normoxic and ischaemic mouse hearts
66+/-5mm Hg). Similar protection was evident after 20min ischaemia, and was mimicked by the ADA inhibitor EHNA (5muM). Deletion ... OBJECTIVE: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) may be multifunctional, regulating adenosine levels and adenosine receptor (AR) agonism, ... Effects of adenosine deaminase and A1 receptor deficiency in normoxic and ischaemic mouse hearts. ... Adenosine efflux increased 10- to 20-fold with ADA deficiency (at the expense of inosine). Deletion of ADA improved outcome ...
more infohttps://research-repository.griffith.edu.au/handle/10072/14271
Adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol synonyms, adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol...  Adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol synonyms, adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol...
Antonyms for adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol. 2 words related to adenosine: biochemistry, nucleoside. ... What are synonyms for adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol? ... Synonyms for adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol in Free Thesaurus. ... Adenosine deaminase deficiency. *adenosine deaminase inhibitor. *Adenosine Deaminase, RNA-Specific. *Adenosine Deaminases ...
more infohttps://www.freethesaurus.com/adenosine+deaminase+conjugated+with+polyethylene+glycol
International Journal of Research in Health Sciences  International Journal of Research in Health Sciences
Introduction: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is one of the major enzymes in purine metabolism. There are 2 isoforms of ADA: ADA1 and ... a proto oncogene protein which led to the therapeutic options principally the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors . Recent times ... Original Article: Estimation of serum adenosine deaminase level in patients of pulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary care ... Title : Estimation of serum adenosine deaminase level in patients of pulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary care hospital in ...
more infohttp://ijrhs.org/issue.php?id=MTU=
ampd2, adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 - Creative Biogene  ampd2, adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 - Creative Biogene
AMPD2; adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2; adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 (isoform L); AMP deaminase 2; AMPD isoform L; ... adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 isoform L; AMP deaminase isoform L; AMPD 2; AMPD2_HUMAN; AMPD ... Adenosine monophosphate deaminase-2 (EC 3.5.4.6) catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP and plays an important role in the ... miRNA Mimics/Inhibitors. * Custom miRNA qPCR Primers Set. * miRNA Viral Vectors. *sgRNA Clones ...
more infohttps://www.creative-biogene.com/symbolsearch_ampd2.html
Adenosine deaminase inhibitor | definition of adenosine deaminase inhibitor by Medical dictionary  Adenosine deaminase inhibitor | definition of adenosine deaminase inhibitor by Medical dictionary
... adenosine deaminase inhibitor explanation free. What is adenosine deaminase inhibitor? Meaning of adenosine deaminase inhibitor ... Looking for online definition of adenosine deaminase inhibitor in the Medical Dictionary? ... adenosine deaminase inhibitor. adenosine deaminase inhibitor. A drug that interferes with the action of the enzyme adenosine ... Adenosine deaminase inhibitor , definition of adenosine deaminase inhibitor by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/adenosine+deaminase+inhibitor
Adenosine Deaminase - Page 4 - Angiogenesis Inhibitors Research  Adenosine Deaminase - Page 4 - Angiogenesis Inhibitors Research
Categories Adenosine DeaminaseLeave a comment on The MAPK3 Tpl2 controls innate and adaptive immunity by regulating TLR Because ... Category: Adenosine Deaminase. The MAPK3 Tpl2 controls innate and adaptive immunity by regulating TLR. The MAPK3 Tpl2 controls ... Categories Adenosine DeaminaseTags buy PRT062607 HCL, HLI-98C, Sirt4Leave a comment on is definitely an essential protection ... Categories Adenosine DeaminaseTags Rabbit polyclonal to ADORA3 isoform1, SDZ 205-557 HClLeave a comment on Internet-based HIV ...
more infohttp://angiogenesis-blog.com/category/adenosine-deaminase/page/4/
Adenosine Deaminase  Adenosine Deaminase
... Tags: GW 4869 kinase inhibitor, Rabbit Polyclonal to HOXA6. Recent studies have highlighted the ... Adenosine Deaminase Tags: BIX 02189 kinase inhibitor, Goat Polyclonal to Rabbit IgG. ... Adenosine Deaminase Tags: NU-7441 supplier, Rabbit Polyclonal to MAST4. The expression of six novel genes located in the region ... Adenosine Deaminase Tags: Plau, purchase Alvocidib. Supplementary MaterialsS1 Fig: Knockdown of FLAM3 by RNAi in the procyclic ...
more infohttp://www.buyresearchchemicalss.net/category/adenosine-deaminase/
Adenosine Deaminase - Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus Infectivity  Adenosine Deaminase - Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus Infectivity
Categories Adenosine DeaminaseTags Marimastat enzyme inhibitor, PYST1 Posts navigation. Page 1 Page 2 … Page 5 Next page ... Categories Adenosine DeaminaseTags Mertk, VX-950 inhibitor Lengthy noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are from the development, ... Categories Adenosine DeaminaseTags AG-014699 pontent inhibitor, CSF3R Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is certainly an ... Categories Adenosine DeaminaseTags DIAPH1, Favipiravir enzyme inhibitor Picornaviruses replicate their genomes in colaboration ...
more infohttp://researchensemble.com/category/adenosine-deaminase/
Adenosine Deaminase - Page 2 - Effect of NF-κB and JNK Inhibitor  Adenosine Deaminase - Page 2 - Effect of NF-κB and JNK Inhibitor
Doxorubicin is usually a topoisomerase II (TOP2) inhibitor that damages DNA by trapping TOP2 in a TOP2-DNA complex after TOP2 ... S4). Etoposide is usually another TOP2 inhibitor that generates DSBs through TOP2, whereas bleomycin and x-rays directly attack ... Nevertheless, treatment with RNAse inhibitor is essential to avoid degradation from the mRNA through the prolonged exudation ... Marcus with CA inhibitors significantly reduces the power of the bacterias to survive in a acid environment, recommending that ...
more infohttp://biodigestor.net/?cat=21&paged=2
Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2...  Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2'...
Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2'- ... Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2'- ... Selective failure of lymphoid development occurs in genetic deficiency of adenosine deaminase (ADA). We examined the in vivo ... a potent inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation. The influence of these changes on the leukemic phenotype is ...
more infohttps://scholars.duke.edu/display/pub732406
Other Metabolism-Related Assays  Other Metabolism-Related Assays
Adenosine Deaminase (ADA1) Inhibitor Screening Kit (Colorimetric). Catalog #: K993 , Datasheet $495.00 Add to Cart. ...
more infohttps://www.biovision.com/products/metabolism-assays/other-metabolism-related-assays.html
RCSB PDB - DCF Ligand Summary Page  RCSB PDB - DCF Ligand Summary Page
A potent inhibitor of adenosine deaminase. The drug is effective in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, ... Pentostatin is a potent transition state inhibitor of adenosine deaminase (ADA), the greatest activity of which is found in ... The cytotoxicity that results from prevention of catabolism of adenosine or deoxyadenosine is thought to be due to elevated ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/ligand/DCF
Mylocel - Chemotherapy Drugs - Chemocare  Mylocel - Chemotherapy Drugs - Chemocare
Adenosine deaminase inhibitor: Cladribine, Fludarabine and Pentostatin *Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor: Hydroxyurea. Note: ...
more infohttp://chemocare.com/chemotherapy/drug-info/Mylocel.aspx
FUDR - Drug Information - Chemocare  FUDR - Drug Information - Chemocare
Adenosine deaminase inhibitor: Cladribine, Fludarabine and Pentostatin. Floxuridine is similar to the drug 5-fluorouracil, it ...
more infohttp://www.chemocare.com/chemotherapy/drug-info/fudr.aspx
Floxuridine - Drug Information - Chemocare  Floxuridine - Drug Information - Chemocare
Adenosine deaminase inhibitor: Cladribine, Fludarabine and Pentostatin. Floxuridine is similar to the drug 5-fluorouracil, it ...
more infohttp://chemocare.com/chemotherapy/drug-info/floxuridine.aspx
  • We examined the in vivo effects of a potent inhibitor of ADA, 2'-deoxycoformycin, which was used to treat a patient with refractory acute leukemia. (elsevier.com)
  • Effects of ADA inhibition on leukemia cells during treatment included expansion of the deoxyadenosine nucleotide pool and accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine, a potent inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation. (elsevier.com)
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