A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.
Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.
Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.
Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Cell surface proteins that bind albumin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.

Chronic inhalation carcinogenicity study of commercial hexane solvent in F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. (1/112)

The carcinogenic and chronic toxicity potential of commercial hexane solvent was evaluated in F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice (50/sex/concentration/species) exposed by inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 years. Target hexane vapor concentrations were 0, 900, 3000, and 9000 ppm. There were no significant differences in survivorship between control and hexane-exposed groups, and clinical observations were generally unremarkable. Small, but statistically significant decreases in body weight gain were seen in rats of both sexes in the mid- and high-exposure groups and in high-expsoure female mice. The only noteworthy histopathological finding in rats was epithelial cell hyperplasia in the nasoturbinates and larynx of exposed groups. This response was judged to be indicative of upper respiratory tract tissue irritation. No significant differences in tumor incidence between control and hexane-exposed rats were found. In mice, uterine tissue from the high-exposure females exhibited a significant decrease in the severity of cystic endometrial hyperplasia compared to controls. An increase in the combined incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas was observed in high-exposure female mice. The incidence of liver tumors was not increased in the mid- or low-exposure female mice or in male mice exposed to hexane. An increased incidence of pituitary adenomas was observed in female, but not male mice. This finding was not believed to have been treatment-related because the incidence in the control group was unusually low, and the incidence in exposed groups was not dose-related and was within the historical control range. No other neoplastic changes judged to be treatment-related were observed in tissues from male or female mice. In conclusion, chronic exposure to commercial hexane solvent at concentrations up to 9000 ppm was not carcinogenic to F-344 rats or to male B6C3F1 mice, but did result in an increased incidence of liver tumors in female mice.  (+info)

Mutation of beta-catenin is an early event in chemically induced mouse hepatocellular carcinogenesis. (2/112)

beta-catenin activation, and subsequent upregulation of Wnt-signaling, is an important event in the development of certain human and rodent cancers. Recently, mutations in the beta-catenin gene in the region of the serine-threonine glycogen kinase (GSK)-3beta phosphorylation target sites have been identified in hepatocellular neoplasms from humans and transgenic mice. In this study we examined 152 hepatocellular neoplasms from B6C3F1 mice included in five chemical treatment groups and controls for mutations in the beta-catenin gene. Twenty of 29 hepatocellular neoplasms from mice treated with methyleugenol had point mutations at codons 32, 33, 34 or 41, sites which are mutated in colon and other cancers. Likewise, nine of 24 methylene chloride-induced hepatocellular neoplasms and 18 of 42 oxazepam-induced neoplasms exhibited similar mutations. In contrast, only three of 18 vinyl carbamate-induced liver tumors, one of 18 TCDD-induced liver tumors, and two of 22 spontaneous liver neoplasms had mutations in beta-catenin. Thus, there appears to be a chemical specific involvement of beta-catenin activation in mouse hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Expression analyses using Western blot and immunohistochemistry indicate that beta-catenin protein accumulates along cell membranes following mutation. The finding of mutations in both adenomas and carcinomas from diverse chemical treatment groups and the immunostaining of beta-catenin protein in an altered hepatocellular focus suggest that these alterations are early events in mouse hepatocellular carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Liver adenomatosis: reappraisal, diagnosis, and surgical management: eight new cases and review of the literature. (3/112)

OBJECTIVE: Liver adenomatosis (LA) is a rare disease originally defined by Flejou et al in 1985 from a series of 13 cases. In 1998, 38 cases were available for analysis, including eight personal cases. The aim of this study was to review and reappraise the characteristics of this rare liver disease and to discuss diagnosis and therapeutic options. BACKGROUND: LA was defined as the presence of >10 adenomas in an otherwise normal parenchyma. Neither female predominance nor a relation with estrogen/progesterone intake has been noted. Natural progression is poorly known. METHODS: The clinical presentation, evolution, histologic characteristics, and therapeutic options and results were analyzed based on a personal series of eight new cases and an updated review of the literature. RESULTS: From a diagnostic standpoint, two forms of liver adenomatosis with different presentations and evolution can be defined: a massive form and a multifocal form. The role of estrogen and progesterone is reevaluated. The risks of hemorrhage and malignant transformation are of major concern. In the authors' series, liver transplantation was indicated in two young women with the massive, aggressive form, and good results were obtained. CONCLUSION: Liver adenomatosis is a rare disease, more common in women, where outcome and evolution vary and are exacerbated by estrogen intake. Most often, conservative surgery is indicated. Liver transplantation is indicated only in highly symptomatic and aggressive forms of the disease.  (+info)

Hepatocellular adenomatosis associated with hereditary haemochromatosis. (4/112)

A young healthy man presented with abdominal pain following an accidental fall. Imaging studies and laparoscopy revealed multiple yellowish well-defined hepatic lesions. Liver biopsies showed hepatic adenomas and iron overload. Laboratory investigation confirmed a diagnosis of hereditary haemochromatosis. To our knowledge this represents the first report of an association of hepatic adenomatosis and primary haemochromatosis.  (+info)

Enhancement of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis by the HIV-1 tat gene. (5/112)

The human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat protein is suspected to be involved in the neoplastic pathology arising in AIDS patients. tat-transgenic (TT) mice, which constitutively express Tat in the liver, develop liver cell dysplasia (LCD) that may represent a preneoplastic lesion. To test if TT mice are predisposed to liver carcinogenesis, we treated them with diethylnitrosamine, a hepatotropic carcinogen. Diethylnitrosamine-treated TT mice developed both preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the liver. They showed an enhancement of LCD and developed basophilic liver cell nodules (BLCN), hepatocellular adenomas (HA), and hepatocellular carcinomas (HC). Both preneoplastic (LCD and BLCN) and neoplastic (HA and HC) lesions were significantly more frequent in TT than in control mice: 29.7% versus 12.7% for LCD, 57.9% versus 23.3% for BLCN, 40.6% versus 10.0% for HA, and 50.0% versus 12.7% for HC. These results indicate that Tat expression in the liver predisposes to both initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and to malignant progression of liver tumors. This study supports a role for Tat in enhancing the effect of endogenous and exogenous carcinogens in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients, thereby contributing to tumorigenesis in the course of AIDS.  (+info)

Diagnostic impact of fluorescence in situ hybridization in the differentiation of hepatocellular adenoma and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. (6/112)

Histopathological differentiation between hepatocellular adenoma and well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be a difficult task in small biopsies and occasionally in resected tumor specimens. Whether the analysis of chromosome aberrations can contribute to a more precise discrimination has not been analyzed systematically up to now. Therefore, fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to 28 cases of adenoma and well differentiated carcinoma, using centromeric probes for chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 8, and X. None of 14 adenomas revealed an aberrant count in the analyses performed. By contrast, 13/14 carcinomas demonstrated aberrations for 2-5 chromosomes/case. Chromosome 1 was aberrant in 8/12 cases informative for this probe (67%), chromosomes 6 and 7 were aberrant in 9/14 cases (64%), chromosome 8 was aberrant in 11/14 cases (79%), and chromosome X in 7/14 cases (50%). Taking results for chromosomes 1 and 8 together, 13/14 HCC revealed aberrations for at least one of these chromosomes. Probes for 6, 7, and X revealed no additional aberrant cases.Thus, FISH for chromosomes 1 and 8, extended by probes for chromosomes 6, 7 and X, represents a promising approach toward a more accurate differentiation between hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma.  (+info)

An in vivo method for using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) as a marker of chemically-induced hepatocellular proliferation in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). (7/112)

Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) were used to develop an in vivo method to assess hepatocellular proliferation in a nonmammalian model. Proliferative responses were assessed in medaka at 7, 17, 24, and 94 days after a 48-hour exposure to 10 or 100 mg/L diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Subgroups of medaka were exposed to 50 or 75 mg/L of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in water for 72 hours, sacrificed, and then processed for immunohistochemical staining. Proliferative indices of BrdU-labeled hepatocytes were quantified and compared using both count and area measurements. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in hepatocellular proliferation in the 100 mg/L DEN-treated fish as compared to controls and 10 mg/L DEN-treated fish for the first 3 time points. Hepatocarcinogenicity was evaluated 26 weeks post-DEN exposure. There was a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in hepatocellular neoplasms in 100 mg/L DEN-treated fish compared to other fish. Effective BrdU-labeling of S-phase hepatocytes in medaka was achieved by adding BrdU to the aquarium water, and an increase in hepatocellular proliferation using this method was detected 7 days after exposure to a carcinogenic concentration of DEN. Additionally, the new method of area measurement indices of proliferation were as precise as count indices (R2 > or = 0.92).  (+info)

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate induces hepatocellular adenoma in transgenic mice carrying a human prototype c-Ha-ras gene in a 26-week carcinogenicity study. (8/112)

To evaluate the transgenic mouse carrying a human prototype c-Ha-ras gene (rasH2 mouse) as a model for 26-week carcinogenicity tests, Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), a peroxisome proliferator, was administered to 15 rasH2 mice/sex/group at concentrations of 1,500, 3,000 or 6,000 ppm, and to 15 wild-type (non-Tg) mice/sex/group at a concentration of 6,000 ppm in their diets for 26 weeks. Survival rates and food consumption in the groups treated with DEHP and in the control group were similar. Body weight gain in rasH2 and non-Tg mice at 6,000 ppm in the terminal week decreased about 10% as compared to the control group. Common findings related to treatment with DEHP in rasH2 and non-Tg mice included hypertrophy with coarse granules and deposit of pigment in the liver, hydronephrosis and tubular regeneration in the kidney, focal atrophy in the testis, and increased eosinophilic body in the nasal cavity. Hepatocellular adenoma was induced by treatment with DEHP, and was confined to male rasH2; mice the incidence being 7%(1/15), 13%(2/15), and 27%(4/15) in the 1,500-, 3,000-, and 6,000-ppm group, respectively. Point mutation was not detected in codon 12 and 61 of human c-Ha-ras transgene upon DNA analyses on frozen samples taken from these hepatocellular adenomas. From the results obtained in this 26-week carcinogenicity study, it is concluded that DEHP is a hepato-carcinogen for transgenic mouse carrying a human prototype c-Ha-ras gene.  (+info)

In their paper published in Gut, Farges et al report that in 23 out of 218 patients, areas of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) were observed, and the risk of malignant transformation was 4% in women and 47% in men.1 Hypothesising that HCC may arise from HCA is based on the assumption that at a certain point in time residual HCA or a transition zone with dysplastic changes (as found in colorectal cancers) is present within the malignant liver lesion.2. The postulated theory presented by Farges et al may have great implications for the management of HCA. HCA, a rare benign liver tumour mostly occurring in young women, carries a small risk of malignant transformation … ...
Hepatic adenoma is a rare, benign tumor of the liver. Two types of hepatic adenoma have been identified, including tumors of bile duct origin and tumors of liver cell origin.
(noncancerous) Benign Liver Tumor are widespread. They dont unfold to different areas of the physique and so they normally dont pose a severe well being danger. Actually, normally, benign liver tumors are usually not recognized as a result of they trigger no signs. When theyre detected, it is normally as a result of
Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs), with a risk of malignant transformation into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), classically develop in young women who are taking oral contraceptives. It is now clear that HCAs may also occur in men. However, it is rarely reported that HCAs with malignant transformation occur in male patients with non-cirrhotic livers. This study aimed to characterize the malignancy of HCAs occurring in male patients. All patients with HCAs with malignant transformation who underwent hepatectomy at the Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2011 were enrolled in the study. The clinical characteristics as well as radiologic and pathologic data were reviewed. HCAs with malignant transformation were observed in 5 male patients with non-cirrhotic livers, but not in female patients. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were higher in patients with HCAs with malignant transformation than in patients
Introduction: Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a benign tumor of the liver and almost always located intracapsular. Bleeding (25%), and malignant transformation (5%) can complicate the disease course if left untreated. Herein, we present a case of extracapsular HCA of ectopic liver in the omentum complicated with intraperitoneal hemorrhage.Case Description/Methods: A 43-year-old lady with no past medical history presented to emergency department with two-day history of left shoulder pain and epigastric discomfort. Her only medication was an oral contraceptive pill (OCP). On physical exam, the patient had persistent sinus tachycardia, and epigastric tenderness. Initial labs were unremarkable except for mildly elevated AST at 58 IU/L (10-37). CT of the abdomen with IV contrast showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass likely arising from the anterior wall of the stomach. T2-weighted MRI abdomen demonstrated a hypoenhancing mass measuring 4 x 7 x 8 cm with adjacent hemorrhage (Image 1). Exploratory laparotomy
There are various types of cysts and tumours in the liver, all of which are abnormal growths or structures. Benign liver tumours are common and usually without symptoms (asymptomatic) A cyst is an abnormal, fluid-filled balloon or bubblelike structure (sac) that can grow in any part of your body. Liver cysts are mostly congenital, meaning that you have them from birth, or caused by contact with some form of parasite.
Benign Liver Tumors - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional Version.
Groups of 50 male and 50 female mice were administered 0, 62.5, 125, or 250 mg indole-3-carbinol/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage, 5 days per week for 105 weeks. Survival of 250 mg/kg females was significantly greater than that of the vehicle controls. Mean body weights of dosed groups of males were similar to those of the vehicle controls throughout the study; however, those of 250 mg/kg female mice were at least 10% less than those of the vehicle controls between weeks 32 and 92.. Incidences of hepatocellular adenoma occurred with a positive trend in males and the incidence was significantly increased in the 250 mg/kg group. The incidences of multiple hepatocellular adenoma were significantly increased in 62.5 and 250 mg/kg males. There were significantly increased incidences of single and multiple hepatocellular carcinoma in 125 mg/kg males compared to the vehicle controls. In males, the incidences of hepatoblastoma occurred with a positive trend, and the incidences of multiple ...
HNF1A_HUMAN] Defects in HNF1A are a cause of hepatic adenomas familial (HEPAF) [MIM:142330]. Hepatic adenomas are rare benign liver tumors of presumable epithelial origin that develop in an otherwise normal liver. Hepatic adenomas may be single or multiple. They consist of sheets of well-differentiated hepatocytes that contain fat and glycogen and can produce bile. Bile ducts or portal areas are absent. Kupffer cells, if present, are reduced in number and are non-functional. Conditions associated with adenomas are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and glycogen storage diseases (types 1 and 3). Note=Bi-allelic inactivation of HNF1A, whether sporadic or associated with MODY3, may be an early step in the developmant of some hepatocellular carcinomas. Defects in HNF1A are the cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3) [MIM:600496]; also symbolized MODY-3. MODY is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early ...
Your cats veterinarian will take a detailed history from you and perform a complete physical examination. Routine laboratory testing includes a complete blood count, biochemistry profile, and urinalysis, where results are usually normal. In few animals these results may show anemia and abnormally high levels of liver enzymes. Radiographic studies may show a mass in the liver. Similarly, ultrasonography helps in diagnosis, revealing masses, hemorrhage, and other abnormalities.. ...
International Journal of Hepatology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the medical, surgical, pathological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of hepatology, as well as the management of disorders affecting the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas.
Hi. Ive occasionally discovered during the ultrasound exam that Ive been having hepatocellular adenoma for six months now. Can this benign liver tumor turn to a cancerous one?
Hi! I am 33 years old woman. A week ago doctor told me that I have big hepatic adenoma. I cant sleep, eat, I am afraid for my health. Give me some informatio This topic is answered by a medical expert.
Developed by renowned radiologists in each specialty, STATdx provides comprehensive decision support you can rely on - Hepatic Adenoma
Malignant tumors are spread by metastasis and invasion while benign tumors cannot be spread by either metastasis or invasion. Metastasis (also called metastatic disease or mets) is the ability of cancerous cells to spill, leak or break away from their site of origin (pancreas, prostate, kidney, breast, lung or colon), or primary tumor, and enter the blood and lymphatic vessels. These cancerous cells are deposited within healthy tissues of the body, where they multiply and grow--affecting vital organs. Most malignant cancers are capable of metastasizing. Malignant tumors are also spread by invasion--the process in which cancerous cells invade the blood vessels. Benign tumors, on the other hand, grow locally at the site of the original tumor.. ...
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Liver Masses and Granulomas from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
Integrative genomic profiling of hepatocellular adenomas reveals recurrent FRK activating mutations and mutational processes of malignant transformation ...
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Hepatic adenoma is usually detected by imaging, typically an ultrasound or CT, as a hyperenhancing liver nodule. Given that several liver tumors appear similarly on these imaging modalities, a multi-phase contrast-enhanced imaging study such as CT or MRI may be used to provide more information.[3][4] The significance of making a specific diagnosis is that, unlike other benign liver tumors such as hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatic adenomas have a small but meaningful risk of progressing into a malignancy.[3] Although imaging provides supportive information, a definitive diagnosis of hepatic adenoma requires biopsy of the tissue. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Massive hemorrhage and infarction complicating focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver. AU - Bathe, O. F.. AU - Mies, C.. AU - Franceschi, D.. AU - Casillas, J.. AU - Livingstone, A. S.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Background: Spontaneous infarction or hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) has rarely been reported in the literature. Case outline: A 43-year-old woman presented with upper abdominal pain and anemia. CT scan showed an enormous perihepatic hematoma. Trisegmentectomy successfully dealt with the problem. Conclusion: Although conservative management of FNH is often adopted, this case illustrates that these lesions can undergo massive bleeding.. AB - Background: Spontaneous infarction or hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) has rarely been reported in the literature. Case outline: A 43-year-old woman presented with upper abdominal pain and anemia. CT scan showed an enormous perihepatic hematoma. Trisegmentectomy successfully dealt with the problem. ...
Primary benign tumors of the liver, other than angiomas, are rare. Hoffman1 reviewed the literature in 1942 and was able to find only 58 cases reported. He added one case of his own. No attempt was made to classify these lesions.. Primary benign liver tumors may arise from either the liver cells or the bile duct epithelium. These are classified as liver cell adenomas or bile duct adenomas. In addition, a third type of tumor occurs. This lesion is composed of both liver cells and bile ducts. Such lesions have been classified by Warvi2 as. ...
Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: results of treatment and options in management. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: a link with sickle cell disease?
International Journal of Hepatology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the medical, surgical, pathological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of hepatology, as well as the management of disorders affecting the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas.
Background & Aims: The presence of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) in pregnant women requires special consideration, as it has been reported to carry the risk of growth and clinically significant haemorrhage. In this prospective study we assessed aspects of growth of HCA ,5 cm during pregnancy. Methods: This was a multicentre prospective cohort study in pregnant women with suspected HCA ,5 cm on imaging. Definitive HCA diagnosis was established by MRI with hepatobiliary contrast agents (LCE-MRI), preferably before pregnancy. If at study inclusion a definitive diagnosis was lacking, LCE-MRI was performed after giving birth. Growth of the adenoma (defined as an increase of ,20%) was closely monitored with ultrasound examinations throughout pregnancy. Results: Of the 66 women included, 18 were excluded from analysis because postpartum LCE-MRI did not confirm the diagnosis of HCA and showed the lesion to be focal nodular hyperplasia. The remaining 48 women, with an HCA confirmed by LCE-MRI, were ...
focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver, hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia, FNH (previous denomination: benign hepatoma, solitary hyperplastic nodule, focal sclerosis, hamartomatous cholangiohepatoma, mixed adenoma)
The liver is a large organ that sits on the right side of the belly. The liver has two large sections, called the right and the left lobes. The gallbladder sits under the liver, along with parts of the pancreas and intestines. The liver and these organs work together to digest, absorb, and process food. The livers main job is to filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the body. The liver also detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. As it does so, the liver secretes bile that ends up back in the intestines. The liver also makes proteins important for blood clotting and other functions.. Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign tumor of the liver and is the second most common tumor of the liver after the benign liver tumor known as hemangioma. FNH does not turn into liver cancer and generally it does not grow in size, spread or bleed, and in most people it does not produce any symptoms. If the tumor grows and becomes large it can cause some ...
The typical lesion of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign tumor-like mass characterized by hepatocytic nodules separated by fibrous bands. The solitary central artery with high flow and the absent portal vein give the lesions their characteristic radiological appearance. The great majority of cases seen in daily practice conform to the above description. Additional small nodules (from 1-2 up to 15-20 mm in diameter) detected by imaging techniques or on macroscopic examination may be difficult to identify as representing FNH if they lack the key features of FNH as defined in larger lesions. The aim of this study was to characterize these small nodules, and to compare their characteristics with those of typical lesions of FNH present in the same specimens. Eight patients underwent hepatic resections for the removal of a mass lesion (nodule) diagnosed as: FNH (1 patient); nodules of unknown nature (5 patients); or nodules thought to be adenoma or hepatocellular carcinoma (2 patients). Six nodules
The physical examination findings are often nonspecific. Patients may be asymptomatic, or they may appear ill, with pallor and abdominal distress. Note the following: Palpable tender or nontender mas... more
Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) in liver is the second common benign hepatic tumor. It usually shows hypervascular mass on imaging studies and it is not easy to differentiate with other hypervascular malignant tumor. For diagnosis of FNH, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) has been used to detect spoke-wheel sign, which can be typically seen in FNH. However, temporal window of vascular phase using contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) is very short (about 10 sec) and coordination of patient`s respiration during US exam is absolutely needed. Thus, the investigators will use Superb-Microvascular imaging (SMI, Toshiba, Japan) for detection of spoke-wheel sign in patients with proven FNH, which enable to detect slow micro vascular flow without using CEUS.. First, to compare the detection rate of spoke-wheel sign between CEUS using sonazoid (Perfluorobutane, GE healthcare) and SMI.. Second, to compare the accuracy of size measurement between gray-scale US and SMI (reference standard: CEUS using ...
ABCDDV/870 ABCD Arq Bras Cir Dig 2012;25(3):180-182 Letter to the Editor GIANT HEPATIC ADENOMA ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLICANDROGENIC STEROID ABUSE: CASE REPORT Adenoma hepático gigante associado com uso abusivo de esteróide androgênico anabolizante: relato de caso Sergio Renato PAIS-COSTA, Olímpia Alves Teixeira LIMA, Aloisio Fernandes SOARES From Regional Hospital of the Northern Zone (HRAN), Brasília, Federal District, Brazil Correspondence: Sergio Renato Pais-Costa, e-mail [email protected] provides low morbidity, fast recovery and cosmetic advantages1,4,7. However, for treating large lesions, especially when they are close to major vascular structures, an open approach is safer4,7. CASE REPORT Financial source: none Conflicts of interest: none Received for publication: 09/04/2012 Accepted for publication: 27/04/2012 INTRODUCTION H epatic adenoma (HA) is an uncommon primary benign neoplasm of hepatocellular origin that most frequently affects young women. It has generally been associated ...
What is Focal Nodular Hyperplasia? Characteristics, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment. It is second most common benign growth in liver after hemangioma.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Letter: Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver observed during estroprogestational treatments]. by Gilbert Catanzano et al.
Brian C. Lee (bclee at access2.digex.net) writes: , A liver carcinoma is considered benign? What kind of cell type was it? , 25-fold sounds pretty low. Was there any human exposure data to show , a non-carcinogenic exposure level? Sorry, I was mistaken in my initial post. The 75 ppm LOEL in males rats was for adenomas; carcinomas and adenomas were elevated at 375 ppm. The current occupational exposure level is 10 ppm. The proposal was to reduce that to 3 ppm in light of the new data, but that seems inadequate given the LOEL for liver adenoma in male rats. , : I am currently reviewing information concerning a proposed occupational , : exposure limit for an industrial chemical. The substance is a , : non-genotoxic carcinogen, which has been tested in both mouse and rat , : chronic/onco studies. In males of both species, statistically significant , : increases in liver adenomas/carcinomas were observed at exposure levels of , : 75 ppm. The company that manufactures the substance is proposing a TWA ...
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We have previously shown that riddelliine, a naturally occurring genotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, induces liver tumors in rats and mice through a genotoxic mechanism mediated by the formation of a set of eight 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine ( DHP)-derived DNA adducts. In this study we report the formation of these DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood DNA of rats fed riddelliine. In an adduct formation and removal experiment, male and female F344 rats (8 weeks of age) were administered riddelliine by gavage at a single dose of 10.0 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. At 8, 24, 48, and 168 hrs after dosing, the levels of DHP-derived DNA adduct in blood and liver were determined by 32P-postlabeling/HPLC. Maximum DNA adduct formation occurred at 48 hr after treatment. From 48 to 168 hours, the adduct levels in female rat blood were 4-fold greater than those in male rats. In a dose response experiment, female rats were gavaged 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses of riddelliine for three
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Appearances are typical of FNH, i.e. well-defined margins, early peripheral enhancement (| than surrounding liver), persistent peripheral enhancement with Primovist indicating the presence of hepatocytes, non-restriction of diffusion and central ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
Factors that affect Diffusion:. 1) Concentration gradient- The greater difference between two areas, the fatser the rate of diffusion. This is beacuse the the greater the concentration gradeint is.. 2) Temperature. The higer the temperture, the greater rate oif diffusion.. 3) Surface area…. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Benign hepatocellular tumors. AU - Guzman, Ignacio J.. AU - Gold, Jay H.. AU - Rosai, Juan. AU - Schneider, Philip D.. AU - Varco, Richard L.. AU - Buchwald, Henry. PY - 1977/10. Y1 - 1977/10. N2 - This series summarizes all cases diagnosed as benign hepatocellular tumors occurring at the University of Minnesota Hospitals from 1950 to 1976. Excluding hemangiomas, 40 tumors were reviewed and reclassified. Eighteen were diagnosed as focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), 10 as hepatocellular adenomas (HCS), 11 as bile duct adenomas (BDA), and one as a mesenchymal hamartoma. FNH: The female: male ratio was 8:1, and the mean age was 43 years ±18 (SD). Two patients were symptomatic; of these, one presented with portal hypertension. Treatment consisted of local resection in 12, left hepatectomy in one, and right hepatectomy in two. Eight patients had a history of oral contraceptive or other steroid intake. The tumors occurring after 1964 were larger (p , 0. 05). HCA: The female: male ratio ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ring-like enhancement of focal nodular hyperplasia with hepatobiliary-phase Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. T2 - Radiological-pathological correlation. AU - Fujiwara, Hiroyasu. AU - Sekine, Shigeki. AU - Onaya, Hiroaki. AU - Shimada, Kazuaki. AU - Mikata, Rintaro. AU - Arai, Yasuaki. PY - 2011/12. Y1 - 2011/12. N2 - We report a case of focal nodular hyperplasia in a patient for whom gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)- enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis results were available. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a well-defi ned hypervascular lesion 14 mm in diameter with no visible central scars. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI demonstrated strong peripheral enhancement of the lesion during the hepatobiliary phase, resulting in ring-like enhancement. The pathology examination revealed that the lesion was focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). Immunohistochemistry showed positive expression ...
Pediatric liver tumors are an important and challenging aspect of the practice of Pediatric Pathology. Groundbreaking advances have been made over the last few years that have propelled the field forward. This symposium will focus on the histopathologic features, molecular alterations and other advances regarding hepatoblastoma, the transitional cell liver tumor (hepatoblastoma with hepatocellular features/hepatocellular neoplasm NOS), hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Additionally, next generation sequencing and other genomics initiatives have led to the proposal of a new biologically-based classification system for all pediatric liver tumors. With this in mind, we will present a review of the molecular techniques required to establish diagnoses and guide treatment. Finally, advances in the risk stratification and oncologic treatment of patients with hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma with particular focus on the latest international cooperative trial will also be ...
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Recent clinical trials introducing new immunosuppressive regimens and improved islet preparation techniques have shown that transplantation of islets of Langerhans into the liver of type 1 diabetic patients could represent an alternative to exogenous insulin treatment and allows for the normalization of metabolic control, which cannot be achieved by administration of exogenous insulin alone ( 1- 5). Although a few cases have been published in the English literature, detailed histopathologic studies of the livers of long-term recipients have not yet been conducted ( 5- 8). Thus, little is known about the paracrine effects of insulin on the adjacent hepatocytes, which may turn out to be of major clinical importance in the long term.. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus has been identified as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans in Western Europe and the United States ( 9- 15). However, the mechanisms by which diabetes may contribute to the formation of HCCs in humans are ...
The early deaths of many of the B6C3F1 mice exposed to oxazepam were attributed to a marked increase in the incidences of hepatoblastoma (males: 0/49, 2/50, 21/50, 13/50; females: 0/50, 1/50, 8/50, 8/50), hepatocellular adenoma (males: 17/49,18/50, 34/50, 32/50; females: 25/50, 35/50, 35/50, 36/50), and hepatocellular carcinoma (males: 9/49, 5/50, 45/50, 50/50; females: 9/50, 5/50, 49/50, 44/50). Moderate hypertrophy of centrilobular hepatocytes occurred in mice receiving 2,500 and 5,000 ppm (males: 0/49, 2/50, 26/50, 43/50; females: 0/50, 2/50,11/50, 29/50). An increase in the incidence of follicular cell hyperplasia of the thyroid gland occurred in all exposed groups of mice (males: 4/49, 22/50, 49/50, 47/50; females: 16/50, 34/50, 49/50, 44/50), and thyroid gland follicular cell adenoma was increased in exposed females (0/50, 4/50, 5/50, 6/50). Testicular atrophy occurred in the 2,500 and 5,000 ppm groups (1/50, 0/50, 25/50, 38/50), and the incidence of epididymal Iymphocyte infiltration was ...
Triethanolamine poisoning symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Triethanolamine poisoning (Chemical poisoning - Triethanolamine) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common primary hepatic malignancies and one of the fastest-growing causes of cancer-related mortality in the United States. The molecular basis of HCC carcinogenesis has not been clearly identified. Among the molecular signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of HCC, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is one of the most frequently activated. A great effort is under way to clearly understand the role of this pathway in the pathogenesis of HCC and its role in the transition from chronic liver diseases, including viral hepatitis, to hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) and HCCs and its targetability in novel therapies. In this article, we review the role of the β-catenin pathway in hepatocarcinogenesis and progression from chronic inflammation to HCC, the novel potential treatments targeting the pathway and its prognostic role in HCC patients, as well as the imaging features of HCC and their association with aberrant activation of the pathway ...
In a 103-week carcinogenicity study, the read-across substance DEHA was administered to F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice in the diet at levels of 12000 or 25000 ppm, equivalent to a daily intake of 600 or 1250 mg/kg of body weight in rats and 1715 or 3570 mg/kg of body weight in mice (conversion based on data from the WHO report (2004)). No test substance related tumors were found in the rat (no increased tumour incidences). In the (female) mice an increased number of hepatocellular carcinomas was found at both doses. Hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas occured combined in high-dose mice of both sexes and in low-dose female mice at incidences that were dose-related and significantly higher than those in control mice. The association of liver tumours in male mice with the administration of DEHA was not considered to be conclusive because the increased number of liver tumours in males reflected only an increase in adenomas in the high-dose group and because the time to observation of tumours was not ...
In the present study we exposed WT, p53+/−, Xpa, and Xpa/p53+/− mice to 300 ppm 2-AAF, a bladder and liver carcinogen, to compare the relative contribution of a deficiency in NER, p53, or both on tumor development in two different tumor target tissues. Under the conditions used in this study, WT mice showed no clear tumor response in the liver or the urinary bladder. This finding is in line with previous reports showing that the development of 2-AAF-induced bladder and/or liver tumors takes longer than 39 weeks (40) . In fact, sustained 2-AAF exposure would most likely have resulted in the development of both urinary bladder and liver tumors, because a clear induction of preneoplastic lesions was found in 2-AAF-treated WT mice (Table 1) ⇓ . Interestingly, NER-deficient Xpa mice were clearly susceptible to develop hepatic tumors upon 2-AAF treatment, because a significant increased number of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were found (Table 1) ⇓ . Surprisingly, these mice showed no ...
But no one had analyzed what the mind cells themselves had been doing during among these shows, stated co-author Dr. Jeffrey Noebels, teacher of neurology, neuroscience, and molecular and individual genetics and movie director from the Blue Parrot Group Developmental Neurogenetics Lab at Baylor. The researchers took a closer go through the firing activity of neurons within an section of the visual cortex of the genetic mouse style of absence epilepsy.Wolchok believes the analysis is important since it identified 3 different ways where PD-1 blocking medicines can fail: If an immune response is merely not really strong more than enough for how big is the tumour. If the medication is off focus on. Once the US group looked back again through the info they might predict treatment failure 3 to 6 in, 6 weeks sooner than in previous clinical studies.. The larger the tumour, the greater T cell reinvigoration was needed from the drug. John Wherry in the University or college of Pa who led the analysis. ...
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Biochemical and molecular biological approaches in situ have provided compelling evidence for early bioenergetic changes in hepatocarcinogenesis. Hepatocellular neoplasms regularly develop from preneoplastic foci of altered hepatocytes, irrespective of whether they are caused by chemicals, radiation …
LD50= 2g/kg (human, oral); LD50= 3 g/kg (rat, oral); LD50= 2.5 g/kg (mice, oral); LD50= 21 mg/kg (male rat, IV); LD50= 23 mg/kg (female rat, IV); LD50= 25 mg/kg (male mice, IV); LD50= 24 mg/kg (female mice, IV); LD50= 1g/kg (rat, subcutaneous); LD50= 637 mg/kg (male mice, subcutaneous); LD50= 632 mg/kg (female mice, subcutaneous ...
Triethanolamine acetate | C8H19NO5 | CID 159752 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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BACKGROUND:The occurrence of liver cancer is higher in males than in females, and the incidence increases during aging. Signaling pathways regulated by retinoid × receptor a (RXRa) are involved in hepatocellular carcinogenesis ...
Long-term users of Elmiron have suffered a variety of side effects including a type of retina damage that could lead to permanent blindness if left untreated.
The Wetherall group has dedicated the company to help people who are wronged by the medicine Elmiron. Some side effects can be vomiting, headache but these Elmiron side effects are much worse. One of the side effects is a problem with the eyes. Elmiron® eye disease cases are becoming a thing that more and more people are getting, and the only way to stop that is with the help of the company Wetherall group. They are very good in this kind of cases and they can get you the justice that you deserve.. Suing the company that made you sick will not make you feel any better but you will get the money that you deserve. With the money that you got from a lawsuit, you can pay for medical bills and make you a little bit better. So, call them today and find out how they can help you.. ...
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Liver cell adenomatosis differs from hepatic adenomas by its definition of more than 10 hepatic adenomas that are in both liver ... Liver cell adenomatosis is associated with liver dysfunction and higher rates of bleeding than hepatic adenomas alone. ... Liver tumors (also known as hepatic tumors) are abnormal growth of liver cells on or in the liver. Several distinct types of ... Available evidence suggests that bleeding occurs in approximately 63% of patients with liver cell adenomatosis. Liver cell ...
It is also known as a hepatoid tumor because of the similarity in cell shape to hepatocytes (liver cells). It is most commonly ... Adenomas are more common, making up 91 percent of perianal gland tumors in one study. Adenomas and adenocarcinomas look alike, ... Perianal gland adenomas are three times more likely to be found in intact male dogs than females, and perianal gland ... However, 95 percent of perianal gland adenomas will disappear after neutering the dog. Rem emoving the tumor and neutering the ...
Water-soluble peptide hormones cannot penetrate the fatty cell membrane and only indirectly affect the nucleus of target cells ... However, the orally available forms of AAS may cause liver damage in high doses. Known possible side effects of AAS include: ... hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholestasis, peliosis hepatis; all mostly or exclusively with 17α-alkylated ... AAS also affect the number of cells that develop into fat-storage cells, by favouring cellular differentiation into muscle ...
... we found 5 liver cell adenomas, 5 focal nodular hyperplasias and 1 liver cell carcinoma. Brambilla G, Martelli A (December 2002 ... No abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed in women taking combined birth control pills containing CMA or CPA ... DNA adducts in the rat liver were also found after in vitro incubation with megestrol and chlormadinone, as well as after in ... However, the incidence of liver tumors in women in association with CMA-containing birth control pills appears to be similar to ...
Priestley, J. T.; Comfort, M. W.; Radcliffe, J. (1944). "Total Pancreatectomy for Hyperinsulinism Due to an Islet-Cell Adenoma ... "Priestley, James Taggart (1903 - 1979)". Plarr's Lives of the Fellows, Royal College of Surgeons of England. ...
Cell Stem Cell. 1 (6): 685-697. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2007.10.020. PMID 18371409. Liang Y, Diehn M, Watson N, Bollen AW, Aldape KD ... ID4 is not found in normal epitheliums nor adenomas of colorectal cancer. Hypermethylation of ID4 causes silencing of the gene ... It is also frequently observed in liver metastases of colorectal cancer specimens. Rett syndrome is an X linked ... diffuse B Cell lymphomas and lymphoid cell lines due to hypermethylation. In brain tumours, more specifically oligodendroglial ...
... cellular carcinomas and/or adenomas in the liver and mononuclear cell leukemia. In mice, oral administration of riddelliine led ... Riddelliine has also been observed to increase mutations in endothelial cells in the liver of rats. One study observed the ... These results suggest that the relatively high mutagenicity of riddelliine in rat liver endothelial cells may be partially ... The typical clinical picture is that of ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, veno-occlusive disease of the liver, and abnormal liver ...
After an exposure of 40 weeks to citrinin the rats also showed small adenomas. In mammalian cells in vitro, citrinin did not ... These results suggest the liver as origin for citrinin metabolism in male rats. A recent study of Ali et al. (2015) ... The ESC-B5 cells were treated with 10-30 μM CTN for 24 hours and a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability was found. Chan ... 2006) investigated the effect of CTN on cell viability for a HL-60 cell line. When exposed to 25 μM CTN for 24 hours, no ...
Cell Physiology. 283 (5): C1522-9. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00115.2002. PMID 12372813. Singla A, Kumar A, Priyamvada S, Tahniyath M ... Chloride anion exchanger, also known as down-regulated in adenoma (protein DRA), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 293 (5): G923-34. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00029.2007. PMID 17761837. Sandal NN, Marcker KA ( ... Protein DRA is a membrane protein in intestinal cells. It is an anion exchanger and a member of the sulfate anion transporter ( ...
And because cells with this mutant form of the Gs protein continue to secrete GH, this could result in the overgrowth of teeth ... Growth hormone- secreting adenomas will contain a mutant form of the Gs protein; this protein is a stimulatory regulator of ... IGF-1 is produced principally by the liver, but also by the tissues in the body. Growth hormone will initially exhibit insulin- ... Cells containing this mutant form of the Gs protein will continue to secrete growth hormone even in the absence of the growth ...
Rat studies investigating the carcinogenicity of PFASs reported significant correlation with liver adenomas, Leydig cell tumors ... between elevated C8 exposure and liver adenomas or pancreatic acinar cell tumors; however, a probable link[vague] was found ... Sakr CJ, Leonard RC, Kreckmann KH, Slade MD, Cullen MR (August 2007). "Longitudinal study of serum lipids and liver enzymes in ... Two mechanisms have been proposed by which PFOA could cause Leydig cell tumors. Both mechanisms start by proposing that PROA ...
1 cell type) Stage of disease Ill health Spread (diffuse) "Go look for the adenoma please": Tropic hormones affected by growth ... "Muscles LIVe fast": Leucine Isoleucine Valine "The fat (fat-soluble vitamins) cat lives in the ADEK (vitamins A, D, E, and K ... GERM: Distension: liver problems, bowel obstruction Rigidity (board like): bleeding Guarding: muscular tension when touched ... BLAB: Bone Liver Adrenals Brain ABCDEF: Achalasia Barret's esophagus Corrosive esophagitis Diverticuliis Esophageal web ...
... liver, prostate, meningioma of brain, pituitary adenoma, glioblastoma and breast cancer. Netrin-3 appears to be specifically ... The luminal cells secrete netrin 1, which binds to the receptor neogenin (a homologue of DCC) on the cap cells. This allows for ... Also, the migration of adult neural progenitor cell and adult spinal cord progenitor cells to the spine is netrin 1 dependent. ... Netrins also act as growth factors, encouraging cell growth activities in target cells. Mice deficient in netrin fail to form ...
... liver abscess, amebic MeSH C06.552.697.040 - adenoma, liver cell MeSH C06.552.697.160 - carcinoma, hepatocellular MeSH C06.552. ... adenoma, liver cell MeSH C06.301.623.160 - carcinoma, hepatocellular MeSH C06.301.623.460 - liver neoplasms, experimental MeSH ... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C06.689.667.249.500 - insulinoma MeSH C06.689.667.500 - carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C06.689.667.500.124 ... liver abscess, amebic MeSH C06.552.597.758 - liver abscess, pyogenic MeSH C06.552.630.380 - liver cirrhosis, alcoholic MeSH ...
... as in hepatic adenoma (a benign tumor of hepatocytes, or liver cells). Teratomas contain many cell types such as skin, nerve, ... The cells in tubular adenomas, like most tumors that frequently progress to cancer, show certain abnormalities of cell ... On histology, giant cells of fused osteoclasts are seen as a response to neoplastic mononucleated cells. Notably, giant cells ... Adenomas are benign tumors of gland-forming cells, and are usually specified further by their cell or organ of origin, ...
Renal cell carcinoma, liver tumors, Von Hippel-Lindau disease, and endocrine abnormalities including pheochromocytoma and ... adrenal adenoma with Cushing's syndrome. Anabolic steroid use - people whose testosterone levels are high, including athletes ... Anemia, a decrease in red blood cell count Cytopenia, a decrease in blood cell count Capillary leak syndrome, another cause of ... It can describe an increase in the number of red blood cells ("absolute polycythemia") or to a decrease in the volume of plasma ...
... or biliary cystadenoma is a slow-growing tumour arising from bile ducts of the liver. The presence of endocrine cells in the ... Cystadenoma (or "cystoma") is a type of cystic adenoma. When malignant, it is called cystadenocarcinoma. When not otherwise ...
... they cannot penetrate cell membranes. Thus, GH exerts some of its effects by binding to receptors on target cells, where it ... The liver is a major target organ of GH for this process and is the principal site of IGF-1 production. IGF-1 has growth- ... Eventually, the adenoma may become large enough to cause headaches, impair vision by pressure on the optic nerves, or cause ... cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals. It is thus important in human development. GH also ...
Inhibiting FACL4 leads to inhibition of human liver tumor cells, as marked by an increased level of apoptosis. It has also been ... FACL4 up-regulation appears to occur during the transformation from the cancer from adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Additionally, ... 2007). "Regulation of cell growth by fatty acid-CoA ligase 4 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells". Exp. Mol. Med. 39 (4): ... The enzyme controls the level of this fatty acid in cells; because AA is known to induce apoptosis (cell specific), the enzyme ...
... as found in human colon and liver cancer cells. Besides sphingomyelin, ENPP7 can also degrade and inactivate platelet- ... Of particular interest is that the activity of ENPP7 is significantly decreased in human colorectal adenoma and carcinoma as ... can inhibit cell proliferation and stimulate cell differentiation and apoptosis. Animal studies showed that supplement of SM or ... The enzyme expressed in human liver is released in the bile and delivered to the intestine. The activity of ENPP7 depends ...
This classification was based on animal test data that showed an increase in the incidence of liver adenomas (benign tumour) ... of the cells of the adrenal cortex. The US EPA has classified dicofol as a Group C, possible human carcinogen. There is limited ... and combined liver adenomas and carcinomas in male mice. Reproductive effects in rat offspring have been observed only at doses ... Poisoning may affect the liver, kidneys or the central nervous system. Very severe cases may result in convulsions, coma, or ...
Myers, L; Ahn, J (August 2020). "Focal Nodular Hyperplasia and Hepatic Adenoma: Evaluation and Management". Clinics in Liver ... Other patterns include telangiectatic, hyperplastic-adenomatous, and lesions with focal large-cell dysplasia. Rarely, these ... between the FNH and surrounding liver except when there is marked liver steatosis that reduces the attenuation of the liver, ... Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign tumor of the liver (hepatic tumor), which is the second most prevalent tumor of the ...
... (also known as hepatic adenoma or hepadenoma) is a rare, benign liver tumor. It most commonly occurs in ... Cells resemble normal hepatocytes and are traversed by blood vessels but lack portal tracts or central veins. Micrograph of ... Hepatic adenoma is usually detected by imaging, typically an ultrasound or CT, as a hyperenhancing liver nodule. Given that ... Since hepatic adenomas can be large (8-15 cm), patients may notice a palpable mass. However, hepatic adenomas are usually ...
Repaglinide caused an increased incidence in male rats of benign adenomas (tumors) of the thyroid and liver. No such effect was ... They bind to an ATP-dependent K+ (KATP) channel on the cell membrane of pancreatic beta cells in a similar manner to ... The rise in intracellular calcium leads to increased fusion of insulin granula in the cell membrane, and therefore increased ...
... juxtaglomerular cell tumor), and renal adenoma. People with suspected kidney cancer should also have their kidney function ... liver or bone involvement could result in abnormal liver enzymes, electrolyte abnormalities, or anemia. A urine sample should ... The cells that line the renal pelvis are called transitional cells, and are also sometimes called urothelial cells. The ... Other rare types of kidney cancers that can arise from the urothelial cells of the renal pelvis are squamous cell carcinoma and ...
Adrenocortical adenoma Renal cell carcinoma Pheochromocytoma Hepatocellular carcinoma Adrenocortical carcinomas are most ... Invasion of adjacent structures such as kidney, vena cava, liver, and retroperitoneal lymph nodes are also common. On MRI, it ... On microscopic examination, the tumor usually displays sheets of atypical cells with some resemblance to the cells of the ... Wang C, Sun Y, Wu H, Zhao D, Chen J (March 2014). "Distinguishing adrenal cortical carcinomas and adenomas: a study of ...
Certain benign liver tumors, such as hepatocellular adenoma, may sometimes be associated with coexisting malignant HCC. ... giant cell), and clear cell. In well-differentiated forms, tumor cells resemble hepatocytes, form trabeculae, cords, and nests ... To maintain liver function, residual liver volume should exceed 25% of total liver volume in a noncirrhotic liver, greater than ... Liver transplantation, replacing the diseased liver with a cadaveric or a living donor liver, plays an increasing role in ...
Flat to low cuboidal cells, resembling mesothelial cells, in the lining interspersed between columnar cells in the same area is ... Cystadenomas in liver are often confused with hydatid cyst as their appearance on various imaging techniques is nearly same. ... It is a type of cystic adenoma (cystadenoma). Mucinous cystadenomata may arise in a number of locations; however, mucinous ... Both are multiloculated cystic neoplasms and are lined by a single layer of tall columnar cells with a clear basal nucleus and ...
Older theories proposing a non-neoplastic origin include the following: Adrenal cortical cells, or other cells within the ... They may also occur in other sites, such as the mediastinum, the liver and the gastrointestinal tract. There is no gender ... ISBN 978-0-443-06685-6. Ong K, Tan KB, Putti TC (July 2007). "Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma" ( ... The blood-forming cells may arise by differentiation of cells within the capillaries of the adrenal gland. Myelolipoma simply ...
Hepatic adenomas are a rare benign tumour of the liver, which may present with hepatomegaly or other symptoms. Breast adenomas ... Biopsy usually confirms the growth to be an adenoma, but, sometimes, excision at surgery is required, especially when the cells ... An adenoma is a benign tumor of epithelial tissue with glandular origin, glandular characteristics, or both. Adenomas can grow ... Over time adenomas may transform to become malignant, at which point they are called adenocarcinomas. Most adenomas do not ...
F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... Summary: Associated Cancers: colorectal and ovarian cancer; pilomatrixoma; medulloblastoma; pleomorphic adenomas; malignant ... "Coactivation of AKT and β-catenin in mice rapidly induces formation of lipogenic liver tumors". Cancer Res. 71 (7): 2718-27. ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ...
... in breast cancer cells: blockade of cell cycle progression, promotion of apoptotic cell death and PEA3-mediated transcriptional ... This suggests that the observed increased risks of liver injury linked to the start of treatment may reflect changes in health ... "Aberrant crypt foci of the colon as precursors of adenoma and cancer". N Engl J Med. 339 (18): 1277-84. doi:10.1056/ ... can induce cell death in breast cancer cells and block their growth. Fecal fat excretion promotes colon carcinogenesis. In 2006 ...
... most cells looked fairly normal and there was no evidence of mitosis which would indicate that cells were rapidly dividing), ... and the majority of these patients can and do live productive lives. In debulking, the surgeon attempts to remove as much tumor ... 2007) argued that continued use of non-malignant terms, i.e., adenoma, for those frequent cases with low-grade features (such ... irregular cells, evidence that cells were rapidly dividing, and other criteria), with or without an associated primary mucinous ...
... and C-cell adenomas/adenocarcinomas of the thyroid gland and tumors of the haemopoietic system in males. Second, Lewis rats are ... ISBN 978-0-697-39293-0. Peacock KA (1996). Living with the Earth: An Introduction to Environmental Philosophy. Harcourt Brace ... The most common are adenomas of the pituitary and adenomas/adenocarcinomas of the adrenal cortex in both sexes, mammary gland ... livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. Scientists have bred many strains or "lines" of rats specifically for ...
... a clinical trial for colorectal adenoma prevention Dissecting the multicellular ecosystem of metastatic melanoma by single-cell ... Living people, 1959 births, Members of the National Academy of Medicine, Princeton University alumni, University of Utah School ... March 17, 2005). "Cardiovascular risk associated with celecoxib in a clinical trial for colorectal adenoma prevention". The New ... April 1, 2016). "Dissecting the multicellular ecosystem of metastatic melanoma by single-cell RNA-seq". Science. 352 (6282): ...
Landscaper genes encode products that determine the composition of the membranes in which cells live. For example, large ... Bosman, F. T. (1999). "The hamartoma-adenoma-carcinoma sequence". The Journal of Pathology. 188 (1): 1-2. doi:10.1002/(SICI) ... Growth of cells depends both on cell-to-cell interactions and cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Mechanisms of ... This is because cells with these mutations are able to replicate at a faster rate than nearby cells. This is known as " ...
Moh MC, Shen S (2009). "The roles of cell adhesion molecules in tumor suppression and cell migration: a new paradox". Cell ... was first discovered and characterised in human liver and reported by Shali Shen (MD, PhD) in 2005. The gene encodes a protein ... "HEPACAM1 and 2 are differentially regulated in canine mammary adenomas and carcinomas and its lymph node metastases". BMC ... Moh MC, Tian Q, Zhang T, Lee LH, Shen S (May 2009). "The immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule hepaCAM modulates cell ...
... while a malignancy arising from primitive liver precursor cells is called a hepatoblastoma and a cancer arising from fat cells ... June 2007). "Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: a randomized clinical trial". JAMA. 297 (21): 2351-9. doi: ... For a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be altered. The ... such as giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma and small-cell carcinoma. An invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (pale ...
Diploid liver cells express high levels of H19, whereas the polyploid cell fraction do not express H19. Also, diploid ... The mean percent methylation of H19 CpGs peaked at sites 9 and 10 in normal, hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma adrenals and ... cell proliferation, cell cycle timing or anchorage-dependent growth Tumorigenic mesenchymal stem cells express high levels of ... Cells treated with Azad, a demethylating agent, grow much slower than cells cultured in the absence of Azad. At the same time, ...
... an adenocarcinoma or an adenoma. PTPRK mRNA was shown to be significantly reduced by RT-PCR in human lung cancer-derived cell ... In situ hybridization localized PTPkappa mRNA to the brain, lung, skeletal muscle, heart, placenta, liver, kidney and ... PTPkappa mediates homophilic cell-cell aggregation via its extracellular domain. PTPkappa only mediates binding between cells ... In these cells, adhesion to matrigel, transwell migration, and cell growth were all increased following the reduction of PTPRK ...
... ve stem cells drive self-renewal in the stomach and build long-lived gastric units in vitro". Cell Stem Cell. 6 (1): 25-36. doi ... ve stem cells were identified to fuel stem cell activity in murine intestinal adenomas via erroneous activation of the pro-cell ... Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells, goblet cells, tuft cells, columnar cells and the M cells over an adult's entire lifetime. ... ve stem cells reside in the isthmus, the region between the pit cells and gland cells, where most cellular proliferation takes ...
If a human could live long enough, it is inevitable that at least one of his or her cells would eventually accumulate a set of ... have shown an elevated DNA damage response in cell-culture models with oncogene activation and preneoplastic colon adenomas. ... After DNA damage, cell cycle checkpoints are activated. Checkpoint activation pauses the cell cycle and gives the cell time to ... Thus, in a population of cells composing a tissue with replicating cells, mutant cells will tend to be lost. However, ...
... classic basal cell carcinoma) Paget's disease of the breast Papillary eccrine adenoma (tubular apocrine adenoma) Papillary ... epithelioid and spindle cell nevus, Spitz's juvenile melanoma) Solar lentigo (lentigo senilis, liver spot, old age spot, senile ... pale cell acanthoma) Clear cell squamous cell carcinoma (clear cell carcinoma of the skin) Chronic scar keratosis (chronic ... Solitary trichoepithelioma Spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (spindle cell carcinoma) Spiradenoma Squamous cell carcinoma ...
"Oral contraceptives and liver cancer. Results of the Multicentre International Liver Tumor Study (MILTS)". Contraception. 56 (5 ... 544-. ISBN 978-3-642-60107-1. Kovacs K, Stefaneanu L, Ezzat S, Smyth HS (May 1994). "Prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma in a ... Stalvey JR (July 2002). "Inhibition of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-isomerase in mouse adrenal cells: a direct effect of ... Famularo G, Minisola G, Grieco A, Miele L (September 2005). "Fulminant liver failure caused by cyproterone". Dig Liver Dis. 37 ...
... place cell, grid cells, border cells, head direction cells, spatial view cells, pyramidal cells, granule cells also barrier ... Individuals with mild symptoms generally do well and live long productive lives, while individuals with the more severe forms ... Pituitary adenoma (tumor in the pituitary gland), Skull fracture and Cranioplasty (correcting a defect or deformity of the ... brain cell) and nervous tissue Classifying brain cells/neurons by type: ...
EIF2B4 Leydig cell adenoma, somatic, with precocious puberty; 176410; LHCGR Leydig cell hypoplasia with hypergonadotropic ... PKD1 Polycystic liver disease; 174050; PRKCSH Polycystic liver disease; 174050; SEC63 Polycystic ovary syndrome; 184700; FST ... T cell-negative, B-cell/natural killer-cell positive; 608971; CD3D Severe combined immunodeficiency, T cell-negative, B-cell/ ... T cell-negative, B-cell/natural killer-cell positive; 608971; PTPRC Severe combined immunodeficiency, T-cell negative, B-cell/ ...
2001). "Expression of cell adhesion molecule T-cadherin in the human vasculature". Histochem. Cell Biol. 115 (3): 231-42. doi: ... 2002). "Aberrant methylation of the CDH13 (H-cadherin) promoter region in colorectal cancers and adenomas". Cancer Res. 62 (12 ... whereas in surrounding tumor tissue as well as in normal liver no T-cadherin could be detected. The increase in T-cadherin ... In confluent cultures of vascular cells, T-cadherin was distributed equally over the entire cell surface, in contrast to VE- ...
"Interleukin-2 and interleukin-2 receptor expression in human corticotrophic adenoma and murine pituitary cell cultures". The ... Living people, TWAS laureates, Officers Crosses of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany). ... Cell. 131 (2): 309-23. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.044. hdl:20.500.12110/paper_00928674_v131_n2_p309_CarbiaNagashima. PMID ... Arzt E, Chesnokova V, Stalla GK, Melmed S (March 2009). "Pituitary adenoma growth: a model for cellular senescence and cytokine ...
Due to its mode of beta decay, iodine-131 causes mutation and death in cells that it penetrates, and other cells up to several ... "Nuclear Chemistry: Half-Lives and Radioactive Dating - For Dummies". Dummies.com. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2012. ... For example, children treated with moderate dose of 131I for thyroid adenomas had a detectable increase in thyroid cancer, but ... Use of the 131I as iodide salt exploits the mechanism of absorption of iodine by the normal cells of the thyroid gland. Major ...
Warthin-Finkeldey cell His collected papers are preserved in the Bentley Historical Library at the University of Michigan. ... He taught more than 3,000 medical students, who described him as "the greatest living teacher of pathology". He was a master of ... Warthin, Aldred Scott (July 1929). "Papillary Cyst Adenoma Lymphomatosum: A Rare Teratoid of the Parotid Region". Journal of ...
Studies of various cell lines including glioblastoma cell lines, three prostate cancer cell lines, and a breast tumor cell line ... This is true for a wide spectrum of cancers including colon, breast, prostate, lung, liver, stomach, and bladder. Because of ... the CDKN1B gene has been reported in families affected by the development of primary hyperparathyroidism and pituitary adenomas ... Lack of CDKN1B expression appears to release the hair cells from natural cell-cycle arrest. Because hair cell death in the ...
Palosaari PM, Hiltunen JK (February 1990). "Peroxisomal bifunctional protein from rat liver is a trifunctional enzyme ... Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1761 (9): 973-94. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2006.04.006. PMID 16766224. de Launoit Y, Adamski ... and 4 expression and enzyme activity in human anterior pituitary adenomas". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1761 (9): 973-94. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2006.04.006. PMID 16766224. ...
Méndez GP, Klock C, Nosé V (December 2008). "Juxtaglomerular Cell Tumor of the Kidney: Case Report and Differential Diagnosis ... can also damage the liver, pancreas, and rarely, the heart and brain. It can be autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive, with ... Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas]". Endokrynologia Polska ... The differential diagnosis of a renal tumor in a young patient with hypertension includes Juxtaglomerular cell tumor, Wilms' ...
... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C04.557.470.035.100.852 - insulinoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.120 - adenoma, liver cell MeSH C04.557. ... liver neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.623.040 - adenoma, liver cell MeSH C04.588.274.623.160 - carcinoma, hepatocellular MeSH ... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C04.588.274.761.249.500 - insulinoma MeSH C04.588.274.761.500 - carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C04.588. ... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C04.588.322.421.249.500 - insulinoma MeSH C04.588.322.421.500 - carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C04.588. ...
One of them was Maria Skłodowska-Curie, a physicist and chemist living in France. Another noteworthy one was Ignacy Domeyko, a ... Olga Malinkiewicz, Polish physicist and inventor of a method of producing solar cells based on perovskites using inkjet ... original concepts for removing prostatic adenoma and introduced many other surgical techniques that are successfully used to ... Hilary Koprowski, Polish virologist and immunologist, inventor of the world's first effective live polio vaccine Andrzej ...
liver. angiosarcoma. mammary gland. anaplastic and squamous metaplasia. lung. bronchioaveolar adenoma. liver. hepatic cell ... liver enlargement, liver function abnormalities, increased sulphbromophthalein retention liver damage, serum enzyme ... Other manifestations may include liver enlargement and liver function abnormalities. In adults, untreated angiosarcoma of the ... 4 all caused angiosarcoma of the liver and other cancers in animals. Angiosarcoma of the liver was induced in rats exposed to ...
These findings were compatible with those of liver cell adenoma. Although differention between liver cell adenoma and well- ... These findings were compatible with those of liver cell adenoma. Although differention between liver cell adenoma and well- ... These findings were compatible with those of liver cell adenoma. Although differention between liver cell adenoma and well- ... These findings were compatible with those of liver cell adenoma. Although differention between liver cell adenoma and well- ...
In these individuals, a mutation occurs in the second copy of the HNF1A gene in liver cells. This second mutation, called a ... HNF1A-mutated hepatocellular adenomas (also known as H-HCA) account for about 30 to 40 percent of this type of liver tumor. The ... The HNF-1α protein also controls genes involved in liver development. By controlling genes that regulate cell growth and ... Rarely, individuals with HNF1A-MODY develop one or more noncancerous (benign) liver tumors called hepatocellular adenomas. ...
benign hepatic cell adenoma, a type of liver tumor * a breast tumor ... liver cell carcinoma * focal nodular hyperplasia of liver, a type of liver tumor ...
Significantly increased numbers of follicular cell carcinomas and adenomas and papillary adenomas of the thyroid were found in ... hepatocellular carcinomas and adenomas and neoplastic liver nodules; malignant lymphomas; adrenal pheochromocytomas; and ... parts per million resulted in significantly increased incidences of follicular cell carcinomas and adenomas and C-cell adenomas ... Uncommon tumors of low incidence in historical controls were also reported and included bile duct adenomas, urinary bladder ...
... lansoprazole produced a dose-related increase of testicular interstitial cell adenomas. The incidence of these adenomas in rats ... It also produced an increased incidence of liver tumors (hepatocellular adenoma plus carcinoma). The tumor incidences in male ... Certain types of lupus erythematosus. Lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder (the bodys immune cells attack other cells ... Lansoprazole produced dose-related gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia and ECL cell carcinoids in both male ...
E-cadherin is expressed by epithelial cells and is responsible for homotypic cell-cell adhesion. Degradation of tissue E- ... Gastrointestinal & Liver Physiology, 2003, 285(1):G217-G222.. *Smith AM, Watson SA. Gastrin and gastrin receptor activation: an ... and plays a key role in the initiation and the progression of cancer through the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in the stomach [25 ... Gastrin (G) cells and somatostatin (D) cells in patients with dyspeptic symptoms: Helicobacter pylori associated and non- ...
... with the margins of the adenoma containing normal cells interspersed with adenomatous cells. These adenomatous cells can be ... Liver histology in individuals with elevated hepatic enzymes can range from the presence of normal hepatocytes with some fatty ... Somatotroph adenomas take on the character of typical pituitary adenomas. Somatotroph tumors lack true capsules, ... Individuals with somatotroph adenomas due to GNAS1 mutations have detectable elevations of GH, insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF ...
... hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in male mice and hepatocellular carcinomas in female mice and mononuclear cell leukemia ... and elevated serum levels of liver enzymes. Liver injury might not develop until several days after exposure. ... It can damage the liver and kidneys. If the liquid spills on the skin or eyes, it can cause irritation or burns. Vapors in the ... Organ damage, primarily liver and kidney, may occasionally be seen. CNS effects appear immediately during and following ...
The lesion consists of nodular areas of well differentiated hepatocytes arranged in plates of no more than 2 cells thick. The ... The most challenging differential diagnosis for FNH is hepatic adenoma (HA). It is an important distinction to make because HA ... FNH is the second most common benign liver tumor after hemangioma. In children, it is the third most common benign liver tumor ... In relatively young females presenting with a solitary nodule a lack of diffuse liver disease or abnormal liver function tests ...
... hepatocellular adenoma (HA), and a more specific HNF-1α-inactivated human hepatocellular adenoma (H-HCAs). Abundant clinical ... Moreover, scientific data implies that HNF-1α exerts its effects on cell stemness and hence can indirectly impact liver ... from the present scientific data that HNF-1α has a great potential to serve as a target for liver malignancies and cell ... Scientific research over the period of three decades has reported it as an important player in various liver malignancies such ...
Tao LC "Oral contraceptive-associated liver cell adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma." Cancer 68 (1991): 341-7 ... The use of oral contraceptives is contraindicated in patients with liver tumors. An increased risk of benign hepatic adenomas ... Gyorffy EJ, Bredfeldt JE, Black WC "Transformation of hepatic cell adenoma to hepatocellular carcinoma due to oral ... Le Bail B, Jouhanole H, Deugnier Y, Salame G, Pellegrin JL, Saric J, Balabaud C, Bioulac-Sage P "Liver adenomatosis with ...
Adenomas arising from lactotroph cells are a common pituitary pathology in humans, and are a frequent cause of infertility. The ... Live-cell imaging was used to quantify patterns of reporter gene expression in dispersed lactotrophic cells or intact pituitary ... Call for papers: Cell and Tissue Polarity. The eighth Journal of Cell Science Special Issue will focus on cell and tissue ... F) Location of the cells showing each profile within the pituitary slice (cells shown by green dots). (G) Three cells were ...
These properties are of use in characterizing hepatic liver lesions. The distinction between FNH and hepatocellular adenoma (HA ... SPIO is a contrast agent that undergoes phago¬cytosis by the reticuloendothelial system (Kupffer cells).10 The use of SPIO ... The uptake of SPIO in hepatic adenomas is poor compared to FNH.11 Only 20 per cent of signal loss on T2W is usually seen in ... It is often present on the liver surface or it may be pedunculated. The majority of lesions are smaller than 5 cm having a mean ...
... and gingival squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. Hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocholangioma of the liver were also ... At 2 years, adenomas and/or carcinomas were present in the adrenal cortex of most core study groups and in the 1,000 ng/kg stop ... Gingival squamous cell carcinoma, although reduced in incidence as compared to the 1,000 ng/kg core study group, was still ... The tissue disposition of PCB 126 was analyzed in the liver, lung, fat, and blood of all rats in vehicle controls and all dosed ...
Liver tumors can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). ... Tumors happen when cells form a mass or growth. ... A liver tumor can form if cells in the liver grow in a way they ... adenoma. Malignant tumors happen less often than benign tumors. The most common types of liver cancer are:. *Hepatoblastoma: ... What Are Liver Tumors?. The liver is the bodys largest solid organ. It has many jobs, including:. *cleaning the blood of ...
The Au198 became rapidly concentrated in these cells, over 80 per cent being retained in the liver. ... An increase in the incidence of pulmonary adenomas occurred in mice receiving both radioactive and nonradioactive colloidal ... of Au198, estimated to deliver 850-3400 rep to the liver, caused no early deaths but produced chronic liver damage in 45-83 per ... Liver Damage and Hepatomas in Mice Produced by Radioactive Colloidal Gold* A. C. Upton; A. C. Upton ...
... liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, bile duct tumours, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and other ... Liver vein Dopplerography can be applied in liver screening examinations to detect occult liver diseases. It can be also ... Liver biopsy. N Engl J Med. , 344. 7. 495. 500. *14. Brown. K. E.. Janney. C. G.. Brunt. E. M.. 2000. Liver biopsy: indications ... Liver Int. , 23. 2. 116. 123. *25. Desmet. V. J.. Rosai. J.. 2004. Liver. In: Rosai and Ackermans surgical pathology, 9th ed. ...
Colonic polyps, or adenomas, are benign epithelial neoplasms that arise from the epithelial cells lining the colon. Colonic ... BS Anand, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American ... Tubular adenomas are the most common of the three types and can be found anywhere in the colon. Villous adenomas most commonly ... Colon adenoma features and their impact on risk of future advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer. World J Gastrointest Oncol. ...
Adenoma, Liver Cell Entry term(s). Adenoma, Hepatocellular Adenomas, Hepatocellular Adenomas, Liver Cell Benign Hepatoma Benign ... Hepatocellular Adenoma Hepatocellular Adenomas Hepatoma, Benign Hepatomas, Benign Liver Cell Adenoma Liver Cell Adenomas ... Hepatocellular Adenoma. Hepatocellular Adenomas. Hepatoma, Benign. Hepatomas, Benign. Liver Cell Adenoma. Liver Cell Adenomas. ... Adenoma, Hepatocellular. Adenomas, Hepatocellular. Adenomas, Liver Cell. Benign Hepatoma. Benign Hepatomas. ...
Carcinoma (NOS) was reported in 8.1%; adenocarcinoma arising from adenoma (adenocarcinoma in villous adenoma, in tubulovillous ... Signet ring cell carcinoma of the ampulla of vater: Report of a case and a review of the literature. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2015 ... Liver is the most common site (66%) of distant metastasis, followed by lymph nodes (22%). In advanced cases, lung metastasis ... Hartenfels IM, Dukat A, Burg J, Hansen M, Jung M. [Adenomas of Vaters ampulla and of the duodenum. Presentation of diagnosis ...
Wnt proteins modulate cell proliferation and differentiation and the self-renewal of stem cells by inducing β-catenin-dependent ... In addition, the surrogates can be systemically expressed and exhibit Wnt activity in vivo in the mouse liver, regulating ... They find that Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells normally differentiate unless both R-spondin and Wnt ligands are present. However, ... to maintain stem-cell competency and these receptors are in turn activated in the presence of R-spondin to drive stem-cell ...
Liver cell adenoma (morphologic abnormality) Code System Concept Status. Published. Code System Preferred Concept Name. Liver ...
Liver Cell Adenoma 72% * Focal Nodular Hyperplasia 71% * Wells syndrome 69% * Hyperplasia 43% ... of apparent diffusion coefficient analysis for differentiating pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma: ...
... liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5 to 5.5 times higher.Marked and severe nephropathies were also generally 1.3 to 2.3 ... Macroscopic pale spots (I) and microscopicnecrotic foci in liver (G clear-cell focus, H basophilic focuswith atypia), and ... In females, pituitary adenomas (K to M) are shownand compared to control (J, rat number and C for control).Apostrophes after ... The most affected organs in males were the liver, hepatodigestive tract, and kidneys(Table 2; Figure 1A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I). Liver ...
  • Rarely, individuals with HNF1A -MODY develop one or more noncancerous (benign) liver tumors called hepatocellular adenomas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is unclear how the mutations cause liver cells to grow uncontrollably and form tumors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The HNF1A gene mutations that cause these tumors severely reduce or eliminate the function of the HNF-1α protein in affected liver cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is unclear how loss of HNF-1α function causes cells to grow uncontrollably and form tumors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Uncommon tumors of low incidence in historical controls were also reported and included bile duct adenomas, urinary bladder papillomas, and ovarian granulosa cell tumors. (cdc.gov)
  • Increases in intragastric pH may result in hypergastrinemia and enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and increased chromogranin A levels which may interfere with diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. (nih.gov)
  • The prevalence of FNH has been reported to be between 0.4-3% in the adult population, accounting for approximately 8% of all primary liver tumors in adults. (cap.org)
  • In children FNH accounts for only 2% of primary liver tumors. (cap.org)
  • What Are Liver Tumors? (kidshealth.org)
  • What Are the Types of Liver Tumors? (kidshealth.org)
  • Liver tumors can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant ( cancerous ). (kidshealth.org)
  • The cause of many malignant liver tumors isn't known. (kidshealth.org)
  • How Are Liver Tumors Treated? (kidshealth.org)
  • Surgery to remove a tumor usually is the best and most effective treatment for children with benign or malignant liver tumors. (kidshealth.org)
  • If an individual got Cushing syndrome because of a tumor , they would need to have regular follow-ups with their provider for the rest of their lives to check for additional tumors. (commanet.org)
  • However, no other types of malignant liver tumors were studied so far. (biomedcentral.com)
  • EZH2 expression was examined in 44 hepatocellular carcinomas, 23 cholangiocarcinomas, 31 hepatoblastomas, 16 other childhood tumor types (rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor and rhabdoid tumor), 17 metastatic liver tumors 24 hepatocellular adenomas, 15 high grade dysplastic nodules, 3 biliary cystadenomas, 3 biliary hamartomas and 3 Caroli's diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of the malignant liver tumors were positive for EZH2, but neither of the adenomas, cirrhotic/dysplastic nodules, reactive and hamartomatous biliary ductules stained positively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our immunostainings confirm that EZH2 is a sensitive marker of hepatocellular carcinoma, but its specificity is very low, since almost all the investigated malignant liver tumors were positive regardless of their histogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the biggest group, there are antigens which are specific for cell types and they give information about the histogenesis of tumors e.g. thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), prostate specific antigen (PSA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • It also can be challenging, especially in case of highly differentiated tumors, to distinguish these from dysplastic nodules or hepatocellular adenomas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tumors occur when there is an error in this regulation and cells continue to grow uncontrolled. (oncolink.org)
  • Tumors of the liver occur when there is an error in the regulation of growth of any of the cells in the liver, including the liver cells themselves (hepatocytes), the bile duct cells, or the blood vessels within the liver. (oncolink.org)
  • There are a number of benign liver tumors. (oncolink.org)
  • Other benign tumors include adenomas (benign tumors of the hepatocytes) and focal nodular hyperplasia (a localized growth of several types of liver cells). (oncolink.org)
  • When malignant tumors start in the liver this is primary liver cancer. (oncolink.org)
  • Secondary liver tumors, or liver metastases, are cancers that start elsewhere in the body and metastasize (spread) to the liver. (oncolink.org)
  • The liver, for example, can grow tumors and develop cancer. (haru-menu.it)
  • 2004 · цитируется: 262 - the association between anabolic androgenic steroids and liver tumors was first noted in patients with fanconi's anemia (fa). (haru-menu.it)
  • In the same study, SLIT2 exhibited overexpression in tumor cell lines and primary tumors of a variety of tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Approximately 20% of malignant tumors of the lung are due to small cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic exposure of rats resulted in increased thyroid follicular cell tumors from sustained perturbation of thyroid hormone homeostasis. (cdc.gov)
  • Meloxicam was shown to prevent the initiation of chemical-induced tumors, and considered as anticancer agent by virtue of its anti-proliferative effect, capacity for cell cycle arrest, and pro-apoptotic effects, also acted as free radical scavenger, in p. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the essential receptor were at an increased risk of developing steatohepatitis and liver tumors despite being on a normal diet. (naturalnews.com)
  • In 2016, the World Health Organization released an updated classification of renal cell tumors that expanded the subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on tumor histology, chromosomal alterations, and molecular pathways. (medscape.com)
  • Papillary renal cell carcinomas are histologically and cytogenetically defined by two main subtypes, type 1 and type 2, but they represent a heterogeneous disease that includes both indolent and agressive tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Although differention between liver cell adenoma and well-differentiate dhepatocellular carcinoma(Edmondson grade I) is deemed difficult, it is our opinion that the diagnosis of liver cell adenoma can be made by following characteristics: 1) incidence in young adult 2) no underlying liver disease 3) large tumor in the majority of cases 4) histologic findings of monotonous growth and scanty atypia. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary malignant liver tumor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • View in microscopic of pathology cross section tissue ductal cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma diagnosis by pathologist in laboratory. (dekormatrica.hu)
  • Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the Skin with adenoma hypophysis pathology large nuclei and many mitotic figures. (dekormatrica.hu)
  • Ductal cell carcinoma. (dekormatrica.hu)
  • Liver cancer: Hepatocellular carcinoma hepatoma is a malignant tumor often associated with chronic hepatitis B photographed and uploaded by US board certified surgical pathologist. (dekormatrica.hu)
  • According to some meta and pool analysis, smoking is linked with squamous cell and small cell carcinoma rather than the other forms. (wepapers.com)
  • Commonly seen tracheal cancers are of two types, namely, adenoid cystic carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (Macmillan.org.uk, 2015). (wepapers.com)
  • In conclusion, reticulin loss that reaches levels seen in hepatocellular carcinoma can be seen focally in benign liver tissues with fatty change. (elsevier.com)
  • In mice, bromochloroacetic acid caused a significantly increased incidence of hepatocellular adenoma (a rare, benign liver tumor) and hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer) in males and females, and of hepatoblastoma (uncommon malignant liver cancer) in males. (epicwaterfilters.com)
  • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of all lung cancers and is divided into adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • A large central lesion was diagnosed as non-small cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • The diagnosis of the highly aggressive collecting duct carcinoma is based on six histological features: medullary location, infiltrative growth pattern, tubular architecture, desmoplastic stromal reaction, high-grade atypia, and that the tumor is neither an RCC nor a transitional cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Focal Nodular Hyperplasia and Hepatic Adenoma : Differentiation with Low Index Contrast Enhanced Sonography. (ispub.com)
  • they can increase the risk of cardiac valve regulation, induce retroperitoneal and pulmonary fibrosis9 and reduce the likelihood of complete adenoma resection due to preoperative DA therapy-induced fibrosis.10 Therefore, the development of adjuvant therapy for pituitary adenoma is urgently needed. (bioinf.org)
  • Nevertheless, the consequences of ubenimex-induced ROS harm and the legislation of related 1025065-69-3 signalling pathways in pituitary adenoma cells stay unknown. (bioinf.org)
  • In today's study, we directed to look for the anticancer actions as well as the potential systems of ubenimex in two different rat pituitary adenoma cell lines. (bioinf.org)
  • Cushing syndrome caused by a pituitary tumor (pituitary adenoma) is called Cushing disease. (commanet.org)
  • Cushing syndrome caused by a pituitary tumor (pituitary adenoma) is known as Cushing disease. (commanet.org)
  • Szürkehályog optikai szonda Pituitary Adenoma: Diagnosis. (dekormatrica.hu)
  • A pituitary adenoma may be suspected based on symptoms, the medical history, and physical findings. (dekormatrica.hu)
  • Significantly increased numbers of follicular cell carcinomas and adenomas and papillary adenomas of the thyroid were found in rats given combined treatment compared to controls or those receiving initiator or MDA alone. (cdc.gov)
  • It has been described to distinguish reliably hepatocellular carcinomas from liver adenomas and other benign hepatocellular lesions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In large part, due to the vascular nature of the liver, it is a very common site where cancers from other areas of the body spread (also known as metastasis). (oncolink.org)
  • Liver enzyme levels are indicated in any patient with uveal melanoma, because the liver is the most common site of choroidal melanoma metastasis. (medscape.com)
  • Histologic examination of the resected specimen disclosed obvious differentiation toward hepatocytes in tumor cells and scanty atypia in nuclei. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Wnt proteins modulate cell proliferation and differentiation and the self-renewal of stem cells by inducing β-catenin-dependent signalling through the Wnt receptor frizzled (FZD) and the co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 to regulate cell fate decisions and the growth and repair of several tissues 1 . (nature.com)
  • Organoids may be generated from adult stem cell-containing tissue samples, single adult stem cells, or via the directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. (stemcell.com)
  • Ubenimex, an adjunct therapy medicine for many cancers, has shown anticancer effects by enhancing the function of immunocompetent cells.11,12 Aminopeptidase N (APN), a potential target of ubenimex, participates in various cellular processes in different cancers, including cell cycle control, cell motility, cell differentiation, cellular attachment and angiogenesis.13 It has been reported that ubenimex exerts antineoplastic effects through different mechanisms. (bioinf.org)
  • Computational analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation during the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells along the endodermal lineage. (mpg.de)
  • We also observed that ROBO1 and SLIT2 differentiated histopathological subgroups of liver tissues depending on both tumor staging and differentiation status. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The maximum size of papillary adenoma was 5 mm but is now ≤15 mm in its largest dimension. (medscape.com)
  • Its metastatic potential depends on the phenotype of the tumor cells, and it frequently disseminates before diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Minor liver, hematological, and renal effects, as well as changes in body weight, have also been observed in exposed rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Multilocular cystic clear cell RCC has been renamed as multilocular cystic renal neoplasia of low malignant potential due to its indolent behavior. (medscape.com)
  • The incidence of leukemia was not significantly altered, and neoplasms of reticuloendothelial cells were not produced by the colloidal Au 198 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • An increase in the incidence of pulmonary adenomas occurred in mice receiving both radioactive and nonradioactive colloidal gold. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In rats, bromochloroacetic acid caused a significantly increased incidence of mesothelioma in males, of large intestine adenoma in males and females, and of pancreatic islet cell adenoma in males. (epicwaterfilters.com)
  • In addition, gut microbiota and bile acid profiles may explain the gender difference in liver disease, as liver cancer incidence is much higher in men than in women," senior study investigator Dr. Yu-Jui Yvonne Wan said in an article on Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News website . (naturalnews.com)
  • The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and the dynamic network of tight junctions that connect them physically limit the entry of bacteria into the body, while the mucus and antimicrobial peptides secreted by the IECs further limit contact with the mucosal surface and translocation of bacteria by ensuring that the surface of the epithelium remains sterile. (worldgastroenterology.org)
  • Alternatively immortalized cell lines do not recapitulate the complexity of the intestinal epithelium, which consists of multiple cell types, including enterocytes, goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells and, in the small intestine, Paneth cells. (worldgastroenterology.org)
  • DNA-methylome analysis of mouse intestinal adenoma identifies a tumour-specific signature that is partly conserved in human colon cancer. (mpg.de)
  • The intestinal epithelial cells are sometimes larger than regular, reflecting megaloblastic change akin to that in the bone marrow. (pi.gov.br)
  • We study the role and the regulation of the intestinal anion exchanger down regulated in adenoma (DRA) . (uni-rostock.de)
  • Lissner S, Nold L, Hsieh CJ, Turner JR, Gregor M, Graeve L, Lamprecht G Activity and PI3-kinase dependent trafficking of the intestinal anion exchanger downregulated in adenoma depend on its PDZ interaction and on lipid rafts. (uni-rostock.de)
  • Studies on the mechanism of simvastatin-induced thyroid hypertrophy and follicular cell adenoma in the rat. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either simvastatin (a novel competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase) or phenobarbital (positive control) to ascertain the possible relationship between the effects of simvastatin on hepatic metabolism and the thyroid hypertrophy and follicular cell adenomas which it produces in this strain of rat. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • It is the second most common benign lesion of the liver after haemangioma and contains hepatocytes, bile duct elements, Kupffer cells and fibrous tissue. (ispub.com)
  • There is rapid enhance¬ment of FNH appearing hyperdense relative to liver in the arterial phase (approx first 30 seconds) with a steady decrease in attenuation during the portal phase during which it appears relatively isodense to hypo¬dense to the normal liver tissue and the central scar remains of low density. (ispub.com)
  • The spectrum of morphological research included investigations of liver tissue damage on different levels that explained the mechanisms of biochemically detected cytolysis and cholestasis syndrome, fibrosis and liver cirrhosis development. (intechopen.com)
  • It became possible with the development of methods able to bring sufficient amount of liver tissue as well as to ensure the safety of the procedure itself. (intechopen.com)
  • The methods used to obtain liver tissue include transcutaneous needle biopsy and transvenous approach via jugular or femoral vein. (intechopen.com)
  • To date, organoid culture systems have been developed to model tissue structures from all three primary cell lineages. (stemcell.com)
  • 3,4,6 Although tissue-specific culture methods vary, in general, appropriate pluripotent stem cells or tissue-specific progenitor cells are embedded in Matrigel® or another appropriate extracellular matrix. (stemcell.com)
  • Organoids are revolutionizing in vitro cell culture by providing accessible, physiologically relevant models that faithfully recapitulate key elements of the modeled tissue. (stemcell.com)
  • Spend less time troubleshooting and more on experimenting with optimized organoid media kits for the growth and maintenance of organoids from primary tissue and human pluripotent stem cells. (stemcell.com)
  • 4,7,21,22 This technology also holds tremendous potential for regenerative medicine, as organoids present the possibility for autologous and allogeneic cell therapy through the replacement of damaged or diseased tissue with organoid-propagated tissue or stem cell populations. (stemcell.com)
  • However, an underappreciated diagnostic pitfall is that non-neoplastic liver tissue can also show reticulin loss when there is fatty change. (elsevier.com)
  • a portion of living tissue taken from one person (the donor) and implanted in another (the recipient) for the purpose of fusing two tissues together. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • a portion of living tissue taken from a part of ones own body and transferred to another for the purpose of fusing two tissues together. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • When compared to normal liver tissue, ROBO1 was found to be significantly overexpressed, while ROBO4 was down-regulated in HCC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Somatotroph adenoma tissue from 10 acromegalic patients was examined to compare receptor expression profiles. (webpediatrica.com)
  • This recommendation is based on the results of recent studies indicating that exposure to vinyl bromide and to vinylidene chloride causes angiosarcoma of the liver and other cancers in laboratory animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Vinyl chloride is known to cause angiosarcoma of the liver and cancers of other sites in laboratory animals and in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Laboratory studies have demonstrated that exposure by inhalation to vinyl chloride, 1-2 vinyl bromide, 3 and vinylidene chloride 1 , 4 all caused angiosarcoma of the liver and other cancers in animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Scientific research over the period of three decades has reported it as an important player in various liver malignancies such as hepatocellular cancers (HCCs), hepatocellular adenoma (HA), and a more specific HNF-1α-inactivated human hepatocellular adenoma (H-HCAs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • These cancers can arise from the bile ducts within the liver (known as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas) or from the bile ducts as they lead away from the liver (known as extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas). (oncolink.org)
  • Mechanisms for the dysregulated accumulation of c-Myc protein in cancers, as well as the means by which c-Myc stimulates cell proliferation and transformation, have received much attention. (biomedcentral.com)
  • of Au 198 , estimated to deliver 850-3400 rep to the liver, caused no early deaths but produced chronic liver damage in 45-83 per cent and hepatomas in 10-26 per cent of mice injected. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Relatively, in least degree the morphological phenomena of apoptosis and its role in acute and chronic liver diseases were examined. (intechopen.com)
  • Furthermore, folate necessities are markedly elevated in pregnancy and in some ailments related to increased cell turnover, corresponding to chronic haemolysis. (pi.gov.br)
  • Of the chronic effects of winstrol and oxandrolone anabolic steroids on liver. (affordablegemsbypaparazzi.com)
  • Major light microscopic alterations observed were proliferation and hypertrophy of the terminal bronchiolar cells, consisting of ciliated and Clara cells, hypersecretion of the epithelial mucin in the goblet cells of both the bronchial and the proximal bronchiolar epithelium, hyperplasia of alveolar epithelium, mobilization of alveolar macrophages and occasional presence of peribronchial or bronchiolar chronic inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • Natural News ) An animal study posted on The American Journal of Pathology website revealed that a typical Western diet that is high in sugar and fat was associated with an increased risk of developing chronic liver inflammation and subsequent cancer. (naturalnews.com)
  • While this protein is found in several tissues and organs, it seems to be especially important in the pancreas and liver. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Regulation of gene activity by the HNF-1α protein is critical for the growth and development of beta cells in the pancreas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Organs that surround the liver include the gall bladder (located just behind the liver), the small intestine, part of the colon (large intestine), the right kidney, and the head of the pancreas. (oncolink.org)
  • About 9 l of fluid arrive in the proximal small intestine as secretions from the salivary glands, the stomach, the pancreas, the liver (bile) and as orally consumed fluids. (uni-rostock.de)
  • It is extremely rich in vitamins and minerals (micronutrients), and contained in her secretin (plant hormones) stimulates secretion in the stomach, pancreas, liver and positive influence on peristalsis. (yhc.ie)
  • Tests have been developed that detect mutant, fragmented, and/or methylated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from exfoliated colon tumor cells in stool. (medscape.com)
  • Prior studies show that tumor cells include higher ROS amounts and even more unregulated antioxidant actions than regular 1025065-69-3 cells.19,20 Because of these attributes, cancer cells create excessive oxidative strain. (bioinf.org)
  • Rarely, a few tumor cells may be left after the surgery. (commanet.org)
  • Tumor-induced glaucoma may be produced by obstruction of outflow pathways by pigment cells (pigment dispersion syndrome), melanin-laden macrophages (melanomalytic glaucoma), or tumor cells. (medscape.com)
  • Submicroscopic changes of pulmonary alveoli were represented by focal thickening of the basement membrane, multiple foci of hyperplastic type II cell (the precondition of the alveologenic tumor), active discharge of osmiophilic lamellar bodies from the type II cell and phagocytosis of the bodies by macrophages, appearance of cholesterol crystalloids in the macrophages, degeneration of alveolar septal cells and occasional appearance of a large nucleus with swelling of the capillary endothelium. (cdc.gov)
  • It is clear that microbial imbalance and dysregulated bile acid synthesis are inseparable, and they jointly contribute to hepatic inflammation via the gut-liver axis. (naturalnews.com)
  • Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF-1α) is a transcription factor expressed predominantly in the liver among other organs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNFs) were initially discerned as liver-enriched transcription factors that could play multiple roles in the transcription of liver-specific genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, the surrogates can be systemically expressed and exhibit Wnt activity in vivo in the mouse liver, regulating metabolic liver zonation and promoting hepatocyte proliferation, resulting in hepatomegaly. (nature.com)
  • Human embryonic stem cell derived hepatocyte-like cells as a tool for in vitro hazard assessment of chemical carcinogenicity. (mpg.de)
  • When preoperative endoscopic biopsy identifies a lesion as an ampullary adenoma with no high-risk features (eg, high-grade dysplasia), treatment with local resection (ampullectomy) may be considered, if the patient is not a candidate for pancreaticoduodenectomy. (medscape.com)
  • Our objective was to compare sst and D 2 R expression levels between adenomas from patients with elevated and normalized preoperative urinary free cortisol excretion. (webpediatrica.com)
  • Individuals with MAS may have elevated liver enzymes or hyperbilirubinemia. (medscape.com)
  • 2016 - download free full-text of an article the impact of anabolic-​androgenic steroids use on the liver enzymes (alt, ast, alp) and. (haru-menu.it)
  • Conversely, phenobarbital produced large increases in liver microsomal enzymes, including glucuronosyl transferase, but did not affect the activity of HMG CoA reductase. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Corticosteroids can increase liver enzymes-especially alkaline phosphatase-without inducing liver. (affordablegemsbypaparazzi.com)
  • The effect of anabolic steroids on drug metabolism by microsomal enzymes in rat liver. (affordablegemsbypaparazzi.com)
  • Several studies - including the discovery of prof. Sedlak, talking about combining a living organism with microelements animal enzymes elements, which come bioenergetic field stimulate the body, helping him create new healthy cells in the pathological-carcinogenic - folk FAME confirmed with anti-cancer properties of nettles - write Materowie. (yhc.ie)
  • Laboratory tests show elevated liver enzymes , mild hyperglycemia, and leukocytosis. (osmosis.org)
  • To further characterize this important diagnostic pitfall, reticulin staining was studied in cases of nonalcoholic steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and hepatic adenomas with fatty change. (elsevier.com)
  • A total of 112 cases with varying degrees of steatosis were collected from 4 academic centers, including 49 cases of steatosis, 49 cases of steatohepatitis, and 14 hepatic adenomas with fatty change. (elsevier.com)
  • In hepatic adenomas, reticulin loss was seen only in areas of fatty change, and decreased reticulin again paralleled the amount of steatosis, with more prominent reticulin loss in those cases with marked steatosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Loss of reticulin can also be seen in hepatic adenomas with fatty change. (elsevier.com)
  • 2018 · цитируется: 14 - food-drug interaction: anabolic steroids aggravate hepatic lipotoxicity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease induced by trans fatty acids. (haru-menu.it)
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (nafld) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome affecting over 80% of patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. (affordablegemsbypaparazzi.com)
  • However, only the FXR-deficient male mice showed extensive lymphocyte and neutrophil infiltration in the liver, while only Western diet-fed, FXR-deficient male mice developed fatty adenomas. (naturalnews.com)
  • Any current sporadic adenoma without dysplasia (adenomatous polyps occurring proximal to known areas of colitis) that has not been removed. (who.int)
  • Villous adenomas of the rectum and distal colon can occasionally manifest as a syndrome of severe diarrhea with massive fluid and electrolyte loss. (medscape.com)
  • We evaluated receptor mRNA and protein expression levels and effects of octreotide, pasireotide, and cabergoline on ACTH secretion by cultured human corticotroph adenoma cells. (webpediatrica.com)
  • 41.9% ± 3.1%) with respect to inhibition of ACTH secretion by adenomas from group 2. (webpediatrica.com)
  • Organoid technology holds great potential as a tool to study a wide range of subjects, including developmental biology, disease pathology, cell biology, regenerative mechanisms, precision medicine, and drug toxicity and efficacy testing. (stemcell.com)
  • 76% of the altered parameters were kidney-related.In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5 to 5.5 times higher.Marked and severe nephropathies were also generally 1.3 to 2.3 times greater. (springeropen.com)
  • In the kidney and liver, levels of 110 and 52 ppb were found, while levels in muscle were only 9 ppb. (inchem.org)
  • After 8 days, levels in liver and kidney had fallen to 27 and 12 ppb, respectively, while those in muscle were in the range of 2.5 ppb. (inchem.org)
  • By 28 days after dosing only low levels were found in kidney and muscle (0.9 and 0.5-0.8 ppb, respectively) with slightly higher concentrations in the liver (2 ppb) (Duhm et al . (inchem.org)
  • 1973). When pigs were dosed at levels in the range of those recommended in use (up to 100 ppm in the diet) for up to 20 weeks, relatively high levels were found in the kidney (around 2000 ppb) with relatively moderate levels in the liver (300 ppb) when the animals were killed six hours after drug withdrawal. (inchem.org)
  • When killed 2 days after withdrawal, levels had fallen to below the limits of detection (50 ppb) in liver, kidney and muscle. (inchem.org)
  • 1976). After pigs were given diets containing up to 45 ppm olaquindox for the duration of the fattening period, the highest levels were found in the liver (0.14 ppm) and kidney (0.28 ppm) 6 hours after withdrawal. (inchem.org)
  • Cancer, Kidney & Liver Damage. (epicwaterfilters.com)
  • Corticotroph pituitary adenomas often highly express the dopamine 2 receptor (D 2 R) and somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (sst 5 ). (webpediatrica.com)
  • Liver cirrhosis was not combined. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Transfer to a liver transplantation center is recommended for patients with hepatic dysfunction related to cirrhosis in the setting of portal vein thrombosis. (medscape.com)
  • 4. Any current sporadic adenoma containing dysplasia or any current adenoma-like dysplasia-associated lesions or masses that has not been removed. (who.int)
  • Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas begin in the somatotropic cells of the pituitary gland. (ballband-jp.com)
  • The liposomal form of doxorubicin the gland cells in the issues resulting from RT People cancer that occurs in the oral capsule or injected liquid - called systemic RT - may need to stay in as breast cancer and ovarian their body no longer gives off radiation. (fluttercorner.com)
  • FNH manifests as a hypervascular liver mass during the arterial phase of contrast enhanced US. (ispub.com)
  • HNF1A -mutated hepatocellular adenomas (also known as H-HCA) account for about 30 to 40 percent of this type of liver tumor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • FNH is a non-neoplastic hyperplastic process that occurs around a site of abnormal vasculature in the liver. (cap.org)
  • By electron microscopy, short microvilli, tight junctions between two adjacent cells, appearance of osmiophilic lamellar bodies, large mitochondria of irregular shape, well developed Golgi complexes, continuous or discontinuous basement membranes, occasional appearance of "sequestration" and of crystalloids and lack of both cilia and mucous secretory granules were observed as characteristic features of the neoplastic cells. (cdc.gov)
  • It is suggested that the neoplastic cells were transformed from type II alveolar epithelium via its hyperplastic form. (cdc.gov)
  • and alveolar bronchiolar adenomas. (cdc.gov)
  • Electron microscopically, Clara cells of the terminal bronchiolar epithelium showed proliferation of the rough and smooth surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and appearance of large and abnormally shaped mitochondria. (cdc.gov)
  • Colloidal radioactive Au 198 was injected intravenously into mice in large doses in an attempt to produce neoplasms of the reticuloendothelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Similar to WNT3A, these Wnt agonists elicit a characteristic β-catenin signalling response in a FZD-selective fashion, enhance the osteogenic lineage commitment of primary mouse and human mesenchymal stem cells, and support the growth of a broad range of primary human organoid cultures. (nature.com)
  • Statistically significant increases in liver and thyroid weights were associated with phenobarbital treatment. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Thyroid hormones then increase the rate of metabolism in all cells, so they make us think, move, and talk faster, and they also increase heat generation. (osmosis.org)
  • On computed tomography (CT) imaging a 5.3 cm, solitary, well-circumscribed liver lesion with a central area of scarring is identified within the left hepatic lobe. (cap.org)
  • The lesion consists of nodular areas of well differentiated hepatocytes arranged in plates of no more than 2 cells thick. (cap.org)
  • FNH usually occurs as a solitary lesion located in the right lobe of the liver. (cap.org)
  • On the portal venous phase the lesion remains isoechoic to the liver with a central non-enhancing scar. (ispub.com)
  • Non-contrast CT of FNH demonstrates a non- specific low density lesion, often located adjacent to the liver capsule. (ispub.com)
  • FNH is the second most common benign liver tumor after hemangioma. (cap.org)
  • In children, it is the third most common benign liver tumor, after hemangioma and hamartoma. (cap.org)
  • Hemangiomas are the most common benign tumor of the liver, and occur when a benign, blood-filled tumor forms within the liver. (oncolink.org)
  • Hostopathological report shows epithelial cells along with fibrous element. (medsterz.com)
  • Abundant clinical and rodent data have noted the downregulation of HNF-1α in parallel with liver malignancies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After achieving normocortisolism induced by medical therapy, cortisol-mediated sst 2 downregulation on corticotroph adenomas appears to be a reversible process at the mRNA but not at the protein level. (webpediatrica.com)
  • Despite major progress in the diagnostics and therapy of liver diseases of different etiologies, the assessment of liver function continues to present a major clinical problem. (intechopen.com)
  • Liver biopsy is an essential part of the diagnostics and follow-up of many liver diseases giving clinically important information as well as scientific data. (intechopen.com)
  • Good level of oral hygiene practice (OHP) keeps the oral cavity clean and prevents most oral and systemic diseases, especially for children who live in lowincome countries. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Our results suggest that probiotics and FXR agonists hold promise for the prevention and treatment of hepatic inflammation and progression into advanced liver diseases such as cancer ," Dr. Wan said in a separate article on ScienceDaily.com . (naturalnews.com)
  • She previously had a splenectomy and partial pancreatectomy 5 years previous because of cystic adenoma and adrenal incidentaloma without hormonal activity. (cdc.gov)
  • Adenoma hypophysis pathology. (dekormatrica.hu)
  • Among the cords, there are sinusoidal capillaries Presence adenoma hypophysis pathology numerous Neutrophil in the blood Leukemia blood cells medical science background concept. (dekormatrica.hu)
  • Sectioning of the specimen reveals a well demarcated but non-encapsulated light brown 5.3 cm mass that bulges from the surrounding liver parenchyma. (cap.org)
  • Arterial malformations result in focal change in perfusion, causing hyperplasia of the surrounding liver parenchyma. (cap.org)
  • As apposed to HCC, in which rapid washout is generally seen FNH is isoechoic to the liver parenchyma into the portal venous phase and beyond. (ispub.com)
  • And also - here please note - improves the function of cells of hepatic parenchyma damage in the states of this important organ! (yhc.ie)
  • The HNF-1α protein also controls genes involved in liver development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • By controlling genes that regulate cell growth and survival, the HNF-1α protein is thought to act as a tumor suppressor, which means that it helps prevent cells from growing and dividing too rapidly or in an uncontrolled way. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Even after normalization of cortisol or thyroxine levels, these elevations can persist, suggesting the presence of G protein alpha subunit (Gs alpha)-activating ( GNAS1 ) mutations in the liver. (medscape.com)
  • It seems that the mechanistic dysregulation in the control of c-Myc protein stabilization is another important hallmark associated with c-Myc accumulation in cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Firstly, siRNA-mediated silencing of DNA-PKcs strikingly downregulated c-Myc protein levels in HeLa and HepG2 cells, and simultaneously decreased cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The c-Myc protein level in DNA-PKcs deficient human glioma M059J cells was also found much lower than that in DNA-PKcs efficient M059K cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Silencing of DNA-PKcs in HeLa cells resulted in a decreased stability of c-Myc protein, which was associated the increasing of c-Myc phosphorylation on Thr58/Ser62 and ubiquitination level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consistent with this depressed DNA-PKcs cell model, overexpressing DNA-PKcs in normal human liver L02 cells, by sub-chronically exposing to very low dose of carcinogen 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), increased c-Myc protein level, the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3 β, as well as cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether the increased AKT or MAPK kinase-1/2 (MEK1/2) activity observed in endometriotic stromal cells (OSIS) from ovarian endometriomas influences levels of PR protein. (webpediatrica.com)
  • Inhibiting AKT with MK-2206 or MEK1/2 with U0126 for 24 hours in the absence of R5020 increased total and nuclear PRA and PRB protein levels in OSIS but not in eutopic endometrial stromal cells from disease-free patients from disease-free patients. (webpediatrica.com)
  • There were no statistically significant differences in sst 5 and D 2 R mRNA expression or in sst 2 , sst 5 , and D 2 R protein expression between both groups of corticotroph adenomas. (webpediatrica.com)
  • Whether sustained normocortisolism induced by medical therapy induces re-expression of functional sst 2 protein in corticotroph adenomas and whether this increases the ACTH-lowering potency of octreotide remains to be established. (webpediatrica.com)
  • Wang Z, Zhang M, Quereda V, Frydman SM, Ming Q, Luca VC, Duckett DR, Ji H. Discovery of an Orally Bioavailable Small-Molecule Inhibitor for the β-Catenin/B-Cell Lymphoma 9 Protein-Protein Interaction. (moffitt.org)
  • ROS are essential signalling molecules that may mediate apoptosis, autophagy, and activation of cell signalling kinases.21 Many therapeutic medications have already been indicated to work in the treating human malignancies through ROS-related signalling pathways. (bioinf.org)
  • Hence, we quantified SLIT-ROBO transcripts in HCC cell lines, and in normal and tumor tissues from liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of SLIT-ROBO family members was quantified by real-time qRT-PCR in 14 HCC cell lines, 8 normal and 35 tumor tissues from the liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene expression matrices of cell lines and tissues were analyzed by Mantel's association test. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, SLIT-ROBO expression predicted AFP -dependent subgrouping of HCC cell lines, but not that of liver tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cells are grown in the presence of cell culture media containing specific growth factors that mimic the in vivo signals required to maintain the stem cell population. (stemcell.com)
  • Overall, reticulin loss was not associated with the degree of inflammation or with the presence or absence of balloon cell change. (elsevier.com)
  • In turn, the effects of inhibiting AKT or MEK1/2 in the presence of the progestin R5020 on cell viability were investigated. (webpediatrica.com)
  • According to the scientists, the harmful effects of following a Western diet on the liver may be due to the presence of inflammation-inducing Proteobacteria . (naturalnews.com)
  • Over time, the cells of a malignant tumor become more abnormal and appear less like normal cells. (oncolink.org)
  • Undifferentiated cells are cells that have become so abnormal that, we cannot tell what types of cells they started from. (oncolink.org)
  • A suitable DNA-PKcs level in cells is necessary for maintaining genomic stability, while abnormal overexpression of DNA-PKcs may contribute to cell proliferation and even oncogenic transformation by stabilizing the c-Myc oncoprotein via at least the Akt/GSK3 pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, scientific data implies that HNF-1α exerts its effects on cell stemness and hence can indirectly impact liver malignancies and metabolic functioning. (biomedcentral.com)