Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.
A non-invasive imaging method that uses computed tomographic data combined with specialized imaging software to examine the colon.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.
A variant of ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI caused by mutation in the APC gene (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. It is characterized by not only the presence of multiple colonic polyposis but also extracolonic ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT; the EYE; the SKIN; the SKULL; and the FACIAL BONES; as well as malignancy in organs other than the GI tract.
Tumors or cancer of the CECUM.
A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug whose sulfinyl moiety is converted in vivo to an active NSAID analgesic. Specifically, the prodrug is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide which is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This helps to maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects.
Pathological developments in the RECTUM region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
Tumors or cancer of the SIGMOID COLON.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Chemical, spectroscopic, or microscopic detection of extremely small amounts of blood.
A pouch or sac opening from the COLON.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between ASCENDING COLON and DESCENDING COLON. It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon.
Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
A childhood counterpart of abdominal or extra-abdominal desmoid tumors, characterized by firm subcutaneous nodules that grow rapidly in any part of the body but do not metastasize. The adult form of abdominal fibromatosis is FIBROMATOSIS, ABDOMINAL. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
A neoplastic disease in which the alveoli and distal bronchi are filled with mucus and mucus-secreting columnar epithelial cells. It is characterized by abundant, extremely tenacious sputum, chills, fever, cough, dyspnea, and pleuritic pain. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

Incidence of rectosigmoid adenomatous polyps in subjects without prior colorectal adenoma or cancer: a prospective cohort study. (1/224)

BACKGROUND: Subjects without known colorectal adenomas or cancer constitute a large majority of the population where 85% of all cases of colorectal cancer are thought to occur. Consequently these people should be considered for screening to decrease mortality from colorectal cancer in the general population. AIMS: To estimate the incidence rate of rectosigmoid adenomas in these subjects. METHODS: Subjects without adenomas or cancer at a previous examination which had visualised the rectosigmoid underwent a fibre endoscopy every three years. Endoscopic data and population characteristics were collected prospectively. RESULTS: A total of 450 subjects fulfilled the selection criteria; 287 (64%) underwent at least two examinations, and 163 had three or more. At the second examination, with a mean delay of 39 months, the incidence rate of rectosigmoid adenomas was 1.50% per patient year. The rate was 1.75% per patient year (95% CI 0.80-3.33) at the third endoscopy with an additional mean delay of 38 months. The cumulative incidence rate at six years was 7.3% (95% CI 4.3-10.3), representing a mean of 1.2% per patient year. This rate increased with age and was higher for men than for women after age adjustment (p< 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rates are very low compared with those of patients with prior adenomas. These results should be considered in establishing rectosigmoid adenoma screening strategies.  (+info)

Dietary determinants of colorectal proliferation in the normal mucosa of subjects with previous colon adenomas. (2/224)

Dietary determinants of colorectal mucosa proliferation were studied in 69 subjects previously operated for at least two sporadic colon adenomas. Information on recent dietary habits was collected by a validated food frequency questionnaire, and proliferation was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation in colorectal biopsies by determining the labeling index (LI) and the percentage of LI in the upper part of the crypt, two parameters that are increased in subjects at high risk of colon cancer. The LI was significantly higher in women as compared with men (P = 0.01). Diet showed several associations with colorectal mucosa proliferation: (a) subjects in the highest tertile of fish consumption had a significantly lower LI (P = 0.0013) compared with those in the lower tertiles [5.20 +/- 1.87 versus 6.80 +/- 2.18 (mean +/- SD)]; (b) subjects with a low red meat consumption had lower proliferation in the upper part of the crypt [2.38 +/- 2.10, 5.30 +/- 4.62, and 5.89 +/- 4.82 in the low, middle, and high tertile of consumption, respectively (mean +/- SD); P = 0.0093]; (c) according to estimated nutrient intakes, the LI was lower in subjects reporting a high intake of starch (P = 0.006) and higher in subjects with a low intake of beta-carotene (P = 0.002). The results show that subjects reporting a diet rich in fish, starch, and beta-carotene and low in red meat had lower colorectal mucosa proliferation and a normal pattern of proliferation along the crypt. Given the correlation between colorectal proliferative activity and colon cancer risk, such a dietary pattern might be beneficial for subjects at high risk of colon cancer.  (+info)

Flat adenomas exist in asymptomatic people: important implications for colorectal cancer screening programmes. (3/224)

BACKGROUND: Flat adenomas are non-exophytic with a flat top or central depression and histologically the depth of dysplastic tissue is never more than twice the mucosal thickness. Flat adenomas frequently contain severely dysplastic tissue, and may progress rapidly through the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Flat lesions have never been described in a British asymptomatic population. AIMS: To determine whether flat adenomas exist in an asymptomatic population participating in a large randomised controlled trial of flexible sigmoidoscopy screening. PATIENTS: A total of 3000 subjects (aged 55-64 years) underwent screening by flexible sigmoidoscopy. METHODS: All polyps were removed and sent for histology. The number of polyps with endoscopic and histological features of flat adenomas was recorded. RESULTS: Three subjects had a total of four flat lesions--that is, one per 1000 people screened. Three contained severely dysplastic tissue, one a focus of adenocarcinoma. Three of the four lesions were less than 5 mm in size and the fourth was 15 mm in diameter. CONCLUSIONS: Flat lesions with severe dysplasia exist in the asymptomatic population. This has major implications for gastroenterologists who should be trained to identify them. Their existence is of importance to molecular biologists and epidemiologists investigating the aetiology of colorectal cancer.  (+info)

Effect of aspirin on prostaglandin E2 formation and transforming growth factor alpha expression in human rectal mucosa from individuals with a history of adenomatous polyps of the colon. (4/224)

Colorectal cancer is the second-most frequent cause of cancer mortality in the United States. Human epidemiology and laboratory studies indicate that aspirin may be an effective colorectal cancer chemopreventive agent. This study was designed to determine whether treatment with 81 mg of aspirin per day for 3 months would alter two putative surrogate end point biomarkers of chemoprevention of colorectal cancer [i.e., mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) formation and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) expression] in normal-appearing rectal mucosa from individuals with a history of adenomatous polyps. Rectal biopsies were obtained by flexible sigmoidoscopy at three sequential time points: (a) after a 1-month placebo run-in period (baseline), (b) after 3 months of ingesting 81 mg of aspirin (as a single tablet) once per day, and (c) after 3 months of ingesting a placebo tablet once per day (washout period). Daily aspirin significantly suppressed PGE2 formation, but this significant suppression was completely reversed when aspirin was withdrawn. The extent of TGF-alpha staining in rectal crypts was also reduced significantly (P = 0.039) by daily aspirin. After a 3-month placebo-washout period, however, the mean extent of TGF-alpha staining was not significantly different from either baseline or the aspirin time point. Thus, 81 mg of aspirin daily significantly reduced rectal mucosal PGE2 formation and TGF-alpha expression in patients with a history of adenomatous polyps. These putative surrogate end point biomarkers may be useful intermediate end points in future colorectal cancer chemoprevention trials.  (+info)

Evaluation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) for cancer chemoprevention: lack of efficacy against nascent adenomatous polyps in the Apc(Min) mouse. (5/224)

Recent experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in the prevention of colorectal cancer. However, the toxicity associated with the long-term use of most classical NSAIDs has limited their usefulness for the purpose of cancer chemoprevention. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, in particular, are sensitive to the adverse side effects of NSAIDs, and these patients also have an increased risk for the development of intestinal cancer. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is an anti-inflammatory drug commonly used in the treatment of IBD and may provide protection against the development of colorectal cancer in these patients. To directly evaluate the ability of 5-ASA to suppress intestinal tumors, we studied several formulations of 5-ASA (free acid, sulfasalazine, and Pentasa) at multiple oral dosage levels [500, 2400, 4800, and 9600 parts/million (ppm)] in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) mouse model of multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min). Although the ApcMin mouse is not a model of colitis-associated neoplasia, it is, nonetheless, a useful model for assessing the ability of anti-inflammatory agents to prevent tumor formation in a genetically preinitiated population of cells. We used a study design in which drug was provided ad libitum through the diet beginning at the time of weaning (28 days of age) until 100 days of age. We included 200 ppm of piroxicam and 160 ppm of sulindac as positive controls, and the negative control was AIN-93G diet alone. Treatment with either piroxicam or sulindac produced statistically significant reductions in intestinal tumor multiplicity (95% and 83% reductions in tumor number, respectively; P < 0.001 versus controls). By contrast, none of the 5-ASA drug formulations or dosage levels produced consistent dose-progressive changes in polyp number, distribution, or size, despite high luminal and serum concentrations of 5-ASA and its primary metabolite N-acetyl-5-ASA. Thus, 5-ASA does not seem to possess direct chemosuppressive activity against the development of nascent intestinal adenomas in the ApcMin mouse. However, because intestinal tumor development in the ApcMin mouse is driven by a germline mutation in the Apc gene rather than by chronic inflammation, we caution that these findings do not definitively exclude the possibility that 5-ASA may exert a chemopreventive effect in human IBD patients.  (+info)

A case-control study of colorectal adenomatous polyps and consumption of foods containing partially hydrogenated oils. (6/224)

The trans fatty acids produced by partially hydrogenating vegetable oils may cause colorectal neoplasia by interfering with cell membrane function or eicosanoid synthesis. This possibility provides a rationale for looking at the relation between colorectal adenomatous polyps and consumption of foods containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs). A total of 516 cases and 551 controls who underwent screening sigmoidoscopy from 1991-1993 were recruited from a prepaid Los Angeles health plan. Subjects were interviewed and given a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Food items containing PHVOs were divided into four groups characterized by principal ingredients and preparation methods: sweetened baked goods, candy bars, oils and condiments, and french fries and chips. After adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, body mass index, smoking, total energy, and red meat and vegetable intake, there was a positive association between polyps and sweetened baked goods [350+ versus <50 kcal/day (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.5)]. No association was found with the other food groups after adjustment for dietary and nondietary covariates. Neither was total dietary trans fatty acid associated with adenomas after adjustment for sweetened baked goods and other covariates. These results do not support the hypothesis that eating foods containing PHVOs increases the risk of colorectal adenomas, but they are consistent with the hypothesis that foods high in fat and sugar and low in fiber and correlated micronutrients increase the risk of adenomas.  (+info)

Reliability and validity of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire in a chemoprevention trial of adenoma recurrence. (7/224)

Various chemoprevention trials have assessed dietary intake by means of food frequency questionnaires. However, it is important to assess the degree to which such questionnaires can measure diet. We conducted reproducibility and validity analyses of our Arizona Food Frequency Questionnaire (AFFQ) in our recently completed, randomized, Phase III chemoprevention trial testing the effects of a wheat bran fiber supplement on colorectal adenoma recurrence. A total of 139 individuals provided a baseline and year 1 AFFQ and a set of 4-day dietary records collected over a period of 1 month. The reproducibility analyses of the AFFQ administered 1 year apart showed a mean intraclass correlation of 0.54 for unadjusted nutrients and 0.48 for energy-adjusted nutrients. The relative validity of the AFFQ, as compared with the average of the 4-day diet records, showed a mean deattenuated correlation of 0.49 (range, 0.22-0.65) for the baseline AFFQ and 0.49 (range, 0.25-0.67) for the year 1 AFFQ. When data from both AFFQs were combined and compared with the diet records, there was a slight improvement in the overall deattenuated correlations (mean, 0.56; range, 0.33-0.71). The correlations we observed for macro- and micronutrient intake were within the overall range of those reported in the literature. Reliability and validity studies of dietary instruments are feasible in the setting of a chemoprevention trial and should be conducted when the instrument's performance has not been previously assessed in the target population.  (+info)

Patterns of proliferative changes in crypts bordering colonic tumors: zonal histology and cell cycle marker expression. (8/224)

Proliferative crypt changes have been noted in mucosa bordering colonic carcinomas, but their biological significance is disputed. We anticipated that zonal patterning of histological changes and cell cycle marker expression would provide clues to the pathogenesis of these border changes. 81 specimens were examined including carcinomas, adenomatours polyps, adenomas with early carcinoma, flat adenomas and aberrant crypt foci. The spatial distribution and frequency of micro-architectural features, and mucosal thickness were determined in a border domain of 150 300 sequential crypts/specimen. Immunocytochemical expression of Ki67 and p53 antigens in crypts also was semi-quantitatively examined. We found that in 100% of carcinomas two histologically abnormal zones (Proximate and Middle) separated tumor from normal mucosa. Differences in the feature frequency between zones were statistically significant (p<0.05). Both zones showed mild increases in crypt cell expression of Ki67, with a statistically significant relationship to zonal patterning (p<0.005). Weak expression of p53 only appeared in rare cells. Crypt elongation with mucosal thickening (1.9x normal, p<0.001) in the Proximate and Middle zones distinguished carcinomas from border changes in all benign lesions, except flat adenomas. Since this change occurs in all cases of carcinoma, there is no correlation with tumor stage or grade. Also in carcinomas, elaborate complexes of attached crypts (connected crypt structures) were characteristic of the Middle zone, so that proximate zone was always architecturally simpler. We conclude, that despite continuous carcinoma growth, the invaded border mucosa maintains a prototypical zonal organization of molecular and histological crypt changes This spatially organized reaction pattern is likely to reflect an interplay between regulated growth and destructive processes in response to advancing carcinoma. Compared to the edges of benign colonic tumors, the edges of carcinomas are distinctive and consistent enough to be diagnostically useful.  (+info)

Adenomatous polyps, also known as adenomas, are benign (noncancerous) growths that develop in the lining of the glandular tissue of certain organs, most commonly occurring in the colon and rectum. These polyps are composed of abnormal glandular cells that can grow excessively and form a mass.

Adenomatous polyps can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. They may be flat or have a stalk (pedunculated). While adenomas are generally benign, they can potentially undergo malignant transformation and develop into colorectal cancer over time if left untreated. The risk of malignancy increases with the size of the polyp and the presence of certain histological features, such as dysplasia (abnormal cell growth).

Regular screening for adenomatous polyps is essential to detect and remove them early, reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Screening methods include colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and stool-based tests.

Colonic polyps are abnormal growths that protrude from the inner wall of the colon (large intestine). They can vary in size, shape, and number. Most colonic polyps are benign, meaning they are not cancerous. However, some types of polyps, such as adenomas, have a higher risk of becoming cancerous over time if left untreated.

Colonic polyps often do not cause any symptoms, especially if they are small. Larger polyps may lead to symptoms like rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits, abdominal pain, or iron deficiency anemia. The exact cause of colonic polyps is not known, but factors such as age, family history, and certain medical conditions (like inflammatory bowel disease) can increase the risk of developing them.

Regular screening exams, such as colonoscopies, are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 to detect and remove polyps before they become cancerous. If you have a family history of colonic polyps or colorectal cancer, your doctor may recommend earlier or more frequent screenings.

A polyp is a general term for a small growth that protrudes from a mucous membrane, such as the lining of the nose or the digestive tract. Polyps can vary in size and shape, but they are usually cherry-sized or smaller and have a stalk or a broad base. They are often benign (noncancerous), but some types of polyps, especially those in the colon, can become cancerous over time.

In the digestive tract, polyps can form in the colon, rectum, stomach, or small intestine. Colorectal polyps are the most common type and are usually found during routine colonoscopies. There are several types of colorectal polyps, including:

* Adenomatous polyps (adenomas): These polyps can become cancerous over time and are the most likely to turn into cancer.
* Hyperplastic polyps: These polyps are usually small and benign, but some types may have a higher risk of becoming cancerous.
* Inflammatory polyps: These polyps are caused by chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, such as from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Polyps can also form in other parts of the body, including the nose, sinuses, ears, and uterus. In most cases, polyps are benign and do not cause any symptoms. However, if they become large enough, they may cause problems such as bleeding, obstruction, or discomfort. Treatment typically involves removing the polyp through a surgical procedure.

Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of numerous adenomatous polyps in the colon and rectum. APC is caused by mutations in the APC gene, which is a tumor suppressor gene that helps regulate cell growth and division. When the APC gene is mutated, it can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of polyps, which can eventually become cancerous.

Individuals with APC typically develop hundreds to thousands of polyps in their colon and rectum, usually beginning in adolescence or early adulthood. If left untreated, APC can lead to colorectal cancer in nearly all affected individuals by the age of 40.

APC is an autosomal dominant disorder, which means that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent. However, some cases of APC may also occur spontaneously due to new mutations in the APC gene. Treatment for APC typically involves surgical removal of the colon and rectum (colectomy) to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Regular surveillance with colonoscopy is also recommended to monitor for the development of new polyps.

Intestinal polyps are abnormal growths that protrude from the lining of the intestines. They can occur in any part of the digestive tract, including the colon and rectum (colorectal polyps), small intestine, or stomach. These growths vary in size, shape, and number. Most intestinal polyps are benign, meaning they are not cancerous. However, some types of polyps, such as adenomatous polyps, can become cancerous over time if left untreated.

Intestinal polyps can be asymptomatic or cause symptoms like rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, or anemia (in cases where there is chronic, slow bleeding). The exact cause of intestinal polyps is not fully understood, but factors such as age, family history, and certain genetic conditions can increase the risk of developing them. Regular screening exams, like colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of polyps to prevent potential complications, including colorectal cancer.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

A colonoscopy is a medical procedure used to examine the large intestine, also known as the colon and rectum. It is performed using a flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end, called a colonoscope, which is inserted into the rectum and gently guided through the entire length of the colon.

The procedure allows doctors to visually inspect the lining of the colon for any abnormalities such as polyps, ulcers, inflammation, or cancer. If any polyps are found during the procedure, they can be removed immediately using special tools passed through the colonoscope. Colonoscopy is an important tool in the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide.

Patients are usually given a sedative to help them relax during the procedure, which is typically performed on an outpatient basis in a hospital or clinic setting. The entire procedure usually takes about 30-60 minutes to complete, although patients should plan to spend several hours at the medical facility for preparation and recovery.

Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein is a tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in regulating cell growth and division. It is encoded by the APC gene, which is located on chromosome 5. The APC protein helps to prevent excessive cell growth and division by inhibiting the activity of a protein called beta-catenin, which promotes cell growth and division when activated.

In individuals with certain genetic disorders, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), mutations in the APC gene can lead to the production of a defective APC protein or no APC protein at all. This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, leading to the development of numerous benign tumors called polyps in the colon and rectum. Over time, some of these polyps may become cancerous, leading to colorectal cancer if left untreated.

APC protein also has other functions in the body, including regulating cell migration and adhesion, and playing a role in maintaining the stability of the cytoskeleton. Mutations in the APC gene have been linked to other types of cancer besides colorectal cancer, including breast, lung, and ovarian cancers.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Nasal polyps are benign (noncancerous) growths that originate from the lining of your nasal passages or sinuses. They most often occur in the area where the sinuses open into the nasal cavity. Small nasal polyps may not cause any problems. But if they grow large enough, they can block your nasal passages and lead to breathing issues, frequent infections and loss of smell.

Nasal polyps are associated with chronic inflammation due to conditions such as asthma, allergic rhinitis or chronic sinusitis. Treatment typically includes medication to reduce the size of the polyps or surgery to remove them. Even after successful treatment, nasal polyps often return.

Sigmoidoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a sigmoidoscope, a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, into the rectum and lower colon (sigmoid colon) to examine these areas for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, polyps, or cancer. The procedure typically allows for the detection of issues in the sigmoid colon and rectum, and can help diagnose conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or colorectal cancer.

There are two types of sigmoidoscopy: flexible sigmoidoscopy and rigid sigmoidoscopy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is more commonly performed because it provides a better view of the lower colon and is less uncomfortable for the patient. Rigid sigmoidoscopy, on the other hand, uses a solid, inflexible tube and is typically used in specific situations such as the removal of foreign objects or certain types of polyps.

During the procedure, patients are usually positioned on their left side with their knees drawn up to their chest. The sigmoidoscope is gently inserted into the rectum and advanced through the lower colon while the doctor examines the lining for any abnormalities. Air may be introduced through the scope to help expand the colon and provide a better view. If polyps or other abnormal tissues are found, they can often be removed during the procedure for further examination and testing.

Sigmoidoscopy is generally considered a safe and well-tolerated procedure. Some patients may experience mild discomfort, bloating, or cramping during or after the exam, but these symptoms typically resolve on their own within a few hours.

Computed tomographic colonography (CTC), also known as virtual colonoscopy, is a medical imaging technique that uses computed tomography (CT) scans to produce detailed images of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. In CTC, specialized software creates two- and three-dimensional images of the colon's inner surface, allowing healthcare providers to examine the colon for polyps, tumors, and other abnormalities.

During a CTC procedure, patients are usually given a mild laxative and asked to follow a clear liquid diet beforehand to clean out the colon. A small tube is inserted into the rectum to inflate the colon with air or carbon dioxide, making it easier to visualize any abnormalities. The patient lies on their back and then their stomach while the CT scanner takes multiple images of the abdomen and pelvis from different angles.

CTC has several advantages over traditional colonoscopy, including less invasiveness, lower risk of complications, faster recovery time, and the ability to examine the entire colon without missing any areas. However, if polyps or other abnormalities are detected during a CTC, a follow-up diagnostic colonoscopy may be necessary for removal or further evaluation.

It is important to note that CTC does not replace traditional colonoscopy as a screening tool for colorectal cancer. While it has similar accuracy in detecting large polyps and cancers, its ability to detect smaller polyps is less reliable compared to optical colonoscopy. Therefore, guidelines recommend using CTC as an alternative option for individuals who cannot or do not wish to undergo traditional colonoscopy, or as a supplemental screening tool for those at higher risk of colorectal cancer.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, leading to an enlargement of the affected area. It's a response to various stimuli such as hormones, chronic irritation, or inflammation. Hyperplasia can be physiological, like the growth of breast tissue during pregnancy, or pathological, like in the case of benign or malignant tumors. The process is generally reversible if the stimulus is removed. It's important to note that hyperplasia itself is not cancerous, but some forms of hyperplasia can increase the risk of developing cancer over time.

Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the rectum, which can be benign or malignant. They are characterized by uncontrolled cell division and can invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). The most common type of rectal neoplasm is rectal cancer, which often begins as a small polyp or growth in the lining of the rectum. Other types of rectal neoplasms include adenomas, carcinoids, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Regular screenings are recommended for early detection and treatment of rectal neoplasms.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

The rectum is the lower end of the digestive tract, located between the sigmoid colon and the anus. It serves as a storage area for feces before they are eliminated from the body. The rectum is about 12 cm long in adults and is surrounded by layers of muscle that help control defecation. The mucous membrane lining the rectum allows for the detection of stool, which triggers the reflex to have a bowel movement.

Barium sulfate is a medication that is commonly used as a contrast material in medical imaging procedures, such as X-rays and CT scans. It works by coating the inside of the digestive tract, making it visible on an X-ray or CT scan and allowing doctors to see detailed images of the stomach, intestines, and other parts of the digestive system.

Barium sulfate is a white, chalky powder that is mixed with water to create a thick, milky liquid. It is generally safe and does not cause significant side effects when used in medical imaging procedures. However, it should not be taken by individuals who have a known allergy to barium or who have certain digestive conditions, such as obstructions or perforations of the bowel.

It's important to note that while barium sulfate is an important tool for medical diagnosis, it is not a treatment for any medical condition and should only be used under the direction of a healthcare professional.

Gardner Syndrome is a rare inherited condition associated with a mutation in the APC gene, which also causes Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This syndrome is characterized by the development of multiple benign tumors called adenomas in the colon and rectum. Additionally, individuals with Gardner Syndrome often develop various types of non-cancerous growths outside the gastrointestinal tract, such as osteomas (benign bone tumors), dental abnormalities, and epidermoid cysts on the skin.

Individuals with this syndrome have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer at a young age, typically before 40 years old, if not monitored and treated appropriately. Other cancers that may develop in association with Gardner Syndrome include duodenal cancer, thyroid cancer, brain tumors (particularly cerebellar medulloblastomas), and adrenal gland tumors.

Regular surveillance through colonoscopies and other diagnostic tests is crucial for early detection and management of potential malignancies in individuals with Gardner Syndrome.

Cecal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the cecum, which is the first part of the large intestine or colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common types of cecal neoplasms include adenomas (benign tumors that can become cancerous over time), carcinoids (slow-growing tumors that usually don't spread), and adenocarcinomas (cancers that start in the glands that line the inside of the cecum).

Symptoms of cecal neoplasms may include changes in bowel habits, such as diarrhea or constipation; abdominal pain or cramping; blood in the stool; and unexplained weight loss. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular screening is recommended for people at high risk for developing colorectal cancer, including those with a family history of the disease or certain genetic mutations.

An enema is a medical procedure in which liquid is introduced into the lower part of the large intestine, specifically the sigmoid colon or rectum, through the anus using a special device called an enema kit. The liquid used can be plain water, saline solution, or a medicated solution, and it is typically retained for a short period of time before being expelled.

The purpose of an enema may vary, but it is often used to relieve constipation, prepare the bowel for medical procedures such as colonoscopy, or administer medications or nutrients that cannot be taken by mouth. Enemas can also be used for therapeutic purposes, such as to stimulate the immune system or promote relaxation.

It is important to follow proper instructions when administering an enema to avoid injury or discomfort. Possible side effects of enemas may include cramping, bloating, nausea, or electrolyte imbalances. If you have any health concerns or conditions that may be affected by an enema, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using one.

APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) gene is a tumor suppressor gene that provides instructions for making a protein called adenomatous polyposis coli. This protein plays a crucial role in regulating the growth and division of cells in the colon and rectum. Specifically, it helps to maintain the stability of the cell's genetic material (DNA) by controlling the process of beta-catenin degradation.

When the APC gene is mutated or altered, it can lead to an accumulation of beta-catenin in the cell, which can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division. This can ultimately lead to the development of colon polyps, which are benign growths that can become cancerous over time if left untreated.

Mutations in the APC gene are associated with several inherited cancer syndromes, including familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and attenuated FAP (AFAP). These conditions are characterized by the development of numerous colon polyps at a young age, which can increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

A precancerous condition, also known as a premalignant condition, is a state of abnormal cellular growth and development that has a higher-than-normal potential to progress into cancer. These conditions are characterized by the presence of certain anomalies in the cells, such as dysplasia (abnormal changes in cell shape or size), which can indicate an increased risk for malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will eventually develop into cancer, and some may even regress on their own. However, individuals with precancerous conditions are often at a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Regular monitoring and appropriate medical interventions, if necessary, can help manage this risk and potentially prevent or detect cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.

Examples of precancerous conditions include:

1. Dysplasia in the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN)
2. Atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular hyperplasia in the breast
3. Actinic keratosis on the skin
4. Leukoplakia in the mouth
5. Barrett's esophagus in the digestive tract

Regular medical check-ups, screenings, and lifestyle modifications are crucial for individuals with precancerous conditions to monitor their health and reduce the risk of cancer development.

Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and pain.

Sulindac is a prodrug, meaning that it is converted into its active form, sulindac sulfide, in the body. Sulindac sulfide has both analgesic (pain-relieving) and anti-inflammatory effects, making it useful for treating conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.

Like other NSAIDs, sulindac can cause side effects such as stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage, especially when taken at high doses or for long periods of time. It should be used with caution in people with a history of gastrointestinal (GI) problems, kidney disease, or liver disease.

It is important to note that this information is intended to supplement, not substitute for, the expertise and judgment of healthcare professionals. It is always recommended to consult with a doctor or pharmacist for medical advice.

Rectal diseases refer to conditions that affect the structure or function of the rectum, which is the lower end of the large intestine, just above the anus. The rectum serves as a storage area for stool before it is eliminated from the body. Some common rectal diseases include:

1. Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the rectum or anus that can cause pain, itching, bleeding, and discomfort.
2. Rectal cancer: Abnormal growth of cells in the rectum that can invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Anal fissures: Small tears in the lining of the anus that can cause pain, bleeding, and itching.
4. Rectal prolapse: A condition where the rectum slips outside the anus, causing discomfort, fecal incontinence, and other symptoms.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the digestive tract, including the rectum, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
6. Rectal abscess: A collection of pus in the rectum caused by an infection, which can cause pain, swelling, and fever.
7. Fistula-in-ano: An abnormal connection between the rectum and the skin around the anus, which can cause drainage of pus or stool.
8. Rectal foreign bodies: Objects that are accidentally or intentionally inserted into the rectum and can cause injury, infection, or obstruction.

These are just a few examples of rectal diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the rectum. If you experience any symptoms related to the rectum, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Sigmoid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the sigmoid colon, which is the lower portion of the large intestine that extends from the descending colon to the rectum. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms, such as adenomas, are typically removed through a polypectomy during a colonoscopy to prevent their potential transformation into malignant tumors. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are often referred to as sigmoid colon cancers and can be classified into different types based on their cellular origin, such as adenocarcinomas, lymphomas, carcinoids, or sarcomas.

Adenocarcinomas are the most common type of sigmoid neoplasm, accounting for more than 95% of all cases. These tumors originate from the glandular cells lining the colon's inner surface and can invade surrounding tissues, leading to local spread or distant metastasis if left untreated. Early detection and removal of sigmoid neoplasms significantly improve treatment outcomes and overall prognosis.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor (not cancerous), which arises from glandular epithelial cells and is covered by a thin layer of connective tissue. These tumors can develop in various locations within the body, including the ovaries, pancreas, and other organs that contain glands.

There are two main types of cystadenomas: serous and mucinous. Serous cystadenomas are filled with a clear or watery fluid, while mucinous cystadenomas contain a thick, gelatinous material. Although they are generally not harmful, these tumors can grow quite large and cause discomfort or other symptoms due to their size or location. In some cases, cystadenomas may undergo malignant transformation and develop into cancerous tumors, known as cystadenocarcinomas. Regular medical follow-up and monitoring are essential for individuals diagnosed with cystadenomas to ensure early detection and treatment of any potential complications.

Occult blood refers to the presence of blood in the stool or gastrointestinal tract that is not visible to the naked eye. It is typically detected through chemical tests, such as fecal occult blood tests (FOBT) or fecal immunochemical tests (FIT), which can detect small amounts of blood in the stool. The presence of occult blood may indicate a variety of gastrointestinal conditions, including colorectal cancer, polyps, ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, and other digestive disorders. It is important to follow up with medical evaluation if occult blood is detected, as early detection and treatment of underlying conditions can improve outcomes.

A diverticulum of the colon is a small sac or pouch that forms in the wall of the large intestine (colon). These sacs usually develop in areas where the blood vessels pass through the muscle layer of the colon, creating a weak spot that eventually bulges outward. Diverticula can occur anywhere along the length of the colon, but they are most commonly found in the lower part of the colon, also known as the sigmoid colon.

Diverticula themselves are not harmful and often do not cause any symptoms. However, when these sacs become inflamed or infected, it can lead to a condition called diverticulitis, which can cause pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, constipation, or diarrhea. Diverticulitis is usually treated with antibiotics and a liquid diet, but in severe cases, surgery may be required.

Risk factors for developing colonic diverticula include aging, obesity, smoking, low fiber intake, and lack of physical activity. Regular screening is recommended for individuals over the age of 50 to detect and prevent complications associated with diverticular disease.

The transverse colon is the section of the large intestine that runs horizontally across the abdomen, located between the ascending colon and the descending colon. It receives digested food material from the left side of the cecum via the transverse mesocolon, a double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches it to the posterior abdominal wall.

The transverse colon is responsible for absorbing water, electrolytes, and vitamins from the digested food material before it moves into the distal sections of the large intestine. It also contains a large number of bacteria that help in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and the production of certain vitamins, such as vitamin K and biotin.

The transverse colon is highly mobile and can change its position within the abdomen depending on factors such as respiration, digestion, and posture. It is also prone to various pathological conditions, including inflammation (colitis), diverticulosis, and cancer.

A germ-line mutation is a genetic change that occurs in the egg or sperm cells (gametes), and thus can be passed down from parents to their offspring. These mutations are present throughout the entire body of the offspring, as they are incorporated into the DNA of every cell during embryonic development.

Germ-line mutations differ from somatic mutations, which occur in other cells of the body that are not involved in reproduction. While somatic mutations can contribute to the development of cancer and other diseases within an individual, they are not passed down to future generations.

It's important to note that germ-line mutations can have significant implications for medical genetics and inherited diseases. For example, if a parent has a germ-line mutation in a gene associated with a particular disease, their offspring may have an increased risk of developing that disease as well.

Beta-catenin is a protein that plays a crucial role in gene transcription and cell-cell adhesion. It is a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway, which regulates various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adults.

In the absence of Wnt signals, beta-catenin forms a complex with other proteins, including adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and axin, which targets it for degradation by the proteasome. When Wnt ligands bind to their receptors, this complex is disrupted, allowing beta-catenin to accumulate in the cytoplasm and translocate to the nucleus. In the nucleus, beta-catenin interacts with T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors to activate the transcription of target genes involved in cell fate determination, survival, and proliferation.

Mutations in the genes encoding components of the Wnt signaling pathway, including beta-catenin, have been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer, developmental disorders, and degenerative conditions.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Endoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through a small incision. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the physician to visualize the internal structures and detect any abnormalities, such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. Endoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as taking tissue samples for biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps or performing minimally invasive surgeries.

Aggressive fibromatosis, also known as Desmoid tumor or Desmoid-type fibromatosis, is a rare, non-cancerous (benign) connective tissue neoplasm. It is characterized by the proliferation of fibroblasts and excessive deposition of collagen in the affected area.

Aggressive fibromatosis typically involves the deep soft tissues such as muscle, fascia, or aponeurosis. The tumor can grow aggressively, invading surrounding tissues but rarely metastasizing to distant organs. It can cause significant morbidity due to local invasion and destruction of adjacent structures.

The exact cause of aggressive fibromatosis is unknown, although it has been associated with genetic mutations in the beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) or familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Treatment options for aggressive fibromatosis include surgical resection, radiation therapy, medical management with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The choice of treatment depends on the location, size, growth rate, and symptoms associated with the tumor.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Duodenal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine that receives digestive secretions from the pancreas and bile duct. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms include adenomas, leiomyomas, lipomas, and hamartomas. They are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bleeding, or obstruction of the intestine.

Malignant neoplasms include adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids), lymphomas, and sarcomas. They are more aggressive and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, anemia, or bowel obstruction.

The diagnosis of duodenal neoplasms is usually made through imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI, or endoscopy with biopsy. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the tumor and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these modalities.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Cytoskeletal proteins are a type of structural proteins that form the cytoskeleton, which is the internal framework of cells. The cytoskeleton provides shape, support, and structure to the cell, and plays important roles in cell division, intracellular transport, and maintenance of cell shape and integrity.

There are three main types of cytoskeletal proteins: actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Actin filaments are thin, rod-like structures that are involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and cell division. Intermediate filaments are thicker than actin filaments and provide structural support to the cell. Microtubules are hollow tubes that are involved in intracellular transport, cell division, and maintenance of cell shape.

Cytoskeletal proteins are composed of different subunits that polymerize to form filamentous structures. These proteins can be dynamically assembled and disassembled, allowing cells to change their shape and move. Mutations in cytoskeletal proteins have been linked to various human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and muscular dystrophies.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

Intestinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the intestines, which can be benign or malignant. These growths are called neoplasms and they result from uncontrolled cell division. In the case of intestinal neoplasms, these growths occur in the small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, or appendix.

Benign intestinal neoplasms are not cancerous and often do not invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to obstruct the intestines or cause bleeding. Common types of benign intestinal neoplasms include polyps, leiomyomas, and lipomas.

Malignant intestinal neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant intestinal neoplasm is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells lining the inside of the intestines. Other types of malignant intestinal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and carcinoid tumors.

Symptoms of intestinal neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and type. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fatigue. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "vegetables" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a dietary category that includes various plant-based foods, typically referring to the edible parts of herbaceous plants excluding fruit (but including seeds), such as leaves, stems, roots, tubers, and bulbs.

However, in a nutritional or clinical context, vegetables are often defined by their nutrient content. For example, they may be classified as foods that are high in certain vitamins, minerals, and fiber, and low in calories and fat. Different healthcare professionals or organizations might have slightly different definitions or classifications of what constitutes a vegetable, but there is no single medical definition for this term.

Pulmonary adenomatosis is a rare condition that is characterized by the abnormal growth of benign tumors (adenomas) in the lungs. These tumors are made up of glands and can cause thickening and enlargement of the lung tissue, which can lead to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. In some cases, pulmonary adenomatosis may also be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. It is important to note that this condition is different from adenocarcinoma, which is a type of lung cancer that can also arise in the glands of the lungs.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Adenomatous polyps are considered precursors to cancer and cancer becomes invasive once malignant cells cross the muscularis ... A colorectal polyp is a polyp (fleshy growth) occurring on the lining of the colon or rectum. Untreated colorectal polyps can ... Colorectal polyps can broadly be classified as follows: hyperplastic, neoplastic (adenomatous and malignant), hamartomatous and ... The polyps often bleeds and may cause obstruction that would require surgery. Any polyps larger than 1.5 cm needs removal and ...
Adenomatous polyps of the colon". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (24): 2551-7. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp063038. PMID 17167138. Crockett, SD; ... rather than sessile serrated polyp or adenoma. Polyp table Colonic polyps Colorectal polyps Colorectal carcinoma Microsatellite ... Serrated polyps include SSLs, hyperplastic polyps, and traditional serrated adenomas. Diagnosis of this disease is made by the ... Sessile serrated lesions account for about 25% of all serrated polyps. Advanced SSLs with cytological dysplasia are rare in ...
About 5% of people aged 60 will have at least one adenomatous polyp of 1 cm diameter or greater. Multiple adenomatous polyps ... There are three types of adenomatous polyp: Tubular adenomas (tube-like shape) are the most common of the adenomatous polyps; ... Polyps that are pedunculated (with a stalk) are usually less dangerous than sessile polyps (flat polyps). Sessile polyps have a ... Inflammatory fibroid polyp Adenomatous polyps, or adenomas, are polyps that grow on the lining of the colon and which carry a ...
Adenomatous polyps of the colon". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (24): 2551-7. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp063038. PMID 17167138. (Articles with ... "Polyps of the Colon and Rectum". MSD Manual. Last full review/revision June 2019 Bosman, F. T. (2010). WHO classification of ... Colorectal cancer Colorectal polyp Hardcastle, J. D.; Armitage, N. C. (1984). "Early diagnosis of colorectal cancer: A review ... Updated: Oct 24, 2016 Rosty, C; Hewett, D. G.; Brown, I. S.; Leggett, B. A.; Whitehall, V. L. (2013). "Serrated polyps of the ...
In FAP, adenomatous polyps are present in the colon. The polyps progress into colon cancer unless removed. The APC gene is a ... Skin tags, vocal chord polyps, and hyperplastic polyps of the colon are often referred to as benign, but they are overgrowths ... A prominent and well studied example of this phenomenon is the tubular adenoma, a common type of colon polyp which is an ... Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a familial cancer syndrome caused by mutations in the APC gene. ...
"Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps". The Cochrane Database of Systematic ... is weak evidence calcium supplementation might have a preventative effect against developing colorectal adenomatous polyps, but ...
Drinking five glasses of water a day is linked to a decrease in the risk of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps. ... During colonoscopy, small polyps may be removed if found. If a large polyp or tumor is found, a biopsy may be performed to ... As more than 80% of colorectal cancers arise from adenomatous polyps, screening for this cancer is effective for both early ... If a villous polyp, a polyp >1 centimeter or high-grade dysplasia is found, it can be repeated after 3 years, then every 5 ...
... adenomatous polyp or polypoid adenoma. Adenomatous polyps may be classified based on morphology in order to identify lesions at ... For example, adenomatous polyps in the colon may be pedunculated (lobular head with a long slender stalk) or sessile (broad ... Adenomas of the colon, also called adenomatous polyps, are quite prevalent. They are found commonly at colonoscopy. They are ... In the common case of removing one or two of these polyps from the colon from a patient with no particular risk factors for ...
Colorectal cancer Polyp (medicine) Adenoma Adenomatous polyps Colorectal polyp Genetic testing Soravia, C.; Berk, T.; Madlensky ... Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited condition in which numerous adenomatous polyps form ... Absence of polyps does not 'clear' a person, as polyps can develop later in life; also a few polyps over time are not that ... Therefore, an absence of polyps in, for example, the rectum, may not of itself be sufficient to confirm absence of polyps. It ...
... an hPG80 increase has been observed in patients with adenomatous polyps. hPG80 is therefore expressed at all stages by the ... In addition, an increase in hPG80 has been observed in hyperplastic polyps that have progressed to cancer. hPG80 may also be a ... Adenomatous polyposis coli) coding gene or the β-catenin coding gene. Mutations induction into normal intestinal stem cells is ... "A New Biomarker That Predicts Colonic Neoplasia Outcome in Patients with Hyperplastic Colonic Polyps". Cancer Prevention ...
Ben-Horin, S.; Izhaki, Z.; Haj-Natur, O.; Segev, S.; Eliakim, R.; Avidan, B. (2016). "Rarity of adenomatous polyps in ... Ben-Horin, S., Itzhaki, Z., Haj-Natour, O. (2016), "Rarity of Adenomatous polyps in ulcerative colitis: Implications for ...
In 2001, Merck commenced the APPROVe (Adenomatous Polyp PRevention On Vioxx) study, a three-year trial with the primary aim of ... Adenomatous Polyp Prevention on Vioxx (APPROVe) Trial Investigators) (March 2005). "Cardiovascular events associated with ... evaluating the efficacy of rofecoxib for the prophylaxis of colorectal polyps. Celecoxib had already been approved for this ...
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary disease that is characterized with development of numerous colon polyps. A ... 1998). "Enhanced intestinal adenomatous polyp formation in Pms2-/-;Min mice". Cancer Res. 58 (6): 1087-9. PMID 9515784. Engle ... The Min mouse can develop up to 100 polyps in the small intestine in addition to colon tumors. Later, new knock-out mutants of ... In this model mutation in the Cdx2 gene in the ApcΔ716 mouse model shifted the formation of the polyps from the intestine to ...
Affected individuals develop hundreds of polyps in their large intestine. Most of these polyps are benign in nature, but they ... β-Catenin is regulated and destroyed by the beta-catenin destruction complex, and in particular by the adenomatous polyposis ... Although one molecule of axin only contains a single β-catenin recruitment motif, its partner the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli ( ... Through its N-terminal regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain, it recruits the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein ...
Treatment is similar to familial adenomatous polyposis, which varies based on the extent of polyps.[citation needed] All first ... Affected individuals have an increased risk of colorectal cancer, precancerous colon polyps (adenomas) and an increased risk of ... The presence of 10 or more colon adenomas should prompt consideration of MUTYH-associated polyposis, familial adenomatous ...
Other types of polyps that may be encountered less frequently include ganglioneuromatous, adenomatous, and lymphoid polyps. ... Gastrointestinal Polyps are extremely common as they are found in about 95% of Cowden syndrome patients undergoing a ...
Endometrial cancer, duodenal polyps and duodenal cancer may also occur. PPAP is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by ... Genetic testing can help exclude similar syndromes, such as Familial adenomatous polyposis and MUTYH-associated polyposis. ... It is caused by germline mutations in DNA polymerase ε (POLE) and δ (POLD1). Affected individuals develop numerous polyps ... which is characterized by numerous polyps in the colon and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. ...
In familial adenomatous polyposis physicians observed polyps regression with NSAIDs for anti-inflammatory therapy.[citation ...
A patient will have fewer than a hundred polyps located typically in right side of the colon. Cancer might develop as early as ... Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis is a form of familial adenomatous polyposis, a cancer syndrome. It is a pre-malignant ... Familial adenomatous polyposis Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome Cowden syndrome Cronkhite-Canada syndrome Juvenile polyposis MUTYH Peutz ...
"Colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps in relation to allium vegetables intake: A meta-analysis of observational studies". ...
1992). "Gastroduodenal polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis". Diseases of the Colon and Rectum. 35 (12): 1170 ... Abraham, SC; Nobukawa, B; Giardiello, FM; Hamilton, SR; Wu, TT (2001). "Sporadic Fundic Gland Polyps : Common Gastric Polyps ... polyps. In familial adenomatous polyposis, the abnormality is a mutation in the APC gene, resulting in its inactivity. ... there is a reverse relationship between infection and fundic gland polyps, and infection by H pylori causes polyps regression. ...
The development of adenomatous polyps created by uncontrolled outgrowth of epithelial cells is controlled by ephrin-eph ...
This short protein cannot suppress the cellular overgrowth that leads to the formation of polyps, which can become cancerous. ... Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) also known as deleted in polyposis 2.5 (DP2.5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... "Familial Adenomatous Polyposis". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 22 July 2021. Liang J, Lin C, Hu F, Wang F, ... The (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) APC protein normally builds a "destruction complex" with glycogen synthase kinase 3-alpha and ...
Gaspar, C (2008). "Cross-Species Comparison of Human and Mouse Intestinal Polyps Reveals Conserved Mechanisms in Adenomatous ...
"Disease-associated casein kinase I delta mutation may promote adenomatous polyps formation via a Wnt/beta-catenin independent ...
Higher levels of expression of this gene in familial adenomatous polyps compared to matched normal tissues have been observed. ...
"Performance Characteristics of Fecal Immunochemical Tests for Colorectal Cancer and Advanced Adenomatous Polyps: A Systematic ... Screening methods for colon cancer depend on detecting either precancerous changes such as certain kinds of polyps or on ... The common causes are: 2-10%: cancer (colorectal cancer, gastric cancer) 20-30% adenoma or polyps Diverticular disease ... such as polyps. Colonoscopy, a more thorough examination of the rectum and entire colon. Virtual colonoscopy Upper ...
COX-2 inhibitors may decrease the rate of polyp formation in people with familial adenomatous polyposis; however, it is ... Folic acid supplementation is not effective in preventing colon cancer and may increase colon polyps. Selenium supplementation ...
Individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a syndrome of early-onset colonic polyps and adenocarcinoma, frequently ... Sanders RP, Furman WL (November 2006). "Familial adenomatous polyposis in two brothers with hepatoblastoma: implications for ... and familial adenomatous polyposis. The most common method of testing for hepatoblastoma is a blood test checking the alpha- ... "The spectrum of APC mutations in children with hepatoblastoma from familial adenomatous polyposis kindreds". The Journal of ...
Gardner syndrome is characterized by FAP (familial adenomatous polyps), osseous and soft tissue tumors, retinal pigment ...
... N Engl J Med. 2006 Aug 31;355(9):885-95. doi: 10.1056/ ... Methods: The Prevention of Colorectal Sporadic Adenomatous Polyps trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind ... Background: Overexpression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has been associated with colorectal adenomatous polyps and cancer, ...
Adenomatous polyps are the most common colonic neoplasm, 70% of which are within the reach of the sigmoidoscope. About 75% of ... Polyps (adenomatous of the colon). Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy ... adenomatous polyps occur in the rectum and sigmoid colon. This distribution of lesions is paralleled by the distribution of ... colonic carcinoma and supports the possible development of carcinoma from pre-existing polyps. ...
Adenomatous polyps are considered precursors to cancer and cancer becomes invasive once malignant cells cross the muscularis ... A colorectal polyp is a polyp (fleshy growth) occurring on the lining of the colon or rectum. Untreated colorectal polyps can ... Colorectal polyps can broadly be classified as follows: hyperplastic, neoplastic (adenomatous and malignant), hamartomatous and ... The polyps often bleeds and may cause obstruction that would require surgery. Any polyps larger than 1.5 cm needs removal and ...
A colorectal polyp is a growth on the lining of the colon or rectum. ... A colorectal polyp is a growth on the lining of the colon or rectum. ... Intestinal polyps; Polyps - colorectal; Adenomatous polyps; Hyperplastic polyps; Villous adenomas; Serrated polyp; Serrated ... In most cases, the polyps may be removed during a colonoscopy.. For people with adenomatous polyps, new polyps can appear in ...
Adenomas or adenomatous polyps. These are precancerous. If you leave them alone, they could turn into colon cancer. ... Colorectal Polyps. If a test finds a polyp, your doctor will take it out and send it to a laboratory. A specialist will look at ... Hyperplastic and inflammatory polyps. These usually dont carry a chance of cancer. But large hyperplastic polyps, especially ... Nearly all colon and rectal cancers begin as a polyp, a growth on the inner surface of your colon. Polyps themselves usually ...
Retrospective studies demonstrate that a small percentage of patients who undergo gastric polyp removal have evidence of ... This discovery has led some researchers to conclude that polyps might represent premalignant conditions. ...
... surveillance of adenomatous polyps (13.5 percent), and screening for persons with a family history of colorectal cancer (12.1 ... There was a higher prevalence of polyps among men than women at routine risk (Figure 6), but no other particular differences by ... Notably, 21.0 percent of examinations were normal and 6.4 percent found a polyp of at least 1 centimeter or a suspected ... Increasing in prevalence with age, but not as quickly as diverticulosis, were polyps of all sizes and number, and hemorrhoids. ...
NAFLD Raises Risk for Colorectal Adenomatous Polyps * 2001/viewarticle/997092. Early-Onset NAFLD Tied to Higher Cancer Risk ...
Precancerous polyps. *Familiar adenomatous polyposis (FAP). *Barretts esophagus. *Suspicious upper or lower gastrointestinal ... Remove cancerous cells, inflamed tissues, pre-cancerous polyps or diseased sections of the digestive tract ...
N-myristoyltransferase 2-based Blood Test for the Detection of Colorectal Adenomatous Polyps and Cancer. Annals of Surgery Open ... Fecal metabolomic profiles: A comparative study of patients with colorectal cancer ,i,vs,/i, adenomatous polyps. World Journal ... Incidental Polyp on Colectomy Specimen is Linked with Higher Odds of Polyp on Interval Colonoscopy. Journal of Surgical ... Association between diverticular disease and prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps or adenocarcinomas. Journal of Surgery ...
These polyps can sometimes turn into cancer, but many times do not. There are several types of polyps. Adenomatous polyps can ... Hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps are not typically pre-cancerous, though some in the medical community think they ... Polyps are an abnormal growth of tissue on the inner lining of the colon or rectum that are benign, non-cancerous tumors, ... Doctors usually remove all polyps, just in case.. Colon dysplasia is when a spot of cells on the lining of the colon look ...
Adenomatous Polyp Prevention Studies: Cardiovascular safety was evaluated in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ... Prevention of Spontaneous Adenomatous Polyps). In the APC trial, there was a dose-related increase in the composite endpoint ( ... Special Studies Adenomatous Polyp Prevention Studies (14.6)]. Some adverse reactions occurred in higher percentages of patients ... three year studies involving patients with Sporadic Adenomatous Polyps treated with celecoxib: the APC trial (Adenoma ...
... a close relative who has had colorectal cancer or adenomatous polyp; (2) family history of familial adenomatous polyposis; (3) ... a polyp with a villous histological appearance, a polyp with high-grade dysplasia, or cancer), the DNA panel was positive in 76 ... personal history of adenomatous polyps; (5) personal history of colorectal cancer; or (6) inflammatory bowel disease, including ... as well as 1874 randomly selected patients with minor polyps or no polyps). For the 2507 patients analyzed, mean age was 69.5 ...
Neoplastic polyps consist of serrated and adenomatous polyps. Adenomatous polyps may be classified into several subtypes based ... Colon polyps may be classified into two groups of neoplastic and non-neoplastic. Non-neoplastic polyps consist of inflammatory ... and differentiation from conventional adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 131 (3): 440-5. doi:10.1043 ... Colon polyps may be classified according to the NBI International Colorectal Endoscopic (NICE) classification into two types:[6 ...
Adenomatous polyps of the colon. N Engl J Med. 355:2551-2557. 2006. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI ... Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from ... miR-92a was able to detect polyps to a great extent and is likely to be a relevant precancerous polyp marker. The level of miR- ... the sensitivity of CTC decreases as the size of the polyps decrease (50). In short, CTC is a useful method for colon cancer ...
Categories: Adenomatous Polyps Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Weingarten MA, Zalmanovici A, Yaphe J. Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps ...
New polyp terminologies added: *Adenomatous polyp, high grade dysplasia 8210/2. *Intestinal-type adenoma, high grade 8144/2 ...
two types of polyps. :. *hyperplastic polyps that are typically benign. *adenomatous polyps (adenomas), which may turn into ... This poses a challenge as the polyps are flat, rather than growing on stalks like other polyps, and are harder to visualize due ... it has been unclear exactly why this particular type of polyp was more likely to result in cancer than other types of polyps, ... which looks for blood in the stool that can come from polyps, or through a colonoscopy, to visualize the polyps. ...
... adenomatous polyps. The typical nasal polyps that develop in people with allergies are inflammatory. The common benign polyps ... Here is the diagnosis for the colon biopsy, above: Colon, sigmoid, endoscopic biopsy: tubular adenoma (adenomatous polyp) This ... In this particular case, an older synonym for tubular adenoma, "adenomatous polyp," follows in parentheses. GLOSSARY OF ... Polyps my be HYPERPLASTIC, METAPLASTIC, NEOPLASTIC, INFLAMMATORY, or none of the above. The typical polyps removed from the ...
A risk index for advanced neoplasia on the second surveillance colonoscopy in patients with previous adenomatous polyps. ... Hereditary conditions, including familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal ...
Colorectal cancer or colorectal polyps (growths). *Genetic syndromes like familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or hereditary ... Colorectal polyps and colorectal cancer may not cause any symptoms (especially at first), but symptoms may include:. *Blood in ... Because most colorectal cancer cases start as precancerous polyps, getting screened is the most effective way to reduce your ...
An inherited mutation in one copy of the APC gene causes familial adenomatous polyposis and predisposes affected individuals to ... called polyps) and cancerous tumors in the colon. . Desmoid tumors that are not part of an inherited condition are described as ... APC gene mutations cause desmoid tumors associated with familial adenomatous polyposis as well as 10 to 15 percent of sporadic ... Desmoid tumors occur frequently in people with an inherited form of colon cancer called familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). ...
People with FAP can develop polyps in their 20s and 30s or even... ... is an inherited condition in which numerous polyps (growths that protrude from mucous membranes) form on the inside walls of ... Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited condition in which numerous polyps (growths that protrude from mucous ... People with FAP can develop polyps in their 20s and 30s or even earlier. They may have hundreds of polyps throughout the colon ...
Itmay begin as a noncancerous polyp thatdevelops into cancer. More than 95% ofcolorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas,which ... History of bowel disorders, such aschronic inflammatory bowel disease,or history of adenomatouspolyps ...
Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from ... All studies reported RCR, adenomatous polyp detection rates and cancer detection rates. Four studies reported procedure time ... Accepted benchmarks for cecal intubation and polyp and cancer detection are specific for screening exams. If a case series ...
... presented one example of a 49-year-old patient with high-grade serous ovarian cancer and three small adenomatous colonic polyps ...
Learn and reinforce your understanding of Colorectal polyps. ... Adenomatous colonic polyps p. 394. APC gene p. 220. adenomatous ... Colorectal polyps Videos, Flashcards, High Yield Notes, & Practice Questions. ... Adenomatous polyps can also be classified histologically based on their growth pattern as being tubular where the growth has ... A colorectal polyp is a small clump of epithelial cells that form a small bump or overgrowth of tissue along the lining of the ...
Adenomatous polyps [1]. Algorithms [1]. Amphipoda [1]. Applied Statistics [2]. applied statistics [1]. ...
Family History of colorectal cancer or adenomatous polyps. *Not physically active. *Lynch Syndrome ...
  • Colorectal polyps are often classified by their behaviour (i.e. benign vs. malignant) or cause (e.g. as a consequence of inflammatory bowel disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • They may be benign (e.g. hyperplastic polyp), pre-malignant (e.g. tubular adenoma) or malignant (e.g. colorectal adenocarcinoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyps of the colon and rectum are most often benign . (medlineplus.gov)
  • It typically develops from small clumps of benign cells called polyp. (ku.edu)
  • The cells can develop benign tumors or growths called polyps. (cdc.gov)
  • Hamartomatous polyps are benign growths composed of disorganized tissue elements. (cilveducation.com)
  • and may be noncancerous (benign), precancerous (adenomatous), or cancerous (malignant carcinoma). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Benign lesions of the gallbladder are relatively common, but only adenomatous polyps are considered to have malignant potential. (medscape.com)
  • Although adenomyomatosis is generally considered a benign condition, serial ultrasonographic evaluation is indicated to rule out enlarging adenomatous polyps and gallbladder cancer. (medscape.com)
  • One particular type of polyp, known as a serrated adenoma, is considered precancerous, and needs to be removed completely. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Previous research by some members of the team had shown that serrated adenoma polyps had lower levels of a protein kinase C (PKC) enzyme, which is responsible for regulating a number of genes involved in cell proliferation, among other cell metabolic pathways. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Of 136 polyps with complete follow-up, 24 (17.6%) had macroscopically evident residual adenoma at follow-up, including 18 at the first follow-up and 6 (4.4%) with a "late" recurrence. (nih.gov)
  • Among 94 polyps with no visible adenoma and with negative biopsy specimens of the scar at the first follow-up, 92 polyps (97.9%) were eradicated at late follow-up, compared with 36 of 42 (85.7%) of the remaining polyps (P = .005). (nih.gov)
  • 1342 Hereditary syndromes causing increased colorectal polyp formation include: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer Peutz-Jeghers syndrome Juvenile polyposis syndrome Several genes have been associated with polyposis, such as GREM1, MSH3, MLH3, NTHL1, RNF43 and RPS20. (wikipedia.org)
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a form of hereditary cancer syndrome involving the APC gene located on chromosome q521. (wikipedia.org)
  • used the hypomorphic Egfr wa2 allele to examine the impact of impaired Egfr signaling on the Apc Min mouse model of familial adenomatous polyposis. (the-scientist.com)
  • A colorectal polyp is a polyp (fleshy growth) occurring on the lining of the colon or rectum. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large polyp in the rectum may be felt during a rectal exam. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An adenomatous colon polyp is a growth of extra tissue in the lining of the rectum or colon. (westchesterendocenter.com)
  • Clinical manifestations include multiple osteomas, enostosis, epidermoid cysts, subcutaneous desmoid tumors, and intestinal polyps - mainly colon and rectum. (bvsalud.org)
  • adenomatous polyps (adenomas), which may turn into cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are two main types of polyps: hyperplastic (minimal cancer potential) and adenomatous (approximately 90% of colon and rectal cancers arise from adenomas). (cdc.gov)
  • Colorectal cancer (CRC) derives from a multi-step process in which healthy epithelium slowly develops into adenomas or polyps, which progress into malignant carcinomas over time 1 , 2 . (jove.com)
  • Indeed, early diagnostic tools adopted in screening programs have led to early detection and removal of pre-neoplastic adenomas or polyps 4 . (jove.com)
  • The size of a gallbladder polyp is generally the strongest predictor of malignant transformation. (medscape.com)
  • Early detection of GS is very important because of the strong predilection of the intestinal polyps to undergo malignant conversion 2,3 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Approximately 5% of patients evaluated with ultrasonography for abdominal pain will have a gallbladder polyp. (medscape.com)
  • Given that gallbladder polyps are common, it is important to identify those that carry a high risk of malignancy. (medscape.com)
  • Cholesterol polyps account for approximately 50% of all polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. (medscape.com)
  • The adenomatous polyp has a higher chance of developing into cancer compared to the hyperplastic polyp. (ku.edu)
  • Although 50% to 75% of CRC can be prevented through detection and removal of precancerous polyps (personal communication, Lieberman DA, May 2008), CRC screening rates remain below 70% in Oregon (2). (cdc.gov)
  • Screening to detect the disease and remove precancerous polyps for patients ages 76 to 85 is recommended for select before they become cancerous. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A new approach is to check blood samples for genetic material that polyps or tumors may release into the Some questions to ask your doctor bloodstream. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gardner's syndrome (GS) is a hereditary disorder characterized by multiple osteomas, enostosis, epidermoid cysts, subcutaneous desmoid tumors and multiple gastrointestinal polyps. (bvsalud.org)
  • Given the variety of clinical manifestations, the triad of symptoms that better characterizes the GS is composed by polyps of the colon, multiple osteomas and tumors of soft tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • Given this limitation in the diagnostic process, the triad of symptoms that better characterizes the GS is composed by polyps of the colon, multiple osteomas and tumors of soft tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome that presents with hamartomatous polyps, which are disorganized growth of tissues of the intestinal tract, and hyperpigmentation of the interlining of the mouth, lips and fingers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polyps associated with PJS are hamartomatous, not adenomatous. (cilveducation.com)
  • Cancers from this type of polyp make up 15 to 30% of colorectal cancers , and they are often particularly invasive and resistant to treatments. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most colon cancers develop from adenomatous polyps. (westchesterendocenter.com)
  • These tests help prevent colon cancer by finding and removing polyps before they become cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Colon cancer screening looks for the presence of polyps, some of which can become cancerous. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Screening for colon cancer is done either through a fecal immunochemical test , which looks for blood in the stool that can come from polyps, or through a colonoscopy , to visualize the polyps. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People who have a higher risk of adenomatous polyps include those who are 45 and older, who have had polyps previously, or who have a family history of polyps or colon cancer. (westchesterendocenter.com)
  • Whether you have a family history of colon cancer or have had colon polyps and would like to head future ones off at the pass, there's no time like the present to incorporate more beans into your diet. (eatthis.com)
  • Untreated colorectal polyps can develop into colorectal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The syndrome involves development of multiple polyps at an early age and those left untreated will all eventually develop cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyps that are 1 centimeter (cm) or larger have a higher cancer risk than polyps smaller than 1 cm. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Colorectal polyps should be removed because some can develop into cancer . (medlineplus.gov)
  • In rare cases, when polyps are very likely to turn into cancer or too large to remove during colonoscopy, the provider will recommend a partial colectomy . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Polyps that are not removed can develop into cancer over time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • So far, it has been unclear exactly why this particular type of polyp was more likely to result in cancer than other types of polyps, but now, a metabolic mechanism has been proposed by a group of scientists from Weill Cornell Medicine, NY. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Colonoscopy is the preferred procedure for colorectal cancer screening and to minimize its risk by performing a biopsy on found polyps. (ku.edu)
  • If the cancer is small, is in an early stage and is localized in an adenomatous polyp, it is possible it may all be removed during a colonoscopy. (westchesterendocenter.com)
  • Screening and surveillance also in behalf of the duration of the uncommon detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous order mentat (60caps) no prescription polyps, 2008: A joint guidelines from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society buy mentat Task Force on mentat 60caps where where can i buy mentat 60caps to buy Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. (ika.ie)
  • People who have had colorectal cancer in the past or diagnosed with colorectal cancer years old who have had certain kinds of colorectal polyps removed are at greater risk for developing colorectal cancer, as are those with a family history of the disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some nonadenomatous polyps are caused by other disorders, for example the inflammatory polyps that develop in people with chronic ulcerative colitis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, people have many small polyps in the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Polyps are either pedunculated (attached to the intestinal wall by a stalk) or sessile (grow directly from the wall). (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyps may grow with or without a stalk (a thin piece of tissue that joins the polyp to the intestinal wall, similar to how the neck joins the head to the body). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Adult colocolonic intussusception due to adenomatous polyp: An exceptional cause of a rare entity]. (bvsalud.org)
  • As a rule, cholesterol polyps exist as multiple lesions and are usually smaller than 10 mm. (medscape.com)
  • In most cases, the polyps may be removed during a colonoscopy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A significant feature of GS is the progression to malignancy of the intestinal polyps in almost 100% of patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue in the lining of an organ. (cdc.gov)
  • A polyp is a growth of tissue that projects from the wall of a hollow space, such as the intestines. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Occasionally, if a polyp is big enough to cause a bowel obstruction, there may be nausea, vomiting and severe constipation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taking aspirin, naproxen, ibuprofen, or similar medicines may help reduce the risk for new polyps. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Beans may reduce your risk of colon polyps. (eatthis.com)
  • Polyps vary considerably in size, and the bigger the polyp, the greater the risk that it is cancerous or likely to become cancerous (that is, they are precancerous). (msdmanuals.com)
  • There are many types of polyps. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nonadenomatous polyps can develop from many cell types, including the nonglandular cells that line the intestine, fat cells, and muscle cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Adenomatous polyps, which consist primarily of glandular cells that line the inside of the large intestine, are likely precancerous. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The polyps often bleeds and may cause obstruction that would require surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that transfer of the ApcMin allele onto homozygous Egfr wa2 mice results in a 90% reduction in intestinal polyp number when compared to Apc Min mice carrying a wild-type Egfr allele ( Proc Natl Acad Sci USA , 10.1073/pnas.032678499). (the-scientist.com)
  • The syndrome was first described in 1863 by Virchow on a 15-year-old boy with multiple polyps in his colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is surgery to remove part of the colon that has the polyps. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For people with adenomatous polyps, new polyps can appear in the future. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 6. People with CF who have undergone a colonoscopy that revealed any adenomatous polyps should have surveillance colonoscopy in three years, unless a shorter interval is indicated by individual findings, with subsequent intervals based on the most recent endoscopic examination. (medscape.com)
  • Several models using handcrafted features and deep learning approaches have been proposed for the polyp detection task. (ku.edu)
  • In this study, we compare the performances of the previous state-of-the-art general object detection models for polyp detection and classification (into adenomatous and hyperplastic class). (ku.edu)
  • This comparative study serves as an initial analysis of the effectiveness of these models and to choose a base model that we will improve further for polyp detection. (ku.edu)