A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
A scaffolding protein that is a critical component of the axin signaling complex which binds to ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI PROTEIN; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE 3; and CASEIN KINASE I.
Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The growth of INTESTINAL POLYPS. Growth processes include neoplastic (ADENOMA and CARCINOMA) and non-neoplastic (hyperplastic, mucosal, inflammatory, and other polyps).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A childhood counterpart of abdominal or extra-abdominal desmoid tumors, characterized by firm subcutaneous nodules that grow rapidly in any part of the body but do not metastasize. The adult form of abdominal fibromatosis is FIBROMATOSIS, ABDOMINAL. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
A variant of ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI caused by mutation in the APC gene (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. It is characterized by not only the presence of multiple colonic polyposis but also extracolonic ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT; the EYE; the SKIN; the SKULL; and the FACIAL BONES; as well as malignancy in organs other than the GI tract.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A relatively large mass of unusually firm scarlike connective tissue resulting from active participation of fibroblasts, occurring most frequently in the abdominal muscles of women who have borne children. The fibroblasts infiltrate surrounding muscle and fascia. (Stedman, 25th ed)
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.
Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.
Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug whose sulfinyl moiety is converted in vivo to an active NSAID analgesic. Specifically, the prodrug is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide which is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This helps to maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects.
A surgical procedure involving the excision of the COLON and RECTUM and the formation of an ILEOANAL RESERVOIR (pouch). In patients with intestinal diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, this procedure avoids the need for an OSTOMY by allowing for transanal defecation.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
'Oral Submucous Fibrosis' is a chronic, insidious, and potentially disabling condition, characterized by progressive stiffness and loss of elasticity of the oral mucosa, due to fibrotic changes in the lamina propria, often associated with juxta-epithelial inflammation and epithelial atrophy.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. Members contain ARECOLINE and CATECHIN. The leaves and nuts have been used as masticatories, stimulants, and astringents in traditional medicine. The common name of betel is also used for PIPER BETLE. The common name of catechu is sometimes used for ACACIA CATECHU.
An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
A salt produced by the reaction of zinc oxide with acetic acid and used as an astringent, styptic, and emetic.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The submucous (Meissner's) plexus is in the connective tissue of the submucosa. Its neurons innervate the epithelium, blood vessels, endocrine cells, other submucosal ganglia, and myenteric ganglia, and play an important role in regulating ion and water transport. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
A white patch seen on the oral mucosa. It is considered a premalignant condition and is often tobacco-induced. When evidence of Epstein-Barr virus is present, the condition is called hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).

Axin prevents Wnt-3a-induced accumulation of beta-catenin. (1/711)

When Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, was expressed in COS cells, it coeluted with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), beta-catenin, and adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) in a high molecular weight fraction on gel filtration column chromatography. In this fraction, GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and APC were co-precipitated with Axin. Although beta-catenin was detected in the high molecular weight fraction in L cells on gel filtration column chromatography, addition of conditioned medium expressing Wnt-3a to the cells increased beta-catenin in the low molecular weight fraction. However, Wnt-3a-dependent accumulation of beta-catenin was greatly inhibited in L cells stably expressing Axin. Axin also suppressed Wnt-3a-dependent activation of Tcf-4 which binds to beta-catenin and acts as a transcription factor. These results suggest that Axin forms a complex with GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and APC, resulting in the stimulation of the degradation of beta-catenin and that Wnt-3a induces the dissociation of beta-catenin from the Axin complex and accumulates beta-catenin.  (+info)

EB1, a protein which interacts with the APC tumour suppressor, is associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton throughout the cell cycle. (2/711)

The characteristics of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) associated protein EB1 were examined in mammalian cells. By immunocytochemistry EB1 was shown to be closely associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton throughout the cell cycle. In interphase cells EB1 was associated with microtubules along their full length but was often particularly concentrated at their tips. During early mitosis, EB1 was localized to separating centrosomes and associated microtubules, while at metaphase it was associated with the spindle poles and associated microtubules. During cytokinesis EB1 was strongly associated with the midbody microtubules. Treatment with nocodazole caused a diffuse redistribution of EB1 immunoreactivity, whereas treatment with cytochalasin D had no effect. Interestingly, treatment with taxol abolished the EB1 association with microtubules. In nocodazole washout experiments EB1 rapidly became associated with the centrosome and repolymerizing microtubules. In taxol wash-out experiments EB1 rapidly re-associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton, resembling untreated control cells within 10 min. Immunostaining of SW480 cells, which contain truncated APC incapable of interaction with EB1, showed that the association of EB1 with microtubules throughout the cell cycle was not dependent upon an interaction with APC. These results suggest a role for EB1 in the control of microtubule dynamics in mammalian cells.  (+info)

Analysis of masked mutations in familial adenomatous polyposis. (3/711)

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by the development of hundreds of adenomatous polyps of the colorectum. Approximately 80% of FAP patients can be shown to have truncating mutations of the APC gene. To determine the cause of FAP in the other 20% of patients, MAMA (monoallelic mutation analysis) was used to independently examine the status of each of the two APC alleles. Seven of nine patients analyzed were found to have significantly reduced expression from one of their two alleles whereas two patients were found to have full-length expression from both alleles. We conclude that more than 95% of patients with FAP have inactivating mutations in APC and that a combination of MAMA and standard genetic tests will identify APC abnormalities in the vast majority of such patients. That no APC expression from the mutant allele is found in some FAP patients argues strongly against the requirement for dominant negative effects of APC mutations. The results also suggest that there may be at least one additional gene, besides APC, that can give rise to FAP.  (+info)

Administration of an unconjugated bile acid increases duodenal tumors in a murine model of familial adenomatous polyposis. (4/711)

Intestinal carcinogenesis involves the successive accumulation of multiple genetic defects until cellular transformation to an invasive phenotype occurs. This process is modulated by many epigenetic factors. Unconjugated bile acids are tumor promoters whose presence in intestinal tissues is regulated by dietary factors. We studied the role of the unconjugated bile acid, chenodeoxycholate, in an animal model of familial adenomatous polyposis. Mice susceptible to intestinal tumors as a result of a germline mutation in Apc (Min/+ mice) were given a 10 week dietary treatment with 0.5% chenodeoxycholate. Following this, the mice were examined to determine tumor number, enterocyte proliferation, apoptosis and beta-catenin expression. Intestinal tissue prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were also assessed. Administration of chenodeoxycholate in the diet increased duodenal tumor number in Min/+ mice. Promotion of duodenal tumor formation was accompanied by increased beta-catenin expression in duodenal cells, as well as increased PGE2 in duodenal tissue. These data suggest that unconjugated bile acids contribute to periampullary tumor formation in the setting of an Apc mutation.  (+info)

Negative regulation of Wingless signaling by D-axin, a Drosophila homolog of axin. (5/711)

Wnt/Wingless directs many cell fates during development. Wnt/Wingless signaling increases the amount of beta-catenin/Armadillo, which in turn activates gene transcription. Here the Drosophila protein D-Axin was shown to interact with Armadillo and D-APC. Mutation of d-axin resulted in the accumulation of cytoplasmic Armadillo and one of the Wingless target gene products, Distal-less. Ectopic expression of d-axin inhibited Wingless signaling. Hence, D-Axin negatively regulates Wingless signaling by down-regulating the level of Armadillo. These results establish the importance of the Axin family of proteins in Wnt/Wingless signaling in Drosophila.  (+info)

Hereditary desmoid disease in a family with a germline Alu I repeat mutation of the APC gene. (6/711)

Two families with autosomal dominantly inherited desmoid tumors have recently been shown to have germline mutations at the 3' end of the APC gene. We subsequently identified an Amish family with autosomal dominantly inherited desmoid tumors. Genetic analysis performed on one family member, a 47-year-old man with multiple desmoid tumors and no colon polyps, revealed a protein truncating mutation in the middle of the APC gene. The truncating mutation is the result of a 337-bp insertion of an Alu I sequence into codon 1526 of the APC gene. The presence of a poly(A) tail at the 3' end of the insertion suggests that the Alu I sequence was inserted by a retrotranspositional event. Germline insertions of Alu I sequences have occasionally been reported to cause other genetic diseases including type I neurofibromatosis, hereditary site-specific breast cancer (BRCA2), and hemophilia B. However, this is the first report of a germline mutation of the APC gene resulting from an Alu I insertion.  (+info)

E-cadherin binding prevents beta-catenin nuclear localization and beta-catenin/LEF-1-mediated transactivation. (7/711)

Beta-catenin is a multifunctional protein found in three cell compartments: the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The cell has developed elaborate ways of regulating the level and localization of beta-catenin to assure its specific function in each compartment. One aspect of this regulation is inherent in the structural organization of beta-catenin itself; most of its protein-interacting motifs overlap so that interaction with one partner can block binding of another at the same time. Using recombinant proteins, we found that E-cadherin and lymphocyte-enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1) form mutually exclusive complexes with beta-catenin; the association of beta-catenin with LEF-1 was competed out by the E-cadherin cytoplasmic domain. Similarly, LEF-1 and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) formed separate, mutually exclusive complexes with beta-catenin. In Wnt-1-transfected C57MG cells, free beta-catenin accumulated and was able to associate with LEF-1. The absence of E-cadherin in E-cadherin-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells also led to an accumulation of free beta-catenin and its association with LEF-1, thereby mimicking Wnt signaling. beta-catenin/LEF-1-mediated transactivation in these cells was antagonized by transient expression of wild-type E-cadherin, but not of E-cadherin lacking the beta-catenin binding site. The potent ability of E-cadherin to recruit beta-catenin to the cell membrane and prevent its nuclear localization and transactivation was also demonstrated using SW480 colon carcinoma cells.  (+info)

Regulation of beta-catenin signaling by the B56 subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. (8/711)

Dysregulation of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling disrupts axis formation in vertebrate embryos and underlies multiple human malignancies. The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, axin, and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta form a Wnt-regulated signaling complex that mediates the phosphorylation-dependent degradation of beta-catenin. A protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit, B56, interacted with APC in the yeast two-hybrid system. Expression of B56 reduced the abundance of beta-catenin and inhibited transcription of beta-catenin target genes in mammalian cells and Xenopus embryo explants. The B56-dependent decrease in beta-catenin was blocked by oncogenic mutations in beta-catenin or APC, and by proteasome inhibitors. B56 may direct PP2A to dephosphorylate specific components of the APC-dependent signaling complex and thereby inhibit Wnt signaling.  (+info)

Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein is a tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in regulating cell growth and division. It is encoded by the APC gene, which is located on chromosome 5. The APC protein helps to prevent excessive cell growth and division by inhibiting the activity of a protein called beta-catenin, which promotes cell growth and division when activated.

In individuals with certain genetic disorders, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), mutations in the APC gene can lead to the production of a defective APC protein or no APC protein at all. This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, leading to the development of numerous benign tumors called polyps in the colon and rectum. Over time, some of these polyps may become cancerous, leading to colorectal cancer if left untreated.

APC protein also has other functions in the body, including regulating cell migration and adhesion, and playing a role in maintaining the stability of the cytoskeleton. Mutations in the APC gene have been linked to other types of cancer besides colorectal cancer, including breast, lung, and ovarian cancers.

Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of numerous adenomatous polyps in the colon and rectum. APC is caused by mutations in the APC gene, which is a tumor suppressor gene that helps regulate cell growth and division. When the APC gene is mutated, it can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of polyps, which can eventually become cancerous.

Individuals with APC typically develop hundreds to thousands of polyps in their colon and rectum, usually beginning in adolescence or early adulthood. If left untreated, APC can lead to colorectal cancer in nearly all affected individuals by the age of 40.

APC is an autosomal dominant disorder, which means that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent. However, some cases of APC may also occur spontaneously due to new mutations in the APC gene. Treatment for APC typically involves surgical removal of the colon and rectum (colectomy) to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Regular surveillance with colonoscopy is also recommended to monitor for the development of new polyps.

APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) gene is a tumor suppressor gene that provides instructions for making a protein called adenomatous polyposis coli. This protein plays a crucial role in regulating the growth and division of cells in the colon and rectum. Specifically, it helps to maintain the stability of the cell's genetic material (DNA) by controlling the process of beta-catenin degradation.

When the APC gene is mutated or altered, it can lead to an accumulation of beta-catenin in the cell, which can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division. This can ultimately lead to the development of colon polyps, which are benign growths that can become cancerous over time if left untreated.

Mutations in the APC gene are associated with several inherited cancer syndromes, including familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and attenuated FAP (AFAP). These conditions are characterized by the development of numerous colon polyps at a young age, which can increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Beta-catenin is a protein that plays a crucial role in gene transcription and cell-cell adhesion. It is a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway, which regulates various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adults.

In the absence of Wnt signals, beta-catenin forms a complex with other proteins, including adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and axin, which targets it for degradation by the proteasome. When Wnt ligands bind to their receptors, this complex is disrupted, allowing beta-catenin to accumulate in the cytoplasm and translocate to the nucleus. In the nucleus, beta-catenin interacts with T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors to activate the transcription of target genes involved in cell fate determination, survival, and proliferation.

Mutations in the genes encoding components of the Wnt signaling pathway, including beta-catenin, have been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer, developmental disorders, and degenerative conditions.

Cytoskeletal proteins are a type of structural proteins that form the cytoskeleton, which is the internal framework of cells. The cytoskeleton provides shape, support, and structure to the cell, and plays important roles in cell division, intracellular transport, and maintenance of cell shape and integrity.

There are three main types of cytoskeletal proteins: actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Actin filaments are thin, rod-like structures that are involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and cell division. Intermediate filaments are thicker than actin filaments and provide structural support to the cell. Microtubules are hollow tubes that are involved in intracellular transport, cell division, and maintenance of cell shape.

Cytoskeletal proteins are composed of different subunits that polymerize to form filamentous structures. These proteins can be dynamically assembled and disassembled, allowing cells to change their shape and move. Mutations in cytoskeletal proteins have been linked to various human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and muscular dystrophies.

Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in the regulation of several cellular processes, including glycogen metabolism, cell signaling, gene transcription, and apoptosis. It was initially discovered as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism due to its ability to phosphorylate and inhibit glycogen synthase, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of glycogen from glucose.

GSK-3 exists in two isoforms, GSK-3α and GSK-3β, which share a high degree of sequence similarity and are widely expressed in various tissues. Both isoforms are constitutively active under normal conditions and are regulated through inhibitory phosphorylation by several upstream signaling pathways, such as insulin, Wnt, and Hedgehog signaling.

Dysregulation of GSK-3 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. In recent years, GSK-3 has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel drugs to treat these conditions.

Microtubules are hollow, cylindrical structures composed of tubulin proteins in the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as maintaining cell shape, intracellular transport, and cell division (mitosis and meiosis). Microtubules are dynamic, undergoing continuous assembly and disassembly, which allows them to rapidly reorganize in response to cellular needs. They also form part of important cellular structures like centrioles, basal bodies, and cilia/flagella.

Intestinal polyps are abnormal growths that protrude from the lining of the intestines. They can occur in any part of the digestive tract, including the colon and rectum (colorectal polyps), small intestine, or stomach. These growths vary in size, shape, and number. Most intestinal polyps are benign, meaning they are not cancerous. However, some types of polyps, such as adenomatous polyps, can become cancerous over time if left untreated.

Intestinal polyps can be asymptomatic or cause symptoms like rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, or anemia (in cases where there is chronic, slow bleeding). The exact cause of intestinal polyps is not fully understood, but factors such as age, family history, and certain genetic conditions can increase the risk of developing them. Regular screening exams, like colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of polyps to prevent potential complications, including colorectal cancer.

Axin protein is a type of intracellular protein that plays a crucial role in regulating the Wnt signaling pathway, which is essential for various developmental processes and tissue homeostasis. Axin serves as a scaffold protein that facilitates the formation of a complex with other proteins involved in the degradation of β-catenin, a key component of the Wnt signalling cascade. By promoting the phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of β-catenin, Axin helps to maintain its levels in the cell and ensures proper regulation of gene transcription. Mutations in the AXIN gene can lead to abnormal Wnt signaling and have been associated with various diseases, including cancer.

Adenomatous polyps, also known as adenomas, are benign (noncancerous) growths that develop in the lining of the glandular tissue of certain organs, most commonly occurring in the colon and rectum. These polyps are composed of abnormal glandular cells that can grow excessively and form a mass.

Adenomatous polyps can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. They may be flat or have a stalk (pedunculated). While adenomas are generally benign, they can potentially undergo malignant transformation and develop into colorectal cancer over time if left untreated. The risk of malignancy increases with the size of the polyp and the presence of certain histological features, such as dysplasia (abnormal cell growth).

Regular screening for adenomatous polyps is essential to detect and remove them early, reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Screening methods include colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and stool-based tests.

Intestinal polyposis is a condition characterized by the presence of multiple polyps in the inner lining (mucosa) of the intestines. These polyps are abnormal growths that protrude from the intestinal wall and can vary in size, number, and type. Some common types of polyps include adenomatous, hyperplastic, and inflammatory polyps.

Intestinal polyposis can occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine (colon). The condition can be inherited or acquired, and it is often associated with various genetic syndromes such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenile polyposis syndrome, and Lynch syndrome.

Depending on the type, size, and number of polyps, intestinal polyposis can increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer and other gastrointestinal malignancies. Regular surveillance, monitoring, and removal of polyps are essential for managing this condition and preventing complications.

'Escherichia coli (E. coli) proteins' refer to the various types of proteins that are produced and expressed by the bacterium Escherichia coli. These proteins play a critical role in the growth, development, and survival of the organism. They are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, translation, repair, and regulation.

E. coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe that is commonly found in the intestines of warm-blooded organisms. It is widely used as a model organism in scientific research due to its well-studied genetics, rapid growth, and ability to be easily manipulated in the laboratory. As a result, many E. coli proteins have been identified, characterized, and studied in great detail.

Some examples of E. coli proteins include enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as lactase, sucrase, and maltose; proteins involved in DNA replication such as the polymerases, single-stranded binding proteins, and helicases; proteins involved in transcription such as RNA polymerase and sigma factors; proteins involved in translation such as ribosomal proteins, tRNAs, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases; and regulatory proteins such as global regulators, two-component systems, and transcription factors.

Understanding the structure, function, and regulation of E. coli proteins is essential for understanding the basic biology of this important organism, as well as for developing new strategies for combating bacterial infections and improving industrial processes involving bacteria.

Aggressive fibromatosis, also known as Desmoid tumor or Desmoid-type fibromatosis, is a rare, non-cancerous (benign) connective tissue neoplasm. It is characterized by the proliferation of fibroblasts and excessive deposition of collagen in the affected area.

Aggressive fibromatosis typically involves the deep soft tissues such as muscle, fascia, or aponeurosis. The tumor can grow aggressively, invading surrounding tissues but rarely metastasizing to distant organs. It can cause significant morbidity due to local invasion and destruction of adjacent structures.

The exact cause of aggressive fibromatosis is unknown, although it has been associated with genetic mutations in the beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) or familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Treatment options for aggressive fibromatosis include surgical resection, radiation therapy, medical management with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The choice of treatment depends on the location, size, growth rate, and symptoms associated with the tumor.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

Intestinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the intestines, which can be benign or malignant. These growths are called neoplasms and they result from uncontrolled cell division. In the case of intestinal neoplasms, these growths occur in the small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, or appendix.

Benign intestinal neoplasms are not cancerous and often do not invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to obstruct the intestines or cause bleeding. Common types of benign intestinal neoplasms include polyps, leiomyomas, and lipomas.

Malignant intestinal neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant intestinal neoplasm is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells lining the inside of the intestines. Other types of malignant intestinal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and carcinoid tumors.

Symptoms of intestinal neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and type. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fatigue. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Gardner Syndrome is a rare inherited condition associated with a mutation in the APC gene, which also causes Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This syndrome is characterized by the development of multiple benign tumors called adenomas in the colon and rectum. Additionally, individuals with Gardner Syndrome often develop various types of non-cancerous growths outside the gastrointestinal tract, such as osteomas (benign bone tumors), dental abnormalities, and epidermoid cysts on the skin.

Individuals with this syndrome have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer at a young age, typically before 40 years old, if not monitored and treated appropriately. Other cancers that may develop in association with Gardner Syndrome include duodenal cancer, thyroid cancer, brain tumors (particularly cerebellar medulloblastomas), and adrenal gland tumors.

Regular surveillance through colonoscopies and other diagnostic tests is crucial for early detection and management of potential malignancies in individuals with Gardner Syndrome.

Trans-activators are proteins that increase the transcriptional activity of a gene or a set of genes. They do this by binding to specific DNA sequences and interacting with the transcription machinery, thereby enhancing the recruitment and assembly of the complexes needed for transcription. In some cases, trans-activators can also modulate the chromatin structure to make the template more accessible to the transcription machinery.

In the context of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection, the term "trans-activator" is often used specifically to refer to the Tat protein. The Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication of HIV by activating the transcription of the viral genome. It does this by binding to a specific RNA structure called the Trans-Activation Response Element (TAR) located at the 5' end of all nascent HIV transcripts, and recruiting cellular cofactors that enhance the processivity and efficiency of RNA polymerase II, leading to increased viral gene expression.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

A polyp is a general term for a small growth that protrudes from a mucous membrane, such as the lining of the nose or the digestive tract. Polyps can vary in size and shape, but they are usually cherry-sized or smaller and have a stalk or a broad base. They are often benign (noncancerous), but some types of polyps, especially those in the colon, can become cancerous over time.

In the digestive tract, polyps can form in the colon, rectum, stomach, or small intestine. Colorectal polyps are the most common type and are usually found during routine colonoscopies. There are several types of colorectal polyps, including:

* Adenomatous polyps (adenomas): These polyps can become cancerous over time and are the most likely to turn into cancer.
* Hyperplastic polyps: These polyps are usually small and benign, but some types may have a higher risk of becoming cancerous.
* Inflammatory polyps: These polyps are caused by chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, such as from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Polyps can also form in other parts of the body, including the nose, sinuses, ears, and uterus. In most cases, polyps are benign and do not cause any symptoms. However, if they become large enough, they may cause problems such as bleeding, obstruction, or discomfort. Treatment typically involves removing the polyp through a surgical procedure.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Wnt proteins are a family of secreted signaling molecules that play crucial roles in the regulation of fundamental biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. They were first discovered in 1982 through genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) and have since been found to be highly conserved across various species, from invertebrates to humans.

Wnt proteins exert their effects by binding to specific receptors on the target cell surface, leading to the activation of several intracellular signaling pathways:

1. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway: In the absence of Wnt ligands, β-catenin is continuously degraded by a destruction complex consisting of Axin, APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli), and GSK3β (Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta). When Wnt proteins bind to their receptors Frizzled and LRP5/6, the formation of a "signalosome" complex leads to the inhibition of the destruction complex, allowing β-catenin to accumulate in the cytoplasm and translocate into the nucleus. Here, it interacts with TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor) transcription factors to regulate the expression of target genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.
2. Non-canonical Wnt pathways: These include the Wnt/Ca^2+^ pathway and the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. In the Wnt/Ca^2+^ pathway, Wnt ligands bind to Frizzled receptors and activate heterotrimeric G proteins, leading to an increase in intracellular Ca^2+^ levels and activation of downstream targets such as protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII). These signaling events ultimately regulate cell movement, adhesion, and gene expression. In the PCP pathway, Wnt ligands bind to Frizzled receptors and coreceptor complexes containing Ror2 or Ryk, leading to activation of small GTPases such as RhoA and Rac1, which control cytoskeletal organization and cell polarity.

Dysregulation of Wnt signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and degenerative conditions. In cancer, aberrant activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway contributes to tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis by promoting cell proliferation, survival, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Inhibitors targeting different components of the Wnt signaling pathway are currently being developed as potential therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Abdominal fibromatosis, also known as aggressive abdominal wall fibromatosis or desmoid tumors, are rare, non-cancerous (benign) growths that originate from the connective tissue in the abdominal wall. These tumors can be invasive and grow into surrounding tissues, causing discomfort, pain, or complications such as bowel obstruction. They can occur spontaneously or following surgical trauma, pregnancy, or familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a genetic disorder that increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and medical management with anti-inflammatory drugs or chemotherapeutic agents. Regular follow-up is necessary due to the possibility of recurrence.

Human chromosome pair 5 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of human cells, which contain genetic material in the form of DNA and proteins. Each member of chromosome pair 5 is a single chromosome, and humans typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes in every cell of their body (except gametes or sex cells, which contain 23 chromosomes).

Chromosome pair 5 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning it is not a sex chromosome. Each member of chromosome pair 5 is approximately 197 million base pairs in length and contains around 800-900 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and regulating various cellular processes.

Chromosome pair 5 is associated with several genetic disorders, including cri du chat syndrome (resulting from a deletion on the short arm of chromosome 5), Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome (both resulting from abnormalities in gene expression on the long arm of chromosome 5).

A germ-line mutation is a genetic change that occurs in the egg or sperm cells (gametes), and thus can be passed down from parents to their offspring. These mutations are present throughout the entire body of the offspring, as they are incorporated into the DNA of every cell during embryonic development.

Germ-line mutations differ from somatic mutations, which occur in other cells of the body that are not involved in reproduction. While somatic mutations can contribute to the development of cancer and other diseases within an individual, they are not passed down to future generations.

It's important to note that germ-line mutations can have significant implications for medical genetics and inherited diseases. For example, if a parent has a germ-line mutation in a gene associated with a particular disease, their offspring may have an increased risk of developing that disease as well.

Duodenal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine that receives digestive secretions from the pancreas and bile duct. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms include adenomas, leiomyomas, lipomas, and hamartomas. They are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bleeding, or obstruction of the intestine.

Malignant neoplasms include adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids), lymphomas, and sarcomas. They are more aggressive and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, anemia, or bowel obstruction.

The diagnosis of duodenal neoplasms is usually made through imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI, or endoscopy with biopsy. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the tumor and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these modalities.

Colonic polyps are abnormal growths that protrude from the inner wall of the colon (large intestine). They can vary in size, shape, and number. Most colonic polyps are benign, meaning they are not cancerous. However, some types of polyps, such as adenomas, have a higher risk of becoming cancerous over time if left untreated.

Colonic polyps often do not cause any symptoms, especially if they are small. Larger polyps may lead to symptoms like rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits, abdominal pain, or iron deficiency anemia. The exact cause of colonic polyps is not known, but factors such as age, family history, and certain medical conditions (like inflammatory bowel disease) can increase the risk of developing them.

Regular screening exams, such as colonoscopies, are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 to detect and remove polyps before they become cancerous. If you have a family history of colonic polyps or colorectal cancer, your doctor may recommend earlier or more frequent screenings.

TCF (T-cell factor) transcription factors are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in the Wnt signaling pathway, which is involved in various biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. TCF transcription factors bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of target genes and regulate their transcription.

In the absence of Wnt signaling, TCF proteins form a complex with transcriptional repressors, which inhibits gene transcription. When Wnt ligands bind to their receptors, they initiate a cascade of intracellular signals that result in the accumulation and nuclear localization of β-catenin, a key player in the Wnt signaling pathway.

In the nucleus, β-catenin interacts with TCF proteins, displacing the transcriptional repressors and converting TCF into an activator of gene transcription. This leads to the expression of target genes that are involved in various cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, stem cell maintenance, and tumorigenesis.

Mutations in TCF transcription factors or components of the Wnt signaling pathway have been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and degenerative diseases.

Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and pain.

Sulindac is a prodrug, meaning that it is converted into its active form, sulindac sulfide, in the body. Sulindac sulfide has both analgesic (pain-relieving) and anti-inflammatory effects, making it useful for treating conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.

Like other NSAIDs, sulindac can cause side effects such as stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage, especially when taken at high doses or for long periods of time. It should be used with caution in people with a history of gastrointestinal (GI) problems, kidney disease, or liver disease.

It is important to note that this information is intended to supplement, not substitute for, the expertise and judgment of healthcare professionals. It is always recommended to consult with a doctor or pharmacist for medical advice.

Restorative proctocolectomy, also known as ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), is a surgical procedure used to treat ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. This procedure involves the removal of the colon, rectum, and anal canal while preserving the sphincter muscles that control fecal continence.

After removing the diseased tissues, the surgeon creates a pouch from the end of the small intestine (ileum) and attaches it to the anus, restoring the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract. The pouch serves as a reservoir for stool, allowing for more normal bowel movements compared to having a permanent ileostomy.

Restorative proctocolectomy can be performed in one or two stages, depending on the patient's condition and the surgeon's preference. In the two-stage procedure, an initial total colectomy with ileostomy is performed, followed by the creation of the pouch and closure of the ileostomy in a second operation. The single-stage procedure involves removing the colon, creating the pouch, and performing the anastomosis in one surgical setting.

While restorative proctocolectomy significantly improves quality of life for many patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis, potential complications include pouchitis (inflammation of the ileal pouch), anastomotic leakage, small bowel obstruction, and pelvic sepsis. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for these and other potential issues.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Tumor suppressor genes are a type of gene that helps to regulate and prevent cells from growing and dividing too rapidly or in an uncontrolled manner. They play a critical role in preventing the formation of tumors and cancer. When functioning properly, tumor suppressor genes help to repair damaged DNA, control the cell cycle, and trigger programmed cell death (apoptosis) when necessary. However, when these genes are mutated or altered, they can lose their ability to function correctly, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of tumors. Examples of tumor suppressor genes include TP53, BRCA1, and BRCA2.

Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic, progressive, and potentially disabling disease that affects the oral soft tissues. It is characterized by inflammation and fibrosis (excessive deposition of collagen) of the submucosal tissues, leading to stiffness and limitation of mouth opening, tongue movement, and occasionally swallowing or speaking difficulties. The condition primarily affects individuals with a history of areca nut (betel nut) chewing, although other factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and genetic predisposition may also contribute to its development. Symptoms can include burning sensation in the mouth, dryness, and pain during speaking, eating, or swallowing. In severe cases, OSF can lead to significant functional impairment and require surgical intervention.

"Areca" is the term used to refer to the Areca catechu plant, which is also known as the betel nut palm. The areca nut, which is the seed of the fruit produced by this plant, is commonly chewed with betel leaf for its mild stimulant effects. It contains a number of alkaloids, including arecoline, which has psychoactive properties. Chewing areca nut is a popular habit in many parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands, despite evidence that it can have negative health effects, such as increasing the risk of oral cancer.

Arecoline is a parasympathomimetic alkaloid that is the primary active component found in the areca nut, which is chewed for its psychoactive effects in various parts of the world. It can cause stimulation of the nervous system and has been associated with several health risks, including oral cancer and cardiovascular disease.

The medical definition of Arecoline is:

A parasympathomimetic alkaloid found in the areca nut, which is chewed for its psychoactive effects. It stimulates the nervous system and has been associated with several health risks, including oral cancer and cardiovascular disease. The chemical formula for Arecoline is C7H9NO2.

The mouth mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the inside of the mouth, also known as the oral mucosa. It covers the tongue, gums, inner cheeks, palate, and floor of the mouth. This moist tissue is made up of epithelial cells, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve endings. Its functions include protecting the underlying tissues from physical trauma, chemical irritation, and microbial infections; aiding in food digestion by producing enzymes; and providing sensory information about taste, temperature, and texture.

Zinc acetate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Zn(C2H3O2)2. It is a white, crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water and readily forms dihydrates. Zinc acetate is used as a dietary supplement and as a topical treatment for various medical conditions such as cold sores, throat irritations, and skin disorders.

In the medical field, zinc acetate is commonly found in lozenges and nasal sprays that are used to reduce the severity and duration of the common cold. It has been shown to have antimicrobial properties and can help to boost the immune system. Additionally, zinc acetate is also used in the treatment of Wilson's disease, a rare genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the body. By binding to copper, zinc acetate helps to remove excess copper from the body.

It's important to note that excessive intake of zinc can lead to adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Therefore, it is recommended to follow the dosage instructions carefully when taking zinc acetate or any other zinc supplement.

The submucosal plexus, also known as Meissner's plexus, is a component of the autonomic nervous system located in the submucosa layer of the gastrointestinal tract. It is a network of nerve fibers and ganglia that primarily regulates local reflexes and secretions, contributing to the control of gut motility, blood flow, and mucosal transport.

Meissner's plexus is part of the enteric nervous system (ENS), which can operate independently from the central nervous system (CNS). The ENS consists of two interconnected plexuses: Meissner's submucosal plexus and Auerbach's myenteric plexus.

Meissner's plexus is responsible for regulating functions such as absorption, secretion, vasodilation, and local immune responses in the gastrointestinal tract. Dysfunction of this plexus can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other motility-related conditions.

Leukoplakia, oral is a predominantly white patch or plaque that cannot be characterized clinically or pathologically as any other disease. It is an oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD) and represents a significant risk for the development of squamous cell carcinoma. The lesions are typically caused by chronic irritation, such as smoking or smokeless tobacco use, and are most commonly found on the tongue, floor of the mouth, and buccal mucosa. The diagnosis is confirmed through a biopsy, and management includes removal of causative factors and close monitoring for any signs of malignant transformation.

... (APC) also known as deleted in polyposis 2.5 (DP2.5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... The (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) APC protein normally builds a "destruction complex" with glycogen synthase kinase 3-alpha and ... May 2001). "Siah-1 mediates a novel beta-catenin degradation pathway linking p53 to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein". ... Zumbrunn J, Kinoshita K, Hyman AA, Näthke IS (January 2001). "Binding of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein to microtubules ...
"A role for the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein in chromosome segregation". Nature Cell Biology. 3 (4): 429-432. doi:10.1038/ ... The protein has been localized to the kinetochore and plays a role in the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/ ... BubR1 protein levels are shown to decline with age. Furthermore, loss of BubR1 in young organisms is associated with rapid ... Mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine-protein kinase BUB1 beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BUB1B gene. Also ...
"A role for the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein in chromosome segregation". Nature Cell Biology. 3 (4): 429-32. doi:10.1038/ ... Mitotic checkpoint protein BUB3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BUB3 gene. Bub3 is a protein involved with the ... cancer adenomatous polyposis osteosarcoma familial breast cancer glioblastoma cervicitis lung cancer carcinoma Coli polyposis ... The complex of proteins which regulate the cell arrest are BUB1, BUB2, BUB3 (this protein), Mad1, Mad2, Mad3 and MPS1. At ...
Through its N-terminal regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain, it recruits the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein ... and in particular by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, encoded by the tumour-suppressing APC gene. Therefore, ... its partner the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) protein contains 11 such motifs in tandem arrangement per protomer, thus ... "Association and regulation of casein kinase 2 activity by adenomatous polyposis coli protein". Proceedings of the National ...
"Association and regulation of casein kinase 2 activity by adenomatous polyposis coli protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... Casein kinase II subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSNK2B gene. It is a ubiquitous protein kinase ... "Characterization of protein interaction among subunits of protein kinase CKII in vivo and in vitro". Mol. Cells. KOREA. 8 (1): ... "Mapping of the interaction domain of the protein kinase CKII beta subunit with target proteins". Mol. Cells. Korea (South). 12 ...
"Association and regulation of casein kinase 2 activity by adenomatous polyposis coli protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 ... Casein kinase II is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins such as casein. The kinase exists as ... Kim MS, Lee YT, Kim JM, Cha JY, Bae YS (February 1998). "Characterization of protein interaction among subunits of protein ... Allende JE, Allende CC (1995). "Protein kinases. 4. Protein kinase CK2: an enzyme with multiple substrates and a puzzling ...
Rubinfeld B, Tice DA, Polakis P (2001). "Axin-dependent phosphorylation of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein mediated by ... Segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DVL1 gene. DVL1, the human ... Fagotto F, Jho Eh, Zeng L, Kurth T, Joos T, Kaufmann C, Costantini F (1999). "Domains of axin involved in protein-protein ... Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Hino S, Ikeda S, Kishida M, Kikuchi A (1999). "DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for protein ...
Rubinfeld B, Tice DA, Polakis P (2001). "Axin-dependent phosphorylation of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein mediated by ... The encoded protein interacts with adenomatosis polyposis coli, catenin (cadherin-associated protein) beta 1, glycogen synthase ... Adenomatous polyposis coli, CREB-binding protein/(CBP) and might be affected in similar ways by missense mutations of their ... "GSK-3beta-dependent phosphorylation of adenomatous polyposis coli gene product can be modulated by beta-catenin and protein ...
The protein encoded by this gene shares significant homology to the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein-binding EB1 gene ... "The adenomatous polyposis coli-binding protein EB1 is associated with cytoplasmic and spindle microtubules". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... a new member of the adenomatous polyposis coli-binding EB1-like gene family, is differentially expressed in activated T cells ... Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAPRE2 gene. ...
The protein encoded by this gene was first identified by its binding to the APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli) protein which is ... "The adenomatous polyposis coli-binding protein EB1 is associated with cytoplasmic and spindle microtubules". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... which is why EB1 is categorized as a microtubule plus end tracking protein(+TIP protein). The protein also associates with ... Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAPRE1 gene. ...
She is known for her work on the role of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein in colorectal cancer. Näthke grew up in ... Penman, George A.; Leung, Louie; Näthke, Inke S. (2005-10-15). "The adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) exists in two ... "The adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor protein localizes to plasma membrane sites involved in active cell migration". ... In her postdoctoral work she established a link between the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor and cell movement ...
... of the tumor suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Its structure and its interaction with chromosome maintenance ... Ran (RAs-related Nuclear protein) also known as GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Ran is a small G protein that is essential for the translocation of RNA and proteins through the nuclear pore complex. The Ran ... "Molecular interactions between the importin alpha/beta heterodimer and proteins involved in vertebrate nuclear protein import ...
"Siah-1 mediates a novel beta-catenin degradation pathway linking p53 to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein". Molecular Cell ... The protein is an E3 ligase and is involved in ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of specific proteins. The ... October 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. ... E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SIAH1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SIAH1 gene. This gene encodes for a polypeptide ...
It is also dependent on several microtubule-associated proteins such as EB1 and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Growth of ... Cortical Dynein, a motor protein moves along the microtubules of the cell and plays a key role in the growth and inhibition of ...
... of the tumor suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Its structure and its interaction with chromosome maintenance ... XPO1 mediates NES-dependent protein transport. It exports several hundreds of different proteins from the nucleus. XPO1 is ... "Ran-binding protein 3 is a cofactor for Crm1-mediated nuclear protein export". J. Cell Biol. 153 (7): 1391-402. doi:10.1083/jcb ... is a eukaryotic protein that mediates the nuclear export of various proteins and RNAs. XPO1 (CRM1) originally was identified in ...
Zumbrunn J, Kinoshita K, Hyman AA, Näthke IS (Jan 2001). "Binding of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein to microtubules ... Tubulin alpha-4A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBA4A gene. Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton ... Kirsch J, Langosch D, Prior P, Littauer UZ, Schmitt B, Betz H (Nov 1991). "The 93-kDa glycine receptor-associated protein binds ... Huby RD, Carlile GW, Ley SC (Dec 1995). "Interactions between the protein-tyrosine kinase ZAP-70, the proto-oncoprotein Vav, ...
2004). "The tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli and caudal related homeodomain protein regulate expression of retinol ... 2003). "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and ... transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment". Genome Res. 13 (10): 2265-70. doi:10.1101/gr.1293003. PMC 403697. PMID ...
... and scaffold proteins adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and axin targets plakoglobin for degradation.[31-33]. The phosphorylated ... "The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... "The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... Swope D, Cheng L, Gao E, Li J, Radice GL (Mar 2012). "Loss of cadherin-binding proteins β-catenin and plakoglobin in the heart ...
"ARM domain-dependent nuclear import of adenomatous polyposis coli protein is stimulated by the B56 alpha subunit of protein ... "Direct activation of protein phosphatase-2A0 by HIV-1 encoded protein complex NCp7:vpr". FEBS Letters. 401 (2-3): 197-201. doi: ... "The B56alpha regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A is a target for regulation by double-stranded RNA-dependent protein ... Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell ...
"The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... Cadherin-1 or Epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), (not to be confused with the APC/C activator protein CDH1) is a protein that in ... The binding of vinculin to α-catenin offers the protein complex another linkage with actin in addition to recruiting proteins ... Complete loss of E-cadherin protein expression in 84% of lobular breast carcinomas. Several proteins such as SNAI1, ZEB2, SNAI2 ...
"The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... "The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... p120 catenin, or simply p120, also called catenin delta-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTNND1 gene. This gene ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 4 (2): 141-50. ...
"The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... "The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a novel small molecule, SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction ... "Entrez Gene: CTNNA1 catenin (cadherin-associated protein), alpha 1, 102kDa". "Protein sequence of human CTNNA1 (Uniprot ID: ...
She showed that checkpoint proteins have to 'sense' that both the adenomatous polyposis coli and EB1 proteins to support normal ... but not clear why aneuploidy can still occur in cells with checkpoint proteins. Draviam demonstrated that checkpoint proteins ... Dravian, Viji Mythily; Raff, Jordan W (2003). "The ch-TOG/XMAP215 protein is essential for spindle pole organization in human ... They study kinetochore proteins through selective mutations and investigations using single molecule microscopy. Specifically, ...
Li Q, Dashwood RH (Oct 2004). "Activator protein 2alpha associates with adenomatous polyposis coli/beta-catenin and Inhibits ... Transcription factor AP-2 alpha (Activating enhancer binding Protein 2 alpha), also known as TFAP2A, is a protein that in ... "The epsins define a family of proteins that interact with components of the clathrin coat and contain a new protein module". ... "Huntingtin interacting protein 1 Is a clathrin coat binding protein required for differentiation of late spermatogenic ...
... has been found to target and inhibit gene expression of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, enabling it to ... FOXO1 protein expression is down-regulated in breast tumour tissue samples; miR-27a has been identified as one of three miRNAS ... There is activation of Wnt signalling through nuclear accumulation of this protein, which is in response to inhibition of the ... Suppression of miR-27a results in a FOXO1 protein increase and a consequent cell number decrease. Landgraf, P; Rusu, M; ...
This later activity is mediated by formins, the adenomatous polyposis coli protein, and EB1, a protein that tracks along the ... MAP-1 proteins consists of a set of three different proteins: A, B and C. The C protein plays an important role in the ... including the motor proteins dynein and kinesin, microtubule-severing proteins like katanin, and other proteins important for ... This allows the movement of the motor proteins along the microtubule or the microtubule moving across the motor proteins. ...
This gene encodes (i.e. directs production of) the adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC protein) but when mutated in FAP ... In the majority of cases, GF tumors are manifestations of the genetic disease, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), or its ... APC protein acts indirectly to degrade β-catenin, a protein which when overexpressed induces various cancers. Partially or ... "Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Syndrome: An Update and Review of Extraintestinal Manifestations". Archives of Pathology & ...
... an anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory protein Adenomatous polyposis coli, a tumor suppressor protein encoded by the APC gene ... Family of transport proteins APC Superfamily, a superfamily of transport proteins APC tablet, analgesic compound of aspirin, ... a protein from the light-harvesting phycobiliprotein family Allylpalladium chloride dimer, a chemical compound Ammonium ... mutations in which can cause colon cancer Anaphase-promoting complex, a ubiquitin ligase cell cycle protein Antigen-presenting ...
"GSK-3beta-dependent phosphorylation of adenomatous polyposis coli gene product can be modulated by beta-catenin and protein ... "Direct activation of protein phosphatase-2A0 by HIV-1 encoded protein complex NCp7:vpr". FEBS Letters. 401 (2-3): 197-201. doi: ... Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell ... Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regulatory subunit beta isoform is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ...
"GSK-3beta-dependent phosphorylation of adenomatous polyposis coli gene product can be modulated by beta-catenin and protein ... The product of this gene belongs to the Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of ... "Direct activation of protein phosphatase-2A0 by HIV-1 encoded protein complex NCp7:vpr". FEBS Letters. 401 (2-3): 197-201. doi: ... Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regulatory subunit gamma isoform is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ...
Seminars and Events at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) and Vienna Biocenter (VBC).
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics* * Adult * Aged * Asian People / genetics* * Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis ...
Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) also known as deleted in polyposis 2.5 (DP2.5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... The (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) APC protein normally builds a "destruction complex" with glycogen synthase kinase 3-alpha and ... May 2001). "Siah-1 mediates a novel beta-catenin degradation pathway linking p53 to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein". ... Zumbrunn J, Kinoshita K, Hyman AA, Näthke IS (January 2001). "Binding of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein to microtubules ...
T1 - Proteomic profiling reveals the prognostic value of adenomatous polyposis coli-end-binding protein 1 in hepatocellular ... title = "Proteomic profiling reveals the prognostic value of adenomatous polyposis coli-end-binding protein 1 in hepatocellular ... Proteomic profiling reveals the prognostic value of adenomatous polyposis coli-end-binding protein 1 in hepatocellular ... Proteomic profiling reveals the prognostic value of adenomatous polyposis coli-end-binding protein 1 in hepatocellular ...
Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics * Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism* Substances * Adenomatous Polyposis Coli ...
Protein: Hemoglobin subunit beta or Adenomatous polyposis coli protein. P. Optional. Public. Variants(s). Describe ... If protein, please use Swiss-Prot protein name. If an analyte, enter its name. If multiple targets are being tested, each ... Protein analysis. Protein expression. Sequence analysis of select exons. Sequence analysis of the entire coding region. Sister ... A test target is what the test interrogates (e. g. the analyte, chromosomal region/mitochondrion, gene or protein). For simple ...
The APC gene provides instructions for making the APC protein, which plays a critical role in several cellular processes. Learn ... The adenomatous polyposis coli protein: the Achilles heel of the gut epithelium. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2004;20:337-66. doi: ... Goss KH, Groden J. Biology of the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor. J Clin Oncol. 2000 May;18(9):1967-79. doi: ... Senda T, Shimomura A, Iizuka-Kogo A. Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) tumor suppressor gene as a multifunctional gene. Anat Sci ...
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein. Orner GA, Dashwood W-M, Blum CA, G Díaz D, Li Q, Al-Fageeh M, Tebbutt N, Heath JK, Ernst M ... Cytoskeletal Proteins. Orner GA, Dashwood W-M, Blum CA, G Díaz D, Li Q, Al-Fageeh M, Tebbutt N, Heath JK, Ernst M, Dashwood RH ...
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein. Orner GA, Dashwood W-M, Blum CA, G Díaz D, Li Q, Al-Fageeh M, Tebbutt N, Heath JK, Ernst M ... Cytoskeletal Proteins. Orner GA, Dashwood W-M, Blum CA, G Díaz D, Li Q, Al-Fageeh M, Tebbutt N, Heath JK, Ernst M, Dashwood RH ...
Adenomatous polyposis coli gene mutation and decreased wild-type p53 protein expression in oral submucous fibrosis: a ... 16] In one study, arecoline was found to elevate the mRNA and protein expression of cystatin C, a nonglycosylated basic protein ... Evaluation of plasma fibrinogen degradation products and total serum protein concentration in oral submucous fibrosis. J Clin ...
Siah-1 mediates a novel beta-catenin degradation pathway linking p53 to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein ... A third way to inhibit Siah would be to disrupt the dimerization site between 2 Siah monomer proteins (Fig. 1). The protein ... The proteasome controls protein abundance within the cell through proteolytic degradation of unneeded or damaged proteins. Most ... The N-terminal RING domain of Siah proteins promotes the proteolysis of specific target proteins via the ubiquitin-proteasome ...
... and include such proteins as beta-catenin, the junctional plaque protein plakoglobin, the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) ... The adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor protein is also implicated in beta-catenin signaling. ... Crystal structure of the complex between the armadillo repeat domain of adenomatous polyposis coli and the tyrosine-rich domain ... The Structure of a beta-Catenin Binding Repeat from Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) in Complex with beta-Catenin. ...
... and include such proteins as beta-catenin, the junctional plaque protein plakoglobin, the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) ... The adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor protein is also implicated in beta-catenin signaling. ... Crystal structure of the complex between the armadillo repeat domain of adenomatous polyposis coli and the tyrosine-rich domain ... The Structure of a beta-Catenin Binding Repeat from Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) in Complex with beta-Catenin. ...
APC E1379TER, Adenomatous polyposis coli protein, APC_HUMAN Icon Locations in the PathwayBrowser Expand all ... A protein modification that effectively removes or replaces an L-glutamic acid. ...
Adenomatous polyposis coli protein nucleates actin assembly and synergizes with the formin mDia1. J Cell Biol. 2010 Jun 28; 189 ... "Fetal Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Fetal Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Fetal Proteins" by people in Profiles. ...
... but not adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or myelin basic protein (MBP) (mature oligodendrocytes) (Figure 1A and Table 1). This ... Myelin-specific proteins and glycolipids in rat Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes in culture. J Cell Biol. 1980;84(3):483-494. ... Expression of the APC tumor suppressor protein in oligodendroglia. Glia. 1996;17(2):169-174.. View this article via: PubMed ... Signaling from Rho to the actin cytoskeleton through protein kinases ROCK and LIM-kinase. Science. 1999;285(5429):895-898. ...
"Microsatellite instability in colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines that have full-length adenomatous polyposis coli protein," ... gene encodes a protein that belongs to the Raf family of serine/threonine protein kinases. It is an integral component of the ... Adaptor proteins, GRB2 and SOS, are then sequentially recruited to stimulate the release of GDP from KRAS which permits binding ... BRAF is a protein kinase and part of the MAP kinase signalling cascade which involves transduction of a growth signal from the ...
Adenomatous polyposis coli gene mutation and decreased wild-type p53 protein expression in oral submucous fibrosis: a ... 16] In one study, arecoline was found to elevate the mRNA and protein expression of cystatin C, a nonglycosylated basic protein ... Evaluation of plasma fibrinogen degradation products and total serum protein concentration in oral submucous fibrosis. J Clin ...
Centromere-associated protein-E (CENP-E) is an essential mitotic kinesin that is required for efficient, stable microtubule ... A role for the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein in chromosome segregation. Nat. Cell Biol. ... A role for the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein in chromosome segregation. Nat. Cell Biol. ... Centromere-associated protein-E (CENP-E) is a large (∼300 kD), essential, kinesin-like protein that accumulates in G2, is used ...
I was told that the APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli) is a protein that is encoded by the APC gene in humans. And that mutations ...
APC, adenomatous polyposis coli; -TrCP, -Transducin repeat-containing protein; CK1, casein kinase 1; GSK3, glycogen.Over the ... adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), and casein kinase 1 (CK1) (Stamos and Weis, 2013). When - ... adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), and casein kinase 1 (CK1) (Stamos and Weis, 2013). When - ... adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), and casein kinase 1 (CK1) (Stamos and Weis, 2013). When - ...
Zumbrunn J, Kinoshita K, Hyman AA and Nathke IS: Binding of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein to microtubules increases ... Cai SR, Zhang SZ and Zheng S: Detection of adenomatous polyposis coli gene mutations in 31 familial adenomatous polyposis ... Familial adenomatous polyposis or FAP, adenomatous polyposis coli gene or APC and Chinese. The eligible articles were ... A novel pathogenic germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene in a Chinese family with familial adenomatous coli ...
... and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) (the APC protein acts as the primary regulator of β-catenin function). Upon binding to ... In the presence of Wnt signals, the Wnt proteins bind to (frizzled) frizzled receptors (FZDs) and low-density lipoprotein ... W. Hankey, W. L. Frankel, and J. Groden, "Functions of the APC tumor suppressor protein dependent and independent of canonical ... receptor-related protein (LRP) receptors, leading to the stabilization of β-catenin, its transfer to the nucleus, and the ...
... axin and adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor proteins (APC). When Wnt ligands bind with their cognate cell membrane ... the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor proteins (APC) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) [16]. Nevertheless, when ... including people from the secreted frizzled receptor proteins (sFRP) family members, Dickkopf (Dkk) proteins [18], Wnt ... The Rho category of GTPases contains 20 members, that are Ras-like proteins. Amongst these, Cdc42, Rac1, and. ...
APC R564TER, Adenomatous polyposis coli protein, APC_HUMAN Icon Locations in the PathwayBrowser Expand all ...
... senescence-like growth arrest in colon cancer cells is associated with loss of adenomatous polyposis coli protein, microtubule ... Gcn5 and SAGA regulate shelterin protein turnover and telomere maintenance. Mol Cell 35(3):352-364, 2009. PMID: 19683498. ... is associated with a decrease of nuclear p53 and Bcl-2 proteins and induction of telomeric associations. Cancer Lett 130(1-2): ...
SUMOylation is a post-translational modification of proteins that has been found to play a major role in the Wnt/β-catenin ... SUMOylation is a post-translational modification of proteins that has been found to play a major role in the Wnt/β-catenin ... Axin, a Negative Regulator of the Wnt Signaling Pathway, Directly Interacts With Adenomatous Polyposis Coli and Regulates the ... SUMOylation of the same protein may result in opposite regulation of different downstream effector proteins. The same protein ...
Proteins, cDNA and ELISA Kits. We also illustrate the related signaling pathways covering most research areas so that you can ... Recombinant Rat Adenomatous polyposis coli protein (Apc), partial. Yeast. E.coli. Baculovirus. Mammalian cell. In Vivo ... Adenomatous polyposis coli protein is a protein in humans that is encoded by APC gene. Tumor suppressor. Promotes rapid ... Recombinant Human Adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC), partial. Yeast. Baculovirus. Mammalian cell. In Vivo Biotinylation ...
APC: Adenomatous polyposis coli gene; ATM: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene; BRAF: Serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf gene ... Parathyroid hormone related-protein. Activates Wnt/β-catenin pathway and promotes events related to stemness. [162-164]. ... Bone mophogenic protein 2. Stimulates the differentiation of CCSC inducting autophagic degradation of β-catenin. [44,63]. ... Bone mophogenetic protein 4. Induces differentiation and decreases the tumorigenic potential of CCSC. [16,60,63]. ...
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by an inherited, inactivating mutation in the APC gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than 800 mutations[citation needed] in the APC gene have been identified in families with classic and attenuated types of familial adenomatous polyposis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common mutation in familial adenomatous polyposis is a deletion of five bases in the APC gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although APC -related desmoid tumors are commonly associated with a form of colon cancer called familial adenomatous polyposis (described below), APC gene mutations can cause tumors in individuals without this inherited disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the APC gene are also responsible for a disorder called Turcot syndrome, which is closely related to familial adenomatous polyposis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal dominant disease, is a colon cancer predisposition syndrome that manifests as a large number of adenomatous polyps. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder with an incidence of approximately 3-10/100,000 ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are the basis of familial adenomatous polyposis and the majority of sporadic colorectal cancer. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In these roles, it binds to cadherins, Tcf-family transcription factors, and the tumor suppressor gene product Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC). (embl.de)
  • The protein localizes to the cytoplasmic microtubule network and binds APCL, a homolog of the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene. (nih.gov)
  • Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) also known as deleted in polyposis 2.5 (DP2.5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APC gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein made by the APC gene plays a critical role in several cellular processes that determine whether a cell may develop into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • A test target is what the test interrogates ( e. g. the analyte, chromosomal region/mitochondrion, gene or protein). (nih.gov)
  • The APC gene provides instructions for making the APC protein, which plays a critical role in several cellular processes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most APC gene mutations that cause sporadic desmoid tumors lead to an abnormally short APC protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B) gene encodes a protein that belongs to the Raf family of serine/threonine protein kinases. (hindawi.com)
  • Mutations in the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are responsible for the majority of cases of FAP. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) on chromosome 5q22.2 are responsible for the most cases of FAP. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Adenomatous polyposis coli protein is a protein in humans that is encoded by APC gene. (cusabio.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RP/EB family of genes. (nih.gov)
  • Membrane-spanning proteins often function as receptors involved in recognition and cell adhesion, whereas nuclear proteins frequently play a role in regulating gene expression and transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evidence for an association between a G-protein beta3-gene variant with depression and response to antidepressant treatment. (neurotransmitter.net)
  • Association between a G-protein beta3 subunit gene polymorphism and the symptomatology and treatment responses of major depressive disorders. (neurotransmitter.net)
  • The aim of the present study was to test a possible effect of the G-protein beta3-subunit (Gbeta3) C825T gene variant on the antidepressant activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in a sample of major and bipolar depressives, with or without psychotic features. (neurotransmitter.net)
  • The first genetic alteration, found in 85% of adenomas, are mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (MC) gene. (um.es)
  • The (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) APC protein normally builds a "destruction complex" with glycogen synthase kinase 3-alpha and or beta (GSK-3α/β) and Axin via interactions with the 20 AA and SAMP repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wnt and Rho GTPase signaling Rabbit polyclonal to NGFR and their discussion In the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, most -catenin in the cytoplasm can be sequestered in a oligomeric complicated of casein kinase, axin, the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor proteins (APC) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) [16]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • In canonical Wnt signaling, most -catenin in the cytoplasm can be sequestered within an oligomeric complicated of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), casein kinase (CK), axin and adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor proteins (APC). (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • In the absence of Wnt signals, the cytoplasmic catenin beta-1 ( β-catenin ) is associated with a complex including auxin, glycogen synthase kinase 3 ( GSK-3 ), and adenomatous polyposis coli ( APC ) (the APC protein acts as the primary regulator of β-catenin function). (hindawi.com)
  • The degradation of β-catenin is regulated by interaction with a number of proteins including Axin , glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and the adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of these mutations cause the production of an APC protein that is abnormally short and presumably nonfunctional. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these mutations lead to the production of an abnormally short, nonfunctional version of the APC protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most of the mutations causing FAP are nonsense or frameshift mutations, and can result in premature stop codons thus produce truncated APC proteins ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Neufeld, associate professor in the Department of Molecular Biosciences, studies the adenomatous polyposis coli protein, which protects against colon cancer. (cancerlive.net)
  • It has been suggested that APC could function through its regulation of Bcatenin, an ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein with multiple binding specificities resulting in diverse functions including cell growth, adhesion, and migration. (um.es)
  • Plakoglobin (also known as γ-catenin) is a member of the Armadillo family of proteins and a paralog of β-catenin. (oncotarget.com)
  • How plakoglobin acts as a growth/metastasis inhibitory protein has remained, until recently, unclear. (oncotarget.com)
  • Recent evidence suggests that plakoglobin may suppress tumorigenesis and metastasis by multiple mechanisms, including the suppression of oncogenic signaling, interactions with various proteins involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis, and the regulation of the expression of genes involved in these processes. (oncotarget.com)
  • At the adherens junction in epithelia, the C-terminal domain of E-cadherin interacts, in a mutually exclusive manner, with β-catenin or γ-catenin (plakoglobin), which then interacts with α-catenin, an actin-binding protein. (oncotarget.com)
  • Humans have 2 Siah proteins, Siah1 and Siah2, derived from the SIAH1 and SIAH2 genes, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is now clear that Armadillo and beta-catenin bind directly to members of the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor subfamily of HMG box DNA-binding proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors that regulate Wingless/Wnt responsive genes in both Drosophila and vertebrates. (embl.de)
  • Loss of APC function results in increased level of β-catenin and activation of growth-promoting genes via the increased β-catenin/Tcf-4 transcription complexes, subsequently leading to the development of adenomatous colorectal polyps at a young age ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the presence of Wnt signals, the Wnt proteins bind to (frizzled) frizzled receptors ( FZDs ) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein ( LRP ) receptors, leading to the stabilization of β-catenin , its transfer to the nucleus, and the activation of target genes. (hindawi.com)
  • Aberrations of AR, erythroblast transformation-specific ( ETS ) genes, Tumor protein 53 (TP53), and Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) occurred in 40%-60% of 150 mCRPC cases in a recent study. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Patients who suffer from FAP also have increased risk of extra-colonic manifestations, including duodenal polyposis, sebaceous cysts, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) and tumors in the upper gastrointestinal tract, thyroid gland and brain ( 5 , 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 71 Clusterin is a small heat shock glycoprotein overexpressed in most of the solid tumors, which promotes apoptosis by binding to various molecules such as BAX (BCL2-associated X protein) 72 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)−1. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The APC protein acts as a tumor suppressor, which means that it keeps cells from growing and dividing too fast or in an uncontrolled way. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor protein is also implicated in beta-catenin signaling. (embl.de)
  • The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor--genetics, function and disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Fetal Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Adenomatous polyposis coli protein nucleates actin assembly and synergizes with the formin mDia1. (umassmed.edu)
  • G-proteins are key elements of these pathways in the regulation of cellular responses by transmission of signals from receptors to effector proteins. (neurotransmitter.net)
  • The APC protein is a negative regulator that controls beta-catenin concentrations and interacts with E-cadherin, which are involved in cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity of one protein in particular, beta-catenin, is controlled by the APC protein (see: Wnt signaling pathway). (wikipedia.org)
  • One protein with which APC associates is beta-catenin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The shortened protein is unable to interact with the beta-catenin protein, which prevents the breakdown of beta-catenin when it is no longer needed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC), Protein Phosphatase 2A. (abdur.ca)
  • Activation of protein phosphatase 2A by palmitate inhibits AMP-activated protein. (abdur.ca)
  • The proteasome controls protein abundance within the cell through proteolytic degradation of unneeded or damaged proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most proteins are targeted for degradation by polyubiquitination mediated by E3 ubiquitin ligases ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 phosphorylates Siah2 under hypoxic conditions, causing it to relocalize to the cytoplasm and subsequently increases its ubiquitin-targeted degradation activity ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, the deubiquitinating enzyme USP13 reduces the substrate degradation activity of Siah proteins ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Statistical analysis and mass spectrometry identified 26 proteins with differential expression, of which 14 were functionally linked to c-Myc, AP-1, HIF1A, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, or the Ras superfamily (RhoA, CDC42, and Rac1). (elsevierpure.com)
  • The APC protein, which comprises of 2843 amino acids, plays an important role in the β-catenin nuclear localization ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Structure-function analysis of the Dishevelled (Dsh) protein in frog embryos has defined sequences that regulate Dsh nuclear localization, which proves critical for Wnt signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, these cells showed loss of heterozygosity affecting Adenomatous Polyposis Coli and nuclear staining of β-catenin protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SUMOylation is a post-translational modification of proteins that has been found to play a major role in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • Now, in Journal of Biology [ 1 ], Sergei Sokol and colleagues show that the Dishevelled (Dsh) protein of the Wnt signaling pathway can shuttle in and out of the nucleus (see 'The bottom line' box for a summary of the work and 'Background' for further explanations and definitions). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent large scale sequencing analyses also have highlighted the predominance of large number of CRC patients carrying sequence variants in proteins involved in Wnt signaling pathway. (coloncanceratlas.org)
  • Analysis of Dsh sequence alignments revealed the presence of three conserved domains called DIX , PDZ and DEP [ 5 , 6 ], which are implicated in protein-protein interactions and targeting to subcellular sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cadherins are single-pass transmembrane glycoproteins that form homotypic interactions with cadherin proteins on neighboring cells and interact intracellularly with proteins of the catenin family [ 4 , 5 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • Marc Kvansakul 's team at La Trobe University in Australia published in FEBS Letters this month their study of the interactions between the human Scribble protein and Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). (sbgrid.org)
  • [ 16 ] In one study, arecoline was found to elevate the mRNA and protein expression of cystatin C, a nonglycosylated basic protein consistently up-regulated in a variety of fibrotic diseases, in a dose-dependent manner in persons with oral submucous fibrosis. (medscape.com)
  • Real-time PCR and ELISA was used to assess the status of Tregs and Th17 related transcription factors and cytokines in mRNA and protein level, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This protein also helps ensure that the chromosome number in cells produced through cell division is correct. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intracellular protein Dishevelled is common to both canonical and non-canonical signaling pathways, raising the question of how this mysterious protein acts at the signal crossroads. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The roles of the other proteins in the two pathways, and of the Dsh motifs, are discussed in the text. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sars-Cov-2 Viral Strain With Deletion In A Protein, Possibly Reducing Fatalities. (abdur.ca)
  • The canonical Wnt pathway involves stabilization of the intracellular protein β-catenin . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Histological differentiation is a major pathological parameter associated with poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the molecular signature underlying HCC differentiation may involve key proteins potentially affecting the malignant characters of HCC. (elsevierpure.com)
  • To develop prognostic biomarkers for HCC, we examined the global protein expression profiles of 45 surgically resected tissues, including 27 HCCs with different degree of histological differentiation, 11 adjacent nontumor tissues, and seven normal liver tissues. (elsevierpure.com)
  • 70 Mcl1 (myeloid cell leukemia differentiation protein 1) and other members of the BCL family, such as BCL-xl (B-cell lymphoma-extra-large), are also involved in resistance to Interleukin (IL)-6, stromal cell derived factor-1, and cytokine-induced apoptosis. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Sera were analysed by methylation-specific QPCR for three markers: adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), ras association domain family protein 1A (RASSF1A) and oestrogen receptor 1 (ESR1). (uantwerpen.be)
  • Retinoblastoma activity was measured by luciferase assays and proteins levels and activity were analysed by Western blot or immunohistochemistry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, including phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation, can regulate the function of proteins, determine the active state and subcellular location of proteins, and dynamically interact with other proteins related to carcinogenesis and progression ( 17 - 20 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • But it is becoming increasingly clear that protein subcellular localization can be extremely dynamic, allowing key proteins to play different roles in different compartments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, it was correlated with extra‑colonic phenotypes featuring duodenal polyposis and sebaceous cysts in this family. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The full-length human protein comprises 2,843 amino acids with a (predicted) molecular mass of 311646 Da. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular characterization of this cell line revealed low expression levels and activity of Retinoblastoma protein and elevated basal levels of Erk1/2 activity and p70S6K expression and activity, which may be related to chemoresistance mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic testing encompasses a broad range of laboratory tests performed to analyze DNA, RNA, chromosomes, proteins, and certain metabolites using biochemical, cytogenetic, or molecular methods or a combination of these methods. (cdc.gov)
  • The HGUE-C-1 cell line was sensitive to erlotinib, gefitinib, NVP-BEZ235, rapamycin and trichostatin, among other drugs, but partially resistant to heat shock protein inhibitors and highly resistant to AZD-6244 and oxaliplatin, even though the patient from which this cell line was derived had not been exposed to these drugs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), mainly survivin and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) prevent the processing of procaspase 3 to caspase 3, thereby inhibiting apoptosis. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • BRAF is a protein kinase and part of the MAP kinase signalling cascade which involves transduction of a growth signal from the cell membrane to the nucleus via a chain of protein kinases and is responsible for cellular proliferation and survival. (hindawi.com)
  • It is an integral component of the MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase cascade. (hindawi.com)
  • MKPs (mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases). (abdur.ca)
  • Siah proteins have been described to be both oncogenic and tumor suppressive in a variety of patient cohort studies and animal cancer models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, key experiments needed to close the gaps in our understanding of the role Siah proteins play in tumor progression are suggested. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Proteins associated with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway have been identified as SUMOylated substrates, and evidences suggested that the initiation and progression of cancers depended on the function of the SUMOylation ( 23 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • It is not known if this large predicted unstructured region from amino acid 800 to 2843 persists in vivo or would form stabilised complexes - possibly with yet unidentified interacting proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling is initiated when the Wnt ligand binds to the Frizzled receptor on the cell membrane and the LDL receptor-associated protein 5/6 (LRP5/6) co-receptor. (frontiersin.org)
  • Docetaxel, in addition to stabilizing microtubules, also induces apoptosis by downregulating antiapoptotic proteins. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • This mutation changes the sequence of amino acids in the resulting APC protein beginning at position 1309. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mutation results in the substitution of the amino acid lysine for isoleucine at position 1307 in the APC protein (also written as I1307K or Ile1307Lys). (wikipedia.org)
  • This mutation changes the sequence of the building blocks of proteins (amino acids) in the resulting APC protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This mutation replaces the amino acid isoleucine with the amino acid lysine at position 1307 in the APC protein (written as Ile1307Lys or I1307K). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The APC protein helps control how often a cell divides, how it attaches to other cells within a tissue, how the cell polarizes and the morphogenesis of the 3D structures, or whether a cell moves within or away from tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APC protein accomplishes these tasks mainly through association with other proteins, especially those that are involved in cell attachment and signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein also helps ensure that the number of chromosomes in a cell is correct following cell division. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Wang W, Zhang L, Morlock L, Williams NS, Shay JW, De Brabander JK (2019) Design and Synthesis of TASIN Analogs Specifically Targeting Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines with Mutant Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC). (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Since BCL2, a protein that indirectly inhibits cell apoptosis, is required for certain chemotherapies to work, the absence of BCL2 obscures their uses in prostate cancer. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The compendium encompasses sequence variants and proteins identified in more than 179 colorectal cancer cell lines and 13,711 tissue samples. (coloncanceratlas.org)
  • Jia-huai Wang, PhD, who led the work at Dana-Farber and Peking University in Beijing, is a corresponding author of a report published in the August 7 online edition of Neuron that explains how one guidance protein, netrin-1, can either attract or repel a brain cell to steer it along its course. (cancerlive.net)
  • Unsupervised classification grouped the 45 samples according to their histological classification based on the protein expression profiles created by laser microdissection and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). (elsevierpure.com)
  • We next aimed to verify human IRIS-1/2 expression at the protein level. (abdur.ca)
  • Role of tau N-terminal motif in the secretion of human tau by End Binding proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Based upon sequence alignment, this antibody is predicted to react with isoforms 1-5 of human MFF protein. (abdur.ca)
  • Human serum albumin protein, 3D rendering. (abdur.ca)
  • The arrival of protein to the stomach further stimulates gastrin output. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The immune fluorescence analysis targeting N-protein of CCHFV. (abdur.ca)
  • However, bortezomib blocks all protein proteolysis by the proteasome without discrimination, causing various systemic toxicities and the development of resistance ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In recent years several studies have reported altered levels and activities of G-protein alpha subunits in depressive patients. (neurotransmitter.net)
  • Occupational physical activ- ity, not leisure-time physical activity, is associated with increased high-sensitivity C reactive protein levels. (abdur.ca)
  • Among the proteins identified, we focused on APC-binding protein EB1 (EB1) because it was dominantly expressed in poorly differentiated HCCs, which generally correlate with the poor prognosis in patients with HCC. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Adaptor proteins, GRB2 and SOS, are then sequentially recruited to stimulate the release of GDP from KRAS which permits binding of GTP to activate KRAS. (hindawi.com)
  • NMR resonance assignment and structure prediction of the C-terminal domain of the microtubule end-binding protein 3. (nih.gov)
  • This short protein cannot suppress the cellular overgrowth that leads to the formation of polyps, which can become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • This short protein cannot suppress the cellular overgrowth that leads to the formation of abnormal growths (polyps) in the colon, which can become cancerous. (medlineplus.gov)
  • SUMOylation of proteins is an important mechanism in cellular responses to environmental stress ( 21 , 22 ). (frontiersin.org)