A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.
Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.
Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.
Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Cell surface proteins that bind albumin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.

Chronic inhalation carcinogenicity study of commercial hexane solvent in F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. (1/112)

The carcinogenic and chronic toxicity potential of commercial hexane solvent was evaluated in F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice (50/sex/concentration/species) exposed by inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 years. Target hexane vapor concentrations were 0, 900, 3000, and 9000 ppm. There were no significant differences in survivorship between control and hexane-exposed groups, and clinical observations were generally unremarkable. Small, but statistically significant decreases in body weight gain were seen in rats of both sexes in the mid- and high-exposure groups and in high-expsoure female mice. The only noteworthy histopathological finding in rats was epithelial cell hyperplasia in the nasoturbinates and larynx of exposed groups. This response was judged to be indicative of upper respiratory tract tissue irritation. No significant differences in tumor incidence between control and hexane-exposed rats were found. In mice, uterine tissue from the high-exposure females exhibited a significant decrease in the severity of cystic endometrial hyperplasia compared to controls. An increase in the combined incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas was observed in high-exposure female mice. The incidence of liver tumors was not increased in the mid- or low-exposure female mice or in male mice exposed to hexane. An increased incidence of pituitary adenomas was observed in female, but not male mice. This finding was not believed to have been treatment-related because the incidence in the control group was unusually low, and the incidence in exposed groups was not dose-related and was within the historical control range. No other neoplastic changes judged to be treatment-related were observed in tissues from male or female mice. In conclusion, chronic exposure to commercial hexane solvent at concentrations up to 9000 ppm was not carcinogenic to F-344 rats or to male B6C3F1 mice, but did result in an increased incidence of liver tumors in female mice.  (+info)

Mutation of beta-catenin is an early event in chemically induced mouse hepatocellular carcinogenesis. (2/112)

beta-catenin activation, and subsequent upregulation of Wnt-signaling, is an important event in the development of certain human and rodent cancers. Recently, mutations in the beta-catenin gene in the region of the serine-threonine glycogen kinase (GSK)-3beta phosphorylation target sites have been identified in hepatocellular neoplasms from humans and transgenic mice. In this study we examined 152 hepatocellular neoplasms from B6C3F1 mice included in five chemical treatment groups and controls for mutations in the beta-catenin gene. Twenty of 29 hepatocellular neoplasms from mice treated with methyleugenol had point mutations at codons 32, 33, 34 or 41, sites which are mutated in colon and other cancers. Likewise, nine of 24 methylene chloride-induced hepatocellular neoplasms and 18 of 42 oxazepam-induced neoplasms exhibited similar mutations. In contrast, only three of 18 vinyl carbamate-induced liver tumors, one of 18 TCDD-induced liver tumors, and two of 22 spontaneous liver neoplasms had mutations in beta-catenin. Thus, there appears to be a chemical specific involvement of beta-catenin activation in mouse hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Expression analyses using Western blot and immunohistochemistry indicate that beta-catenin protein accumulates along cell membranes following mutation. The finding of mutations in both adenomas and carcinomas from diverse chemical treatment groups and the immunostaining of beta-catenin protein in an altered hepatocellular focus suggest that these alterations are early events in mouse hepatocellular carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Liver adenomatosis: reappraisal, diagnosis, and surgical management: eight new cases and review of the literature. (3/112)

OBJECTIVE: Liver adenomatosis (LA) is a rare disease originally defined by Flejou et al in 1985 from a series of 13 cases. In 1998, 38 cases were available for analysis, including eight personal cases. The aim of this study was to review and reappraise the characteristics of this rare liver disease and to discuss diagnosis and therapeutic options. BACKGROUND: LA was defined as the presence of >10 adenomas in an otherwise normal parenchyma. Neither female predominance nor a relation with estrogen/progesterone intake has been noted. Natural progression is poorly known. METHODS: The clinical presentation, evolution, histologic characteristics, and therapeutic options and results were analyzed based on a personal series of eight new cases and an updated review of the literature. RESULTS: From a diagnostic standpoint, two forms of liver adenomatosis with different presentations and evolution can be defined: a massive form and a multifocal form. The role of estrogen and progesterone is reevaluated. The risks of hemorrhage and malignant transformation are of major concern. In the authors' series, liver transplantation was indicated in two young women with the massive, aggressive form, and good results were obtained. CONCLUSION: Liver adenomatosis is a rare disease, more common in women, where outcome and evolution vary and are exacerbated by estrogen intake. Most often, conservative surgery is indicated. Liver transplantation is indicated only in highly symptomatic and aggressive forms of the disease.  (+info)

Hepatocellular adenomatosis associated with hereditary haemochromatosis. (4/112)

A young healthy man presented with abdominal pain following an accidental fall. Imaging studies and laparoscopy revealed multiple yellowish well-defined hepatic lesions. Liver biopsies showed hepatic adenomas and iron overload. Laboratory investigation confirmed a diagnosis of hereditary haemochromatosis. To our knowledge this represents the first report of an association of hepatic adenomatosis and primary haemochromatosis.  (+info)

Enhancement of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis by the HIV-1 tat gene. (5/112)

The human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat protein is suspected to be involved in the neoplastic pathology arising in AIDS patients. tat-transgenic (TT) mice, which constitutively express Tat in the liver, develop liver cell dysplasia (LCD) that may represent a preneoplastic lesion. To test if TT mice are predisposed to liver carcinogenesis, we treated them with diethylnitrosamine, a hepatotropic carcinogen. Diethylnitrosamine-treated TT mice developed both preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the liver. They showed an enhancement of LCD and developed basophilic liver cell nodules (BLCN), hepatocellular adenomas (HA), and hepatocellular carcinomas (HC). Both preneoplastic (LCD and BLCN) and neoplastic (HA and HC) lesions were significantly more frequent in TT than in control mice: 29.7% versus 12.7% for LCD, 57.9% versus 23.3% for BLCN, 40.6% versus 10.0% for HA, and 50.0% versus 12.7% for HC. These results indicate that Tat expression in the liver predisposes to both initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and to malignant progression of liver tumors. This study supports a role for Tat in enhancing the effect of endogenous and exogenous carcinogens in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients, thereby contributing to tumorigenesis in the course of AIDS.  (+info)

Diagnostic impact of fluorescence in situ hybridization in the differentiation of hepatocellular adenoma and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. (6/112)

Histopathological differentiation between hepatocellular adenoma and well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be a difficult task in small biopsies and occasionally in resected tumor specimens. Whether the analysis of chromosome aberrations can contribute to a more precise discrimination has not been analyzed systematically up to now. Therefore, fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to 28 cases of adenoma and well differentiated carcinoma, using centromeric probes for chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 8, and X. None of 14 adenomas revealed an aberrant count in the analyses performed. By contrast, 13/14 carcinomas demonstrated aberrations for 2-5 chromosomes/case. Chromosome 1 was aberrant in 8/12 cases informative for this probe (67%), chromosomes 6 and 7 were aberrant in 9/14 cases (64%), chromosome 8 was aberrant in 11/14 cases (79%), and chromosome X in 7/14 cases (50%). Taking results for chromosomes 1 and 8 together, 13/14 HCC revealed aberrations for at least one of these chromosomes. Probes for 6, 7, and X revealed no additional aberrant cases.Thus, FISH for chromosomes 1 and 8, extended by probes for chromosomes 6, 7 and X, represents a promising approach toward a more accurate differentiation between hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma.  (+info)

An in vivo method for using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) as a marker of chemically-induced hepatocellular proliferation in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). (7/112)

Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) were used to develop an in vivo method to assess hepatocellular proliferation in a nonmammalian model. Proliferative responses were assessed in medaka at 7, 17, 24, and 94 days after a 48-hour exposure to 10 or 100 mg/L diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Subgroups of medaka were exposed to 50 or 75 mg/L of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in water for 72 hours, sacrificed, and then processed for immunohistochemical staining. Proliferative indices of BrdU-labeled hepatocytes were quantified and compared using both count and area measurements. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in hepatocellular proliferation in the 100 mg/L DEN-treated fish as compared to controls and 10 mg/L DEN-treated fish for the first 3 time points. Hepatocarcinogenicity was evaluated 26 weeks post-DEN exposure. There was a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in hepatocellular neoplasms in 100 mg/L DEN-treated fish compared to other fish. Effective BrdU-labeling of S-phase hepatocytes in medaka was achieved by adding BrdU to the aquarium water, and an increase in hepatocellular proliferation using this method was detected 7 days after exposure to a carcinogenic concentration of DEN. Additionally, the new method of area measurement indices of proliferation were as precise as count indices (R2 > or = 0.92).  (+info)

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate induces hepatocellular adenoma in transgenic mice carrying a human prototype c-Ha-ras gene in a 26-week carcinogenicity study. (8/112)

To evaluate the transgenic mouse carrying a human prototype c-Ha-ras gene (rasH2 mouse) as a model for 26-week carcinogenicity tests, Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), a peroxisome proliferator, was administered to 15 rasH2 mice/sex/group at concentrations of 1,500, 3,000 or 6,000 ppm, and to 15 wild-type (non-Tg) mice/sex/group at a concentration of 6,000 ppm in their diets for 26 weeks. Survival rates and food consumption in the groups treated with DEHP and in the control group were similar. Body weight gain in rasH2 and non-Tg mice at 6,000 ppm in the terminal week decreased about 10% as compared to the control group. Common findings related to treatment with DEHP in rasH2 and non-Tg mice included hypertrophy with coarse granules and deposit of pigment in the liver, hydronephrosis and tubular regeneration in the kidney, focal atrophy in the testis, and increased eosinophilic body in the nasal cavity. Hepatocellular adenoma was induced by treatment with DEHP, and was confined to male rasH2; mice the incidence being 7%(1/15), 13%(2/15), and 27%(4/15) in the 1,500-, 3,000-, and 6,000-ppm group, respectively. Point mutation was not detected in codon 12 and 61 of human c-Ha-ras transgene upon DNA analyses on frozen samples taken from these hepatocellular adenomas. From the results obtained in this 26-week carcinogenicity study, it is concluded that DEHP is a hepato-carcinogen for transgenic mouse carrying a human prototype c-Ha-ras gene.  (+info)

In their paper published in Gut, Farges et al report that in 23 out of 218 patients, areas of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) were observed, and the risk of malignant transformation was 4% in women and 47% in men.1 Hypothesising that HCC may arise from HCA is based on the assumption that at a certain point in time residual HCA or a transition zone with dysplastic changes (as found in colorectal cancers) is present within the malignant liver lesion.2. The postulated theory presented by Farges et al may have great implications for the management of HCA. HCA, a rare benign liver tumour mostly occurring in young women, carries a small risk of malignant transformation … ...
Hepatic adenoma is a rare, benign tumor of the liver. Two types of hepatic adenoma have been identified, including tumors of bile duct origin and tumors of liver cell origin.
(noncancerous) Benign Liver Tumor are widespread. They dont unfold to different areas of the physique and so they normally dont pose a severe well being danger. Actually, normally, benign liver tumors are usually not recognized as a result of they trigger no signs. When theyre detected, it is normally as a result of
Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs), with a risk of malignant transformation into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), classically develop in young women who are taking oral contraceptives. It is now clear that HCAs may also occur in men. However, it is rarely reported that HCAs with malignant transformation occur in male patients with non-cirrhotic livers. This study aimed to characterize the malignancy of HCAs occurring in male patients. All patients with HCAs with malignant transformation who underwent hepatectomy at the Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2011 were enrolled in the study. The clinical characteristics as well as radiologic and pathologic data were reviewed. HCAs with malignant transformation were observed in 5 male patients with non-cirrhotic livers, but not in female patients. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were higher in patients with HCAs with malignant transformation than in patients
Introduction: Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a benign tumor of the liver and almost always located intracapsular. Bleeding (25%), and malignant transformation (5%) can complicate the disease course if left untreated. Herein, we present a case of extracapsular HCA of ectopic liver in the omentum complicated with intraperitoneal hemorrhage.Case Description/Methods: A 43-year-old lady with no past medical history presented to emergency department with two-day history of left shoulder pain and epigastric discomfort. Her only medication was an oral contraceptive pill (OCP). On physical exam, the patient had persistent sinus tachycardia, and epigastric tenderness. Initial labs were unremarkable except for mildly elevated AST at 58 IU/L (10-37). CT of the abdomen with IV contrast showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass likely arising from the anterior wall of the stomach. T2-weighted MRI abdomen demonstrated a hypoenhancing mass measuring 4 x 7 x 8 cm with adjacent hemorrhage (Image 1). Exploratory laparotomy
There are various types of cysts and tumours in the liver, all of which are abnormal growths or structures. Benign liver tumours are common and usually without symptoms (asymptomatic) A cyst is an abnormal, fluid-filled balloon or bubblelike structure (sac) that can grow in any part of your body. Liver cysts are mostly congenital, meaning that you have them from birth, or caused by contact with some form of parasite.
Benign Liver Tumors - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional Version.
Groups of 50 male and 50 female mice were administered 0, 62.5, 125, or 250 mg indole-3-carbinol/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage, 5 days per week for 105 weeks. Survival of 250 mg/kg females was significantly greater than that of the vehicle controls. Mean body weights of dosed groups of males were similar to those of the vehicle controls throughout the study; however, those of 250 mg/kg female mice were at least 10% less than those of the vehicle controls between weeks 32 and 92.. Incidences of hepatocellular adenoma occurred with a positive trend in males and the incidence was significantly increased in the 250 mg/kg group. The incidences of multiple hepatocellular adenoma were significantly increased in 62.5 and 250 mg/kg males. There were significantly increased incidences of single and multiple hepatocellular carcinoma in 125 mg/kg males compared to the vehicle controls. In males, the incidences of hepatoblastoma occurred with a positive trend, and the incidences of multiple ...
HNF1A_HUMAN] Defects in HNF1A are a cause of hepatic adenomas familial (HEPAF) [MIM:142330]. Hepatic adenomas are rare benign liver tumors of presumable epithelial origin that develop in an otherwise normal liver. Hepatic adenomas may be single or multiple. They consist of sheets of well-differentiated hepatocytes that contain fat and glycogen and can produce bile. Bile ducts or portal areas are absent. Kupffer cells, if present, are reduced in number and are non-functional. Conditions associated with adenomas are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and glycogen storage diseases (types 1 and 3). Note=Bi-allelic inactivation of HNF1A, whether sporadic or associated with MODY3, may be an early step in the developmant of some hepatocellular carcinomas. Defects in HNF1A are the cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3) [MIM:600496]; also symbolized MODY-3. MODY is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early ...
Your cats veterinarian will take a detailed history from you and perform a complete physical examination. Routine laboratory testing includes a complete blood count, biochemistry profile, and urinalysis, where results are usually normal. In few animals these results may show anemia and abnormally high levels of liver enzymes. Radiographic studies may show a mass in the liver. Similarly, ultrasonography helps in diagnosis, revealing masses, hemorrhage, and other abnormalities.. ...
International Journal of Hepatology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the medical, surgical, pathological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of hepatology, as well as the management of disorders affecting the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas.
Hi. Ive occasionally discovered during the ultrasound exam that Ive been having hepatocellular adenoma for six months now. Can this benign liver tumor turn to a cancerous one?
Hi! I am 33 years old woman. A week ago doctor told me that I have big hepatic adenoma. I cant sleep, eat, I am afraid for my health. Give me some informatio This topic is answered by a medical expert.
Developed by renowned radiologists in each specialty, STATdx provides comprehensive decision support you can rely on - Hepatic Adenoma
Malignant tumors are spread by metastasis and invasion while benign tumors cannot be spread by either metastasis or invasion. Metastasis (also called metastatic disease or mets) is the ability of cancerous cells to spill, leak or break away from their site of origin (pancreas, prostate, kidney, breast, lung or colon), or primary tumor, and enter the blood and lymphatic vessels. These cancerous cells are deposited within healthy tissues of the body, where they multiply and grow--affecting vital organs. Most malignant cancers are capable of metastasizing. Malignant tumors are also spread by invasion--the process in which cancerous cells invade the blood vessels. Benign tumors, on the other hand, grow locally at the site of the original tumor.. ...
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Liver Masses and Granulomas from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
Integrative genomic profiling of hepatocellular adenomas reveals recurrent FRK activating mutations and mutational processes of malignant transformation ...
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Hepatic adenoma is usually detected by imaging, typically an ultrasound or CT, as a hyperenhancing liver nodule. Given that several liver tumors appear similarly on these imaging modalities, a multi-phase contrast-enhanced imaging study such as CT or MRI may be used to provide more information.[3][4] The significance of making a specific diagnosis is that, unlike other benign liver tumors such as hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatic adenomas have a small but meaningful risk of progressing into a malignancy.[3] Although imaging provides supportive information, a definitive diagnosis of hepatic adenoma requires biopsy of the tissue. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Massive hemorrhage and infarction complicating focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver. AU - Bathe, O. F.. AU - Mies, C.. AU - Franceschi, D.. AU - Casillas, J.. AU - Livingstone, A. S.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Background: Spontaneous infarction or hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) has rarely been reported in the literature. Case outline: A 43-year-old woman presented with upper abdominal pain and anemia. CT scan showed an enormous perihepatic hematoma. Trisegmentectomy successfully dealt with the problem. Conclusion: Although conservative management of FNH is often adopted, this case illustrates that these lesions can undergo massive bleeding.. AB - Background: Spontaneous infarction or hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) has rarely been reported in the literature. Case outline: A 43-year-old woman presented with upper abdominal pain and anemia. CT scan showed an enormous perihepatic hematoma. Trisegmentectomy successfully dealt with the problem. ...
Primary benign tumors of the liver, other than angiomas, are rare. Hoffman1 reviewed the literature in 1942 and was able to find only 58 cases reported. He added one case of his own. No attempt was made to classify these lesions.. Primary benign liver tumors may arise from either the liver cells or the bile duct epithelium. These are classified as liver cell adenomas or bile duct adenomas. In addition, a third type of tumor occurs. This lesion is composed of both liver cells and bile ducts. Such lesions have been classified by Warvi2 as. ...
Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: results of treatment and options in management. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: a link with sickle cell disease?
International Journal of Hepatology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the medical, surgical, pathological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of hepatology, as well as the management of disorders affecting the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas.
Background & Aims: The presence of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) in pregnant women requires special consideration, as it has been reported to carry the risk of growth and clinically significant haemorrhage. In this prospective study we assessed aspects of growth of HCA ,5 cm during pregnancy. Methods: This was a multicentre prospective cohort study in pregnant women with suspected HCA ,5 cm on imaging. Definitive HCA diagnosis was established by MRI with hepatobiliary contrast agents (LCE-MRI), preferably before pregnancy. If at study inclusion a definitive diagnosis was lacking, LCE-MRI was performed after giving birth. Growth of the adenoma (defined as an increase of ,20%) was closely monitored with ultrasound examinations throughout pregnancy. Results: Of the 66 women included, 18 were excluded from analysis because postpartum LCE-MRI did not confirm the diagnosis of HCA and showed the lesion to be focal nodular hyperplasia. The remaining 48 women, with an HCA confirmed by LCE-MRI, were ...
focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver, hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia, FNH (previous denomination: benign hepatoma, solitary hyperplastic nodule, focal sclerosis, hamartomatous cholangiohepatoma, mixed adenoma)
The liver is a large organ that sits on the right side of the belly. The liver has two large sections, called the right and the left lobes. The gallbladder sits under the liver, along with parts of the pancreas and intestines. The liver and these organs work together to digest, absorb, and process food. The livers main job is to filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the body. The liver also detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. As it does so, the liver secretes bile that ends up back in the intestines. The liver also makes proteins important for blood clotting and other functions.. Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign tumor of the liver and is the second most common tumor of the liver after the benign liver tumor known as hemangioma. FNH does not turn into liver cancer and generally it does not grow in size, spread or bleed, and in most people it does not produce any symptoms. If the tumor grows and becomes large it can cause some ...
The typical lesion of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign tumor-like mass characterized by hepatocytic nodules separated by fibrous bands. The solitary central artery with high flow and the absent portal vein give the lesions their characteristic radiological appearance. The great majority of cases seen in daily practice conform to the above description. Additional small nodules (from 1-2 up to 15-20 mm in diameter) detected by imaging techniques or on macroscopic examination may be difficult to identify as representing FNH if they lack the key features of FNH as defined in larger lesions. The aim of this study was to characterize these small nodules, and to compare their characteristics with those of typical lesions of FNH present in the same specimens. Eight patients underwent hepatic resections for the removal of a mass lesion (nodule) diagnosed as: FNH (1 patient); nodules of unknown nature (5 patients); or nodules thought to be adenoma or hepatocellular carcinoma (2 patients). Six nodules
The physical examination findings are often nonspecific. Patients may be asymptomatic, or they may appear ill, with pallor and abdominal distress. Note the following: Palpable tender or nontender mas... more
Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) in liver is the second common benign hepatic tumor. It usually shows hypervascular mass on imaging studies and it is not easy to differentiate with other hypervascular malignant tumor. For diagnosis of FNH, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) has been used to detect spoke-wheel sign, which can be typically seen in FNH. However, temporal window of vascular phase using contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) is very short (about 10 sec) and coordination of patient`s respiration during US exam is absolutely needed. Thus, the investigators will use Superb-Microvascular imaging (SMI, Toshiba, Japan) for detection of spoke-wheel sign in patients with proven FNH, which enable to detect slow micro vascular flow without using CEUS.. First, to compare the detection rate of spoke-wheel sign between CEUS using sonazoid (Perfluorobutane, GE healthcare) and SMI.. Second, to compare the accuracy of size measurement between gray-scale US and SMI (reference standard: CEUS using ...
ABCDDV/870 ABCD Arq Bras Cir Dig 2012;25(3):180-182 Letter to the Editor GIANT HEPATIC ADENOMA ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLICANDROGENIC STEROID ABUSE: CASE REPORT Adenoma hepático gigante associado com uso abusivo de esteróide androgênico anabolizante: relato de caso Sergio Renato PAIS-COSTA, Olímpia Alves Teixeira LIMA, Aloisio Fernandes SOARES From Regional Hospital of the Northern Zone (HRAN), Brasília, Federal District, Brazil Correspondence: Sergio Renato Pais-Costa, e-mail [email protected] provides low morbidity, fast recovery and cosmetic advantages1,4,7. However, for treating large lesions, especially when they are close to major vascular structures, an open approach is safer4,7. CASE REPORT Financial source: none Conflicts of interest: none Received for publication: 09/04/2012 Accepted for publication: 27/04/2012 INTRODUCTION H epatic adenoma (HA) is an uncommon primary benign neoplasm of hepatocellular origin that most frequently affects young women. It has generally been associated ...
What is Focal Nodular Hyperplasia? Characteristics, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment. It is second most common benign growth in liver after hemangioma.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Letter: Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver observed during estroprogestational treatments]. by Gilbert Catanzano et al.
Brian C. Lee (bclee at access2.digex.net) writes: , A liver carcinoma is considered benign? What kind of cell type was it? , 25-fold sounds pretty low. Was there any human exposure data to show , a non-carcinogenic exposure level? Sorry, I was mistaken in my initial post. The 75 ppm LOEL in males rats was for adenomas; carcinomas and adenomas were elevated at 375 ppm. The current occupational exposure level is 10 ppm. The proposal was to reduce that to 3 ppm in light of the new data, but that seems inadequate given the LOEL for liver adenoma in male rats. , : I am currently reviewing information concerning a proposed occupational , : exposure limit for an industrial chemical. The substance is a , : non-genotoxic carcinogen, which has been tested in both mouse and rat , : chronic/onco studies. In males of both species, statistically significant , : increases in liver adenomas/carcinomas were observed at exposure levels of , : 75 ppm. The company that manufactures the substance is proposing a TWA ...
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We have previously shown that riddelliine, a naturally occurring genotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, induces liver tumors in rats and mice through a genotoxic mechanism mediated by the formation of a set of eight 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine ( DHP)-derived DNA adducts. In this study we report the formation of these DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood DNA of rats fed riddelliine. In an adduct formation and removal experiment, male and female F344 rats (8 weeks of age) were administered riddelliine by gavage at a single dose of 10.0 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. At 8, 24, 48, and 168 hrs after dosing, the levels of DHP-derived DNA adduct in blood and liver were determined by 32P-postlabeling/HPLC. Maximum DNA adduct formation occurred at 48 hr after treatment. From 48 to 168 hours, the adduct levels in female rat blood were 4-fold greater than those in male rats. In a dose response experiment, female rats were gavaged 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses of riddelliine for three
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Appearances are typical of FNH, i.e. well-defined margins, early peripheral enhancement (| than surrounding liver), persistent peripheral enhancement with Primovist indicating the presence of hepatocytes, non-restriction of diffusion and central ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
Factors that affect Diffusion:. 1) Concentration gradient- The greater difference between two areas, the fatser the rate of diffusion. This is beacuse the the greater the concentration gradeint is.. 2) Temperature. The higer the temperture, the greater rate oif diffusion.. 3) Surface area…. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Benign hepatocellular tumors. AU - Guzman, Ignacio J.. AU - Gold, Jay H.. AU - Rosai, Juan. AU - Schneider, Philip D.. AU - Varco, Richard L.. AU - Buchwald, Henry. PY - 1977/10. Y1 - 1977/10. N2 - This series summarizes all cases diagnosed as benign hepatocellular tumors occurring at the University of Minnesota Hospitals from 1950 to 1976. Excluding hemangiomas, 40 tumors were reviewed and reclassified. Eighteen were diagnosed as focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), 10 as hepatocellular adenomas (HCS), 11 as bile duct adenomas (BDA), and one as a mesenchymal hamartoma. FNH: The female: male ratio was 8:1, and the mean age was 43 years ±18 (SD). Two patients were symptomatic; of these, one presented with portal hypertension. Treatment consisted of local resection in 12, left hepatectomy in one, and right hepatectomy in two. Eight patients had a history of oral contraceptive or other steroid intake. The tumors occurring after 1964 were larger (p , 0. 05). HCA: The female: male ratio ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ring-like enhancement of focal nodular hyperplasia with hepatobiliary-phase Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. T2 - Radiological-pathological correlation. AU - Fujiwara, Hiroyasu. AU - Sekine, Shigeki. AU - Onaya, Hiroaki. AU - Shimada, Kazuaki. AU - Mikata, Rintaro. AU - Arai, Yasuaki. PY - 2011/12. Y1 - 2011/12. N2 - We report a case of focal nodular hyperplasia in a patient for whom gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)- enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis results were available. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a well-defi ned hypervascular lesion 14 mm in diameter with no visible central scars. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI demonstrated strong peripheral enhancement of the lesion during the hepatobiliary phase, resulting in ring-like enhancement. The pathology examination revealed that the lesion was focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). Immunohistochemistry showed positive expression ...
Pediatric liver tumors are an important and challenging aspect of the practice of Pediatric Pathology. Groundbreaking advances have been made over the last few years that have propelled the field forward. This symposium will focus on the histopathologic features, molecular alterations and other advances regarding hepatoblastoma, the transitional cell liver tumor (hepatoblastoma with hepatocellular features/hepatocellular neoplasm NOS), hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Additionally, next generation sequencing and other genomics initiatives have led to the proposal of a new biologically-based classification system for all pediatric liver tumors. With this in mind, we will present a review of the molecular techniques required to establish diagnoses and guide treatment. Finally, advances in the risk stratification and oncologic treatment of patients with hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma with particular focus on the latest international cooperative trial will also be ...
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Recent clinical trials introducing new immunosuppressive regimens and improved islet preparation techniques have shown that transplantation of islets of Langerhans into the liver of type 1 diabetic patients could represent an alternative to exogenous insulin treatment and allows for the normalization of metabolic control, which cannot be achieved by administration of exogenous insulin alone ( 1- 5). Although a few cases have been published in the English literature, detailed histopathologic studies of the livers of long-term recipients have not yet been conducted ( 5- 8). Thus, little is known about the paracrine effects of insulin on the adjacent hepatocytes, which may turn out to be of major clinical importance in the long term.. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus has been identified as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans in Western Europe and the United States ( 9- 15). However, the mechanisms by which diabetes may contribute to the formation of HCCs in humans are ...
The early deaths of many of the B6C3F1 mice exposed to oxazepam were attributed to a marked increase in the incidences of hepatoblastoma (males: 0/49, 2/50, 21/50, 13/50; females: 0/50, 1/50, 8/50, 8/50), hepatocellular adenoma (males: 17/49,18/50, 34/50, 32/50; females: 25/50, 35/50, 35/50, 36/50), and hepatocellular carcinoma (males: 9/49, 5/50, 45/50, 50/50; females: 9/50, 5/50, 49/50, 44/50). Moderate hypertrophy of centrilobular hepatocytes occurred in mice receiving 2,500 and 5,000 ppm (males: 0/49, 2/50, 26/50, 43/50; females: 0/50, 2/50,11/50, 29/50). An increase in the incidence of follicular cell hyperplasia of the thyroid gland occurred in all exposed groups of mice (males: 4/49, 22/50, 49/50, 47/50; females: 16/50, 34/50, 49/50, 44/50), and thyroid gland follicular cell adenoma was increased in exposed females (0/50, 4/50, 5/50, 6/50). Testicular atrophy occurred in the 2,500 and 5,000 ppm groups (1/50, 0/50, 25/50, 38/50), and the incidence of epididymal Iymphocyte infiltration was ...
Triethanolamine poisoning symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Triethanolamine poisoning (Chemical poisoning - Triethanolamine) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common primary hepatic malignancies and one of the fastest-growing causes of cancer-related mortality in the United States. The molecular basis of HCC carcinogenesis has not been clearly identified. Among the molecular signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of HCC, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is one of the most frequently activated. A great effort is under way to clearly understand the role of this pathway in the pathogenesis of HCC and its role in the transition from chronic liver diseases, including viral hepatitis, to hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) and HCCs and its targetability in novel therapies. In this article, we review the role of the β-catenin pathway in hepatocarcinogenesis and progression from chronic inflammation to HCC, the novel potential treatments targeting the pathway and its prognostic role in HCC patients, as well as the imaging features of HCC and their association with aberrant activation of the pathway ...
In a 103-week carcinogenicity study, the read-across substance DEHA was administered to F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice in the diet at levels of 12000 or 25000 ppm, equivalent to a daily intake of 600 or 1250 mg/kg of body weight in rats and 1715 or 3570 mg/kg of body weight in mice (conversion based on data from the WHO report (2004)). No test substance related tumors were found in the rat (no increased tumour incidences). In the (female) mice an increased number of hepatocellular carcinomas was found at both doses. Hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas occured combined in high-dose mice of both sexes and in low-dose female mice at incidences that were dose-related and significantly higher than those in control mice. The association of liver tumours in male mice with the administration of DEHA was not considered to be conclusive because the increased number of liver tumours in males reflected only an increase in adenomas in the high-dose group and because the time to observation of tumours was not ...
In the present study we exposed WT, p53+/−, Xpa, and Xpa/p53+/− mice to 300 ppm 2-AAF, a bladder and liver carcinogen, to compare the relative contribution of a deficiency in NER, p53, or both on tumor development in two different tumor target tissues. Under the conditions used in this study, WT mice showed no clear tumor response in the liver or the urinary bladder. This finding is in line with previous reports showing that the development of 2-AAF-induced bladder and/or liver tumors takes longer than 39 weeks (40) . In fact, sustained 2-AAF exposure would most likely have resulted in the development of both urinary bladder and liver tumors, because a clear induction of preneoplastic lesions was found in 2-AAF-treated WT mice (Table 1) ⇓ . Interestingly, NER-deficient Xpa mice were clearly susceptible to develop hepatic tumors upon 2-AAF treatment, because a significant increased number of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were found (Table 1) ⇓ . Surprisingly, these mice showed no ...
But no one had analyzed what the mind cells themselves had been doing during among these shows, stated co-author Dr. Jeffrey Noebels, teacher of neurology, neuroscience, and molecular and individual genetics and movie director from the Blue Parrot Group Developmental Neurogenetics Lab at Baylor. The researchers took a closer go through the firing activity of neurons within an section of the visual cortex of the genetic mouse style of absence epilepsy.Wolchok believes the analysis is important since it identified 3 different ways where PD-1 blocking medicines can fail: If an immune response is merely not really strong more than enough for how big is the tumour. If the medication is off focus on. Once the US group looked back again through the info they might predict treatment failure 3 to 6 in, 6 weeks sooner than in previous clinical studies.. The larger the tumour, the greater T cell reinvigoration was needed from the drug. John Wherry in the University or college of Pa who led the analysis. ...
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Biochemical and molecular biological approaches in situ have provided compelling evidence for early bioenergetic changes in hepatocarcinogenesis. Hepatocellular neoplasms regularly develop from preneoplastic foci of altered hepatocytes, irrespective of whether they are caused by chemicals, radiation …
LD50= 2g/kg (human, oral); LD50= 3 g/kg (rat, oral); LD50= 2.5 g/kg (mice, oral); LD50= 21 mg/kg (male rat, IV); LD50= 23 mg/kg (female rat, IV); LD50= 25 mg/kg (male mice, IV); LD50= 24 mg/kg (female mice, IV); LD50= 1g/kg (rat, subcutaneous); LD50= 637 mg/kg (male mice, subcutaneous); LD50= 632 mg/kg (female mice, subcutaneous ...
Triethanolamine acetate | C8H19NO5 | CID 159752 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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BACKGROUND:The occurrence of liver cancer is higher in males than in females, and the incidence increases during aging. Signaling pathways regulated by retinoid × receptor a (RXRa) are involved in hepatocellular carcinogenesis ...
Long-term users of Elmiron have suffered a variety of side effects including a type of retina damage that could lead to permanent blindness if left untreated.
The Wetherall group has dedicated the company to help people who are wronged by the medicine Elmiron. Some side effects can be vomiting, headache but these Elmiron side effects are much worse. One of the side effects is a problem with the eyes. Elmiron® eye disease cases are becoming a thing that more and more people are getting, and the only way to stop that is with the help of the company Wetherall group. They are very good in this kind of cases and they can get you the justice that you deserve.. Suing the company that made you sick will not make you feel any better but you will get the money that you deserve. With the money that you got from a lawsuit, you can pay for medical bills and make you a little bit better. So, call them today and find out how they can help you.. ...
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Repaglinide caused an increased incidence in male rats of benign adenomas (tumors) of the thyroid and liver. No such effect was ... They bind to an ATP-dependent K+ (KATP) channel on the cell membrane of pancreatic beta cells in a similar manner to ... The rise in intracellular calcium leads to increased fusion of insulin granula in the cell membrane, and therefore increased ...
It is also known as a hepatoid tumor because of the similarity in cell shape to hepatocytes (liver cells). It is most commonly ... Adenomas are more common, making up 91 percent of perianal gland tumors in one study. Adenomas and adenocarcinomas look alike, ... Perianal gland adenomas are three times more likely to be found in intact male dogs than females, and perianal gland ... However, 95 percent of perianal gland adenomas will disappear after neutering the dog. Removing the tumor and neutering the dog ...
Water-soluble peptide hormones cannot penetrate the fatty cell membrane and only indirectly affect the nucleus of target cells ... However, the orally available forms of AAS may cause liver damage in high doses. Known possible side effects of AAS include: ... hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholestasis, peliosis hepatis; all mostly or exclusively with 17α-alkylated ... AAS also affect the number of cells that develop into fat-storage cells, by favouring cellular differentiation into muscle ...
... we found 5 liver cell adenomas, 5 focal nodular hyperplasias and 1 liver cell carcinoma. Brambilla G, Martelli A (December 2002 ... No abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed in women taking combined birth control pills containing CMA or CPA ... DNA adducts in the rat liver were also found after in vitro incubation with megestrol and chlormadinone, as well as after in ... However, the incidence of liver tumors in women in association with CMA-containing birth control pills appears to be similar to ...
Cell Stem Cell. 1 (6): 685-697. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2007.10.020. PMID 18371409. Liang Y, Diehn M, Watson N, Bollen AW, Aldape KD ... ID4 is not found in normal epitheliums nor adenomas of colorectal cancer. Hypermethylation of ID4 causes silencing of the gene ... It is also frequently observed in liver metastases of colorectal cancer specimens. Rett syndrome is an X linked ... diffuse B Cell lymphomas and lymphoid cell lines due to hypermethylation. In brain tumours, more specifically oligodendroglial ...
... cellular carcinomas and/or adenomas in the liver and mononuclear cell leukemia. In mice, oral administration of riddelliine led ... Riddelliine has also been observed to increase mutations in endothelial cells in the liver of rats. One study observed the ... These results suggest that the relatively high mutagenicity of riddelliine in rat liver endothelial cells may be partially ... The typical clinical picture is that of ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, veno-occlusive disease of the liver, and abnormal liver ...
After an exposure of 40 weeks to citrinin the rats also showed small adenomas. In mammalian cells in vitro, citrinin did not ... These results suggest the liver as origin for citrinin metabolism in male rats. A recent study of Ali et al. (2015) ... The ESC-B5 cells were treated with 10-30 μM CTN for 24 hours and a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability was found. Chan ... 2006) investigated the effect of CTN on cell viability for a HL-60 cell line. When exposed to 25 μM CTN for 24 hours, no ...
Cell Physiology. 283 (5): C1522-9. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00115.2002. PMID 12372813. Singla A, Kumar A, Priyamvada S, Tahniyath M ... Chloride anion exchanger, also known as down-regulated in adenoma (protein DRA), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 293 (5): G923-34. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00029.2007. PMID 17761837. Sandal NN, Marcker KA ( ... Protein DRA is a membrane protein in intestinal cells. It is an anion exchanger and a member of the sulfate anion transporter ( ...
And because cells with this mutant form of the Gs protein continue to secrete GH, this could result in the overgrowth of teeth ... Growth hormone- secreting adenomas will contain a mutant form of the Gs protein; this protein is a stimulatory regulator of ... IGF-1 is produced principally by the liver, but also by the tissues in the body. Growth hormone will initially exhibit insulin- ... Cells containing this mutant form of the Gs protein will continue to secrete growth hormone even in the absence of the growth ...
Rat studies investigating the carcinogenicity of PFASs reported significant correlation with liver adenomas, Leydig cell tumors ... between elevated C8 exposure and liver adenomas or pancreatic acinar cell tumors; however, a probable link[vague] was found ... Sakr CJ, Leonard RC, Kreckmann KH, Slade MD, Cullen MR (August 2007). "Longitudinal study of serum lipids and liver enzymes in ... Two mechanisms have been proposed by which PFOA could cause Leydig cell tumors. Both mechanisms start by proposing that PROA ...
1 cell type) Stage of disease Ill health Spread (diffuse) "Go look for the adenoma please": Tropic hormones affected by growth ... "Muscles LIVe fast": Leucine Isoleucine Valine "The fat (fat-soluble vitamins) cat lives in the ADEK (vitamins A, D, E, and K ... GERM: Distension: liver problems, bowel obstruction Rigidity (board like): bleeding Guarding: muscular tension when touched ... BLAB: Bone Liver Adrenals Brain ABCDEF: Achalasia Barret's esophagus Corrosive esophagitis Diverticuliis Esophageal web ...
... liver, prostate, meningioma of brain, pituitary adenoma, glioblastoma and breast cancer. Netrin-3 appears to be specifically ... The luminal cells secrete netrin 1, which binds to the receptor neogenin (a homologue of DCC) on the cap cells. This allows for ... Also, the migration of adult neural progenitor cell and adult spinal cord progenitor cells to the spine is netrin 1 dependent. ... Netrins also act as growth factors, encouraging cell growth activities in target cells. Mice deficient in netrin fail to form ...
... liver abscess, amebic MeSH C06.552.697.040 - adenoma, liver cell MeSH C06.552.697.160 - carcinoma, hepatocellular MeSH C06.552. ... adenoma, liver cell MeSH C06.301.623.160 - carcinoma, hepatocellular MeSH C06.301.623.460 - liver neoplasms, experimental MeSH ... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C06.689.667.249.500 - insulinoma MeSH C06.689.667.500 - carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C06.689.667.500.124 ... liver abscess, amebic MeSH C06.552.597.758 - liver abscess, pyogenic MeSH C06.552.630.380 - liver cirrhosis, alcoholic MeSH ...
... as in hepatic adenoma (a benign tumor of hepatocytes, or liver cells). Teratomas contain many cell types such as skin, nerve, ... The cells in tubular adenomas, like most tumors that frequently progress to cancer, show certain abnormalities of cell ... Adenomas are benign tumors of gland-forming cells, and are usually specified further by their cell or organ of origin, ... Benign neoplasms are typically but not always composed of cells which bear a strong resemblance to a normal cell type in their ...
Renal cell carcinoma or liver tumors, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and endocrine abnormalities including pheochromocytoma and ... adrenal adenoma with Cushing's syndrome. People whose testosterone levels are high because of the use of anabolic steroids, ... It can be due to an increase in the number of red blood cells ("absolute polycythemia") or to a decrease in the volume of ... The overproduction of red blood cells may be due to a primary process in the bone marrow (a so-called myeloproliferative ...
... or biliary cystadenoma is a slow-growing tumour arising from bile ducts of the liver. The presence of endocrine cells in the ... Cystadenoma (or "cystoma") is a type of cystic adenoma. When malignant, it is called cystadenocarcinoma. When not otherwise ...
Liver cell adenomatosis differs from hepatic adenomas by its definition of more than 10 hepatic adenomas that are in both liver ... Liver cell adenomatosis is associated with liver dysfunction and higher rates of bleeding than hepatic adenomas alone. ... Liver tumors (also known as hepatic tumors) are abnormal growth of liver cells on or in the liver. Several distinct types of ... Available evidence suggests that bleeding occurs in approximately 63% of patients with liver cell adenomatosis. Liver cell ...
... they cannot penetrate cell membranes. Thus, GH exerts some of its effects by binding to receptors on target cells, where it ... The liver is a major target organ of GH for this process and is the principal site of IGF-1 production. IGF-1 has growth- ... Eventually, the adenoma may become large enough to cause headaches, impair vision by pressure on the optic nerves, or cause ... cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals. It is thus important in human development. GH also ...
Inhibiting FACL4 leads to inhibition of human liver tumor cells, as marked by an increased level of apoptosis. It has also been ... FACL4 up-regulation appears to occur during the transformation from the cancer from adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Additionally, ... 2007). "Regulation of cell growth by fatty acid-CoA ligase 4 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells". Exp. Mol. Med. 39 (4): ... The enzyme controls the level of this fatty acid in cells; because AA is known to induce apoptosis (cell specific), the enzyme ...
... as found in human colon and liver cancer cells. Besides sphingomyelin, ENPP7 can also degrade and inactivate platelet- ... Of particular interest is that the activity of ENPP7 is significantly decreased in human colorectal adenoma and carcinoma as ... can inhibit cell proliferation and stimulate cell differentiation and apoptosis. Animal studies showed that supplement of SM or ... The enzyme expressed in human liver is released in the bile and delivered to the intestine. The activity of ENPP7 depends ...
This classification was based on animal test data that showed an increase in the incidence of liver adenomas (benign tumour) ... of the cells of the adrenal cortex. The US EPA has classified dicofol as a Group C, possible human carcinogen. There is limited ... and combined liver adenomas and carcinomas in male mice. Reproductive effects in rat offspring have been observed only at doses ... Poisoning may affect the liver, kidneys or the central nervous system. Very severe cases may result in convulsions, coma, or ...
... (also known as hepatic adenoma or hepadenoma) is a rare, benign liver tumor. It most commonly occurs in ... Cells resemble normal hepatocytes and are traversed by blood vessels but lack portal tracts or central veins. Micrograph of ... Hepatic adenoma is usually detected by imaging, typically an ultrasound or CT, as a hyperenhancing liver nodule. Given that ... Since hepatic adenomas can be large (8-15 cm), patients may notice a palpable mass. However, hepatic adenomas are usually ...
... between the FNH and surrounding liver except when there is marked liver steatosis that reduces the attenuation of the liver, ... This tumour was once often resected because it was difficult to distinguish from hepatic adenoma, but with modern multiphase ... Other patterns include telangiectatic, hyperplastic-adenomatous, and lesions with focal large-cell dysplasia. Rarely, these ... Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign tumor of the liver (hepatic tumor), which is the second most prevalent tumor of the ...
... juxtaglomerular cell tumor), and renal adenoma. People with suspected kidney cancer should also have their kidney function ... liver or bone involvement could result in abnormal liver enzymes, electrolyte abnormalities, or anemia. A urine sample should ... The cells that line the renal pelvis are called transitional cells, and are also sometimes called urothelial cells. The ... Other rare types of kidney cancers that can arise from the urothelial cells of the renal pelvis are squamous cell carcinoma and ...
Adrenocortical adenoma Renal cell carcinoma Pheochromocytoma Hepatocellular carcinoma Adrenocortical carcinomas are most ... Invasion of adjacent structures such as kidney, vena cava, liver, and retroperitoneal lymph nodes are also common. On MRI, it ... On microscopic examination, the tumor usually displays sheets of atypical cells with some resemblance to the cells of the ... Also, a loss occurs of activity of the p57kip2 gene product in virilizing adenomas and adrenal cortical carcinomas. In contrast ...
Flat to low cuboidal cells, resembling mesothelial cells, in the lining interspersed between columnar cells in the same area is ... Cystadenomas in liver are often confused with hydatid cyst as their appearance on various imaging techniques is nearly same. ... It is a type of cystic adenoma (cystadenoma). Mucinous cystadenomata may arise in a number of locations; however, mucinous ... Both are multiloculated cystic neoplasms and are lined by a single layer of tall columnar cells with a clear basal nucleus and ...
Certain benign liver tumors, such as hepatocellular adenoma, may sometimes be associated with coexisting malignant HCC. ... giant cell), and clear cell. In well-differentiated forms, tumor cells resemble hepatocytes, form trabeculae, cords, and nests ... To maintain liver function, residual liver volume should exceed 25% of total liver volume in a noncirrhotic liver, greater than ... Liver transplantation, replacing the diseased liver with a cadaveric or a living donor liver, plays an increasing role in ...
Older theories proposing a non-neoplastic origin include the following: Adrenal cortical cells, or other cells within the ... They may also occur in other sites, such as the mediastinum, the liver and the gastrointestinal tract. There is no gender ... ISBN 978-0-443-06685-6. Ong K, Tan KB, Putti TC (July 2007). "Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma" ( ... The blood-forming cells may arise by differentiation of cells within the capillaries of the adrenal gland. Myelolipoma simply ...
Liver adenoma or hepatocellular carcinoma in MODY type 3 Renal cysts, rudimentary or bicornuate uterus, vaginal aplasia, ... The islet cell autoantibodies are absent in MODY in at least some populations (Japanese, Britons). Persistence of a low insulin ... The recognised forms of MODY are all due to ineffective insulin production or release by pancreatic beta cells. Several of the ... found that about one quarter of Central European MODY patients are positive for islet cell autoantibodies (GABA and IA2A). ...
Hepatic adenomas are a rare benign tumour of the liver, which may present with hepatomegaly or other symptoms. Breast adenomas ... Biopsy usually confirms the growth to be an adenoma, but, sometimes, excision at surgery is required, especially when the cells ... An adenoma is a benign tumor of epithelial tissue with glandular origin, glandular characteristics, or both. Adenomas can grow ... Over time adenomas may transform to become malignant, at which point they are called adenocarcinomas. Most adenomas do not ...
... synthesis occurs in liver cells, which synthesize primary bile acids (cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in humans ... including adenomas and adenocarcinomas (cancers), unlike mice fed a control diet producing one-tenth the level of colonic DCA ... Prior to secreting any of the bile acids (primary or secondary, see below), liver cells conjugate them with either glycine or ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 318 (3): G554-G573. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00223.2019. PMC 7099488. PMID 31984784.. ...
F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... Summary: Associated Cancers: colorectal and ovarian cancer; pilomatrixoma; medulloblastoma; pleomorphic adenomas; malignant ... "Coactivation of AKT and β-catenin in mice rapidly induces formation of lipogenic liver tumors". Cancer Res. 71 (7): 2718-27. ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ...
Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... Living brain tissue has a pink tint in color on the outside (gray matter), and nearly complete white on the inside (white ... Pituitary adenomas ("pituitary tumours") are sometimes incorrectly referred to as a brain tumours.[68][69] This is perhaps ... Necrotic cells send the wrong chemical signals which prevent phagocytes from disposing of the dead cells, leading to a buildup ...
... distributes readily in high concentrations into immune cells, has antimicrobial and natural killer cell activities, ... Recent orders of birds and most mammals make ascorbic acid in their liver.[115] A number of species of passerine birds also do ... and E and the risk of colorectal adenoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies". European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 22 ... Cell. 132 (6): 1039-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.042. PMID 18358815. Lay summary - Science Daily (March 21, 2008).. ...
Targeting double-stranded breaks increases the probability that cells will undergo cell death. Cancer cells are generally less ... When treating liver malignancies and metastases, it is possible for collateral radiation to cause gastric, stomach or duodenal ... Fractionation allows normal cells time to recover, while tumor cells are generally less efficient in repair between fractions. ... Single-strand DNA damage is then passed on through cell division; damage to the cancer cells' DNA accumulates, causing them to ...
"Nuclear Chemistry: Half-Lives and Radioactive Dating - For Dummies". Dummies.com. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2012.. ... Due to its mode of beta decay, iodine-131 is notable for causing mutation and death in cells that it penetrates, and other ... For example, children treated with moderate dose of 131I for thyroid adenomas had a detectable increase in thyroid cancer, but ... This occurs because when the radioactive iodine destroys the thyroid cells, they can release thyroid hormone into the blood ...
... chief of which are the liver, fat cells and muscle cells. The liver is inhibited from producing glucose, taking it up instead, ... over-production of parathyroid hormone by a parathyroid adenoma resulting in the typically features of hyperparathyroidism, ... This inhibits the uptake of glucose from the blood by the liver, fats cells and muscle. Instead the liver is strongly ... and then stored in those fat cells together with the VLDL-derived triglycerides that were made in the liver. Muscle cells also ...
Liver. *malignant: Hepatocellular carcinoma *Fibrolamellar. *Hepatoblastoma. *benign: Hepatocellular adenoma. *Cavernous ... Histologically, it forms clusters of goblet cells containing mucin with a minor admixture of Paneth cells and endocrine cells. ... Goblet cell carcinoid[edit]. Main article: Goblet cell carcinoid. This is considered to be a hybrid between an exocrine and ... Carcinoid (also carcinoid tumor) is a slow-growing[1] type of neuroendocrine tumor originating in the cells of the ...
"Role of endothelial cell injury in the spectrum of azathioprine-induced liver disease after renal transplant: light microscopy ... hepatocellular adenoma, and hepatocarcinoma[8] ... Other cystic conditions of liverEdit. *Polycystic liver disease ... Sleisenger, Marvin (2006). Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company. ... Some consider both patterns to be one process, initiated by focal necrosis of liver parenchyma, observed in parenchymal type, ...
The differential diagnosis of a renal tumor in a young patient with hypertension includes Juxtaglomerular cell tumor, Wilms' ... can also damage the liver, pancreas, and rarely, the heart and brain.[1][2][3][4] It can be autosomal dominant or autosomal ... Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas]". Endokrynologia Polska ... Méndez GP, Klock C, Nosé V (December 2008). "Juxtaglomerular Cell Tumor of the Kidney: Case Report and Differential Diagnosis ...
The liver damage can consist of damage to liver cells, hepatic sinusoidal syndrome (obstruction of the veins in the liver), ... The most common medications affect mainly the fast-dividing cells of the body, such as blood cells and the cells lining the ... M - mitosis; where the cell divides to produce two daughter cells that continue the cell cycle. ... cells that produce white and red blood cells) are destroyed, meaning allogenic or autologous bone marrow cell transplants are ...
These can include the bones, lungs, liver, and/or brain.[16]. Treatment[edit]. Surgery has traditionally played a limited role ... It is characterised by the presence of cancer cells in the subdermal lymphatics on skin biopsy. Consequently, IBC is always ... caveolin-1 and -2 are overexpressed and may contribute to tumour cell motility[13] ... 2 in cell lines and in human samples of inflammatory breast cancer". Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 95 (3): 219-28. doi: ...
White cell scan. indium-111 & technetium-99m. 171 & 245. 67 hours. in vitro labelled leucocytes. 18. 360. 60. 64 x 64. 30 ... where the technique is useful in locating ectopic parathyroid adenomas which may not be in their usual locations in the thyroid ... in part because they are able to use longer-lived more easily obtained radioisotopes than PET. ...
Schumacker PT (September 2006). "Reactive oxygen species in cancer cells: live by the sword, die by the sword". Cancer Cell. 10 ... antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention of colorectal adenoma". Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 24 ... Rhee SG (June 2006). "Cell signaling. H2O2, a necessary evil for cell signaling". Science. 312 (5782): 1882-3. doi:10.1126/ ... Many polyphenols may have non-antioxidant roles in minute concentrations that affect cell-to-cell signaling, receptor ...
... while a malignancy arising from primitive liver precursor cells is called a hepatoblastoma and a cancer arising from fat cells ... "Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: a randomized clinical trial". JAMA. 297 (21): 2351-59. doi:10.1001/jama. ... In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be ... Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and ...
In addition, miR-181 family members were highly expressed in the embryonic liver and isolated hepatic stem cells. Especially, ... Mir-210 has been suggested as a useful biomarker to distinguish adrenocortical carcinoma from adrenocortical adenoma. in ... "miR-181a is an intrinsic modulator of T cell sensitivity and selection". Cell. 129 (1): 147-61. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.03.008 ... miR-181a is essential for the survival of Purkinje cells and its absence leads to a slow degeneration of these cells. It has ...
Badea, R.; Ioanitescu, Simona (2012). Liver Tumors. doi:10.5772/31137. ISBN 978-953-51-0036-2. .. , (CC BY 3.0) ... B-flow is a mode that digitally highlights moving reflectors (mainly red blood cells) while suppressing the signals from the ... A similar localization procedure with methylene blue, can be done to locate parathyroid adenomas at surgery. ... In abdominal sonography, the solid organs of the abdomen such as the pancreas, aorta, inferior vena cava, liver, gall bladder, ...
Ultrasound of the abdomen and blood tests evaluating liver function are often performed to rule out metastasis to the liver. ... Colectomy is usually advised when more than 20 or 30 adenomas or multiple adenomas with advanced histology have developed". " ... to APC-mutated cells are much more likely to lead to cancer than they would in non-mutated epithelial cells. ... Colectomy usually advised when more than 20 or 30 adenomas or multiple adenomas with advanced histology have developed." ...
Liver. *malignant: Hepatocellular carcinoma *Fibrolamellar. *Hepatoblastoma. *benign: Hepatocellular adenoma. *Cavernous ... LHCGR (Luteinizing hormone insensitivity, Leydig cell hypoplasia, Male-limited precocious puberty). *FSHR (Follicle-stimulating ... as opposed to adenoma for example), not to the age of the affected person.[1] While the majority of the polyps found in ...
... and increased pancreatic islet-cell adenoma in male rats.[8] In reproductive toxicity studies performed in rats and rabbits, no ... Adult consumption of more than 85 ml of concentrated product can lead to corrosive esophageal burns and kidney or liver damage ... Workers exposed to glyphosate were about twice as likely to get B cell lymphoma.[7] A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis ... of the same studies found a correlation between occupational exposure to glyphosate formulations and increased risk of B cell ...
If a human could live long enough, it is inevitable that at least one of his or her cells would eventually accumulate a set of ... Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: a randomized clinical trial»։ JAMA 297 (21): 2351-59։ June 2007։ PMID ... 28,0 28,1 «Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation»։ Cell 144 (5): 646-74։ March 2011։ PMID 21376230։ doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Interaction of tumor cells with the microenvironment»։ Cell Communication and Signaling 9 (18): 18։ September 2011։ PMC 3180438 ...
Legend: → tumor ←, ★ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver. ... "Cell Phones and Cancer Risk - National Cancer Institute". Cancer.gov. 2013-05-08. Retrieved 2013-12-15.. ... "Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: a randomized clinical trial". JAMA. 297 (21): 2351-9. doi:10.1001/jama. ... Hanahan, Douglas; Weinberg, Robert A. (January 7, 2000). "The hallmarks of cancer". Cell. 100 (1): 57-70. doi:10.1016/S0092- ...
This promotes further liver damage.[35] Non-parenchymal cells such as Kupffer cells, fat storing stellate cells, and leukocytes ... Hepatocellular carcinoma, angiosarcoma, and liver adenomas are the ones usually reported. Causes:. Vinyl chloride, combined ... Toxic liver disease. Toxin induced liver disease. Drug induced liver disease. Drug induced liver damage. Drug induced liver ... but overdose is the most common cause of drug-induced liver disease and acute liver failure worldwide.[10] Damage to the liver ...
Usually, severe DNA damage leads to programmed cell death, but if the programmed cell death pathway is damaged, then the cell ... Giovannucci E, Martínez ME (1996). "Tobacco, colorectal cancer, and adenomas: A review of the evidence". Journal of the ... "Liver fluke induces cholangiocarcinoma". PLoS Medicine. 4 (7): 1148-1155. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040201. PMC 1913093 . PMID ... Cancer is any disease in which normal cells are damaged and do not undergo programmed cell death as fast as they divide via ...
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment -Patient Version (PDQ®). NCI , 2015. május 12. [2016. február 29-i dátummal az eredetiből ... Papilloma/Carcinoma · Adenoma/adenocarcinoma · Lágyrész-szarkóma · Melanoma · Fibroma/fibrosarcoma · Lipóma/liposarcoma · ... Schiller JH, Vidaver RM, Novello S, Brahmer J, Monroe L: Living with a Diagnosis of Lung Cancer. [National Lung Cancer ... January). „Radiation therapy in the management of limited small cell lung cancer: when, where, and how much?" ([halott link]). ...
Sheridan AM, Bonventre JV (2000). «Cell biology and molecular mechanisms of injury in ischemic acute renal failure». Current ... Kameda K, Itoh N, Nakayama H, Kato Y, Ihda S (1995). «Frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA) in pituitary adenoma ... Narayanan V, Gaudiani JL, Harris RH, Mehler PS (2010). «Liver function test abnormalities in anorexia nervosa--cause or effect ... clinical findings and structural-functional synergies with cell membrane phospholipids» (PDF). Alternative Medicine Review. 12 ...
Any resulting errors in DNA repair may result in cell death or a cancerous transformation of the cell.[8]:39-50 ... For comparison, women in the general population have an 84% chance of living to age 70. ... Both BRCA genes are tumor suppressor genes that produce proteins that are used by the cell in an enzymatic pathway that makes ... Because humans have a diploid genome, each cell has two copies of the gene (one from each biological parent). Typically only ...
Sebaceous adenoma. *Malignant: Acinic cell carcinoma. *Adenocarcinoma. *Adenoid cystic carcinoma. *Carcinoma ex pleomorphic ... Bhagwat, V. M.; Ramachandran, B. V. (1975-09-15). "Malathion A and B esterases of mouse liver-I". Biochemical Pharmacology. 24 ... An odontoblast cell showing odontoblast process (not in proportion - in reality this process is far longer than the body of the ...
There is also a non-endocrine cell population called folliculostellate cells. Intermediate[edit]. The intermediate lobe ... Pituitary adenomas, noncancerous tumors that occur in the pituitary gland.. All of the functions of the pituitary gland can be ... Endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary are controlled by regulatory hormones released by parvocellular neurosecretory cells ... The posterior pituitary hormones are synthesized by cell bodies in the hypothalamus. The magnocellular neurosecretory cells, of ...
Liver. *malignant: Hepatocellular carcinoma *Fibrolamellar. *Hepatoblastoma. *benign: Hepatocellular adenoma. *Cavernous ... Nagata J, Kijima H, Hasumi K, Suzuki T, Shirai T, Mine T (June 2003). "Adenocarcinoma and multiple adenomas of the large ... intestine, associated with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome". Dig Liver Dis. 35 (6): 434-8. doi:10.1016/s1590-8658(03)00160-9. PMID ... Squamous cell carcinoma. *Adenocarcinoma. Stomach. *Gastric carcinoma. *Signet ring cell carcinoma. *Gastric lymphoma *MALT ...
Living Donor Liver Transplant: What Are the Risks?. The risk of dying as a result of a living donor liver segment removal is ... Liver Cancer Treatment - Animation. Liver Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells in the liver. The present section provides ... Fatty Liver Disease: A Growing Health Problem in India. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of liver ... Current Treatments for Liver Cancer. Current Treatments for Liver Cancer (also known as hepatoma or hepatocellular carcinoma) ...
Hepato-biliary Pathology: Liver: Liver cell adenoma. Hepato-biliary Pathology: Liver: Liver cell adenoma. ...
Investigational Drugs with Clinical Trials for: Adenoma, Liver Cell. ➠ Get the DrugPatentWatch Daily Briefing. » See Plans and ...
Liver Cell" by people in this website by year, and whether "Adenoma, Liver Cell" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Adenoma, Liver Cell" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Adenoma, Liver Cell*Adenoma, Liver Cell. *Adenomas, Liver Cell. *Liver Cell Adenoma ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Adenoma, Liver Cell" by people in Profiles. ...
Bisceglia M, Gatta A, Tomezzoli A, Donataccio M. Multiple spontaneous liver cell adenomas of different types (liver ... Liver cell adenoma: a multicenter analysis of risk factors for rupture and malignancy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009 Mar. 16(3):640-8. [ ... Edmondson HA, Henderson B, Benton B. Liver-cell adenomas associated with use of oral contraceptives. N Engl J Med. 1976 Feb 26 ... Regression of liver cell adenomas associated with oral contraceptives. Ann Int Med. 1977. 86(2):180-182. ...
Bisceglia M, Gatta A, Tomezzoli A, Donataccio M. Multiple spontaneous liver cell adenomas of different types (liver ... Liver cell adenoma: a multicenter analysis of risk factors for rupture and malignancy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009 Mar. 16(3):640-8. [ ... Edmondson HA, Henderson B, Benton B. Liver-cell adenomas associated with use of oral contraceptives. N Engl J Med. 1976 Feb 26 ... Regression of liver cell adenomas associated with oral contraceptives. Ann Int Med. 1977. 86(2):180-182. ...
Liver cell adenoma (LCA) is the most important benign epithelial tumour of the liver, with an incidence of approximately 3/1 ... Methods: After microdissection, DNA from 25 liver cell adenomas and corresponding normal liver tissue were analysed for INK4- ... Analysis of p14ARF and p16INK4a in three liver cell adenomas (case Nos 1, 10, and 11; same patients as in table 1). (A) p14ARF ... Results: Methylation of p14ARF was found in 3/25 cases (12%) and alterations in p16INK4a occurred in 6/25 liver cell adenomas ( ...
As primary malignant liver cancer is very rare in this country, any effect due to oral contraceptives should be apparent in ... Overall liver cancer remains an extremely uncommon cause of death in developed countries, but it will be particularly important ... Oral contraceptive-associated liver cell adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Cytomorphology and mechanism of malignant ... Forman, D., Doll, R. & Peto, R. Trends in mortality from carcinoma of the liver and the use of oral contraceptives. Br J Cancer ...
... are also known as hepatic adenomas or liver cell adenomas. They are rare, benign tumors of presumable epithelial origin and ... Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) are also known as hepatic adenomas or liver cell adenomas. They are rare, benign tumors of ... Bisceglia M, Gatta A, Tomezzoli A, Donataccio M. Multiple spontaneous liver cell adenomas of different types (liver ... Liver cell adenoma: a multicenter analysis of risk factors for rupture and malignancy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009 Mar. 16(3):640-8. [ ...
What is Adenoma of the adrenal gland? Meaning of Adenoma of the adrenal gland medical term. What does Adenoma of the adrenal ... Looking for online definition of Adenoma of the adrenal gland in the Medical Dictionary? Adenoma of the adrenal gland ... liver cell adenoma hepatocellular a.. macrofollicular adenoma a follicular adenoma composed of large follicles filled with ... nonsecreting adenoma (nonsecretory adenoma) endocrine-inactive adenoma.. null-cell adenoma a pituitary adenoma whose cells give ...
What is Hurthle cell adenoma? Meaning of Hurthle cell adenoma medical term. What does Hurthle cell adenoma mean? ... Looking for online definition of Hurthle cell adenoma in the Medical Dictionary? Hurthle cell adenoma explanation free. ... hepatocellular adenoma a large, fleshy, hypervascular tumor of the liver occurring chiefly in women of childbearing age and ... nonsecreting adenoma (nonsecretory adenoma) endocrine-inactive adenoma.. null-cell adenoma a pituitary adenoma whose cells give ...
The clarification of pathogenesis and medical treatment of functional pituitary adenoma using iPS cells. Research Project ... Presentation] The essential role of GH/IGF-I in liver.2015. *. Author(s). Takahashi Y. ... We have further established a protocol for the differentiation from human iPS cells into pituitary in vitro. We have published ... Journal Article] A diagnostic pitfall in IgG4-related hypophysitis: Infiltration of IgG4-positive cells in the pituitary of ...
Regression of liver cell adenomas associated with oral contraceptives. Ann Intern Med 1977;86:180-182. ... Liver adenomatosis. An entity distinct from liver adenoma? Gastroenterology 1985;89:1132-1138. ... several adenomas are detected in the same patient; when ,10 nodules are identified in the liver it is called liver adenomatosis ... Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a rare, benign, liver tumor frequently associated with oral contraception (1,2). HCA usually ...
Liver Cell Adenoma or Hepatocellular Carcinoma?. Recently, LCAs with typical backgrounds of the patients are diagnosed by ... Enlargement of the liver due to glycogen accumulation is the clinical hallmark of the disease. Diet management is the mainstay ... Type I glycogen storage disease is caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase in liver, kidney, and intestinal ... Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles. This stored glycogen is normally broken down into glucose when a person does not ...
These are classified as liver cell adenomas or bile duct adenomas. In addition, a third type of tumor occurs. This lesion is ... MIXED ADENOMA (HAMARTOMA) OF THE LIVER: REPORT OF A CASE(MIXED ADENOMA (HAMARTOMA) OF THE LIVER: REPORT OF A CASE*) ROBERT M. ... MIXED ADENOMA (HAMARTOMA) OF THE LIVER: REPORT OF A CASE(MIXED ADENOMA (HAMARTOMA) OF THE LIVER: REPORT OF A CASE*). Ann Intern ... Primary benign liver tumors may arise from either the liver cells or the bile duct epithelium. ...
liver. angiosarcoma. mammary gland. anaplastic and squamous metaplasia. lung. bronchioaveolar adenoma. liver. hepatic cell ... liver enlargement, liver function abnormalities, increased sulphbromophthalein retention liver damage, serum enzyme ... Other manifestations may include liver enlargement and liver function abnormalities. In adults, untreated angiosarcoma of the ... 4 all caused angiosarcoma of the liver and other cancers in animals. Angiosarcoma of the liver was induced in rats exposed to ...
Two types of hepatic adenoma have been identified, including tumors of bile duct origin and tumors of liver cell origin. ... Hepatic adenoma is a rare, benign tumor of the liver. ... Two case reports of childhood liver cell adenomas harboring ... Two types of hepatic adenoma have been identified: tumors of bile duct origin and tumors of liver cell origin. Hepatic adenomas ... encoded search term (Hepatocellular Adenoma (Hepatic Adenoma) Imaging) and Hepatocellular Adenoma (Hepatic Adenoma) Imaging ...
... is a relatively uncommon benign liver neoplasm that is typically seen in obese women of childbearing age who are on long-term ... Hepatocellular cell adenomas, spontaneous liver rupture, and oral contraceptives. Arch Surg. 1975;110(5):548-557. ... Semin Liver Dis. 2011;31(1):91-103.. *Bioulac-Sage P, Rebouissou S, Thomas C, et al. Hepatocellular adenoma subtype ... Hepatocellular adenoma (HA) is a relatively uncommon benign liver neoplasm that is typically seen in obese women of ...
Pancreatic Alpha Cell Adenoma Pancreatic Beta Cell Adenoma Pancreatic Delta Cell Adenoma Pancreatic G-Cell Adenoma Pancreatic ... liver, carcinoid, or islet cell cancer. Temsirolimus may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed ... Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Endometrial, Ovarian, Liver, Carcinoid, or Islet Cell Cancer. ... Prior liver transplant with evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease. *Patients on an active liver transplant list and ...
Adenoma. Liver Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Experimental. Adenoma, Liver Cell. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental. Neoplasms, Glandular and ... Hepatoma Liver Neoplasms Adenoma, Liver Cell Carcinoma, Hepatocellular Liver Neoplasms, Experimental Drug: TRC 105 Drug: ... The outcome of liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States between 1988 and 2001: 5- ... It works by slowing the spread of cancer cells, but it does not fully prevent the cancer from growing again. Researchers are ...
These findings were compatible with those of liver cell adenoma. Although differention between liver cell adenoma and well- ... These findings were compatible with those of liver cell adenoma. Although differention between liver cell adenoma and well- ... These findings were compatible with those of liver cell adenoma. Although differention between liver cell adenoma and well- ... These findings were compatible with those of liver cell adenoma. Although differention between liver cell adenoma and well- ...
Adenoma Liver Cell, Follow-Up Studies, MRI, Pregnancy Persistent URL. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2019.09.011, hdl.handle.net/ ... Growth of hepatocellular adenoma during pregnancy: A prospective study. Publication. Publication. Journal of Hepatology ... Growth of the adenoma (defined as an increase of ,20%) was closely monitored with ultrasound examinations throughout pregnancy ... Lay summary: The presence of hepatocellular adenoma in pregnant women requires special consideration, as it carries the risk of ...
They also represent the cells-of-origin of adenomas in the gut (25) and within adenomas Lgr5 stem cells act as adenoma stem ... stem cells drive self-renewal in the stomach and build long-lived gastric units in vitro.. Cell Stem Cell 6: 25-36 (2010) ... Long-term culture of genome-stable bipotent stem cells from adult human liver.. Cell 160: 299-312 (2015) ... the Paneth cells, serve as crypt niche cells by providing Wnt, Notch and EGF signals (30). By time-resolved single cell ...
... deficiency is an X-linked recessive disorder that leads to hyperammonemia and liver damage. Hepatocellular adenoma in OTC ... L. Barthelmes and I. S. Tait, "Liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis," HPB (Oxford), vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 186-196, 2005 ... Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a benign neoplasm of liver, with an incidence of 3/1,000,000 per year in Europe and North ... The explant liver from our patient with OTC deficiency contains a hepatocellular adenoma. (a) The tumor is a well-circumscribed ...
... mean number of TdT-labeled apoptotic cells per crypt was calculated for each patient sample by investigators blinded to adenoma ... Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2007;293:G995-1003. OpenUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ... Adenomas were confirmed and defined according to standard pathologic criteria. Subjects with one or more adenomas were ... Differences in continuous or categorical variables between adenoma cases and adenoma-free controls were compared by Student t ...
These observations in H508 cells had been verified in another individual cancer of the colon cell range (HT-29 cells) [49]. ... Although CD8 T-cell numbers greatly increased in islets of all infected mice, IFN-Cproducing anti-IGRP CD8 T cells were only ... Resultant gene transcription promotes cell proliferation and cell buy Trichodesmine success (inhibition of apoptosis), both ... In H508 cells that co-express CHRM3 and EGFR, bile acids promote cell proliferation. (2) Bile acids usually do not alter ...
Cortical adenomas. • Basal cell squamous skin tumors. In female mammals there were cancers of the lung, liver, thymus, stomach ... Adenoma cancer in the pituitary gland. • Glioma tumors in the brain. • Reticular cell sarcomas in the heart. • Malignant tumors ... Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas are the two most common forms, both which have been identified by Monsanto with ... Salivary mandibular reticular cell carcinoma. • Metastatic sarcomas of the lymph gland. • Prostate carcinoma. • Cancer of the ...
... pancreatic islet cell adenomas (p,0.01 ), neoplastic nodules of the liver (p,0.05), and mammary gland fibroadenomas (p,0.001) ... commercial-grade TDI caused pancreatic acinar cell adenomas in male rats (p,0.05); ... The pancreas and liver were the principal sites of tumor induction in male and female rats and in female mice treated with TDI ... 2,4-TDA induced liver tumors in male and female rats and in female mice, and it induced mammary gland tumors in female rats and ...
... is a transcription factor expressed predominantly in the liver among other organs. Structurally, it contains POU-homeodomain ... hepatocellular adenoma (HA), and a more specific HNF-1α-inactivated human hepatocellular adenoma (H-HCAs). Abundant clinical ... It was derived that Y-chromosome/HNF1-positive cells in the liver validate the existence of a cell fusion process but BMSCs do ... Expression of hepatic transcription factors during liver development and oval cell differentiation. J Cell Biol. 1994;126(1): ...
KEY WORDS: Adenoma, liver cell - Magnetic resonance imaging - Molecular biology - Immunohistochemistry. top of page ... Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a rare hepatic benign neoplasm that occurs more frequently in young women (male-to-female ratio ... The aim of our work is to describe MR appearance of hepatocellular adenomas, focusing on each genetic and histopathological ... Magnetic resonance imaging in characterization of hepatocellular adenomas: correlation with the new histopathological-molecular ...
  • Tumors of the liver and biliary tract. (medscape.com)
  • [ 5 ] Currently, benign liver tumors may be detected more frequently though, owing to increased routine use of medical imaging. (medscape.com)
  • Adenomas were classified according to the genotype of the tumors, such as the finding of mutations in HNF1A , in CTNNB1 -activating β-catenin and/or in the interleukin-6 transducer of signal ( IL6ST ) activating gp130 ( 4 - 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In these tumors, downregulation of LFABP1 (encoding liver fatty acid-binding protein), a gene positively regulated by HNF1A , may contribute to this phenotype through impaired fatty acid trafficking together with an aberrant promotion of lipogenesis ( 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The direct cloning of multiple individual cells from primary tumors allows molecular and functional analysis of tumor heterogeneity with an unprecedented resolution (54). (hubrecht.eu)
  • Primary benign tumors of the liver, other than angiomas, are rare. (annals.org)
  • Primary benign liver tumors may arise from either the liver cells or the bile duct epithelium. (annals.org)
  • The systemic nature of TDI carcinogenicity was demonstrated by the appearance of tumors at multiple sites (pancreas, liver, skin, mammary glands, and circulatory system). (cdc.gov)
  • When rats and mice were exposed orally to TDA, tumors were induced in the livers, skin, and mammary glands of both species. (cdc.gov)
  • Two types of hepatic adenoma have been identified: tumors of bile duct origin and tumors of liver cell origin. (medscape.com)
  • Infections, inflammatory reactions and various types of noncancerous and cancerous tumors can appear as spots on the liver. (livestrong.com)
  • The term metastatic liver cancer, or liver 'mets,' describes liver tumors arising from the spread of cancer from another location. (livestrong.com)
  • This means that many adenoma tumors are identified as incidental findings in patients with no liver symptoms. (liverdoctor.com)
  • The clinical importance and natural history of these incidental adenoma tumors is not fully understood, and there is a need for optimal management strategies in such patients. (liverdoctor.com)
  • Increases in intragastric pH may result in hypergastrinemia and enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and increased chromogranin A levels which may interfere with diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatocellular adenoma is one of the benign tumors which may occur in the liver. (springer.com)
  • The surgical procedure and IOPTH measurement are usually performed on patients with parathyroid adenomas (benign tumors). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Several types of non-cancerous (benign) tumors can also form in the liver. (uclahealth.org)
  • Liver tumors (also known as hepatic tumors) are abnormal growth of liver cells on or in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several distinct types of tumors can develop in the liver because the liver is made up of various cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liver tumors can be classified as benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) growths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liver tumors can be broadly classified as benign or malignant: There are several types of benign liver tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • One way to categorize benign liver tumors is by their anatomic source, such as hepatocellular, biliary, or stromal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatocellular adenomas (also called hepatocellular adenoma) are rare benign liver tumors made up of hepatocytes, with estimates indicating hepatocellular adenomas make up 2% of liver tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely, individuals with HNF1A -MODY develop one or more noncancerous (benign) liver tumors called hepatocellular adenomas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is unclear how the mutations cause liver cells to grow uncontrollably and form tumors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The HNF1A gene mutations that cause these tumors severely reduce or eliminate the function of the HNF-1α protein in affected liver cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is unclear how loss of HNF-1α function causes cells to grow uncontrollably and form tumors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 142330 ]. Hepatic adenomas are rare benign liver tumors of presumable epithelial origin that develop in an otherwise normal liver. (proteopedia.org)
  • Systemic Contraceptives and Liver Tumors. (ebscohost.com)
  • We wish to emphasize that malignant, as well as benign, liver tumors can occur in users of oral contraceptives. (ebscohost.com)
  • Suster S. Tumors of the skin composed of large cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. (medigraphic.com)
  • Damiani S, Dina R, Eusebi V. Eosinophilic and granular cell tumors of the breast. (medigraphic.com)
  • D amore ES, Ninfo V. Tumors of the soft tissues composed of large eosinophilic cells. (medigraphic.com)
  • Askenazi (H rthle) cell tumors of the thyroid. (medigraphic.com)
  • Characteristically, tumors with arterial hypervascularization may be benign -adenomas or FNH- or malignant, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, and metastases from neuroendocrine tumors or hypernephroma. (isciii.es)
  • Other common benign dog skin tumors are the wax gland cyst (adenoma), basal cell tumor, and hair follicle tumor. (amazonaws.com)
  • Another common form of skin cancer in dogs is mast cell tumors, which arise from tissue mast cells and are very malignant - in fact, these dog skin tumors are the most common fatal skin cancer in dogs. (amazonaws.com)
  • Under EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005a), the database for biphenyl provides "suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential" based on increased incidence of urinary bladder tumors (transitional cell papillomas and carcinomas) in male F344 rats (Umeda et al. (epa.gov)
  • 2002) and liver tumors (hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas) in female BDF1 mice (Umeda et al. (epa.gov)
  • Repaglinide caused an increased incidence in male rats of benign adenomas (tumors) of the thyroid and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, the rats developed hepatic-cell adenomas, which are benign liver tumors. (naturalpedia.com)
  • During lifetime exposure of rats dosed daily with up to 150 mg per kg per day of lansoprazole, marked hypergastrinemia was observed followed by ECL cell proliferation and formation of carcinoid tumors, especially in female rats (see Toxicology as follows). (mims.com)
  • A liver tumor 35 mm in diameter was found incidentally in a woman, which showed a homogenous enhancement in the arterial phase and almost the same enhancement as the surrounding liver parenchyma in the delayed phase of CT. (medindia.net)
  • A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER. (wakehealth.edu)
  • hepatocellular adenoma a large, fleshy, hypervascular tumor of the liver occurring chiefly in women of childbearing age and associated with oral contraceptive use. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Temsirolimus may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing substances to them. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Giving temsirolimus together with bevacizumab may kill more tumor cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A 33-year-old female patient underwent extended right lobectomy for a large tumor in the liver. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Histologic examination of the resected specimen disclosed obvious differentiation toward hepatocytes in tumor cells and scanty atypia in nuclei. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Although differention between liver cell adenoma and well-differentiate dhepatocellular carcinoma(Edmondson grade I) is deemed difficult, it is our opinion that the diagnosis of liver cell adenoma can be made by following characteristics: 1) incidence in young adult 2) no underlying liver disease 3) large tumor in the majority of cases 4) histologic findings of monotonous growth and scanty atypia. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Regarding Cushing's disease, we performed a microarray analysis and screened molecular targeted therapy using primary culture tumor cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a rare, benign, liver tumor frequently associated with oral contraception ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA), or hepatic adenoma, is the third leading benign liver tumor and has bleeding and malignant transformation tendencies. (medscape.com)
  • Hemangiomas are the most common type of noncancerous liver tumor, reports the online medical encyclopedia MedlinePlus. (livestrong.com)
  • A liver adenoma is an uncommon noncancerous liver tumor. (livestrong.com)
  • Liver cell adenoma is a common and benign (non-cancerous) tumor of the liver. (liverdoctor.com)
  • A liver adenoma is an encapsulated liver tumor (has a capsule around it) and it does not contain bile ducts. (liverdoctor.com)
  • Liver cell adenoma caused by estrogen/progestogen ingestion is usually solitary (one tumor only), but some people may develop several adenomas spread throughout the liver. (liverdoctor.com)
  • An adenoma is a benign tumor and is not cancerous. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 2)Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced hepatic sinusoidal contraction and subsequent liver ischemia. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It may be that each tumor develops from an abnormal muscle cell in the uterus. (uclahealth.org)
  • Treatment varies and is highly specific to the type of liver tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cavernous hemangiomas (also called hepatic hemangioma or liver hemangioma) are the most common type of benign liver tumor, found in 3%-10% of people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign tumor of the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • By controlling genes that regulate cell growth and survival, the HNF-1α protein is thought to act as a tumor suppressor, which means that it helps prevent cells from growing and dividing too rapidly or in an uncontrolled way. (medlineplus.gov)
  • While rare, hepatocellular adenomas occur in women more frequently than in men, and most affected individuals develop a single tumor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • HNF1A -mutated hepatocellular adenomas (also known as H-HCA) account for about 30 to 40 percent of this type of liver tumor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Human tumor cells stained for DAPI (blue), cytochrome c (red), and CHCHD4 (green). (jci.org)
  • RB1 was the first identified tumor suppressor gene and has defined roles in the regulation of cell cycle progression, DNA replication, and terminal differentiation. (jci.org)
  • My surgeon says if the cancer returns, I have a 60% chance it will be in the liver (probably site specific for where the original tumor was located). (cancer.org)
  • Hepatocellular adenoma is an uncommon liver tumor during childhood that is composed of sheets of vacuolated hepatocytes with intervening dilated sinusoids, a reduced number of Kupffer cells (compared with normal liver), and no bile ducts[1]. (nih.gov)
  • Histological analysis revealed a spindle cell tumor with malignant features, including high cellularity and abnormal mitotic figures. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Histologically, the tumor appeared to be a tubular adenoma. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Discusses the prevalence of benign liver tumor among women, associated with the use of oral contraceptives. (ebscohost.com)
  • Examines the association between oral contraceptives and liver tumor. (ebscohost.com)
  • Janser JC, Pusel J,Rodier JF, Navarrete E, Rodier D. H rthle cell tumor of the thyroid gland. (medigraphic.com)
  • Increased amounts of PGE 2 have been observed in many tumor types including colorectal adenomas and cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When cancer cells spread to other parts of the body then they pass through several changes like they become able to detach from the original tumor and can attach themselves to the blood vessel walls. (amazonaws.com)
  • When the cancer cells start growing in the lymph nodes then the lymph nodes of the tumor are the first one to get affected and actually these are the nodes that help to remove other cancer cells. (amazonaws.com)
  • Although they formed micrometastases containing dormant tumor-initiating cells after injection into the spleen of mice, they failed to colonize in the liver. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that 'driver' pathway mutations enable stem cell maintenance in the hostile tumor microenvironment, but that additional molecular lesions are required for invasive behavior. (nih.gov)
  • The research group created a new model, growing organoids from healthy human liver and genetically modifying them using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to study how the changes affect tumor formation. (pharmalive.com)
  • Studying the function of such mutations in tumor formation is especially important in liver cancer," stated Benedetta Artegiani, one of the researchers, "since it is a very heterogeneous type of cancer: a wide variety of mutations in different genes are found in different patients. (pharmalive.com)
  • Liver Cell Adenoma or Hepatocellular Carcinoma? (medindia.net)
  • Current Treatments for Liver Cancer (also known as hepatoma or hepatocellular carcinoma) can result in complete cure of the disease if it is detected early. (medindia.net)
  • Oral contraceptive-associated liver cell adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. (nature.com)
  • Sorafenib is a drug that has been approved to treat kidney and liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, or HCC) and has been shown to prolong survival in patients with HCC. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In APC-deficient colon carcinoma cells, we demonstrated that ß-catenin accumulates and is constitutively complexed with the TCF family member TCF4, providing a molecular explanation for the initiation of colon cancer (5). (hubrecht.eu)
  • Cytologic findings in large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Comparison of the DNA content in liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and regenerative nodules. (nih.gov)
  • A liver carcinoma is considered benign? (bio.net)
  • The most common form of primary liver cancer (cancer that starts in the liver) in adults is called hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (liver.ca)
  • However, if a central scar is not present on imaging, it is hard to tell the difference between FNH, hepatic adenoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma, in which cases biopsy is the next step to aid in the diagnosis process. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report two cases of hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in young women who had no prior history of liver disease and who had taken oral contraceptive drugs. (ebscohost.com)
  • Las caracter sticas presentadas incluyeron necrosis isqu mica masiva posterior a toma de biopsia por aspiraci n, tama o mayor al esperado en un adenoma, coexistencia con una neoplasia maligna independiente y caracter sticas histol gicas similares a las observadas en carcinoma papilar. (medigraphic.com)
  • In contrast, liver lesions in cirrhotic patients demand that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) be ruled out. (isciii.es)
  • Thus, a history of oral contraceptive use in a young woman suggests hepatocellular adenoma, cirrhosis is a preneoplastic condition for hepatocellular carcinoma, and sclerosing cholangitis predisposes to cholangiocarcinoma. (isciii.es)
  • Epidemiologic studies show that people who don't have epithelial cell cancer eat "significantly more" citrus peel than people who do have epithelial cell carcinoma. (rainbow.coop)
  • Reference: Kogure T, Ueno Y, Sekiguchi S, Ishida K, Igarashi T, Wakui Y, Iwasaki T, Shimosegawa T. Liver cell adenoma showing sequential alteration of radiological findings suggestive of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. (vidyya.com)
  • Colonic squamous cell carcinoma in ulcerative colitis. (buffalo.edu)
  • colorectal carcinoma of UICC stage IV, and liver and/or lung metasta¬ses only, which are not optimally resectable, will be enrolled in this single-arm phase II study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • carcinomas and adenomas were elevated at 375 ppm. (bio.net)
  • Adult Cbx7-KO mice developed liver and lung adenomas and carcinomas. (jci.org)
  • There was clear evidence of carcinogenicity for male rats showing increased incidences of tubular cell adenocarcinomas of the kidney, tubular cell adenomas of the kidney, and neoplastic nodules or carcinomas (combined) of the liver. (europa.eu)
  • In a study in rats fed hexachlorobenzene in the diet, hepatomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, bile-duct adenomas and renal-cell adenomas were observed [ref: 8]. (inchem.org)
  • Squamous cell carcinomas are typically treated by surgery and, where surgery is incomplete or not possible, radiation can be used. (amazonaws.com)
  • Liver adenomas or carcinomas (Umeda et al. (epa.gov)
  • Although CT scanning, MRI, and nuclear medicine studies may help characterize lesions as adenomas, the findings are frequently nonspecific, and biopsy and/or resection may be necessary. (medscape.com)
  • Imaging of multifocal liver lesions in children and adolescents. (nih.gov)
  • Multifocal liver lesions are encountered regularly in children and adolescents. (nih.gov)
  • By knowing the specific ultrasonographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of benign and malignant pediatric liver lesions as well as the particular clinical setting, radiologists can frequently narrow the differential diagnosis and sometimes offer a definitive diagnosis. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this review article is to illustrate the imaging findings of numerous benign and malignant causes of multifocal liver lesions in the pediatric population. (nih.gov)
  • Percutaneous needle biopsy of several liver lesions confirmed the diagnosis of multiple hepatocellular adenomas. (nih.gov)
  • About 20% of patients with hepatocellular adenomas have multiple lesions, particularly in the setting of predisposing conditions, such as those mentioned above[1]. (nih.gov)
  • H rthle cell lesions of the thyroid: a combined study using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and immunocytochemistry. (medigraphic.com)
  • Focal liver lesions are defined as solid or liquid-containing masses foreign to the normal anatomy of the liver that may be told apart from the latter organ using imaging techniques. (isciii.es)
  • The etiopathogenic diagnosis of focal liver lesions is based on clinical findings, laboratory data, imaging techniques, and frequently histology (1,2). (isciii.es)
  • Beforehand, incidental lesions in asymptomatic patients with no history of neoplasms or liver disease are usually benign, and cysts, hemangiomas and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) are most prevalent in our setting (3). (isciii.es)
  • Similarly, it may be essential to distinguish between liver adenoma and FNH, or to establish the nature of a number of atypical lesions. (isciii.es)
  • This practical clinical guide will review liver lesions most commonly seen in our setting, and a suggested diagnostic and therapeutic approach ( Fig. 1 ) will be set forth. (isciii.es)
  • Regarding multiple lesions, liver or renal polycystosis stands out. (isciii.es)
  • This results in cytology readings of atypia of unknown significance (AUS), follicular lesion of unknown significance (FLUS) and follicular or hurtle cell lesions. (thyroid.org)
  • Causes of hepatocellular adenoma include oral contraceptive medications containing mestranol as well as anabolic steroids. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, hepatocellular adenomas occur mostly in women of childbearing age and are strongly associated with the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) and other estrogens. (medscape.com)
  • It is estimated that the risk of growing an adenoma increases by a factor of 5 after 5 years, and by 25 after 9 years of oral contraceptive usage. (liverdoctor.com)
  • Oral contraceptive-induced liver cell adenomas are reversible if oral contraceptives are discontinued within a certain time period. (liverdoctor.com)
  • With prolonged oral contraceptive usage pre-cancerous changes (dysplastic foci) develop within the liver cell adenoma that may progress to liver cancer. (liverdoctor.com)
  • The causative role of oral estrogen containing contraceptives in producing liver cell adenoma is beyond doubt, and many studies have shown regression and even complete disappearance of adenomas after cessation of the oral contraceptive pill. (liverdoctor.com)
  • Regular and long term medical supervision is vital because even complete disappearance of the adenoma does not prevent the later development of liver cancer, which has been observed five years after cessation of oral contraceptive usage and regression of the adenoma. (liverdoctor.com)
  • Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) are benign hepatic neoplasms that became widely recognized in the 1960s and 1970s following the introduction of oral contraceptive pills (OCP's). (hindawi.com)
  • Development of hepatocellular adenomas has been associated with oral contraceptive use in girls, anabolic steroid use in boys, glycogen storage disease, and congenital/acquired abnormalities of hepatic vasculature (Fig. 4)[1]. (nih.gov)
  • Despite significant progress in imaging techniques of the liver such as MRI scans, a definite diagnosis of adenoma is by excision biopsy. (liverdoctor.com)
  • MRI is used to suspect the diagnosis which should be confirmed by liver biopsy. (springer.com)
  • Often doctors will suggest a biopsy (removal of a sample of tissue of the liver nodule or mass) to assess the potential for cancer development. (liver.ca)
  • They may be discovered on medical imaging (even for a different reason than the cancer itself), and the diagnosis is often confirmed with liver biopsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • This issue will provide state-of-the-art reviews in the areas of NAFLD, liver biopsy, liver pathology, hepatitis, and genomics. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • While a thyroid biopsy gives a diagnosis in most cases, up to 10-20% of biopsies are indeterminate, meaning that a diagnosis of cancer vs benign cannot be made on the basis of examining the cells alone. (thyroid.org)
  • Current analysis of thyroid biopsy results cannot differentiate between follicular or hurthle cell cancer from noncancerous adenomas. (thyroid.org)
  • Enterochromaffin-Like Cell (ECL) Effects: There were no reports of ECL cell hyperplasia in gastric biopsy specimens obtained from 653 patients treated with DEXILANT 30, 60 or 90 mg for up to 12 months. (mims.com)
  • Hepatic adenomas consist of sheets of hepatocytes without bile ducts or portal areas. (medscape.com)
  • Based on these combined insights, we have established Lgr5/R-spondin-based culture systems that allow the outgrowth of single mouse or human Lgr5 stem cells into ever-expanding mini-guts (27, 31), mini-stomachs (28), colon cancer organoids (31, 48) liver organoids (39, 46), prostate organoids (45), breast cancer organoids (53), ovarian cancer organdies (58) and organoids representing human hepatocytes (55) and human kidney in health and disease (57). (hubrecht.eu)
  • Histologically, in multiple areas of the liver parenchyma, hepatocytes were mildly enlarged and swollen, with clear and pale cytoplasm and distinct, enhanced cell borders, consistent with glycogen changes (Figure 1(b) and 1(c) ). (hindawi.com)
  • The nodule was composed of clusters of hepatocytes forming cords of 1-2 cells thick, with normal nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio and bland-appearing nuclei (Figure 1(d) ). (hindawi.com)
  • Liver adenomas, also known as hepatocellular adenomas, arise from the abnormal growth of liver cells, or hepatocytes. (livestrong.com)
  • Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a benign neoplasm arising from hepatocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • IHC staining distinguishes this subtype through absent expression of liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) in tumoral hepatocytes and normal expression in nontumoral liver. (hindawi.com)
  • Liver adenomatosis: clinical, histopathologic, and imaging findings in 15 patients. (medscape.com)
  • Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha gene inactivation: cosegregation between liver adenomatosis and diabetes phenotypes in two maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)3 families. (medscape.com)
  • 10 nodules are identified in the liver it is called liver adenomatosis ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In rare cases, multiple liver adenomas develop in association with an inherited abnormality known as familial liver adenomatosis, notes the Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology. (livestrong.com)
  • Since the 1980s liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis have emerged as new entities in medical practice due to the widespread use of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and the increased imaging of the liver via scans. (liverdoctor.com)
  • This latter condition is known as liver cell adenomatosis and does not have the strong association with estrogen or anabolic steroid use. (liverdoctor.com)
  • Adenomatosis, a term used when greater than 10 adenomas are encountered, can be associated with maturity onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3). (hindawi.com)
  • Flejou JF, Barge J, Menu Y et al (1985) Liver adenomatosis: an entity distinct from liver adenoma? (springer.com)
  • Pathogenesis of liver adenomatosis. (ebscohost.com)
  • Giangaspero F, Cenacchi G. Oncocytic and granular cell neoplasms of the central nervous system and pituitary gland. (medigraphic.com)
  • H rthle cell thyroid neoplasms: a clinical enigma. (medigraphic.com)
  • Nappi O, Ferrara G, Wick MR. Neoplasms composed of eosinophilic polygonal cells: an overview with consideration of different cytomorphologic patterns. (medigraphic.com)
  • Liver cell adenoma (LCA) is the most important benign epithelial tumour of the liver, with an incidence of approximately 3/1 000 000 new cases per year. (bmj.com)
  • Decreases in dosages and the types of hormones contained in OCPs have led to a reduction in adenoma incidence, as reported by another study by Edmonson et al. (medscape.com)
  • [ 7 ] Rooks et al reported that in women who have never used OCPs, the annual incidence of hepatic adenoma is 1 to 1.3 per million but increases to 3.4 per 100,000 in long-term users. (medscape.com)
  • However, multiple hepatic adenomas are more common in glycogen storage disease, with an incidence between 22% and 75% in type 1 and 25% in type 3 disease. (medscape.com)
  • Hepatocellular adenoma has an incidence of 1-1.3 million cases per year in North America and Europe. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Glycogen storage disease and mutation of HNF1A gene are associated with an increased incidence of adenomas. (springer.com)
  • Despite treatment with radical mastectomy, feline mammary adenocarcinoma is associated with a high incidence of metastasis to regional lymph nodes, spleen, liver and lungs. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Methods: The Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study is a randomized clinical trial of folic acid supplementation and incidence of new colorectal adenomas in individuals with a history of adenomas ( n = 1,084). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, our results suggest that overexpression of mPGES in addition to COX-2 contributes to increased amounts of PGE 2 in colorectal adenomas and cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • COX-2 and mPGES have been reported to be functionally linked (23) , raising the possibility that aberrant mPGES expression could contribute to increased amounts of PGE 2 in colorectal adenomas and cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The role of vitamins B 2 , B 6 , and B 12 , particularly dietary intake, has been investigated in several studies of colorectal adenomas and cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our work shows novel findings that reduced IGFIR mRNA and, during high plasma insulin, increased IR-A:IR-B ratios in normal rectal mucosa are associated with colorectal adenoma risk. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It contains a cavity (abdominal cavity) that holds organs such as the pancreas, stomach, intestines, liver, and gallbladder. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dr. Kim spent 5 years as faculty at the University of Florida, where he developed a robust practice specializing in surgery for diseases of the liver, biliary tree and the pancreas. (utah.edu)
  • He was also heavily involved with pediatric and adult transplantation of the liver, kidney and pancreas, and was the Director of pediatric and adult liver transplantation. (utah.edu)
  • Through his experience and expertise, Dr. Kim has fortified the University's ability to treat diseases of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas. (utah.edu)
  • Liver regeneration may be regulated in a manner of multiple organ relationship, which network includes automonic neurons governing both the liver and the pancreas. (nii.ac.jp)
  • While this protein is found in several tissues and organs, it seems to be especially important in the pancreas and liver. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Regulation of gene activity by the HNF-1α protein is critical for the growth and development of beta cells in the pancreas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They can also lead to non-cancerous tumours such as bile duct adenoma. (cancer.ca)
  • Relation between DNA ploidy status and the expression of the DNA-mismatch repair genes MLH1 and MSH2 in cytological specimens of melanoma lymph node and liver metastases. (nih.gov)
  • These types of cancers are named after the place where they originated (primary site) and are considered secondary liver cancers or cancer metastases. (liver.ca)
  • Trends in Long-term Survival Following Liver Resection for Hepatic Colorectal Metastases Annals of Surgery. (jove.com)
  • Chemotherapy Plus Bevacizumab as Neoadjuvant or Conversion Treatment in Patients with Colorectal Liver Metastases. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab as neoadjuvant or conversion treatment for colorectal liver metastases (CLM). (bioportfolio.com)
  • in hamsters of each sex, it produced hepatomas, liver haemangioendotheliomas and thyroid adenomas. (inchem.org)
  • The doctor uses a very thin needle to withdraw cells from the thyroid nodule. (thyroid.org)
  • Follicular and hurthle cells are normal cells found in the thyroid. (thyroid.org)
  • an abnormal growth of thyroid cells that forms a lump within the thyroid. (thyroid.org)
  • Angiosarcoma of the liver was induced in rats exposed to 25 ppm vinyl chloride, in rats exposed to 50 ppm vinyl bromide, and in mice exposed to 55 ppm vinylidene chloride. (cdc.gov)
  • The proposal was to reduce that to 3 ppm in light of the new data, but that seems inadequate given the LOEL for liver adenoma in male rats. (bio.net)
  • Minor liver, hematological, and renal effects, as well as changes in body weight, have also been observed in exposed rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Monuron induced cytomegaly of the renal tubular epithelial cells in both male and female rats. (europa.eu)
  • The Carcinogenicity Potency Database (CPDB) reports a TD 50 (dose that is tumorigenic in 50% of rats) of 131 mg/kg bw, with kidney and liver as target organs (as explained above). (europa.eu)
  • In a two-generation feeding study in rats with lower dose levels, increased incidences of parathyroid adenomas and adrenal phaeochromocytomas were observed in animals of each sex and liver neoplastic nodules in females of the F 1 generation [ref: 9]. (inchem.org)
  • After 90 weeks' feeding of hexachlorobenzene to rats, 100% of surviving females and only 16% of males had developed liver tumours [ref: 10]. (inchem.org)
  • liver and kidney catalase activity of rats (Tephly et al. (inchem.org)
  • Regression of Hepatocellular adenoma has been reported to occur following cessation of OCPs. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Steinbrecher UP, Lisbona R, Huang SN, Mishikin S (1981) Complete regression of hepatocellular adenoma after withdrawal of oral contraceptives. (springer.com)
  • Liver cirrhosis was not combined. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Risk factors for liver cancer include chronic viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, alcohol abuse and iron overload, according to the National Cancer Institute. (livestrong.com)
  • There needs to be more awareness of liver disease so that patients can be treated early so that we can prevent cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer. (liverdoctor.com)
  • This pattern is most often seen in people with liver cirrhosis (scarring). (liver.ca)
  • The high prevalence of people living in these areas carrying the hepatitis B virus and having liver cirrhosis may account for this geographic discrepancy. (liver.ca)
  • Diseases associated with SUPT3H include Cleidocranial Dysplasia and Hepatic Adenomas, Familial . (genecards.org)
  • Jeannot E, Wendum D, Paye F, Mourra N, de Toma C, Flejou JF, Zucman-Rossi J (2006) Hepatocellular adenoma displaying a HNF1alpha inactivation in a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis coli. (springer.com)
  • Various tests are used in the diagnosis of Liver symptoms. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • this happens when a diagnosis of benign or cancerous cannot be made with certainty by looking at the cells. (thyroid.org)
  • this happens a few atypical cells are seen but not enough to be abnormal (atypia of unknown significance (AUS) or follicular lesion of unknown significance (FLUS)) or when the diagnosis is a follicular or hurthle cell lesion. (thyroid.org)
  • Bioulac-Sage P, Balabaud C, Zucman-Rossi J. Subtype classification of hepatocellular adenoma. (medscape.com)
  • Hepatocellular adenoma subtype classification using molecular markers and immunohistochemistry. (medscape.com)
  • A subtype of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is also caused by biallelic somatic HNF1A mutations (H-HCA), and rare HCA may be related to MODY3. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The aim of our work is to describe MR appearance of hepatocellular adenomas, focusing on each genetic and histopathological subtype characterization. (minervamedica.it)
  • Enlargement of the liver due to glycogen accumulation is the clinical hallmark of the disease. (medindia.net)
  • Management of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma in young women: a series of 41 patients with clinical, radiological, and pathological correlations. (medscape.com)
  • Abundant clinical and rodent data have noted the downregulation of HNF-1α in parallel with liver malignancies. (springer.com)
  • Hepatocellular adenoma (HA) was considered a homogeneous entity until the early 2000s, when a French group of clinical researchers demonstrated somatic bi-allelic mutations of transcription factor 1 (TCF 1) gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF 1) in a subset of HAs. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Dr. Lefkowitch has created a primer on liver pathology for the gastroenterologist that provides depth of clinical coverage in an area not typically covered in depth for gastroenterologists. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • In this randomized clinical trial of aspirin use and folic acid supplementation, we examined the associations of baseline plasma levels and dietary intake of vitamins B 2 , B 6 , and B 12 with risk of colorectal adenoma occurrence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Other examinations, including urinalysis, liver function tests and renal function tests, revealed no abnormalities. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • HCA is classified into 4 molecular subgroups on the basis of genetic and phenotype characteristics: HNF1A mutated adenomas (H-HCA), inflammatory adenomas (I-HCA), unclassified adenomas (U-HCA), and β-catenin activated adenomas (b-HCA). (medscape.com)
  • Recently, adenomas have been usually divided in four types with different characteristics (Bordeaux classification): adenoma with HFN1A gene mutation, adenoma with B-catenin gene mutation, adenoma without any markers, and inflammatory adenomas. (springer.com)
  • Hepatocellular adenoma management and phenotypic classification: the Bordeaux experience. (medscape.com)
  • Bioulac-Sage P, Blanc JF, Rebouissou S, Balabaud C, Zucman-Rossi J. Genotype phenotype classification of hepatocellular adenoma. (medscape.com)
  • A new, not yet universally accepted, Bordeaux classification of hepatocelluar adenoma is currently being evaluated. (medscape.com)
  • Zucman-Rossi J, Jeannot E, Nhieu JT, Scoazec JY, Guettier C, Rebouissou S et al (2006) Genotype-phenotype correlation in hepatocellular adenoma: new classification and relationship with HCC. (springer.com)
  • The most important classification is whether the tumours are benign (relatively harmless) or malignant (cancer, i.e., capable of spreading from the liver and thus more serious). (liver.ca)
  • Between 10% and 20% of people in Canada have hemangiomas in the liver. (liver.ca)
  • These include hemangiomas, hepatic adenomas, and focal nodular hyperplasia. (uclahealth.org)
  • Liver hemangiomas do not usually cause symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolactin expression was positive and specific in glandular epithelial cells of the mammary gland of some cats (2 of 4) with adenocarcinoma. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Because adenoma has a risk of bleeding and malignant transformation, surgical excision is usually done for solitary liver adenomas. (liverdoctor.com)
  • Farges O, Ferreira N, Dokmak S et al (2011) Changing trends in malignant transformation of hepatocellular adenoma. (springer.com)
  • Rebouissou S, Bioulac-Sage P, Zucman-Rossi J. Molecular pathogenesis of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma. (medscape.com)
  • Telangiectatic adenoma is a recently recognized variant of HCA formerly classified as a type of focal nodular hyperplasia. (medscape.com)
  • Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a tumour-like growth of several different cell types. (liver.ca)
  • Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver and intrahepatic hemorrhage in young women on oral contraceptives. (ebscohost.com)
  • Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver may occur with increased frequency in young women who have been taking oral contraceptives. (ebscohost.com)
  • Which physical findings are characteristic of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA)? (medscape.com)
  • These findings were compatible with those of liver cell adenoma. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The above findings were suggestive of a hepatocellular adenoma (HCA). (hindawi.com)
  • Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) are also known as hepatic adenomas or liver cell adenomas. (medscape.com)
  • The most common type of cholangiocarcinoma starts in the gland cells of the lining and is called adenocarcinoma of the bile duct. (cancer.ca)
  • Liver Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells in the liver. (medindia.net)
  • As primary malignant liver cancer is very rare in this country, any effect due to oral contraceptives should be apparent in national mortality statistics. (nature.com)
  • However no such trend is apparent in data from other countries where pill usage is comparable to that in the U.K. Overall liver cancer remains an extremely uncommon cause of death in developed countries, but it will be particularly important to monitor trends in this disease in the future. (nature.com)
  • This phase II trial studies how well temsirolimus and bevacizumab work in treating patients with advanced endometrial, ovarian, liver, carcinoid, or islet cell cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It works by slowing the spread of cancer cells, but it does not fully prevent the cancer from growing again. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Individuals at least 18 years of age who have been diagnosed with hepatocellular cancer that has not responded to other treatments, and who are not considered to be candidates for liver transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Clevers group studies the molecular mechanisms of tissue development and cancer of various organs using organoids made from adult Lgr5 stem cells. (hubrecht.eu)
  • The Tcf4-driven target gene program in colorectal cancer cells is the malignant counterpart of a physiological gene program in selfrenewing crypts (13, 14, 21). (hubrecht.eu)
  • acetylcholine from cancer of the colon cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling like the function of transactivation of epidermal development aspect receptors and activation from the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and fat burning capacity of bile acids and proof for functional relationship of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on individual cancer of the colon cells. (healthychoicess.net)
  • studies of individual cancer of the colon cell lines revealed the main pathways of muscarinic receptor signaling in cancer of the colon (Body 3). (healthychoicess.net)
  • Collectively, these results define efficacious bile acidity concentrations, emphasize the significance of co-expression of CHRM3 and EGFR for bile acid-induced cancer of the colon cell proliferation, and recognize the key function of post-EGFR ERK signaling. (healthychoicess.net)
  • Bile acids secure cancer of the colon cells from apoptosis by EGFR-, PI3K/AKT-dependent systems that involve activation of NF-B [48]. (healthychoicess.net)
  • Treatment with bile acids boosts resistance of cancer of the colon cells to TNF- and UV-induced apoptosis, and stimulates nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of NF-B [49]. (healthychoicess.net)
  • These observations in H508 cells had been verified in another individual cancer of the colon cell range (HT-29 cells) [49]. (healthychoicess.net)
  • He completed his residency in General Surgery at the University of Massachusetts School of Medicine which included a two-year research fellowship in liver regeneration and cancer. (utah.edu)
  • Dr. Kim's basic science research focused on the cellular mechanisms of liver cancer growth, and his educational activities included being the ASTS Fellowship Director. (utah.edu)
  • Liver cancer is the most serious and potentially life-threatening cause of spots on a liver scan. (livestrong.com)
  • The American Cancer Society estimates the occurrence of more than 24,000 new cases of liver cancer among Americans in 2010. (livestrong.com)
  • Liver cancer generally does not cause symptoms until the disease reaches an advanced stage. (livestrong.com)
  • Regular ultrasound monitoring of the liver among people at high risk for liver cancer can help detect early-stage disease. (livestrong.com)
  • Certain types of cancer commonly spread to the liver, including lung, breast, colon and pancreatic cancers. (livestrong.com)
  • Metastatic liver cancer proves more common than cancer arising from the liver itself, notes The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. (livestrong.com)
  • Metastatic liver cancer is an ominous development because cancer that spreads from one organ to another often cannot be cured. (livestrong.com)
  • enlarged liver , liver pain , jaundice-like symptoms , fatty liver , liver infection , Liver cancer , Abnormal liver function tests , liver abnormalities or other types . (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Liver adenoma has the possibility of severe outcomes such as bleeding and transformation into liver cancer. (liverdoctor.com)
  • On review of published studies there is evidence that 10% of liver cell adenomas progress to liver cancer. (liverdoctor.com)
  • This often results in the adenoma shrinking, but there is still a risk of transformation into liver cancer. (liverdoctor.com)
  • What causes liver cancer? (liver.ca)
  • Because the liver filters blood from all parts of the body, cancer cells from elsewhere can lodge in the liver and start to grow. (liver.ca)
  • It is a cancer of liver cells. (liver.ca)
  • Liver cancer may also develop in more than one site in the liver and may grow into multiple tumours. (liver.ca)
  • Another type of liver cancer is called cholangiocarcinoma. (liver.ca)
  • Most often, however, when cancer occurs in the liver, it did not start there, but spread to the liver from a cancer that began somewhere else in the body. (liver.ca)
  • For example, cancer that started in the lung and spread to the liver is called metastatic lung cancer with spread to the liver. (liver.ca)
  • How common is liver cancer? (liver.ca)
  • Worldwide, primary liver cancers are the third most common cause of cancer death. (liver.ca)
  • Liver metastasis is cancer that started in another part of the body and spread to the liver. (liver.ca)
  • This kind of cancer is also called secondary liver cancer. (liver.ca)
  • Can children get liver cancer? (liver.ca)
  • Yes, in children the most common liver cancer is called hepatoblastoma. (liver.ca)
  • What are the risk factors associated with liver cancer? (liver.ca)
  • In the absence of chronic liver disease, liver cancer is rare. (liver.ca)
  • However, in people with an underlying liver disease, liver cancer may be quite common. (liver.ca)
  • Among those with chronic liver disease , men are more likely to develop liver cancer than are women. (liver.ca)
  • Chronic viral infection of the liver with either hepatitis B or hepatitis C may lead to the development of cancer. (liver.ca)
  • Certain types of inherited liver disease such as hemochromatosis , which results in accumulation of too much iron in the liver, as well as alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency , and tyrosinemia can lead to the development of liver cancer later in life. (liver.ca)
  • Parathyroid cancer is considered extremely rare, and adenomas make up most of the demographic for IOPTH measurement during parathyroidectomy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cancer is when cells in the body change and grow out of control. (uclahealth.org)
  • Liver cancer is cancer that starts in your liver. (uclahealth.org)
  • Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women in the U.S. Once breast cancer occurs, cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body, making it life-threatening. (uclahealth.org)
  • Cancer cells don't function properly, and they can spread to many areas of the body. (uclahealth.org)
  • Frankly, I am in no big hurry to find out if I have cancer in another location (other than the usual suspects--liver, lungs, colon) as I want to enjoy ignorant bliss for a little while. (cancer.org)
  • Oral Contraceptives and Cancer of the Liver: A Review with Two Additional Cases. (ebscohost.com)
  • Bile duct cancer starts in the cells of the bile duct. (cancer.ca)
  • A cancerous (malignant) tumour is a group of cancer cells that can grow into and destroy nearby tissue. (cancer.ca)
  • But in some cases, changes to bile duct cells can cause bile duct cancer. (cancer.ca)
  • Most often, bile duct cancer starts in the cells of the inner lining (epithelium) of the bile duct. (cancer.ca)
  • Chenodeoxycholate markedly induced COX-2 but not mPGES in colorectal cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, PGE 2 can stimulate angiogenesis (6) while enhancing the survival (7) and motility (8) of colon cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • But in both cases, most of the cancer cells dies or killed before they can start developing in some other part of the body. (amazonaws.com)
  • Researchers with the Hubrecht Institute in Utrecht, Netherlands and Radboud University in Nijmegen, Netherlands, recently developed a human model using organoids to evaluate the function of specific genes commonly mutated in liver cancer. (pharmalive.com)
  • They identified how the BAP1 gene, which is often mutated in liver cancer, changes how cells behave, probably making them more likely to metastasize. (pharmalive.com)
  • The team developed organoids with mutations in four genes commonly mutated in liver cancer and then a mutation in BAP1 was added. (pharmalive.com)
  • Animal studies show benefit with liver cancer, pulmonary adenomas and stomach cancer. (rainbow.coop)
  • Pubmed ID: 14668721 The aberrant promoter methylation of the mismatch repair gene, hMLH1, is associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) in cancer cells and often is associated with a favorable prognosis. (jove.com)
  • In the majority of studies, intake of vitamin B 2 ( 3 - 7 ) and vitamin B 12 ( 3 , 5 , 6 , 8 - 12 ) has been unassociated with colorectal adenoma or cancer risk. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, there is stronger evidence to support an inverse association between dietary vitamin B 6 and risk of colorectal adenomas or cancer ( 3 , 4 , 12 - 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Other studies have investigated whether selected polymorphisms in FOCM genes coding for enzymes that require B-vitamins as cofactors modify the relationship between dietary intake of the vitamins and risk of colorectal adenomas or cancer, but results have been inconsistent ( 5 , 6 , 18 - 25 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 5 There is evidence that alterations in the INK4a-ARF locus, which maps to chromosome 9p21, may contribute to the development of liver tumours. (bmj.com)
  • Unexpected discovery of small HNF1α-inactivated hepatocellular adenoma in pathological specimens from patients resected for liver tumours. (medscape.com)
  • How are liver tumours classified? (liver.ca)
  • There are many types of liver tumours, only some of which are cancers. (liver.ca)
  • Hepatic adenomas are benign tumours of liver cells. (liver.ca)
  • Although FNH tumours are benign, it can be hard to distinguish them from liver cancers. (liver.ca)
  • Liver tumours and the pill. (ebscohost.com)
  • Scientific research over the period of three decades has reported it as an important player in various liver malignancies such as hepatocellular cancers (HCCs), hepatocellular adenoma (HA), and a more specific HNF-1α-inactivated human hepatocellular adenoma (H-HCAs). (springer.com)
  • Pelletier L, Rebouissou S, Paris A et al (2010) Loss of HNF1αfunction in human hepatocellular adenomas leads to aberrant activation os signaling pathways involved in tumorigenesis. (springer.com)
  • Type I glycogen storage disease is caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase in liver, kidney, and intestinal mucosa (inner lining of the intestine). (medindia.net)
  • Compare the echogenicity of the right kidney to the liver. (brainscape.com)
  • The rate of elimination of this metabolite from liver and kidney was much slower than that of the parent compound. (inchem.org)
  • Liver peroxidase was found to recover within 24 hours, while liver and kidney catalase depression was slower to recover. (inchem.org)
  • Mean concentration of radioactivity in blood, liver and kidney appeared to plateau after 72 hours. (inchem.org)
  • Certain characteristics, such as arterial enhancement and the presence of fat and hemorrhage, suggest that the lesion represents hepatic adenoma. (medscape.com)
  • 10,18,19 HCA associated with hemorrhage may present with acute abdominal pain, elevated liver enzymes, and hypovolemic shock. (appliedradiology.com)
  • This recommendation is based on the results of recent studies indicating that exposure to vinyl bromide and to vinylidene chloride causes angiosarcoma of the liver and other cancers in laboratory animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Vinyl chloride is known to cause angiosarcoma of the liver and cancers of other sites in laboratory animals and in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Laboratory studies have demonstrated that exposure by inhalation to vinyl chloride, 1-2 vinyl bromide, 3 and vinylidene chloride 1 , 4 all caused angiosarcoma of the liver and other cancers in animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Cancers that begin in the gastrointestinal tract (gut) often spread to the liver. (liver.ca)
  • Sometimes the regeneration of liver cells is associated with changes (mutations) that have been linked to the development of liver cancers. (liver.ca)
  • Primary liver cancers account for less than 1% of all cancers in North America whereas, in Africa, Southeast Asia, and China, they may account for up to 50% of cancers. (liver.ca)
  • This type of cancers is 30 times more common than primary liver cancers. (liver.ca)
  • Bile duct cancers are divided into 2 main groups based on where they start - either in the part of the bile duct outside the liver ( extrahepatic ) or in the part inside the liver ( intrahepatic ). (cancer.ca)
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed increased mPGES immunoreactivity in neoplastic cells in both colorectal adenomas and cancers compared with adjacent normal colonic epithelium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 80% of colorectal adenomas and cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The BAP1 gene is mutated in about 15% to 20% of liver cancers. (pharmalive.com)
  • The conclusion is that mutations in BAP1 play a significant role in transitioning liver cancers from benign to malignant. (pharmalive.com)
  • HNF1A gene mutations that cause HNF1A -MODY occur in one of the two copies of the gene in each cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In these individuals, a mutation occurs in the second copy of the HNF1A gene in liver cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hepatocellular adenomas also occur in people without HNF1A -MODY (described above). (medlineplus.gov)
  • HNF1A_HUMAN ] Transcriptional activator that regulates the tissue specific expression of multiple genes, especially in pancreatic islet cells and in liver. (proteopedia.org)
  • This lesion is composed of both liver cells and bile ducts. (annals.org)
  • In light of the large proportion of misdiagnosed HCA, LCE-MRI should be performed to prevent unnecessary anxiety in women with a benign liver lesion. (eur.nl)
  • Simple liver cyst is a congenital lesion affecting 2-7% of the population (4-8). (isciii.es)
  • They are caused by either abnormal growth of neoplastic cells or in response to liver injury, known as regenerative nodules. (wikipedia.org)
  • We excluded publications prior to 1970, single case reports, and publications for which there was no data available regarding patient characteristics including OCP use and the number of adenomas. (hindawi.com)
  • This image shows abnormal low signal intensity of the liver, hypointense relative to the spleen, representing fatty infiltration of the liver. (medscape.com)
  • It is an abnormal growth of blood vessels of the liver that begins in the fetus. (liver.ca)
  • This process is one in which all normal constituents of the liver are present, but the pattern by which they are presented is abnormal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to a multiplicity of adenomas, hepatic adenomas associated with GSD tend to occur more commonly in men than women (ratio 2:1) and often develop before the age of 20 years. (medscape.com)
  • Liver cells can regenerate after injury (scarring that can occur as a result of liver disease). (liver.ca)
  • Hepatic adenomas occur more often in women and seem to be triggered in some cases by the birth control pill or by pregnancy. (liver.ca)
  • Other developmental effects may also occur following in utero or perinatal exposure, and include increases in postimplantation losses, decreases in the number of live fetuses per litter, decreases in fetal and pup body weights, and increases in incidences of external, skeletal, and internal malformations. (cdc.gov)
  • Cats of all ages can develop abscesses, but individuals who go outside or live in multi-cat households where fights occur are at highest risk. (petmd.com)
  • The most common cause of hyperparathyroidism is a parathyroid adenoma. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Parathyroid adenomas may grow to the size of a walnut. (encyclopedia.com)
  • With some parathyroid adenomas, blood levels may exceed 200 pg/ml, while others may be present with blood PTH still within the normal range. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Hepatocellular adenomas are most often asymptomatic and often found incidentally on imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was associated with upregulated expression of multiple cell cycle components, including cyclin E, which is known to play a key role in lung carcinogenesis in humans. (jci.org)
  • It is an endemic condition in Spain involving the liver, lung, and central nervous system among others (9,10). (isciii.es)
  • In herbal medication milk thistle is used in cases of liver diseases. (medindia.net)
  • Here, he gained expertise in the surgical management of liver, biliary and pancreatic diseases. (utah.edu)
  • See detailed information below for a list of 1644 causes of Liver symptoms , Symptom Checker , Assessment Questionnaire , including diseases and drug side effect causes. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • I have presented my ideas on how to help those with liver diseases using nutritional medicine, which I have been using for many years with good success rates. (liverdoctor.com)
  • AAE-I is associated with other diseases, most commonly B-cell lymph proliferative disorders. (haei.org)
  • They are also associated with glycogen storage diseases (subtypes I and III), and newer studies are suggesting that diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia are risk factors for hepatic adenomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conditions associated with adenomas are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and glycogen storage diseases (types 1 and 3). (proteopedia.org)
  • By time-resolved single cell sequening using a new molecular timer allele, the transcriptional hierarchy of the various enteroendocrine lineages was mapped (56). (hubrecht.eu)
  • Liver cell adherence and ligand-receptor binding of HGF depended on the ECM where the cells sit on, including molecular species of proteoglycans. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The articles in this dermatology Review Series demonstrate recent progress in understanding the cell biology and molecular pathophysiology of the epidermis and hair follicles, which harbor keratinocyte and melanocyte stem cells. (jci.org)
  • a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism. (thyroid.org)
  • Hepatocellular adenoma (HA) is a relatively uncommon benign liver neoplasm that is typically seen in obese women of childbearing age who are on long-term oral contraceptives. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Muscarinic signaling in colonic epithelial cells. (healthychoicess.net)
  • Epithelial cells -Cells covering the surface of the body and the lining of its cavities. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the small intestine, the epithelial cells cover the villi and contain microvilli. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Polyamines are implicated in multiple signaling pathways driving different biological functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). (physiology.org)
  • epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal mucosa form an important barrier to a wide array of noxious substances in the lumen. (physiology.org)
  • The tight junction located at the apical region of epithelial lateral membrane provides the barrier that is selectively permeable to certain hydrophilic molecules, ions, and nutrients, whereas the adherens junction mediates strong cell-to-cell adhesions between adjacent epithelial cells and regulates the tight junction assembly and function ( 9 , 32 , 38 , 50 ). (physiology.org)
  • The tight junction seals epithelial cells together in a way that prevents even small molecules from leaking between cells and also functionally separates the plasma membrane into an apical and a basolateral domain ( 9 , 38 , 41 ). (physiology.org)
  • Pompe disease or Glycogen Storage Disease is a rare genetic disease caused by the buildup of a sugar called glycogen in the body's cells. (medindia.net)
  • Labrune P, Trioche P, Duvaltier I, Chevalier P, Odievre M. Hepatocellular adenomas in glycogen storage disease type I and III: a series of 43 patients and review of the literature. (medscape.com)
  • Ultrasound in a patient with von Gierke disease (glycogen storage disease type 1) and several hepatic adenomas. (medscape.com)
  • Lee PJ (2002) Glycogen storage disease type I: pathophysiology of liver adenomas. (springer.com)
  • Encyclopedia section of medindia gives general information about Alcoholic Liver Disease. (medindia.net)
  • Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of liver dysfunction worldwide and is a rapidly growing health problem in India. (medindia.net)
  • These epithelial organoid cultures are genetically and phenotypically extremely stable, allowing transplantation of the cultured offspring of a single stem cell, as well as disease modeling by growing organoids directly from diseased patient tissues (31, 46, 53). (hubrecht.eu)
  • Despite the increase of doses, her disease deteriorated with 3-6 hospitalizations per year with peak ammonia levels ranging from 100 to 350 µ M and plasma glutamine levels up to near 1200 µ M. Therefore, a living donor partial liver transplant was eventually performed. (hindawi.com)
  • Liver disease is serious and requires treatment and regular monitoring by a liver specialist. (liverdoctor.com)
  • Over nearly 40 years of practicing medicine I have seen many patients develop severe liver disease, which sadly could have been prevented by early detection and early referral to a hepatologist. (liverdoctor.com)
  • however, liver transplantation may be considered in case of diffuse disease, and it has been reported as an exceptional indication in 0.09 % of all indications in the world. (springer.com)
  • It may spread to other parts of the liver in later stages of the disease. (liver.ca)
  • Hemangioma is the most common type of benign liver tumour. (liver.ca)
  • Dr. Kim is the Executive Medical Director of the Transplant Service Line, Surgical Director of Liver Transplantation, and Chief of the Division of Transplantation and Advanced Hepatobiliary Surgery at the University of Utah. (utah.edu)
  • Large liver adenomas may require surgical removal. (livestrong.com)
  • Fragments of human oncoprotein MDM2 reveal variable distribution within and on cultivated human hepatoma cells. (nih.gov)