Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein: A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli: A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.Genes, APC: Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Intestinal Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Axin Protein: A scaffolding protein that is a critical component of the axin signaling complex which binds to ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI PROTEIN; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE 3; and CASEIN KINASE I.Adenomatous Polyps: Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Intestinal Polyposis: The growth of INTESTINAL POLYPS. Growth processes include neoplastic (ADENOMA and CARCINOMA) and non-neoplastic (hyperplastic, mucosal, inflammatory, and other polyps).Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Fibromatosis, Aggressive: A childhood counterpart of abdominal or extra-abdominal desmoid tumors, characterized by firm subcutaneous nodules that grow rapidly in any part of the body but do not metastasize. The adult form of abdominal fibromatosis is FIBROMATOSIS, ABDOMINAL. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Gardner Syndrome: A variant of ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI caused by mutation in the APC gene (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. It is characterized by not only the presence of multiple colonic polyposis but also extracolonic ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT; the EYE; the SKIN; the SKULL; and the FACIAL BONES; as well as malignancy in organs other than the GI tract.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Fibromatosis, Abdominal: A relatively large mass of unusually firm scarlike connective tissue resulting from active participation of fibroblasts, occurring most frequently in the abdominal muscles of women who have borne children. The fibroblasts infiltrate surrounding muscle and fascia. (Stedman, 25th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Colonic Polyps: Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Sulindac: A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug whose sulfinyl moiety is converted in vivo to an active NSAID analgesic. Specifically, the prodrug is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide which is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This helps to maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects.Proctocolectomy, Restorative: A surgical procedure involving the excision of the COLON and RECTUM and the formation of an ILEOANAL RESERVOIR (pouch). In patients with intestinal diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, this procedure avoids the need for an OSTOMY by allowing for transanal defecation.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.alpha Catenin: A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.Catenins: A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Paraffin Embedding: The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Axin prevents Wnt-3a-induced accumulation of beta-catenin. (1/711)When Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, was expressed in COS cells, it coeluted with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), beta-catenin, and adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) in a high molecular weight fraction on gel filtration column chromatography. In this fraction, GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and APC were co-precipitated with Axin. Although beta-catenin was detected in the high molecular weight fraction in L cells on gel filtration column chromatography, addition of conditioned medium expressing Wnt-3a to the cells increased beta-catenin in the low molecular weight fraction. However, Wnt-3a-dependent accumulation of beta-catenin was greatly inhibited in L cells stably expressing Axin. Axin also suppressed Wnt-3a-dependent activation of Tcf-4 which binds to beta-catenin and acts as a transcription factor. These results suggest that Axin forms a complex with GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and APC, resulting in the stimulation of the degradation of beta-catenin and that Wnt-3a induces the dissociation of beta-catenin from the Axin complex and accumulates beta-catenin. (+info)
EB1, a protein which interacts with the APC tumour suppressor, is associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton throughout the cell cycle. (2/711)The characteristics of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) associated protein EB1 were examined in mammalian cells. By immunocytochemistry EB1 was shown to be closely associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton throughout the cell cycle. In interphase cells EB1 was associated with microtubules along their full length but was often particularly concentrated at their tips. During early mitosis, EB1 was localized to separating centrosomes and associated microtubules, while at metaphase it was associated with the spindle poles and associated microtubules. During cytokinesis EB1 was strongly associated with the midbody microtubules. Treatment with nocodazole caused a diffuse redistribution of EB1 immunoreactivity, whereas treatment with cytochalasin D had no effect. Interestingly, treatment with taxol abolished the EB1 association with microtubules. In nocodazole washout experiments EB1 rapidly became associated with the centrosome and repolymerizing microtubules. In taxol wash-out experiments EB1 rapidly re-associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton, resembling untreated control cells within 10 min. Immunostaining of SW480 cells, which contain truncated APC incapable of interaction with EB1, showed that the association of EB1 with microtubules throughout the cell cycle was not dependent upon an interaction with APC. These results suggest a role for EB1 in the control of microtubule dynamics in mammalian cells. (+info)
Analysis of masked mutations in familial adenomatous polyposis. (3/711)Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by the development of hundreds of adenomatous polyps of the colorectum. Approximately 80% of FAP patients can be shown to have truncating mutations of the APC gene. To determine the cause of FAP in the other 20% of patients, MAMA (monoallelic mutation analysis) was used to independently examine the status of each of the two APC alleles. Seven of nine patients analyzed were found to have significantly reduced expression from one of their two alleles whereas two patients were found to have full-length expression from both alleles. We conclude that more than 95% of patients with FAP have inactivating mutations in APC and that a combination of MAMA and standard genetic tests will identify APC abnormalities in the vast majority of such patients. That no APC expression from the mutant allele is found in some FAP patients argues strongly against the requirement for dominant negative effects of APC mutations. The results also suggest that there may be at least one additional gene, besides APC, that can give rise to FAP. (+info)
Administration of an unconjugated bile acid increases duodenal tumors in a murine model of familial adenomatous polyposis. (4/711)Intestinal carcinogenesis involves the successive accumulation of multiple genetic defects until cellular transformation to an invasive phenotype occurs. This process is modulated by many epigenetic factors. Unconjugated bile acids are tumor promoters whose presence in intestinal tissues is regulated by dietary factors. We studied the role of the unconjugated bile acid, chenodeoxycholate, in an animal model of familial adenomatous polyposis. Mice susceptible to intestinal tumors as a result of a germline mutation in Apc (Min/+ mice) were given a 10 week dietary treatment with 0.5% chenodeoxycholate. Following this, the mice were examined to determine tumor number, enterocyte proliferation, apoptosis and beta-catenin expression. Intestinal tissue prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were also assessed. Administration of chenodeoxycholate in the diet increased duodenal tumor number in Min/+ mice. Promotion of duodenal tumor formation was accompanied by increased beta-catenin expression in duodenal cells, as well as increased PGE2 in duodenal tissue. These data suggest that unconjugated bile acids contribute to periampullary tumor formation in the setting of an Apc mutation. (+info)
Negative regulation of Wingless signaling by D-axin, a Drosophila homolog of axin. (5/711)Wnt/Wingless directs many cell fates during development. Wnt/Wingless signaling increases the amount of beta-catenin/Armadillo, which in turn activates gene transcription. Here the Drosophila protein D-Axin was shown to interact with Armadillo and D-APC. Mutation of d-axin resulted in the accumulation of cytoplasmic Armadillo and one of the Wingless target gene products, Distal-less. Ectopic expression of d-axin inhibited Wingless signaling. Hence, D-Axin negatively regulates Wingless signaling by down-regulating the level of Armadillo. These results establish the importance of the Axin family of proteins in Wnt/Wingless signaling in Drosophila. (+info)
Hereditary desmoid disease in a family with a germline Alu I repeat mutation of the APC gene. (6/711)Two families with autosomal dominantly inherited desmoid tumors have recently been shown to have germline mutations at the 3' end of the APC gene. We subsequently identified an Amish family with autosomal dominantly inherited desmoid tumors. Genetic analysis performed on one family member, a 47-year-old man with multiple desmoid tumors and no colon polyps, revealed a protein truncating mutation in the middle of the APC gene. The truncating mutation is the result of a 337-bp insertion of an Alu I sequence into codon 1526 of the APC gene. The presence of a poly(A) tail at the 3' end of the insertion suggests that the Alu I sequence was inserted by a retrotranspositional event. Germline insertions of Alu I sequences have occasionally been reported to cause other genetic diseases including type I neurofibromatosis, hereditary site-specific breast cancer (BRCA2), and hemophilia B. However, this is the first report of a germline mutation of the APC gene resulting from an Alu I insertion. (+info)
E-cadherin binding prevents beta-catenin nuclear localization and beta-catenin/LEF-1-mediated transactivation. (7/711)Beta-catenin is a multifunctional protein found in three cell compartments: the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The cell has developed elaborate ways of regulating the level and localization of beta-catenin to assure its specific function in each compartment. One aspect of this regulation is inherent in the structural organization of beta-catenin itself; most of its protein-interacting motifs overlap so that interaction with one partner can block binding of another at the same time. Using recombinant proteins, we found that E-cadherin and lymphocyte-enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1) form mutually exclusive complexes with beta-catenin; the association of beta-catenin with LEF-1 was competed out by the E-cadherin cytoplasmic domain. Similarly, LEF-1 and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) formed separate, mutually exclusive complexes with beta-catenin. In Wnt-1-transfected C57MG cells, free beta-catenin accumulated and was able to associate with LEF-1. The absence of E-cadherin in E-cadherin-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells also led to an accumulation of free beta-catenin and its association with LEF-1, thereby mimicking Wnt signaling. beta-catenin/LEF-1-mediated transactivation in these cells was antagonized by transient expression of wild-type E-cadherin, but not of E-cadherin lacking the beta-catenin binding site. The potent ability of E-cadherin to recruit beta-catenin to the cell membrane and prevent its nuclear localization and transactivation was also demonstrated using SW480 colon carcinoma cells. (+info)
Regulation of beta-catenin signaling by the B56 subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. (8/711)Dysregulation of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling disrupts axis formation in vertebrate embryos and underlies multiple human malignancies. The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, axin, and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta form a Wnt-regulated signaling complex that mediates the phosphorylation-dependent degradation of beta-catenin. A protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit, B56, interacted with APC in the yeast two-hybrid system. Expression of B56 reduced the abundance of beta-catenin and inhibited transcription of beta-catenin target genes in mammalian cells and Xenopus embryo explants. The B56-dependent decrease in beta-catenin was blocked by oncogenic mutations in beta-catenin or APC, and by proteasome inhibitors. B56 may direct PP2A to dephosphorylate specific components of the APC-dependent signaling complex and thereby inhibit Wnt signaling. (+info)
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein: A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
Research Grants, Research Topics, Publications, Genomes and Genes, Species, Scientific Experts about adenomatous polyposis coli protein
Our findings implicate the APC tumor suppressor gene in the process of axial patterning in Xenopus. Since induction of the dorsoanterior axis involves the activities of embryonic signaling centers (or organizers), these findings demonstrate that APC has signal transduction activity. APC seems to act in the same signaling pathway as β-catenin. They have similar characteristics, including induction of the homeobox protein Siamois. Furthermore, APC signaling is strongly dependent on the availability of a free cytosolic pool of β-catenin, which by itself has axis-inducing activity. Moreover, APC or APC/β-catenin complexes seem to have direct positive signaling activity, since APC does not act indirectly simply by binding up β-catenin or by changing the levels of β-catenin. We propose, therefore, that axis induction by APC is due to its role in a signal transduction process in which β-catenin has been strongly implicated.. The induction of a dorsoanterior axis in Xenopus results from localized ...
A unique feature of colon cancer is that truncation mutations in the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene are common to most tumours. The high penetrance of APC mutations, especially in gut epithelium, supports the idea that APC may be involved in a number of the processes that govern the normal maintenance of this tissue: differentiation, migration, proliferation and apoptosis. Indeed, APC is involved in the regulation of β-catenin and it also is an important regulator of the cytoskeleton. Thus mutations in APC lead to the accumulation of β-catenin, which causes changes in differentiation, and they also produce changes in cytoskeletal organization, which results in altered cell migration and disrupted mitotic spindles. The function of APC in cytoskeletal organization is related to its effect on microtubules and F-actin. Depleting APC from cultured cells leads to changes in cytoskeletal organization. In addition, N-terminal fragments of APC, like those commonly found in tumours, compromise ...
We show that expression of stabilized β-catenin decreased neurite initiation and elongation in NGF-treated PC12 cells (Fig. 5). Several mechanisms could explain how stabilized β-catenin inhibits neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. When β-catenin is stabilized by Wnt signals it can promote cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion (Hinck et al., 1994) in addition to Tcf/Lef-mediated transcription. Experiments expressing stabilized β-catenin in whole animals or in neuronal cultures directly contacting glial cells may mask the role of β-catenin in the APC complex with its role in adhesion (Yu and Malenka, 2004; Loureiro et al., 2001; Elul et al., 2003). Previous work on the role of β-catenin in branching of axons and dendrites uses neurons in direct cell-cell contact with a glial feeder layer, and β-catenin is thought to require N-cadherin for this effect (Yu and Malenka, 2003; Yu and Malenka, 2004). PC12 cells do not form distinct axons and dendrites (Greene et al., 1998) and, if treated with NGF ...
In the present study, our comprehensive behavioral test battery revealed that Apc1638T/1638T mice shows impaired learning and memory, increased locomotor activity, mildly increased depression-like behavior, reduced anxiety-like behavior and mildly decreased social interaction behavior. In the hippocampal CA1 region of Apc1638T/1638T mice, the dendritic spine density and size are reduced, the PSD was smaller, and LTP was impaired. Taken together, our findings provide the first direct evidence of neuropsychological roles for the C-terminus of Apc tumor suppressor.. Apc1638T/1638T mice showed hyperactivity, impaired memory, increased depression-like behavior, and decreased social interaction. These behavioral characteristics are often linked to symptoms of schizophrenia (see Supplementary Table 11 in ) and observed in many animal models of schizophrenia [15-19]. In particular, Apc1638T/1638T mice showed a marked deficit in the performance of the working memory task. Impaired working memory is ...
3.0.CO;2-R. PMID 8806074. Sheikh F, Chen Y, Chen Y, Liang X, Hirschy A, Stenbit AE, Gu Y, Dalton ND, Yajima T, Lu Y, Knowlton KU, Peterson KL, Perriard JC, Chen J (Sep 2006). "alpha-E-catenin inactivation disrupts the cardiomyocyte adherens junction, resulting in cardiomyopathy and susceptibility to wall rupture". Circulation. 114 (10): 1046-55. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.634469. PMID 16923756. Su LK, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW (December 1993). "Association of the APC tumor suppressor protein with catenins". Science. 262 (5140): 1734-7. doi:10.1126/science.8259519. PMID 8259519. Daniel JM, Reynolds AB (September 1995). "The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha-catenin". Mol. Cell. Biol. 15 (9): 4819-24. doi:10.1128/mcb.15.9.4819. PMC 230726 . PMID 7651399. Oyama T, Kanai Y, Ochiai A, Akimoto S, Oda T, Yanagihara K, Nagafuchi A, Tsukita S, Shibamoto S, Ito F (December 1994). "A truncated beta-catenin disrupts ...
Truncating mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) are strongly linked to colorectal cancers. APC is a negative regulator of the Wnt pathway and constitutive Wnt activation mediated by enhanced Wnt-β-catenin target gene activation is believed to be the predominant mechanism responsible for Apc mutant phenotypes. However, recent evidence suggests that additional downstream effectors contribute to Apc mutant phenotypes. We previously identified a mechanism in cultured human cells by which APC, acting through glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), suppresses mTORC1, a nutrient sensor that regulates cell growth and proliferation. We hypothesized that truncating Apc mutations should activate mTORC1 in vivo and that mTORC1 plays an important role in Apc mutant phenotypes. We find mTORC1 is strongly activated in apc mutant zebrafish and in intestinal polyps in Apc mutant mice. Furthermore, mTORC1 activation is essential downstream of APC as mTORC1 inhibition partially rescues Apc mutant phenotypes ...
Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) also known as deleted in polyposis 2.5 (DP2.5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APC gene. The APC protein is a negative regulator that controls beta-catenin concentrations and interacts with E-cadherin, which are involved in cell adhesion. Mutations in the APC gene may result in colorectal cancer. APC is classified as a tumor suppressor gene. Tumor suppressor genes prevent the uncontrolled growth of cells that may result in cancerous tumors. The protein made by the APC gene plays a critical role in several cellular processes that determine whether a cell may develop into a tumor. The APC protein helps control how often a cell divides, how it attaches to other cells within a tissue, how the cell polarizes and the morphogenesis of the 3D structures, or whether a cell moves within or away from a tissue. This protein also helps ensure that the chromosome number in cells produced through cell division is correct. The APC protein accomplishes these tasks ...
Actin Cytoskeletal 43 kD protein forming the backbone of the cytoplasmic microfilament system and the thin filament system of muscle sacomeres. In humans, there are distinct muscle (4 alpha-skeletal, alpha-cardiac, alpha-smooth, gamma-smooth) and non-muscle (2 cytoskeletal beta-, gamma-) actin isoforms. Exists as globular actin monomer (G-actin) and microfilament polymer (F-actin). Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling. These gene is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an inherited disorder characterized by the development of myriad polyps in the colon. The gene is located on chromosome 5.  Amino acid One of the 20 building blocks of protein. The sequence of amino acids in a protein and, hence, the function of that protein are determined by the genetic code in the DNA. Amino acids are molecules that (in technical terms) contain a basic amino (NH2) group, an acidic carboxyl (COOH) group and a side chain attached to an alpha carbon ...
Actin Cytoskeletal 43 kD protein forming the backbone of the cytoplasmic microfilament system and the thin filament system of muscle sacomeres. In humans, there are distinct muscle (4 alpha-skeletal, alpha-cardiac, alpha-smooth, gamma-smooth) and non-muscle (2 cytoskeletal beta-, gamma-) actin isoforms. Exists as globular actin monomer (G-actin) and microfilament polymer (F-actin). Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling. These gene is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an inherited disorder characterized by the development of myriad polyps in the colon. The gene is located on chromosome 5.  Amino acid One of the 20 building blocks of protein. The sequence of amino acids in a protein and, hence, the function of that protein are determined by the genetic code in the DNA. Amino acids are molecules that (in technical terms) contain a basic amino (NH2) group, an acidic carboxyl (COOH) group and a side chain attached to an alpha carbon ...
Mutations of APC appear to initiate sporadic and inherited forms of human colorectal cancer. Although these mutations have been well characterized, little is known about the function of the APC gene product. Two cellular proteins that associate with APC were identified by nucleotide sequence analysis and peptide mapping as the E-cadherin-associated proteins alpha- and beta-catenin. A 27-residue fragment of APC containing a 15-amino acid repeat was sufficient for the interaction with the catenins. These results suggest an important link between tumor initiation and cell adhesion. ...
Despite the importance of cholinergic synapses for cognitive and autonomic functions, little is known about the mechanisms that direct their assembly during development. In a new study published in the June 2008 issue of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, researchers at Tufts University School of Medicine (TUSM), uncover mechanisms that direct cholinergic synapse assembly between neurons in vivo. "We have identified the protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) as a key organizer of a multi-protein complex that is required for assembly of neuronal cholinergic synapses" says corresponding author Michele H. Jacob, PhD, professor of neuroscience at TUSM and member of the neuroscience program faculty of the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences. "APC is expressed in all cell types and has multiple functions and binding partners. It is best known for its role in colorectal cancer. Our work defines a novel role for APC in neurons. We show that APC brings together several proteins at the ...
The trafficking of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor protein in mammalian cells is a perennially controversial topic. Immunostaining evidence for an actin-associated APC localisation at intercellular junctions has been previously presented, though live imaging of mammalian junctional APC has not been documented. Using live imaging of transfected COS-7 cells we observed intercellular junction-associated pools of GFP-APC in addition to previously documented microtubule-associated GFP-APC and a variety of minor localisations. Although both microtubule and junction-associated populations could co-exist within individual cells, they differed in their subcellular location, dynamic behaviour and sensitivity to cytoskeletal poisons. GFP-APC deletion mutant analysis indicated that a protein truncated immediately after the APC armadillo repeat domain retained the ability to localise to adhesive membranes in transfected cells. Supporting this, we also observed junctional APC immunostaining in
Our results implied that the n‐NESs of APC truncations provide insufficient nuclear export activity for the reduction of TCF transcription. To confirm this experimentally, we carried out complementation assays of SW480 cells that lack endogenous APC function; this function can be restored if the cells are transfected with minimal APC fragments (Munemitsu et al., 1995). We thus compared the function of wild‐type APC with that of two APC mutants without n‐NESs (HC, the central third of APC; mAPC, full‐length APC with mutated n‐NESs) and of two mutants without c‐NESs (NAPC, a type I truncation; APCala, full‐length APC with mutated c‐NESs) (Figure 1). We examined the subcellular distributions of these constructs in transfected SW480 cells, and compared their function in reducing nuclear β‐catenin and TOPFLASH activity. Their expression levels were monitored by western blotting (Figure 5E).. HC is largely excluded from the nuclei of SW480 cells, correlating with low levels of ...
Beginning at Leu 1029, the APC‐rA peptide adopts a conformation strikingly different from that of XTcf3 or E‐cadherin (Figure 3B). The C‐terminal half of the peptide, from Leu1029 to Glu1034, bulges out of the β‐catenin groove, away from the paths of XTcf3 and E‐cadherin (Figures 2B and 3B). This difference in conformation is probably due to the presence of a lysine residue at amino acid 1030 of APC‐rA. In XTcf3 and E‐cadherin this position is occupied by an acidic residue (Glu24 of XTcf3, Glu682 of E‐cadherin), which forms a salt bridge with β‐catenin Lys312 to form the second charged button of the extended region (Figure 3B). The lysine at this position in APC‐rA probably causes charge repulsion with β‐catenin Lys312, leading to a deviation from the conformations of the other two ligands. The conformation of the backbone at Lys1030 suggests that the side chain of this residue is in the vicinity of β‐catenin Glu462 and several other acidic residues. Although APC‐rA ...
EB1 is a microtubule tip-associated protein that interacts with the APC tumour suppressor protein and components of the dynein/dynactin complex.
The (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) APC protein normally builds a "destruction complex" with glycogen synthase kinase 3-alpha and or beta (GSK-3α/β) and axin via interactions with the 20 AA and SAMP repeats. This complex is then able to bind β-catenins in the cytoplasm, that have dissociated from adherens contacts between cells. With the help of casein kinase 1 (CK1), which carries out an initial phosphorylation of β-catenin, GSK-3β is able to phosphorylate β-catenin a second time. This targets β-catenin for ubiquitination and degradation by cellular proteasomes. This prevents it from translocating into the nucleus, where it acts as a transcription factor for proliferation genes. APC is also thought to be targeted to microtubules via the PDZ binding domain, stabilizing them. The deactivation of the APC protein can take place after certain chain reactions in the cytoplasm are started, e.g. through the Wnt signals that destroy the conformation of the ...
Catenin is a critical transducer of the Wnt transmission pathway and takes on an important part in many developmental and cellular processes. signaling pathway by STI-571 may be further explored as an important target for alternate/adjuvant treatments for any broader range of human being cancer. receptors, aswell as the determined co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 lately, resulting in phosphorylation from the proteins. It then affiliates with Axin as well as the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor, avoiding GSK3b from phosphorylating -catenin. Unphosphorylated -catenin can be stabilized by escaping reputation by ubiquitin/proteosome complicated, and finally translocates towards the nucleus where it engages transcription elements LEF/TCF-4 to activate the manifestation of downstream focuses 1616113-45-1 supplier on, such as for example c-Myc and cyclin D1 [3,6-11]. The participation of -catenin signaling in tumorigenesis was initially founded in colorectal tumor, where in fact the ARHGAP26 ...
The protein encoded by this gene functions as a protein ubiquitin ligase and is a component of the multiprotein APC complex. The APC complex is a cyclin degradation system that governs exit from mitosis by targeting cell cycle proteins for degredation by the 26S proteasome. Each component protein of the APC complex is highly conserved among eukaryotic organisms. This protein, and other APC complex proteins, contain a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain; a protein domain that is often involved in protein-protein interactions and the assembly of multiprotein complexes. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding distinct proteins, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016 ...
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Kundu, Chanakya et al " Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein causes hypersensitivity of mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines to DNA-alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate through base excision repair pathway ." Cancer Research 67.9 Supplement (2007): 1961. Web. 21 Feb. 2018. ...
Canonical WNT signalling plays a critical role in the regulation of ovarian development; mis-regulation of this key pathway in the adult ovary is associated with subfertility and tumourigenesis. The roles of Adenomatous polyposis coli 2 (APC2), a little-studied WNT signalling pathway regulator, in ovarian homeostasis, fertility and tumourigenesis have not previously been explored. Here, we demonstrate essential roles of APC2 in regulating ovarian WNT signalling and ovarian homeostasis. A detailed analysis of ovarian histology, gene expression, ovulation and hormone levels was carried out in 10 week old and in aged constitutive APC2-knockout (Apc2−/−) mice (mixed background). Statistical significance for qRT-PCR data was determined from 95% confidence intervals. Significance testing was performed using 2-tailed Students t-test, when 2 experimental cohorts were compared. When more were compared, ANOVA test was used, followed by a post-hoc test (LSD or Games-Howell). P-values of | 0.05 were considered
human AMER1 protein: regulates the distribution of the tumor suppressor APC between microtubules and the plasma membrane; amino acid sequence in first source
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Complete information for SAPCD2 gene (Protein Coding), Suppressor APC Domain Containing 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene is mutated in familial adenomatous polyposis and in sporadic colorectal tumors. The Apc gene product (APC), basically a cytoplasmic protein, blocks cell cycle
AbstractPURPOSE:The aim of this study is to show that the diagnosis of attenuated adenomatous polyposis coli must be made with caution and certainly only after adequate colonic examination with dye-spray.METHODS:Four patients thought to have attenuated adenomatous polyposis coli on the basis of fami
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Aberrant methylation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene promoter occurs in about 40% of breast tumours and has been correlated with reduced APC protein levels. To what extent epigenetic alterations of the APC gene may differ according to specific breast cancer phenotypes, remains to be elucidated. Our aim was to explore the role of APC methylation in the inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) phenotype. The status of APC gene promoter hypermethylation was investigated in DNA from normal breast tissues, IBC and non-IBC by both conventional and real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR (MSP). APC methylation levels were compared with APC mRNA and protein levels. Hypermethylation of the APC gene promoter was present in 71% of IBC samples (n=21) and 43% of non-IBC samples (n=30) by conventional MSP (P=0.047). The APC gene also showed an increased frequency of high methylation levels in IBC (in 74% of cases, n=19) vs non-IBC (in 46% of cases, n=35) using a qMSP assay (P=0.048). We observed ...
Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), a dominantly inherited disorder, has been mapped to chromosome 5q15-q21 by family linkage studies. Cells from patients with deletions in this region, in one case associated with polyposis in a family, have been used to construct human hamster hybrid cell lines that retain either the normal or deleted chromosome 5. These lines have been used to identify markers from the region of the polyposis gene obtained by cloning the ends of 0.5- to 2-megabase BssHII fragments purified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Three markers are described that map within the deletions and must therefore be close to the APC gene.
What is familial adenomatous polyposis fap? Learn about familial adenomatous polyposis fap symptoms, familial adenomatous polyposis fap causes, diagnosis, and...
Compare & find the top performing anti-Rat (Rattus) Adenomatous Polyposis Coli antibody for Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)).
Regulation and Functions of Localized RNAs. It is becoming increasingly appreciated that, virtually in all polarized mammalian cells, a large number of mRNAs do not exist diffusely in the cytoplasm, but undergo specific subcellular targeting and local control of their translation. Such localized RNAs are important for various processes such as migration, epithelial cell polarity, mitotic spindle assembly and neuronal function. Defects in RNA localization are implicated in diseases such as mental retardation and cancer metastasis. Our lab aims to understand the mechanisms and regulation of RNA localization in mammalian cells, the effect of localized translation on protein function, and the contribution of these processes to disease.. A. The APC-dependent RNA localization pathway. We have identified an RNA localization pathway that targets numerous mRNAs to cellular protrusions (Mili et al, Nature 2008). A central component of this pathway is the tumor suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Some fine-structural fi ndings on the thyroid gland in Apc1638T/1638T mice that express a C-terminus lacking truncated Apc. AU - Yokoyama, Atsushi. AU - Nomura, Ryuji. AU - Kurosumi, Masafumi. AU - Shimomura, Atsushi. AU - Onouchi, Takanori. AU - Iizuka-Kogo, Akiko. AU - Smits, Ron. AU - Fodde, Riccardo. AU - Itoh, Mitsuyasu. AU - Senda, Takao. PY - 2012/6/1. Y1 - 2012/6/1. N2 - Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) is a multifunctional protein as well as a tumor suppressor. To determine the functions of the C-terminal domain of Apc, we examined Apc1638T/1638T mice that express a truncated Apc lacking the C-terminal domain. The Apc1638T/1638T mice were tumor free and exhibited growth retardation. We recently reported abnormalities in thyroid morphology and functions of Apc1638T/1638T mice, although the mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not known. In the present study, we further compared thyroid gland morphology in Apc1638T/1638T and Apc+/+ mice. The diameters of thyroid ...
RATIONALE: Exisulind may be effective in preventing the development and growth of polyps in patients who have familial adenomatous polyposis.. PURPOSE: Randomized phase II/III trial to determine the effectiveness of exisulind in preventing the development and growth of polyps in patients who have familial adenomatous polyposis. ...
Proteins that are associated with the cytoplasmic domain of adhesion molecules such as cadherins and link them to the cytoskeleton. A second role is in regulating transcription factors. α-Catenin (906 aa) is a vinculin-related protein involved in adherens junction-mediated intercellular adhesion; abnormalities are associated with cancer invasion and metastasis. β-Catenin (781 aa) binds E-cadherin and N-cadherin. A second pool of β-catenin is cytoplasmic and coimmunoprecipitates with the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor protein, interacts with Tcf and Lef transcription factors, and is an essential member of the Wingless wnt signal transduction pathway. Ubiquitination of β-catenin is greatly reduced in Wnt-expressing cells. See dapper. Mutations in catenin B1 are associated with colorectal cancer, ovarian and prostate carcinomas, hepatoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, pilomatrixoma, and medulloblastoma. γ-Catenin (desmoplakin-3, plakoglobin, 745 aa), is a major component of
The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is mutated in familial adenomatous polyposis and in many sporadic colorectal tumors. The carboxyl-terminal S/TXV motif of the APC gene product interacts with the PDZ domain of hDLG, the human homolog of the Drosophila lethal (1) discs larige-1 (dlg) tumor su …
Background: The Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene is considered as a gatekeeper in colorectal tumorigenesis. 60% of somatic mutations in the APC gene are concentrated..
1578 The Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene is a tumor suppressor gene which is associated with both familial and sporadic cancer. Aberrant methylation of the APC promoter 1A which inactives the APC gene occurs in colorectal tumors as well as many other kinds of cancers. We investigated whether the same mechanism occurs in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) by analyzing 31 DNA samples from 30 ATL patients and 4 ATL cell lines. APC promoter methylation was found in 15 of 31 (48 %) primary samples, and 2 of 4 (50 %) ATL cell lines. Moreover, methylation of the APC gene occured more frequently in acute ATL (12/21) (57 %) than chronic ATL (1/8) (13 %) (P=0.03). APC promoter was not methylated in any of ten peripheral blood samples from normal individuals. APC was expressed in the normal peripheral blood samples, but not in the APC-methylated ATL cell line ST1. Demethylation with 5-Azacytidine treatment restored APC expression in the ST1 cell line. Our data show for the first time that ...
This chapter provides an overview of several examples of molecular biology applications in this rapidly advancing field. Not all present biomarkers can be detected in tissues that are routinely available in pathology laboratories. There is an ongoing effort to adapt techniques that work well with fresh, unfixed tissues to specimens such as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded needle biopsy material and cytology smear material. Ligase chain reaction and similar techniques are presently used for the detection of microorganisms in tissues by labeling the oligonucleotides with organism-specific sequences. This process can also be used for detection and quantitation of the expression of specific genes in tissues. The study of familial adenomatous polyposis has demonstrated the presence of adenomatous polyposis coli gene mutations in 5q21. The study of molecular pathways of carcinogenesis has highlighted various molecules that are now therapeutic targets. A relatively simple method of examining hundreds of tissue
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a condition that can run in families. Untreated FAP can increase the risk of getting bowel cancer.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved celecoxib (Celebrex) as an oral adjunct to the standard care (eg, endoscopic surveillance and surgery) of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Celecoxib, the only 1
Smits, R. and Ruiz, P. and Diaz-Cano, S. and Luz, A. and Jagmohan-Changur, S. and Breukel, C. and Birchmeier, C. and Birchmeier, W. and Fodde, R. ...
Familial adenomatous polyposis is an inherited condition in which numerous polyps form mainly in the epithelium of the large intestine.
Compare risks and benefits of common medications used for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis. Find the most popular drugs, view ratings, user reviews, and more...
Learn more about Familial Adenomatous Polyposis at Memorial Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a colonic cancer syndrome which runs in families. It presents as mutliple adenomas in the colon which will become cancer of colon unless the colon is removed surgically.Though the cancer will present in the thirties, we have seen this presenting even at an age of 9 or 10.This runs in families caused by adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, located on chromosome 5q21 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RACK1 downregulates levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Fem1b in apoptosis-resistant colon cancer cells. AU - Subauste, M. Cecilia. AU - Ventura-Holman, T.. AU - Du, L.. AU - Subauste, Jose S.. AU - Chan, Shing Leng. AU - Yu, Victor C.. AU - Maher, Joseph F.. PY - 2009/12/1. Y1 - 2009/12/1. N2 - Evasion of apoptosis plays an important role in colon cancer progression. Following loss of the Apc tumor suppressor gene in mice, the gene encoding Fem1b is upregulated early in neoplastic intestinal epithelium. Fem1b is a pro-apoptotic protein that interacts with Fas, TNFR1 and apaf-1, and increased expression of Fem1b induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Fem1b is a homolog of FeM-1, a protein in Caenorhabditis elegans that is negatively regulated by ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. To study Fem1b regulation in colon cancer progression, we used apoptotis-sensitive SW480 cells, derived from a primary colon cancer, and their isogenic, apoptosis-resistant counterparts sW620 cells, ...
Kaplan KB, Burds AA, Swedlow JR, Bekir SS, Sorger PK, Näthke IS (2001). "A role for the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein in ... The protein has been localized to the kinetochore and plays a role in the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/ ... Mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine-protein kinase BUB1 beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BUB1B gene. This ... Tang Z, Bharadwaj R, Li B, Yu H (2001). "Mad2-Independent inhibition of APCCdc20 by the mitotic checkpoint protein BubR1". Dev ...
2001). "A role for the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein in chromosome segregation". Nat. Cell Biol. 3 (4): 429-32. doi: ... Mitotic checkpoint protein BUB3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BUB3 gene. Bub3 is a protein involved with the ... cancer adenomatous polyposis osteosarcoma familial breast cancer glioblastoma cervicitis lung cancer carcinoma Coli polyposis ... The complex of proteins which regulate the cell arrest are BUB1, BUB2, BUB3 (this protein), Mad1, Mad2, Mad3 and MPS1. At ...
Through its N-terminal regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain, it recruits the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein ... and in particular by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, encoded by the tumour-suppressing APC gene. Therefore, ... its partner the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) protein contains 11 such motifs in tandem arrangement per protomer, thus ... "Association and regulation of casein kinase 2 activity by adenomatous polyposis coli protein". Proceedings of the National ...
"Association and regulation of casein kinase 2 activity by adenomatous polyposis coli protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 ... Casein kinase II is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins such as casein. The kinase exists as ... Kim MS, Lee YT, Kim JM, Cha JY, Bae YS (February 1998). "Characterization of protein interaction among subunits of protein ... Allende JE, Allende CC (1995). "Protein kinases. 4. Protein kinase CK2: an enzyme with multiple substrates and a puzzling ...
de 2002). «Association and regulation of casein kinase 2 activity by adenomatous polyposis coli protein». Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... de 2001). «Mapping of the interaction domain of the protein kinase CKII beta subunit with target proteins». Mol. Cells (Korea ( ... de 1999). «Interactions of protein kinase CK2beta subunit within the holoenzyme and with other proteins». Mol. Cell. Biochem. ( ... de 1998). «Characterization of protein interaction among subunits of protein kinase CKII in vivo and in vitro». Mol. Cells ( ...
Rubinfeld B, Tice DA, Polakis P (2001). "Axin-dependent phosphorylation of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein mediated by ... Segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DVL1 gene. DVL1, the human ... Fagotto F, Jho Eh, Zeng L, Kurth T, Joos T, Kaufmann C, Costantini F (1999). "Domains of axin involved in protein-protein ... Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Hino S, Ikeda S, Kishida M, Kikuchi A (1999). "DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for protein ...
Many other large IDPs are affected by missense mutations, such as BRCA1, Adenomatous polyposis coli(APC), CREB-binding protein ... Rubinfeld B, Tice DA, Polakis P (2001). "Axin-dependent phosphorylation of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein mediated by ... The encoded protein interacts with adenomatosis polyposis coli, catenin (cadherin-associated protein) beta 1, glycogen synthase ... "GSK-3beta-dependent phosphorylation of adenomatous polyposis coli gene product can be modulated by beta-catenin and protein ...
The protein encoded by this gene shares significant homology to the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein-binding EB1 gene ... "The adenomatous polyposis coli-binding protein EB1 is associated with cytoplasmic and spindle microtubules". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... a new member of the adenomatous polyposis coli-binding EB1-like gene family, is differentially expressed in activated T cells ... Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAPRE2 gene. ...
... of the tumor suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Its structure and its interaction with chromosome maintenance ... protein export from nucleus. • regulation of protein catabolic process. • protein localization to nucleus. • protein transport ... protein domain specific binding. • transporter activity. • Ran GTPase binding. • protein transporter activity. • protein ... a protein involved in nuclear export of proteins". J Biol Chem. 272 (47): 29742-51. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.47.29742. PMID 9368044. ...
"Association and regulation of casein kinase 2 activity by adenomatous polyposis coli protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... "Characterization of protein interaction among subunits of protein kinase CKII in vivo and in vitro". Mol. Cells. KOREA. 8 (1): ... "Mapping of the interaction domain of the protein kinase CKII beta subunit with target proteins". Mol. Cells. Korea (South). 12 ... a novel pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein that interacts with protein kinase CK2". J. Biol. Chem. UNITED STATES. ...
It is also dependent on several microtubule-associated proteins such as EB1 and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Mitosis, ...
... of the tumor suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Its structure and its interaction with chromosome maintenance ... Ran (RAs-related Nuclear protein) also known as GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Ran is a small G protein that is essential for the translocation of RNA and proteins through the nuclear pore complex. The Ran ... "Molecular interactions between the importin alpha/beta heterodimer and proteins involved in vertebrate nuclear protein import ...
"Siah-1 mediates a novel beta-catenin degradation pathway linking p53 to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein". Molecular Cell ... The protein is an E3 ligase and is involved in ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of specific proteins. The ... October 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi ... E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SIAH1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SIAH1 gene. This gene encodes for a polypeptide ...
The protein encoded by this gene was first identified by its binding to the APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli) protein which is ... "The adenomatous polyposis coli-binding protein EB1 is associated with cytoplasmic and spindle microtubules". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAPRE1 gene. ... This protein localizes to microtubules, especially the growing ends, in interphase cells. During mitosis, the protein is ...
Akt phosphorylates GSK3 beta, indirectly activating microtubule binding protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Endothelial ... Key proteins involved are PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) and Akt (Protein Kinase B). Initial stimulation by one of the ... PI3K can also be activated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), via G-protein βγ dimers or Ras which bind PI3K directly. In ... Another protein important in Akt attenuation is Carboxy Terminal Modulator Protein (CTMP). CTMP binds to the regulatory domain ...
Zumbrunn J, Kinoshita K, Hyman AA, Näthke IS (Jan 2001). "Binding of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein to microtubules ... Tubulin alpha-4A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBA4A gene. Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton ... Kirsch J, Langosch D, Prior P, Littauer UZ, Schmitt B, Betz H (Nov 1991). "The 93-kDa glycine receptor-associated protein binds ... Huby RD, Carlile GW, Ley SC (Dec 1995). "Interactions between the protein-tyrosine kinase ZAP-70, the proto-oncoprotein Vav, ...
"The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... protein binding. • ankyrin binding. • gamma-catenin binding. • beta-catenin binding. • GTPase activating protein binding. • ... Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a novel small molecule, SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction ... Several proteins such as SNAI1/SNAIL, ZFHX1B/SIP1, SNAI2/SLUG, TWIST1 and DeltaEF1 have been found ...
2004). "The tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli and caudal related homeodomain protein regulate expression of retinol ... 2003). "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and ... transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment". Genome Res. 13 (10): 2265-70. doi:10.1101/gr.1293003. PMC 403697 . PMID ...
"Association and regulation of casein kinase 2 activity by adenomatous polyposis coli protein". Proceedings of the National ... Por medio do seu dominio regulador da sinalización da proteína G (RGS), recruta a proteína APC (adenomatous polyposis coli). A ... 1jpp: ESTRUTURA DUNHA REPETICIÓN DE UNIÓN DE BETA-CATENINA DE ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI (APC) EN COMPLEXO COA BETA-CATENINA ... adenomatous polyposis coli), codificada polo xene APC supresor de tumores. Por tanto, a mutación do xene APC está fortemente ...
... and scaffold proteins adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and axin targets plakoglobin for degradation.[31-33]. The phosphorylated ... "The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... "The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... Swope D, Cheng L, Gao E, Li J, Radice GL (Mar 2012). "Loss of cadherin-binding proteins β-catenin and plakoglobin in the heart ...
"ARM domain-dependent nuclear import of adenomatous polyposis coli protein is stimulated by the B56 alpha subunit of protein ... "Direct activation of protein phosphatase-2A0 by HIV-1 encoded protein complex NCp7:vpr". FEBS Letters. 401 (2-3): 197-201. doi: ... "The B56alpha regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A is a target for regulation by double-stranded RNA-dependent protein ... Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell ...
"The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... "The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... Catenin delta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTNND1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the Armadillo protein ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 4 (2): 141-50. ...
"The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... "The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a novel small molecule, SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction ... "Entrez Gene: CTNNA1 catenin (cadherin-associated protein), alpha 1, 102kDa". "Protein sequence of human CTNNA1 (Uniprot ID: ...
"The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... Complete loss of E-cadherin protein expression in 84% of lobular breast carcinomas. Several proteins such as SNAI1/SNAIL, ... Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a novel small molecule, SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction ... CDH1 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on ...
Li Q, Dashwood RH (Oct 2004). "Activator protein 2alpha associates with adenomatous polyposis coli/beta-catenin and Inhibits ... Transcription factor AP-2 alpha (Activating enhancer binding Protein 2 alpha), also known as TFAP2A, is a protein that in ... "The epsins define a family of proteins that interact with components of the clathrin coat and contain a new protein module". ... "Huntingtin interacting protein 1 Is a clathrin coat binding protein required for differentiation of late spermatogenic ...
... the UPS regulates the degradation of tumor suppressor gene products such as adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) in colorectal ... The protein degradation processEdit. Ribbon diagram of ubiquitin, the highly conserved protein that serves as a molecular tag ... The assembled complex of hslV (blue) and hslU (red) from E. coli. This complex of heat shock proteins is thought to resemble ... Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks ...
proteins that are involved in organizing this network, and we show that end-binding protein 1 (EB1), adenomatous polyposis coli ... b>Adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) is a well-characterized tumor suppressor protein   ... ... Truncation mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) are responsible for familial polyposis, a form of ... ARM domain-dependent nuclear import of adenomatous polyposis coli protein is stimulated by the B56 alpha subunit of protein ...
A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME. ... Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein. Subscribe to New Research on Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein ... Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (Familial Adenomatous Polyposis) 01/01/2008 - "The adenomatous polyposis coli gene functions as a ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Cytoskeletal Proteins: 557*Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein: 29 ...
A candidate protein for controlling neurite extension is the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, which regulates membrane ... Neurite outgrowth involves adenomatous polyposis coli protein and β-catenin. Violet Votin, W. James Nelson, Angela I. M. Barth ... Neurite outgrowth involves adenomatous polyposis coli protein and β-catenin. Violet Votin, W. James Nelson, Angela I. M. Barth ... Neurite outgrowth involves adenomatous polyposis coli protein and β-catenin. Violet Votin, W. James Nelson, Angela I. M. Barth ...
The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)1 gene is a tumor suppressor gene linked to familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and to the ... Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Tumor Suppressor Protein Has Signaling Activity in Xenopus laevis Embryos Resulting in the Induction ... 1996) The adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor protein localizes to plasma membrane sites involved in active cell ... Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Tumor Suppressor Protein Has Signaling Activity in Xenopus laevis Embryos Resulting in the Induction ...
Relationship between the role of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein in colon cancer and its contribution to cytoskeletal ... Relationship between the role of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein in colon cancer and its contribution to cytoskeletal ... Relationship between the role of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein in colon cancer and its contribution to cytoskeletal ... Relationship between the role of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein in colon cancer and its contribution to cytoskeletal ...
The disease occurs due to the mutations in Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene - a tumor suppressor gene that encodes ... proteins responsible for controlling the cell division and growth. Mutation in this gene triggers uncontrolled cell growth that ... Gardner syndrome is a rare variant of familial adenomatous polyposis - a condition characterized by multiple benign tumors in ...
The APC is a tumour suppressor gene responsible for the production of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), a large multifunction ... APC regulates β-catenin, a protein that plays a crucial role in cell communication, signalling, growth, and controlled ... Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited condition in which numerous adenomatous polyps form ... The third variant, autosomal recessive familial adenomatous polyposis or MYH-associated polyposis, is also milder and, as its ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): P25054 - Homo sapiens 25 * Q93042 - Homo sapiens no matching PDB entries ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
The adenomatous polyposis coli-binding protein EB1 is associated with cytoplasmic and spindle microtubules. Lisbeth Berrueta, ... The adenomatous polyposis coli-binding protein EB1 is associated with cytoplasmic and spindle microtubules ... The adenomatous polyposis coli-binding protein EB1 is associated with cytoplasmic and spindle microtubules ... The adenomatous polyposis coli-binding protein EB1 is associated with cytoplasmic and spindle microtubules ...
... adenomatous polyposis coli; GFP, green fluorescent protein; MAP, microtubule-associated protein; MT, microtubule; pAb, ... Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) Protein Moves along Microtubules and Concentrates at Their Growing Ends in Epithelial Cells. ... Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein has been shown to be localized near the distal ends of microtubules ( ... 1996) The adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor protein localizes to plasma membrane sites involved in active cell ...
The adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) was initially identified through its link to colon cancer. It is associated with the ... Expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein in Reactive Astrocytes in Hippocampus of Kainic Acid-Induced Rat. ... Näthke IS (2004) The adenomatous polyposis coli protein: the Achilles heel of the gut epithelium. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 20:337 ... Senda T, Iino S, Matsushita K et al (1998) Localization of the adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor protein in the ...
The adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor protein localizes to plasma membrane sites involved in active cell migration. I ... I S Näthke, C L Adams, P Polakis, J H Sellin, W J Nelson; The adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor protein localizes to ... Adenomatous polyposis coli protein nucleates actin assembly and synergizes with the formin mDia1 ... Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are linked to polyp formation in familial and sporadic colon cancer, but ...
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/pathology. *Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein/genetics. *Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein/ ... The majority of sporadic colorectal cancers are triggered by mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor ... Cross-species comparison of human and mouse intestinal polyps reveals conserved mechanisms in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)- ... Cross-Species Comparison of Human and Mouse Intestinal Polyps Reveals Conserved Mechanisms in Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC)- ...
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/genetics*. *Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein/genetics*. *Genetic Predisposition to Disease/ ... Deep intronic APC mutations explain a substantial proportion of patients with familial or early-onset adenomatous polyposis.. ... To uncover pathogenic deep intronic variants in patients with colorectal adenomatous polyposis, in whom no germline mutation in ... and/or target sequencing of intronic regions should be considered as an additional mutation discovery approach in polyposis ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) family (IPR026818) *Adenomatous polyposis coli (IPR026836). *Adenomatous polyposis coli 2 ( ... The adenomatous polyposis coli protein family also includes APC2 [PMID: 10021369, PMID: 11691822] and APC-related protein 1 [ ...
... expression assays provide a practical and sensitive method for molecular diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis. This ... Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / diagnosis* * Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics * Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein ... Molecular diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis N Engl J Med. 1993 Dec 30;329(27):1982-7. doi: 10.1056/ ... Background: Familial adenomatous polyposis is an inherited disease characterized by multiple colorectal tumors. The diagnosis ...
Adenomatous polyposis coli protein. *. Detection Range: 15.6-1,000 pg/mL. *. Reactivity: Human ...
Molecular mechanisms of beta-catenin recognition by adenomatous polyposis coli revealed by the structure of an APC-beta-catenin ... Adenomatous polyposis coli protein Chains: C, D Molecule details › Chains: C, D. Length: 15 amino acids. Theoretical weight: ... The Structure of a beta-Catenin Binding Repeat from Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) in Complex with beta-Catenin. ... Molecular mechanisms of beta-catenin recognition by adenomatous polyposis coli revealed by the structure of an APC-beta-catenin ...
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli antibody for Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)). ... Synonyms: GS, DP2, DP3, BTPS2, DP2.5, PPP1R46, Adenomatous polyposis coli protein, Protein APC, Deleted in polyposis 2.5, APC ... Recommended Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Antibody (supplied by: Log in to see ) Antigen Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) ... anti-Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Antibodies * anti-Rat (Rattus) Adenomatous Polyposis Coli antibody for Immunohistochemistry ( ...
2010 Adenomatous polyposis coli protein nucleates actin assembly and synergizes with the formin mDia1. J. Cell Biol. 189: 1087- ... 1995 Regulation of intracellular beta-catenin levels by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor-suppressor protein. Proc. ... the scaffolding protein Axin, and the colon cancer tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), acts to phosphorylate β- ... 1997 The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1332: F127-F147. ...
GEF, GTP exchange factor; DKK, Dickkopf; APC, adenomatous polyposis coli; PRK, protein tyrosine kinase; GPCR, G protein-coupled ... Following BCA protein analysis, approximately 300-500 μg of protein per sample was first precleared with 1/10 volume of protein ... We also used the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis program (Ingenuity Systems) to define known protein-protein and gene-protein ... Fifty micrograms of protein (for Sox17 detection) or 10-20 μg of protein (for other protein detection) from each lysate was ...
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli antibody for Immunohistochemistry (Frozen Sections) (IHC (fro)). ... adenomatous polyposis coli * adenomatous polyposis coli protein, putative * adenomatosis polyposis coli * adenomatous polyposis ... Recommended Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Antibody (supplied by: Log in to see ) Antigen Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) ... anti-Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Antibodies * anti-Mouse (Murine) Adenomatous Polyposis Coli antibody for Immunohistochemistry ( ...
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Cytoskeletal Polarity Complex: Insight into Peptide Engagement and PDZ Clustering. ... Adenomatous polyposis coli protein B 11 Homo sapiens Fragment: APC C-terminal peptide, UNP residues 2833-2843 Gene Name(s): APC ... Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Cytoskeletal Polarity Complex. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4g69/pdb. *Classification: MEMBRANE PROTEIN / ...
Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) also known as deleted in polyposis 2.5 (DP2.5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... on APC-Associated Polyposis Conditions OMIM entries on APC-Associated Polyposis Conditions Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein ... The (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) APC protein normally builds a "destruction complex" with glycogen synthase kinase 3-alpha and ... Zumbrunn J, Kinoshita K, Hyman AA, Näthke IS (January 2001). "Binding of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein to microtubules ...
A member of the RP/EB family of proteins (adenomatous polyposis coli-binding protein EB1, microtubule-associated protein, RP/EB ... polyposis coli, juvenile polyposis, familial adenomatous polyposis polyposis coli, juvenile polyposis, familial adenomatous ... polyposis coli An autosomal dominant disorder (adenomatous polyposis coli, familial adenomatous polyposis, FAP) in which there ... The human gene for adenomatous polyposis coli protein. The gene is a tumour suppressor, and mutations are associated with ...
MutationsPolypsBeta-cateninMUTYHTumorsFamilialCytoplasmicColonGlycogenPeptidesAxinChromosomeTumourSequenceCytoskeletalEukaryoticGenesAminoSignalingLipoprotein receptor-relatedMeSHMyelin basic pSignal TransductionArmadilloComplexIntestinal2001EscherichiaTranscriptionAsefNuclearPMIDPutativeFunctionally
- Familial adenomatous polyposis ( FAP ) is an autosomal dominant inherited condition in which numerous adenomatous polyps form mainly in the epithelium of the large intestine . (wikipedia.org)
- Because familial polyposis develops very gradually over years, and can also manifest in an 'attenuated' form even more gradually, polyps resulting from FAP can lead to cancer developing at any point from adolescence to old age. (wikipedia.org)
- A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME. (labome.org)
- The evolutionarily conserved protein EB1 originally was identified by its physical association with the carboxyl-terminal portion of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein, an APC domain commonly mutated in familial and sporadic forms of colorectal neoplasia. (pnas.org)
- EB1 is a 30- to 35-kDa protein of unknown function that was isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen by its binding to the carboxyl-terminal domain of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein ( 6 ), a domain that is deleted in the majority of familial and sporadic forms of colon carcinoma ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
- Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene are linked to both familial and sporadic human colon cancer. (rupress.org)
- The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) 1 gene is a tumor suppressor gene linked to familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and to the initiation of sporadic human colorectal cancer ( 9 , 18 , 20 , 32 , 40 ). (rupress.org)
- Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are linked to polyp formation in familial and sporadic colon cancer, but the functions of the protein are not known. (rupress.org)
- Deep intronic APC mutations explain a substantial proportion of patients with familial or early-onset adenomatous polyposis. (nih.gov)
- Familial adenomatous polyposis is an inherited disease characterized by multiple colorectal tumors. (nih.gov)
- The recent identification of germline mutations of the APC gene in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis makes presymptomatic molecular diagnosis possible, but the widespread distribution of the many mutations within this very large gene have heretofore made the search for such mutations impractical. (nih.gov)
- We screened 62 unrelated patients from the Johns Hopkins Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Registry for germline APC mutations. (nih.gov)
- The protein and allele-specific--expression assays provide a practical and sensitive method for molecular diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis. (nih.gov)
- Familial adenomatous polyposis ( FAP ) is a hereditary disease (caused by a defective dominant gene) in which multiple adenomas develop in the intestine, usually the large bowel or rectum, at an early age. (oxfordreference.com)
- familial adenomatous p. ( p. coli ) a hereditary disease in which multiple adenomas develop in the gastrointestinal tract, usually the colon or rectum, at an early age. (oxfordreference.com)
- polyposis coli An autosomal dominant disorder (adenomatous polyposis coli, familial adenomatous polyposis , FAP) in which there is a predisposition to cancer. (oxfordreference.com)
- familial adenomatous polyposis ( FAP ) An inherited autosomal dominant disorder characterized by many thousands of glandular tissue polyps throughout the colorectal part of the digestive tract. (oxfordreference.com)
- A mouse model of human familial adenomatous polyposis. (springer.com)
- Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by an inherited, inactivating mutation in the APC gene. (wikipedia.org)
- More than 800 mutationsin the APC gene have been identified in families with classic and attenuated types of familial adenomatous polyposis. (wikipedia.org)
- The most common mutation in familial adenomatous polyposis is a deletion of five bases in the APC gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Although APC -related desmoid tumors are commonly associated with a form of colon cancer called familial adenomatous polyposis (described below), APC gene mutations can cause tumors in individuals without this inherited disease. (medlineplus.gov)
- Mutations in the APC gene are also responsible for a disorder called Turcot syndrome, which is closely related to familial adenomatous polyposis. (medlineplus.gov)
- The adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene is mutated in familial adenomatous polyposis and in sporadic colorectal tumors. (springer.com)
- 1987) Localization of the gene for familial adenomatous polyposis on chromosome 5. (springer.com)
- 1991) Identification and characterization of the familial adenomatous polyposis coli gene. (springer.com)
- Familial adenomatous polyposis: desmoid tumours and lack of ophthalmic lesions (CHRPE) associated with APC mutations beyond codon 1444. (semanticscholar.org)
- Novel germline APC gene mutation in a large familial adenomatous polyposis kindred displaying variable phenotypes. (semanticscholar.org)
- APC mutation analysis by chemical cleavage of mismatch and a protein truncation assay in familial adenomatous polyposis. (semanticscholar.org)
- Familial adenomatous polyposis: mutation at codon 1309 and early onset of colon cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene was first identified by its binding to the APC protein which is often mutated in familial and sporadic forms of colorectal cancer. (abnova.com)
- Drugs sulindac and erlotinib when given together can shrink the polyps and block the pathways from which cancer develops in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). (medindia.net)
- Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) , also known as adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), is an autosomal dominant (AD) disorder affecting roughly 1 in 8,000 individuals in the US. (upmc.edu)
- Since it's classified as a subtype of familial adenomatous polyposis, people who suffer from it may eventually develop colorectal cancer at a young age, according to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services . (colgate.com)
- E ditor -Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder characterised by the development of hundreds to thousands of adenomatous polyps in the colon and rectum. (bmj.com)
- Desmoid tumors appears also as a complication of familial adenomatous polyposis. (proteopedia.org)
- Activation of the Frizzled receptor by a Wnt ligand results in the deactivation of the destruction complex through LRP6/Arrow and the cytoplasmic protein Dishevelled. (genetics.org)
- The Apc gene product (APC), basically a cytoplasmic protein, blocks cell cycle progression and plays crucial roles in development. (springer.com)
- Analysis of membrane and cytoplasmic protein sorting, targeting and distribution in established cell lines of polarized renal epithelia in tissue culture (eg. (stanford.edu)
- Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and End-binding protein 1 (EB1) localize to centrosomes independently of cytoplasmic microtubules (MTs) and purify with centrosomes from mammalian cell lines. (biologists.org)
- The encoded protein is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein composed of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region, and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail . (wikipedia.org)
- The ectodomain of this protein mediates bacterial adhesion to mammalian cells, and the cytoplasmic domain is required for internalization. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein also associates with components of the dynactin complex and the intermediate chain of cytoplasmic dynein. (abnova.com)
- 2 3 APC is a tumour suppressor gene encoding a 2843 amino acid protein, which contains multiple functional domains and which mediates growth regulatory signals by its association with a variety of cytoplasmic proteins. (bmj.com)
- Cytoplasmic localization of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase directed by its NH2-terminal, leucine-rich short amino acid sequence, which acts as a nuclear export signal. (eu.org)
- In a majority of the hepatoblastomas (six of seven) examined by immunohistochemical methods, both nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin protein were detected, whereas in hepatocellular adenomas, carcinomas, and normal liver only membrane staining was observed. (aacrjournals.org)
- The smooth identification and low-cost production of highly specific agents that interfere with signaling cascades by targeting an active domain in surface receptors, cytoplasmic and nuclear effector proteins, remain important challenges in biomedical research. (mdpi.com)
- Catenins have been identified as cytoplasmic anchorage proteins for cadherins. (uninet.edu)
- The adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) was initially identified through its link to colon cancer. (springer.com)
- The destruction complex, which includes the kinases GSK3β and CK1, the scaffolding protein Axin, and the colon cancer tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), acts to phosphorylate β-catenin (βcat), the key effector of the Wnt pathway, and target it for ubiquitination and degradation by the proteosome (reviewed in Kennell and Cadigan 2009 ). (genetics.org)
- Affected individuals develop hundreds to thousands of adenomatous polyps of the colon and rectum which may progress to malignancy. (oxfordreference.com)
- This short protein cannot suppress the cellular overgrowth that leads to the formation of abnormal growths (polyps) in the colon, which can become cancerous. (medlineplus.gov)
- The hallmark of this disease is the development of hundreds of adenomatous polyps in the colon and rectum that usually emerge during the second and third decade of life and harbor a high risk of malignant transformation (100% by age 60). (upmc.edu)
- Patients with attenuated FAP (AFAP) present with colonic adenomatous polyps less than 100 in number and more proximally found in the colon than in classic FAP. (upmc.edu)
- In patients with a fewer number of polyps (average of 30), a family history of colon cancer in persons less than age 60 years with multiple adenomatous polyps is necessary for diagnosis. (upmc.edu)
- The colonic polyposis results in multiple colon and intestinal polyps that have a 100 percent chance of becoming malignant, so early intervention is necessary to prolong the life of the patient, explains IJMS. (colgate.com)
- FAP is characterized by adenomatous polyps of the colon and rectum, but also of upper gastrointestinal tract (ampullary, duodenal and gastric adenomas). (proteopedia.org)
- The (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) APC protein normally builds a "destruction complex" with glycogen synthase kinase 3-alpha and or beta (GSK-3α/β) and axin via interactions with the 20 AA and SAMP repeats. (wikipedia.org)
- The APC binds to β-catenin, axin and glycogen synthase kinase 3β to form a large protein complex, in which β-catenin is phosphorylated and broken down, resulting in negative regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway. (springer.com)
- In the absence of Wnt ligand, cytosolic β-catenin is bound to a complex of proteins including axin, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, where it becomes phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and directed to the proteosome for degradation. (aspetjournals.org)
- Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is central to multiple intracellular pathways including those activated by Wnt/β-catenin, Sonic Hedgehog, Notch, growth factor/RTK, and G protein-coupled receptor signals. (frontiersin.org)
- Accessible peptides matching the leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) bind to the CRM1 exportin protein. (eu.org)
- While some of the reported NES peptides are unlikely to be true, more proteins will undoubtedly be found to return to the cytoplasm from the nucleus by this mechanism. (eu.org)
- Other Siah-interacting proteins, including KID, APC, synphylin-1, carry similar peptides that do not perfectly match the reported consensus degron motif. (eu.org)
- Nucleic acid aptamers are short, single-stranded RNAs and DNAs that represent high-affinity and highly selective ligands for different targets, ranging from large proteins to peptides, nucleotides, drugs and small compounds, and even metal ions. (mdpi.com)
- Axin, thought to act as a scaffolding protein in the complex, can bind directly to βcat, APC, GSK-3β, and Dishevelled and is thought to promote interactions within the complex (reviewed in Cadigan and Peifer 2009 ). (genetics.org)
- In the absence of Wnt stimulation, free β-catenin levels are kept low by a β-catenin degrading complex that includes the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and Axin tumor suppressors ( 1 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
- β-Catenin interacting proteins involved in Wnt signaling such as adenomatous polyposis coli, Axin, and GSK3β, are also localized at centrosomes and play roles in promoting mitotic progression. (stanford.edu)
- Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, contains a canonical regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) core domain. (aspetjournals.org)
- Axin preferentially binds the activated form of Gα 12 , a behavior consistent with other RGS proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
- However, unlike other RGS proteins, that of axin (axinRGS) does not affect intrinsic GTP hydrolysis by Gα 12 . (aspetjournals.org)
- These findings establish that the RGS domain of axin is able to directly interact with the α subunit of heterotrimeric G protein G 12 and provide a unique tool to interdict Gα 12 -mediated signaling processes. (aspetjournals.org)
- In this pathway, axin acts as a scaffolding protein holding together a signaling complex involved in the break-down of β-catenin, the primary target of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. (aspetjournals.org)
- The RGS domain of axin is the site on this protein at which binding of APC occurs. (aspetjournals.org)
- Dishevelled (Dvl) is another component in the Wnt pathway, and Wnt stimulates the binding of Dvl to the scaffold protein axin, which results in the release of GSK-3β from a complex containing axin, APC, and β-catenin. (sciencemag.org)
- Knockdown of Dvl or axin with siRNA in rat embryo fibroblasts inhibited reorientation of both the centrosome and Golgi, as did treatment of scratched monolayers with a Wnt-binding protein, demonstrating the importance of Wnt signaling in cell polarization. (sciencemag.org)
- This protein also helps ensure that the chromosome number in cells produced through cell division is correct. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein has been localized to the kinetochore and plays a role in the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), delaying the onset of anaphase and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. (wikipedia.org)
- Because of these associations, it is thought that this protein is involved in the regulation of microtubule structures and chromosome stability. (abnova.com)
- Tiedt,2001 ), nuclear receptor corepressor (NcoR) ( Zhang,1998 ), the transcriptional repressor TIEG-1 ( Johnsen,2002 ) and Kid ( Germani,2001 ), a protein necessary for chromosome movement during mitosis and meiosis. (eu.org)
- Consistent with the idea that such dominant effects are normally balanced by interactions within the full-length molecule, protein interactions of N-terminal fragments expressed in tumour cells can be altered by binding to C-terminal regions of APC commonly lost in tumours. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- Identification of APC2, a homologue of the adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Most FAP patients carry one allelic APC mutation in the 5′ half of the coding sequence, which usually causes chain termination and results in the expression of truncated proteins. (rupress.org)
- This mutation changes the sequence of amino acids in the resulting APC protein beginning at position 1309. (wikipedia.org)
- This mutation changes the sequence of the building blocks of proteins (amino acids) in the resulting APC protein. (medlineplus.gov)
- The position of the amino-acid change on the UniProtKB canonical protein sequence. (expasy.org)
- Unless the variant is located at the beginning or at the end of the protein sequence, both residues upstream (20) and downstream (20) of the variant will be shown. (expasy.org)
- Until the 1990s, for example, deciphering the sequence of a gene, one base at the time, continued to be a huge challenge, let alone figuring out the actual biological function of the encoded protein. (biologists.org)
- Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein and its binding partners are good candidates to link the cytoskeletal dynamics with membrane extension. (biologists.org)
- These cytoskeletal systems differ from each other in a variety of fundamental ways, and each is associated with characteristic accessory and regulatory proteins. (keystonesymposia.org)
- To induce axon extension, the cellular machinery at the nerve growth cone controls the assembly of cytoskeletal proteins and membrane components into new axons. (frontiersin.org)
- Thus, crescentin appears to represent the prokaryotic archetype of the third class of cytoskeletal proteins, joining FtsZ and MreB, which represent thick and thin filaments, respectively. (sciencemag.org)
- These findings open unexpected opportunities for the development of new cancer therapeutics targeting key YAP/TAZ regulatory inputs such as Wnt signaling, cytoskeletal contractility, G-protein-coupled receptors, or YAP/TAZ-regulated transcription. (aacrjournals.org)
- Exportin 1 ( XPO1 ), also known as chromosomal maintenance 1 ( CRM1 ), is an eukaryotic protein that mediates the nuclear export of proteins, rRNA , snRNA , and some mRNA . (wikipedia.org)
- One key factor that both signals the presence of genotoxic stress and serves to minimize DNA damage is RPA, the eukaryotic single-stranded DNA-binding protein. (nyu.edu)
- A subset of these proteins is conserved across eukaryotic kingdoms. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- have characterized a protein, termed "crescentin," that is structurally similar to eukaryotic intermediate filament proteins. (sciencemag.org)
- The NetNES 1.1 server predicts leucine-rich nuclear export signals (NES) in eukaryotic proteins using a combination of neural networks and hidden Markov models. (eu.org)
- In eukaryotic cells, this process involves the specific covalent modification by a highly conserved small regulatory protein, ubiquitin, which labels target proteins for proteolysis and subsequent degradation. (eu.org)
- To uncover pathogenic deep intronic variants in patients with colorectal adenomatous polyposis, in whom no germline mutation in the APC or MUTYH genes can be identified by routine diagnostics, we performed a systematic APC messenger RNA analysis in 125 unrelated mutation-negative cases. (nih.gov)
- Primary screening was accomplished by analysis of protein synthesized in vitro from surrogate APC genes. (nih.gov)
- MiRNAs regulate target genes in two ways: repressing the translation of mRNAs to inhibit protein expression or directly degrading mRNAs [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Wnts exert many of their effects by activating the expression of target genes through a pathway controlled by β-catenin, a protein originally identified as a component of the cadherin cell adhesion complex and later shown to be a key mediator for Wnt signaling. (pnas.org)
- When APC is inactivated by mutation (which usually leads to a truncated protein), Wnt signaling is unimpeded, resulting in the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and subsequent activation of downstream target genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-Myc, that promote cell proliferation ( 5,6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The APC gene encodes a 300-kD protein, consisting of 2,843 amino acids, which has several structural domains. (rupress.org)
- The middle part of the protein contains three successive 15-amino acid (aa) repeats, followed by seven related but distinct 20-aa repeats. (rupress.org)
- The full-length human protein comprises 2,843 amino acids with a (predicted) molecular mass of 311646 Da. (wikipedia.org)
- It is not known if this large predicted unstructured region from amino acid 800 to 2843 persists in vivo or would form stabilised complexes - possibly with yet unidentified interacting proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- This mutation results in the substitution of the amino acid lysine for isoleucine at position 1307 in the APC protein (also written as I1307K or Ile1307Lys). (wikipedia.org)
- This mutation replaces the amino acid isoleucine with the amino acid lysine at position 1307 in the APC protein (written as Ile1307Lys or I1307K). (medlineplus.gov)
- The coiled coil region (amino acids 129-250) of the tumor suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). (wikipedia.org)
- We assayed the activity of APC in the early Xenopus embryo, which has been established as a good model for the analysis of the signaling activity of the APC-associated protein β-catenin. (rupress.org)
- Asef, a link between the tumor suppressor APC and G-protein signaling. (ebi.ac.uk)
- The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins form a recently identified protein family, and they strongly modulate the activity of G proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
- Their best known function is to inhibit G protein signaling by accelerating GTP hydrolysis [GTPase activating protein (GAP)] thus turning off G protein signals. (aspetjournals.org)
- Drugs targeting RGS proteins can be divided into five groups: 1) potentiators of endogenous agonist function, 2) potentiators/desensitization blockers of exogenous GPCR agonists, 3) specificity enhancers of exogenous agonists, 4) antagonists of effector signaling by an RGS protein, and 5) RGS agonists. (aspetjournals.org)
- The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins modulate the activity of G proteins in vitro, and evidence is beginning to emerge on their role in vivo as well. (aspetjournals.org)
- The RGS proteins were discovered in genetic studies of GPCR signaling pathways in model organisms ( Dohlman and Thorner, 1997 ). (aspetjournals.org)
- The GAP activity explains RGS-mediated inhibition of G protein signaling. (aspetjournals.org)
- The APC protein accomplishes these tasks mainly through association with other proteins, especially those that are involved in cell attachment and signaling. (wikipedia.org)
- In lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6-null homozygous mice, which lack a Wnt coreceptor, BAT-gal staining is absent in mutant tissues, indicating that BAT-gal mice are bona fide in vivo indicators of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. (pnas.org)
- Wnt proteins are involved in cell-to-cell signaling in almost every process of mammalian development. (pnas.org)
- These roles of proteins at the cell cortex and Wnt signaling that involve β-catenin indicate a cross-talk between different sub-cellular sites in the cell at mitosis, and that different pools of β-catenin may co-ordinate centrosome functions and cell cycle progression. (stanford.edu)
- The regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS proteins) are also being examined as potential drug targets. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition to GPCRs and G-proteins, a family of signal modulators (the regulators of G protein signaling or RGS proteins) shows more restricted expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- RGS proteins are a large family of signaling proteins and share a conserved signature domain (RGS domain) that directly binds and activates G-alpha subunits, modulating G protein signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
- Many RGS proteins that bind non-G protein signaling partners are expressed exclusively in specific brain regions [ 8 , 9 ], which agrees with the extensive diversity of neuronal and glial GPCRs and the signal modulation required for proper brain function [ 4 ], making these proteins attractive targets for possible therapeutic intervention. (biomedcentral.com)
- Despite its inability to act as a GTPase-activating protein, we demonstrate that in cells, axinRGS can compete for Gα 12 binding with the RGS domain of p115RhoGEF, a known G 12 -interacting protein that links G 12 signaling to activation of the small G protein Rho. (aspetjournals.org)
- G protein signaling is terminated when GTP is hydrolyzed to GDP. (aspetjournals.org)
- In addition to their GTPase-stimulating activities, some RGS proteins act as scaffolding molecules that hold signaling complexes together. (aspetjournals.org)
- This complex is necessary for the accumulation of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), a tumor suppressor protein involved in Wnt signaling. (sciencemag.org)
- Western blotting demonstrated that scratching of the monolayer resulted in the phosphorylation of Dvl proteins that was dependent on Wnt signaling. (sciencemag.org)
- In Volume 1, Pathway Methods and Mammalian Models , assays to measure activation of the diverse Wnt signaling pathways are explored, along with a selection of models and strategies used to study mammalian Wnt/FZD fuction, from protein-protein interaction and simple cell line models to organoid cultures and mouse models. (springer.com)
- J:174095 Cai Z, Simons DL, Fu XY, Feng GS, Wu SM, Zhang X, Loss of shp2-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in muller glial cells results in retinal degeneration. (jax.org)
- The adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) tumor suppressor is involved in the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer via regulation of the Wnt signaling cascade. (rupress.org)
- By their targeting of short, linear motif type of interactions, peptide aptamers have joined nucleic acid aptamers for use in signaling studies because of their ease of production, their stability, their high specificity and affinity for individual target proteins, and their use in high-throughput screening protocols. (mdpi.com)
- G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a major role in signal transduction and are targets of many therapeutic drugs. (aspetjournals.org)
- They are a highly diverse protein family, have unique tissue distributions, are strongly regulated by signal transduction events, and will likely play diverse functional roles in living cells. (aspetjournals.org)
- We propose that peptide aptamers can provide a very useful and new alternative for interfering with protein-protein interactions in intracellular signal transduction cascades, including those emanating from activated receptors for growth factors. (mdpi.com)
- Nowadays, it has been established, that this protein is also behaved as a signal transduction molecule in developmental systems, being an element of the Wnt (wingless/int) signalling pathway. (uninet.edu)
- The NH 2 -terminal third contains an oligomerization domain, followed by seven armadillo repeats (imperfect repeats also found in proteins like armadillo, β-catenin, plakoglobin, and importins). (rupress.org)
- [ 1 ] [ 2 ] En Drosophila a proteína homóloga denomínase armadillo . (wikipedia.org)
- [ 7 ] Pero axiña se descubriu que a proteína de Drosophila armadillo (implicada na mediación de efectos morfoxénicos de Wingless/Wnt ) é homóloga da β-catenina de mamíferos, non só en estrutura senón tamén en función. (wikipedia.org)
- β-Catenin protein is a member of the 'armadillo' superfamily and was originally described as an element of the E-cadherin/catenin complex. (uninet.edu)
- P120 catenin (p120 CTN ) is a member of a large subfamily of Armadillo proteins. (uninet.edu)
- Within the destruction complex itself there are myriad protein-protein interactions. (genetics.org)
- The deactivation of the APC protein can take place after certain chain reactions in the cytoplasm are started, e.g. through the Wnt signals that destroy the conformation of the complex. (wikipedia.org)
- Mammalian αE-catenin is an allosterically regulated actin-binding protein that binds the cadherin/β-catenin complex as a monomer and whose dimerization potentiates F-actin association. (stanford.edu)
- This polarization of the cell is dependent on the activity of the Rho family guanosine triphosphatase, Cdc42, which also leads to the assembly of a complex between the scaffold protein Par6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). (sciencemag.org)
- The structure of the Siah1 in complex with a degron-containing peptide from the adaptor protein Phyllopod has been recently solved ( 2AN6 ) ( House,2006 ). (eu.org)
- The E-cadherin/catenin complex is a substrate of receptor tyrosine kinases e.g. c-erbB-2, c-met, EGFR, of non-receptor tyrosine kinases e.g. src, of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases and of MUC-1 (episialin). (uninet.edu)
- In normal cells, β-catenin is associated not only with cadherins but also with the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) multi-protein complex. (uninet.edu)
- Suppression of intestinal polyposis in Apc delta716 knockout mice by inhibition of cyelooxygenase2 (COX-2). (springer.com)
- Analyses of BAT-gal expression in the adenomatous polyposis coli (multiple intestinal neoplasia/+) background revealed βcatenin transcriptional activity in intestinal adenomas but surprisingly not in normal crypt cells. (pnas.org)
- Leroy K, Duyckaerts C, Bovekamp L et al (2001) Increase of adenomatous polyposis coli immunoreactivity is a marker of reactive astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease and in other pathological conditions. (springer.com)
- High-mobility group (HMG) proteins are involved in oligodendrocyte lineage specification and cell maturation ( Wegner, 2000 , 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
- The familiar laboratory organism Escherichia coli displays a rodlike shape, but other bacteria adopt other morphologies, such as spheres or spirals. (sciencemag.org)
- Dhakal B, Mulvey M. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli invades host cells via an HDAC6-modulated microtubule-dependent pathway. (labome.org)
- In developing white matter, decreased total β-catenin, activated β-catenin, and cyclin D1 levels coincided with the peak of Sox17 expression, and immunoprecipitates showed a developmentally regulated interaction among Sox17, T-cell transcription factor 4, and β-catenin proteins. (jneurosci.org)
- In these roles, it binds to cadherins, Tcf-family transcription factors, and the tumor suppressor gene product Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC). (embl-heidelberg.de)
- The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein binds to β-catenin, a protein recently shown to interact with Tcf and Lef transcription factors. (sciencemag.org)
- Exportin 1 mediates leucine-rich nuclear export signal ( NES )-dependent protein transport. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, although many nuclear proteins do not need to be re-exported, a substantial number of nuclear proteins can shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. (eu.org)
- Regulation of nuclear export may be more sophisticated than for import: one indication is that CRM1 is much more flexible and dynamic (and harder to crystallise without accessory proteins such as RAN) than importins, although being composed of similar HEAT repeat elements. (eu.org)
- However, these cells showed loss of heterozygosity affecting Adenomatous Polyposis Coli and nuclear staining of β-catenin protein. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition, RINGdb offers various user-friendly query functions to answer different questions about RGS proteins and GPCRs such as their possible contribution to disease processes, the putative direct or indirect relationship between RGS proteins and GPCRs. (biomedcentral.com)
- Solving 3D structures of putative NES motif bearing proteins has often revealed that the apparent export signals are buried in the hydrophobic core of globular domains where they cannot function as linear motifs ( Kadlec,2004 ). (eu.org)