Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Sweat: The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Eccrine Glands: Simple sweat glands that secrete sweat directly onto the SKIN.Sweat Gland NeoplasmsAdenoma, Sweat Gland: A benign neoplasm derived from epithelial cells of sweat glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Sweat Gland Diseases: Diseases of the SWEAT GLANDS.Apocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Ectodysplasins: Transmembrane proteins belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that play an essential role in the normal development of several ectodermally derived organs. Several isoforms of the ectodysplasins exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the MRNA for the protein. The isoforms ectodysplasin A1 and ectodysplasin A2 are considered biologically active and each bind distinct ECTODYSPLASIN RECEPTORS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of ectodysplasin result in ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA 1, ANHIDROTIC.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Ectodermal Dysplasia: A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Receptors, Ectodysplasin: Members of the TNF receptor family that are specific for ECTODYSPLASIN. At least two subtypes of the ectodysplasin receptor exist, each being specific for a ectodysplasin isoform. Signaling through ectodysplasin receptors plays an essential role in the normal ectodermal development. Genetic defects that result in loss of ectodysplasin receptor function results ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Hypohidrosis: Abnormally diminished or absent perspiration. Both generalized and segmented (reduced or absent sweating in circumscribed locations) forms of the disease are usually associated with other underlying conditions.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Carcinoma, Skin Appendage: A malignant tumor of the skin appendages, which include the hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and the mammary glands. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage: Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.Hyperhidrosis: Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.Syringoma: A benign tumor of the sweat glands which is usually multiple and results from malformation of sweat ducts. It is uncommon and more common in females than in males. It is most likely to appear at adolescence, and further lesions may develop during adult life. It does not appear to be hereditary. (Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2407-8)Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Adenoma, Chromophobe: A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.Re-Epithelialization: Reconstitution of eroded or injured EPITHELIUM by proliferation and migration of EPITHELIAL CELLS from below or adjacent to the damaged site.Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins: Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Aquaporin 5: Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Dibenzylchlorethamine: An alpha adrenergic antagonist.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.Edar Receptor: A ectodysplasin receptor subtype that is specific for ECTODYSPLASIN A1. It signals via the specific signaling adaptor EDAR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Loss of function of the edar receptor is associated with AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE ANHIDROTIC ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA and ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA 3, ANHIDROTIC.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Edar-Associated Death Domain Protein: A tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor that acts as a specific signaling adaptor protein for the EDAR RECEPTOR and plays an important role in ectodermal development. It binds to edar receptor via its C-terminal death domain region and to other specific TNF receptor-associated factors via its N-terminal domain. Loss of function of edar-associated death domain protein is associated with AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE ANHIDROTIC ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA.Naphthylvinylpyridine: 4(1-Naphthylvinyl)pyridine hydrochloride. Cholinesterase inhibitor. Synonym: YuB 25.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Colonic Polyps: Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Eccrine Porocarcinoma: A rare malignant neoplasm of the sweat glands. It most often develops as a form of degenerative progression from a benign ECCRINE POROMA.ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Ectodermal Dysplasia 1, Anhidrotic: An X-linked form of ectodermal dysplasia which results from mutations of the gene encoding ECTODYSPLASIN.Cicatrix, Hypertrophic: An elevated scar, resembling a KELOID, but which does not spread into surrounding tissues. It is formed by enlargement and overgrowth of cicatricial tissue and regresses spontaneously.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Adenoma, Acidophil: A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Prolactinoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.Adenomatous Polyps: Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.

Papillary hidradenoma: immunohistochemical analysis of steroid receptor profile with a focus on apocrine differentiation. (1/36)

AIM: To make a quantitative evaluation by image analysis of oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and androgen receptors in papillary hidradenomas and anogenital sweat glands. METHODS: 20 papillary hidradenomas and the anogenital sweat glands detected in surgical specimens selected from 10 vulvectomies for squamous carcinoma, eight haemorrhoidectomies, and one anal polypectomy, all from female patients, were investigated by the avidinstreptavidin peroxidase testing system. RESULTS: 90% of papillary hidradenomas and almost all the anogenital sweat glands showed immunoreactivity for oestrogen receptor and, more weakly, for progesterone receptor, with immunolabelled nuclear area ranging from 10% to 90%. Conversely conventional sweat glands did not show any nuclear staining. Overexpression of androgen receptors occurred in 20% of papillary hidradenomas, with nuclear staining strictly bordering papillary epithelium with apocrine differentiation. There was no immunoreactivity for androgen receptors in anogenital sweat glands. CONCLUSIONS: Oestrogen and progesterone receptors seem to represent reliable markers for differentiating between anogenital sweat glands and conventional sweat glands, and a further link to explain why papillary hidradenomas occur almost exclusively in the female anogenital region. Positivity for oestrogen/progesterone receptors suggests that epithelia either of anogenital sweat glands or of papillary hidradenomas are controlled by ovarian steroid hormones. Androgen receptor nuclear staining of the epithelium with apocrine differentiation in vulvar papillary hidradenoma strengthens its homology with breast duct papilloma.  (+info)

Sebaceous adenoma in the region of the medial canthus causing proptosis. (2/36)

A case of sebaceous adenoma in the region of the medial canthus causing proptosis is presented along with a review of the medical literature. The clinicopathological aspects of the tumour are discussed. The mode of treatment was surgical excision. A six month follow-up showed a reduction in the proptosis with no recurrence.  (+info)

Malignant hidradenoma: a rare sweat gland tumour. (3/36)

Malignant hidradenoma is a rare sweat gland carcinoma, which can have an aggressive course with recurrence and/or metastasis. A case is reported, in an elderly male. The tumour had a histologic similarity to its benign counterpart, but exhibited additional features of infiltrative growth pattern and invasion of adjacent tissue.  (+info)

Clear cell hidradenoma of the eyelid: a case report. (4/36)

Sweat gland tumours are extremely rare in the eyelids. We report a case of a clear cell hidradenoma (nodular hidradenoma) in an elderly female, who had presented with a nodular swelling in a eyelid. Clear cell hidradenomas arise as intradermal nodules from eccrine sweat glands. Ultrastructural and enzyme histochemical studies have shown nodular hidradenomas to be intermediate between eccrine poroma and eccrine spiradenoma. No apocrine differentiation has ever been observed in these tumours. Malignant forms are distinctly unusual. This case is being documented for the extremely uncommon presentation of this tumour as an eyelid mass. Complete primary excision is advocated and local steroid preparations should bot be used.  (+info)

Tubular apocrine adenoma in association with syringocystadenoma papilliferum. (5/36)

Tubular apocrine adenoma is a very rare sweat gland tumor. In this report, a case of tubular apocrine adenoma in association with syringocystadenoma papilliferum on the scalp is presented. The stroma of the tubular apocrine adenoma consisted of numerous, young fibroblasts with mitotic activity. It was difficult to distinguish stromal cells and epithelial cells from each other in some areas. The characteristics and differences in histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings in these tumors are described.  (+info)

Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in the detection of early metastasis from sweat gland carcinoma. (6/36)

BACKGROUND: Several subtypes of sweat gland carcinoma have been found to demonstrate a propensity to metastasize systemically and to regional lymph nodes. The predictive value and benefit of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy have been established in numerous other malignancies, but to the authors' knowledge there is little literature published to date regarding the use of SLN biopsy in patients with sweat gland carcinoma. In the current study, the authors demonstrated the utility of SLN biopsy in detecting subclinical metastases of sweat gland carcinoma, which may result in early treatment. METHODS: The authors identified five patients with malignant eccrine tumors in whom SLN biopsy was performed at the study institution. Clinical and histopathologic data were reviewed. RESULTS: The five study cases included two cases of aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (both occurring on upper extremity digits), two cases of hidradenocarcinoma (occurring on the knee and foot, respectively), and an eccrine carcinoma (occurring on the scalp). In each biopsy-established case, there was no clinical evidence of metastatic disease, and a wide local excision or amputation was performed with concurrent SLN biopsy. Four of 18 SLNs in 3 of the 5 patients (60%) were found to be positive for metastatic carcinoma, as identified in hematoxylin and eosin stains and/or cytokeratin immunohistochemical stains. All three lymph node-positive patients subsequently underwent regional lymphadenectomy and were found to have no evidence of additional metastases. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study demonstrate that SLN biopsy detects subclinical metastases from sweat gland carcinomas to regional lymph nodes. SLN mapping and biopsy at the time of resection can provide useful information with which to guide early treatment. Further studies are necessary to determine whether this procedure results in a survival benefit in patients with sweat gland carcinomas.  (+info)

Her-2 expression in cutaneous eccrine and apocrine neoplasms. (7/36)

Cutaneous eccrine and apocrine glands have many histologic and immunologic similarities to ducts and acini of the breast. Thus, differentiating a primary cutaneous process from a metastatic breast carcinoma can be nearly impossible. In all, 10-34% of breast carcinomas overexpress HER-2 protein, a membrane-associated protein that functions in cell differentiation, adhesion and motility. As expression of this gene in cutaneous neoplasms has not been well characterized, we sought to determine HER-2 expression in a sample of benign and malignant cutaneous eccrine and apocrine neoplasms and to determine if there is value in using this protein expression in differentiating primary cutaneous from metastatic breast lesions. Totally, 85 primary cutaneous neoplasms and 11 cutaneous metastases from HER-2-positive breast carcinomas were retrieved from archived material at our institute. All cases were evaluated for HER-2 protein expression using the Dako Hercept Test kit. Membranous HER-2 staining was noted in three of the 85 cutaneous adnexal neoplasms: one hidrocystoma and two nodular hidradenomas. Seven of the 11 cutaneous metastases from HER-2-positive breast carcinomas maintained moderate-to-strong HER-2 expression. In conclusion, while 10-34% of breast carcinomas overexpress the HER-2 protein, only 3.5% of cutaneous apocrine and eccrine neoplasms in this study stained with the HER-2 antibody. These HER-2-positive cutaneous neoplasms typically do not pose a diagnostic dilemma in the setting of differentiation from breast metastasis. Additionally, although histologically these breast and cutaneous lesions may have morphologic similarities, the relative lack of HER-2 overexpression suggests that they are different nosologically. Finally, this study suggests that HER-2 protein expression can be a useful tool in differentiating a primary cutaneous appendageal neoplasm from HER-2 expressing metastatic breast carcinoma.  (+info)

Perianal apocrine adenocarcinoma arising in a benign apocrine adenoma; first case report and review of the literature. (8/36)

Benign apocrine lesions have been described in the anogenital region, although according to the World Health Organisation convincing examples of anal apocrine adenocarcinomas have not been published. This report describes the case of an invasive apocrine adenocarcinoma arising in a benign adenoma in the perianal region of a 45 year old woman. The origin and invasiveness are supported by histological and immunohistochemical studies.  (+info)

  • In this region, high sudation levels can mimic lymphadenopathy in patients with parathyroid adenoma and malignancy, potentially prompting unnecessary intervention or surgery. (bnms.org.uk)
  • These are specialized glands that can be found in the armpits, the circular area of the breast called the areola, and the genital and anal regions. (wisegeek.com)
  • Consists of cells of type B. the reason for the growth of this type of adenoma is not definitely known. (vsebolezni.com)