Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Adenoma, Chromophobe: A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.Colonic Polyps: Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Adenoma, Acidophil: A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adenomatous Polyps: Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Prolactinoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Adenoma, Basophil: A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Adenomatous Polyposis Coli: A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Rats, Inbred F344Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Acromegaly: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Genes, APC: Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Diethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion: A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Adenoma, Bile Duct: A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.2-Acetylaminofluorene: A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hyperparathyroidism, Primary: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Sigmoidoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.Choristoma: A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningColon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)GalactosamineHepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Pituitary Apoplexy: The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein: A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Parathyroidectomy: Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Orotic AcidCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Fetal Tissue Transplantation: Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene: A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Colon, Descending: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between TRANSVERSE COLON and the SIGMOID COLON.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Receptors, Albumin: Cell surface proteins that bind albumin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.

Chronic inhalation carcinogenicity study of commercial hexane solvent in F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. (1/112)

The carcinogenic and chronic toxicity potential of commercial hexane solvent was evaluated in F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice (50/sex/concentration/species) exposed by inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 years. Target hexane vapor concentrations were 0, 900, 3000, and 9000 ppm. There were no significant differences in survivorship between control and hexane-exposed groups, and clinical observations were generally unremarkable. Small, but statistically significant decreases in body weight gain were seen in rats of both sexes in the mid- and high-exposure groups and in high-expsoure female mice. The only noteworthy histopathological finding in rats was epithelial cell hyperplasia in the nasoturbinates and larynx of exposed groups. This response was judged to be indicative of upper respiratory tract tissue irritation. No significant differences in tumor incidence between control and hexane-exposed rats were found. In mice, uterine tissue from the high-exposure females exhibited a significant decrease in the severity of cystic endometrial hyperplasia compared to controls. An increase in the combined incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas was observed in high-exposure female mice. The incidence of liver tumors was not increased in the mid- or low-exposure female mice or in male mice exposed to hexane. An increased incidence of pituitary adenomas was observed in female, but not male mice. This finding was not believed to have been treatment-related because the incidence in the control group was unusually low, and the incidence in exposed groups was not dose-related and was within the historical control range. No other neoplastic changes judged to be treatment-related were observed in tissues from male or female mice. In conclusion, chronic exposure to commercial hexane solvent at concentrations up to 9000 ppm was not carcinogenic to F-344 rats or to male B6C3F1 mice, but did result in an increased incidence of liver tumors in female mice.  (+info)

Mutation of beta-catenin is an early event in chemically induced mouse hepatocellular carcinogenesis. (2/112)

beta-catenin activation, and subsequent upregulation of Wnt-signaling, is an important event in the development of certain human and rodent cancers. Recently, mutations in the beta-catenin gene in the region of the serine-threonine glycogen kinase (GSK)-3beta phosphorylation target sites have been identified in hepatocellular neoplasms from humans and transgenic mice. In this study we examined 152 hepatocellular neoplasms from B6C3F1 mice included in five chemical treatment groups and controls for mutations in the beta-catenin gene. Twenty of 29 hepatocellular neoplasms from mice treated with methyleugenol had point mutations at codons 32, 33, 34 or 41, sites which are mutated in colon and other cancers. Likewise, nine of 24 methylene chloride-induced hepatocellular neoplasms and 18 of 42 oxazepam-induced neoplasms exhibited similar mutations. In contrast, only three of 18 vinyl carbamate-induced liver tumors, one of 18 TCDD-induced liver tumors, and two of 22 spontaneous liver neoplasms had mutations in beta-catenin. Thus, there appears to be a chemical specific involvement of beta-catenin activation in mouse hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Expression analyses using Western blot and immunohistochemistry indicate that beta-catenin protein accumulates along cell membranes following mutation. The finding of mutations in both adenomas and carcinomas from diverse chemical treatment groups and the immunostaining of beta-catenin protein in an altered hepatocellular focus suggest that these alterations are early events in mouse hepatocellular carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Liver adenomatosis: reappraisal, diagnosis, and surgical management: eight new cases and review of the literature. (3/112)

OBJECTIVE: Liver adenomatosis (LA) is a rare disease originally defined by Flejou et al in 1985 from a series of 13 cases. In 1998, 38 cases were available for analysis, including eight personal cases. The aim of this study was to review and reappraise the characteristics of this rare liver disease and to discuss diagnosis and therapeutic options. BACKGROUND: LA was defined as the presence of >10 adenomas in an otherwise normal parenchyma. Neither female predominance nor a relation with estrogen/progesterone intake has been noted. Natural progression is poorly known. METHODS: The clinical presentation, evolution, histologic characteristics, and therapeutic options and results were analyzed based on a personal series of eight new cases and an updated review of the literature. RESULTS: From a diagnostic standpoint, two forms of liver adenomatosis with different presentations and evolution can be defined: a massive form and a multifocal form. The role of estrogen and progesterone is reevaluated. The risks of hemorrhage and malignant transformation are of major concern. In the authors' series, liver transplantation was indicated in two young women with the massive, aggressive form, and good results were obtained. CONCLUSION: Liver adenomatosis is a rare disease, more common in women, where outcome and evolution vary and are exacerbated by estrogen intake. Most often, conservative surgery is indicated. Liver transplantation is indicated only in highly symptomatic and aggressive forms of the disease.  (+info)

Hepatocellular adenomatosis associated with hereditary haemochromatosis. (4/112)

A young healthy man presented with abdominal pain following an accidental fall. Imaging studies and laparoscopy revealed multiple yellowish well-defined hepatic lesions. Liver biopsies showed hepatic adenomas and iron overload. Laboratory investigation confirmed a diagnosis of hereditary haemochromatosis. To our knowledge this represents the first report of an association of hepatic adenomatosis and primary haemochromatosis.  (+info)

Enhancement of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis by the HIV-1 tat gene. (5/112)

The human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat protein is suspected to be involved in the neoplastic pathology arising in AIDS patients. tat-transgenic (TT) mice, which constitutively express Tat in the liver, develop liver cell dysplasia (LCD) that may represent a preneoplastic lesion. To test if TT mice are predisposed to liver carcinogenesis, we treated them with diethylnitrosamine, a hepatotropic carcinogen. Diethylnitrosamine-treated TT mice developed both preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the liver. They showed an enhancement of LCD and developed basophilic liver cell nodules (BLCN), hepatocellular adenomas (HA), and hepatocellular carcinomas (HC). Both preneoplastic (LCD and BLCN) and neoplastic (HA and HC) lesions were significantly more frequent in TT than in control mice: 29.7% versus 12.7% for LCD, 57.9% versus 23.3% for BLCN, 40.6% versus 10.0% for HA, and 50.0% versus 12.7% for HC. These results indicate that Tat expression in the liver predisposes to both initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and to malignant progression of liver tumors. This study supports a role for Tat in enhancing the effect of endogenous and exogenous carcinogens in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients, thereby contributing to tumorigenesis in the course of AIDS.  (+info)

Diagnostic impact of fluorescence in situ hybridization in the differentiation of hepatocellular adenoma and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. (6/112)

Histopathological differentiation between hepatocellular adenoma and well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be a difficult task in small biopsies and occasionally in resected tumor specimens. Whether the analysis of chromosome aberrations can contribute to a more precise discrimination has not been analyzed systematically up to now. Therefore, fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to 28 cases of adenoma and well differentiated carcinoma, using centromeric probes for chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 8, and X. None of 14 adenomas revealed an aberrant count in the analyses performed. By contrast, 13/14 carcinomas demonstrated aberrations for 2-5 chromosomes/case. Chromosome 1 was aberrant in 8/12 cases informative for this probe (67%), chromosomes 6 and 7 were aberrant in 9/14 cases (64%), chromosome 8 was aberrant in 11/14 cases (79%), and chromosome X in 7/14 cases (50%). Taking results for chromosomes 1 and 8 together, 13/14 HCC revealed aberrations for at least one of these chromosomes. Probes for 6, 7, and X revealed no additional aberrant cases.Thus, FISH for chromosomes 1 and 8, extended by probes for chromosomes 6, 7 and X, represents a promising approach toward a more accurate differentiation between hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma.  (+info)

An in vivo method for using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) as a marker of chemically-induced hepatocellular proliferation in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). (7/112)

Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) were used to develop an in vivo method to assess hepatocellular proliferation in a nonmammalian model. Proliferative responses were assessed in medaka at 7, 17, 24, and 94 days after a 48-hour exposure to 10 or 100 mg/L diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Subgroups of medaka were exposed to 50 or 75 mg/L of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in water for 72 hours, sacrificed, and then processed for immunohistochemical staining. Proliferative indices of BrdU-labeled hepatocytes were quantified and compared using both count and area measurements. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in hepatocellular proliferation in the 100 mg/L DEN-treated fish as compared to controls and 10 mg/L DEN-treated fish for the first 3 time points. Hepatocarcinogenicity was evaluated 26 weeks post-DEN exposure. There was a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in hepatocellular neoplasms in 100 mg/L DEN-treated fish compared to other fish. Effective BrdU-labeling of S-phase hepatocytes in medaka was achieved by adding BrdU to the aquarium water, and an increase in hepatocellular proliferation using this method was detected 7 days after exposure to a carcinogenic concentration of DEN. Additionally, the new method of area measurement indices of proliferation were as precise as count indices (R2 > or = 0.92).  (+info)

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate induces hepatocellular adenoma in transgenic mice carrying a human prototype c-Ha-ras gene in a 26-week carcinogenicity study. (8/112)

To evaluate the transgenic mouse carrying a human prototype c-Ha-ras gene (rasH2 mouse) as a model for 26-week carcinogenicity tests, Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), a peroxisome proliferator, was administered to 15 rasH2 mice/sex/group at concentrations of 1,500, 3,000 or 6,000 ppm, and to 15 wild-type (non-Tg) mice/sex/group at a concentration of 6,000 ppm in their diets for 26 weeks. Survival rates and food consumption in the groups treated with DEHP and in the control group were similar. Body weight gain in rasH2 and non-Tg mice at 6,000 ppm in the terminal week decreased about 10% as compared to the control group. Common findings related to treatment with DEHP in rasH2 and non-Tg mice included hypertrophy with coarse granules and deposit of pigment in the liver, hydronephrosis and tubular regeneration in the kidney, focal atrophy in the testis, and increased eosinophilic body in the nasal cavity. Hepatocellular adenoma was induced by treatment with DEHP, and was confined to male rasH2; mice the incidence being 7%(1/15), 13%(2/15), and 27%(4/15) in the 1,500-, 3,000-, and 6,000-ppm group, respectively. Point mutation was not detected in codon 12 and 61 of human c-Ha-ras transgene upon DNA analyses on frozen samples taken from these hepatocellular adenomas. From the results obtained in this 26-week carcinogenicity study, it is concluded that DEHP is a hepato-carcinogen for transgenic mouse carrying a human prototype c-Ha-ras gene.  (+info)

In their paper published in Gut, Farges et al report that in 23 out of 218 patients, areas of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) were observed, and the risk of malignant transformation was 4% in women and 47% in men.1 Hypothesising that HCC may arise from HCA is based on the assumption that at a certain point in time residual HCA or a transition zone with dysplastic changes (as found in colorectal cancers) is present within the malignant liver lesion.2. The postulated theory presented by Farges et al may have great implications for the management of HCA. HCA, a rare benign liver tumour mostly occurring in young women, carries a small risk of malignant transformation … ...
Hepatic adenoma is a rare, benign tumor of the liver. Two types of hepatic adenoma have been identified, including tumors of bile duct origin and tumors of liver cell origin.
(noncancerous) Benign Liver Tumor are widespread. They dont unfold to different areas of the physique and so they normally dont pose a severe well being danger. Actually, normally, benign liver tumors are usually not recognized as a result of they trigger no signs. When theyre detected, it is normally as a result of
Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs), with a risk of malignant transformation into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), classically develop in young women who are taking oral contraceptives. It is now clear that HCAs may also occur in men. However, it is rarely reported that HCAs with malignant transformation occur in male patients with non-cirrhotic livers. This study aimed to characterize the malignancy of HCAs occurring in male patients. All patients with HCAs with malignant transformation who underwent hepatectomy at the Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2011 were enrolled in the study. The clinical characteristics as well as radiologic and pathologic data were reviewed. HCAs with malignant transformation were observed in 5 male patients with non-cirrhotic livers, but not in female patients. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were higher in patients with HCAs with malignant transformation than in patients
Introduction: Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a benign tumor of the liver and almost always located intracapsular. Bleeding (25%), and malignant transformation (5%) can complicate the disease course if left untreated. Herein, we present a case of extracapsular HCA of ectopic liver in the omentum complicated with intraperitoneal hemorrhage.Case Description/Methods: A 43-year-old lady with no past medical history presented to emergency department with two-day history of left shoulder pain and epigastric discomfort. Her only medication was an oral contraceptive pill (OCP). On physical exam, the patient had persistent sinus tachycardia, and epigastric tenderness. Initial labs were unremarkable except for mildly elevated AST at 58 IU/L (10-37). CT of the abdomen with IV contrast showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass likely arising from the anterior wall of the stomach. T2-weighted MRI abdomen demonstrated a hypoenhancing mass measuring 4 x 7 x 8 cm with adjacent hemorrhage (Image 1). Exploratory laparotomy
There are various types of cysts and tumours in the liver, all of which are abnormal growths or structures. Benign liver tumours are common and usually without symptoms (asymptomatic) A cyst is an abnormal, fluid-filled balloon or bubblelike structure (sac) that can grow in any part of your body. Liver cysts are mostly congenital, meaning that you have them from birth, or caused by contact with some form of parasite.
Benign Liver Tumors - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional Version.
HNF1A_HUMAN] Defects in HNF1A are a cause of hepatic adenomas familial (HEPAF) [MIM:142330]. Hepatic adenomas are rare benign liver tumors of presumable epithelial origin that develop in an otherwise normal liver. Hepatic adenomas may be single or multiple. They consist of sheets of well-differentiated hepatocytes that contain fat and glycogen and can produce bile. Bile ducts or portal areas are absent. Kupffer cells, if present, are reduced in number and are non-functional. Conditions associated with adenomas are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and glycogen storage diseases (types 1 and 3). Note=Bi-allelic inactivation of HNF1A, whether sporadic or associated with MODY3, may be an early step in the developmant of some hepatocellular carcinomas. Defects in HNF1A are the cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3) [MIM:600496]; also symbolized MODY-3. MODY is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early ...
Your cats veterinarian will take a detailed history from you and perform a complete physical examination. Routine laboratory testing includes a complete blood count, biochemistry profile, and urinalysis, where results are usually normal. In few animals these results may show anemia and abnormally high levels of liver enzymes. Radiographic studies may show a mass in the liver. Similarly, ultrasonography helps in diagnosis, revealing masses, hemorrhage, and other abnormalities.. ...
International Journal of Hepatology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the medical, surgical, pathological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of hepatology, as well as the management of disorders affecting the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas.
Hi. Ive occasionally discovered during the ultrasound exam that Ive been having hepatocellular adenoma for six months now. Can this benign liver tumor turn to a cancerous one?
Hi! I am 33 years old woman. A week ago doctor told me that I have big hepatic adenoma. I cant sleep, eat, I am afraid for my health. Give me some informatio This topic is answered by a medical expert.
Developed by renowned radiologists in each specialty, STATdx provides comprehensive decision support you can rely on - Hepatic Adenoma
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Liver Masses and Granulomas from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
Integrative genomic profiling of hepatocellular adenomas reveals recurrent FRK activating mutations and mutational processes of malignant transformation ...
Hepatic adenoma is usually detected by imaging, typically an ultrasound or CT, as a hyperenhancing liver nodule. Given that several liver tumors appear similarly on these imaging modalities, a multi-phase contrast-enhanced imaging study such as CT or MRI may be used to provide more information.[3][4] The significance of making a specific diagnosis is that, unlike other benign liver tumors such as hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatic adenomas have a small but meaningful risk of progressing into a malignancy.[3] Although imaging provides supportive information, a definitive diagnosis of hepatic adenoma requires biopsy of the tissue. ...
Primary benign tumors of the liver, other than angiomas, are rare. Hoffman1 reviewed the literature in 1942 and was able to find only 58 cases reported. He added one case of his own. No attempt was made to classify these lesions.. Primary benign liver tumors may arise from either the liver cells or the bile duct epithelium. These are classified as liver cell adenomas or bile duct adenomas. In addition, a third type of tumor occurs. This lesion is composed of both liver cells and bile ducts. Such lesions have been classified by Warvi2 as. ...
Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: results of treatment and options in management. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: a link with sickle cell disease?
International Journal of Hepatology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the medical, surgical, pathological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of hepatology, as well as the management of disorders affecting the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas.
Background & Aims: The presence of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) in pregnant women requires special consideration, as it has been reported to carry the risk of growth and clinically significant haemorrhage. In this prospective study we assessed aspects of growth of HCA ,5 cm during pregnancy. Methods: This was a multicentre prospective cohort study in pregnant women with suspected HCA ,5 cm on imaging. Definitive HCA diagnosis was established by MRI with hepatobiliary contrast agents (LCE-MRI), preferably before pregnancy. If at study inclusion a definitive diagnosis was lacking, LCE-MRI was performed after giving birth. Growth of the adenoma (defined as an increase of ,20%) was closely monitored with ultrasound examinations throughout pregnancy. Results: Of the 66 women included, 18 were excluded from analysis because postpartum LCE-MRI did not confirm the diagnosis of HCA and showed the lesion to be focal nodular hyperplasia. The remaining 48 women, with an HCA confirmed by LCE-MRI, were ...
focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver, hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia, FNH (previous denomination: benign hepatoma, solitary hyperplastic nodule, focal sclerosis, hamartomatous cholangiohepatoma, mixed adenoma)
The liver is a large organ that sits on the right side of the belly. The liver has two large sections, called the right and the left lobes. The gallbladder sits under the liver, along with parts of the pancreas and intestines. The liver and these organs work together to digest, absorb, and process food. The livers main job is to filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the body. The liver also detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. As it does so, the liver secretes bile that ends up back in the intestines. The liver also makes proteins important for blood clotting and other functions.. Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign tumor of the liver and is the second most common tumor of the liver after the benign liver tumor known as hemangioma. FNH does not turn into liver cancer and generally it does not grow in size, spread or bleed, and in most people it does not produce any symptoms. If the tumor grows and becomes large it can cause some ...
The physical examination findings are often nonspecific. Patients may be asymptomatic, or they may appear ill, with pallor and abdominal distress. Note the following: Palpable tender or nontender mas... more
Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) in liver is the second common benign hepatic tumor. It usually shows hypervascular mass on imaging studies and it is not easy to differentiate with other hypervascular malignant tumor. For diagnosis of FNH, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) has been used to detect spoke-wheel sign, which can be typically seen in FNH. However, temporal window of vascular phase using contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) is very short (about 10 sec) and coordination of patient`s respiration during US exam is absolutely needed. Thus, the investigators will use Superb-Microvascular imaging (SMI, Toshiba, Japan) for detection of spoke-wheel sign in patients with proven FNH, which enable to detect slow micro vascular flow without using CEUS.. First, to compare the detection rate of spoke-wheel sign between CEUS using sonazoid (Perfluorobutane, GE healthcare) and SMI.. Second, to compare the accuracy of size measurement between gray-scale US and SMI (reference standard: CEUS using ...
ABCDDV/870 ABCD Arq Bras Cir Dig 2012;25(3):180-182 Letter to the Editor GIANT HEPATIC ADENOMA ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLICANDROGENIC STEROID ABUSE: CASE REPORT Adenoma hepático gigante associado com uso abusivo de esteróide androgênico anabolizante: relato de caso Sergio Renato PAIS-COSTA, Olímpia Alves Teixeira LIMA, Aloisio Fernandes SOARES From Regional Hospital of the Northern Zone (HRAN), Brasília, Federal District, Brazil Correspondence: Sergio Renato Pais-Costa, e-mail [email protected] provides low morbidity, fast recovery and cosmetic advantages1,4,7. However, for treating large lesions, especially when they are close to major vascular structures, an open approach is safer4,7. CASE REPORT Financial source: none Conflicts of interest: none Received for publication: 09/04/2012 Accepted for publication: 27/04/2012 INTRODUCTION H epatic adenoma (HA) is an uncommon primary benign neoplasm of hepatocellular origin that most frequently affects young women. It has generally been associated ...
What is Focal Nodular Hyperplasia? Characteristics, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment. It is second most common benign growth in liver after hemangioma.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Letter: Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver observed during estroprogestational treatments]. by Gilbert Catanzano et al.
Brian C. Lee (bclee at access2.digex.net) writes: , A liver carcinoma is considered benign? What kind of cell type was it? , 25-fold sounds pretty low. Was there any human exposure data to show , a non-carcinogenic exposure level? Sorry, I was mistaken in my initial post. The 75 ppm LOEL in males rats was for adenomas; carcinomas and adenomas were elevated at 375 ppm. The current occupational exposure level is 10 ppm. The proposal was to reduce that to 3 ppm in light of the new data, but that seems inadequate given the LOEL for liver adenoma in male rats. , : I am currently reviewing information concerning a proposed occupational , : exposure limit for an industrial chemical. The substance is a , : non-genotoxic carcinogen, which has been tested in both mouse and rat , : chronic/onco studies. In males of both species, statistically significant , : increases in liver adenomas/carcinomas were observed at exposure levels of , : 75 ppm. The company that manufactures the substance is proposing a TWA ...
Transgenic mice carrying an albumin promoter linked to mouse urokinase type plasminogen (uPA) activator have functionally compromised hepatocytes. High levels of hepatic production of uPA lead to hemorrhage and death of many of the mice shortly after birth. However, some mice survive due to chromosomal rearrangement of proliferating hepatocytes resulting in loss of significant functional components of the transgene. In these mice, the liver parenchyma is replaced by the transgene deficient hepatocytes within about 8 weeks. This replacement occurs by nodular regeneration of the transgene deficient hepatocytes. In some Alb-uPA mice there is complete loss of the transgene, and these mice eventually develop hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas. ...
We have previously shown that riddelliine, a naturally occurring genotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, induces liver tumors in rats and mice through a genotoxic mechanism mediated by the formation of a set of eight 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine ( DHP)-derived DNA adducts. In this study we report the formation of these DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood DNA of rats fed riddelliine. In an adduct formation and removal experiment, male and female F344 rats (8 weeks of age) were administered riddelliine by gavage at a single dose of 10.0 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. At 8, 24, 48, and 168 hrs after dosing, the levels of DHP-derived DNA adduct in blood and liver were determined by 32P-postlabeling/HPLC. Maximum DNA adduct formation occurred at 48 hr after treatment. From 48 to 168 hours, the adduct levels in female rat blood were 4-fold greater than those in male rats. In a dose response experiment, female rats were gavaged 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses of riddelliine for three
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Appearances are typical of FNH, i.e. well-defined margins, early peripheral enhancement (| than surrounding liver), persistent peripheral enhancement with Primovist indicating the presence of hepatocytes, non-restriction of diffusion and central ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of "NTU Repository" with "Academic Hub" to form NTU Scholars.. ...
Factors that affect Diffusion:. 1) Concentration gradient- The greater difference between two areas, the fatser the rate of diffusion. This is beacuse the the greater the concentration gradeint is.. 2) Temperature. The higer the temperture, the greater rate oif diffusion.. 3) Surface area…. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Benign hepatocellular tumors. AU - Guzman, Ignacio J.. AU - Gold, Jay H.. AU - Rosai, Juan. AU - Schneider, Philip D.. AU - Varco, Richard L.. AU - Buchwald, Henry. PY - 1977/10. Y1 - 1977/10. N2 - This series summarizes all cases diagnosed as benign hepatocellular tumors occurring at the University of Minnesota Hospitals from 1950 to 1976. Excluding hemangiomas, 40 tumors were reviewed and reclassified. Eighteen were diagnosed as focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), 10 as hepatocellular adenomas (HCS), 11 as bile duct adenomas (BDA), and one as a mesenchymal hamartoma. FNH: The female: male ratio was 8:1, and the mean age was 43 years ±18 (SD). Two patients were symptomatic; of these, one presented with portal hypertension. Treatment consisted of local resection in 12, left hepatectomy in one, and right hepatectomy in two. Eight patients had a history of oral contraceptive or other steroid intake. The tumors occurring after 1964 were larger (p , 0. 05). HCA: The female: male ratio ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ring-like enhancement of focal nodular hyperplasia with hepatobiliary-phase Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. T2 - Radiological-pathological correlation. AU - Fujiwara, Hiroyasu. AU - Sekine, Shigeki. AU - Onaya, Hiroaki. AU - Shimada, Kazuaki. AU - Mikata, Rintaro. AU - Arai, Yasuaki. PY - 2011/12. Y1 - 2011/12. N2 - We report a case of focal nodular hyperplasia in a patient for whom gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)- enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis results were available. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a well-defi ned hypervascular lesion 14 mm in diameter with no visible central scars. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI demonstrated strong peripheral enhancement of the lesion during the hepatobiliary phase, resulting in ring-like enhancement. The pathology examination revealed that the lesion was focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). Immunohistochemistry showed positive expression ...
Pediatric liver tumors are an important and challenging aspect of the practice of Pediatric Pathology. Groundbreaking advances have been made over the last few years that have propelled the field forward. This symposium will focus on the histopathologic features, molecular alterations and other advances regarding hepatoblastoma, the transitional cell liver tumor (hepatoblastoma with hepatocellular features/hepatocellular neoplasm NOS), hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Additionally, next generation sequencing and other genomics initiatives have led to the proposal of a new biologically-based classification system for all pediatric liver tumors. With this in mind, we will present a review of the molecular techniques required to establish diagnoses and guide treatment. Finally, advances in the risk stratification and oncologic treatment of patients with hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma with particular focus on the latest international cooperative trial will also be ...
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Recent clinical trials introducing new immunosuppressive regimens and improved islet preparation techniques have shown that transplantation of islets of Langerhans into the liver of type 1 diabetic patients could represent an alternative to exogenous insulin treatment and allows for the normalization of metabolic control, which cannot be achieved by administration of exogenous insulin alone ( 1- 5). Although a few cases have been published in the English literature, detailed histopathologic studies of the livers of long-term recipients have not yet been conducted ( 5- 8). Thus, little is known about the paracrine effects of insulin on the adjacent hepatocytes, which may turn out to be of major clinical importance in the long term.. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus has been identified as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans in Western Europe and the United States ( 9- 15). However, the mechanisms by which diabetes may contribute to the formation of HCCs in humans are ...
The early deaths of many of the B6C3F1 mice exposed to oxazepam were attributed to a marked increase in the incidences of hepatoblastoma (males: 0/49, 2/50, 21/50, 13/50; females: 0/50, 1/50, 8/50, 8/50), hepatocellular adenoma (males: 17/49,18/50, 34/50, 32/50; females: 25/50, 35/50, 35/50, 36/50), and hepatocellular carcinoma (males: 9/49, 5/50, 45/50, 50/50; females: 9/50, 5/50, 49/50, 44/50). Moderate hypertrophy of centrilobular hepatocytes occurred in mice receiving 2,500 and 5,000 ppm (males: 0/49, 2/50, 26/50, 43/50; females: 0/50, 2/50,11/50, 29/50). An increase in the incidence of follicular cell hyperplasia of the thyroid gland occurred in all exposed groups of mice (males: 4/49, 22/50, 49/50, 47/50; females: 16/50, 34/50, 49/50, 44/50), and thyroid gland follicular cell adenoma was increased in exposed females (0/50, 4/50, 5/50, 6/50). Testicular atrophy occurred in the 2,500 and 5,000 ppm groups (1/50, 0/50, 25/50, 38/50), and the incidence of epididymal Iymphocyte infiltration was ...
Triethanolamine poisoning symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Triethanolamine poisoning (Chemical poisoning - Triethanolamine) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common primary hepatic malignancies and one of the fastest-growing causes of cancer-related mortality in the United States. The molecular basis of HCC carcinogenesis has not been clearly identified. Among the molecular signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of HCC, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is one of the most frequently activated. A great effort is under way to clearly understand the role of this pathway in the pathogenesis of HCC and its role in the transition from chronic liver diseases, including viral hepatitis, to hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) and HCCs and its targetability in novel therapies. In this article, we review the role of the β-catenin pathway in hepatocarcinogenesis and progression from chronic inflammation to HCC, the novel potential treatments targeting the pathway and its prognostic role in HCC patients, as well as the imaging features of HCC and their association with aberrant activation of the pathway ...
In a 103-week carcinogenicity study, the read-across substance DEHA was administered to F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice in the diet at levels of 12000 or 25000 ppm, equivalent to a daily intake of 600 or 1250 mg/kg of body weight in rats and 1715 or 3570 mg/kg of body weight in mice (conversion based on data from the WHO report (2004)). No test substance related tumors were found in the rat (no increased tumour incidences). In the (female) mice an increased number of hepatocellular carcinomas was found at both doses. Hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas occured combined in high-dose mice of both sexes and in low-dose female mice at incidences that were dose-related and significantly higher than those in control mice. The association of liver tumours in male mice with the administration of DEHA was not considered to be conclusive because the increased number of liver tumours in males reflected only an increase in adenomas in the high-dose group and because the time to observation of tumours was not ...
In the present study we exposed WT, p53+/−, Xpa, and Xpa/p53+/− mice to 300 ppm 2-AAF, a bladder and liver carcinogen, to compare the relative contribution of a deficiency in NER, p53, or both on tumor development in two different tumor target tissues. Under the conditions used in this study, WT mice showed no clear tumor response in the liver or the urinary bladder. This finding is in line with previous reports showing that the development of 2-AAF-induced bladder and/or liver tumors takes longer than 39 weeks (40) . In fact, sustained 2-AAF exposure would most likely have resulted in the development of both urinary bladder and liver tumors, because a clear induction of preneoplastic lesions was found in 2-AAF-treated WT mice (Table 1) ⇓ . Interestingly, NER-deficient Xpa mice were clearly susceptible to develop hepatic tumors upon 2-AAF treatment, because a significant increased number of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were found (Table 1) ⇓ . Surprisingly, these mice showed no ...
But no one had analyzed what the mind cells themselves had been doing during among these shows, stated co-author Dr. Jeffrey Noebels, teacher of neurology, neuroscience, and molecular and individual genetics and movie director from the Blue Parrot Group Developmental Neurogenetics Lab at Baylor. The researchers took a closer go through the firing activity of neurons within an section of the visual cortex of the genetic mouse style of absence epilepsy.Wolchok believes the analysis is important since it identified 3 different ways where PD-1 blocking medicines can fail: If an immune response is merely not really strong more than enough for how big is the tumour. If the medication is off focus on. Once the US group looked back again through the info they might predict treatment failure 3 to 6 in, 6 weeks sooner than in previous clinical studies.. The larger the tumour, the greater T cell reinvigoration was needed from the drug. John Wherry in the University or college of Pa who led the analysis. ...
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Biochemical and molecular biological approaches in situ have provided compelling evidence for early bioenergetic changes in hepatocarcinogenesis. Hepatocellular neoplasms regularly develop from preneoplastic foci of altered hepatocytes, irrespective of whether they are caused by chemicals, radiation …
LD50= 2g/kg (human, oral); LD50= 3 g/kg (rat, oral); LD50= 2.5 g/kg (mice, oral); LD50= 21 mg/kg (male rat, IV); LD50= 23 mg/kg (female rat, IV); LD50= 25 mg/kg (male mice, IV); LD50= 24 mg/kg (female mice, IV); LD50= 1g/kg (rat, subcutaneous); LD50= 637 mg/kg (male mice, subcutaneous); LD50= 632 mg/kg (female mice, subcutaneous ...
Triethanolamine acetate | C8H19NO5 | CID 159752 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Learn more about Triethanolamine. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Water-soluble peptide hormones cannot penetrate the fatty cell membrane and only indirectly affect the nucleus of target cells ... However, the orally available forms of AAS may cause liver damage in high doses. The AAS that have been used most commonly in ... hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholestasis, peliosis hepatis; all mostly or exclusively with 17α-alkylated ... AAS also affect the number of cells that develop into fat-storage cells, by favouring cellular differentiation into muscle ...
It is also known as a hepatoid tumor because of the similarity in cell shape to hepatocytes (liver cells). It is most commonly ... Adenomas are more common, making up 91 percent of perianal gland tumors in one study. Adenomas and adenocarcinomas look alike, ... Perianal gland adenomas are three times more likely to be found in intact male dogs than females, and perianal gland ... However, 95 percent of perianal gland adenomas will disappear after neutering the dog. Removing the tumor and neutering the dog ...
The downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) is a membrane protein in intestinal cells. It is an anion exchanger and a member of the ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 302 (6): G618-27. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00172.2011. PMID 22159277. Alrefai WA, Wen X, Jiang ... Cell Physiology. 283 (5): C1522-9. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00115.2002. PMID 12372813. Singla A, Kumar A, Priyamvada S, Tahniyath M ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 293 (5): G923-34. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00029.2007. PMID 17761837. Sandal NN, Marcker KA ( ...
Liver adenoma or hepatocellular carcinoma in MODY type 3 Renal cysts, rudimentary or bicornuate uterus, vaginal aplasia, ... The islet cell autoantibodies are absent in MODY in at least some populations (Japanese, Britons). Persistence of a low insulin ... The recognised forms of MODY are all due to ineffective insulin production or release by pancreatic beta cells. Several of the ... A missense TCF1 mutation in a patient with MODY-3 and liver adenomatosis (Report). Retrieved May 19, 2011. Renal Cysts and ...
... liver abscess, amebic MeSH C06.552.697.040 --- adenoma, liver cell MeSH C06.552.697.160 --- carcinoma, hepatocellular MeSH ... adenoma, liver cell MeSH C06.301.623.160 --- carcinoma, hepatocellular MeSH C06.301.623.460 --- liver neoplasms, experimental ... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C06.689.667.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C06.689.667.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C06.689.667.500 ... liver abscess, amebic MeSH C06.552.597.758 --- liver abscess, pyogenic MeSH C06.552.630.380 --- liver cirrhosis, alcoholic MeSH ...
... cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals. It is thus important in human development. It is a type ... The liver is a major target organ of GH for this process and is the principal site of IGF-1 production. IGF-1 has growth- ... Eventually, the adenoma may become large enough to cause headaches, impair vision by pressure on the optic nerves, or cause ... they cannot penetrate cell membranes. Thus, GH exerts some of its effects by binding to receptors on target cells, where it ...
... as in hepatic adenoma (a benign tumor of hepatocytes, or liver cells). Teratomas contain many cell types such as skin, nerve, ... The cells in tubular adenomas, like most tumors which frequently progress to cancer, show certain abnormalities of cell ... Adenomas are benign tumors of gland-forming cells, and are usually specified further by their cell or organ of origin, ... Benign neoplasms are typically but not always composed of cells which bear a strong resemblance to a normal cell type in their ...
Renal-cell carcinoma or liver tumors, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and endocrine abnormalities including pheochromocytoma and ... adrenal adenoma with Cushing's syndrome. People whose testosterone levels are high because of the use of anabolic steroids, ... a relative increase in red blood cell count. Cytopenia, a decrease in blood cell count Capillary leak syndrome, another cause ... It can be due to an increase in the number of red blood cells ("absolute polycythemia") or to a decrease in the volume of ...
After an exposure of 40 weeks to citrinin the rats also showed small adenomas. In mammalian cells in vitro, citrinin did not ... These results suggest the liver as origin for citrinin metabolism in male rats. A recent study of Ali et al. (2015) ... The ESC-B5 cells were treated with 10-30 μM CTN for 24 hours and a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability was found. Chan ... 2006) investigated the effect of CTN on cell viability for a HL-60 cell line. When exposed to 25 μM CTN for 24 hours, no ...
Inhibiting FACL4 leads to inhibition of human liver tumor cells, as marked by an increased level of apoptosis. It has also been ... FACL4 up-regulation appears to occur during the transformation from the cancer from adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Additionally, ... 2007). "Regulation of cell growth by fatty acid-CoA ligase 4 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells". Exp. Mol. Med. 39 (4): ... "Regulation of cell growth by fatty acid-CoA ligase 4 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells". Experimental & molecular ...
... as found in human colon and liver cancer cells. Besides sphingomyelin, ENPP7 can also degrade and inactivate platelet- ... Of particular interest is that the activity of ENPP7 is significantly decreased in human colorectal adenoma and carcinoma as ... can inhibit cell proliferation and stimulate cell differentiation and apoptosis. Animal studies showed that supplement of SM or ... The enzyme expressed in human liver is released in the bile and delivered to the intestine. The activity of ENPP7 depends ...
... which is a misnomer because adenomas are usually benign). HCC is a cancer formed by liver cells, known as hepatocytes, that ... Another type of cancer formed by liver cells is hepatoblastoma, which is specifically formed by immature liver cells. It is a ... Liver cancer can also form from other structures within the liver such as the bile duct, blood vessels and immune cells. Cancer ... Liver Cancer at Johns Hopkins University Liver cancer at Mayo Clinic Liver cancer information from Cancer Research UK. ...
... is similar to ALT in that it is another enzyme associated with liver parenchymal cells. It is raised in acute liver damage, but ... parathyroid adenoma, hyperplasia, or secondary hyperparathyroidism from vitamin D deficiency or renal disease), 4) in cases of ... Liver Function Tests at Lab Tests Online Overview at Mayo Clinic Abnormal Liver Function Tests Overview of liver enzymes ... are useful biomarkers of liver injury in a patient with some degree of intact liver function. Most liver diseases cause only ...
This classification was based on animal test data that showed an increase in the incidence of liver adenomas (benign tumour) ... of the cells of the adrenal cortex. The US EPA has classified dicofol as a Group C, possible human carcinogen. There is limited ... and combined liver adenomas and carcinomas in male mice. Reproductive effects in rat offspring have been observed only at doses ... Poisoning may affect the liver, kidneys or the central nervous system. Very severe cases may result in convulsions, coma, or ...
... (also known as hepatic adenoma or hepadenoma) is a rare, benign liver tumor. It most commonly occurs in ... Cells resemble normal hepatocytes and are traversed by blood vessels but lack portal tracts or central veins. Micrograph of ... Hepatic adenoma is usually detected by imaging, typically an ultrasound or CT, as a hyperenhancing liver nodule. Given that ... Since hepatic adenomas can be large (8-15 cm), patients may notice a palpable mass. However, hepatic adenomas are usually ...
... cellular carcinomas and/or adenomas in the liver and mononuclear cell leukemia. In mice, oral administration led to ... It also increases the mutations in endothelial cells in the liver of rats. Riddelliine has a characteristically nucleobases ... These results suggest that the relatively high mutagenicity of riddelliine in rat liver endothelial cells may be partially ... The typical clinical picture is that of ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, veno-occlusive disease of the liver, and abnormal liver ...
... (FNH) is a benign tumor of the liver (hepatic tumor), which is the second most prevalent tumor of the ... This tumour was once often resected because it was difficult to distinguish from hepatic adenoma, but with modern multiphase ... Other patterns include telangiectatic, hyperplastic-adenomatous, and lesions with focal large-cell dysplasia. Rarely, these ... It consists of normal liver constituents in an abnormally organized pattern, grows in a stellate pattern and may display ...
Hepatic adenomas: These benign epithelial liver tumors develop in the liver and are also an uncommon occurrence, found mainly ... Several distinct types of tumors can develop in the liver because the liver is made up of various cell types. These growths can ... Liver tumors or hepatic tumors are tumors or growths on or in the liver (medical terms pertaining to the liver often start in ... The size of adenomas range from 1 to 30 cm. Symptoms associated with hepatic adenomas are all associate with large lesions ...
Repaglinide (Prandin) caused an increased incidence in male rats of benign adenomas (tumors) of the thyroid and liver. No such ... channel on the cell membrane of pancreatic beta cells in a similar manner to sulfonylureas but have a weaker binding affinity ... The rise in intracellular calcium leads to increased fusion of insulin granulae in the cell membrane, and therefore increased ...
The luminal cells secrete netrin 1, which binds to the receptor neogenin (a homologue of DCC) on the cap cells. This allows for ... It was found that netrin can be found in excess in the blood plasma for patients who are positive for renal, liver, prostate, ... meningioma of brain, pituitary adenoma, glioblastoma and breast cancer. There are still many unanswered questions regarding the ... Also, the migration of adult neural progenitor cell and adult spinal cord progenitor cells to the spine is netrin 1 dependent. ...
A nuclear medicine SPECT liver scan with technetium-99m labeled autologous red blood cells. A focus of high uptake (arrow) in ... A nuclear medicine parathyroid scan demonstrates a parathyroid adenoma adjacent to the left inferior pole of the thyroid gland ... Some studies require the labeling of a patient's own blood cells with a radionuclide (leukocyte scintigraphy and red blood cell ... which produce radionuclides with longer half-lives, or cyclotrons, which produce radionuclides with shorter half-lives, or take ...
Diploid liver cells express high levels of H19, whereas the polyploid cell fraction do not express H19. Also, diploid ... The mean percent methylation of H19 CpGs peaked at sites 9 and 10 in normal, hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma adrenals and ... cell proliferation, cell cycle timing or anchorage-dependent growth Tumorigenic mesenchymal stem cells express high levels of ... Cells treated with Azad, a demethylating agent, grow much slower than cells cultured in the absence of Azad. At the same time, ...
... peritoneal mucinous cystadenoma Liver - mucinous cystadenoma of the liver Vermiform appendix - appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma ... It is a type of cystic adenoma (cystadenoma). Mucinous cystadenoma may arise in a number of locations; however, mucinous ... or malignant tumor cells. Benign mucinous cystadenomas compose 80% of mucinous ovarian tumors and 20-25% of benign ovarian ... 2013). "Giant biliary mucinous cystadenoma of the liver". Ann Hepatol. 12 (6): 979-83. PMID 24114831. Hart WR (January 2005). " ...
Certain benign liver tumors, such as hepatocellular adenoma, may sometimes be associated with coexisting malignant HCC. There ... giant cell) and clear cell. In well-differentiated forms, tumor cells resemble hepatocytes, form trabeculae, cords, and nests, ... Liver transplantation, replacing the diseased liver with a cadaveric or a living donor liver, plays an increasing role in ... In order to maintain liver function, residual liver volume should exceed 25% of total liver volume in a non-cirrhotic liver, ...
"Silencing of HEPN1 is responsible for the aggressive biological behavior of pituitary somatotroph adenomas". Cell. Physiol. ... This gene is expressed in the liver, and encodes a short peptide that is localized predominantly to the cytoplasm. Transient ... transfection studies showed that expression of this gene significantly inhibited cell growth, and it may have a role in ...
F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... Summary: Associated Cancers: colorectal and ovarian cancer; pilomatrixoma; medulloblastoma; pleomorphic adenomas; malignant ... "Coactivation of AKT and β-catenin in mice rapidly induces formation of lipogenic liver tumors". Cancer Res. 71 (7): 2718-27. ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ...
Living Donor Liver Transplant: What Are the Risks?. The risk of dying as a result of a living donor liver segment removal is ... Liver Cancer Treatment - Animation. Liver Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells in the liver. The present section provides ... Fatty Liver Disease: A Growing Health Problem in India. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of liver ... Current Treatments for Liver Cancer. Current Treatments for Liver Cancer (also known as hepatoma or hepatocellular carcinoma) ...
Hepato-biliary Pathology: Liver: Liver cell adenoma. Hepato-biliary Pathology: Liver: Liver cell adenoma. ...
Investigational Drugs with Clinical Trials for: Adenoma, Liver Cell. ✉ Send this page by email. Email this page to a colleague ...
Liver cell adenoma (LCA) is the most important benign epithelial tumour of the liver, with an incidence of approximately 3/1 ... Methods: After microdissection, DNA from 25 liver cell adenomas and corresponding normal liver tissue were analysed for INK4- ... Analysis of p14ARF and p16INK4a in three liver cell adenomas (case Nos 1, 10, and 11; same patients as in table 1). (A) p14ARF ... Results: Methylation of p14ARF was found in 3/25 cases (12%) and alterations in p16INK4a occurred in 6/25 liver cell adenomas ( ...
As primary malignant liver cancer is very rare in this country, any effect due to oral contraceptives should be apparent in ... Overall liver cancer remains an extremely uncommon cause of death in developed countries, but it will be particularly important ... Oral contraceptive-associated liver cell adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Cytomorphology and mechanism of malignant ... Forman, D., Doll, R. & Peto, R. Trends in mortality from carcinoma of the liver and the use of oral contraceptives. Br J Cancer ...
Bisceglia M, Gatta A, Tomezzoli A, Donataccio M. Multiple spontaneous liver cell adenomas of different types (liver ... Liver cell adenoma: a multicenter analysis of risk factors for rupture and malignancy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009 Mar. 16(3):640-8. [ ... Edmondson HA, Henderson B, Benton B. Liver-cell adenomas associated with use of oral contraceptives. N Engl J Med. 1976 Feb 26 ... Regression of liver cell adenomas associated with oral contraceptives. Ann Int Med. 1977. 86(2):180-182. ...
Bisceglia M, Gatta A, Tomezzoli A, Donataccio M. Multiple spontaneous liver cell adenomas of different types (liver ... Liver cell adenoma: a multicenter analysis of risk factors for rupture and malignancy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009 Mar. 16(3):640-8. [ ... Edmondson HA, Henderson B, Benton B. Liver-cell adenomas associated with use of oral contraceptives. N Engl J Med. 1976 Feb 26 ... Regression of liver cell adenomas associated with oral contraceptives. Ann Int Med. 1977. 86(2):180-182. ...
... are also known as hepatic adenomas or liver cell adenomas. They are rare, benign tumors of presumable epithelial origin and ... Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) are also known as hepatic adenomas or liver cell adenomas. They are rare, benign tumors of ... Bisceglia M, Gatta A, Tomezzoli A, Donataccio M. Multiple spontaneous liver cell adenomas of different types (liver ... Liver cell adenoma: a multicenter analysis of risk factors for rupture and malignancy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009 Mar. 16(3):640-8. [ ...
What is Adenoma of the adrenal gland? Meaning of Adenoma of the adrenal gland medical term. What does Adenoma of the adrenal ... Looking for online definition of Adenoma of the adrenal gland in the Medical Dictionary? Adenoma of the adrenal gland ... liver cell adenoma hepatocellular a.. macrofollicular adenoma a follicular adenoma composed of large follicles filled with ... nonsecreting adenoma (nonsecretory adenoma) endocrine-inactive adenoma.. null-cell adenoma a pituitary adenoma whose cells give ...
What is Hurthle cell adenoma? Meaning of Hurthle cell adenoma medical term. What does Hurthle cell adenoma mean? ... Looking for online definition of Hurthle cell adenoma in the Medical Dictionary? Hurthle cell adenoma explanation free. ... hepatocellular adenoma a large, fleshy, hypervascular tumor of the liver occurring chiefly in women of childbearing age and ... nonsecreting adenoma (nonsecretory adenoma) endocrine-inactive adenoma.. null-cell adenoma a pituitary adenoma whose cells give ...
Liver Cell Adenoma or Hepatocellular Carcinoma?. Recently, LCAs with typical backgrounds of the patients are diagnosed by ... Enlargement of the liver due to glycogen accumulation is the clinical hallmark of the disease. Diet management is the mainstay ... Type I glycogen storage disease is caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase in liver, kidney, and intestinal ... Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles. This stored glycogen is normally broken down into glucose when a person does not ...
The clarification of pathogenesis and medical treatment of functional pituitary adenoma using iPS cells. Research Project ... Presentation] The essential role of GH/IGF-I in liver.2015. *. Author(s). Takahashi Y. ... We have further established a protocol for the differentiation from human iPS cells into pituitary in vitro. We have published ... Journal Article] A diagnostic pitfall in IgG4-related hypophysitis: Infiltration of IgG4-positive cells in the pituitary of ...
Regression of liver cell adenomas associated with oral contraceptives. Ann Intern Med 1977;86:180-182. ... Liver adenomatosis. An entity distinct from liver adenoma? Gastroenterology 1985;89:1132-1138. ... several adenomas are detected in the same patient; when ,10 nodules are identified in the liver it is called liver adenomatosis ... Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a rare, benign, liver tumor frequently associated with oral contraception (1,2). HCA usually ...
liver. angiosarcoma. mammary gland. anaplastic and squamous metaplasia. lung. bronchioaveolar adenoma. liver. hepatic cell ... liver enlargement, liver function abnormalities, increased sulphbromophthalein retention liver damage, serum enzyme ... Other manifestations may include liver enlargement and liver function abnormalities. In adults, untreated angiosarcoma of the ... 4 all caused angiosarcoma of the liver and other cancers in animals. Angiosarcoma of the liver was induced in rats exposed to ...
These are classified as liver cell adenomas or bile duct adenomas. In addition, a third type of tumor occurs. This lesion is ... MIXED ADENOMA (HAMARTOMA) OF THE LIVER: REPORT OF A CASE(MIXED ADENOMA (HAMARTOMA) OF THE LIVER: REPORT OF A CASE*) ROBERT M. ... MIXED ADENOMA (HAMARTOMA) OF THE LIVER: REPORT OF A CASE(MIXED ADENOMA (HAMARTOMA) OF THE LIVER: REPORT OF A CASE*). Ann Intern ... Primary benign liver tumors may arise from either the liver cells or the bile duct epithelium. ...
Pancreatic Alpha Cell Adenoma Pancreatic Beta Cell Adenoma Pancreatic Delta Cell Adenoma Pancreatic G-Cell Adenoma Pancreatic ... liver, carcinoid, or islet cell cancer. Temsirolimus may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed ... Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Endometrial, Ovarian, Liver, Carcinoid, or Islet Cell Cancer. ... Prior liver transplant with evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease. *Patients on an active liver transplant list and ...
Adenoma. Liver Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Experimental. Adenoma, Liver Cell. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental. Neoplasms, Glandular and ... Hepatoma Liver Neoplasms Adenoma, Liver Cell Carcinoma, Hepatocellular Liver Neoplasms, Experimental Drug: TRC 105 Drug: ... The outcome of liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States between 1988 and 2001: 5- ... It works by slowing the spread of cancer cells, but it does not fully prevent the cancer from growing again. Researchers are ...
Two types of hepatic adenoma have been identified, including tumors of bile duct origin and tumors of liver cell origin. ... Hepatic adenoma is a rare, benign tumor of the liver. ... Two case reports of childhood liver cell adenomas harboring ... Two types of hepatic adenoma have been identified: tumors of bile duct origin and tumors of liver cell origin. Hepatic adenomas ... encoded search term (Hepatocellular Adenoma (Hepatic Adenoma) Imaging) and Hepatocellular Adenoma (Hepatic Adenoma) Imaging ...
They also represent the cells-of-origin of adenomas in the gut (25) and within adenomas Lgr5 stem cells act as adenoma stem ... stem cells drive self-renewal in the stomach and build long-lived gastric units in vitro.. Cell Stem Cell 6: 25-36 (2010) ... Long-term culture of genome-stable bipotent stem cells from adult human liver.. Cell 160: 299-312 (2015) ... the Paneth cells, serve as crypt niche cells by providing Wnt, Notch and EGF signals (30). By time-resolved single cell ...
... pancreatic islet cell adenomas (p,0.01 ), neoplastic nodules of the liver (p,0.05), and mammary gland fibroadenomas (p,0.001) ... commercial-grade TDI caused pancreatic acinar cell adenomas in male rats (p,0.05); ... The pancreas and liver were the principal sites of tumor induction in male and female rats and in female mice treated with TDI ... 2,4-TDA induced liver tumors in male and female rats and in female mice, and it induced mammary gland tumors in female rats and ...
Adenoma Liver Cell, Follow-Up Studies, MRI, Pregnancy Persistent URL. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2019.09.011, hdl.handle.net/ ... Growth of hepatocellular adenoma during pregnancy: A prospective study. Publication. Publication. Journal of Hepatology ... Growth of the adenoma (defined as an increase of ,20%) was closely monitored with ultrasound examinations throughout pregnancy ... Lay summary: The presence of hepatocellular adenoma in pregnant women requires special consideration, as it carries the risk of ...
... is a transcription factor expressed predominantly in the liver among other organs. Structurally, it contains POU-homeodomain ... hepatocellular adenoma (HA), and a more specific HNF-1α-inactivated human hepatocellular adenoma (H-HCAs). Abundant clinical ... It was derived that Y-chromosome/HNF1-positive cells in the liver validate the existence of a cell fusion process but BMSCs do ... Expression of hepatic transcription factors during liver development and oval cell differentiation. J Cell Biol. 1994;126(1): ...
... deficiency is an X-linked recessive disorder that leads to hyperammonemia and liver damage. Hepatocellular adenoma in OTC ... L. Barthelmes and I. S. Tait, "Liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis," HPB (Oxford), vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 186-196, 2005 ... Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a benign neoplasm of liver, with an incidence of 3/1,000,000 per year in Europe and North ... The explant liver from our patient with OTC deficiency contains a hepatocellular adenoma. (a) The tumor is a well-circumscribed ...
... mean number of TdT-labeled apoptotic cells per crypt was calculated for each patient sample by investigators blinded to adenoma ... Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2007;293:G995-1003. OpenUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ... Adenomas were confirmed and defined according to standard pathologic criteria. Subjects with one or more adenomas were ... Differences in continuous or categorical variables between adenoma cases and adenoma-free controls were compared by Student t ...
Cortical adenomas. • Basal cell squamous skin tumors. In female mammals there were cancers of the lung, liver, thymus, stomach ... Adenoma cancer in the pituitary gland. • Glioma tumors in the brain. • Reticular cell sarcomas in the heart. • Malignant tumors ... Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas are the two most common forms, both which have been identified by Monsanto with ... Salivary mandibular reticular cell carcinoma. • Metastatic sarcomas of the lymph gland. • Prostate carcinoma. • Cancer of the ...
  • Taken together, our results suggest that overexpression of mPGES in addition to COX-2 contributes to increased amounts of PGE 2 in colorectal adenomas and cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • COX-2 and mPGES have been reported to be functionally linked (23) , raising the possibility that aberrant mPGES expression could contribute to increased amounts of PGE 2 in colorectal adenomas and cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The role of vitamins B 2 , B 6 , and B 12 , particularly dietary intake, has been investigated in several studies of colorectal adenomas and cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Liver cell adenoma (LCA) is the most important benign epithelial tumour of the liver, with an incidence of approximately 3/1 000 000 new cases per year. (bmj.com)
  • These cells represent the epithelial stem cells of the small intestine and colon (23), the hair follicle (24), the stomach (28) and -probably- all other epithelial stem cell types of the mammalian body. (hubrecht.eu)
  • These epithelial organoid cultures are genetically and phenotypically extremely stable, allowing transplantation of the cultured offspring of a single stem cell, as well as disease modeling by growing organoids directly from diseased patient tissues (31, 46, 53). (hubrecht.eu)
  • Polyamines are implicated in multiple signaling pathways driving different biological functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). (physiology.org)
  • Decreased levels of tight junction proteins in DFMO-treated cells were associated with dysfunction of the epithelial barrier, which was overcome by exogenous polyamine spermidine. (physiology.org)
  • epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal mucosa form an important barrier to a wide array of noxious substances in the lumen. (physiology.org)
  • Integrity of normal function of the intestinal epithelial barrier depends on specialized structures involved in cell-cell contacts known as tight junctions and adherens junctions. (physiology.org)
  • The tight junction located at the apical region of epithelial lateral membrane provides the barrier that is selectively permeable to certain hydrophilic molecules, ions, and nutrients, whereas the adherens junction mediates strong cell-to-cell adhesions between adjacent epithelial cells and regulates the tight junction assembly and function ( 9 , 32 , 38 , 50 ). (physiology.org)
  • The tight junction seals epithelial cells together in a way that prevents even small molecules from leaking between cells and also functionally separates the plasma membrane into an apical and a basolateral domain ( 9 , 38 , 41 ). (physiology.org)
  • Epidemiologic studies show that people who don't have epithelial cell cancer eat "significantly more" citrus peel than people who do have epithelial cell carcinoma. (rainbow.coop)
  • Twenty-nine of these genes were significantly regulated in UC-in-remission subjects compared with non-IBD controls, including a large number of epithelial cell-expressed genes such as REG4, S100P, SERPINB5, SLC16A1, DEFB1, AQP3 and AQP8, which modulate epithelial cell growth, sensitivity to apoptosis and immune function. (bmj.com)
  • Among the genes that remain deregulated during remission, we identify several that are expressed by epithelial cells and are involved in epithelial cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and response to stress. (bmj.com)
  • Type I glycogen storage disease is caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase in liver, kidney, and intestinal mucosa (inner lining of the intestine). (medindia.net)
  • Daughters of the small intestinal stem cells, the Paneth cells, serve as crypt niche cells by providing Wnt, Notch and EGF signals (30). (hubrecht.eu)
  • The Wnt target gene encoding the transcription factor Achaete scute-like 2 controls the fate of the intestinal stem cell (26). (hubrecht.eu)
  • Wnt signaling intimately interacts with the BMP and Notch cascades to drive proliferation and inhibit differentiation in intestinal crypts and adenomas (17, 20). (hubrecht.eu)
  • The downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) is a membrane protein in intestinal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is localized to the mucosa of the lower intestinal tract, particularly to the apical membrane of columnar epithelium and some goblet cells, and is instrumental in chloride reuptake, aiding in the creation of an osmotic gradient for resorption of fluid from the lumen of the intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these pathways influence intestinal stem cell niche signaling, the extent to which mutations in these pathways contribute to human colorectal carcinogenesis remains unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Parathyroid adenomas may grow to the size of a walnut. (encyclopedia.com)
  • With some parathyroid adenomas, blood levels may exceed 200 pg/ml, while others may be present with blood PTH still within the normal range. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In a two-generation feeding study in rats with lower dose levels, increased incidences of parathyroid adenomas and adrenal phaeochromocytomas were observed in animals of each sex and liver neoplastic nodules in females of the F 1 generation [ref: (inchem.org)
  • Angiosarcoma of the liver was induced in rats exposed to 25 ppm vinyl chloride, in rats exposed to 50 ppm vinyl bromide, and in mice exposed to 55 ppm vinylidene chloride. (cdc.gov)
  • The proposal was to reduce that to 3 ppm in light of the new data, but that seems inadequate given the LOEL for liver adenoma in male rats. (bio.net)
  • Minor liver, hematological, and renal effects, as well as changes in body weight, have also been observed in exposed rats. (cdc.gov)
  • liver and kidney catalase activity of rats (Tephly et al. (inchem.org)
  • Symptomatic patients with HCA present with right upper quadrant abdominal pain or discomfort secondary to bleeding within the HCA, elevated liver enzymes and symptoms of life treating hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Great insights will come from integrating the signals of different pathways operating at cell cycle regulation, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. (bmj.com)
  • Previous work by our group has linked elevated plasma insulin and low apoptosis in normal rectal mucosa to increased adenoma risk ( 6-8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1)Interferon-gamma induced apoptosis in liver cells while hepatocyte growth factor(HGF)cancelled such effect of interferon-gamma. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These compounds can inhibit histone deacetylase and are suitable for use in selectively inducing terminal differentiation, and arresting cell growth and/or apoptosis of neoplastic cells, thereby inhibiting proliferation of such cells. (patents.com)
  • Sometimes the regeneration of liver cells is associated with changes (mutations) that have been linked to the development of liver cancers. (liver.ca)
  • Interleukin-6 trans-signaling was shown to be important for liver regeneration and development of liver adenomas. (chemweb.com)
  • By time-resolved single cell sequening using a new molecular timer allele, the transcriptional hierarchy of the various enteroendocrine lineages was mapped (56). (hubrecht.eu)
  • The articles in this dermatology Review Series demonstrate recent progress in understanding the cell biology and molecular pathophysiology of the epidermis and hair follicles, which harbor keratinocyte and melanocyte stem cells. (jci.org)
  • Liver cell adherence and ligand-receptor binding of HGF depended on the ECM where the cells sit on, including molecular species of proteoglycans. (nii.ac.jp)
  • a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism. (thyroid.org)
  • see prolactinoma , corticotroph adenoma , gonadotroph adenoma , growth hormone-secreting adenoma , and thyrotroph adenoma . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • eosinophilic adenoma growth hormone-secreting adenoma . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Background & Aims: The presence of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) in pregnant women requires special consideration, as it has been reported to carry the risk of growth and clinically significant haemorrhage. (eur.nl)
  • Lay summary: The presence of hepatocellular adenoma in pregnant women requires special consideration, as it carries the risk of growth and haemorrhage. (eur.nl)
  • We hypothesized that increased mRNA levels of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR) versus the insulin receptor (IR) or elevated ratio of IR-A:IR-B isoforms in normal rectal mucosa would predict adenoma risk, particularly in individuals with high body mass index (BMI) or plasma insulin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They are anabolic and increase protein within cells, especially in skeletal muscles, and also have varying degrees of androgenic and virilizing effects, including induction of the development and maintenance of masculine secondary sexual characteristics such as the growth of facial and body hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • AAS have largely been replaced in this setting by synthetic protein hormones (such as epoetin alfa) that selectively stimulate growth of blood cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an abnormal growth of blood vessels of the liver that begins in the fetus. (liver.ca)
  • 1)Transforming growth factor(TGF)-beta may impair liver regeneration when being over-expressed in the liver or appearing in advance of HGF expression. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Regulation of gene activity by the HNF-1α protein is critical for the growth and development of beta cells in the pancreas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fine needle aspiration is usually used to diagnose the presence of cancerous cells in a skin growth. (amazonaws.com)
  • These raised GH amounts subsequently boost insulin-like growth element I (IGF-I) creation, predominantly from the liver organ, although other cells also synthesize IGF-I . (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • an abnormal growth of thyroid cells that forms a lump within the thyroid. (thyroid.org)
  • This growth arrest enables the cell to repair acquired DNA damage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This image shows abnormal low signal intensity of the liver, hypointense relative to the spleen, representing fatty infiltration of the liver. (medscape.com)
  • If normal liver function is affected, a complex set of biochemical checks and balances is disrupted and abnormal amounts of fluid are retained. (jhu.edu)
  • A team of scientists have discovered a new congenital anomaly in which the lack sufficient infection-fighting white cells, the genetic mutation behind the syndrome is also uncovered. (medindia.net)
  • It did not induce chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster cells or mutation in bacteria [ref: (inchem.org)
  • Encyclopedia section of medindia gives general information about Alcoholic Liver Disease. (medindia.net)
  • Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of liver dysfunction worldwide and is a rapidly growing health problem in India. (medindia.net)
  • Despite the increase of doses, her disease deteriorated with 3-6 hospitalizations per year with peak ammonia levels ranging from 100 to 350 µ M and plasma glutamine levels up to near 1200 µ M. Therefore, a living donor partial liver transplant was eventually performed. (hindawi.com)
  • Liver disease is serious and requires treatment and regular monitoring by a liver specialist. (liverdoctor.com)
  • Over nearly 40 years of practicing medicine I have seen many patients develop severe liver disease, which sadly could have been prevented by early detection and early referral to a hepatologist. (liverdoctor.com)
  • however, liver transplantation may be considered in case of diffuse disease, and it has been reported as an exceptional indication in 0.09 % of all indications in the world. (springer.com)
  • Liver cells can regenerate after injury (scarring that can occur as a result of liver disease). (liver.ca)
  • It may spread to other parts of the liver in later stages of the disease. (liver.ca)
  • We report two cases of hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in young women who had no prior history of liver disease and who had taken oral contraceptive drugs. (ebscohost.com)
  • Torbeson M, Lee JH, Choti M, Gage W, Abraham SC, Montgomery E, Boitnott J, Wu TT (2002) Hepatic adenomas: analysis of sex steroid receptor status and the Wnt signalling pathway. (springer.com)
  • The tumour suppressor gene p16 INK4a is believed to encode a negative regulatory protein that controls the progression of eucaryotic cells through the G1 phase of the cell cycle by interacting with CDK4 and inhibiting its kinase activity. (bmj.com)
  • We were the first to link Wnt signaling with adult stem cell biology, when we showed that TCF4 gene disruption leads to the abolition of crypts of the small intestine (8), and that TCF1 gene knockout severely disables the stem cell compartment of the thymus (2). (hubrecht.eu)
  • Amongst the Wnt target genes, we found the Lgr5 gene to be unique in that it marks small cycling cells at crypt bottoms. (hubrecht.eu)
  • Solute carrier family 26, member 3, also known as CLD (chloride anion exchanger), or DRA (downregulated-in-adenoma) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC26A3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • When we examined specific gene-B-vitamin interactions, we observed a possible interaction between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase -C677T and plasma B 2 on risk of all adenomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These changes interrupt transcription, altering gene activity in cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When DNA damage remains unrepaired, it may lead to gene mutations that can, depending on the target gene(s) that become affected, influence the proper functioning of the cell. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition to a multiplicity of adenomas, hepatic adenomas associated with GSD tend to occur more commonly in men than women (ratio 2:1) and often develop before the age of 20 years. (medscape.com)
  • Hepatic adenomas occur more often in women and seem to be triggered in some cases by the birth control pill or by pregnancy. (liver.ca)
  • Other developmental effects may also occur following in utero or perinatal exposure, and include increases in postimplantation losses, decreases in the number of live fetuses per litter, decreases in fetal and pup body weights, and increases in incidences of external, skeletal, and internal malformations. (cdc.gov)
  • Cats of all ages can develop abscesses, but individuals who go outside or live in multi-cat households where fights occur are at highest risk. (petmd.com)