The extension of endometrial tissue (ENDOMETRIUM) into the MYOMETRIUM. It usually occurs in women in their reproductive years and may result in a diffusely enlarged uterus with ectopic and benign endometrial glands and stroma.
A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.
Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.
A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the UTERUS and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT but can occur in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Excision of the uterus.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
Painful menstruation.
Benign proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM in the UTERUS. Endometrial hyperplasia is classified by its cytology and glandular tissue. There are simple, complex (adenomatous without atypia), and atypical hyperplasia representing also the ascending risk of becoming malignant.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
A benign neoplasm of muscle (usually smooth muscle) with glandular elements. It occurs most frequently in the uterus and uterine ligaments. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
Radiography of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of a contrast medium.
The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The state of having multiple leiomyomas throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.
A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.
Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
The transitional period before and after MENOPAUSE. Perimenopausal symptoms are associated with irregular MENSTRUAL CYCLE and widely fluctuated hormone levels. They may appear 6 years before menopause and subside 2 to 5 years after menopause.
Dilatation of the cervix uteri followed by a scraping of the endometrium with a curette.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.
A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.

Adenomyosis and subfertility: a systematic review of prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and fertility outcomes. (1/8)

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Functional gene polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase-1 is associated with benign hyperplasia of myo- and endometrium in the Russian population. (2/8)

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Microscopic endometrial perivascular epithelioid cell nodules: a case report with the earliest presentation of a uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumor. (3/8)

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Ultrasound diagnosed adenomyosis has a negative impact on successful implantation following GnRH antagonist IVF treatment. (4/8)

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How common is adenomyosis? A prospective study of prevalence using transvaginal ultrasound in a gynaecology clinic. (5/8)

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An update on adenomyosis. (6/8)

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The expression and functionality of stromal caveolin 1 in human adenomyosis. (7/8)

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beta-Catenin activation contributes to the pathogenesis of adenomyosis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition. (8/8)

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Adenomyosis is a medical condition that affects the uterus (womb). It occurs when the tissue that normally lines the uterus (endometrium) grows into the muscular wall of the uterus. This causes the uterine wall to thicken and can result in heavy, prolonged menstrual periods, as well as pain during menstruation, sexual intercourse, or pelvic examinations.

In some cases, adenomyosis may cause no symptoms at all, while in others it can lead to significant discomfort and impact a woman's quality of life. The exact causes of adenomyosis are not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to hormonal factors, inflammation, and previous uterine trauma or surgery.

Adenomyosis is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, although in some cases a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for adenomyosis include medication to manage pain and reduce heavy menstrual bleeding, hormonal therapies to help regulate menstrual cycles, and in severe cases, surgery to remove all or part of the uterus (hysterectomy).

Endometriosis is a medical condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus (endometrium) grows outside the uterine cavity, most commonly on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the pelvic peritoneum. This misplaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it would inside the uterus, thickening, breaking down, and bleeding with each menstrual cycle. However, because it is outside the uterus, this blood and tissue have no way to exit the body and can lead to inflammation, scarring, and the formation of adhesions (tissue bands that bind organs together).

The symptoms of endometriosis may include pelvic pain, heavy menstrual periods, painful intercourse, and infertility. The exact cause of endometriosis is not known, but several theories have been proposed, including retrograde menstruation (the backflow of menstrual blood through the fallopian tubes into the pelvic cavity), genetic factors, and immune system dysfunction.

Endometriosis can be diagnosed through a combination of methods, such as medical history, physical examination, imaging tests like ultrasound or MRI, and laparoscopic surgery with tissue biopsy. Treatment options for endometriosis include pain management, hormonal therapies, and surgical intervention to remove the misplaced endometrial tissue. In severe cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be recommended, but this is typically considered a last resort due to its impact on fertility and quality of life.

Uterine diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the uterus, which is the reproductive organ in females where fetal development occurs. These diseases can be categorized into structural abnormalities, infectious diseases, and functional disorders. Here are some examples:

1. Structural abnormalities: These include congenital malformations such as septate uterus or bicornuate uterus, as well as acquired conditions like endometrial polyps, fibroids (benign tumors of the muscular wall), and adenomyosis (where the endometrial tissue grows into the muscular wall).

2. Infectious diseases: The uterus can be affected by various infections, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic agents. Examples include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tuberculosis, and candidiasis.

3. Functional disorders: These are conditions that affect the normal functioning of the uterus without any apparent structural abnormalities or infections. Examples include dysmenorrhea (painful periods), menorrhagia (heavy periods), and endometriosis (where the endometrial tissue grows outside the uterus).

4. Malignant diseases: Uterine cancer, including endometrial cancer and cervical cancer, are significant health concerns for women.

5. Other conditions: Miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility can also be considered as uterine diseases since they involve the abnormal functioning or structural issues of the uterus.

Leiomyoma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that originates from the smooth muscle cells. It most commonly occurs in the uterus, where it is also known as a fibroid, but can also develop in other parts of the body such as the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system. Leiomyomas are typically slow-growing and often cause no symptoms, although they can lead to various complications depending on their size and location. Treatment options for leiomyomas include surveillance, medication, or surgical removal.

Uterine neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the uterus, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from different types of cells within the uterus, leading to various types of uterine neoplasms. The two main categories of uterine neoplasms are endometrial neoplasms and uterine sarcomas.

Endometrial neoplasms develop from the endometrium, which is the inner lining of the uterus. Most endometrial neoplasms are classified as endometrioid adenocarcinomas, arising from glandular cells in the endometrium. Other types include serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma.

Uterine sarcomas, on the other hand, are less common and originate from the connective tissue (stroma) or muscle (myometrium) of the uterus. Uterine sarcomas can be further divided into several subtypes, such as leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma.

Uterine neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, pelvic pain, and difficulty urinating or having bowel movements. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of imaging tests (such as ultrasound, CT, or MRI scans) and tissue biopsies to determine the type and extent of the neoplasm. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and patient's overall health but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy.

A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the uterus (womb). Depending on the specific medical condition and necessity, a hysterectomy may also include the removal of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and surrounding tissues. There are different types of hysterectomies, including:

1. Total hysterectomy: The uterus and cervix are removed.
2. Supracervical (or subtotal) hysterectomy: Only the upper part of the uterus is removed, leaving the cervix intact.
3. Radical hysterectomy: This procedure involves removing the uterus, cervix, surrounding tissues, and the upper part of the vagina. It is typically performed in cases of cervical cancer.
4. Oophorectomy: The removal of one or both ovaries can be performed along with a hysterectomy depending on the patient's medical condition and age.
5. Salpingectomy: The removal of one or both fallopian tubes can also be performed along with a hysterectomy if needed.

The reasons for performing a hysterectomy may include but are not limited to: uterine fibroids, heavy menstrual bleeding, endometriosis, adenomyosis, pelvic prolapse, cervical or uterine cancer, and chronic pelvic pain. The choice of the type of hysterectomy depends on the patient's medical condition, age, and personal preferences.

Menorrhagia is a medical term used to describe abnormally heavy or prolonged menstrual periods. It's often characterized by the loss of an excessive amount of menstrual blood (usually more than 80 ml) and can last longer than normal, typically over seven days. This condition can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, causing fatigue, distress, and restrictions in daily activities due to the need for frequent pad or tampon changes.

The causes of menorrhagia are varied and can include hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids or polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy complications, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions such as coagulopathies or thyroid disorders. In some cases, the cause may remain undetermined even after a thorough evaluation.

Treatment options for menorrhagia depend on the underlying cause and range from medication management with hormonal therapies, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or tranexamic acid to procedural interventions like endometrial ablation, hysteroscopic resection of polyps or fibroids, or ultimately hysterectomy in severe cases. It is essential for individuals experiencing menorrhagia to consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best course of action based on their specific situation and medical history.

The myometrium is the middle and thickest layer of the uterine wall, composed mainly of smooth muscle cells. It is responsible for the strong contractions during labor and can also contribute to bleeding during menstruation or childbirth. The myometrium is able to stretch and expand to accommodate a growing fetus and then contract during labor to help push the baby out. It also plays a role in maintaining the structure and shape of the uterus, and in protecting the internal organs within the pelvic cavity.

Dysmenorrhea is a medical term that refers to painful menstrual cramps and discomfort during menstruation. It's one of the most common gynecological complaints among women of reproductive age. There are two types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary.

1. Primary Dysmenorrhea: This type is more common and occurs in women who have had normal, pelvic anatomy. The pain is caused by strong contractions of the uterus due to the production of prostaglandins (hormone-like substances that are involved in inflammation and pain). Primary dysmenorrhea usually starts soon after menarche (the beginning of menstruation) and tends to improve with age, particularly after childbirth.
2. Secondary Dysmenorrhea: This type is less common and occurs due to an underlying medical condition affecting the reproductive organs, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), or adenomyosis. The pain associated with secondary dysmenorrhea tends to worsen over time and may be accompanied by other symptoms like irregular menstrual bleeding, pain during intercourse, or chronic pelvic pain.

Treatment for dysmenorrhea depends on the type and underlying cause. For primary dysmenorrhea, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or naproxen can help alleviate pain by reducing prostaglandin production. Hormonal birth control methods like oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices (IUDs) may also be prescribed to reduce menstrual pain. For secondary dysmenorrhea, treatment typically involves addressing the underlying medical condition causing the pain.

Endometrial hyperplasia is a condition in which the lining of the uterus (endometrium) becomes thickened due to an overgrowth of cells. This occurs as a result of excessive estrogen stimulation without adequate progesterone to balance it. The thickening of the endometrium can range from mild to severe, and in some cases, it may lead to the development of abnormal or precancerous cells.

There are different types of endometrial hyperplasia, including simple hyperplasia, complex hyperplasia, and atypical hyperplasia. Simple hyperplasia has an increased number of glands but no significant architectural distortion, while complex hyperplasia shows crowded glands with architectural complexity. Atypical hyperplasia is a more serious condition characterized by the presence of abnormal cells, which can increase the risk of developing endometrial cancer if left untreated.

The primary symptoms of endometrial hyperplasia include irregular menstrual periods, heavy or prolonged bleeding, and postmenopausal bleeding. The diagnosis typically involves a transvaginal ultrasound and an endometrial biopsy to evaluate the tissue sample for cell changes. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of hyperplasia, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Hormonal therapy, progestin-based medications, or a hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) may be recommended to manage this condition.

The endometrium is the innermost layer of the uterus, which lines the uterine cavity and has a critical role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It is composed of glands and blood vessels that undergo cyclic changes under the influence of hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone. During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium thickens in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, it will break down and be shed, resulting in menstruation. In contrast, if implantation takes place, the endometrium provides essential nutrients to support the developing embryo and placenta throughout pregnancy.

Adenomyoma is a benign (non-cancerous) growth that occurs when the glands and muscle tissue from the lining of the uterus (endometrium) become embedded in the muscular wall of the uterus (myometrium). This condition most commonly affects women in their 40s and 50s, and it can cause symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding, painful periods, and pelvic pain or discomfort.

The term "adenomyoma" is derived from two words: "adeno," which means gland, and "myoma," which refers to a benign muscle tumor. Therefore, an adenomyoma can be thought of as a benign growth that contains both glandular tissue and muscle tissue.

Adenomyomas are typically found in the lower part of the uterus, near the cervix, and they can vary in size from small nodules to larger masses. In some cases, adenomyomas may cause no symptoms at all, while in other cases, they can lead to significant discomfort and pain.

The exact cause of adenomyoma is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to hormonal factors, as well as trauma or injury to the uterus. Treatment options for adenomyoma may include medication to manage symptoms, such as pain relievers or hormone therapy, or surgical intervention, such as a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus).

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. A medicated IUD is a type of IUD that contains hormones, which are released slowly over time to provide additional benefits beyond just contraception.

There are two types of medicated IUDs available in the US market: levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD). The LNG-IUS releases a progestin hormone called levonorgestrel, which thickens cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, thins the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant, and can also inhibit ovulation in some women. The Cu-IUD is non-hormonal and works by releasing copper ions that create a toxic environment for sperm, preventing them from reaching the egg.

Medicated IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, with typical use failure rates of less than 1% per year. They can remain in place for several years, depending on the brand, and can be removed at any time by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or experience side effects. Common side effects of medicated IUDs may include irregular menstrual bleeding, cramping, and spotting between periods, although these tend to improve over time.

Danazol is a synthetic, orally active androgenic steroid with antigonadotropic properties. It is used primarily in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, and hereditary angioedema. Danazol works by suppressing the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn inhibits the growth of ovarian tissue and reduces the production of estrogen and progesterone. This leads to a decrease in the symptoms associated with endometriosis and fibrocystic breast disease. In the case of hereditary angioedema, danazol helps prevent attacks by increasing the levels of a protein called C1 esterase inhibitor, which is necessary for regulating the immune system and preventing inflammation.

The common side effects of danazol include weight gain, acne, oily skin, increased hair growth, changes in menstrual cycle, decreased breast size, deepening of the voice, and emotional lability. Rare but serious side effects may include liver damage, blood clots, and adrenal gland problems. Danazol is contraindicated in pregnancy due to its potential virilizing effects on the fetus. It should be used with caution in individuals with a history of liver disease, heart disease, or seizure disorders.

The medical definition of danazol can be summarized as follows:

Danazol (dan-a-zole)

A synthetic androgenic steroid with antigonadotropic properties, used primarily in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, and hereditary angioedema. Danazol suppresses the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland, inhibiting ovarian tissue growth and reducing estrogen and progesterone production. In hereditary angioedema, danazol increases C1 esterase inhibitor levels to prevent attacks. Common side effects include weight gain, acne, increased hair growth, menstrual changes, decreased breast size, deepened voice, and emotional lability. Rare but serious side effects may involve liver damage, blood clots, or adrenal gland problems. Danazol is contraindicated in pregnancy due to potential virilizing effects on the fetus and should be used with caution in individuals with a history of liver disease, heart disease, or seizure disorders.

Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that involves the use of fluoroscopy and a contrast medium to examine the internal structure of the uterus and fallopian tubes. It is primarily used to diagnose abnormalities related to the shape and size of the uterus, endometrial lining, and fallopian tubes, including blockages or scarring that may affect fertility.

During the procedure, a thin catheter is inserted through the cervix into the uterus, and a contrast medium is injected. The radiologist then takes X-ray images as the contrast fills the uterine cavity and flows through the fallopian tubes. This allows for the visualization of any abnormalities such as blockages, scarring, or structural issues that may be impacting fertility or menstrual function.

HSG is typically performed in a radiology department or outpatient clinic by a trained radiologist or gynecologist. It is usually recommended for women who are experiencing infertility, recurrent miscarriages, or abnormal menstrual bleeding, and may be used as part of an evaluation prior to fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Gravidity is a medical term that refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, regardless of the outcome of the pregnancies. It's a way to quantify a woman's childbearing experience and is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to assess potential risks and complications during pregnancy and childbirth.

For example, a woman who has been pregnant once before would have a gravidity of 1, while a woman who has been pregnant twice would have a gravidity of 2. This term is distinct from parity, which refers to the number of pregnancies that have reached a viable gestational age and resulted in a live birth.

Leiomyomatosis is a medical term that refers to the benign growth (non-cancerous) of smooth muscle cells, which form tumors known as leiomyomas or fibroids. These growths can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, uterus, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs.

The term "leiomyomatosis" is often used to describe a condition where multiple smooth muscle tumors develop in a single organ or throughout the body. For example:

1. Cutaneous leiomyomatosis - Multiple benign tumors of the smooth muscle in the skin.
2. Uterine leiomyomatosis - Multiple fibroids in the uterus, also known as uterine fibroids or myomas.
3. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) leiomyomatosis - Multiple benign smooth muscle tumors in the gastrointestinal tract.
4. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis - Multiple benign smooth muscle tumors spread across the peritoneum, the lining of the abdominal cavity.

These conditions are usually not cancerous but can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size. Treatment options may include surveillance, medication, or surgical removal of the tumors.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. In humans, FSH plays a crucial role in the reproductive system. Specifically, in females, it stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles in the ovary and the production of estrogen. In males, FSH promotes the formation of sperm within the testes' seminiferous tubules. The human FSH is a heterodimer, consisting of two noncovalently associated subunits: α (alpha) and β (beta). The alpha subunit is common to several pituitary hormones, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In contrast, the beta subunit is unique to FSH and determines its biological specificity. The regulation of FSH secretion is primarily controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, involving complex feedback mechanisms with gonadal steroid hormones and inhibins.

Pelvic pain is defined as discomfort or unpleasant sensation in the lower abdominal region, below the belly button, and between the hips. It can be acute (sudden and lasting for a short time) or chronic (persisting for months or even years), and it may be steady or intermittent, mild or severe. The pain can have various causes, including musculoskeletal issues, nerve irritation, infection, inflammation, or organic diseases in the reproductive, urinary, or gastrointestinal systems. Accurate diagnosis often requires a thorough medical evaluation to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Endosonography, also known as endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), is a medical procedure that combines endoscopy and ultrasound to obtain detailed images and information about the digestive tract and surrounding organs. An endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip, is inserted through the mouth or rectum to reach the area of interest. A high-frequency ultrasound transducer at the tip of the endoscope generates sound waves that bounce off body tissues and create echoes, which are then translated into detailed images by a computer.

Endosonography allows doctors to visualize structures such as the esophageal, stomach, and intestinal walls, lymph nodes, blood vessels, and organs like the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. It can help diagnose conditions such as tumors, inflammation, and infections, and it can also be used to guide biopsies or fine-needle aspirations of suspicious lesions.

Overall, endosonography is a valuable tool for the diagnosis and management of various gastrointestinal and related disorders.

A rare disease, also known as an orphan disease, is a health condition that affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States or fewer than 1 in 2,000 people in Europe. There are over 7,000 rare diseases identified, and many of them are severe, chronic, and often life-threatening. The causes of rare diseases can be genetic, infectious, environmental, or degenerative. Due to their rarity, research on rare diseases is often underfunded, and treatments may not be available or well-studied. Additionally, the diagnosis of rare diseases can be challenging due to a lack of awareness and understanding among healthcare professionals.

I'm not aware of a specific medical term called "Ape diseases." However, many primates, including apes, can suffer from diseases that are similar to those that affect humans. Some examples include:

1. Tuberculosis (TB): Both humans and apes can be infected with this bacterial disease, which primarily affects the lungs but can also impact other parts of the body.
2. Hepatitis: Apes can contract various forms of hepatitis, such as hepatitis B and C, just like humans. These viral infections affect the liver and can cause acute or chronic illness.
3. Respiratory infections: Both apes and humans are susceptible to respiratory infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
4. Gastrointestinal diseases: Apes can suffer from gastrointestinal issues, such as diarrhea, due to various bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections.
5. Retroviral infections: Some apes are known to be infected with retroviruses, like simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which is similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). SIV can lead to a condition called simian AIDS in apes.
6. Zoonotic diseases: Apes can contract zoonotic diseases, which are transmitted from animals to humans, such as Ebola and Marburg viruses.
7. Cardiovascular diseases: Apes can develop heart conditions similar to those seen in humans, including hypertension and atherosclerosis.
8. Neurological disorders: Some apes may suffer from neurological issues, like Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease, although research on these topics is still ongoing.

It's important to note that while apes can contract many of the same diseases as humans, there are also numerous diseases specific to each species due to differences in genetics, environment, and behavior.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

Perimenopause is a term used to describe the phase before menopause where the ovaries gradually begin to produce less estrogen. It's also sometimes referred to as the "menopausal transition."

This stage can last for several years, typically starting in a woman's mid-40s, but it can begin in some women as early as their mid-30s or as late as their early 50s. During this time, menstrual cycles may become longer or shorter, and periods may be lighter or heavier.

The most significant sign of perimenopause is the irregularity of periods. However, other symptoms such as hot flashes, sleep disturbances, mood changes, and vaginal dryness can also occur, similar to those experienced during menopause.

Perimenopause ends after a woman has gone 12 months without having a period, which marks the start of menopause.

Dilatation and Curettage (D&C) is a medical procedure commonly performed on the uterus. The term "dilatation" refers to the widening or opening of the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. This is achieved using dilators, which are gradually inserted into the cervical canal to stretch it open.

The term "curettage" refers to the scraping or suctioning out of tissue from the lining of the uterus (endometrium). A curette, a long, loop-shaped surgical instrument, is used to scrape the lining, or suction equipment may be used to remove the tissue.

A D&C procedure is typically performed to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the uterus, such as abnormal uterine bleeding, heavy menstrual periods, endometrial hyperplasia, or to remove residual tissue after a miscarriage or abortion. It's usually a minor surgical procedure that can be done in a hospital, clinic, or doctor's office, and is often performed under local anesthesia, conscious sedation, or general anesthesia depending on the situation and patient preference.

Female infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to conceive after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. The causes of female infertility can be multifactorial and may include issues with ovulation, damage to the fallopian tubes or uterus, endometriosis, hormonal imbalances, age-related factors, and other medical conditions.

Some common causes of female infertility include:

1. Ovulation disorders: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, premature ovarian failure, and hyperprolactinemia can affect ovulation and lead to infertility.
2. Damage to the fallopian tubes: Pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or previous surgeries can cause scarring and blockages in the fallopian tubes, preventing the egg and sperm from meeting.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural issues with the uterus, such as fibroids, polyps, or congenital defects, can interfere with implantation and pregnancy.
4. Age-related factors: As women age, their fertility declines due to a decrease in the number and quality of eggs.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, celiac disease, and autoimmune disorders, can contribute to infertility.

In some cases, female infertility can be treated with medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Curettage is a medical procedure that involves scraping or removing tissue from the lining of an organ or body cavity, typically performed using a curette, which is a long, thin surgical instrument with a looped or sharp end. In gynecology, curettage is often used to remove tissue from the uterus during a procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C) to diagnose or treat abnormal uterine bleeding, or to remove residual placental or fetal tissue following a miscarriage or abortion. Curettage may also be used in other medical specialties to remove damaged or diseased tissue from areas such as the nose, throat, or skin.

Endometrial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the endometrium, which is the innermost lining of the uterus. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two main types of endometrial cancer are type I, also known as endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and type II, which includes serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and carcinosarcoma.

Type I endometrial cancers are usually estrogen-dependent and associated with risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, and prolonged exposure to estrogen without progesterone. They tend to grow more slowly and have a better prognosis than type II cancers.

Type II endometrial cancers are less common but more aggressive, often presenting at an advanced stage and having a worse prognosis. They are not typically associated with hormonal factors and may occur in women who have gone through menopause.

Endometrial neoplasms can also include benign growths such as polyps, hyperplasia, and endometriosis. While these conditions are not cancerous, they can increase the risk of developing endometrial cancer and should be monitored closely by a healthcare provider.

Leuprolide is a synthetic hormonal analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or LHRH). It acts as a potent agonist of GnRH receptors, leading to the suppression of pituitary gland's secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). This, in turn, results in decreased levels of sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen.

Leuprolide is used clinically for the treatment of various conditions related to hormonal imbalances, including:
- Prostate cancer: Leuprolide can help slow down the growth of prostate cancer cells by reducing testosterone levels in the body.
- Endometriosis: By lowering estrogen levels, leuprolide can alleviate symptoms associated with endometriosis such as pelvic pain and menstrual irregularities.
- Central precocious puberty: Leuprolide is used to delay the onset of puberty in children who experience it prematurely by inhibiting the release of gonadotropins.
- Uterine fibroids: Lowering estrogen levels with leuprolide can help shrink uterine fibroids and reduce symptoms like heavy menstrual bleeding and pelvic pain.

Leuprolide is available in various formulations, such as injectable depots or implants, for long-term hormonal suppression. Common side effects include hot flashes, mood changes, and potential loss of bone density due to prolonged hormone suppression.

Menstruation is the regular, cyclical shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) in women and female individuals of reproductive age, accompanied by the discharge of blood and other materials from the vagina. It typically occurs every 21 to 35 days and lasts for approximately 2-7 days. This process is a part of the menstrual cycle, which is under the control of hormonal fluctuations involving follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstruation phase: The beginning of the cycle is marked by the start of menstrual bleeding, which signals the breakdown and shedding of the endometrium due to the absence of pregnancy and low levels of estrogen and progesterone. This phase typically lasts for 2-7 days.

2. Proliferative phase: After menstruation, under the influence of rising estrogen levels, the endometrium starts to thicken and regenerate. The uterine lining becomes rich in blood vessels and glands, preparing for a potential pregnancy. This phase lasts from day 5 until around day 14 of an average 28-day cycle.

3. Secretory phase: Following ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries), which usually occurs around day 14, increased levels of progesterone cause further thickening and maturation of the endometrium. The glands in the lining produce nutrients to support a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, both estrogen and progesterone levels will drop, leading to menstruation and the start of a new cycle.

Understanding menstruation is essential for monitoring reproductive health, identifying potential issues such as irregular periods or menstrual disorders, and planning family planning strategies.

Medical records are organized, detailed collections of information about a patient's health history, including their symptoms, diagnoses, treatments, medications, test results, and any other relevant data. These records are created and maintained by healthcare professionals during the course of providing medical care and serve as an essential tool for continuity, communication, and decision-making in healthcare. They may exist in paper form, electronic health records (EHRs), or a combination of both. Medical records also play a critical role in research, quality improvement, public health, reimbursement, and legal proceedings.

Annexin A2 is a protein found in various types of cells, including those that line the inside of blood vessels. It is a member of the annexin family of proteins, which are characterized by their ability to bind to calcium ions and membranes. Annexin A2 is involved in several cellular processes, including the regulation of ion channels, the modulation of enzyme activity, and the promotion of cell adhesion and migration. It also plays a role in the coagulation of blood, and has been implicated in the development and progression of various diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Infertility is a reproductive health disorder defined as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or due to an impairment of a person's capacity to reproduce either as an individual or with their partner. It can be caused by various factors in both men and women, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, genetic issues, infections, age, lifestyle factors, and others. Infertility can have significant emotional and psychological impacts on individuals and couples experiencing it, and medical intervention may be necessary to help them conceive.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Iatrogenic disease refers to any condition or illness that is caused, directly or indirectly, by medical treatment or intervention. This can include adverse reactions to medications, infections acquired during hospitalization, complications from surgical procedures, or injuries caused by medical equipment. It's important to note that iatrogenic diseases are unintended and often preventable with proper care and precautions.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Estrogen antagonists, also known as antiestrogens, are a class of drugs that block the effects of estrogen in the body. They work by binding to estrogen receptors and preventing the natural estrogen from attaching to them. This results in the inhibition of estrogen-mediated activities in various tissues, including breast and uterine tissue.

There are two main types of estrogen antagonists: selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and pure estrogen receptor downregulators (PERDS), also known as estrogen receptor downregulators (ERDs). SERMs, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, can act as estrogen agonists or antagonists depending on the tissue type. For example, they may block the effects of estrogen in breast tissue while acting as an estrogen agonist in bone tissue, helping to prevent osteoporosis.

PERDS, such as fulvestrant, are pure estrogen receptor antagonists and do not have any estrogen-like activity. They are used primarily for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

Overall, estrogen antagonists play an important role in the management of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and other conditions where inhibiting estrogen activity is beneficial.

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