A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.
Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.
Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.
Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Carbon tetrachloride poisoning is a condition characterized by the systemic toxicity induced by exposure to carbon tetrachloride, a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent, causing central nervous system depression, cardiovascular collapse, and potentially fatal liver and kidney damage.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Galactosamine is a type of amino monosaccharide that is a key component of many glycosaminoglycans, and is commonly found in animal tissues, often used in research and pharmaceutical applications for its role in cellular metabolism and synthesis of various biological molecules.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
Orotic acid, also known as pyrophosphoric acid dihydrate, is a organic compound that plays a role in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines, and elevated levels of orotic acid in urine can indicate certain genetic disorders or liver dysfunction.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Cell surface proteins that bind albumin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.

Chronic inhalation carcinogenicity study of commercial hexane solvent in F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. (1/112)

The carcinogenic and chronic toxicity potential of commercial hexane solvent was evaluated in F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice (50/sex/concentration/species) exposed by inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 years. Target hexane vapor concentrations were 0, 900, 3000, and 9000 ppm. There were no significant differences in survivorship between control and hexane-exposed groups, and clinical observations were generally unremarkable. Small, but statistically significant decreases in body weight gain were seen in rats of both sexes in the mid- and high-exposure groups and in high-expsoure female mice. The only noteworthy histopathological finding in rats was epithelial cell hyperplasia in the nasoturbinates and larynx of exposed groups. This response was judged to be indicative of upper respiratory tract tissue irritation. No significant differences in tumor incidence between control and hexane-exposed rats were found. In mice, uterine tissue from the high-exposure females exhibited a significant decrease in the severity of cystic endometrial hyperplasia compared to controls. An increase in the combined incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas was observed in high-exposure female mice. The incidence of liver tumors was not increased in the mid- or low-exposure female mice or in male mice exposed to hexane. An increased incidence of pituitary adenomas was observed in female, but not male mice. This finding was not believed to have been treatment-related because the incidence in the control group was unusually low, and the incidence in exposed groups was not dose-related and was within the historical control range. No other neoplastic changes judged to be treatment-related were observed in tissues from male or female mice. In conclusion, chronic exposure to commercial hexane solvent at concentrations up to 9000 ppm was not carcinogenic to F-344 rats or to male B6C3F1 mice, but did result in an increased incidence of liver tumors in female mice.  (+info)

Mutation of beta-catenin is an early event in chemically induced mouse hepatocellular carcinogenesis. (2/112)

beta-catenin activation, and subsequent upregulation of Wnt-signaling, is an important event in the development of certain human and rodent cancers. Recently, mutations in the beta-catenin gene in the region of the serine-threonine glycogen kinase (GSK)-3beta phosphorylation target sites have been identified in hepatocellular neoplasms from humans and transgenic mice. In this study we examined 152 hepatocellular neoplasms from B6C3F1 mice included in five chemical treatment groups and controls for mutations in the beta-catenin gene. Twenty of 29 hepatocellular neoplasms from mice treated with methyleugenol had point mutations at codons 32, 33, 34 or 41, sites which are mutated in colon and other cancers. Likewise, nine of 24 methylene chloride-induced hepatocellular neoplasms and 18 of 42 oxazepam-induced neoplasms exhibited similar mutations. In contrast, only three of 18 vinyl carbamate-induced liver tumors, one of 18 TCDD-induced liver tumors, and two of 22 spontaneous liver neoplasms had mutations in beta-catenin. Thus, there appears to be a chemical specific involvement of beta-catenin activation in mouse hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Expression analyses using Western blot and immunohistochemistry indicate that beta-catenin protein accumulates along cell membranes following mutation. The finding of mutations in both adenomas and carcinomas from diverse chemical treatment groups and the immunostaining of beta-catenin protein in an altered hepatocellular focus suggest that these alterations are early events in mouse hepatocellular carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Liver adenomatosis: reappraisal, diagnosis, and surgical management: eight new cases and review of the literature. (3/112)

OBJECTIVE: Liver adenomatosis (LA) is a rare disease originally defined by Flejou et al in 1985 from a series of 13 cases. In 1998, 38 cases were available for analysis, including eight personal cases. The aim of this study was to review and reappraise the characteristics of this rare liver disease and to discuss diagnosis and therapeutic options. BACKGROUND: LA was defined as the presence of >10 adenomas in an otherwise normal parenchyma. Neither female predominance nor a relation with estrogen/progesterone intake has been noted. Natural progression is poorly known. METHODS: The clinical presentation, evolution, histologic characteristics, and therapeutic options and results were analyzed based on a personal series of eight new cases and an updated review of the literature. RESULTS: From a diagnostic standpoint, two forms of liver adenomatosis with different presentations and evolution can be defined: a massive form and a multifocal form. The role of estrogen and progesterone is reevaluated. The risks of hemorrhage and malignant transformation are of major concern. In the authors' series, liver transplantation was indicated in two young women with the massive, aggressive form, and good results were obtained. CONCLUSION: Liver adenomatosis is a rare disease, more common in women, where outcome and evolution vary and are exacerbated by estrogen intake. Most often, conservative surgery is indicated. Liver transplantation is indicated only in highly symptomatic and aggressive forms of the disease.  (+info)

Hepatocellular adenomatosis associated with hereditary haemochromatosis. (4/112)

A young healthy man presented with abdominal pain following an accidental fall. Imaging studies and laparoscopy revealed multiple yellowish well-defined hepatic lesions. Liver biopsies showed hepatic adenomas and iron overload. Laboratory investigation confirmed a diagnosis of hereditary haemochromatosis. To our knowledge this represents the first report of an association of hepatic adenomatosis and primary haemochromatosis.  (+info)

Enhancement of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis by the HIV-1 tat gene. (5/112)

The human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat protein is suspected to be involved in the neoplastic pathology arising in AIDS patients. tat-transgenic (TT) mice, which constitutively express Tat in the liver, develop liver cell dysplasia (LCD) that may represent a preneoplastic lesion. To test if TT mice are predisposed to liver carcinogenesis, we treated them with diethylnitrosamine, a hepatotropic carcinogen. Diethylnitrosamine-treated TT mice developed both preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the liver. They showed an enhancement of LCD and developed basophilic liver cell nodules (BLCN), hepatocellular adenomas (HA), and hepatocellular carcinomas (HC). Both preneoplastic (LCD and BLCN) and neoplastic (HA and HC) lesions were significantly more frequent in TT than in control mice: 29.7% versus 12.7% for LCD, 57.9% versus 23.3% for BLCN, 40.6% versus 10.0% for HA, and 50.0% versus 12.7% for HC. These results indicate that Tat expression in the liver predisposes to both initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and to malignant progression of liver tumors. This study supports a role for Tat in enhancing the effect of endogenous and exogenous carcinogens in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients, thereby contributing to tumorigenesis in the course of AIDS.  (+info)

Diagnostic impact of fluorescence in situ hybridization in the differentiation of hepatocellular adenoma and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. (6/112)

Histopathological differentiation between hepatocellular adenoma and well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be a difficult task in small biopsies and occasionally in resected tumor specimens. Whether the analysis of chromosome aberrations can contribute to a more precise discrimination has not been analyzed systematically up to now. Therefore, fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to 28 cases of adenoma and well differentiated carcinoma, using centromeric probes for chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 8, and X. None of 14 adenomas revealed an aberrant count in the analyses performed. By contrast, 13/14 carcinomas demonstrated aberrations for 2-5 chromosomes/case. Chromosome 1 was aberrant in 8/12 cases informative for this probe (67%), chromosomes 6 and 7 were aberrant in 9/14 cases (64%), chromosome 8 was aberrant in 11/14 cases (79%), and chromosome X in 7/14 cases (50%). Taking results for chromosomes 1 and 8 together, 13/14 HCC revealed aberrations for at least one of these chromosomes. Probes for 6, 7, and X revealed no additional aberrant cases.Thus, FISH for chromosomes 1 and 8, extended by probes for chromosomes 6, 7 and X, represents a promising approach toward a more accurate differentiation between hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma.  (+info)

An in vivo method for using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) as a marker of chemically-induced hepatocellular proliferation in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). (7/112)

Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) were used to develop an in vivo method to assess hepatocellular proliferation in a nonmammalian model. Proliferative responses were assessed in medaka at 7, 17, 24, and 94 days after a 48-hour exposure to 10 or 100 mg/L diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Subgroups of medaka were exposed to 50 or 75 mg/L of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in water for 72 hours, sacrificed, and then processed for immunohistochemical staining. Proliferative indices of BrdU-labeled hepatocytes were quantified and compared using both count and area measurements. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in hepatocellular proliferation in the 100 mg/L DEN-treated fish as compared to controls and 10 mg/L DEN-treated fish for the first 3 time points. Hepatocarcinogenicity was evaluated 26 weeks post-DEN exposure. There was a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in hepatocellular neoplasms in 100 mg/L DEN-treated fish compared to other fish. Effective BrdU-labeling of S-phase hepatocytes in medaka was achieved by adding BrdU to the aquarium water, and an increase in hepatocellular proliferation using this method was detected 7 days after exposure to a carcinogenic concentration of DEN. Additionally, the new method of area measurement indices of proliferation were as precise as count indices (R2 > or = 0.92).  (+info)

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate induces hepatocellular adenoma in transgenic mice carrying a human prototype c-Ha-ras gene in a 26-week carcinogenicity study. (8/112)

To evaluate the transgenic mouse carrying a human prototype c-Ha-ras gene (rasH2 mouse) as a model for 26-week carcinogenicity tests, Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), a peroxisome proliferator, was administered to 15 rasH2 mice/sex/group at concentrations of 1,500, 3,000 or 6,000 ppm, and to 15 wild-type (non-Tg) mice/sex/group at a concentration of 6,000 ppm in their diets for 26 weeks. Survival rates and food consumption in the groups treated with DEHP and in the control group were similar. Body weight gain in rasH2 and non-Tg mice at 6,000 ppm in the terminal week decreased about 10% as compared to the control group. Common findings related to treatment with DEHP in rasH2 and non-Tg mice included hypertrophy with coarse granules and deposit of pigment in the liver, hydronephrosis and tubular regeneration in the kidney, focal atrophy in the testis, and increased eosinophilic body in the nasal cavity. Hepatocellular adenoma was induced by treatment with DEHP, and was confined to male rasH2; mice the incidence being 7%(1/15), 13%(2/15), and 27%(4/15) in the 1,500-, 3,000-, and 6,000-ppm group, respectively. Point mutation was not detected in codon 12 and 61 of human c-Ha-ras transgene upon DNA analyses on frozen samples taken from these hepatocellular adenomas. From the results obtained in this 26-week carcinogenicity study, it is concluded that DEHP is a hepato-carcinogen for transgenic mouse carrying a human prototype c-Ha-ras gene.  (+info)

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

A pleomorphic adenoma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that typically develops in the salivary glands, although they can also occur in other areas such as the nasopharynx and skin. "Pleomorphic" refers to the diverse appearance of the cells within the tumor, which can vary in size, shape, and arrangement.

Pleomorphic adenomas are composed of a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal cells, which can form glandular structures, squamous (scale-like) cells, and areas that resemble cartilage or bone. These tumors tend to grow slowly and usually do not spread to other parts of the body.

While pleomorphic adenomas are generally not dangerous, they can cause problems if they become large enough to press on surrounding tissues or structures. In some cases, these tumors may also undergo malignant transformation, leading to a cancerous growth known as carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Surgical removal is the standard treatment for pleomorphic adenomas, and the prognosis is generally good with proper management.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

A villous adenoma is a type of polyp (a growth that protrudes from the lining of an organ) found in the colon or rectum. It is named for its appearance under a microscope, which reveals finger-like projections called "villi" on the surface of the polyp.

Villous adenomas are typically larger than other types of polyps and can be several centimeters in size. They are also more likely to be cancerous or precancerous, meaning that they have the potential to develop into colon or rectal cancer over time.

Because of this increased risk, it is important for villous adenomas to be removed surgically if they are found during a colonoscopy or other diagnostic procedure. Regular follow-up colonoscopies may also be recommended to monitor for the development of new polyps or recurrence of previous ones.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

A liver cell adenoma is a benign tumor that develops in the liver and is composed of cells similar to those normally found in the liver (hepatocytes). These tumors are usually solitary, but multiple adenomas can occur, especially in women who have taken oral contraceptives for many years. Liver cell adenomas are typically asymptomatic and are often discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other reasons. In rare cases, they may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain or discomfort, or complications such as bleeding or rupture. Treatment options include monitoring with periodic imaging studies or surgical removal of the tumor.

Liver cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue with scarred (fibrotic) tissue, leading to loss of function. The scarring is caused by long-term damage from various sources such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and other causes. As the disease advances, it can lead to complications like portal hypertension, fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites), impaired brain function (hepatic encephalopathy), and increased risk of liver cancer. It is generally irreversible, but early detection and treatment of underlying causes may help slow down its progression.

Liver regeneration is the ability of the liver to restore its original mass and function after injury or surgical resection. This complex process involves the proliferation and differentiation of mature hepatocytes, as well as the activation and transdifferentiation of various types of stem and progenitor cells located in the liver. The mechanisms that regulate liver regeneration include a variety of growth factors, hormones, and cytokines, which act in a coordinated manner to ensure the restoration of normal liver architecture and function. Liver regeneration is essential for the survival of individuals who have undergone partial hepatectomy or who have suffered liver damage due to various causes, such as viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, or drug-induced liver injury.

Pituitary neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), with most being benign. They can vary in size and may cause various symptoms depending on their location, size, and hormonal activity.

Pituitary neoplasms can produce and secrete excess hormones, leading to a variety of endocrine disorders such as Cushing's disease (caused by excessive ACTH production), acromegaly (caused by excessive GH production), or prolactinoma (caused by excessive PRL production). They can also cause local compression symptoms due to their size, leading to headaches, vision problems, and cranial nerve palsies.

The exact causes of pituitary neoplasms are not fully understood, but genetic factors, radiation exposure, and certain inherited conditions may increase the risk of developing these tumors. Treatment options for pituitary neoplasms include surgical removal, radiation therapy, and medical management with drugs that can help control hormonal imbalances.

An adrenocortical adenoma is a benign tumor that arises from the cells of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal gland. These tumors can produce and release various hormones, such as cortisol, aldosterone, or androgens, depending on the type of cells they originate from.

Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning that they do not secrete excess hormones and may not cause any symptoms. However, some functioning adenomas can produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to a variety of clinical manifestations. For example:

* Cortisol-secreting adenomas can result in Cushing's syndrome, characterized by weight gain, muscle wasting, thin skin, easy bruising, and mood changes.
* Aldosterone-producing adenomas can cause Conn's syndrome, marked by hypertension (high blood pressure), hypokalemia (low potassium levels), and metabolic alkalosis.
* Androgen-secreting adenomas may lead to hirsutism (excessive hair growth) or virilization (development of male secondary sexual characteristics) in women.

The diagnosis of an adrenocortical adenoma typically involves imaging tests, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal evaluations to determine if the tumor is functioning or not. Treatment usually consists of surgical removal of the tumor, especially if it is causing hormonal imbalances or growing in size.

Microsomes, liver refers to a subcellular fraction of liver cells (hepatocytes) that are obtained during tissue homogenization and subsequent centrifugation. These microsomal fractions are rich in membranous structures known as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), particularly the rough ER. They are involved in various important cellular processes, most notably the metabolism of xenobiotics (foreign substances) including drugs, toxins, and carcinogens.

The liver microsomes contain a variety of enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, that are crucial for phase I drug metabolism. These enzymes help in the oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis of xenobiotics, making them more water-soluble and facilitating their excretion from the body. Additionally, liver microsomes also host other enzymes involved in phase II conjugation reactions, where the metabolites from phase I are further modified by adding polar molecules like glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetyl groups.

In summary, liver microsomes are a subcellular fraction of liver cells that play a significant role in the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics, contributing to the overall protection and maintenance of cellular homeostasis within the body.

Fatty liver, also known as hepatic steatosis, is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fat in the liver. The liver's primary function is to process nutrients, filter blood, and fight infections, among other tasks. When excess fat builds up in the liver cells, it can impair liver function and lead to inflammation, scarring, and even liver failure if left untreated.

Fatty liver can be caused by various factors, including alcohol consumption, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), viral hepatitis, and certain medications or medical conditions. NAFLD is the most common cause of fatty liver in the United States and other developed countries, affecting up to 25% of the population.

Symptoms of fatty liver may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain or discomfort, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). However, many people with fatty liver do not experience any symptoms, making it essential to diagnose and manage the condition through regular check-ups and blood tests.

Treatment for fatty liver depends on the underlying cause. Lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and dietary modifications are often recommended for people with NAFLD or alcohol-related fatty liver disease. Medications may also be prescribed to manage related conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol, or metabolic syndrome. In severe cases of liver damage, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Hepatocytes are the predominant type of cells in the liver, accounting for about 80% of its cytoplasmic mass. They play a key role in protein synthesis, protein storage, transformation of carbohydrates, synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids, detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances, initiation of formation and secretion of bile, and enzyme production. Hepatocytes are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

A chromophobe adenoma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that typically arises in the pituitary gland, which is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The term "chromophobe" refers to the appearance of the cells under a microscope - they lack pigment and have a characteristic appearance with abundant clear or lightly stained cytoplasm.

Chromophobe adenomas are slow-growing tumors that can vary in size, and they may cause symptoms due to pressure on surrounding structures or by producing excess hormones. The most common hormone produced by chromophobe adenomas is prolactin, leading to symptoms such as menstrual irregularities, milk production (galactorrhea), and decreased sexual function in women, and decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility in men.

Treatment for chromophobe adenomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, often through a transsphenoidal approach (through the nose and sphenoid sinus). In some cases, radiation therapy or medical management with hormone-blocking drugs may also be necessary. Regular follow-up with an endocrinologist is important to monitor for any recurrence or hormonal imbalances.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. Mitochondria are organelles found in the cells of all complex living organisms, including humans, while the liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen. They don't have a medical definition together. I can certainly provide you with separate definitions for each:

1. Mitochondria: These are double-membrane-bound cellular organelles that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell's biochemical reactions. Commonly known as the "powerhouse of the cell," mitochondria convert organic substrates, such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria are dynamic structures that can change their shape, size, and number through fission (division) and fusion (merging) processes. They play essential roles in various cellular functions, including calcium signaling, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and the regulation of cellular metabolism.

2. Liver: The liver is a large, lobulated organ that lies mainly in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm. It plays a crucial role in various physiological functions, such as detoxification, protein synthesis, metabolism, and nutrient storage. The liver is responsible for removing toxins from the bloodstream, producing bile to aid in digestion, regulating glucose levels, synthesizing plasma proteins, and storing glycogen, vitamins, and minerals. It also contributes to the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, helping maintain energy homeostasis in the body.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any further questions or need more information, please don't hesitate to ask.

Experimental liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the liver that are intentionally created or manipulated in a laboratory setting for the purpose of studying their development, progression, and potential treatment options. These experimental models can be established using various methods such as chemical induction, genetic modification, or transplantation of cancerous cells or tissues. The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of liver cancer biology and develop novel therapies for liver neoplasms in humans. It's important to note that these experiments are conducted under strict ethical guidelines and regulations to minimize harm and ensure the humane treatment of animals involved in such studies.

Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) is a medical term that refers to liver damage or injury caused by the use of medications or drugs. This condition can vary in severity, from mild abnormalities in liver function tests to severe liver failure, which may require a liver transplant.

The exact mechanism of DILI can differ depending on the drug involved, but it generally occurs when the liver metabolizes the drug into toxic compounds that damage liver cells. This can happen through various pathways, including direct toxicity to liver cells, immune-mediated reactions, or metabolic idiosyncrasies.

Symptoms of DILI may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and dark urine. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as ascites, encephalopathy, and bleeding disorders.

The diagnosis of DILI is often challenging because it requires the exclusion of other potential causes of liver injury. Liver function tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsies may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending drug and providing supportive care until the liver recovers. In some cases, medications that protect the liver or promote its healing may be used.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Liver function tests (LFTs) are a group of blood tests that are used to assess the functioning and health of the liver. These tests measure the levels of various enzymes, proteins, and waste products that are produced or metabolized by the liver. Some common LFTs include:

1. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): An enzyme found primarily in the liver, ALT is released into the bloodstream in response to liver cell damage. Elevated levels of ALT may indicate liver injury or disease.
2. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): Another enzyme found in various tissues, including the liver, heart, and muscles. Like ALT, AST is released into the bloodstream following tissue damage. High AST levels can be a sign of liver damage or other medical conditions.
3. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): An enzyme found in several organs, including the liver, bile ducts, and bones. Elevated ALP levels may indicate a blockage in the bile ducts, liver disease, or bone disorders.
4. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT): An enzyme found mainly in the liver, pancreas, and biliary system. Increased GGT levels can suggest liver disease, alcohol consumption, or the use of certain medications.
5. Bilirubin: A yellowish pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile. High bilirubin levels can indicate liver dysfunction, bile duct obstruction, or certain types of anemia.
6. Albumin: A protein produced by the liver that helps maintain fluid balance in the body and transports various substances in the blood. Low albumin levels may suggest liver damage, malnutrition, or kidney disease.
7. Total protein: A measure of all proteins present in the blood, including albumin and other types of proteins produced by the liver. Decreased total protein levels can indicate liver dysfunction or other medical conditions.

These tests are often ordered together as part of a routine health checkup or when evaluating symptoms related to liver function or disease. The results should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical findings, medical history, and other diagnostic tests.

A Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma (GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, or GHoma) is a type of benign tumor that develops in the pituitary gland and results in excessive production of growth hormone (GH). This leads to a condition known as acromegaly if it occurs in adults, or gigantism if it occurs in children before the closure of the growth plates.

Symptoms of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma may include:

1. Coarsening of facial features
2. Enlargement of hands and feet
3. Deepened voice due to thickening of vocal cords
4. Increased sweating and body odor
5. Joint pain and stiffness
6. Sleep apnea
7. Fatigue, weakness, or muscle wasting
8. Headaches
9. Vision problems
10. Irregular menstrual periods in women
11. Erectile dysfunction in men

Diagnosis typically involves measuring the levels of GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the blood, along with imaging tests like MRI or CT scans to locate and characterize the tumor. Treatment options include surgical removal of the tumor, radiation therapy, and medication to control GH production. Regular follow-ups are necessary to monitor for potential recurrence.

Colonic polyps are abnormal growths that protrude from the inner wall of the colon (large intestine). They can vary in size, shape, and number. Most colonic polyps are benign, meaning they are not cancerous. However, some types of polyps, such as adenomas, have a higher risk of becoming cancerous over time if left untreated.

Colonic polyps often do not cause any symptoms, especially if they are small. Larger polyps may lead to symptoms like rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits, abdominal pain, or iron deficiency anemia. The exact cause of colonic polyps is not known, but factors such as age, family history, and certain medical conditions (like inflammatory bowel disease) can increase the risk of developing them.

Regular screening exams, such as colonoscopies, are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 to detect and remove polyps before they become cancerous. If you have a family history of colonic polyps or colorectal cancer, your doctor may recommend earlier or more frequent screenings.

An ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma is a type of tumor that develops in the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. This type of tumor is also known as Cushing's disease.

ACTH stands for adrenocorticotropic hormone, which is a hormone produced and released by the pituitary gland. ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands (small glands located on top of the kidneys) to produce cortisol, a steroid hormone that helps regulate metabolism, helps the body respond to stress, and suppresses inflammation.

In an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, the tumor cells produce and release excessive amounts of ACTH, leading to overproduction of cortisol by the adrenal glands. This can result in a constellation of symptoms known as Cushing's syndrome, which may include weight gain (especially around the trunk), fatigue, muscle weakness, mood changes, thinning of the skin, easy bruising, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Treatment for an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by medications to manage cortisol levels if necessary. Radiation therapy may also be used in some cases.

A colonoscopy is a medical procedure used to examine the large intestine, also known as the colon and rectum. It is performed using a flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end, called a colonoscope, which is inserted into the rectum and gently guided through the entire length of the colon.

The procedure allows doctors to visually inspect the lining of the colon for any abnormalities such as polyps, ulcers, inflammation, or cancer. If any polyps are found during the procedure, they can be removed immediately using special tools passed through the colonoscope. Colonoscopy is an important tool in the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide.

Patients are usually given a sedative to help them relax during the procedure, which is typically performed on an outpatient basis in a hospital or clinic setting. The entire procedure usually takes about 30-60 minutes to complete, although patients should plan to spend several hours at the medical facility for preparation and recovery.

An adenoma is a benign tumor that forms in glandular tissue. When referring to "acidophil," it describes the appearance of the cells under a microscope. Acidophils are cells that take up acidic dyes, giving them a distinct appearance. In the context of an adenoma, an acidophil adenoma would be a benign tumor composed of acidophil cells.

Acidophil adenomas are most commonly found in the pituitary gland and are also known as lactotroph or mammosomatotroph adenomas. These tumors can produce and release prolactin, growth hormone, or both, leading to various endocrine disorders such as hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly, or gigantism. Treatment options typically include surgical removal of the tumor or medical management with dopamine agonists or somatostatin analogs.

Adenomatous polyps, also known as adenomas, are benign (noncancerous) growths that develop in the lining of the glandular tissue of certain organs, most commonly occurring in the colon and rectum. These polyps are composed of abnormal glandular cells that can grow excessively and form a mass.

Adenomatous polyps can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. They may be flat or have a stalk (pedunculated). While adenomas are generally benign, they can potentially undergo malignant transformation and develop into colorectal cancer over time if left untreated. The risk of malignancy increases with the size of the polyp and the presence of certain histological features, such as dysplasia (abnormal cell growth).

Regular screening for adenomatous polyps is essential to detect and remove them early, reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Screening methods include colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and stool-based tests.

Liver extracts are preparations made from animal livers, often from cows or pigs, that contain various nutrients, vitamins, and minerals found in liver tissue. They have been used historically in medicine as a source of nutrition and to treat certain medical conditions.

Liver extracts contain high levels of vitamin B12, iron, and other essential nutrients. They were once commonly prescribed to treat anemia, pernicious anemia (a type of anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency), and other conditions related to malnutrition. However, with the advent of more modern treatments and better methods for addressing nutritional deficiencies, liver extracts are less commonly used in modern medicine.

It's important to note that while liver extracts can be a good source of nutrition, they should not be used as a substitute for a balanced diet. Moreover, individuals with certain medical conditions, such as liver disease or hemochromatosis (a condition characterized by excessive iron absorption), should avoid liver extracts or use them only under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

A prolactinoma is a type of pituitary tumor that produces an excess amount of the hormone prolactin, leading to various symptoms. The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, is responsible for producing and releasing several hormones that regulate different bodily functions. Prolactin is one such hormone, primarily known for its role in stimulating milk production in women during lactation (breastfeeding).

Prolactinoma tumors can be classified into two types: microprolactinomas and macroprolactinomas. Microprolactinomas are smaller tumors, typically less than 10 millimeters in size, while macroprolactinomas are larger tumors, generally greater than 10 millimeters in size.

The overproduction of prolactin caused by these tumors can lead to several clinical manifestations, including:

1. Galactorrhea: Unusual and often spontaneous milk production or leakage from the nipples, which can occur in both men and women who do not have a recent history of pregnancy or breastfeeding.
2. Menstrual irregularities: In women, high prolactin levels can interfere with the normal functioning of other hormones, leading to menstrual irregularities such as infrequent periods (oligomenorrhea) or absent periods (amenorrhea), and sometimes infertility.
3. Sexual dysfunction: In both men and women, high prolactin levels can cause decreased libido and sexual desire. Men may also experience erectile dysfunction and reduced sperm production.
4. Bone loss: Over time, high prolactin levels can lead to decreased bone density and an increased risk of osteoporosis due to the disruption of other hormones that regulate bone health.
5. Headaches and visual disturbances: As the tumor grows, it may put pressure on surrounding structures in the brain, leading to headaches and potential vision problems such as blurred vision or decreased peripheral vision.

Diagnosis typically involves measuring prolactin levels in the blood and performing imaging tests like an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan to assess the size of the tumor. Treatment usually consists of medication to lower prolactin levels, such as dopamine agonists (e.g., bromocriptine or cabergoline), which can also help shrink the tumor. In some cases, surgery may be necessary if medication is ineffective or if the tumor is large and causing severe symptoms.

Liver circulation, also known as hepatic circulation, refers to the blood flow through the liver. The liver receives blood from two sources: the hepatic artery and the portal vein.

The hepatic artery delivers oxygenated blood from the heart to the liver, accounting for about 25% of the liver's blood supply. The remaining 75% comes from the portal vein, which carries nutrient-rich, deoxygenated blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver.

In the liver, these two sources of blood mix in the sinusoids, small vessels with large spaces between the endothelial cells that line them. This allows for efficient exchange of substances between the blood and the hepatocytes (liver cells). The blood then leaves the liver through the hepatic veins, which merge into the inferior vena cava and return the blood to the heart.

The unique dual blood supply and extensive sinusoidal network in the liver enable it to perform various critical functions, such as detoxification, metabolism, synthesis, storage, and secretion of numerous substances, maintaining body homeostasis.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. It originates from the hepatocytes, which are the main functional cells of the liver. This type of cancer is often associated with chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C virus infection, alcohol abuse, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure.

The symptoms of HCC can vary but may include unexplained weight loss, lack of appetite, abdominal pain or swelling, jaundice, and fatigue. The diagnosis of HCC typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. Treatment options for Hepatocellular carcinoma depend on the stage and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and liver function. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or liver transplantation.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

A basophilic adenoma is a rare type of benign tumor that arises from the glandular cells of an endocrine gland, specifically the cells that produce and store hormones. The term "basophilic" refers to the appearance of the tumor cells under a microscope, which have a high affinity for basic dyes due to their rich content of ribonucleic acid (RNA).

Basophilic adenomas are most commonly found in the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These tumors can produce and secrete excessive amounts of hormones, leading to various clinical symptoms depending on the type of hormone involved. The most common types of basophilic adenomas are prolactinomas, which secrete high levels of the hormone prolactin, and growth hormone-secreting adenomas, which produce excessive amounts of growth hormone.

Treatment for basophilic adenomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy or medical management with drugs that suppress hormone production. The prognosis for patients with basophilic adenomas is generally good, with most individuals experiencing a significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life following treatment. However, regular follow-up care is necessary to monitor for recurrence and manage any residual hormonal imbalances.

Acute liver failure is a sudden and severe loss of liver function that occurs within a few days or weeks. It can be caused by various factors such as drug-induced liver injury, viral hepatitis, or metabolic disorders. In acute liver failure, the liver cannot perform its vital functions, including protein synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

The symptoms of acute liver failure include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), coagulopathy (bleeding disorders), hepatic encephalopathy (neurological symptoms such as confusion, disorientation, and coma), and elevated levels of liver enzymes in the blood. Acute liver failure is a medical emergency that requires immediate hospitalization and treatment, which may include medications, supportive care, and liver transplantation.

An artificial liver is not a actual organ replacement but a device designed to perform some of the functions of a liver in patients with liver failure. These devices can be divided into two types: bioartificial and non-bioartificial. Non-bioartificial devices, such as hemodialysis machines and molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS), use physical and chemical processes to remove toxins from the blood. Bioartificial livers, on the other hand, contain living cells, usually hepatocytes, which can perform more advanced liver functions such as synthesizing proteins and drugs metabolism.

It's important to note that currently there is no FDA approved artificial liver device available for use in clinical practice. However, research and development of these devices are ongoing with the hope that they may provide a bridge to transplantation or recovery for patients with acute liver failure.

Hepatectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of part or all of the liver. This procedure can be performed for various reasons, such as removing cancerous or non-cancerous tumors, treating liver trauma, or donating a portion of the liver to another person in need of a transplant (live donor hepatectomy). The extent of the hepatectomy depends on the medical condition and overall health of the patient. It is a complex procedure that requires significant expertise and experience from the surgical team due to the liver's unique anatomy, blood supply, and regenerative capabilities.

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a term that encompasses a spectrum of liver disorders caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The three main stages of ALD are:

1. Fatty Liver: This is the earliest stage of ALD, characterized by the accumulation of fat droplets within liver cells (hepatocytes). It's often reversible with abstinence from alcohol.

2. Alcoholic Hepatitis: This is a more severe form of ALD, characterized by inflammation and damage to the liver cells. It can range from mild to severe, and severe cases can lead to liver failure. Symptoms may include jaundice, abdominal pain, and fever.

3. Cirrhosis: This is the most advanced stage of ALD, characterized by widespread scarring (fibrosis) and nodular transformation of the liver. It's irreversible and can lead to complications such as liver failure, portal hypertension, and increased risk of liver cancer.

The development and progression of ALD are influenced by various factors, including the amount and duration of alcohol consumption, genetic predisposition, nutritional status, and co-existing viral hepatitis or other liver diseases. Abstaining from alcohol is the most effective way to prevent and manage ALD.

Kupffer cells are specialized macrophages that reside in the liver, particularly in the sinusoids of the liver's blood circulation system. They play a crucial role in the immune system by engulfing and destroying bacteria, microorganisms, and other particles that enter the liver via the portal vein. Kupffer cells also contribute to the clearance of damaged red blood cells, iron metabolism, and the regulation of inflammation in the liver. They are named after the German pathologist Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer who first described them in 1876.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) in the adrenal gland's outer layer, known as the adrenal cortex. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors are called adrenal adenomas, while cancerous tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms can produce various hormones, leading to different clinical presentations. For instance, they may cause Cushing's syndrome (characterized by excessive cortisol production), Conn's syndrome (caused by aldosterone excess), or virilization (due to androgen excess). Some tumors may not produce any hormones and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies for unrelated conditions.

The diagnosis of adrenal cortex neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal assessments to determine if the tumor is functional or non-functional. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and hormonal activity of the neoplasm and may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

A liver abscess is a localized collection of pus within the liver tissue caused by an infection. It can result from various sources such as bacterial or amebic infections that spread through the bloodstream, bile ducts, or directly from nearby organs. The abscess may cause symptoms like fever, pain in the upper right abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. If left untreated, a liver abscess can lead to serious complications, including sepsis and organ failure. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests like ultrasound or CT scan, followed by drainage of the pus and antibiotic treatment.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Liver glycogen is the reserve form of glucose stored in hepatocytes (liver cells) for the maintenance of normal blood sugar levels. It is a polysaccharide, a complex carbohydrate, that is broken down into glucose molecules when blood glucose levels are low. This process helps to maintain the body's energy needs between meals and during periods of fasting or exercise. The amount of glycogen stored in the liver can vary depending on factors such as meal consumption, activity level, and insulin regulation.

Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of numerous adenomatous polyps in the colon and rectum. APC is caused by mutations in the APC gene, which is a tumor suppressor gene that helps regulate cell growth and division. When the APC gene is mutated, it can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of polyps, which can eventually become cancerous.

Individuals with APC typically develop hundreds to thousands of polyps in their colon and rectum, usually beginning in adolescence or early adulthood. If left untreated, APC can lead to colorectal cancer in nearly all affected individuals by the age of 40.

APC is an autosomal dominant disorder, which means that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent. However, some cases of APC may also occur spontaneously due to new mutations in the APC gene. Treatment for APC typically involves surgical removal of the colon and rectum (colectomy) to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Regular surveillance with colonoscopy is also recommended to monitor for the development of new polyps.

Experimental liver cirrhosis refers to a controlled research setting where various factors and substances are intentionally introduced to induce liver cirrhosis in animals or cell cultures. The purpose is to study the mechanisms, progression, potential treatments, and prevention strategies for liver cirrhosis. This could involve administering chemicals, drugs, alcohol, viruses, or manipulating genes associated with liver damage and fibrosis. It's important to note that results from experimental models may not directly translate to human conditions, but they can provide valuable insights into disease pathophysiology and therapeutic development.

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a type of enzyme found primarily in the cells of the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cells of other tissues such as the heart, muscles, and kidneys. Its primary function is to catalyze the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to another alpha-keto acid, usually pyruvate, to form pyruvate and another amino acid, usually glutamate. This process is known as the transamination reaction.

When liver cells are damaged or destroyed due to various reasons such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or drug-induced liver injury, ALT is released into the bloodstream. Therefore, measuring the level of ALT in the blood is a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating liver function and detecting liver damage. Normal ALT levels vary depending on the laboratory, but typically range from 7 to 56 units per liter (U/L) for men and 6 to 45 U/L for women. Elevated ALT levels may indicate liver injury or disease, although other factors such as muscle damage or heart disease can also cause elevations in ALT.

Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis is a medical condition characterized by irreversible scarring (fibrosis) and damage to the liver caused by excessive consumption of alcohol over an extended period. The liver's normal structure and function are progressively impaired as healthy liver tissue is replaced by scarred tissue, leading to the formation of nodules (regenerative noduli).

The condition typically develops after years of heavy drinking, with a higher risk for those who consume more than 60 grams of pure alcohol daily. The damage caused by alcoholic liver cirrhosis can be life-threatening and may result in complications such as:

1. Ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdomen)
2. Encephalopathy (neurological dysfunction due to liver failure)
3. Esophageal varices (dilated veins in the esophagus that can rupture and bleed)
4. Hepatorenal syndrome (kidney failure caused by liver disease)
5. Increased susceptibility to infections
6. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma)
7. Portal hypertension (increased blood pressure in the portal vein that supplies blood to the liver)

Abstaining from alcohol and managing underlying medical conditions are crucial for slowing down or halting disease progression. Treatment may involve medications, dietary changes, and supportive care to address complications. In severe cases, a liver transplant might be necessary.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, leading to an enlargement of the affected area. It's a response to various stimuli such as hormones, chronic irritation, or inflammation. Hyperplasia can be physiological, like the growth of breast tissue during pregnancy, or pathological, like in the case of benign or malignant tumors. The process is generally reversible if the stimulus is removed. It's important to note that hyperplasia itself is not cancerous, but some forms of hyperplasia can increase the risk of developing cancer over time.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

A precancerous condition, also known as a premalignant condition, is a state of abnormal cellular growth and development that has a higher-than-normal potential to progress into cancer. These conditions are characterized by the presence of certain anomalies in the cells, such as dysplasia (abnormal changes in cell shape or size), which can indicate an increased risk for malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will eventually develop into cancer, and some may even regress on their own. However, individuals with precancerous conditions are often at a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Regular monitoring and appropriate medical interventions, if necessary, can help manage this risk and potentially prevent or detect cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.

Examples of precancerous conditions include:

1. Dysplasia in the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN)
2. Atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular hyperplasia in the breast
3. Actinic keratosis on the skin
4. Leukoplakia in the mouth
5. Barrett's esophagus in the digestive tract

Regular medical check-ups, screenings, and lifestyle modifications are crucial for individuals with precancerous conditions to monitor their health and reduce the risk of cancer development.

Acromegaly is a rare hormonal disorder that typically occurs in middle-aged adults. It results from the pituitary gland producing too much growth hormone (GH) during adulthood. The excessive production of GH leads to abnormal growth of body tissues, particularly in the hands, feet, and face.

The term "acromegaly" is derived from two Greek words: "akros," meaning extremities, and "megaly," meaning enlargement. In most cases, acromegaly is caused by a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland, which results in overproduction of GH.

Common symptoms include enlarged hands and feet, coarse facial features, deepened voice, joint pain, and sweating. If left untreated, acromegaly can lead to serious complications such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and arthritis. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, radiation therapy, or medication to control GH production.

Hepatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the liver, often resulting in damage to liver cells. It can be caused by various factors, including viral infections (such as Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E), alcohol abuse, toxins, medications, and autoimmune disorders. Symptoms may include jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and dark urine. The severity of the disease can range from mild illness to severe, life-threatening conditions, such as liver failure or cirrhosis.

Cushing syndrome is a hormonal disorder that occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol for a long time. This can happen due to various reasons such as taking high doses of corticosteroid medications or tumors that produce cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

The symptoms of Cushing syndrome may include:

* Obesity, particularly around the trunk and upper body
* Thinning of the skin, easy bruising, and purple or red stretch marks on the abdomen, thighs, breasts, and arms
* Weakened bones, leading to fractures
* High blood pressure
* High blood sugar
* Mental changes such as depression, anxiety, and irritability
* Increased fatigue and weakness
* Menstrual irregularities in women
* Decreased fertility in men

Cushing syndrome can be diagnosed through various tests, including urine and blood tests to measure cortisol levels, saliva tests, and imaging tests to locate any tumors. Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or adjusting medication dosages.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Carbon tetrachloride is a colorless, heavy, and nonflammable liquid with a mild ether-like odor. Its chemical formula is CCl4. It was previously used as a solvent and refrigerant, but its use has been largely phased out due to its toxicity and ozone-depleting properties.

Inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with carbon tetrachloride can cause harmful health effects. Short-term exposure can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Long-term exposure has been linked to liver and kidney damage, as well as an increased risk of cancer.

Carbon tetrachloride is also a potent greenhouse gas and contributes to climate change. Its production and use are regulated by international agreements aimed at protecting human health and the environment.

APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) gene is a tumor suppressor gene that provides instructions for making a protein called adenomatous polyposis coli. This protein plays a crucial role in regulating the growth and division of cells in the colon and rectum. Specifically, it helps to maintain the stability of the cell's genetic material (DNA) by controlling the process of beta-catenin degradation.

When the APC gene is mutated or altered, it can lead to an accumulation of beta-catenin in the cell, which can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division. This can ultimately lead to the development of colon polyps, which are benign growths that can become cancerous over time if left untreated.

Mutations in the APC gene are associated with several inherited cancer syndromes, including familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and attenuated FAP (AFAP). These conditions are characterized by the development of numerous colon polyps at a young age, which can increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Intestinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the intestines, which can be benign or malignant. These growths are called neoplasms and they result from uncontrolled cell division. In the case of intestinal neoplasms, these growths occur in the small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, or appendix.

Benign intestinal neoplasms are not cancerous and often do not invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to obstruct the intestines or cause bleeding. Common types of benign intestinal neoplasms include polyps, leiomyomas, and lipomas.

Malignant intestinal neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant intestinal neoplasm is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells lining the inside of the intestines. Other types of malignant intestinal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and carcinoid tumors.

Symptoms of intestinal neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and type. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fatigue. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a potent chemical carcinogen that belongs to the class of nitrosamines. It is known to induce tumors in various organs, including the liver, kidney, and lungs, in different animal species. Diethylnitrosamine requires metabolic activation by enzymes such as cytochrome P450 to exert its carcinogenic effects.

Diethylnitrosamine is not typically used for medical purposes but may be employed in laboratory research to study the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis and cancer development. It is essential to handle this compound with care, following appropriate safety protocols, due to its potential hazards.

Hyperparathyroidism is a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH). There are four small parathyroid glands located in the neck, near or within the thyroid gland. They release PTH into the bloodstream to help regulate the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

In hyperparathyroidism, overproduction of PTH can lead to an imbalance in these minerals, causing high blood calcium levels (hypercalcemia) and low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia). This can result in various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and cognitive issues.

There are two types of hyperparathyroidism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs when there is a problem with one or more of the parathyroid glands, causing them to become overactive and produce too much PTH. Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops as a response to low calcium levels in the body due to conditions like vitamin D deficiency, chronic kidney disease, or malabsorption syndromes.

Treatment for hyperparathyroidism depends on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms. In primary hyperparathyroidism, surgery to remove the overactive parathyroid gland(s) is often recommended. For secondary hyperparathyroidism, treating the underlying condition and managing calcium levels with medications or dietary changes may be sufficient.

A fetus is the developing offspring in a mammal, from the end of the embryonic period (approximately 8 weeks after fertilization in humans) until birth. In humans, the fetal stage of development starts from the eleventh week of pregnancy and continues until childbirth, which is termed as full-term pregnancy at around 37 to 40 weeks of gestation. During this time, the organ systems become fully developed and the body grows in size. The fetus is surrounded by the amniotic fluid within the amniotic sac and is connected to the placenta via the umbilical cord, through which it receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother. Regular prenatal care is essential during this period to monitor the growth and development of the fetus and ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

Salivary gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the salivary glands. These glands are responsible for producing saliva, which helps in digestion, lubrication of food and maintaining oral health. Salivary gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as swelling, painless lumps, or difficulty swallowing if they grow large enough to put pressure on surrounding tissues.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and have the potential to invade nearby structures and metastasize (spread) to distant organs. Symptoms of malignant salivary gland neoplasms may include rapid growth, pain, numbness, or paralysis of facial nerves.

Salivary gland neoplasms can occur in any of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands) or in the minor salivary glands located throughout the mouth and throat. The exact cause of these neoplasms is not fully understood, but risk factors may include exposure to radiation, certain viral infections, and genetic predisposition.

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is a term used to describe advanced and irreversible liver damage, usually caused by chronic liver conditions such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, or alcoholic liver disease. At this stage, the liver can no longer function properly, leading to a range of serious complications.

The symptoms of ESLD may include:

* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdomen)
* Encephalopathy (confusion, drowsiness, or coma caused by the buildup of toxins in the brain)
* Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract
* Infections
* Kidney failure

Treatment for ESLD typically focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary to improve survival. However, due to the shortage of available donor livers, many people with ESLD are not eligible for transplantation. The prognosis for individuals with ESLD is generally poor, with a median survival time of less than one year.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

Adrenal gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of each kidney and are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, and stress response. Adrenal gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign adrenal tumors are called adenomas and are usually small and asymptomatic. However, some adenomas may produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to symptoms such as high blood pressure, weight gain, and mood changes.

Malignant adrenal tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas and are rare but aggressive cancers that can spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms of adrenocortical carcinoma may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and hormonal imbalances.

It is important to diagnose and treat adrenal gland neoplasms early to prevent complications and improve outcomes. Diagnostic tests may include imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs, as well as hormone level testing and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Parotid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the parotid gland, which is the largest of the salivary glands and is located in front of the ear and extends down the neck. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign parotid neoplasms are typically slow-growing, painless masses that may cause facial asymmetry or difficulty in chewing or swallowing if they become large enough to compress surrounding structures. The most common type of benign parotid tumor is a pleomorphic adenoma.

Malignant parotid neoplasms, on the other hand, are more aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. They may present as rapidly growing masses that are firm or fixed to surrounding structures. Common types of malignant parotid tumors include mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

The diagnosis of parotid neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to determine the nature of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Pituitary ACTH hypersecretion, also known as Cushing's disease, is a condition characterized by the excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. This results in an overproduction of cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, leading to a constellation of symptoms known as Cushing's syndrome.

In Cushing's disease, a benign tumor called an adenoma develops on the pituitary gland, causing it to release excess ACTH. This in turn stimulates the adrenal glands to produce more cortisol than necessary. The resulting high levels of cortisol can cause various symptoms such as weight gain, particularly around the trunk and face (central obesity), thinning of the skin, bruising, weakness, fatigue, mood changes, high blood pressure, and an increased risk of infections.

It is important to distinguish Cushing's disease from other causes of Cushing's syndrome, such as cortisol-producing adrenal tumors or exogenous sources of corticosteroid use, as the treatment approach may differ. Treatment for Cushing's disease typically involves surgical removal of the pituitary tumor, with additional medical management and/or radiation therapy in some cases.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Hep G2 cells are a type of human liver cancer cell line that were isolated from a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a patient with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. These cells have the ability to grow and divide indefinitely in culture, making them useful for research purposes. Hep G2 cells express many of the same markers and functions as normal human hepatocytes, including the ability to take up and process lipids and produce bile. They are often used in studies related to hepatitis viruses, liver metabolism, drug toxicity, and cancer biology. It is important to note that Hep G2 cells are tumorigenic and should be handled with care in a laboratory setting.

The Cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzyme system is a group of enzymes found primarily in the liver, but also in other organs such as the intestines, lungs, and skin. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism and biotransformation of various substances, including drugs, environmental toxins, and endogenous compounds like hormones and fatty acids.

The name "Cytochrome P-450" refers to the unique property of these enzymes to bind to carbon monoxide (CO) and form a complex that absorbs light at a wavelength of 450 nm, which can be detected spectrophotometrically.

The CYP450 enzyme system is involved in Phase I metabolism of xenobiotics, where it catalyzes oxidation reactions such as hydroxylation, dealkylation, and epoxidation. These reactions introduce functional groups into the substrate molecule, which can then undergo further modifications by other enzymes during Phase II metabolism.

There are several families and subfamilies of CYP450 enzymes, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions. Some of the most important CYP450 enzymes include:

1. CYP3A4: This is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the human liver and is involved in the metabolism of approximately 50% of all drugs. It also metabolizes various endogenous compounds like steroids, bile acids, and vitamin D.
2. CYP2D6: This enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of many psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and beta-blockers. It also metabolizes some endogenous compounds like dopamine and serotonin.
3. CYP2C9: This enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of warfarin, phenytoin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. CYP2C19: This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants, and clopidogrel.
5. CYP2E1: This enzyme metabolizes various xenobiotics like alcohol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride, as well as some endogenous compounds like fatty acids and prostaglandins.

Genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes can significantly affect drug metabolism and response, leading to interindividual variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. Understanding the role of CYP450 enzymes in drug metabolism is crucial for optimizing pharmacotherapy and minimizing adverse effects.

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Phenobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for the treatment of seizures and convulsions. It works by suppressing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. In addition to its anticonvulsant properties, phenobarbital also has sedative and hypnotic effects, which can be useful for treating anxiety, insomnia, and agitation.

Phenobarbital is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and elixirs, and it is typically taken orally. The medication works by binding to specific receptors in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which help to regulate nerve impulses in the brain. By increasing the activity of GABA, phenobarbital can help to reduce excessive neural activity and prevent seizures.

While phenobarbital is an effective medication for treating seizures and other conditions, it can also be habit-forming and carries a risk of dependence and addiction. Long-term use of the medication can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses may be needed to achieve the same effects. Abruptly stopping the medication can also lead to withdrawal symptoms, such as anxiety, restlessness, and seizures.

Like all medications, phenobarbital can have side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, and impaired coordination. It can also interact with other medications, such as certain antidepressants and sedatives, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting phenobarbital.

In summary, phenobarbital is a barbiturate medication used primarily for the treatment of seizures and convulsions. It works by binding to GABA receptors in the brain and increasing their activity, which helps to reduce excessive neural activity and prevent seizures. While phenobarbital can be effective, it carries a risk of dependence and addiction and can have side effects and drug interactions.

Hyperaldosteronism is a medical condition characterized by the overproduction of aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium retention and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

There are two types of hyperaldosteronism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperaldosteronism is caused by an overproduction of aldosterone from an abnormality within the adrenal gland, such as a tumor (Conn's syndrome) or hyperplasia. Secondary hyperaldosteronism occurs when there is an excess production of renin, a hormone produced by the kidneys, which then stimulates the adrenal glands to produce more aldosterone. This can be caused by various conditions that affect kidney function, such as renal artery stenosis or heart failure.

Symptoms of hyperaldosteronism may include high blood pressure, low potassium levels (hypokalemia), muscle weakness, and frequent urination. Diagnosis typically involves measuring aldosterone and renin levels in the blood, as well as other tests to determine the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the type and cause of hyperaldosteronism but may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal development. In adults, AFP is normally present in very low levels in the blood. However, abnormal production of AFP can occur in certain medical conditions, such as:

* Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
* Germ cell tumors, including non-seminomatous testicular cancer and ovarian cancer
* Hepatitis or liver inflammation
* Certain types of benign liver disease, such as cirrhosis or hepatic adenomas

Elevated levels of AFP in the blood can be detected through a simple blood test. This test is often used as a tumor marker to help diagnose and monitor certain types of cancer, particularly HCC. However, it's important to note that an elevated AFP level alone is not enough to diagnose cancer, and further testing is usually needed to confirm the diagnosis. Additionally, some non-cancerous conditions can also cause elevated AFP levels, so it's important to interpret the test results in the context of the individual's medical history and other diagnostic tests.

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), also known as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, is an enzyme found in many tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, and pancreas. GGT is involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids and plays a role in the detoxification of various substances in the body.

GGT is often measured as a part of a panel of tests used to evaluate liver function. Elevated levels of GGT in the blood may indicate liver disease or injury, bile duct obstruction, or alcohol consumption. However, it's important to note that several other factors can also affect GGT levels, so abnormal results should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and diagnostic tests.

The sphenoid bone is a complex, irregularly shaped bone located in the middle cranial fossa and forms part of the base of the skull. It articulates with several other bones, including the frontal, parietal, temporal, ethmoid, palatine, and zygomatic bones. The sphenoid bone has two main parts: the body and the wings.

The body of the sphenoid bone is roughly cuboid in shape and contains several important structures, such as the sella turcica, which houses the pituitary gland, and the sphenoid sinuses, which are air-filled cavities within the bone. The greater wings of the sphenoid bone extend laterally from the body and form part of the skull's lateral walls. They contain the superior orbital fissure, through which important nerves and blood vessels pass between the cranial cavity and the orbit of the eye.

The lesser wings of the sphenoid bone are thin, blade-like structures that extend anteriorly from the body and form part of the floor of the anterior cranial fossa. They contain the optic canal, which transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery between the brain and the orbit of the eye.

Overall, the sphenoid bone plays a crucial role in protecting several important structures within the skull, including the pituitary gland, optic nerves, and ophthalmic arteries.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Duodenal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine that receives digestive secretions from the pancreas and bile duct. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms include adenomas, leiomyomas, lipomas, and hamartomas. They are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bleeding, or obstruction of the intestine.

Malignant neoplasms include adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids), lymphomas, and sarcomas. They are more aggressive and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, anemia, or bowel obstruction.

The diagnosis of duodenal neoplasms is usually made through imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI, or endoscopy with biopsy. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the tumor and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these modalities.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

Adenoma of the bile duct is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops in the bile ducts, which are tiny tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver.

Bile duct adenomas are rare and usually do not cause any symptoms. However, if they grow large enough, they may obstruct the flow of bile and cause jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), abdominal pain, or itching. In some cases, bile duct adenomas may become cancerous and develop into bile duct carcinomas.

The exact cause of bile duct adenomas is not known, but they are more common in people with certain genetic disorders, such as Gardner's syndrome and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Treatment for bile duct adenomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor.

Albumins are a type of protein found in various biological fluids, including blood plasma. The most well-known albumin is serum albumin, which is produced by the liver and is the most abundant protein in blood plasma. Serum albumin plays several important roles in the body, such as maintaining oncotic pressure (which helps to regulate fluid balance in the body), transporting various substances (such as hormones, fatty acids, and drugs), and acting as an antioxidant.

Albumins are soluble in water and have a molecular weight ranging from 65,000 to 69,000 daltons. They are composed of a single polypeptide chain that contains approximately 585 amino acid residues. The structure of albumin is characterized by a high proportion of alpha-helices and beta-sheets, which give it a stable, folded conformation.

In addition to their role in human physiology, albumins are also used as diagnostic markers in medicine. For example, low serum albumin levels may indicate liver disease, malnutrition, or inflammation, while high levels may be seen in dehydration or certain types of kidney disease. Albumins may also be used as a replacement therapy in patients with severe protein loss, such as those with nephrotic syndrome or burn injuries.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

2-Acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) is a chemical compound that has been used in research to study the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. It is an aromatic amine and a derivative of fluorene, with the chemical formula C14H11NO.

2-AAF is not naturally occurring and is synthesized in the laboratory. It has been found to be carcinogenic in animal studies, causing tumors in various organs including the liver, lung, and bladder. The compound is metabolically activated in the body to form reactive intermediates that can bind to DNA and other cellular components, leading to mutations and cancer.

2-AAF has been used as a tool in research to investigate the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis and the role of metabolic activation in the process. It is not used in medical treatments or therapies.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

Adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both adrenal glands are removed. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney that produce hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline (epinephrine).

There are several reasons why an adrenalectomy may be necessary. For example, the procedure may be performed to treat tumors or growths on the adrenal glands, such as pheochromocytomas, which can cause high blood pressure and other symptoms. Adrenalectomy may also be recommended for patients with Cushing's syndrome, a condition in which the body is exposed to too much cortisol, or for those with adrenal cancer.

During an adrenalectomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen or back and removes the affected gland or glands. In some cases, laparoscopic surgery may be used, which involves making several small incisions and using specialized instruments to remove the gland. After the procedure, patients may need to take hormone replacement therapy to compensate for the loss of adrenal gland function.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced by the liver when it breaks down old red blood cells. It is a normal byproduct of hemoglobin metabolism and is usually conjugated (made water-soluble) in the liver before being excreted through the bile into the digestive system. Elevated levels of bilirubin can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes. Increased bilirubin levels may indicate liver disease or other medical conditions such as gallstones or hemolysis. It is also measured to assess liver function and to help diagnose various liver disorders.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Thyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the thyroid gland, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can vary in size and may cause a noticeable lump or nodule in the neck. Thyroid neoplasms can also affect the function of the thyroid gland, leading to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms. The exact causes of thyroid neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include radiation exposure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. It is important to note that most thyroid nodules are benign, but a proper medical evaluation is necessary to determine the nature of the growth and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Perfusion, in medical terms, refers to the process of circulating blood through the body's organs and tissues to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products. It is a measure of the delivery of adequate blood flow to specific areas or tissues in the body. Perfusion can be assessed using various methods, including imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and perfusion scintigraphy.

Perfusion is critical for maintaining proper organ function and overall health. When perfusion is impaired or inadequate, it can lead to tissue hypoxia, acidosis, and cell death, which can result in organ dysfunction or failure. Conditions that can affect perfusion include cardiovascular disease, shock, trauma, and certain surgical procedures.

Alcoholic hepatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and damage to the liver caused by excessive alcohol consumption. It is a type of hepatitis that specifically results from alcohol abuse, rather than from viral infections or other causes. The condition can vary in severity, and long-term heavy drinking increases the risk of developing alcoholic hepatitis.

The inflammation in alcoholic hepatitis can lead to symptoms such as jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and fever. In severe cases, it can cause liver failure, which may be life-threatening. Treatment typically involves alcohol abstinence, supportive care, and medications to manage symptoms and prevent further liver damage. In some cases, hospitalization and more intensive treatments may be necessary.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Primary hyperparathyroidism is a medical condition characterized by excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from one or more of the parathyroid glands in the neck. These glands are normally responsible for regulating calcium levels in the body by releasing PTH, which helps to maintain an appropriate balance of calcium and phosphate in the bloodstream.

In primary hyperparathyroidism, the parathyroid gland(s) become overactive and produce too much PTH, leading to elevated calcium levels (hypercalcemia) in the blood. This can result in a variety of symptoms, such as fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and cognitive impairment, although some individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.

The most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism is a benign tumor called an adenoma that develops in one or more of the parathyroid glands. In rare cases, primary hyperparathyroidism can be caused by cancer of the parathyroid gland(s) or by enlargement of all four glands (four-gland hyperplasia). Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the affected parathyroid gland(s), which is usually curative.

Enzyme induction is a process by which the activity or expression of an enzyme is increased in response to some stimulus, such as a drug, hormone, or other environmental factor. This can occur through several mechanisms, including increasing the transcription of the enzyme's gene, stabilizing the mRNA that encodes the enzyme, or increasing the translation of the mRNA into protein.

In some cases, enzyme induction can be a beneficial process, such as when it helps the body to metabolize and clear drugs more quickly. However, in other cases, enzyme induction can have negative consequences, such as when it leads to the increased metabolism of important endogenous compounds or the activation of harmful procarcinogens.

Enzyme induction is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology, as it can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs and other xenobiotics. It is also relevant to the study of drug interactions, as the induction of one enzyme by a drug can lead to altered metabolism and effects of another drug that is metabolized by the same enzyme.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Histochemistry is the branch of pathology that deals with the microscopic localization of cellular or tissue components using specific chemical reactions. It involves the application of chemical techniques to identify and locate specific biomolecules within tissues, cells, and subcellular structures. This is achieved through the use of various staining methods that react with specific antigens or enzymes in the sample, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. Histochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to identify different types of tissues, cells, and structures, as well as in research to study cellular and molecular processes in health and disease.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Animal Hepatitis" is not a medical term used to describe a specific disease. Hepatitis refers to inflammation of the liver, and it can be caused by various factors, including viruses, alcohol, drugs, and certain medical conditions.

However, there are several viral hepatitis types that can infect animals, such as Hepatitis A, B, and C, which primarily affect humans. But there are also other hepatitis viruses that are species-specific and primarily infect animals, such as:

1. Canine Hepatitis (Adenovirus Type 1): This is a viral infection that affects dogs and causes liver damage, respiratory signs, and occasionally death.
2. Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) Virus: While not strictly a hepatitis virus, this feline coronavirus can cause severe inflammation of the liver and other organs in cats.
3. Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV): This retrovirus affects horses and causes cyclic fever, anemia, and occasionally liver disease.
4. Avian Hepatitis E Virus: A recently discovered virus that infects birds and can cause hepatitis and other systemic signs in chickens and other avian species.

If you're looking for information on a specific animal hepatitis virus or a different medical term, please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate answer.

The Sella Turcica, also known as the Turkish saddle, is a depression or fossa in the sphenoid bone located at the base of the skull. It forms a housing for the pituitary gland, which is a small endocrine gland often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes several essential hormones. The Sella Turcica has a saddle-like shape, with its anterior and posterior clinoids forming the front and back of the saddle, respectively. This region is of significant interest in neuroimaging and clinical settings, as various conditions such as pituitary tumors or other abnormalities may affect the size, shape, and integrity of the Sella Turcica.

The portal vein is the large venous trunk that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver. It is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein (draining the small intestine and a portion of the large intestine) and the splenic vein (draining the spleen and pancreas). The portal vein then divides into right and left branches within the liver, where the blood flows through the sinusoids and gets enriched with oxygen and nutrients before being drained by the hepatic veins into the inferior vena cava. This unique arrangement allows the liver to process and detoxify the absorbed nutrients, remove waste products, and regulate metabolic homeostasis.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats. When the flow of bile is blocked or reduced, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the blood, which can cause jaundice, itching, and other symptoms.

Cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including liver diseases (such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or cancer), gallstones, alcohol abuse, certain medications, pregnancy, and genetic disorders. Depending on the underlying cause, cholestasis may be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe in its symptoms and consequences. Treatment for cholestasis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing the symptoms with supportive care.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

Organ specificity, in the context of immunology and toxicology, refers to the phenomenon where a substance (such as a drug or toxin) or an immune response primarily affects certain organs or tissues in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as:

1. The presence of specific targets (like antigens in the case of an immune response or receptors in the case of drugs) that are more abundant in these organs.
2. The unique properties of certain cells or tissues that make them more susceptible to damage.
3. The way a substance is metabolized or cleared from the body, which can concentrate it in specific organs.

For example, in autoimmune diseases, organ specificity describes immune responses that are directed against antigens found only in certain organs, such as the thyroid gland in Hashimoto's disease. Similarly, some toxins or drugs may have a particular affinity for liver cells, leading to liver damage or specific drug interactions.

Ethanol is the medical term for pure alcohol, which is a colorless, clear, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor and burning taste. It is the type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

In the medical field, ethanol is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is also used as a solvent for various medicinal preparations. It has central nervous system depressant properties and is sometimes used as a sedative or to induce sleep. However, excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol intoxication, which can cause a range of negative health effects, including impaired judgment, coordination, and memory, as well as an increased risk of accidents, injuries, and chronic diseases such as liver disease and addiction.

Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the rectum, which can be benign or malignant. They are characterized by uncontrolled cell division and can invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). The most common type of rectal neoplasm is rectal cancer, which often begins as a small polyp or growth in the lining of the rectum. Other types of rectal neoplasms include adenomas, carcinoids, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Regular screenings are recommended for early detection and treatment of rectal neoplasms.

Sigmoidoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a sigmoidoscope, a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, into the rectum and lower colon (sigmoid colon) to examine these areas for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, polyps, or cancer. The procedure typically allows for the detection of issues in the sigmoid colon and rectum, and can help diagnose conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or colorectal cancer.

There are two types of sigmoidoscopy: flexible sigmoidoscopy and rigid sigmoidoscopy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is more commonly performed because it provides a better view of the lower colon and is less uncomfortable for the patient. Rigid sigmoidoscopy, on the other hand, uses a solid, inflexible tube and is typically used in specific situations such as the removal of foreign objects or certain types of polyps.

During the procedure, patients are usually positioned on their left side with their knees drawn up to their chest. The sigmoidoscope is gently inserted into the rectum and advanced through the lower colon while the doctor examines the lining for any abnormalities. Air may be introduced through the scope to help expand the colon and provide a better view. If polyps or other abnormal tissues are found, they can often be removed during the procedure for further examination and testing.

Sigmoidoscopy is generally considered a safe and well-tolerated procedure. Some patients may experience mild discomfort, bloating, or cramping during or after the exam, but these symptoms typically resolve on their own within a few hours.

A choristoma is a type of growth that occurs when normally functioning tissue is found in an abnormal location within the body. It is not cancerous or harmful, but it can cause problems if it presses on surrounding structures or causes symptoms. Choristomas are typically congenital, meaning they are present at birth, and are thought to occur due to developmental errors during embryonic growth. They can be found in various organs and tissues throughout the body, including the brain, eye, skin, and gastrointestinal tract.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Carbon tetrachloride poisoning refers to the harmful effects on the body caused by exposure to carbon tetrachloride, a volatile and toxic chemical compound. This substance has been widely used in various industrial applications, such as a solvent for fats, oils, and rubber, a fire extinguishing agent, and a refrigerant. However, due to its high toxicity, the use of carbon tetrachloride has been significantly reduced or phased out in many countries.

Ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption of carbon tetrachloride can lead to poisoning, which may cause various symptoms depending on the severity and duration of exposure. Acute exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride can result in:

1. Central nervous system depression: Dizziness, headache, confusion, drowsiness, and, in severe cases, loss of consciousness or even death.
2. Respiratory irritation: Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and pulmonary edema (fluid accumulation in the lungs).
3. Cardiovascular effects: Increased heart rate, low blood pressure, and irregular heart rhythms.
4. Gastrointestinal symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
5. Liver damage: Hepatitis, jaundice, and liver failure in severe cases.
6. Kidney damage: Acute kidney injury or failure.

Chronic exposure to carbon tetrachloride can lead to long-term health effects, including:

1. Liver cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) and liver cancer.
2. Kidney damage and kidney disease.
3. Peripheral neuropathy (damage to the nerves in the limbs), causing numbness, tingling, or weakness.
4. Increased risk of miscarriage and birth defects in pregnant women exposed to carbon tetrachloride.

Treatment for carbon tetrachloride poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and monitoring of vital signs. In some cases, specific treatments like activated charcoal or gastric lavage may be used to remove the substance from the body. Prevention is crucial in minimizing exposure to this harmful chemical by following safety guidelines when handling it and using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Galactosamine is not a medical condition but a chemical compound. Medically, it might be referred to in the context of certain medical tests or treatments. Here's the scientific definition:

Galactosamine is an amino sugar, a type of monosaccharide (simple sugar) that contains a functional amino group (-NH2) as well as a hydroxyl group (-OH). More specifically, galactosamine is a derivative of galactose, with the chemical formula C6H13NO5. It is an important component of many glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are complex carbohydrates found in animal tissues, particularly in connective tissue and cartilage.

In some medical applications, galactosamine has been used as a building block for the synthesis of GAG analogs or as a component of substrates for enzyme assays. It is also used in research to study various biological processes, such as cell growth and differentiation.

Chronic hepatitis is a type of liver inflammation that lasts for more than six months and can lead to scarring of the liver (cirrhosis), liver failure, and even liver cancer in some cases. It can be caused by various factors, including viral infections such as Hepatitis B and C, autoimmune disorders, alcohol abuse, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The symptoms of chronic hepatitis may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, joint pain, dark urine, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Treatment for chronic hepatitis depends on the underlying cause and may include antiviral medications, immunosuppressive drugs, or lifestyle changes.

Hepatic stellate cells, also known as Ito cells or lipocytes, are specialized perisinusoidal cells located in the space of Disse in the liver. They play a crucial role in maintaining the normal architecture and function of the liver. In response to liver injury or disease, these cells can become activated and transform into myofibroblasts, which produce extracellular matrix components and contribute to fibrosis and scarring in the liver. This activation process is regulated by various signaling pathways and mediators, including cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress. Hepatic stellate cells also have the ability to store vitamin A and lipids, which they can release during activation to support hepatocyte function and regeneration.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Human Growth Hormone (HGH), also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone produced in the pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in human development and growth by stimulating the production of another hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 promotes the growth and reproduction of cells throughout the body, particularly in bones and other tissues. HGH also helps regulate body composition, body fluids, muscle and bone growth, sugar and fat metabolism, and possibly heart function. It is essential for human development and continues to have important effects throughout life. The secretion of HGH decreases with age, which is thought to contribute to the aging process.

Dimethylnitrosamine is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2NNO. It is a potent carcinogen, and is classified as a Class 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). It is known to cause cancer in various organs, including the liver, kidney, and lungs.

Dimethylnitrosamine is formed when nitrogen oxides react with secondary amines under conditions that are commonly encountered in industrial processes or in certain food preservation methods. It can also be found as a contaminant in some foods and cosmetics.

Exposure to dimethylnitrosamine can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. The toxic effects of this compound are due to its ability to form DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and cancer. It is important to minimize exposure to this compound and to take appropriate safety measures when working with it.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Starvation is a severe form of malnutrition, characterized by insufficient intake of calories and nutrients to meet the body's energy requirements. This leads to a catabolic state where the body begins to break down its own tissues for energy, resulting in significant weight loss, muscle wasting, and weakness. Prolonged starvation can also lead to serious medical complications such as organ failure, electrolyte imbalances, and even death. It is typically caused by a lack of access to food due to poverty, famine, or other social or economic factors, but can also be a result of severe eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Pituitary apoplexy is a medical emergency that involves bleeding into the pituitary gland (a small gland at the base of the brain) and/or sudden swelling of the pituitary gland. This can lead to compression of nearby structures, such as the optic nerves and the hypothalamus, causing symptoms like severe headache, visual disturbances, hormonal imbalances, and altered mental status. It is often associated with a pre-existing pituitary tumor (such as a pituitary adenoma), but can also occur in individuals without any known pituitary abnormalities. Immediate medical attention is required to manage this condition, which may include surgical intervention, hormone replacement therapy, and supportive care.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Acetaminophen is a medication used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It is a commonly used over-the-counter drug and is also available in prescription-strength formulations. Acetaminophen works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that cause inflammation and trigger pain signals.

Acetaminophen is available in many different forms, including tablets, capsules, liquids, and suppositories. It is often found in combination with other medications, such as cough and cold products, sleep aids, and opioid pain relievers.

While acetaminophen is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause serious liver damage or even death if taken in excessive amounts. It is important to follow the dosing instructions carefully and avoid taking more than the recommended dose, especially if you are also taking other medications that contain acetaminophen.

If you have any questions about using acetaminophen or are concerned about potential side effects, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional.

Pituitary hormones are chemical messengers produced and released by the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls several other endocrine glands and regulates various bodily functions.

There are two main types of pituitary hormones: anterior pituitary hormones and posterior pituitary hormones, which are produced in different parts of the pituitary gland and have distinct functions.

Anterior pituitary hormones include:

1. Growth hormone (GH): regulates growth and metabolism.
2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones.
3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH): regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
5. Prolactin: stimulates milk production in lactating women.
6. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH): regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

Posterior pituitary hormones include:

1. Oxytocin: stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during lactation.
2. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH): regulates water balance in the body by controlling urine production in the kidneys.

Overall, pituitary hormones play crucial roles in regulating growth, development, metabolism, reproductive function, and various other bodily functions. Abnormalities in pituitary hormone levels can lead to a range of medical conditions, such as dwarfism, acromegaly, Cushing's disease, infertility, and diabetes insipidus.

Growth Hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone secreted by the somatotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration by stimulating the production of another hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the liver and other tissues. GH also has important metabolic functions, such as increasing glucose levels, enhancing protein synthesis, and reducing fat storage. Its secretion is regulated by two hypothalamic hormones: growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), which stimulates its release, and somatostatin (SRIF), which inhibits its release. Abnormal levels of GH can lead to various medical conditions, such as dwarfism or gigantism if there are deficiencies or excesses, respectively.

Urethane is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, in the field of chemistry and pharmacology, urethane is an ethyl carbamate ester which has been used as a general anesthetic. It is rarely used today due to its potential carcinogenic properties and the availability of safer alternatives.

In the context of materials science, polyurethanes are a class of polymers that contain urethane linkages (-NH-CO-O-) in their main chain. They are widely used in various applications such as foam insulation, coatings, adhesives, and medical devices due to their versatile properties like flexibility, durability, and resistance to abrasion.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and other molecules from genes in neoplastic cells, or cells that are part of a tumor or cancer. In a normal cell, gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that the right genes are turned on or off at the right time. However, in cancer cells, this regulation can be disrupted, leading to the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and signals from the tumor microenvironment. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cancer growth and development) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent cancer).

Understanding neoplastic gene expression regulation is important for developing new therapies for cancer, as targeting specific genes or pathways involved in this process can help to inhibit cancer growth and progression.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Necrosis is the premature death of cells or tissues due to damage or injury, such as from infection, trauma, infarction (lack of blood supply), or toxic substances. It's a pathological process that results in the uncontrolled and passive degradation of cellular components, ultimately leading to the release of intracellular contents into the extracellular space. This can cause local inflammation and may lead to further tissue damage if not treated promptly.

There are different types of necrosis, including coagulative, liquefactive, caseous, fat, fibrinoid, and gangrenous necrosis, each with distinct histological features depending on the underlying cause and the affected tissues or organs.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein is a tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in regulating cell growth and division. It is encoded by the APC gene, which is located on chromosome 5. The APC protein helps to prevent excessive cell growth and division by inhibiting the activity of a protein called beta-catenin, which promotes cell growth and division when activated.

In individuals with certain genetic disorders, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), mutations in the APC gene can lead to the production of a defective APC protein or no APC protein at all. This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, leading to the development of numerous benign tumors called polyps in the colon and rectum. Over time, some of these polyps may become cancerous, leading to colorectal cancer if left untreated.

APC protein also has other functions in the body, including regulating cell migration and adhesion, and playing a role in maintaining the stability of the cytoskeleton. Mutations in the APC gene have been linked to other types of cancer besides colorectal cancer, including breast, lung, and ovarian cancers.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate milk production in women after childbirth, a process known as lactation. However, prolactin also plays other roles in the body, including regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. In men, prolactin helps maintain the sexual glands and contributes to paternal behaviors.

Prolactin levels are usually low in both men and non-pregnant women but increase significantly during pregnancy and after childbirth. Various factors can affect prolactin levels, including stress, sleep, exercise, and certain medications. High prolactin levels can lead to medical conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), galactorrhea (spontaneous milk production not related to childbirth), infertility, and reduced sexual desire in both men and women.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Bile is a digestive fluid that is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It plays an essential role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Bile consists of bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, electrolytes, and water.

Bile salts are amphipathic molecules that help to emulsify fats into smaller droplets, increasing their surface area and allowing for more efficient digestion by enzymes such as lipase. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells and gives bile its characteristic greenish-brown color.

Bile is released into the small intestine in response to food, particularly fats, entering the digestive tract. It helps to break down large fat molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed through the walls of the intestines and transported to other parts of the body for energy or storage.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Parathyroidectomy is a surgical procedure for the removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands. These glands are located in the neck and are responsible for producing parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps regulate the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

Parathyroidectomy is typically performed to treat conditions such as hyperparathyroidism, where one or more of the parathyroid glands become overactive and produce too much PTH. This can lead to high levels of calcium in the blood, which can cause symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, bone pain, kidney stones, and mental confusion.

There are different types of parathyroidectomy procedures, including:

* Partial parathyroidectomy: removal of one or more, but not all, of the parathyroid glands.
* Total parathyroidectomy: removal of all four parathyroid glands.
* Subtotal parathyroidectomy: removal of three and a half of the four parathyroid glands, leaving a small portion of one gland to prevent hypoparathyroidism (a condition where the body produces too little PTH).

The choice of procedure depends on the underlying condition and its severity. After the surgery, patients may need to have their calcium levels monitored and may require calcium and vitamin D supplements to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

Nitrosamines are a type of chemical compound that are formed by the reaction between nitrous acid (or any nitrogen oxide) and secondary amines. They are often found in certain types of food, such as cured meats and cheeses, as well as in tobacco products and cosmetics.

Nitrosamines have been classified as probable human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Exposure to high levels of nitrosamines has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly in the digestive tract. They can also cause DNA damage and interfere with the normal functioning of cells.

In the medical field, nitrosamines have been a topic of concern due to their potential presence as contaminants in certain medications. For example, some drugs that contain nitrofurantoin, a medication used to treat urinary tract infections, have been found to contain low levels of nitrosamines. While the risk associated with these low levels is not well understood, efforts are underway to minimize the presence of nitrosamines in medications and other products.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Glucagon is a hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas. Its main function is to regulate glucose levels in the blood by stimulating the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which can then be released into the bloodstream. This process helps to raise blood sugar levels when they are too low, such as during hypoglycemia.

Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide that is derived from the preproglucagon protein. It works by binding to glucagon receptors on liver cells, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to the activation of enzymes involved in glycogen breakdown.

In addition to its role in glucose regulation, glucagon has also been shown to have other physiological effects, such as promoting lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and inhibiting gastric acid secretion. Glucagon is often used clinically in the treatment of hypoglycemia, as well as in diagnostic tests to assess pancreatic function.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is a single-stranded, linear polymer of ribonucleotides. It is a nucleic acid present in the cells of all living organisms and some viruses. RNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes such as protein synthesis, gene regulation, and cellular signaling. There are several types of RNA including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). These RNAs differ in their structure, function, and location within the cell.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 is a specific isoform of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system, which is involved in the metabolism of various xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This enzyme is primarily located in the liver and to some extent in other organs such as the lungs, brain, and kidneys.

CYP2E1 plays a significant role in the metabolic activation of several procarcinogens, including nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and certain solvents. It also contributes to the oxidation of various therapeutic drugs, such as acetaminophen, anesthetics, and anticonvulsants. Overexpression or induction of CYP2E1 has been linked to increased susceptibility to chemical-induced toxicity, carcinogenesis, and alcohol-related liver damage.

The activity of CYP2E1 can be influenced by various factors, including genetic polymorphisms, age, sex, smoking status, and exposure to certain chemicals or drugs. Understanding the regulation and function of this enzyme is crucial for predicting individual susceptibility to chemical-induced toxicities and diseases, as well as for optimizing drug therapy and minimizing adverse effects.

Orotic acid, also known as pyrmidine carboxylic acid, is a organic compound that plays a role in the metabolic pathway for the biosynthesis of pyrimidines, which are nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides and nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Orotic acid is not considered to be a vitamin, but it is sometimes referred to as vitamin B13 or B15, although these designations are not widely recognized by the scientific community.

In the body, orotic acid is converted into orotidine monophosphate (OMP) by the enzyme orotate phosphoribosyltransferase. OMP is then further metabolized to form uridine monophosphate (UMP), a pyrimidine nucleotide that is an important precursor for the synthesis of RNA and other molecules.

Elevated levels of orotic acid in the urine, known as orotic aciduria, can be a sign of certain genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of pyrimidines. These conditions can lead to an accumulation of orotic acid and other pyrimidine precursors in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including developmental delays, neurological problems, and kidney stones. Treatment for these disorders typically involves dietary restrictions and supplementation with nucleotides or nucleosides to help support normal pyrimidine metabolism.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Fetal tissue transplantation is a medical procedure that involves the surgical implantation of tissue from developing fetuses into patients for therapeutic purposes. The tissue used in these procedures typically comes from elective abortions, and can include tissues such as neural cells, liver cells, pancreatic islets, and heart valves.

The rationale behind fetal tissue transplantation is that the developing fetus has a high capacity for cell growth and regeneration, making its tissues an attractive source of cells for transplantation. Additionally, because fetal tissue is often less mature than adult tissue, it may be less likely to trigger an immune response in the recipient, reducing the risk of rejection.

Fetal tissue transplantation has been explored as a potential treatment for a variety of conditions, including Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and heart disease. However, the use of fetal tissue in medical research and therapy remains controversial due to ethical concerns surrounding the sourcing of the tissue.

"p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is a chemical compound that can have potential medical relevance. Here is its general chemical definition:

"p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene" (also known as "para-dimethylaminoazobenzene" or "DMAB") is an aromatic organic compound, which is a derivative of azobenzene by the introduction of a dimethylamino group in the para position. It is a yellow to orange crystalline powder that is soluble in alcohol and ether but insoluble in water.

In the field of medical research, "p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene" has been used as a model compound for studying chemical carcinogenesis, or the process by which certain chemicals can cause cancer. This compound has been shown to induce liver tumors in experimental animals, and its use in research has contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in chemical carcinogenesis. However, it is not used as a therapeutic agent or diagnostic tool in human medicine.

The hepatic artery is a branch of the celiac trunk or abdominal aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver. It typically divides into two main branches, the right and left hepatic arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply different regions of the liver. The hepatic artery also gives off branches to supply other organs such as the gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum.

It's worth noting that there is significant variability in the anatomy of the hepatic artery, with some individuals having additional branches or variations in the origin of the vessel. This variability can have implications for surgical procedures involving the liver and surrounding organs.

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. The virus is transmitted through contact with infected blood, semen, and other bodily fluids. It can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby at birth.

Acute hepatitis B infection lasts for a few weeks to several months and often causes no symptoms. However, some people may experience mild to severe flu-like symptoms, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, and fatigue. Most adults with acute hepatitis B recover completely and develop lifelong immunity to the virus.

Chronic hepatitis B infection can lead to serious liver damage, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. People with chronic hepatitis B may experience long-term symptoms such as fatigue, joint pain, and depression. They are also at risk for developing liver failure and liver cancer.

Prevention measures include vaccination, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing needles or other drug injection equipment, and covering wounds and skin rashes. There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B, but chronic hepatitis B can be treated with antiviral medications to slow the progression of liver damage.

The descending colon is a part of the large intestine in the human digestive system. It is called "descending" because it is located inferiorly and posteriorly to the transverse colon, and its direction goes downward as it continues toward the rectum. The descending colon receives digested food material from the transverse colon via the splenic flexure, also known as the left colic flexure.

The primary function of the descending colon is to absorb water, electrolytes, and any remaining nutrients from the undigested food materials that have passed through the small intestine. The descending colon also stores this waste material temporarily before it moves into the rectum for eventual elimination from the body.

The descending colon's wall contains a layer of smooth muscle, which helps propel the waste material along the gastrointestinal tract via peristalsis. Additionally, the inner mucosal lining of the descending colon contains numerous goblet cells that produce and secrete mucus to lubricate the passage of stool and protect the intestinal wall from irritation or damage caused by waste materials.

In summary, the medical definition of 'Colon, Descending' refers to a section of the large intestine responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes while storing and eliminating waste materials through peristaltic movements and mucus secretion.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus that belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family and causes the infectious disease known as hepatitis B. This virus primarily targets the liver, where it can lead to inflammation and damage of the liver tissue. The infection can range from acute to chronic, with chronic hepatitis B increasing the risk of developing serious liver complications such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.

The Hepatitis B virus has a complex life cycle, involving both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. It enters hepatocytes (liver cells) via binding to specific receptors and is taken up by endocytosis. The viral DNA is released into the nucleus, where it is converted into a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form, which serves as the template for viral transcription.

HBV transcribes several RNAs, including pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which is used as a template for reverse transcription during virion assembly. The pgRNA is encapsidated into core particles along with the viral polymerase and undergoes reverse transcription to generate new viral DNA. This process occurs within the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte, resulting in the formation of immature virions containing partially double-stranded DNA.

These immature virions are then enveloped by host cell membranes containing HBV envelope proteins (known as surface antigens) to form mature virions that can be secreted from the hepatocyte and infect other cells. The virus can also integrate into the host genome, which may contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic cases.

Hepatitis B is primarily transmitted through exposure to infected blood or bodily fluids containing the virus, such as through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth. Prevention strategies include vaccination, safe sex practices, and avoiding needle-sharing behaviors. Treatment for hepatitis B typically involves antiviral medications that can help suppress viral replication and reduce the risk of liver damage.

Cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor (not cancerous), which arises from glandular epithelial cells and is covered by a thin layer of connective tissue. These tumors can develop in various locations within the body, including the ovaries, pancreas, and other organs that contain glands.

There are two main types of cystadenomas: serous and mucinous. Serous cystadenomas are filled with a clear or watery fluid, while mucinous cystadenomas contain a thick, gelatinous material. Although they are generally not harmful, these tumors can grow quite large and cause discomfort or other symptoms due to their size or location. In some cases, cystadenomas may undergo malignant transformation and develop into cancerous tumors, known as cystadenocarcinomas. Regular medical follow-up and monitoring are essential for individuals diagnosed with cystadenomas to ensure early detection and treatment of any potential complications.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Receptors, Albumin" is not a standard medical term or concept.

Albumin is a type of protein produced by the liver that circulates in blood plasma. It plays several important roles, such as maintaining oncotic pressure (helping to keep fluid in the blood vessels), transporting various substances like hormones, drugs, and fatty acids, and acting as an antioxidant.

Receptors, on the other hand, are proteins on the surface of cells that interact with specific molecules (like hormones, neurotransmitters, or drugs) to trigger a response within the cell. Different receptors respond to different molecules, and there are many types of receptors in the human body.

If you meant something else or need information on a related topic, please provide more context or clarify your question.

Liver cell adenomatosis differs from hepatic adenomas by its definition of more than 10 hepatic adenomas that are in both liver ... Liver cell adenomatosis is associated with liver dysfunction and higher rates of bleeding than hepatic adenomas alone. ... Liver tumors (also known as hepatic tumors) are abnormal growth of liver cells on or in the liver. Several distinct types of ... Available evidence suggests that bleeding occurs in approximately 63% of patients with liver cell adenomatosis. Liver cell ...
... we found 5 liver cell adenomas, 5 focal nodular hyperplasias and 1 liver cell carcinoma. Brambilla G, Martelli A (December 2002 ... No abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed in women taking combined birth control pills containing CMA or CPA ... DNA adducts in the rat liver were also found after in vitro incubation with megestrol and chlormadinone, as well as after in ... However, the incidence of liver tumors in women in association with CMA-containing birth control pills appears to be similar to ...
... cellular carcinomas and/or adenomas in the liver and mononuclear cell leukemia. In mice, oral administration of riddelliine led ... Riddelliine has also been observed to increase mutations in endothelial cells in the liver of rats. One study observed the ... These results suggest that the relatively high mutagenicity of riddelliine in rat liver endothelial cells may be partially ... The typical clinical picture is that of ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, veno-occlusive disease of the liver, and abnormal liver ...
It is also known as a hepatoid tumor because of the similarity in cell shape to hepatocytes (liver cells). It is most commonly ... Adenomas are more common, making up 91 percent of perianal gland tumors in one study. Adenomas and adenocarcinomas look alike, ... Perianal gland adenomas are three times more likely to be found in intact male dogs than females, and perianal gland ... However, 95 percent of perianal gland adenomas will disappear after neutering the dog. Rem emoving the tumor and neutering the ...
Cell Stem Cell. 1 (6): 685-697. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2007.10.020. PMID 18371409. Liang Y, Diehn M, Watson N, Bollen AW, Aldape KD ... ID4 is not found in normal epitheliums nor adenomas of colorectal cancer. Hypermethylation of ID4 causes silencing of the gene ... It is also frequently observed in liver metastases of colorectal cancer specimens. Rett syndrome is an X linked ... diffuse B Cell lymphomas and lymphoid cell lines due to hypermethylation. In brain tumours, more specifically oligodendroglial ...
Cell Physiology. 283 (5): C1522-9. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00115.2002. PMID 12372813. Singla A, Kumar A, Priyamvada S, Tahniyath M ... Chloride anion exchanger, also known as down-regulated in adenoma (protein DRA), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 293 (5): G923-34. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00029.2007. PMID 17761837. Sandal NN, Marcker KA ( ... Protein DRA is a membrane protein in intestinal cells. It is an anion exchanger and a member of the sulfate anion transporter ( ...
After an exposure of 40 weeks to citrinin the rats also showed small adenomas. In mammalian cells in vitro, citrinin did not ... These results suggest the liver as origin for citrinin metabolism in male rats. A recent study of Ali et al. (2015) ... The ESC-B5 cells were treated with 10-30 μM CTN for 24 hours and a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability was found. Chan ... 2006) investigated the effect of CTN on cell viability for a HL-60 cell line. When exposed to 25 μM CTN for 24 hours, no ...
Water-soluble peptide hormones cannot penetrate the fatty cell membrane and only indirectly affect the nucleus of target cells ... However, the orally available forms of AAS may cause liver damage in high doses. Known possible side effects of AAS include: ... hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholestasis, peliosis hepatis; all mostly or exclusively with 17α-alkylated ... AAS also affect the number of cells that develop into fat-storage cells, by favouring cellular differentiation into muscle ...
Priestley, J. T.; Comfort, M. W.; Radcliffe, J. (1944). "Total Pancreatectomy for Hyperinsulinism Due to an Islet-Cell Adenoma ... "Priestley, James Taggart (1903 - 1979)". Plarr's Lives of the Fellows, Royal College of Surgeons of England. ...
1 cell type) Stage of disease Ill health Spread (diffuse) "Go look for the adenoma please": Tropic hormones affected by growth ... "Muscles LIVe fast": Leucine Isoleucine Valine "The fat (fat-soluble vitamins) cat lives in the ADEK (vitamins A, D, E, and K ... GERM: Distension: liver problems, bowel obstruction Rigidity (board like): bleeding Guarding: muscular tension when touched ... BLAB: Bone Liver Adrenals Brain ABCDEF: Achalasia Barret's esophagus Corrosive esophagitis Diverticuliis Esophageal web ...
... liver, prostate, meningioma of brain, pituitary adenoma, glioblastoma and breast cancer. Netrin-3 appears to be specifically ... The luminal cells secrete netrin 1, which binds to the receptor neogenin (a homologue of DCC) on the cap cells. This allows for ... Also, the migration of adult neural progenitor cell and adult spinal cord progenitor cells to the spine is netrin 1 dependent. ... Netrins also act as growth factors, encouraging cell growth activities in target cells. Mice deficient in netrin fail to form ...
... liver abscess, amebic MeSH C06.552.697.040 - adenoma, liver cell MeSH C06.552.697.160 - carcinoma, hepatocellular MeSH C06.552. ... adenoma, liver cell MeSH C06.301.623.160 - carcinoma, hepatocellular MeSH C06.301.623.460 - liver neoplasms, experimental MeSH ... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C06.689.667.249.500 - insulinoma MeSH C06.689.667.500 - carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C06.689.667.500.124 ... liver abscess, amebic MeSH C06.552.597.758 - liver abscess, pyogenic MeSH C06.552.630.380 - liver cirrhosis, alcoholic MeSH ...
Liver cancer, Bile duct cancer, and Liver cell adenoma · Hemochromatosis, Hyperoxaluria, and Wilson's disease Revealing liver ... Liver regeneration is the process by which the liver is able to replace lost liver tissue. The liver is the only visceral organ ... but can also function as stem cells for other types of cells when those cells are damaged. These two types of cells can repair ... In this way, hepatocytes and biliary cells are facultative stem cells for each other. Facultative stem cells have a day-to-day ...
... as in hepatic adenoma (a benign tumor of hepatocytes, or liver cells). Teratomas contain many cell types such as skin, nerve, ... The cells in tubular adenomas, like most tumors that frequently progress to cancer, show certain abnormalities of cell ... On histology, giant cells of fused osteoclasts are seen as a response to neoplastic mononucleated cells. Notably, giant cells ... Adenomas are benign tumors of gland-forming cells, and are usually specified further by their cell or organ of origin, ...
Renal cell carcinoma, liver tumors, Von Hippel-Lindau disease, and endocrine abnormalities including pheochromocytoma and ... adrenal adenoma with Cushing's syndrome. Anabolic steroid use - people whose testosterone levels are high, including athletes ... Anemia, a decrease in red blood cell count Cytopenia, a decrease in blood cell count Capillary leak syndrome, another cause of ... It can describe an increase in the number of red blood cells ("absolute polycythemia") or to a decrease in the volume of plasma ...
And because cells with this mutant form of the Gs protein continue to secrete GH, this could result in the overgrowth of teeth ... Growth hormone- secreting adenomas will contain a mutant form of the Gs protein; this protein is a stimulatory regulator of ... IGF-1 is produced principally by the liver, but also by the tissues in the body. Growth hormone will initially exhibit insulin- ... Cells containing this mutant form of the Gs protein will continue to secrete growth hormone even in the absence of the growth ...
... or biliary cystadenoma is a slow-growing tumour arising from bile ducts of the liver. The presence of endocrine cells in the ... Cystadenoma (or "cystoma") is a type of cystic adenoma. When malignant, it is called cystadenocarcinoma. When not otherwise ...
Inhibiting FACL4 leads to inhibition of human liver tumor cells, as marked by an increased level of apoptosis. It has also been ... FACL4 up-regulation appears to occur during the transformation from the cancer from adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Additionally, ... 2007). "Regulation of cell growth by fatty acid-CoA ligase 4 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells". Exp. Mol. Med. 39 (4): ... The enzyme controls the level of this fatty acid in cells; because AA is known to induce apoptosis (cell specific), the enzyme ...
... as found in human colon and liver cancer cells. Besides sphingomyelin, ENPP7 can also degrade and inactivate platelet- ... Of particular interest is that the activity of ENPP7 is significantly decreased in human colorectal adenoma and carcinoma as ... can inhibit cell proliferation and stimulate cell differentiation and apoptosis. Animal studies showed that supplement of SM or ... The enzyme expressed in human liver is released in the bile and delivered to the intestine. The activity of ENPP7 depends ...
... (also known as hepatic adenoma or hepadenoma) is a rare, benign liver tumor. It most commonly occurs in ... Cells resemble normal hepatocytes and are traversed by blood vessels but lack portal tracts or central veins. Micrograph of ... Hepatic adenoma is usually detected by imaging, typically an ultrasound or CT, as a hyperenhancing liver nodule. Given that ... Since hepatic adenomas can be large (8-15 cm), patients may notice a palpable mass. However, hepatic adenomas are usually ...
... they cannot penetrate cell membranes. Thus, GH exerts some of its effects by binding to receptors on target cells, where it ... The liver is a major target organ of GH for this process and is the principal site of IGF-1 production. IGF-1 has growth- ... Eventually, the adenoma may become large enough to cause headaches, impair vision by pressure on the optic nerves, or cause ... cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals. It is thus important in human development. GH also ...
Repaglinide caused an increased incidence in male rats of benign adenomas (tumors) of the thyroid and liver. No such effect was ... They bind to an ATP-dependent K+ (KATP) channel on the cell membrane of pancreatic beta cells in a similar manner to ... The rise in intracellular calcium leads to increased fusion of insulin granula in the cell membrane, and therefore increased ...
This classification was based on animal test data that showed an increase in the incidence of liver adenomas (benign tumour) ... of the cells of the adrenal cortex. The US EPA has classified dicofol as a Group C, possible human carcinogen. There is limited ... and combined liver adenomas and carcinomas in male mice. Reproductive effects in rat offspring have been observed only at doses ... Poisoning may affect the liver, kidneys or the central nervous system. Very severe cases may result in convulsions, coma, or ...
Myers, L; Ahn, J (August 2020). "Focal Nodular Hyperplasia and Hepatic Adenoma: Evaluation and Management". Clinics in Liver ... Other patterns include telangiectatic, hyperplastic-adenomatous, and lesions with focal large-cell dysplasia. Rarely, these ... between the FNH and surrounding liver except when there is marked liver steatosis that reduces the attenuation of the liver, ... Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign tumor of the liver (hepatic tumor), which is the second most prevalent tumor of the ...
Flat to low cuboidal cells, resembling mesothelial cells, in the lining interspersed between columnar cells in the same area is ... Cystadenomas in liver are often confused with hydatid cyst as their appearance on various imaging techniques is nearly same. ... It is a type of cystic adenoma (cystadenoma). Mucinous cystadenomata may arise in a number of locations; however, mucinous ... Both are multiloculated cystic neoplasms and are lined by a single layer of tall columnar cells with a clear basal nucleus and ...
Older theories proposing a non-neoplastic origin include the following: Adrenal cortical cells, or other cells within the ... They may also occur in other sites, such as the mediastinum, the liver and the gastrointestinal tract. There is no gender ... ISBN 978-0-443-06685-6. Ong K, Tan KB, Putti TC (July 2007). "Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma" ( ... The blood-forming cells may arise by differentiation of cells within the capillaries of the adrenal gland. Myelolipoma simply ...
Liver adenoma or hepatocellular carcinoma in MODY type 3 Renal cysts, rudimentary or bicornuate uterus, vaginal aplasia, ... The islet cell autoantibodies are absent in MODY in at least some populations (Japanese, Britons). Persistence of a low insulin ... The recognised forms of MODY are all due to ineffective insulin production or release by pancreatic beta cells. Several of the ... found that about one quarter of Central European MODY patients are positive for islet cell autoantibodies (GABA and IA2A). ...
Diploid liver cells express high levels of H19, whereas the polyploid cell fraction do not express H19. Also, diploid ... The mean percent methylation of H19 CpGs peaked at sites 9 and 10 in normal, hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma adrenals and ... cell proliferation, cell cycle timing or anchorage-dependent growth Tumorigenic mesenchymal stem cells express high levels of ... Cells treated with Azad, a demethylating agent, grow much slower than cells cultured in the absence of Azad. At the same time, ...
Hepatic adenomas are a rare benign tumour of the liver, which may present with hepatomegaly or other symptoms. Breast adenomas ... Biopsy usually confirms the growth to be an adenoma, but, sometimes, excision at surgery is required, especially when the cells ... An adenoma is a benign tumor of epithelial tissue with glandular origin, glandular characteristics, or both. Adenomas can grow ... Over time adenomas may transform to become malignant, at which point they are called adenocarcinomas. Most adenomas do not ...
... juxtaglomerular cell tumor), and renal adenoma. People with suspected kidney cancer should also have their kidney function ... liver or bone involvement could result in abnormal liver enzymes, electrolyte abnormalities, or anemia. A urine sample should ... The cells that line the renal pelvis are called transitional cells, and are also sometimes called urothelial cells. The ... Other rare types of kidney cancers that can arise from the urothelial cells of the renal pelvis are squamous cell carcinoma and ...
Two types of hepatic adenoma have been identified, including tumors of bile duct origin and tumors of liver cell origin. ... Hepatic adenoma is a rare, benign tumor of the liver. ... Two case reports of childhood liver cell adenomas harboring ... Two types of hepatic adenoma have been identified: tumors of bile duct origin and tumors of liver cell origin. Hepatic adenomas ... encoded search term (Hepatocellular Adenoma (Hepatic Adenoma) Imaging) and Hepatocellular Adenoma (Hepatic Adenoma) Imaging ...
Hepatocellular adenoma and malignant liver tumors (hepatoma). Peripartum cardiomyopathy. Schistosomiasis with fibrosis of the ... Sickle cell disease. Solid organ transplantation within the past 2 years. Stroke ...
Liver cell adenomatosis differs from hepatic adenomas by its definition of more than 10 hepatic adenomas that are in both liver ... Liver cell adenomatosis is associated with liver dysfunction and higher rates of bleeding than hepatic adenomas alone. ... Liver tumors (also known as hepatic tumors) are abnormal growth of liver cells on or in the liver. Several distinct types of ... Available evidence suggests that bleeding occurs in approximately 63% of patients with liver cell adenomatosis. Liver cell ...
Neoplasms: Liver (hepatic hemangiosarcoma, liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma); breast (fibrocystic disease, breast ... liver disease, uterus problems (such as uterine fibroids, endometriosis), thyroid/adrenal gland problems, tumor in the brain ( ... renal cell carcinoma, Hodgkins lymphoma, tongue carcinoma, bladder carcinoma) ...
... and significant increases in thyroid follicular cell adenomas and carcinomas in both sexes. There was also a statistically ... Cirrhosis of the liver accompanied by edema and/or ascites: •. Aldosterone levels may be exceptionally high in this condition. ... the range of proliferative effects included significant increases in hepatocellular adenomas and testicular interstitial cell ... Liver/biliary: A very few cases of mixed cholestatic/hepatocellular toxicity, with one reported fatality, have been reported ...
Renal cell adenomas and carcinomas, liver hepatomas, hemangiomas, hepatocarcinomas, and bile duct adenomas and carcinomas were ... Porphyric and neurological symptoms included general weakness, paresthesia, myotonia, and enlarged liver. Thirty three of 132 ...
... hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in male mice and hepatocellular carcinomas in female mice and mononuclear cell leukemia ... and elevated serum levels of liver enzymes. Liver injury might not develop until several days after exposure. ... It can damage the liver and kidneys. If the liquid spills on the skin or eyes, it can cause irritation or burns. Vapors in the ... Organ damage, primarily liver and kidney, may occasionally be seen. CNS effects appear immediately during and following ...
... parathyroid adenoma:1,,postpartum hemorrhage:1,,prediabetes:1,,pregnancy:1,,probucol:1,,proximal tubule cell:1,,pulse wave:1,, ... nonalcoholic fatty liver disease:1,,nonalcoholic fatty liver:1,,nonobese:1,,obstructive sleep apnea:1,,omentin1:1,,oral glucose ... white blood cell count:1,,zz:1,,갈색세포종:1,,갑상선:1,,경구 혈당 강하제:1,,경구 혈당강하제:1,,경제적 문제를 일으킬 것으로 추산되고 있다1). 제2형 당뇨병환자의 주된 병태생리인 인슐린 ... Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease:2,,North Korea:2,,impaired glucose tolerance:2,,Insulin Resistance:2,,type 2:2,,type 2 ...
... is an inherited disorder caused by the buildup of a complex sugar called glycogen in the bodys cells. Explore symptoms, ... In affected teens and adults, tumors called adenomas may form in the liver. Adenomas are usually noncancerous (benign), but ... in the bodys cells. The accumulation of glycogen in certain organs and tissues, especially the liver, kidneys, and small ... An enlarged liver may give the appearance of a protruding abdomen. The kidneys may also be enlarged. Affected individuals may ...
Liver cell adenoma (morphologic abnormality). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Liver cell adenoma (morphologic abnormality) ... Liver cell adenoma Active Synonym false false 129547017 Hepatocellular adenoma Active Synonym false false ...
A liver adenoma was identified a year later. Two years after hemicolectomy, an abdominal recurrence was identified, and she ... She underwent a right nephrectomy at age 51 years for renal cell carcinoma. At age 56, an 8-cm mass in the transverse colon was ... There were signs of acute liver failure due to thrombi obstructing the portal vein. Therefore, emergent catheter thrombus ... Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered, but lung metastases appeared 4 months and liver metastasis appeared 29 months after ...
Neoplasms: Liver (hepatic hemangiosarcoma, liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma); breast (fibrocystic disease, breast ... renal cell carcinoma, Hodgkins lymphoma, tongue carcinoma, bladder carcinoma) ...
This image depicts squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder and invasion of the liver. ... Tubular adenomas arise as flat, sessile neoplasms. Consequently, it can be difficult to distinguish some adenomas from other ... As noted, an adenoma-carcinoma sequence is thought to be involved in many cases of gallbladder cancer. Histologically, ... The gallbladder is a saccular structure located at the inferior surface of the liver, at the division of the right and left ...
Liver. Parenchymal-cell injury, portal fibrosis and cholestasis, liver injury. 3, 9 g daily. (10 days). [47]. ... a significant reduction of renal adenoma by co-treatment with NAM was reported by the same group [115]. Meanwhile, NAM (350 mg/ ... and cells in plasma. Pancreatic β-cells might also be affected. However, as described, concerns based on cell biological ... Cell Stem Cell 2017, 20, 635-647.e7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]. *Williams, P.A.; Harder, J.M.; Foxworth, N.E.; Cardozo, B.H ...
FDA OKs Stem Cell Therapy to Reduce Infection Risk The agency called the approval of omidubicel an important advance for ... Alert FDA Clears AI-Assisted Colonoscopy Device The device, which is associated with a significant increase in adenoma ... citing concerns with increased risk for drug-induced liver injury while on the drug. News, May 19, 2023 ... Alert FDA Approves Epcoritamab for r/r B-Cell Lymphoma Epcoritamab is the first subcutaneous bispecific antibody approved for ...
We categorized CD4 cell counts into 4 groups: ,300 cells/μL, 201-300 cells/μL, 101-200 cells/μL, and ,100 cells/μL Routes of ... Park WB, Choe PG, Jo JH, Kim SH, Bang JH, Kim HB, Amebic liver abscess in HIV-infected patients, Republic of Korea. Emerg ... or therapies for colorectal adenoma, early colorectal cancer, and diverticular bleeding. ... such as CD4 cell count ,100 cells/μL, was not associated with amebic colitis among HIV-positive patients (Table 2). As CD4 cell ...
Statin Use Is Associated With a Decreased Risk of Severe Liver Disease in Individuals With Noncirrhotic Chronic Liver Disease ... Optimal Glycaemic Control and the Reduced Risk of Colorectal Adenoma and Cancer in Patients With Diabetes Gut · April 23, 2024 ... FOXP3+ Pro-Inflammatory T Cells: A Potential Therapeutic Target in Crohns Disease Gastroenterology · April 23, 2024 ... Role of Liver Stiffness Measurement in Risk Prediction of HCC After HCV Eradication in Veterans With Cirrhosis Clin. ...
The most common benign liver tumors include hepatic hemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia, and hepatic adenomas. These tumors ... The cells lining the acini and ducts secrete products that make up pancreatic juices, which play a major role in digestion. The ... Rare Malignant Liver Tumors Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is by far the most common malignant liver tumor, there are ... For squamous cell carcinoma, risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, and certain dietary factors. Early-stage cancer ...
Langerhans-cell histiocytosis of the lung and liver.. Chronic Candida albicans meningitis.. Bronchiectasis - A Clinical Review. ... Hepatic adenoma, inflammatory type, with associated ischemic necrosis and extensive hemorrhage.. Cardiac paraganglioma with a ... The t(6;11) TFEB translocation variant of renal-cell carcinoma.. 比較的新しい病理組織概念でUncommonな腎腫瘤の復習. ... Giant-cell myocarditis. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and. catecholamine-induced crisis due
Cells with the mutant form of Gs protein secrete GH even in the absence of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). A few cases ... Many GH-secreting adenomas contain a mutant form of the Gs protein, which is a stimulatory regulator of adenylate cyclase. ... The heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, colon, and pancreas are larger than normal; thyroid ... MRI of the sella is the imaging test of choice for diagnosis of pituitary adenoma. CT, MRI, or skull x-rays disclose cortical ...
Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International ... Comparison of Adenoma Detection Rate (ADR) in Split Dose versus Day Before Colonoscopy Preparation: A Systemic Review and Meta- ... Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage and Effect of Packed Red Blood Cells Transfusion in Shock: A Nationwide Analysis. AMERICAN JOURNAL ... Acute Liver Failure. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF THERAPEUTICS. 20:566-568. Full Text via DOI: 10.1097/mjt.0b013e3182192d5a ...
α1β1 integrin+ and regulatory Foxp3+ T cells constitute two functionally distinct human CD4 + T cell subsets oppositely ... The effect of blockade of tumor necrosis factor α on VLA-1+T-cells in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Bank, I., Ben-Horin, S., ... Expression of the α1β1 integrin, VLA-1, marks a distinct subset of human CD4+ memory T cells. Goldstein, I., Ben-Horin, S., Li ... Characterizing the circulating, gliadin-specific CD4+ memory T cells in patients with celiac disease: Linkage between memory ...
Adenoma, Liver Cell , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury 4. MFCA: Multiscale Feature Context Aggregation Detector for ... Its influence is expanding, and it is anticipated to overtake alcohol as the leading cause of liver failure and liver-related ... Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD), formerly termed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is ... There were 86 tumors in areas of the liver where MTA is difficult. The most common area was near the primary and secondary ...
  • Two types of hepatic adenoma have been identified: tumors of bile duct origin and tumors of liver cell origin. (medscape.com)
  • Liver tumors (also known as hepatic tumors) are abnormal growth of liver cells on or in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several distinct types of tumors can develop in the liver because the liver is made up of various cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liver tumors can be classified as benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) growths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liver tumors can be broadly classified as benign or malignant: There are several types of benign liver tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • One way to categorize benign liver tumors is by their anatomic source, such as hepatocellular, biliary, or stromal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatocellular adenomas (also called hepatocellular adenoma) are rare benign liver tumors made up of hepatocytes, with estimates indicating hepatocellular adenomas make up 2% of liver tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Novel Ex Vivo Method for Visualizing Live-Cell Calcium Response Behavior in Intact Human Tumors. (duke.edu)
  • This means that many adenoma tumors are identified as incidental findings in patients with no liver symptoms. (sandracabot.com)
  • The clinical importance and natural history of these incidental adenoma tumors is not fully understood, and there is a need for optimal management strategies in such patients. (sandracabot.com)
  • In affected teens and adults, tumors called adenomas may form in the liver. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adenomas are usually noncancerous (benign), but occasionally these tumors can become cancerous ( malignant ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • A lateral ventricular tumor should make you think not only of the common ventricular tumors, but also of subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs), and central neurocytomas. (thepathologist.com)
  • Some types of tumors (such as lymphoma, a cancer of the lymphocyte blood cells) have to be examined whole to allow an accurate diagnosis, so enlarged lymph nodes are good candidates for excisional biopsies. (faqs.org)
  • Surgical removal of large liver tumors often requires concurrent removal of a substantial amount of normal liver tissue. (vshroseville.com)
  • Approximately 30% of canine hepatocellular tumors are benign adenomas. (vshroseville.com)
  • In cats, bile duct tumors are the most commonly diagnosed liver masses. (vshroseville.com)
  • Benign masses (bile duct adenomas or biliary cyst adenomas) are seen twice as frequently as malignant tumors (bile duct carcinomas). (vshroseville.com)
  • Liver tumors are more commonly seen in older pets. (vshroseville.com)
  • Chronic exposure of rats resulted in increased thyroid follicular cell tumors from sustained perturbation of thyroid hormone homeostasis. (cdc.gov)
  • There were 86 tumors in areas of the liver where MTA is difficult. (bvsalud.org)
  • The prognosis for bile duct adenomas after surgical removal is thought to be very good. (vshroseville.com)
  • Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA), or hepatic adenoma, is the third leading benign liver tumor and has bleeding and malignant transformation tendencies. (medscape.com)
  • carcinoma - Any of various types of malignant neoplasm derived from epithelial cells, chiefly glandular (adenocarcinoma) or squamous (squamous cell c. (en-academic.com)
  • Adenoma - A benign tumor that arises in or resembles glandular tissue. (en-academic.com)
  • Atypical glandular cells on cervical smears are often associated with clinically significant uterine lesions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The frequency and accuracy of AGC-NOS (i.e. atypical glandular cells, not otherwise specified) diag. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reports of hepatocellular carcinomas occurring in conjunction with liver-cell adenomas in users of oral contraceptives have been published [ref: 1]. (inchem.org)
  • Lymphoma is the most common tumor seen to spread to the liver, followed by carcinomas. (vshroseville.com)
  • There is sufficient evidence that combined oral contraceptives cause benign and malignant liver tumours. (inchem.org)
  • Because adenoma has a risk of bleeding and malignant transformation, surgical excision is usually done for solitary liver adenomas. (sandracabot.com)
  • Hürthle cell tumour - a malignant tumour of the thyroid gland that arises from Hürthle cells, large eosinophilic cells occasionally occurring in the gland. (en-academic.com)
  • Masses found within the liver may be benign, malignant, or may represent metastasis (spread) from a tumor located elsewhere. (vshroseville.com)
  • Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign tumor of the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although CT scanning, MRI, and nuclear medicine studies may help characterize lesions as adenomas, the findings are frequently nonspecific, and biopsy and/or resection may be necessary. (medscape.com)
  • They may be discovered on medical imaging (even for a different reason than the cancer itself), and the diagnosis is often confirmed with liver biopsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if a central scar is not present on imaging, it is hard to tell the difference between FNH, hepatic adenoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma, in which cases biopsy is the next step to aid in the diagnosis process. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the adenoma is very large or looks suspicious for liver cancer, it can be biopsied for definite diagnosis. (sandracabot.com)
  • Ultrasound-guided aspirates (using a needle to try to obtain cells from a tumor) can be performed but yield an accurate diagnosis in only 14% - 50% of dogs and in 33% of cats when compared to evaluation of tissue (biopsy or histopathology). (vshroseville.com)
  • Numerous case reports and series of hepatic-cell adenomas occurring almost exclusively in women who had used combined oral contraceptives strongly suggest that such benign tumours may result from exposure to these products [ref: 1]. (inchem.org)
  • Although all three case-control studies of liver cancers and oral contraceptives are small and have methodological deficiencies that could have resulted in biased results, the magnitude of the relative risks and the consistency of the results provide strong evidence that the results are not spurious. (inchem.org)
  • Since the 1980s liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis (multiple adenomas) have emerged as new entities in medical practice due to the widespread use of oral contraceptives and high dose hormone replacement therapy. (sandracabot.com)
  • The increased prevalence of patients with liver cell adenoma is due to the widespread use of estrogen-based oral contraceptives, as well as the increased use of imaging tests (such as ultrasound scans and CAT scans) of the abdomen for a variety of unrelated reasons. (sandracabot.com)
  • The causal relationship between oral contraceptives and other oral estrogens and liver cell adenoma is proportional to the dose and duration of the hormone medication. (sandracabot.com)
  • This often results in the adenoma shrinking and oral contraceptive-induced liver cell adenomas are reversible if oral contraceptives are discontinued within a certain time period. (sandracabot.com)
  • Hepatocellular adenomas are most often asymptomatic and often found incidentally on imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often the first abnormality noticed is elevations of liver enzymes (ALKP, ALT, GGT, AST) on routine screening bloodwork. (vshroseville.com)
  • This image shows abnormal low signal intensity of the liver, hypointense relative to the spleen, representing fatty infiltration of the liver. (medscape.com)
  • They are caused by either abnormal growth of neoplastic cells or in response to liver injury, known as regenerative nodules. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is one in which all normal constituents of the liver are present, but the pattern by which they are presented is abnormal. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2% and at least 1% greater than placebo: Abnormal liver tests, increased AST, increased ALT, increased CPK, and rhinitis ( 6 ). (nih.gov)
  • Therefore a potential benefit pathologically to confirm the presence cells, which leads to abnormal differen- could be expected if we had a feasible or absence of gastritis and/or malignan- tiation of cells [3]. (who.int)
  • Askenazy cells - Abnormal thyroid epithelial cells found in autoimmune thyroiditis. (en-academic.com)
  • Ultrasound in a patient with von Gierke disease (glycogen storage disease type 1) and several hepatic adenomas. (medscape.com)
  • They are also associated with glycogen storage diseases (subtypes I and III), and newer studies are suggesting that diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia are risk factors for hepatic adenomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accumulation of glycogen in certain organs and tissues, especially the liver, kidneys, and small intestines, impairs their ability to function normally. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Glucose 6-phosphate that is not broken down to glucose is converted to glycogen and fat so it can be stored within cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Too much glycogen and fat stored within a cell can be toxic. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There needs to be more awareness of liver disease so that patients can be treated early so that we can prevent cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer. (sandracabot.com)
  • HCA is classified into 4 molecular subgroups on the basis of genetic and phenotype characteristics: HNF1A mutated adenomas (H-HCA), inflammatory adenomas (I-HCA), unclassified adenomas (U-HCA), and β-catenin activated adenomas (b-HCA). (medscape.com)
  • Bile acid-induced IRF3 phosphorylation mediates cell death, inflammatory responses, and fibrosis in cholestasis-induced liver and kidney injury via regulation of ZBP1. (harvard.edu)
  • The importance of various inflammatory cytokines in maintaining tumor cell growth and viability is well established. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The incidences of thyroid gland follicular cell hypertrophy were significantly increased in 500 and 1,000 mg/kg males and in 1,000 mg/kg females. (nih.gov)
  • Follicular thyroid cancer - Classification and external resources Gross pathological section of a follicular thyroid adenoma (tumor at the bottom). (en-academic.com)
  • Abdominal ultrasound can be very helpful, and may allow determination of which liver lobe or lobes are affected, the approximate size of the mass lesion, and proximity of the mass to other important vital structures, including the gall bladder and the vena cava (large vein in the abdomen that lies close to the liver). (vshroseville.com)
  • Other developmental effects may also occur following in utero or perinatal exposure, and include increases in postimplantation losses, decreases in the number of live fetuses per litter, decreases in fetal and pup body weights, and increases in incidences of external, skeletal, and internal malformations. (cdc.gov)
  • It is estimated that the risk of growing an adenoma increases by a factor of 5 after 5 years, and by 25 after 9 years of oral contraceptive usage. (sandracabot.com)
  • Bile acids modified by the intestinal microbiota promote colorectal cancer growth by suppressing CD8+ T cell effector functions. (harvard.edu)
  • This latter condition is known as liver cell adenomatosis and does not have the strong association with estrogen or anabolic steroid use. (sandracabot.com)
  • There are no reports of new adenoma formation or development of liver cancer after surgical removal of solitary liver cell adenoma. (sandracabot.com)
  • She underwent a right nephrectomy at age 51 years for renal cell carcinoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Alert FDA Approves New Merkel Cell Carcinoma Drug Zynyz The PD-1 inhibitor received accelerated approval for adults with metastatic or recurrent locally advanced Merkel cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • The most common type of liver mass in the dog is termed a massive hepatocellular carcinoma. (vshroseville.com)
  • In one study, dogs that underwent successful surgery for removal of a massive hepatocellular carcinoma ultimately lived longer than four years following surgery. (vshroseville.com)
  • Duloxetine must not be used in patients with liver disease resulting in hepatic impairment (see sections 4.3 and 5.2). (medicines.org.uk)
  • This image shows a mass in the right lobe of the liver that is predominantly isoechoic relative to the liver parenchyma and contains a small, round, hypoechoic component. (medscape.com)
  • Two heterogeneous masses that represent hepatic adenomas are seen in the right lobe and are slightly hypointense relative to the liver parenchyma. (medscape.com)
  • With prolonged oral contraceptive usage, pre-cancerous changes (dysplastic foci) may develop within the adenoma that may progress to liver cancer. (sandracabot.com)
  • Regular and long term medical supervision is vital because even complete disappearance of the adenoma does not prevent the later development of liver cancer, which has been observed five years after cessation of oral contraceptive usage and regression of the adenoma. (sandracabot.com)
  • This is the anatomic basis for the improved survival in patients undergoing liver resection for T1b gallbladder cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Further provided are methods of inhibiting tumor cell viability, inhibiting tumor cell growth, inhibiting tumor progression, reducing tumor volume and treating a subject with cancer by administering a recombinant adenovirus genome or a recombinant adenovirus (or composition thereof) disclosed herein. (justia.com)
  • FDA OKs Stem Cell Therapy to Reduce Infection Risk The agency called the approval of omidubicel 'an important advance' for patients with blood cancer who are undergoing allogeneic umbilical cord blood stem cell transplants. (medscape.com)
  • The liver is a common site for metastasis of cancer from other bodily organs. (vshroseville.com)
  • This procedure is called a biopsy, a Greek-derived word that may be loosely translated as "view of the living. (faqs.org)
  • Any organ in the body can be biopsied using a variety of techniques, some of which require major surgery (e.g., staging splenectomy for Hodgkin's disease), while others do not even require local anesthesia (e.g., fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid, breast, lung, liver, etc). (faqs.org)
  • Signs and symptoms of liver masses vary from being asymptomatic to patients presenting with an abdominal mass, hepatomegaly, abdominal pain, jaundice, or some other liver dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alert FDA Approves Epcoritamab for r/r B-Cell Lymphoma Epcoritamab is the first subcutaneous bispecific antibody approved for the indication. (medscape.com)
  • Most hepatic adenomas do not demonstrate uptake on sulfur-colloid and gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) scans. (medscape.com)
  • GH initially exerts insulin -like effects, increasing glucose uptake in muscle and fat, stimulating amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in liver and muscle, and inhibiting lipolysis in adipose tissue. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Conventional histological methods can reveal morphology and static biomarker expression patterns but do not provide a means to probe and evaluate tumor functional behavior and live-cell responsiveness to experimentally controlled stimuli. (duke.edu)
  • Liver weights of all dosed groups of males and females were significantly greater than those of the vehicle control groups. (nih.gov)
  • The residues were found mainly in perirenal fat and livers of males and in the ovaries and fat of females. (inchem.org)
  • The hepatic adenomas are heterogeneous and slightly hyperintense relative to the fatty liver. (medscape.com)
  • This image shows 2 heterogeneous, hyperintense masses in the right lobe of the liver. (medscape.com)
  • What are the most common types of liver masses in dogs and cats? (vshroseville.com)
  • These masses have a relatively low metastatic rate (chance of spreading elsewhere in the body, between 4% - 35%) and are most often found on the left side of the liver. (vshroseville.com)
  • The prognosis for metastatic liver masses is generally very poor. (vshroseville.com)
  • Plotting the proportion of maximally responsive tumor cells as a function of calcium concentration yields a sigmoid dose-response curve with a calculated calcium EC50 value significantly elevated above published reference values for wild-type calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) sensitivity. (duke.edu)
  • Pregnancy often stimulates rapid growth in liver adenomas with risk of potentially fatal spontaneous rupture and such patients should be referred to a top liver specialist. (sandracabot.com)
  • Gigantism and acromegaly are syndromes of excessive secretion of growth hormone (hypersomatotropism) that are nearly always due to a pituitary adenoma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cells with the mutant form of Gs protein secrete GH even in the absence of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Liver cell adenoma: a multicenter analysis of risk factors for rupture and malignancy. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Elevated C-peptide and insulin predict increased risk of colorectal adenomas in normal mucosa. (duke.edu)
  • Individuals with high insulin concentrations also had a higher risk of adenomas (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.7-7.4), whereas higher levels of IGFBP-1 were associated with a reduced risk of adenomas in men only (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). (duke.edu)
  • however this risk goes up if the adenoma has a diameter of over 5 centimetres. (sandracabot.com)
  • Alert FDA Advisory Committee Votes Against Approval for NASH Drug The committee members voted 15 to 1 to defer approval, citing concerns with increased risk for drug-induced liver injury while on the drug. (medscape.com)
  • This buildup damages organs and tissues throughout the body, particularly the liver and kidneys, leading to the signs and symptoms of GSDI. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although IGF-1 is produced by many tissues locally, the liver is the major source of circulating IGF-1. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This article aims to assess, discuss and analyze the disturbances caused by electromagnetic field (EMF) noise of medical devices used nearby living tissues, as well as the corresponding functional control via the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of these devices. (bvsalud.org)
  • The last Section of the paper discussed potential details and expansions of the different notions conferred in the paper, in the perspective of monitoring the disturbances due to EMF noise of medical devices working near living tissues. (bvsalud.org)
  • Treatment varies and is highly specific to the type of liver tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • 693-704 Cavernous hemangiomas (also called hepatic hemangioma or liver hemangioma) are the most common type of benign liver tumor, found in 3%-10% of people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thankfully the healthy liver tissue has a strong regenerative capacity and removal of 65% - 70% of the total liver volume can be performed without significant consequence. (vshroseville.com)
  • Certain characteristics, such as arterial enhancement and the presence of fat and hemorrhage, suggest that the lesion represents hepatic adenoma. (medscape.com)
  • Subsequent fixation and immunofluorescence analysis of the functionally evaluated tissue specimens allows alignment and mapping of the physical characteristics of individual cells within the tumor to specific calcium response behaviors. (duke.edu)
  • This image shows a hyperintense mass in the right lobe of the liver and an additional hyperintense mass in the inferior tip of the liver, representing a third hepatic adenoma. (medscape.com)
  • The gallbladder is a saccular structure located at the inferior surface of the liver, at the division of the right and left hemilivers, just below segments IV and V. It is composed of four different areas: the fundus, body, infundibulum, and neck. (medscape.com)
  • The cystic plate is the reflection of the visceral peritoneum between the liver and the gallbladder. (medscape.com)
  • The dissection between the gallbladder and the liver during cholecystectomy divides the plane between the cystic plate and the muscle layer of the gallbladder. (medscape.com)
  • I have presented my ideas on how to help those with liver diseases using nutritional medicine, which I have been using for many years with good success rates. (sandracabot.com)
  • Minor liver, hematological, and renal effects, as well as changes in body weight, have also been observed in exposed rats. (cdc.gov)