Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Receptor, Adenosine A2A: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Receptor, Adenosine A2B: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Receptors, Adenosine A2: A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide): A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Adenosine A3 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Adenosine A3 Receptor Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.2-Chloroadenosine: 2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Phenylisopropyladenosine: N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Adenine NucleotidesNucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Coformycin: A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Theobromine: 3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)Pentostatin: A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.Adenosine Phosphosulfate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Thioinosine: Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Purinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of PURINERGIC RECEPTORS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Aminophylline: A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nucleoside Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.TriazolesNucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Adenosylhomocysteinase: An enzyme which catalyzes the catabolism of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE to ADENOSINE and HOMOCYSTEINE. It may play a role in regulating the concentration of intracellular adenosylhomocysteine.Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESVasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.NorbornanesTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1: A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is sensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone: Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Equilibrative-Nucleoside Transporter 2: A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is insensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Suramin: A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.Formycins: Pyrazolopyrimidine ribonucleosides isolated from Nocardia interforma. They are antineoplastic antibiotics with cytostatic properties.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between a purine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free purine plus ribose-5-phosphate. EC 2.4.2.1.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.AMP Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Purinergic P2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Dilazep: Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic activity.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Uridine Triphosphate: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Mice, Inbred C57BLDideoxyadenosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.Isopentenyladenosine: N(6)-[delta(3)-isopentenyl]adenosine. Isopentenyl derivative of adenosine which is a member of the cytokinin family of plant growth regulators.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
(1/6258) Analysis of a ubiquitous promoter element in a primitive eukaryote: early evolution of the initiator element.

Typical metazoan core promoter elements, such as TATA boxes and Inr motifs, have yet to be identified in early-evolving eukaryotes, underscoring the extensive divergence of these organisms. Towards the identification of core promoters in protists, we have studied transcription of protein-encoding genes in one of the earliest-diverging lineages of Eukaryota, that represented by the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis. A highly conserved element, comprised of a motif similar to a metazoan initiator (Inr) element, surrounds the start site of transcription in all examined T. vaginalis genes. In contrast, a metazoan-like TATA element appears to be absent in trichomonad promoters. We demonstrate that the conserved motif found in T. vaginalis protein-encoding genes is an Inr promoter element. This trichomonad Inr is essential for transcription, responsible for accurate start site selection, and interchangeable between genes, demonstrating its role as a core promoter element. The sequence requirements of the trichomonad Inr are similar to metazoan Inrs and can be replaced by a mammalian Inr. These studies show that the Inr is a ubiquitous, core promoter element for protein-encoding genes in an early-evolving eukaryote. Functional and structural similarities between this protist Inr and the metazoan Inr strongly indicate that the Inr promoter element evolved early in eukaryotic evolution.  (+info)

(2/6258) Expression of both P1 and P2 purine receptor genes by human articular chondrocytes and profile of ligand-mediated prostaglandin E2 release.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression and function of purine receptors in articular chondrocytes. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to screen human chondrocyte RNA for expression of P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. Purine-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release from chondrocytes, untreated or treated with recombinant human interleukin-1alpha (rHuIL-1alpha), was assessed by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: RT-PCR demonstrated that human articular chondrocytes transcribe messenger RNA for the P1 receptor subtypes A2a and A2b and the P2 receptor subtype P2Y2, but not for the P1 receptor subtypes A1 and A3. The P1 receptor agonists adenosine and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine did not change PGE2 release from chondrocytes. The P2Y2 agonists ATP and UTP stimulated a small release of PGE2 that was potentiated after pretreatment with rHuIL-1alpha. PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP cotreatment was not additive, but release in response to coaddition of ATP and bradykinin (BK) or UTP and BK was additive, consistent with ATP and UTP competition for the same receptor site. The potentiation of PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP after rHuIL-1alpha pretreatment was mimicked by phorbol myristate acetate. CONCLUSION: Human chondrocytes express both P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. The function of the P1 receptor subtype is not yet known, but stimulation of the P2Y2 receptor increases IL-1-mediated PGE2 release.  (+info)

(3/6258) Presynaptic action of adenosine on a 4-aminopyridine-sensitive current in the rat carotid body.

1. Plasma adenosine concentration increases during hypoxia to a level that excites carotid body chemoreceptors by an undetermined mechanism. We have examined this further by determining the electrophysiological responses to exogenous adenosine of sinus nerve chemoafferents in vitro and of whole-cell currents in isolated type I cells. 2. Steady-state, single-fibre chemoafferent discharge was increased approximately 5-fold above basal levels by 100 microM adenosine. This adenosine-stimulated discharge was reversibly and increasingly reduced by methoxyverapamil (D600, 100 microM), by application of nickel chloride (Ni2+, 2 mM) and by removal of extracellular Ca2+. These effects strongly suggest a presynaptic, excitatory action of adenosine on type I cells of the carotid body. 3. Adenosine decreased whole-cell outward currents at membrane potentials above -40 mV in isolated type I cells recorded during superfusion with bicarbonate-buffered saline solution at 34-36 C. This effect was reversible and concentration dependent with a maximal effect at 10 microM. 4. The degree of current inhibition induced by 10 microM adenosine was voltage independent (45.39 +/- 2. 55 % (mean +/- s.e.m.) between -40 and +30 mV) and largely ( approximately 75 %), but not entirely, Ca2+ independent. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM) decreased the amplitude of the control outward current by 80.60 +/- 3.67 % and abolished the effect of adenosine. 5. Adenosine was without effect upon currents near the resting membrane potential of approximately -55 mV and did not induce depolarization in current-clamp experiments. 6. We conclude that adenosine acts to inhibit a 4-AP-sensitive current in isolated type I cells of the rat carotid body and suggest that this mechanism contributes to the chemoexcitatory effect of adenosine in the whole carotid body.  (+info)

(4/6258) A comparison of an A1 adenosine receptor agonist (CVT-510) with diltiazem for slowing of AV nodal conduction in guinea-pig.

1. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacological properties (i.e. the AV nodal depressant, vasodilator, and inotropic effects) of two AV nodal blocking agents belonging to different drug classes; a novel A1 adenosine receptor (A1 receptor) agonist, N-(3(R)-tetrahydrofuranyl)-6-aminopurine riboside (CVT-510), and the prototypical calcium channel blocker diltiazem. 2. In the atrial-paced isolated heart, CVT-510 was approximately 5 fold more potent to prolong the stimulus-to-His bundle (S-H interval), a measure of slowing AV nodal conduction (EC50 = 41 nM) than to increase coronary conductance (EC50 = 200 nM). At concentrations of CVT-510 (40 nM) and diltiazem (1 microM) that caused equal prolongation of S-H interval (approximately 10 ms), diltiazem, but not CVT-510, significantly reduced left ventricular developed pressure (LVP) and markedly increased coronary conductance. CVT-510 shortened atrial (EC50 = 73 nM) but not the ventricular monophasic action potentials (MAP). 3. In atrial-paced anaesthetized guinea-pigs, intravenous infusions of CVT-510 and diltiazem caused nearly equal prolongations of P-R interval. However, diltiazem, but not CVT-510, significantly reduced mean arterial blood pressure. 4. Both CVT-510 and diltiazem prolonged S-H interval, i.e., slowed AV nodal conduction. However, the A1 receptor-selective agonist CVT-510 did so without causing the negative inotropic, vasodilator, and hypotensive effects associated with diltiazem. Because CVT-510 did not affect the ventricular action potential, it is unlikely that this agonist will have a proarrythmic action in ventricular myocardium.  (+info)

(5/6258) A new synthesis of 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cyclo-adenosine and -inosine: conformationally-fixed purine nucleosides (nucleosides and nucleotides. XVI).

A versatile method for the synthesis of 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine, a conformationally-fixed "anti" type of adenosine, was presented. Irradiation of 2', 3'-O-isopropylidene-5'-deoxy-5'-phenylthioadenosine with 60W Hg vapor lamp afforded 2',3'-O-isopropylidene-5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine in high yield. The use of other 5'-alkylthio derivatives also gave the cycloadenosine, though the yields were rather poor. Deacetonation of the cyclocompound with 0.1N HCl gave 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine. The cycloinosine derivative was similarly prepared. The nmr, mass and CD spectra of 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine were given and discussed with the previously reported results.  (+info)

(6/6258) End group of naturally terminated and UV lesion terminated T7 in vitro RNA.

The 3' terminal nucleosides of RNA transcribed in vitro by E. coli RNA polymerase from T7 DNA and UV irradiated TN DNA were determined. The 3' terminal nucleoside of naturally terminated (t1 termination site) RNA cytidine. In the case of RNA terminated at UV lesions, it is cytidine in 0 per cent of the molecules and adenosine in the remaining 30 per cent. Cytidine trialcohols are labile in high concentrations of KOH and at high temperature and appear to convert to uridine.  (+info)

(7/6258) Nucleoside-3'-phosphotriesters as key intermediates for the oligoribonucleotide synthesis. III. An improved preparation of nucleoside 3'-phosphotriesters, their 1H NMR characterization and new conditions for removal of 2-cyanoethyl group.

An improved procedure for the transformation of 5'-O-monomethoxytrityl-2'-O-acetyl-3'-phosphates of uridine la, inosine ib and 6-N-benzoyladenosine lc into corresponding 3'/2,2,2-trichloroethyl, 2-cyanoethyl/-phosphates iiaic is reported. H NMR characterization of nucleoside 3'-phosphotriesters is presented. New conditions i.e. anhydrous triethylamine-pyridine treatment have been found for the selective removal of 2-cyanoethyl group from nucleoside 3'-phosphotriesters in the presence of neighbouring 2'-O-acetyl one.  (+info)

(8/6258) Electrophysiologic effects of adenosine in patients with supraventricular tachycardia.

BACKGROUND: We correlated the electrophysiologic (EP) effects of adenosine with tachycardia mechanisms in patients with supraventricular tachycardias (SVT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Adenosine was administered to 229 patients with SVTs during EP study: atrioventricular (AV) reentry (AVRT; n=59), typical atrioventricular node reentry (AVNRT; n=82), atypical AVNRT (n=13), permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia (PJRT; n=12), atrial tachycardia (AT; n=53), and inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST; n=10). There was no difference in incidence of tachycardia termination at the AV node in AVRT (85%) versus AVNRT (86%) after adenosine, but patients with AVRT showed increases in the ventriculoatrial (VA) intervals (13%) compared with typical AVNRT (0%), P<0.005. Changes in atrial, AV, or VA intervals after adenosine did not predict the mode of termination of long R-P tachycardias. For patients with AT, there was no correlation with location of the atrial focus and adenosine response. AV block after adenosine was only observed in AT patients (27%) or IST (30%). Patients with IST showed atrial cycle length increases after adenosine (P<0.05) with little change in activation sequence. The incidence of atrial fibrillation after adenosine was higher for those with AVRT (15%) compared with typical AVNRT (0%) P<0.001, or atypical AVNRT (0%) but similar to those with AT (11%) and PJRT (17%). CONCLUSIONS: The EP response to adenosine proved of limited value to identify the location of AT or SVT mechanisms. Features favoring AT were the presence of AV block or marked shortening of atrial cycle length before tachycardia suppression. Atrial fibrillation was more common after adenosine in patients with AVRT, PJRT, or AT. Patients with IST showed increases in cycle length with little change in atrial activation sequence after adenosine.  (+info)

*  Adenosine receptor
The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ... Most older compounds acting on adenosine receptors are nonselective, with the endogenous agonist adenosine being used in ... Br J Pharmacol 170(6):1167-1176 "Entrez Gene: ADORA2A adenosine A2A receptor". Jacobson KA, Gao ZG (2006). "Adenosine receptors ... The adenosine A1 receptor has been found to be ubiquitous throughout the entire body. This receptor has an inhibitory function ...
*  Strimvelis
... a rare disorder caused by the absence of an essential protein called adenosine deaminase (ADA), which is required for the ... a committee at the European Medicines Agency recommended marketing approval for its use in children with adenosine deaminase ... replicating and creating cells that mature and create normally functioning adenosine deaminase protein, resolving the problem. ... Severe Combined Immunodeficiency due to Adenosine Deaminase deficiency), ...
*  ADAR
"Entrez Gene: ADAR Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA". Samuel CE (2012). Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) and A-to-I ... which stands for adenosine deaminase acting on RNA). Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) are enzymes responsible for ... Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA is one of the most common forms of RNA editing, and has both selective and non-selective ... Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) and its gene were first discovered accidentally in 1987 as a result of research by ...
*  Adenosine A2A receptor
The adenosine A2A receptor, also known as ADORA2A, is an adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it. This ... As a result, Adenosine receptor A2A decreases activity in the Dopamine D2 receptors. The adenosine A2A receptor has also been ... "Entrez Gene: ADORA2A adenosine A2A receptor". Ohta A, Sitkovsky M (2001). "Role of G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors in ... Older research on adenosine receptor function, and non-selective adenosine receptor antagonists such as aminophylline, focused ...
*  Adenosine A3 receptor
The adenosine A3 receptor, also known as ADORA3, is an adenosine receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it. ... 1997). "Adenosine inhibits neutrophil degranulation in activated human whole blood: involvement of adenosine A2 and A3 ... a novel specific adenosine A(3) receptor antagonist with adenosine A(3) receptor agonists both in vitro and in vivo". Eur. J. ... a novel ligand that demonstrates both adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist and adenosine A(3) receptor antagonist activity". ...
*  Adenosine deaminase deficiency
The enzyme adenosine deaminase is encoded by a gene on chromosome 20. ADA deficiency is inherited in an autosomal recessive ... Adenosine deaminase deficiency (also called ADA deficiency or ADA-SCID) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that ... "Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Deficiency". Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-28. p347, The Immune ... ADA deficiency is due to a lack of the enzyme adenosine deaminase. This deficiency results in an accumulation of deoxyadenosine ...
*  Adenosine
In the US, Adenosine is marketed as Adenocard. In India Adenosine is sold as Adenoscan (Cipla) All adenosine receptor subtypes ... and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Adenosine itself is ... When adenosine enters the circulation, it is broken down by adenosine deaminase, which is present in red cells and the vessel ... Adenosine is believed to be an anti-inflammatory agent at the A2A receptor. Topical treatment of adenosine to foot wounds in ...
*  Adenosine diphosphate
... (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ... The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5' carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1' carbon ...
*  Adenosine kinase
The role of adenosine kinase in regulating adenosine concentration. Biochem J 1985, 226: 343-344. Boison D: Adenosine as a ... Gupta RS: Adenosine-AMP exchange activity is an integral part of the mammalian adenosine kinase. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1996, 39 ... Adenosine kinase (AdK; EC 2.7.1.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of gamma-phosphate from Adenosine triphosphate ( ... Arch JR, Newsholme EA: Activities and some properties of 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase in tissues ...
*  Adenosine nucleosidase
In enzymology, an adenosine nucleosidase (EC 3.2.2.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenosine + H2O ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is adenosine ribohydrolase. Other names in common use include adenosinase, N- ... MAZELIS M, CREVELING RK (1963). "AN ADENOSINE HYDROLASE FROM BRUSSELS SPROUTS". J. Biol. Chem. 238: 3358-61. PMID 14085386. ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } D-ribose + adenine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are adenosine and H2O, whereas its ...
*  Adenosine monophosphate
... (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide. AMP consists of a phosphate group, the sugar ... In a catabolic pathway, adenosine monophosphate can be converted to uric acid, which is excreted from the body. AMP can also ... including adenosine monophosphate, are formed. AMP can be regenerated to ATP as follows: AMP + ATP → 2 ADP (adenylate kinase in ... ribose, and the nucleobase adenine; it is an ester of phosphoric acid and the nucleoside adenosine. As a substituent it takes ...
*  Adenosine-tetraphosphatase
In enzymology, an adenosine-tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenosine 5'- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is adenosine-tetraphosphate phosphohydrolase. This enzyme participates in purine ... the two substrates of this enzyme are adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate and H2O, whereas its two products are ATP and phosphate. This ...
*  Adenosine triphosphate
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) Adenosine-tetraphosphatase Adenosine methylene triphosphate ATPases ... Gajewski, E.; Steckler, D.; Goldberg, R. (1986). "Thermodynamics of the hydrolysis of adenosine 5′-triphosphate to adenosine 5 ... Energy ATP and Exercise PubChem entry for Adenosine Triphosphate KEGG entry for Adenosine Triphosphate. ... Adenosine 5′-(γ-thiotriphosphate) is an extremely common ATP analog in which one of the gamma-phosphate oxygens is replaced by ...
*  Adenosine deaminase
... (also known as adenosine aminohydrolase, or ADA) is an enzyme (EC 3.5.4.4) involved in purine metabolism. ... Adenosine deaminase deficiency leads to pulmonary fibrosis, suggesting that chronic exposure to high levels of adenosine can ... Coformycin was also described as a adenosine deaminase inhibitor but is alleged to be an antibiotic. Adenosine deaminase ... Blackburn MR (2003). "Too much of a good thing: adenosine overload in adenosine-deaminase-deficient mice". Trends in ...
*  Adenosine thiamine triphosphate
... (AThTP), or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate, is a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide. It ... Tanaka T, Yamamoto D, Sato T, Tanaka S, Usui K, Manabe M, Aoki Y, Iwashima Y, Saito Y, Mino Y, Deguchi H (2011). "Adenosine ... Jordan F (2007). "Adenosine triphosphate and thiamine cross paths". Nat. Chem. Biol. 3 (4): 202-3. doi:10.1038/nchembio0407-202 ... The molecule is made up of thiamine and adenosine joined together with phosphate groups. It is similar in structure to NAD+. ...
*  Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate
Guranowski, A.; Günther Sillero, M.A.; Sillero, A. (1994). "Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate and adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate are ... Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate is a nucleotide. It is produced from ATP and triphosphate (P3) through the action of acetyl-CoA ... Acetyl-CoA synthetase also produces adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate through the reaction of ADP and tetraphosphate (P4). Its ...
*  Adenosine A2 receptor
Two subtypes of adenosine A2 receptors are known. Both are G protein-coupled adenosine receptors: Adenosine A2A receptor ...
*  Adenosine-phosphate deaminase
In enzymology, an adenosine-phosphate deaminase (EC 3.5.4.17) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 5'-AMP + H2O ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is adenosine-phosphate aminohydrolase. Other names in common use include adenylate ... deaminase, adenine nucleotide deaminase, and adenosine (phosphate) deaminase. Su JC, Li CC, Ting CC (1966). "A new adenylate ...
*  Adenosine diphosphate ribose
... is an ester molecule formed into chains by the enzyme poly ADP ribose polymerase. It binds to and ... Adenosine diphosphate Ribose Fonfria E, Marshall IC, Benham CD, et al. (September 2004). "TRPM2 channel opening in response to ...
*  Adenosine A1 receptor
The adenosine A1 receptor is one member of the adenosine receptor group of G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as ... The adenosine A1 receptor has been found to be ubiquitous throughout the entire body. Activation of the adenosine A1 receptor ... Adenosine A1 Receptor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ADORA1 genome location and ... Adenosine antagonists are widely used in neonatal medicine; Because a reduction in A1 expression appears to prevent hypoxia- ...
*  Adenosine reuptake inhibitor
"Adenosine and adenosine uptake inhibitors potentiate the neuromuscular blocking action of rocuronium mediated by adenosine A(1 ... York MJ, Davies LP (1982). "The effect of diazepam on adenosine uptake and adenosine-stimulated adenylate cyclase in guinea-pig ... Chaudary N, Naydenova Z, Shuralyova I, Coe IR (2004). "The adenosine transporter, mENT1, is a target for adenosine receptor ... An adenosine reuptake inhibitor (AdoRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the purine nucleoside and ...
*  Adenosine receptor antagonist
Adenosine receptor agonist Adenosine reuptake inhibitor Müller, CE; Jacobson, KA (2011). "Xanthines as adenosine receptor ... An adenosine receptor antagonist is a drug which acts as an antagonist of one or more of the adenosine receptors. Examples ... Rivera-Oliver, Marla; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel (April 2014). "Using caffeine and other adenosine receptor antagonists and agonists as ... Hauber, W.; Muenkle, M. (July 1996). "The adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline induces a monoamine-dependent increase of ...
*  Adenosine thiamine diphosphate
... (AThDP), or thiaminylated adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a naturally occurring thiamine adenine ...
*  Adenosine A2B receptor
The adenosine A2B receptor, also known as ADORA2B, is a G-protein coupled adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human ... 2001). "Adenosine A2B receptors behave as an alternative anchoring protein for cell surface adenosine deaminase in lymphocytes ... Strohmeier GR, Reppert SM, Lencer WI, Madara JL (1995). "The A2b adenosine receptor mediates cAMP responses to adenosine ... alkyl-2-alkynyl derivatives of adenosine as potent and selective agonists at the human adenosine A(3) receptor and a starting ...
*  Adenosine receptor agonist
Examples include the neurotransmitter adenosine, its phosphates, adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), ... and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and the pharmaceutical drug regadenoson. Adenosine receptor antagonist Adenosine reuptake ... An adenosine receptor agonist is a drug which acts as an agonist of one or more of the adenosine receptors. ...
Adenosine Deaminase  Adenosine Deaminase
The adenosine deaminase test may be used to help determine whether a person has a Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (TB) of ... Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a protein produced by cells throughout the body and is associated with the activation of ... The adenosine deaminase (ADA) test is not a diagnostic test, but it may be used along with other tests such as pleural fluid ... Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a protein that is produced by cells throughout the body and is associated with the activation of ...
more infohttps://labtestsonline.org/tests/adenosine-deaminase
ANTAGONIST OF A2B ADENOSINE RECEPTORS FOR ASTHMA | SBIR.gov  ANTAGONIST OF A2B ADENOSINE RECEPTORS FOR ASTHMA | SBIR.gov
... adenosine causes bronchodilation. This occurs because the activation of A2B adenosine receptors on sensitized mast cells ... Adenosine Therapeutics, LLC owns the first potent and selective A2B antagonists. The purpose of this phase I proposal is to ... Adenosine Therapeutics will also prepare mast cells from canine and human lung and determine if candidate compounds can prevent ... A2B adenosine receptors are blocked by theophylline, a xanthine that is effective in treating asthma. However, theophylline is ...
more infohttps://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/71816
A.sub.2B adenosine receptor antagonists - Patent # 7125993 - PatentGenius  A.sub.2B adenosine receptor antagonists - Patent # 7125993 - PatentGenius
A.sub.2B adenosine receptor antagonists, having the structure of Formula I or Formula II: ##STR00001## by cyclizing a compound ... A.sub.2B Adenosine Receptor Assays. Methods. Radioligand binding for A.sub.2B adenosine receptor. Human A.sub.2B adenosine ... Additionally adenosine treatment, such as inhaled adenosine (or adenosine monophosphate), provokes bronchoconstriction in ... A.sub.2A and A.sub.2B adenosine receptors are coupled to Gs proteins and thus agonists for A.sub.2A adenosine receptor (such as ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/patent/7125993.html
Abstract TP269: Reduction of Human Brain Adenosine Levels Following Remote Ischemic Preconditioning | Stroke  Abstract TP269: Reduction of Human Brain Adenosine Levels Following Remote Ischemic Preconditioning | Stroke
These changes in adenosine were not reflected in CSF levels, which did not change (p=0.5). Brain adenosine in control subjects ... In all, brain adenosine levels dropped from their baseline (pre-RIPC) level. Average pre-RIPC adenosine went from 19.2 (SD 14.4 ... In both cases, adenosine supports cell energy requirements and may be a key component of IP's protective mechanisms. There are ... Abstract TP269: Reduction of Human Brain Adenosine Levels Following Remote Ischemic Preconditioning. Joshua R Dusick, Arzu ...
more infohttp://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/44/Suppl_1/ATP269
Alveolar Epithelial A2B Adenosine Receptors in Pulmonary Protection during Acute Lung Injury | The Journal of Immunology  Alveolar Epithelial A2B Adenosine Receptors in Pulmonary Protection during Acute Lung Injury | The Journal of Immunology
A2A adenosine receptor, A2B adenosine receptor, and A3 adenosine receptor (15). Both the A2A adenosine receptor and the A2B ... Adenosine can signal through four distinct G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, including the A1 adenosine receptor, ... Role of A2B adenosine receptor signaling in adenosine-dependent pulmonary inflammation and injury. J. Clin. Invest. 116: 2173- ... In the present study, we pursued the hypothesis that tissue-specific adenosine signaling events through the A2B adenosine ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/195/4/1815
Adenosine Deaminase | Enzyme | P212121 Store  Adenosine Deaminase | Enzyme | P212121 Store
Adenosine deaminase. ,15 units per mg dry weight (~17 mg). *One Unit converts one micromole of adenosine to inosine per minute ... Adenosine deaminase Function. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a purine catabolic enzyme ubiquitous in mammalian tissue which ... Click the button below to add the Adenosine deaminase 250 un to your wish list. ... catalyzes deamination of both adenosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine to inosine and 2'-deoxyinosine respectively ...
more infohttp://store.p212121.com/adenosine-deaminase/
Adenosine deaminase deficiency             | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program  Adenosine deaminase deficiency | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program
... of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Adenosine ... Adenosine deaminase deficiency Title Other Names:. ADA deficiency; Severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase ... due to adenosine deaminase deficiency; ADA-SCID; Adenosine deaminase deficient severe combined immunodeficiency See More ... Adenosine deaminase deficiency is caused by changes (. mutations. ) in the ADA gene. . This gene encodes an enzyme. that is ...
more infohttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/5748/disease
Cardiovascular adenosine receptors: Expression, actions and interactio by John Patrick Headrick, Kevin Ashton et al.  "Cardiovascular adenosine receptors: Expression, actions and interactio" by John Patrick Headrick, Kevin Ashton et al.
Extracellular adenosine engages members of the G-protein coupled adenosine receptor (AR) family to mediate generally beneficial ... This review outlines cardiovascular control by adenosine and the AR family in health and disease, including interactions ... and extracellular adenosine levels rise in response to physiological stimuli and with metabolic/energetic perturbations, ... Extracellular adenosine engages members of the G-protein coupled adenosine receptor (AR) family to mediate generally beneficial ...
more infohttp://epublications.bond.edu.au/hsm_pubs/840/
tadA, an essential tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase from Escherichia coli.  - Surrey Research Insight Open Access  tadA, an essential tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase from Escherichia coli. - Surrey Research Insight Open Access
Wolf, J, Gerber, AP and Keller, W (2002) tadA, an essential tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase from Escherichia coli. EMBO J, 21 ... Adenosine Deaminase, Amino Acid Sequence, Base Sequence, Dimerization, Molecular Sequence Data, Nucleic Acid Conformation, ...
more infohttp://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/825159/
Livestock Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Adenosine (LMDB00019)  Livestock Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Adenosine (LMDB00019)
Adenosine. Description. Adenosine is a nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives ... For instance, adenosine plays an important role in energy transfer - as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate ... When administered intravenously, adenosine causes transient heart block in the AV node. Because of the effects of adenosine on ... ADP). It also plays a role in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP. Adenosine itself is both a ...
more infohttp://lmdb.ca/metabolites/LMDB00019
NAVER Academic | Physiological and pathophysiological roles of adenosine  NAVER Academic | Physiological and pathophysiological roles of adenosine
... the mechanisms that establish extracellular adenosine levels. The roles of adenosine are studied by means of antagonists and/or ... such adaptive changes are less likely to occur in situations where adenosine acts as a distress signal. The relevance to sleep ... Adenosine is a candidate sleep substance. It can be both a distress signal of importance in pathology and a physiological ... animals (mostly mice) with targeted deletions of receptors or enzymes involved in adenosine metabolism. Whereas adaptive ...
more infohttp://academic.naver.com/article.naver?doc_id=179726312
Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of A2B adenosine receptors | Pubblicazioni Scientifiche Unicam  Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of A2B adenosine receptors | Pubblicazioni Scientifiche Unicam
The low affinity A2B adenosine receptor, like any other adenosine receptor subtype, belongs to the super-family of seven ... The low affinity A2B adenosine receptor, like any other adenosine receptor subtype, belongs to the super-family of seven ... Hence, A2B adenosine receptor agonists could be useful in the treatment of cardiac diseases like hypertension or myocardial ... Hence, A2B adenosine receptor agonists could be useful in the treatment of cardiac diseases like hypertension or myocardial ...
more infohttps://pubblicazioni.unicam.it/handle/11581/242340
Adenosine receptor antagonists alter the stability of human epileptic GABAA receptors. | IRIS Uniroma1  Adenosine receptor antagonists alter the stability of human epileptic GABAA receptors. | IRIS Uniroma1
... or with adenosine deaminase (ADA) (1 units/ml), that inactivates adenosine. It was also found that selective antagonists of A2B ... or with adenosine deaminase (ADA) (1 units/ml), that inactivates adenosine. It was also found that selective antagonists of A2B ... I(GABA) run-down from wt mice was not affected by 2-CA, suggesting maximal ARs activity by endogenous adenosine. Our findings ... I(GABA) run-down from wt mice was not affected by 2-CA, suggesting maximal ARs activity by endogenous adenosine. Our findings ...
more infohttps://iris.uniroma1.it/handle/11573/224547
Adenosine diphosphate - Wikipedia  Adenosine diphosphate - Wikipedia
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ... ADP in the blood is converted to adenosine by the action of ecto-ADPases, inhibiting further platelet activation via adenosine ... ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ... The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5' carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1' carbon ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_diphosphate
Adenocor (adenosine)  Adenocor (adenosine)
Adenosine is also available without a brand name, ie as the generic medicine. Adenosine is a natural body chemical that is used ... Adenocor injection contains the active ingredient adenosine, which is a type of medicine called an anti-arrhythmic. ... Adenosine is also available without a brand name, ie as the generic medicine. Adenosine is a natural body chemical that is used ... Adenosine is also available without a brand name, ie as the generic medicine. Adenosine is a natural body chemical that is used ...
more infohttps://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/heart-blood/a6153/adenocor-adenosine/
Adenosine triphosphate  Adenosine triphosphate
... 2007 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Chemical compounds. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate. ... adenosine and other nucleosides (ADO , AMP , ADP , ATP). P1 receptors have A1, A2a, A2b, and A3 subtypes ('A' as a remnant of ... Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), discovered in 1929 by Karl Lohmann, is a multifunctional nucleotide primarily known in ... adenosine - itself composed of an adenine ring and a ribose sugar - and three phosphate groups (triphosphate). The phosphoryl ...
more infohttp://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~rwest/wikispeedia/wpcd/wp/a/Adenosine_triphosphate.htm
Adenosine - Wikipedia  Adenosine - Wikipedia
In the US, Adenosine is marketed as Adenocard. In India Adenosine is sold as Adenoscan (Cipla) All adenosine receptor subtypes ... and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Adenosine itself is ... When adenosine enters the circulation, it is broken down by adenosine deaminase, which is present in red cells and the vessel ... Adenosine is believed to be an anti-inflammatory agent at the A2A receptor. Topical treatment of adenosine to foot wounds in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine
Adenosine and Pain | SpringerLink  Adenosine and Pain | SpringerLink
Adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) have been shown to be involved in antinociception in preclinical models for several decades. Thus ... Keil GJ, DeLander GE (1994) Adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase inhibition modulate spinal adenosine- and opioid agonist- ... Sawynok J. (2013) Adenosine and Pain. In: Masino S., Boison D. (eds) Adenosine. Springer, New York, NY. * First Online 23 July ... Adenosine Antinociception Analgesia Adenosine kinase inhibitors Ectonucleotidases Acupuncture Caffeine Spinal cord This is a ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-3903-5_17
Adenosine triphosphatase | enzyme | Britannica.com  Adenosine triphosphatase | enzyme | Britannica.com
Other articles where Adenosine triphosphatase is discussed: cell: The sodium-potassium pump: An enzyme called sodium-potassium- ... adenosine triphosphate (ATP)Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is the primary carrier of energy in cells. The water-mediated ... ": { "url": "/science/adenosine-triphosphatase", "shareUrl": "https://www.britannica.com/science/adenosine-triphosphatase", " ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/adenosine-triphosphatase
Category:Adenosine triphosphatases - Wikimedia Commons  Category:Adenosine triphosphatases - Wikimedia Commons
Media in category "Adenosine triphosphatases". The following 74 files are in this category, out of 74 total. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Adenosine_triphosphatases&oldid=131322728" ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Adenosine_triphosphatases
  • Adenosine deaminase deficiency (also called ADA deficiency or ADA-SCID) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that causes immunodeficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these compounds are still derived from adenosine or from the xanthine family, but researchers in this area have also discovered many selective adenosine receptor ligands that are entirely structurally distinct, giving a wide range of possible directions for future research. (wikipedia.org)
  • PROPOSED COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: Potent and selective antagoists of A2B adenosine receptors have great commercial potential for the treatment of asthma and other allergic or autoimmune diseases. (sbir.gov)
  • Adenosine Therapeutics will also prepare mast cells from canine and human lung and determine if candidate compounds can prevent their degranulation. (sbir.gov)
more