Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Coformycin: A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.AMP Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.Pentostatin: A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Cytosine Deaminase: An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.DCMP Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of deoxycytidylic acid to deoxyuridylic acid and ammonia. It plays an important role in the regulation of the pool of deoxynucleotides in higher organisms. The enzyme also acts on some 5-substituted deoxycytidylic acids. EC 3.5.4.12.Receptor, Adenosine A2B: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Guanine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of guanine to form xanthine. EC 3.5.4.3.Receptors, Adenosine A2: A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Tuberculosis, Pleural: Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Nucleotide Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides with the elimination of ammonia.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Phenylisopropyladenosine: N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between a purine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free purine plus ribose-5-phosphate. EC 2.4.2.1.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.AminohydrolasesImmunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.2-Chloroadenosine: 2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4: A serine protease that catalyses the release of an N-terminal dipeptide. Several biologically-active peptides have been identified as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 substrates including INCRETINS; NEUROPEPTIDES; and CHEMOKINES. The protein is also found bound to ADENOSINE DEAMINASE on the T-CELL surface and is believed to play a role in T-cell activation.Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide): A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).Purine-Pyrimidine Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsReceptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Adenine NucleotidesHydroxymethylbilane Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the tetrapolymerization of the monopyrrole PORPHOBILINOGEN into the hydroxymethylbilane preuroporphyrinogen (UROPORPHYRINOGENS) in several discrete steps. It is the third enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. In humans, deficiency in this enzyme encoded by HMBS (or PBGD) gene results in a form of neurological porphyria (PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.3.1.8Adenosylhomocysteinase: An enzyme which catalyzes the catabolism of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE to ADENOSINE and HOMOCYSTEINE. It may play a role in regulating the concentration of intracellular adenosylhomocysteine.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Carbon-Carbon Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Adenosine A3 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Pericarditis, Tuberculous: INFLAMMATION of the sac surrounding the heart (PERICARDIUM) due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS infection. Pericarditis can lead to swelling (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION), compression of the heart (CARDIAC TAMPONADE), and preventing normal beating of the heart.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thioinosine: Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)Threonine Dehydratase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the deamination of THREONINE to 2-ketobutyrate and AMMONIA. The role of this enzyme can be biosynthetic or biodegradative. In the former role it supplies 2-ketobutyrate required for ISOLEUCINE biosynthesis, while in the latter it is only involved in the breakdown of threonine to supply energy. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.1.16.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Adenosine A3 Receptor Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Peritonitis, Tuberculous: A form of PERITONITIS seen in patients with TUBERCULOSIS, characterized by lesion either as a miliary form or as a pelvic mass on the peritoneal surfaces. Most patients have ASCITES, abdominal swelling, ABDOMINAL PAIN, and other systemic symptoms such as FEVER; WEIGHT LOSS; and ANEMIA.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Deoxyribonucleosides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.Dideoxyadenosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.Formycins: Pyrazolopyrimidine ribonucleosides isolated from Nocardia interforma. They are antineoplastic antibiotics with cytostatic properties.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Inosine Monophosphate: Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.Purinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of PURINERGIC RECEPTORS.Tetrahydrouridine: An inhibitor of nucleotide metabolism.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Pigmentation DisordersSomatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin: A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Immunoglobulin Class Switching: Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.Ammonia-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of a carbon-carbon double bond by the elimination of AMMONIA. EC 4.3.1.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Deoxycytidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of deoxycytidine with the formation of a nucleoside diphosphate and deoxycytidine monophosphate. Cytosine arabinoside can also act as an acceptor. All natural nucleoside triphosphates, except deoxycytidine triphosphate, can act as donors. The enzyme is induced by some viruses, particularly the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS). EC 2.7.1.74.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.L-Serine Dehydratase: A PYRIDOXAL-phosphate containing enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration and deamination of L-serine to form pyruvate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.1.13.DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase: A non-template-directed DNA polymerase normally found in vertebrate thymus and bone marrow. It catalyzes the elongation of oligo- or polydeoxynucleotide chains and is widely used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of acute leukemias in man. EC 2.7.7.31.Nucleoside Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
(1/1316) The RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 is localized to the nascent ribonucleoprotein matrix on Xenopus lampbrush chromosomes but specifically associates with an atypical loop.

Double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (ADAR1, dsRAD, DRADA) converts adenosines to inosines in double-stranded RNAs. Few candidate substrates for ADAR1 editing are known at this point and it is not known how substrate recognition is achieved. In some cases editing sites are defined by basepaired regions formed between intronic and exonic sequences, suggesting that the enzyme might function cotranscriptionally. We have isolated two variants of Xenopus laevis ADAR1 for which no editing substrates are currently known. We demonstrate that both variants of the enzyme are associated with transcriptionally active chromosome loops suggesting that the enzyme acts cotranscriptionally. The widespread distribution of the protein along the entire chromosome indicates that ADAR1 associates with the RNP matrix in a substrate-independent manner. Inhibition of splicing, another cotranscriptional process, does not affect the chromosomal localization of ADAR1. Furthermore, we can show that the enzyme is dramatically enriched on a special RNA-containing loop that seems transcriptionally silent. Detailed analysis of this loop suggests that it might represent a site of ADAR1 storage or a site where active RNA editing is taking place. Finally, mutational analysis of ADAR1 demonstrates that a putative Z-DNA binding domain present in ADAR1 is not required for chromosomal targeting of the protein.  (+info)

(2/1316) The extracellular versus intracellular mechanisms of inhibition of TCR-triggered activation in thymocytes by adenosine under conditions of inhibited adenosine deaminase.

The absence or low levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in humans result in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which is characterized by hypoplastic thymus, T lymphocyte depletion and autoimmunity. Deficiency of ADA causes increased levels of both intracellular and extracellular adenosine, although only the intracellular lymphotoxicity of accumulated adenosine is considered in the pathogenesis of ADA SCID. It is shown that extracellular but not intracellular adenosine selectively inhibits TCR-triggered up-regulation of activation markers and apoptotic events in thymocytes under conditions of ADA deficiency. The effects of intracellular adenosine are dissociated from effects of extracellular adenosine in experiments using an adenosine transporter blocker. We found that prevention of toxicity of intracellular adenosine led to survival of TCR-cross-linked thymocytes in long-term (4 days) assays, but it was not sufficient for normal T cell differentiation under conditions of inhibited ADA. Surviving TCR-cross-linked thymocytes had a non-activated phenotype due to extracellular adenosine-mediated, TCR-antagonizing signaling. Taken together the data suggest that both intracellular toxicity and signaling by extracellular adenosine may contribute to pathogenesis of ADA SCID. Accordingly, extracellular adenosine may act on thymocytes, which survived intracellular toxicity of adenosine during ADA deficiency by counteracting TCR signaling. This, in turn, could lead to failure of positive and negative selection of thymocytes, and to additional elimination of thymocytes or autoimmunity of surviving T cells.  (+info)

(3/1316) Nucleotide pool imbalance and adenosine deaminase deficiency induce alterations of N-region insertions during V(D)J recombination.

Template-independent nucleotide additions (N regions) generated at sites of V(D)J recombination by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) increase the diversity of antigen receptors. Two inborn errors of purine metabolism, deficiencies of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), result in defective lymphoid development and aberrant pools of 2'-deoxynucleotides that are substrates for TdT in lymphoid precursors. We have asked whether selective increases in dATP or dGTP pools result in altered N regions in an extrachromosomal substrate transfected into T-cell or pre-B-cell lines. Exposure of the transfected cells to 2'-deoxyadenosine and an ADA inhibitor increased the dATP pool and resulted in a marked increase in A-T insertions at recombination junctions, with an overall decreased frequency of V(D)J recombination. Sequence analysis of VH-DH-JH junctions from the IgM locus in B-cell lines from ADA-deficient patients demonstrated an increase in A-T insertions equivalent to that found in the transfected cells. In contrast, elevation of dGTP pools, as would occur in PNP deficiency, did not alter the already rich G-C content of N regions. We conclude that the frequency of V(D)J recombination and the composition of N-insertions are influenced by increases in dATP levels, potentially leading to alterations in antigen receptors and aberrant lymphoid development. Alterations in N-region insertions may contribute to the B-cell dysfunction associated with ADA deficiency.  (+info)

(4/1316) A study of the genetical structure of the Cuban population: red cell and serum biochemical markers.

Gene frequencies of several red cell and serum gentic markers were determined in the three main racial groups--whites, mulattoes and Negroes--of the Cuban population. The results were used to estimate the relative contribution of Caucasian and Negro genes to the genetic makeup of these three groups and to calculate the frequencies of these genes in the general Cuban population.  (+info)

(5/1316) Adenosine deaminase activity in thymus and other human tissues.

Adenosine deaminase activity (ADA) has been estimated in human tissues. Levels in the thymus during childhood were very much higher than in any of the other 6 tissues studied. Intermediate activities were obtained from spleen and lymph nodes and also skin. Cerebral cortex, liver and kidney had relatively low levels. ADA activity in lymphocytes from peripheral blood was significantly increased after antigenic stimulation by TAB immunization. The available evidence appears to be consistent with T-lymphocyte growth and development in the thymus being dependant on ADA.  (+info)

(6/1316) Regulation of forestomach-specific expression of the murine adenosine deaminase gene.

The maturation of stratified squamous epithelium of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a highly ordered process of development and differentiation. Information on the molecular basis of this process is, however, limited. Here we report the identification of the first murine forestomach regulatory element using the murine adenosine deaminase (Ada) gene as a model. In the adult mouse, Ada is highly expressed in the terminally differentiated epithelial layer of upper gastrointestinal tract tissues. The data reported here represent the identification and detailed analysis of a 1. 1-kilobase (kb) sequence located 3.4-kb upstream of the transcription initiation site of the murine Ada gene, which is sufficient to target cat reporter gene expression to the forestomach in transgenic mice. This 1.1-kb fragment is capable of directing cat reporter gene expression mainly to the forestomach of transgenic mice, with a level comparable to the endogenous Ada gene. This expression is localized to the appropriate cell types, confers copy number dependence, and shows the same developmental regulation. Mutational analysis revealed the functional importance of multiple transcription factor-binding sites.  (+info)

(7/1316) Human RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 transcripts possess alternative exon 1 structures that initiate from different promoters, one constitutively active and the other interferon inducible.

RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1) catalyzes the deamination of adenosine to inosine in viral and cellular RNAs. Two size forms of the ADAR1 editing enzyme are known, an IFN-inducible approximately 150-kDa protein and a constitutively expressed N-terminally truncated approximately 110-kDa protein. We have now identified alternative exon 1 structures of human ADAR1 transcripts that initiate from unique promoters, one constitutively expressed and the other IFN inducible. Cloning and sequence analyses of 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) cDNAs from human placenta established a linkage between exon 2 of ADAR1 and two alternative exon 1 structures, designated herein as exon 1A and exon 1B. Analysis of RNA isolated from untreated and IFN-treated human amnion cells demonstrated that exon 1B-exon 2 transcripts were synthesized in the absence of IFN and were not significantly altered in amount by IFN treatment. By contrast, exon 1A-exon 2 transcripts were IFN inducible. Transient transfection analysis with reporter constructs led to the identification of two functional promoters, designated PC and PI. Exon 1B transcripts were initiated from the PC promoter whose activity in transient transfection reporter assays was not increased by IFN treatment. The 107-nt exon 1B mapped 14.5 kb upstream of exon 2. The 201-nt exon 1A that mapped 5.4 kb upstream of exon 2 was initiated from the interferon-inducible PI promoter. These results suggest that two promoters, one IFN inducible and the other not, initiate transcription of the ADAR1 gene, and that alternative splicing of unique exon 1 structures to a common exon 2 junction generates RNA transcripts with the deduced coding capacity for either the constitutively expressed approximately 110-kDa ADAR1 protein (exon 1B) or the interferon-induced approximately 150-kDa ADAR1 protein (exon 1A).  (+info)

(8/1316) Long RNA hairpins that contain inosine are present in Caenorhabditis elegans poly(A)+ RNA.

Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) are RNA-editing enzymes that convert adenosine to inosine within double-stranded RNA. In the 12 years since the discovery of ADARs only a few natural substrates have been identified. These substrates were found by chance, when genomically encoded adenosines were identified as guanosines in cDNAs. To advance our understanding of the biological roles of ADARs, we developed a method for systematically identifying ADAR substrates. In our first application of the method, we identified five additional substrates in Caenorhabditis elegans. Four of those substrates are mRNAs edited in untranslated regions, and one is a noncoding RNA edited throughout its length. The edited regions are predicted to form long hairpin structures, and one of the RNAs encodes POP-1, a protein involved in cell fate decisions.  (+info)

*  Strimvelis
... a rare disorder caused by the absence of an essential protein called adenosine deaminase (ADA), which is required for the ... a committee at the European Medicines Agency recommended marketing approval for its use in children with adenosine deaminase ... replicating and creating cells that mature and create normally functioning adenosine deaminase protein, resolving the problem. ... Severe Combined Immunodeficiency due to Adenosine Deaminase deficiency), ...
*  5'-nucleotidase
... association with adenosine deaminase deficiency and non association with deoxyadenosine toxicity". Clinical Immunology and ... adenosine 5'-phosphatase, AMP phosphatase, adenosine monophosphatase, 5'-mononucleotidase, AMPase, UMPase, snake venom 5'- ... adenosine) which can readily enter most cells. Consequently, the enzyme plays a key role in the metabolism of nucleotides. The ... Nucleotidase in the Uptake of Adenosine from AMP by Human Lymphocytes" (PDF). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 250 (23): 8889- ...
*  ADAR
"Entrez Gene: ADAR Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA". Samuel CE (2012). Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) and A-to-I ... which stands for adenosine deaminase acting on RNA). Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) are enzymes responsible for ... Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA is one of the most common forms of RNA editing, and has both selective and non-selective ... Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) and its gene were first discovered accidentally in 1987 as a result of research by ...
*  Adenosine deaminase deficiency
The enzyme adenosine deaminase is encoded by a gene on chromosome 20. ADA deficiency is inherited in an autosomal recessive ... Adenosine deaminase deficiency (also called ADA deficiency or ADA-SCID) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that ... "Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Deficiency". Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-28. p347, The Immune ... ADA deficiency is due to a lack of the enzyme adenosine deaminase. This deficiency results in an accumulation of deoxyadenosine ...
*  Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency type 1
... , also called myoadenylate deaminase deficiency (MADD), is a recessive ... Adenosine mediates pain through adenosine receptors. MADD causes an increase of free adenosine during heavy activity which may ... AMP deaminase is an enzyme that converts adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to inosine monophosphate (IMP), freeing an ammonia ... In the brain, excess adenosine decreases alertness and causes sleepiness. In this way, adenosine may play a role in fatigue ...
*  Adenosine deaminase
Coformycin was also described as a adenosine deaminase inhibitor but is alleged to be an antibiotic. Adenosine deaminase ... Adenosine deaminase (also known as adenosine aminohydrolase, or ADA) is an enzyme (EC 3.5.4.4) involved in purine metabolism. ... Adenosine deaminase deficiency leads to pulmonary fibrosis, suggesting that chronic exposure to high levels of adenosine can ... Blackburn MR (2003). "Too much of a good thing: adenosine overload in adenosine-deaminase-deficient mice". Trends in ...
*  Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain
Double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (EC) converts multiple adenosines to inosines and creates I/U mismatched base ... This family consists of the N-terminus and thus the z-alpha domain of double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR), ... In molecular biology, the protein domain Adenosine deaminase z-alpha domain refers to an evolutionary conserved protein domain ... DRADA has been found to modify adenosines in AU-rich regions more frequently, probably due to the relative ease of melting A/U ...
*  Adenosine-phosphate deaminase
Other names in common use include adenylate deaminase, adenine nucleotide deaminase, and adenosine (phosphate) deaminase. Su JC ... In enzymology, an adenosine-phosphate deaminase (EC 3.5.4.17) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 5'-AMP + H2O ... Yates MG (1969). "A non-specific adenine nucleotide deaminase from desulfovibrio desulfuricans". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 171 (2 ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is adenosine-phosphate aminohydrolase. ...
*  Nucleic acid metabolism
The nucleoside, adenosine, is then deaminated and hydrolyzed to form hypoxanthine via adenosine deaminase and nucleosidase ... "Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency". Learn.Genetics. Retrieved 31 October 2014. Nucleic Acids Book (free online book on the ... and adenosine deaminase deficiency, which causes immunodeficiency. Once the nucleotides are synthesized they can exchange ... Guanine is then deaminated via guanine deaminase to form xanthine which is then converted to uric acid. Oxygen is the final ...
*  List of OMIM disorder codes
APC Adenosine deaminase deficiency, partial; 102700; ADA Adenosine triphosphate, elevated, of erythrocytes; 102900; PKLR ...
*  Enzyme replacement therapy
When the enzyme adenosine deaminase is deficient in the body, the result is a toxic build-up of metabolites that impair ... ERT has also been used to treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) resulting from an adenosine deaminase ... Many ADA deficient children with SCID have been treated with the polyethylene glycol-conjugated adenosine deaminase (PEG-ADA) ... ERT has also been successful in treating severe combined immunodeficiency caused by an adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA-SCID ...
*  USP40
"Entrez Gene: USP40 ubiquitin specific peptidase 40". Bass BL (2002). "RNA editing by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA". ...
*  CECR1
This gene encodes a member of a subfamily of the adenosine deaminase protein family. The encoded protein may act as a growth ... Zavialov AV, Engström A (2006). "Human ADA2 belongs to a new family of growth factors with adenosine deaminase activity". ... Charlab R, Valenzuela JG, Andersen J, Ribeiro JM (2001). "The invertebrate growth factor/CECR1 subfamily of adenosine deaminase ... factor and have adenosine deaminase activity. It may be responsible for some of the phenotypic features associated with cat eye ...
*  Vidarabine
The use of an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase to increase the half-life of vidarabine has also been tried, and drugs such as ... It is prone to deamination by adenosine deaminase to inosine. This metabolite still possesses antiviral activity, but is 10- ... As you can see from figure 1.1 that it is a stereoisomer of adenosine. It has a half-life of 60 minutes, and its solubility is ... This is where ara-ATP is incorporated into the DNA strand replacing many of the adenosine bases. This results in the prevention ...
*  RNA interference
Bass B (2002). "RNA Editing by Adenosine Deaminases That Act on RNA". Annu Rev Biochem. 71: 817-46. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem ... is most prevalent in higher eukaryotes converts adenosine nucleotides into inosine in dsRNAs via the enzyme adenosine deaminase ... Yang W, Wang Q, Howell K, Lee J, Cho D, Murray J, Nishikura K (2005). "ADAR1 RNA Deaminase Limits Short Interfering RNA ... "Modulation of microRNA processing and expression through RNA editing by ADAR deaminases". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology ...
*  PDE8A
Bass BL (2002). "RNA editing by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 71: 817-46. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...
*  GRIA3
A to I RNA editing is catalyzed by a family of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) that specifically recognize ... Bass BL (2002). "RNA editing by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 71: 817-46. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... The adenosine residue is mismatched in genomically encoded transcript, however this is not the case following editing. Despite ... Editing results in the targeted adenosine, which is mismatched prior to editing in the double-stranded RNA structure to become ...
*  ADARB1
"Entrez Gene: ADARB1 adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific, B1 (RED1 homolog rat)". Macbeth MR, Schubert HL, Vandemark AP, Lingam AT ... 1997). "Adenosine deaminase binding to human CD26 is inhibited by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and viral particles". J. ... 2000). "The HIV-1 gp120 inhibits the binding of adenosine deaminase to CD26 by a mechanism modulated by CD4 and CXCR4 ... Keegan LP, Leroy A, Sproul D, O'Connell MA (Feb 2004). "Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs): RNA-editing enzymes". ...
*  ADARB2
RNA-editing deaminase-2 (RED2, or ADARB2) is a member of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) adenosine deaminase family of RNA- ... "Entrez Gene: ADARB2 adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific, B2 (RED2 homolog rat)". Hong HQ, Lin JS, Chen L (Feb 2015). "Regulatory ... Chen CX, Cho DS, Wang Q, Lai F, Carter KC, Nishikura K (May 2000). "A third member of the RNA-specific adenosine deaminase gene ... Valenzuela A, Blanco J, Callebaut C, Jacotot E, Lluis C, Hovanessian AG, Franco R (Apr 1997). "Adenosine deaminase binding to ...
*  Discovery and development of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors
It is deaminated intracellularly by adenosine deaminase to dioxolane guanine (DXG). DXG-triphosphate, the active form of the ... Tenofovir is an acyclic adenosine derivative. The acyclic nature of the compound and its phosphonate moiety are unique ... First it is monophosphorylated by adenosine phosphotransferase and then the monophosphate is converted to carbovir 3´- ... In 1964 dideoxyadenosine, the corresponding adenosine analogue of zalcitabine was synthesised. Dideoxyadenosine caused kidney ...
*  OSER1
... and within a million base pairs of the adenosine deaminase locus. It was also found to have an increase in expression in cells ... "Adenosine deaminase: characterization and expression of a gene with a remarkable promoter". EMBO J. 4 (2): 437-43. PMC 554205 ...
*  Dipeptidyl peptidase-4
DPP-4 also binds the enzyme adenosine deaminase specifically and with high affinity. The significance of this interaction has ... Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), also known as adenosine deaminase complexing protein 2 or CD26 (cluster of differentiation 26) ... "Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
*  Purine nucleoside phosphorylase
Note: adenosine is first metabolized to inosine via the enzyme adenosine deaminase. Nucleoside phosphorylase is an enzyme which ... PNPase, together with adenosine deaminase (ADA), serves a key role in purine catabolism, referred to as the salvage pathway. ... Adenosine uses the enzyme adenosine kinase, which is a very important enzyme in the cell. Attempts are being made to develop an ...
*  Dinesh K. Bhargava
D.K. Bhargava; M. Gupta; S. Nijhawan; S. Dasarathy; A.K.S. Kushwaha (June 1990). "Adenosine deaminase (ADA) in peritoneal ...
*  Robert Vince (scientist)
"About Center For Drug Design". Howard Schaeffer, S. Bittner, Robert Vince, S. Gurwara "Novel substrate of adenosine deaminase ...
*  Diamond-Blackfan anemia
Some previously undiagnosed relatives of DBA patients were found to carry mutations, and also had increased adenosine deaminase ... and elevated adenosine deaminase levels in red blood cells. Most patients are diagnosed in the first two years of life. However ...
*  Eloise Giblett
Elo made her notable discovery of Adenosine Deaminase and Immune Deficiency in 1972. During the period when bone marrow ... Her numerous medical accomplishments include discovering the first immunodeficiency disease: adenosine deaminase deficiency. ...
Adenosine Deaminase  Adenosine Deaminase
The adenosine deaminase test may be used to help determine whether a person has a Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (TB) of ... Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a protein produced by cells throughout the body and is associated with the activation of ... The adenosine deaminase (ADA) test is not a diagnostic test, but it may be used along with other tests such as pleural fluid ... Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a protein that is produced by cells throughout the body and is associated with the activation of ...
more infohttps://labtestsonline.org/tests/adenosine-deaminase
Adenosine deaminase deficiency - Wikipedia  Adenosine deaminase deficiency - Wikipedia
The enzyme adenosine deaminase is encoded by a gene on chromosome 20. ADA deficiency is inherited in an autosomal recessive ... Adenosine deaminase deficiency (also called ADA deficiency or ADA-SCID) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that ... "Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Deficiency". Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-28. p347, The Immune ... ADA deficiency is due to a lack of the enzyme adenosine deaminase. This deficiency results in an accumulation of deoxyadenosine ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_deaminase_deficiency
Adenosine deaminase deficiency             | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program  Adenosine deaminase deficiency | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program
... information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Adenosine deaminase ... Adenosine deaminase deficiency Title Other Names:. ADA deficiency; Severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase ... due to adenosine deaminase deficiency; ADA-SCID; Adenosine deaminase deficient severe combined immunodeficiency See More ... ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/adenosine-deaminase-deficiency. *Hershfield M. Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency. GeneReviews. 2017; ...
more infohttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/5748/disease
Gene Transfer Therapy for Severe Combined Immunodeficieny Disease (SCID) Due to Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Deficiency - Full...  Gene Transfer Therapy for Severe Combined Immunodeficieny Disease (SCID) Due to Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Deficiency - Full...
... due to a defective adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene. This gene codes for the adenosine deaminase enzyme, which is essential for ... Gene Transfer Therapy for Severe Combined Immunodeficieny Disease (SCID) Due to Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Deficiency. The ... Adenosine-deaminase deficiency in two patients with severely impaired cellular immunity. Lancet. 1972 Nov 18;2(7786):1067-9. ... Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency. ADA-Deficiency. Retroviral Vectors. Hematopoietic Progenitors. SCID. Immune Deficiency. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00018018?cond=%22Severe+combined+immunodeficiency%22&rank=17
Gene Transfer Therapy for Severe Combined Immunodeficieny Disease (SCID) Due to Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Deficiency: A Natural...  Gene Transfer Therapy for Severe Combined Immunodeficieny Disease (SCID) Due to Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Deficiency: A Natural...
Adenosine-deaminase deficiency in two patients with severely impaired cellular immunity. Lancet. 1972 Nov 18;2(7786):1067-9. ... Deoxyadenosine triphosphate as a potentially toxic metabolite in adenosine deaminase deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 ... Gene Transfer Therapy for Severe Combined Immunodeficieny Disease (SCID) Due to Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Deficiency: A Natural ... Treatment of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease (SCID) Due to Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Deficiency With Autologous ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00001255?cond=%22Severe+combined+immunodeficiency%22&rank=10
tadA, an essential tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase from Escherichia coli.  - Surrey Research Insight Open Access  tadA, an essential tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase from Escherichia coli. - Surrey Research Insight Open Access
Wolf, J, Gerber, AP and Keller, W (2002) tadA, an essential tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase from Escherichia coli. EMBO J, 21 ... Adenosine Deaminase, Amino Acid Sequence, Base Sequence, Dimerization, Molecular Sequence Data, Nucleic Acid Conformation, ... Escherichia coli tadA displays sequence similarity to the yeast tRNA deaminase subunit Tad2p. Recombinant tadA protein forms ...
more infohttp://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/825159/
Adenosine Deaminase (Inhibitors Agonists Modulators Antagonists)-MedChemExpress.com  Adenosine Deaminase (Inhibitors Agonists Modulators Antagonists)-MedChemExpress.com
Adenosine deaminase Adenosine deaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible deamination of adenosine and 2'- ... Adenosine deaminase is considered one of the key enzymes of purine metabolism. Adenosine deaminase in humans is involved in the ... Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme involved in purine metabolism. It is needed for the breakdown of adenosine from food and ... It has also been proposed that Adenosine deaminase, in addition to adenosine breakdown, stimulates release of excitatory amino ...
more infohttps://www.medchemexpress.com/Targets/Adenosine%20Deaminase.html
Effects of adenosine deaminase and A1 receptor deficiency in normoxic and ischaemic mouse hearts  Effects of adenosine deaminase and A1 receptor deficiency in normoxic and ischaemic mouse hearts
OBJECTIVE: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) may be multifunctional, regulating adenosine levels and adenosine receptor (AR) agonism, ... Effects of adenosine deaminase and A1 receptor deficiency in normoxic and ischaemic mouse hearts. ... Adenosine efflux increased 10- to 20-fold with ADA deficiency (at the expense of inosine). Deletion of ADA improved outcome ... adenosine]), but significantly improves ischaemic tolerance. Conversely, A(1)AR deficiency impairs ischaemic tolerance. Effects ...
more infohttps://research-repository.griffith.edu.au/handle/10072/14271
Adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol synonyms, adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol...  Adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol synonyms, adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol...
Antonyms for adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol. 2 words related to adenosine: biochemistry, nucleoside. ... What are synonyms for adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol? ... Synonyms for adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol in Free Thesaurus. ... Adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol synonyms, adenosine deaminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol ...
more infohttps://www.freethesaurus.com/adenosine+deaminase+conjugated+with+polyethylene+glycol
Diagnostic efficacy of adenosine deaminase levels in cerebrospinal fluid in patients of Tubercular meningitis: A comparison...  Diagnostic efficacy of adenosine deaminase levels in cerebrospinal fluid in patients of Tubercular meningitis: A comparison...
Diagnostic efficacy of adenosine deaminase levels in cerebrospinal fluid in patients of Tubercular meningitis: A comparison ... Diagnostic efficacy of adenosine deaminase levels in cerebrospinal fluid in patients of Tubercular meningitis: A comparison ... Purpose: The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy of CSF adenosine deaminase (ADA) level assays and Polymerase ...
more infohttp://annalsofneurosciences.org/journal/index.php/annal/article/viewArticle/243/901
Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2...  Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2'...
T1 - Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2 ... Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2'- ... Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2'- ... Conversion of a stem cell leukemia from a T-lymphoid to a myeloid phenotype induced by the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2'- ...
more infohttps://tmu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/conversion-of-a-stem-cell-leukemia-from-a-t-lymphoid-to-a-myeloid
Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency  Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/diseases/umls:C2931781
ampd2, adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 - Creative Biogene  ampd2, adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 - Creative Biogene
AMPD2; adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2; adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 (isoform L); AMP deaminase 2; AMPD isoform L; ... adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 isoform L; AMP deaminase isoform L; AMPD 2; AMPD2_HUMAN; AMPD ... Adenosine monophosphate deaminase-2 (EC 3.5.4.6) catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP and plays an important role in the ...
more infohttps://www.creative-biogene.com/symbolsearch_ampd2.html
Affinity maturation and class switching of antibodies requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase | Adenosine Kinase...  Affinity maturation and class switching of antibodies requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase | Adenosine Kinase...
Affinity maturation and class switching of antibodies requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Posted on July 16, 2017. ... SHM and class switching totally depend on a mutator protein, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID or AICD), whose ... The enzyme that initiates antibody gene mutation is definitely activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the 1st protein ... Affinity maturation and class switching of antibodies requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent ...
more infohttp://cutelevision.org/affinity-maturation-and-class-switching-of-antibodies-requires-activation-induced-cytidine-deaminase/
A heat-labile factor promotes premature 3 end formation in ex...  A heat-labile factor promotes premature 3' end formation in ex...
... end formation in exon 1 of the murine adenosine deaminase gene in a cell-free transcription system.: An elongation bl ... A heat-labile factor promotes premature 3' end formation in exon 1 of the murine adenosine deaminase gene in a cell-free ... block to RNA polymerase II transcription in exon 1 is a major regulatory step in expression of the murine adenosine deaminase ( ...
more infohttps://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/a-heat-labile-factor-promotes-premature-3-end-formation-in-exon-1-of-the-murine-adenosine-deaminase-gene-in-a-cell-free-transcription-system
International Journal of Research in Health Sciences  International Journal of Research in Health Sciences
Introduction: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is one of the major enzymes in purine metabolism. There are 2 isoforms of ADA: ADA1 and ... Original Article: Estimation of serum adenosine deaminase level in patients of pulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary care ... Title : Estimation of serum adenosine deaminase level in patients of pulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary care hospital in ... Aim: To study the serum Adenosine Deaminase Activity in patients of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and to evaluate the diagnostic ...
more infohttp://ijrhs.org/issue.php?id=MTU=
Elevated Adenosine Induces Placental DNA Hypomethylation Independent of A2B Receptor Signaling in Preeclampsia | Hypertension  Elevated Adenosine Induces Placental DNA Hypomethylation Independent of A2B Receptor Signaling in Preeclampsia | Hypertension
The use of genetic approaches to express an adenosine deaminase minigene specifically in placentas, or adenosine deaminase ... Using 2 independent experimental models of preeclampsia, adenosine deaminase-deficient mice and a pathogenic autoantibody- ... Genetic deletion of CD73 (an ectonucleotidase that converts AMP to adenosine) prevented the elevation of placental adenosine in ... and abolished placental DNA hypomethylation in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/early/2017/05/15/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.09536
RNA editing by base deamination: more enzymes, more targets, new mysteries.  - Surrey Research Insight Open Access  RNA editing by base deamination: more enzymes, more targets, new mysteries. - Surrey Research Insight Open Access
Adenosine Deaminase, Amino Acid Sequence, Base Sequence, Cytidine Deaminase, Deamination, Molecular Sequence Data, Nucleic Acid ... The recent identification of tRNA-specific adenosine deaminases (ADATs) has led to the suggestion that these enzymes, as well ... belong to a superfamily of RNA-dependent deaminases. This superfamily might have evolved from an ancient cytidine deaminase. ... as the cytidine and adenosine deaminases acting on pre-mRNAs (CDARs and ADARs), ...
more infohttp://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/825160/
Adenosine deaminase - Wikipedia  Adenosine deaminase - Wikipedia
Coformycin was also described as a adenosine deaminase inhibitor but is alleged to be an antibiotic. Adenosine deaminase ... Adenosine deaminase (also known as adenosine aminohydrolase, or ADA) is an enzyme (EC 3.5.4.4) involved in purine metabolism. ... Adenosine deaminase deficiency leads to pulmonary fibrosis, suggesting that chronic exposure to high levels of adenosine can ... Blackburn MR (2003). "Too much of a good thing: adenosine overload in adenosine-deaminase-deficient mice". Trends in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_deaminase
Adenosine Deaminase, RBC  Adenosine Deaminase, RBC
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-products/Adenosine-Deaminase--RBC-20935-1/
  • Increased levels of free adenosine temporarily decrease pain, allowing over-exertion without awareness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle cramping The cause of cramping is unknown, but may be related to elevated lactate, increased calcium signaling across the sarcoplasmic reticulum caused by membrane instability from reduced levels of ATP, or increased levels of free adenosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) may be multifunctional, regulating adenosine levels and adenosine receptor (AR) agonism, and potentially modifying AR functionality. (edu.au)