Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Adenoma, Islet Cell: A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Carcinoma, Islet Cell: A primary malignant neoplasm of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the non-INSULIN-producing cell types, the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS) in GLUCAGONOMA and SOMATOSTATINOMA, respectively.Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Islet Amyloid Polypeptide: A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Glucagon-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.Adenoma, Chromophobe: A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Glucagonoma: An almost always malignant GLUCAGON-secreting tumor derived from the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS. It is characterized by a distinctive migratory ERYTHEMA; WEIGHT LOSS; STOMATITIS; GLOSSITIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; hypoaminoacidemia; and normochromic normocytic ANEMIA.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Colonic Polyps: Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Pancreatic Polypeptide: A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.Adenoma, Acidophil: A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Adenomatous Polyps: Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Prolactinoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Somatostatin-Secreting Cells: Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Adenoma, Basophil: A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 8: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.AlloxanPancreatic Hormones: Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli: A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Mice, Inbred C57BLRats, Inbred BB: A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Acromegaly: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Genes, APC: Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Apudoma: A general term collectively applied to tumors associated with the APUD CELLS series, irrespective of their specific identification.Receptors, Somatostatin: Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Diazoxide: A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Vipoma: A tumor that secretes VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE, a neuropeptide that causes VASODILATION; relaxation of smooth muscles; watery DIARRHEA; HYPOKALEMIA; and HYPOCHLORHYDRIA. Vipomas, derived from the pancreatic ISLET CELLS, generally are malignant and can secrete other hormones. In most cases, Vipomas are located in the PANCREAS but can be found in extrapancreatic sites.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Subrenal Capsule Assay: In vivo method of screening investigative anticancer drugs and biologic response modifiers for individual cancer patients. Fresh tumor tissue is implanted under the kidney capsule of immunocompetent mice or rats; gross and histological assessments follow several days after tumor treatment in situ.4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion: A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.Octreotide: A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.GlyceraldehydeMice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Transplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Endocrine Cells: Secretory cells of the ductless glands. They secrete HORMONES directly into the blood circulation (internal secretion) to be carried to the target cells. The secreted chemicals can be PEPTIDES; STEROIDS; NEUROPEPTIDES; or BIOGENIC AMINES.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Rats, Inbred WFWinged-Helix Transcription Factors: A subfamily of HELIX-TURN-HELIX DNA-binding proteins that contain a variable length loop adjacent to the HTH motif. The loop connects two anti-parallel strands and forms a wing when bound to DNA.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Mannoheptulose: A 7-carbon keto sugar having the mannose configuration.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome: A syndrome that is characterized by the triad of severe PEPTIC ULCER, hypersecretion of GASTRIC ACID, and GASTRIN-producing tumors of the PANCREAS or other tissue (GASTRINOMA). This syndrome may be sporadic or be associated with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Somatostatinoma: A SOMATOSTATIN-secreting tumor derived from the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS). It is also found in the INTESTINE. Somatostatinomas are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS; CHOLELITHIASIS; STEATORRHEA; and HYPOCHLORHYDRIA. The majority of somatostatinomas have the potential for METASTASIS.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Hyperparathyroidism, Primary: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Pancreatic Polypeptide-Secreting Cells: A group of islet cells (10-35%) which secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE, a hormone that regulates APPETITE and FOOD INTAKE.Pancreas, Exocrine: The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.Cell SeparationMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nerve Tissue ProteinsRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.Choristoma: A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Sigmoidoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Proglucagon: The common precursor polypeptide of pancreatic GLUCAGON and intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Proglucagon is the 158-amino acid segment of preproglucagon without the N-terminal signal sequence. Proglucagon is expressed in the PANCREAS; INTESTINES; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Posttranslational processing of proglucagon is tissue-specific yielding numerous bioactive peptides.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Pituitary Apoplexy: The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.LIM-Homeodomain Proteins: A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Keto AcidsCellophane: A generic name for film produced from wood pulp by the viscose process. It is a thin, transparent sheeting of regenerated cellulose, moisture-proof and sometimes dyed, and used chiefly as food wrapping or as bags for dialysis. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.APUD Cells: Cells with the capacity to take up and decarboxylate the amine precursors DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE or 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN. This is a property of endocrine cells of neural and non-neural origin. APUDOMA is a general term collectively applied to tumors associated with APUD cells.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Lithostathine: The proteinaceous component of the pancreatic stone in patients with PANCREATITIS.Nesidioblastosis: An inherited autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by the disorganized formation of new islets in the PANCREAS and CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM. It is due to focal hyperplasia of pancreatic ISLET CELLS budding off from the ductal structures and forming new islets of Langerhans. Mutations in the islet cells involve the potassium channel gene KCNJ11 or the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCC8, both on CHROMOSOME 11.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Prediabetic State: The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein: A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.Parathyroidectomy: Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Transplantation, Heterotopic: Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.HLA-DQ beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Adenoma, Bile Duct: A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Colon, Descending: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between TRANSVERSE COLON and the SIGMOID COLON.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.

Mutations and allelic deletions of the MEN1 gene are associated with a subset of sporadic endocrine pancreatic and neuroendocrine tumors and not restricted to foregut neoplasms. (1/311)

Endocrine pancreatic tumors (EPT) and neuroendocrine tumors (NET) occur sporadically and rarely in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). We analyzed the frequency of allelic deletions and mutations of the recently identified MEN1 gene in 53 sporadic tumors including 30 EPT and 23 NET (carcinoids) of different locations and types. Allelic deletion of the MEN1 locus was identified in 18/49 (36.7%) tumors (13/30, 43.3% in EPT and 5/19, 26.3% in NET) and mutations of the MEN1 gene were present in 8/52 (15.3%) tumors (4/30 (13.3%) EPT and 4/22 (18.1%) NET). The somatic mutations were clustered in the 5' region of the coding sequence and most frequently encompassed missense mutations. All tumors with mutations exhibited a loss of the other allele and a wild-type sequence of the MEN1 gene in nontumorous DNA. In one additional patient with a NET of the lung and no clinical signs or history of MEN1, a 5178-9G-->A splice donor site mutation in intron 4 was identified in both the tumor and blood DNA, indicating the presence of a thus far unknown MEN1 syndrome. In most tumor groups the frequency of allelic deletions at 11q13 was 2 to 3 times higher than the frequency of identified MEN1 gene mutations. Some tumor types, including rare forms of EPT and NET of the duodenum and small intestine, exhibited mutations more frequently than other types. Furthermore, somatic mutations were not restricted to foregut tumors but were also detectable in a midgut tumor (15.2% versus 16.6%). Our data indicate that somatic MEN1 gene mutations contribute to a subset of sporadic EPT and NET, including midgut tumors. Because the frequency of mutations varies significantly among the investigated tumor subgroups and allelic deletions are 2 to 3 times more frequently observed, factors other than MEN1 gene inactivation, including other tumor-suppressor genes on 11q13, may also be involved in the tumorigenesis of these neoplasms.  (+info)

Induction of adenocarcinoma from hamster pancreatic islet cells treated with N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine in vitro. (2/311)

Our previous studies in the hamster pancreatic cancer model have indicated that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas derive not only from ductal/ductular cells but also from islets. To verify the presence of carcinogen-responsive cells within islets, we tested the effect of the pancreatic carcinogen N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) on recently established continuous hamster pancreatic islet culture. Isolated pure pancreatic islets of hamsters were treated in vitro with BOP at a concentration of 0.25 mM three times a week for 19 weeks. Each treatment week was designed as a stage. The growth of these cells, designated KL5B, was compared with untreated cultured islets, designated KL5N. As in our previous study, between 14 and 21 days of culture, exocrine and intermediary cells developed within both KL5N and KL5B islets, which were then replaced by undifferentiated cells. No differences were found in the growth patterns of KL5N and KL5B until stage 4, when KL5B cells showed accelerated cell growth and cell pleomorphism, which increased gradually at later stages of treatment. Anchorage-independent and in vivo growth did not appear until stage 19. Mutation of c-Ki-ras at codon 12 (GGT-->GAT) was detected in KL5B cells but not in KL5N cells. In vivo KL5B cells formed anaplastic invasive cancer with areas of glandular formation, overexpressed TGF-alpha and EGFR, expressed cytokeratin, vimentin, laminin and alpha-1 antitrypsin and reacted strongly with L-phytohemagglutinin and tomato lectin. Some cells within islets are responsive to the carcinogenic effects of BOP. Whether these cells represent islet cell precursors (stem cells) or malignant transdifferentiated islet cells remains to be seen.  (+info)

Hyperinsulinism: molecular aetiology of focal disease. (3/311)

Persistent hypoglycaemia in infancy is most commonly caused by hyperinsulinism. A case is reported of the somatic loss of the maternal 11p in an insulin secreting focal adenoma in association with a germline SUR-1 mutation on the paternal allele in a baby boy with hyperinsulinism diagnosed at 49 days old. A reduction to homozygosity of an SUR-1 mutation is proposed as a critical part of the cause of focal hyperinsulinism.  (+info)

The hypothalamic satiety peptide CART is expressed in anorectic and non-anorectic pancreatic islet tumors and in the normal islet of Langerhans. (4/311)

The hypothalamic satiety peptide CART (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) is expressed at high levels in anorectic rat glucagonomas but not in hypoglycemic insulinomas. However, a non-anorectic metastasis derived from the glucagonoma retained high CART expression levels and produced circulating CART levels comparable to that of the anorectic tumors. Moreover, distinct glucagonoma lines derived by stable HES-1 transfection of the insulinoma caused severe anorexia but retained low circulating levels of CART comparable to that of insulinoma bearing or control rats. Islet tumor associated anorexia and circulating CART levels are thus not correlated, and in line with this peripheral administration of CART (5-50 mg/kg) produced no effect on feeding behavior. In the rat two alternatively spliced forms of CART mRNA exist and quantitative PCR revealed expression of both forms in the hypothalamus, in the different islet tumors, and in the islets of Langerhans. Immunocytochemistry as well as in situ hybridization localized CART expression to the somatostatin producing islet D cell. A potential endocrine/paracrine role of islet CART remains to be clarified.  (+info)

Mutations of the DPC4/Smad4 gene in neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors. (5/311)

Tumors of the endocrine pancreas are extremely rare, and molecular mechanisms leading to their development are not well understood. A candidate tumor suppressor gene, DPC4, located at 18q21, has recently been shown to be inactivated in half of pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenografts. The close anatomical relationship of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas prompted us to determine the role of DPC4 in the tumorigenesis of 25 pancreatic islet cell tumors (11 insulinomas, nine non-functioning endocrine carcinomas, three gastrinomas, two vipomas). A mutation screening of the highly conserved COOH-terminal domain of DPC4 (exons 8-11) was performed by single-strand conformational variant (SSCP) analysis and a PCR-based deletion assay. Five of nine (55%) non-functioning endocrine pancreatic carcinomas revealed either point mutations, small intragenic deletions or homozygous deletion of DPC4 sequences compared to none of the insulinomas, gastrinomas or vipomas. These results suggest that DPC4 is an important target gene promoting tumorigenesis of non-functioning neuroendocrine pancreatic carcinomas.  (+info)

Cellular composition and anatomic distribution in nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors: immunohistochemical study of 30 cases. (6/311)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cytological pattern and distribution in nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors. METHODS: Using labeled streptavidin-biotin (LSAB), immunohistochemical staining for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and gastrin was performed on 30 nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors from 30 patients. The cellular composition and anatomic distribution in these tumors were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 30 tumor tissues, 22 (73.3%) were found to contain cells immunoreactive to 1-4 kinds of peptide hormones; 17 (56.7%) showed positive staining for more than one peptide and up to 4 peptides; and 8 (26.7%) showed negative immunoreaction to all antiserum applied. No tumor was found to contain immunoreactive gastrin. Among 17 multihormonal tumors, 4 contained 2 kinds of peptide hormones, 8 had 3 kinds, and 5 harbored 4 kinds of peptide hormones. In addition, the difference in the number and type of positive endocrine cells between the tumors arising from the head of the pancreas and those arising from the body and tail of the pancreas were statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemically, the high positive rate to peptide hormones suggests that the nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors are actually not nonfunctioning; they are asymptomatic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Moreover, an uneven distribution of positive endocrine cells in the nonfunctioning pancreas endocrine tumors within the pancreas was identified.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical expression of chromogranins A and B, prohormone convertases 2 and 3, and amidating enzyme in carcinoid tumors and pancreatic endocrine tumors. (7/311)

Although chromogranin A (CgA) is widely distributed in neuroendocrine tumors, the distribution of chromogranin B (CgB) has not been elucidated. Hormones produced by tumors are sometimes prohormones and not necessarily bioactive hormones. Prohormones have to be processed into bioactive peptides by prohormone convertases (PCs), and some of them have to be amidated by peptidylglycine a-amidating monooxygenase (PGM). Whether PCs and PGM are present or not in tumors may explain why some tumors are functioning and some are nonfunctioning. We investigated 45 carcinoids and 16 pancreatic endocrine tumors. Of the carcinoids, CgA was expressed in most of the tumors, except for the rectal and ovarian carcinoids, which expressed CgB strongly. The expressions of PC2, PC3, and PGM were 31%, 100%, and 87%, respectively. In the pancreatic tumors, CgA was expressed in all tumors, whereas CgB was not expressed in any tumor. The expressions of PC2, PC3, and PGM were 63%, 88%, and 63%, respectively. PC3 was expressed in all of the functioning tumors but not in two of the four nonfunctioning tumors. PC2 and PGM were not expressed in three of the four nonfunctioning tumors. In conclusion, expression of CgA and CgB was different depending on the tumor location. High frequency of PCs and PGM may explain why even nonfunctioning tumors produce some inconspicuous peptides.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical localization of betacellulin, a new member of the EGF family, in normal human pancreas and islet tumor cells. (8/311)

Betacellulin (BTC) purified from mouse beta cell tumor (betaTC-3) is a new member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family which can bind receptor tyrosine kinase, EGF receptor (erbB1) and erbB4. It has been demonstrated that proBTC mRNA was abundantly expressed in human pancreas tissue, and that BTC converted amylase-secreting rat acinar cell line (AR42J) into insulin-secreting cells, suggesting that BTC might be important for the growth and/or differentiation of islet cells. However, the cell type producing BTC in the pancreas has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the localization of BTC in human pancreas and islet cell tumors. Immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies to human BTC revealed that this protein was produced in alpha cells and duct cells, and probably in beta cells in normal adult pancreas. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity to BTC was detected in primitive duct cells of the fetal pancreas, and both insulinoma and glucagonoma cells also showed positive immunoreactivity to BTC. EGF receptor (erbB1) and erbB4 were expressed mainly in islet and duct cells, and duct cells, respectively. These results demonstrate the localization of BTC and its receptors, and suggest that BTC may be one of the factors that have physiologically important roles such as growth and differentiation of islet cells in the human pancreas.  (+info)

Pancreatic islet cell tumors (ICTs) occur as sporadic neoplasias or as a manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Molecular classification of ICTs is mandatory for timely diagnosis and surveillance. Systematic comparison of VHL-ICTs and sporadic ICTs has been lacking. Our registry-based approaches used the German NET-Registry with 259 patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), who were primarily diagnosed with NETs, and the German VHL-Registry with 485 molecular genetically confirmed patients who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography of the abdomen. All patients provided blood DNA for testing of the MEN1 and VHL genes for intragenic mutations and large deletions. In the NET-Registry, 9/101 patients (8.9%) with ICTs had germline mutations, 8 in MEN1 and 1 in VHL. In the VHL-Registry, prevalence of NETs was 52/487 (10.6%), and all were ICTs. Interestingly, of those with VHL p.R167W, 47% developed ICTs, compared to ...
Pfizer announced results from a randomized phase III trial of sunitinib malate (Sutent) in patients with advanced pancreatic islet cell (neuroendocrine) tumors 1
Author(s): Zoran Erlic, Ursula Ploeckinger, Alberto Cascon, Michael M Hoffmann, Laura von Duecker, Aurelia Winter, Gerit Kammel, Janina Bacher, Maren Sullivan, Berend Isermann, Lars Fischer, Andreas Raffel, Wolfram Trudo Knoefel, Matthias Schott, Tobias Baumann, Oliver Schaefer, Tobias Keck, Richard P Baum, Ioana Milos, Mihaela Muresan, Mariola Peczkowska, Andrzej Januszewicz, Kenko Cupisti, Anke Tönjes, Mathias Fasshauer, Jan Langrehr, Peter von Wussow, Abbas Agaimy, Günter Schlimok, Regina Lamberts, Thorsten Wiech, Kurt Werner Schmid, Alexander Weber, Mercedes Nunez, Mercedes Robledo, Charis Eng, Hartmut P H Neumann, , Journal: ...
The incidence of new diagnosed patients with NET of the digestive tract including carcinoid and pancreatic islet cells tumors ranges from 2 to 10 per 100,000 in the western Countries (Kulke M, Mayer R. N Engl J Med 340:858-868, 1999). Despite of the low incidence, the prevalence of these tumors is high because of their relatively long survival estimated in 35% at 5 years for those patients with well or moderate differentiated tumors (Yao JC, et al. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:3063-3072). In fact, digestive NETs are the second most prevalent tumors derived from the digestive tract after colorectal carcinoma.. NETs are characterized by abundant vasculature, moreover VEGFR and VEGFR are overexpressed in 60-84% of the carcinoids and pancreatic islet cells NETs (Zhang et al. Cancer 2007;109:1478-1486). Other pro-angiogenic factors like the platelet derived growth factor (PDGFR) have been also involved in NET progression and development (Chaudhry A, et al.Cancer Res 1992;52:1006-12).. Pazopanib is an oral ...
The incidence of new diagnosed patients with NET of the digestive tract including carcinoid and pancreatic islet cells tumors ranges from 2 to 10 per 100,000 in the western Countries (Kulke M, Mayer R. N Engl J Med 340:858-868, 1999). Despite of the low incidence, the prevalence of these tumors is high because of their relatively long survival estimated in 35% at 5 years for those patients with well or moderate differentiated tumors (Yao JC, et al. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:3063-3072). In fact, digestive NETs are the second most prevalent tumors derived from the digestive tract after colorectal carcinoma.. NETs are characterized by abundant vasculature, moreover VEGFR and VEGFR are overexpressed in 60-84% of the carcinoids and pancreatic islet cells NETs (Zhang et al. Cancer 2007;109:1478-1486). Other pro-angiogenic factors like the platelet derived growth factor (PDGFR) have been also involved in NET progression and development (Chaudhry A, et al.Cancer Res 1992;52:1006-12).. Pazopanib is an oral ...
This paper describes some histologic and histochemical characteristics of an easily transplantable islet-cell tumor of the Syrian hamster. The presence of insulin was demonstrated by means of fluorescent antibody and immunoassay technics. A positive histochemical reaction for tryptophan suggests, but does not prove, the presence of small amounts of glucagon. It is suggested that the tumor may be a useful tool for biologic studies.. ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Catechol and indole derivatives in a transplantable islet-cell tumour of the golden hamster. by Lennart Cegrell et al.
This study investigates the occurrence and regulation of serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPases) in insulin-secreting RINm5F insulinoma cells. PPases types 1 and 2A were identified in crude RINm5F cell homogenates by both enzymatic assay and Western blot analysis. We then characterized and compared the inhibitory actions of several compounds isolated from cyanobacteria, marine dinoflagellates and marine sponges, (viz. okadaic acid, microcystin-LR, calyculin-A and nodularin) cation-independent PPase activities in RINm5F cell homogenates. It was found that okadaic acid was the least potent inhibitor (IC50 ≈ 10−9M, IC100 ≈ 10−6M), while the other compounds exhibited IC50 values of ≈ 5·10−10 M and IC100 ≈ 5·10−9 M. The findings indicate that the inhibitory substances employed in this study may be used pharmacologically to investigate the role of serine/threonine PPases in RINm5F cell insulin secretion, a process that is likely to be regulated to a major extent by protein ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene expression profiling in human insulinoma tissue. T2 - Genes involved in the insulin secretion pathway and cloning of novel full-length cDNAs. AU - Wang, X. C.. AU - Xu, S. Y.. AU - Wu, X. Y.. AU - Song, H. D.. AU - Mao, Y. F.. AU - Fan, H. Y.. AU - Yu, F.. AU - Mou, B.. AU - Gu, Y. Y.. AU - Xu, L. Q.. AU - Zhou, X. O.. AU - Chen, Z.. AU - Chen, J. L.. AU - Hu, R. M.. PY - 2004/6. Y1 - 2004/6. N2 - Insulinoma is a clinically common cause of organic hypoglycemia. The prominent characteristic of insulinoma is endogenous hyperinsulinism. Until now, the molecular biology of human insulinoma has been little understood. In this study, gene expression profiling of human insulinoma was established by expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing and cDNA array. A total of 2063 clones were obtained, of these, 1589 clones were derived from EST sequencing, 975 clones were derived from cDNA array and 501 clones were shared by the two methods. G protein α-stimulating activity polypeptide ...
Learn more about Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®) (Patients) from the National Cancer Institute at Siteman Cancer Center.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinicopathological features of pancreatic endocrine tumors. T2 - A prospective multicenter study in italy of 297 sporadic cases. AU - Zerbi, Alessandro. AU - Falconi, Massimo. AU - Rindi, Guido. AU - Fave, Gianfranco Delle. AU - Tomassetti, Paola. AU - Pasquali, Claudio. AU - Capitanio, Vanessa. AU - Boninsegna, Letizia. AU - Di Carlo, Valerio. PY - 2010/6. Y1 - 2010/6. N2 - Objectives: Information on pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) comes mostly from small, retrospective, uncontrolled studies conducted on highly selected patients. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and pathological features of PETs in a prospective, multicenter study.Methods: Newly diagnosed, histologically proven, sporadic PETs observed from June 2004 to March 2007 in 24 Italian centers were included in a specific data set.Results: Two hundred ninety-seven patients (mean age 58.614.7 years, females 51.2%, males 48.8%) were analyzed. In 73 cases (24.6%), the tumor was functioning (F) (53 ...
Incidence and Mortality They are uncommon cancers with about 1,000 new cases per year in the United States.[1] They account for 3% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies and overall have a better prognosis than the more common pancreatic exocrine tumors.[1,2] Five-year survival is about 55% when the tumors are localized and...
Incidence and Mortality They are uncommon cancers with about 1,000 new cases per year in the United States.[1] They account for 3% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies and overall have a better prognosis than the more common pancreatic exocrine tumors.[1,2] Five-year survival is about 55% when the tumors are localized and...
Glucagonoma is a rare type of endocrine pancreatic tumor. This means it is a cancer of the glandular endocrine cells of the pancreas rather than the exocrine digestion-related pancreas cells. A "glucagonoma" is a cancer that produces too much production of a hormone called glucagon, which does reduce insulin production. Hence, glucagonoma can interfere with…. Details ...
... or nesidioblastoma is an uncommon cancer of the endocrine pancreas. For more information, see neuroendocrine tumor.
We show the overexpression at mRNA and/or protein levels of VIP, its main receptor VPAC(1), the major angiogenic factor VEGF, and the pro-inflammatory enzyme COX-2 as well as the increased activity of MMP-2 and 9 in tumors derived from VIP-treated PC3 cells as compared with control group ...
Henquin, Jean-Claude. Opposite effects of intracellular Ca2+ and glucose on K+ permeability of pancreatic islet cells.. In: Nature, Vol. 280, no. 5717, p. 66-8 (1979 ...
Introduction to Pancreatic Islet Cell Cancer as a medical condition including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, prevention, and prognosis.
The pancreatic Islet Cell Biology Core is located on the 12 floor (12-169 to 12-171) of the Smilow Center for Translation Research, 3400 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104. A Core is well equipped for physiological, biochemical and biophysical studies ...
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Tumors of the GI Tract from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
Synergistic effects of the drug combinations were found in both RIP-Tag2 and Panc-1 tumors. Inhibition of c-Met and VEGF together, by administration of PF-04217903 or PF-02341066 together with anti-VEGF antibody or sunitinib, prevented the invasiveness and metastasis found in RIP-Tag2 mice after inhibition of VEGF signaling. These effects were greater than was found with either c-Met inhibitor used alone. Similarly, PF-04217903 administered in combination with sunitinib caused greater slowing of Panc-1 tumor growth and invasion and had greater survival benefit in RIP-Tag2 mice than when given alone. Coadministration of PF-04217903 also blocked the increase in Snail1, N-cadherin, and vimentin found after inhibition of VEGF signaling. The anti-invasive and antimetastatic actions of PF-04217903 or PF-02341066 appeared to be independent of effects on tumor vessels or hypoxia because neither agent caused appreciable vascular pruning, staining for pimonidazole, CA-IX, or Glut1, or an increase in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma in a child. AU - Sola, Juan E. AU - Gutierrez, Juan C.. AU - Thompson, William R.. AU - Alvarez, Ofelia A. AU - Casillas, Victor. AU - Rodriguez, Maria. PY - 2008/3/1. Y1 - 2008/3/1. N2 - We present the first case of Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma affecting the same individual. This case underscores the importance of repeat biopsies in patients with multiple neoplasms to confirm the diagnosis and guide management.. AB - We present the first case of Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma affecting the same individual. This case underscores the importance of repeat biopsies in patients with multiple neoplasms to confirm the diagnosis and guide management.. KW - Multiple endocrine neoplasia. KW - Pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. KW - Pediatric. KW - Pheochromocytoma. KW - Wilms tumor. UR - ...
Glucagonoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor that originates in the alpha2 cells of the pancreas. Neuroendocrine tumors are cancers that attack the interface between the nervous system and the hormone [endocrine] system, resulting in the severe overpro
Glucagonoma: Constipation in women - Womens Health Update. Health and Medicine Reference Covering Thousands of Diseases and Prescription Drugs.
Common causes of acromegaly include pituitary adenoma and acidophil stem cell adenomas. Less common causes of acromegaly include GHRH secreting tumors as hypothalamic tumors, small cell lung cancer, adrenal adenoma, and pheochromocytoma. Other causes include GH secreting tumors as lymphoma and pancreatic islet cell tumor. ...
Organic hyperinsulinism has been recognized with increasing frequency in the last few years. It is most commonly due to adenomata of the islands of Langerhans. More and more case reports appear of successful surgical removal of these tumors with consequent alleviation of symptoms. At times there seems to be a general hypersecretion of insulin by the islet cells without discernible tumor in which resection of varying amounts of pancreatic tissue has been found effective. Carcinoma of islet cells occurs much less frequently. In these cases the tumor is often slow to grow and slow to metastasize. In a few instances ...
C-Peptide is useful in the evaluation of pancreatic beta cell function (e.g., helping distinguish type 1 from type 2 diabetes mellitus, or monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplant) and for determining the source of insulin in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (e.g., distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors from exogenous insulin administration). It is also sometimes measured as an additional means (more resistant to hemolysis than is insulin itself) for evaluating glucose tolerance tests ...
C-Peptide is useful in the evaluation of pancreatic beta cell function (e.g., helping distinguish type 1 from type 2 diabetes mellitus, or monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplant) and for determining the source of insulin in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (e.g., distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors from exogenous insulin administration). It is also sometimes measured as an additional means (more resistant to hemolysis than is insulin itself) for evaluating glucose tolerance tests ...
C-Peptide is useful in the evaluation of pancreatic beta cell function (e.g., helping distinguish type 1 from type 2 diabetes mellitus, or monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplants) and for determining the source of insulin in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (e.g., distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors from exogenous insulin administration). It is also sometimes measured as an additional means (more resistant to hemolysis than is insulin itself) for evaluating glucose tolerance tests.
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome(Gastrinoma) 1. 원인 및 병인 pancreas head에 주로 발생하며 1mm-20cm이상까지 다양하다 1/2-1/3이 multiple gastrinoma이며 pancreas뿐만 이나라 duodenal wall에서도 흔히 발견되는데 duodenal gastrinoma는 반수에서 단일종괴이며 duodenum의 1st, 2nd part의 submucosa에 흔히 발생한다. 90%가 anatomic triangle(gastrinoma triangle)내에 발견되는데 그 경계는 다음과 같다. superiorly : cystic duct와 CBD junction inferiorly : duodenum 2nd, 3rd portion의 junction medially : pancrea body & neck junction 2/3 : malignant (그러나 서서히 자란다) 발현시 1/3에서 metastatic disease(주로 regional LN, liver) 20-60% : MEN 1 syndrome의 한 구성요소로서 생긴다. cf. MEN 1 syndrome : parathyroid hyperplasia, pituitary, pancreas islet) MEN 1의 90%에서 hyperparathyroidism을 보이며 반수에서 gastrinoma가 동반된다. gastrin-secreting islet cell tumor는 multiple hormone을 함유하는데 흔히 ...
The dynamics of the cationic, bioelectrical and secretory responses to formycin A were monitored in pancreatic islet cells in order to assess whether this adenosine analogue, which is known to be converted to formycin A 5-triphosphate in isolated islets, triggers the same sequence of ionic events as that otherwise involved in the process of nutrient-stimulated insulin release and currently attributed to an increase in adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) generation rate. Unexpectedly, formycin A first increased 86Rb outflow, decreased 45Ca outflow and inhibited insulin release from prelabelled islets perifused at physiological or higher concentrations of D-glucose. This early inhibitory effect of formycin A upon insulin release coincided, in perforated patch whole-cell recordings, with an initial transient increase of ATP-sensitive K+ channel activity. A positive secretory response to formycin A, still not associated with any decrease in K+ conductance, was only observed either immediately after formycin A
Learn more about Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation at Reston Hospital Center DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctorrevision ...
Definition of islet cells in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is islet cells? Meaning of islet cells as a finance term. What does islet cells mean in finance?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biological markers of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Clinical review. AU - Modlin, I. M.. AU - Stoch, S. A.. AU - Soybel, D. I.. AU - Nilsson, O.. AU - Ahlman, H.. PY - 1991/12/1. Y1 - 1991/12/1. N2 - Based upon this cursory review of peptides and other substances which may act as markers for the presence of islet cell tumors or gastrointestinal carcinoids, certain themes seem to emerge. The first is that when these tumors are associated with endocrine syndromes, it is usually possible to attribute symptoms to the circulation of one dominant hormone. What is perhaps most remarkable is that one hormone can dominate the clinical picture, even if others are synthesized and secreted in excess. These tumors have clearly provided an opportunity to study mechanisms by which prohormones are synthesized and processed within secretory granules. A second theme is that many of these neoplasms express receptors for regulation of their secretory activities. ...
EFSA concluded No evidence of carcinogenicity was confirmed by the majority of the experts (with the exception of one minority view) in either rats or mice due to a lack of statistical significance in pairwise comparison tests, lack of consistency in multiple animal studies and slightly increased incidences only at dose levels at or above the limit dose/maximum tolerated dose (MTD), lack of preneoplastic lesions and/or being within historical control range. The IARC WG review found a significant positive trend for renal tumours in male CD-1 mice,12 a rare tumour, although no comparisons of any individual exposure group to the control group were statistically significant. The WG also identified a significant positive trend for hemangiosarcoma in male CD-1 mice,13 again with no individual exposure group significantly different from controls. Finally, the WG also saw a significant increase in the incidence of pancreatic islet cell adenomas in two studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats.14-16 In one ...
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Scientists have discovered that a surprisingly high percentage of people with type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent) who have had the disease for 50 years or longer may still have residual functioning, insulin-producing islet cells and/or islet cell antibodies.
What is Insulinoma ? In general an Insulinoma is a neuroendocrine tumor which is rare. The name itself tells you a bit about where it is and what it does. This
Spleen cells may develop into insulin-producing pancreatic islet cells in adult animals, a breakthrough finding that could yield a potential cure for
Dr. Thomas Namey answered: Yes!: Particularly in individuals with Insulin deficit, ie. Type 1s, or type 2s with aging pancreatic islet cell atrophy!
Diagnosis of insulinoma (costs for program #174029) ✔ DKD HELIOS Clinic Wiesbaden ✔ Department of Pediatrics ✔ BookingHealth.com
Mutations of the MEN1 gene located on chromosome 11q13 are associated with the development of a variety of endocrine neoplasms, including parathyroid hyperplasia and adenomas, pituitary adenomas, and pancreatic islet cell tumors. Tumor development is associated with deletion or mutation of the remaining MEN1 allele (1, 2). MEN1 mutations have also been reported in a variety of sporadic endocrine tumors including those commonly seen in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1) as well as gastric and pulmonary carcinoid tumors (3). Men1 knockout mice have provided many insights into the role of menin in endocrine homeostasis and tumor suppression (4-7). Although Men1 knockout mice are embryonic lethal, heterozygous mice develop a variety of endocrine tumors similar to those in MEN1 patients. In this model, tumors arising from pancreatic islet cells have been most intensively studied. Heterozygous Men1 knockout mice develop progressive islet cell hyperplasia associated with loss of the ...
In 1955, Zollinger and Ellison reported a syndrome in two patients involving the triad of recurrent peptic ulceration, marked gastric acid hypersecretion, and non-beta pancreatic islet cell tumors [10]. For about 30 years after this report, it had been believed that gastrinomas arose mostly in the pancreas, and sometimes blind pancreatic resections were performed in vain [10-13]. However, in 1987, Imamura et al. reported that the SASI test was useful for localization of gastrinomas, and consequently, it has become a useful guide for curative resection of gastrinomas in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) [7]. Since then, curative resection of gastrinomas has been successively performed [9, 14-17], and it has been clearly shown that ZES is caused more frequently by the duodenal gastrinoma than the pancreatic gastrinoma [17-19]. In patients with MEN1 and gastrinoma, almost all gastrinomas arise in the duodenum and are sometimes accompanied by pancreatic gastrinomas [18, 19].. Primary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extracellular loop cysteine mutant of Cx37 fails To suppress proliferation of rat insulinoma cells. AU - Good, Miranda E.. AU - Ek Vitorin, Jose F. AU - Burt, Janis M. PY - 2012/7. Y1 - 2012/7. N2 - Although a functional pore domain is required for connexin 37 (Cx37)-mediated suppression of rat insulinoma (Rin) cell proliferation, it is unknown whether functional hemichannels would be sufficient or if Cx37 gap junction channels are required for growth suppression. To test this possibility, we targeted extracellular loop cysteines for mutation, expecting that the mutated protein would retain hemichannel, but not gap junction channel, functionality. Cysteines at positions 61 and 65 in the first extracellular loop of Cx37 were mutated to alanine and the mutant protein (Cx37-C61,65A) expressed in Rin cells. Although the resulting iRin37-C61,65A cells expressed the mutant protein comparably to Cx37 wild-type (Cx37-WT)-expressing Rin cells (iRin37), Cx37-C61,65A expression did not ...
If not diagnosed and treated with insulin a person with type 1 diabetes can go into a life-threatening coma also known as diabetic ketoacidosis (kee-toh-as-eh-doh-sis). How To Make Ice Cream At Home In Marathi pre-diabetes sometimes called metabolic syndrome is a cluster If you How To Make Ice Cream At Home In Marathi have diabetes you can take steps to keep your heart and blood vessels healthy and ward off your risks of stroke. Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Fact Sheet tissues of the pancreas and are also sometimes known as pancreatic islet cell tumors. Treatment - Insulin injections - Recent diabetic cheesecake recipes easy methods Islet Transplantation Separate islets from exocrine pancreas Encapsulate islets (immune protection) Printer-Friendly; Email This; Download This; processing Milk products insulin resistance syndrome and type 2 diabetes.. How to Eat After a Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis. The Health Benefits of Whisky single-malt Scotch whisky. Type 2 Diabetes Is Tougher to Treat the ...
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors form in hormone-making cells (islet cells) of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches long that is shaped like a thin pear lying on its side. The wider end of the pancreas is called the head, the middle section is called the body, and the narrow end is called the tail. The...
Background Islet 1 (ISL1), a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor is essential for promoting pancreatic islets proliferation and maintaining endocrine cells survival in embryonic and postnatal pancreatic islets. However, how ISL1 exerts the role in adult islets is, to date, not clear. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results show that ISL1 expression was up-regulated at the mRNA level both in cultured pancreatic cells undergoing glucose oxidase stimulation as well in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mouse models. The knockdown of ISL1 expression increased the apoptosis level of HIT-T15 pancreatic islet cells. Using HIT-T15 and primary adult islet cells as cell models, we show that ISL1 promoted adult pancreatic islet cell proliferation with increased c-Myc and CyclinD1 transcription, while knockdown of ISL1 increased the proportion of cells in G1 phase and decreased the proportion of cells in G2/M and S phases. Further investigation shows that ISL1 activated both c-Myc and CyclinD1 transcription through
Ekeblad S, Skogseid B. Ekeblad S, Skogseid B Ekeblad, Sara, and Britt Skogseid.Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors. In: Boyiadzis MM, Frame JN, Kohler DR, Fojo T. Boyiadzis M.M., Frame J.N., Kohler D.R., Fojo T Eds. Michael M. Boyiadzis, et al.eds. Hematology-Oncology Therapy, 2e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; . http://hemonc.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1611§ionid=126324630. Accessed December 12, 2017 ...
The report summarizes all the dormant and discontinued pipeline projects - A review of the Pancreatic Endocrine Tumor products under development by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources
Pancreatic Endocrine Tumor - Pipeline Insight, 2017 is a market research report available at US $1250 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
... diffuse hyperplasia or multiple adenomas are more common than solitary adenomas. Pancreatic islet cell tumors occur in 60 to 70 ... About 60% of islet cell tumors originate from non-β-cell elements and tend to occur in patients > 40 years of age. Non-β-cell ... of islet cell tumors originate from a β-cell, secrete insulin (insulinoma), and can cause fasting hypoglycemia. β-cell tumors ... Multiple adenomas or diffuse islet cell hyperplasia commonly occurs; such tumors may arise from the small bowel rather than the ...
... "islet cell adenoma". Beta cells secrete insulin in response to increases in blood glucose. The resulting increase in insulin ... The first report of a surgical cure of hypoglycemia by removing an islet cell tumour was in 1929. An insulinoma removed from a ... Insulinoma is one of the most common types of tumors arising from the islets of Langerhans cells (pancreatic endocrine tumors ... Streptozotocin is used in islet cell carcinomas which produce excessive insulin. Combination chemotherapy is used, either ...
"The biosynthesis of insulin and a probable precursor of insulin by a human islet cell adenoma". Proceedings of the National ... Within the pancreatic islets, beta cells constitute 65-80% of all the cells. Insulin consists of two polypeptide chains, the A ... "Metabolic fate of glucose in purified islet cells. Glucose-regulated anaplerosis in beta cells". The Journal of Biological ... Beta cells in the islets of Langerhans release insulin in two phases. The first-phase release is rapidly triggered in response ...
... and increased pancreatic islet-cell adenoma in male rats. In reproductive toxicity studies performed in rats and rabbits, no ... Workers exposed to glyphosate were about twice as likely to get B cell lymphoma. A 2015 systematic review of observational ... A 2014 review article reported a significant association between B-cell lymphoma and glyphosate occupational exposure. In March ... of the same studies found a correlation between occupational exposure to glyphosate formulations and increased risk of B cell ...
... of mammary adenocarcinomas and of pancreatic islet cell adenomas and carcinomas. An increase in the incidence of mammary ... An increase in the incidence of pancreatic islet cell tumours has been observed for some other D2 antagonists. The ...
... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C19.344.421.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.500 ... growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C19.344.609.792 --- prolactinoma MeSH C19.344.762.500 --- sertoli-leydig cell ... granulosa cell tumor MeSH C19.344.410.464 --- luteoma MeSH C19.344.410.531 --- meigs syndrome MeSH C19.344.410.648 --- sertoli- ... granulosa cell tumor MeSH C19.391.630.705.464 --- luteoma MeSH C19.391.630.705.531 --- meigs syndrome MeSH C19.391.630.705.648 ...
... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C06.301.761.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C06.301.761.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C06.301.761.500 ... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C06.689.667.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C06.689.667.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C06.689.667.500 ... adenoma, liver cell MeSH C06.301.623.160 --- carcinoma, hepatocellular MeSH C06.301.623.460 --- liver neoplasms, experimental ... adenoma, liver cell MeSH C06.552.697.160 --- carcinoma, hepatocellular MeSH C06.552.697.580 --- liver neoplasms, experimental ...
Islet cell adenoma or adenomatosis Islet cell carcinoma Adult nesidioblastosis Autoimmune insulin syndrome Noninsulinoma ... Hyperinsulinism due to diffuse overactivity of beta cells, such as in many of the forms of congenital hyperinsulinism, and more ... Streptozotocin is a specific beta cell toxin and has been used to treat insulin-producing pancreatic carcinoma. ...
... a hereditary disorder characterized by parathyroid hyperplasia and pancreatic islet-cell and pituitary adenomas, is caused by a ...
It often affects the parathyroid glands, pancreatic islet cells, and anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. MEN1 may also cause ... benign adenoma, invasive adenoma, and carcinomas. Most adenomas are benign, approximately 35% are invasive and just 0.1% to 0.2 ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. Pituitary adenomas are generally divided into three categories ... Various types of headaches are common in patients with pituitary adenomas. The adenoma may be the prime causative factor behind ...
... emphasis that was placed on the observed precise histological recapitulation of normal islet cell structure within the adenomas ... In that report, these lesions were adjudicated as histologically benign adenoma growths, that were associated with severe, long ... Neuroendocrine tumor Laidlaw GF (1938). "Nesidioblastoma, the islet tumor of the pancreas". Am J Pathol. 14 (2): 125-34. PMC ... a more diffuse hyperplasia of the pancreatic beta cells is found, often with an abnormal microscopic appearance. ...
Pancreatic tumours involve the islet cells, giving rise to gastrinomas or insulinomas. In rare cases, adrenal cortex tumours ... MEN1 pituitary tumours are adenomas of anterior cells, typically prolactinomas or growth hormone-secreting. ... cell division, cell proliferation, and genome stability. Insulinomas are neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas with an ... oftentimes a large deletion occurring in the predisposed endocrine cell and providing cells with the survival advantaged needed ...
... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells. PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ... nephrogenic adenomas, ovarian cancer cells, bladder, prostate, and endometrial carcinomas. The mechanism of switching on the ... cell polarity and transport, cell motility and adhesion. Expression of PAX8 is increased in neoplastic renal tissues, Wilms ... cell-cycle processes). PAX8 is shown to be involved in tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction, ...
... familial Pancreatic diseases Pancreatic islet cell neoplasm Pancreatic islet cell tumors Pancreatic lipomatosis duodenal ... of Mantoux Palsy cerebral Panayiotopoulos syndrome Pancreas agenesis Pancreas divisum Pancreatic adenoma Pancreatic beta cell ... Peanut hypersensitivity Pearson's marrow/pancreas syndrome Pediatric T-cell leukemia Pediculosis Peeling skin syndrome ... stenosis with Café au lait spot Punctate acrokeratoderma freckle like pigmentation Punctate inner choroidopathy Pure red cell ...
The islet cell autoantibodies are absent in MODY in at least some populations (Japanese, Britons). Persistence of a low insulin ... Liver adenoma or hepatocellular carcinoma in MODY type 3 Renal cysts, rudimentary or bicornuate uterus, vaginal aplasia, ... found that about one quarter of Central European MODY patients are positive for islet cell autoantibodies (GADA and IA2A). ... Urbanova J, Rypackova B, Prochazkova Z, Kucera P, Cerna M, Andel M, Heneberg P (2014). "Positivity for islet cell ...
... cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals. It is thus important in human development. It is a type ... Eventually, the adenoma may become large enough to cause headaches, impair vision by pressure on the optic nerves, or cause ... liver uptake of glucose Promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver Contributes to the maintenance and function of pancreatic islets ... they cannot penetrate cell membranes. Thus, GH exerts some of its effects by binding to receptors on target cells, where it ...
Islet cell transplantation *see also digestive system procedures. Pituitary. *Hypophysectomy. *Transsphenoidal surgery * ... June 2007). "Apoplexy accompanying pituitary adenoma as a complication of preoperative anterior pituitary function tests". Acta ...
M8149/0 Canalicular adenoma M8150/0 Islet cell adenoma (C25._) Islet cell tumor, benign Nesidioblastoma Islet cell adeomatosis ... M8550/0 Acinar cell adenoma Acinar adenoma Acinic cell adenoma M8550/1 Acinar cell tumor Acinic cell tumor M8550/3 Acinar cell ... M8150/3 Islet cell carcinoma (C25._) Islet cell adenocarcinoma (M8151/0) Insulinoma, NOS (C25._) Beta cell adenoma M8151/3 ... Oxyphilic adenoma Oncocytic adenoma Oncocytoma Hurthle cell adenoma(C73.9) Hurthle cell tumor Follicular adenoma, oxyphilic ...
Endocrine pancreas Islet cell tumour Islets of Langerhans (D13.9) Ill-defined sites within the digestive system Digestive ... Pituitary gland Pituitary adenoma Prolactinoma (D35.3) Craniopharyngeal duct (D35.4) Pineal gland (D35.5) Carotid body (D35.6) ... small cell (diffuse) (C83.1) Small cleaved cell (diffuse) (C83.2) Mixed small and large cell (diffuse) (C83.3) large cell ( ... Leukemia of unspecified cell type (C95.0) Acute leukemia of unspecified cell type (C95.1) Chronic leukemia of unspecified cell ...
... stem cell research and advances in islet cell transplantation as a therapy for diabetes. This is why, presently, Dresden is the ... 1998). Aberrant interleukin-1 receptors in a cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma causing Cushing's syndrome.. In: N Engl J Med. ... 2012). Isolation, characterization, and differentiation of progenitor cells from human adult adrenal medulla. In: Stem Cells ... In: Cell Metab. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2013.04.005 A. Chatzigeorgiou u. a. (2014). Blocking CD40-TRAF6 signaling is a therapeutic ...
... and increased pancreatic islet-cell adenoma in male rats.[8] In reproductive toxicity studies performed in rats and rabbits, no ... Workers exposed to glyphosate were about twice as likely to get B cell lymphoma.[7] A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis ... of the same studies found a correlation between occupational exposure to glyphosate formulations and increased risk of B cell ...
... as well as hepatocellular adenoma. HNF-1 protein is present in clear cell carcinoma of ovary In humans, mutations in HNF1A ... and GLUT2 transporter expression in pancreatic β-cells and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene expression in pancreatic islets ... It has been shown to affect intestinal epithelial cell growth and cell lineages differentiation. For instance, HNF1A is an ... "Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1A Is a Cell-Intrinsic Transcription Factor Required for B Cell Differentiation and Development in ...
2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... 1988). "Secretory protein 7B2 is associated with pancreatic hormones within normal islets and some experimentally induced ... "Analysis of chromogranin/secretogranin messenger RNAs in human pituitary adenomas". Diagn Mol Pathol. 3 (1): 38-45. doi:10.1097 ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. Dasgupta I, Sanglas L, Enghild JJ, Lindberg I (2012). "The neuroendocrine ...
... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C04.557.470.035.100.852 --- insulinoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.120 --- adenoma, liver cell MeSH C04.557. ... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C04.588.274.761.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C04.588.274.761.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C04.588 ... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C04.588.322.421.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C04.588.322.421.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C04.588 ... b-cell, acute MeSH C04.557.337.428.500.125 --- leukemia, B-Cell, chronic MeSH C04.557.337.428.500.500 --- leukemia, pre-b-cell ...
... islet cell Rectal cancer Bladder cancer Cervical cancer Endometrial cancer Extragonadal germ cell tumor Ovarian cancer Ovarian ... Bronchial adenomas/carcinoids Small cell lung cancer Mesothelioma Non-small cell lung cancer Pleuropulmonary blastoma Laryngeal ... cell lymphoma Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma Mast cell leukemia Mediastinal large B cell lymphoma Multiple myeloma/plasma cell ... leukemia Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma Follicular lymphoma Hairy cell leukemia Hepatosplenic T-cell ...
... and cell cycle in mice lacking miRNA-1-2". Cell. 129 (2): 303-17. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.03.030. PMID 17397913. Thum T, ... However, each of these HMGA-targeting miRNAs are drastically reduced in almost all human pituitary adenomas studied, when ... "A pancreatic islet-specific microRNA regulates insulin secretion". Nature. 432 (7014): 226-30. Bibcode:2004Natur.432..226P. doi ... B-cell migration/adhesion, cell-cell interactions in immune niches and the production and class-switching of immunoglobulins. ...
Hyperinsulinism Due to Islet-cell Adenoma Br Med J 1949; 1 :680 ... Hyperinsulinism Due to Islet-cell Adenoma. Br Med J 1949; 1 doi ...
THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF INSULIN AND A PROBABLE PRECURSOR OF INSULIN BY A HUMAN ISLET CELL ADENOMA. Donald F. Steiner and Philip E. ... THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF INSULIN AND A PROBABLE PRECURSOR OF INSULIN BY A HUMAN ISLET CELL ADENOMA ... THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF INSULIN AND A PROBABLE PRECURSOR OF INSULIN BY A HUMAN ISLET CELL ADENOMA ... THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF INSULIN AND A PROBABLE PRECURSOR OF INSULIN BY A HUMAN ISLET CELL ADENOMA ...
Islet Cell" by people in this website by year, and whether "Adenoma, Islet Cell" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Adenoma, Islet Cell" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Adenoma, Islet Cell*Adenoma, Islet Cell. *Adenomas, Islet Cell. *Islet Cell Adenoma ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Adenoma, Islet Cell" by people in Profiles. ...
Islet Cell; Nesidioblastoma; Islet Cell Tumor. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from ...
MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Islet Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Islet Cell / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic ... pancreatic alpha d islet cell adenoma expanded to all its synonyms; details. ... 1 pancreatic alpha d islet cell adenoma drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 18 results Searchbox Export PDF RSS Email ... MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Islet Cell. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1. *[MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy ...
Pancreatic Alpha Cell Adenoma Pancreatic Beta Cell Adenoma Pancreatic Delta Cell Adenoma Pancreatic G-Cell Adenoma Pancreatic ... or islet cell cancer. Temsirolimus may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. ... Islet cell tumor cohort: prior and/or concurrent long-acting somatostatin analogue therapy is allowed, but not required; if ... ISLET CELL CANCER AND CARCINOID TUMOR (PERMANENTLY CLOSED TO ENROLLMENT). *Patient has evidence of progressive disease as ...
... a benign tumor of the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas that may produce signs of hypoglycemia. See more. ... Also called islet cell adenoma.. Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc ... a benign tumor of the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas that may produce signs of hypoglycemia. ...
Adenoma, Islet Cell. Adenoma. Digestive System Diseases. Pancreatic Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Octreotide. ... Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue. Neoplasms, Glandular and ...
Adenoma, Islet Cell. Carcinoma. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Neuroectodermal ... Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue. Digestive System Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Endocrine Gland ... Experimental: PK Expansion Renal Cell Carcinoma - Group A *Everolimus 10 mg by mouth once daily for each cycle (MUST BE TAKEN ... Experimental: PK Expansion Renal Cell Carcinoma - Group B *Everolimus 10 mg by mouth once daily for each cycle (MUST BE TAKEN ...
... commercial-grade TDI caused pancreatic acinar cell adenomas in male rats (p,0.05); pancreatic islet cell adenomas (p,0.01 ), ... 1982]. Four TDA isomers (2,4-,2,5-,2,6-, and 3,4-TDA) enhanced the transformation of primary hamster embryo cells (HEC) by ... The commercial-grade TDI also caused hepatocellular adenomas (p,0.001) as well as hemangiomas or hemangiosarcomas (combined) (p ... Greene EJ, Friedman MA [1980]. In vitro cell transformation screening of 4 toluene diamine isomers. Mutat Res 79:363-375. ...
Insulinoma; Islet cell adenoma, Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor; Hypoglycemia - insulinoma. Images. *. Endocrine glands ... Insulins job is to reduce the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood by helping sugar move into cells. ... Octreotide scan (special test that checks for cancer cells in the body) ...
Adenoma of islet cells with hyperinsulinism: a review. Ann Surg. 1935. 101:1299. ... Although the term islet cell tumor is often used to identify neoplasms of the endocrine pancreas, this is a misnomer because ... Endocrine system: pancreatic islet cell tumors. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Lichter AS, eds. Clinical Oncology. 2nd ed. New ... Malignant islet cell tumor of the pancreas associated with high plasma calcitonin and somatostatin levels. Surgery. 1989 Feb. ...
Benign islet cell adenoma (insulinoma). 200 Most common posterior mediastinal mass in a child ... Sickle cell disease. Congenital obstructive anomalies of the biliary tract. Total parenteral nutrition. Furosemide treatment. ... Hepatic adenomas are rare in childhood but have been reported in association with ... Sickle cell disease. Glycogen storage disease. Amyloidosis. Bilateral Wilms tumor. Acute glomerulonephritis. Acquired immune ...
This study randomized patients with advanced pancreatic islet cell tumors to receive either sunitinib or placebo. Patients who ... Adenoma, Islet Cell. *Carcinoma, Islet Cell. *Neuroendocrine Tumors. .map{width:100%;height:300px;margin-bottom:15px}. Name. ... Well-differentiated advanced/metastatic pancreatic islet cell tumor. - Tumor has shown progression within the past year.. ... Versus Placebo In Patients With Progressive Advanced/Metastatic Well-Differentiated Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumors. Trial Phase: ...
Adenoma, Islet Cell. *Carcinoma, Islet Cell. .map{width:100%;height:300px;margin-bottom:15px}. Name. Location. ... Gastrinoma, Glucagonoma, Insulinoma, Islet Cell Carcinoma, Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor, Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma, ... cell carcinoma. - Patient must have measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. (RECIST) 1.1 criteria; ...
Islet cell adenomas are an important consideration in infants and children with hypoglycemia due to hyperinsulinism. Between ... Adenoma, Islet Cell / complications, pathology, surgery*. Child. Child, Preschool. Diazoxide / therapeutic use. Follow-Up ... Islet cell adenomas are an important consideration in infants and children with hypoglycemia due to hyperinsulinism. Between ... Eight patients had single pancreatic adenomas, 5 of whom were infants under 1 yr of age. In 3 infants an adenoma was recognized ...
Pancreas Islet Cell: ADENOMA 0/50 8/50 2/50 ADENOMA OR CARCINOMA 2/50 1/50 2/50 COMBINED 2/50 9/50 4/50 ... Preputial Gland: ADENOMA 0/50 5/50 0/50; ADENOMA, ADENOCARCINOMA 0/50 3/50 0/50, OR CARCINOMA 1/50 0/50 0/50 COMBINED 1/50 8/50 ...
Focal disease was formerly called nesidioblastosis, islet adenomatosis, or beta-cell adenoma. Dozens of patients with ... which most pathologists label as islet adenomatosis or beta-cell adenoma. As patients present with hyperinsulinemic ... Cure of hypoglycemic hyperinsulinism by enucleation of a focal islet cell adenomatous hyperplasia. J Pediatr Surg. 1997. 32: ... Erythroblastosis fetalis: Neonates with severe Rh isoimmunization have islet cell hyperplasia and hyperinsulinism. The cause of ...
It often affects the parathyroid glands, pancreatic islet cells, and anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. MEN1 may also cause ... benign adenoma, invasive adenoma, and carcinomas. Most adenomas are benign, approximately 35% are invasive and just 0.1% to 0.2 ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. Pituitary adenomas are generally divided into three categories ... Various types of headaches are common in patients with pituitary adenomas. The adenoma may be the prime causative factor behind ...
Insulin-secreting islet-cell adenoma. Contraindications. • Hypersensitivity to drug. • Hyperglycemia, diabetic coma ... Most of the glycogen is stored in the liver and muscle cells. When these and other body cells are saturated with glycogen, the ... The oxidation of glucose produces energy for the body cells; the rate of metabolism is controlled by a number of hormones the ... insulin is required for the use of glucose by cells; in diabetes mellitus, the level of glucose in the blood is excessive, and ...
... islet cell tumor explanation free. What is islet cell tumor? Meaning of islet cell tumor medical term. What does islet cell ... Looking for online definition of islet cell tumor in the Medical Dictionary? ... islet cell adenoma. *islet cell antibodies. *islet cell antibody. *islet cell antibody ... islet cell tumor. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to islet cell tumor: Acinar cell carcinoma ...
Adenoma, Islet Cell ... vomiting*Adenophorea Infections ... cough*Adenosine triphosphatase deficiency, anaemia due to ... ... B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia ... shortness of breath*Ba Bow Sen-induced lead poisoning ... vomiting*Babers syndrome ... Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis ... loose teeth*Lymphatic malformation (LM) ... impaired swallowing. M. *Macroglossia ... dental ... Acinic cell carcinoma ... vomiting*Ackee Fruit Food poisoning ... vomiting*Acorn poisoning ... vomiting*Acousticophobia ... ...
Adenoma, Islet Cell ... jaundice*Adhesive abuse ... liver damage*Adhesive addiction ... liver damage*Adult Cystic Fibrosis ... ... Adult T-Cell leukemia ... enlarged spleen, enlarged liver*Adult T-Cell lymphoma ... enlarged spleen, enlarged liver*Adverse ... B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia ... swollen spleen*B-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia ... enlarged spleen*Babers syndrome ... Pure red cell aplasia, congenital ... liver cirrhosis*Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency ... liver failure. Q. *Q fever ... ...
... diffuse hyperplasia or multiple adenomas are more common than solitary adenomas. Pancreatic islet cell tumors occur in 60 to 70 ... About 60% of islet cell tumors originate from non-β-cell elements and tend to occur in patients > 40 years of age. Non-β-cell ... of islet cell tumors originate from a β-cell, secrete insulin (insulinoma), and can cause fasting hypoglycemia. β-cell tumors ... Multiple adenomas or diffuse islet cell hyperplasia commonly occurs; such tumors may arise from the small bowel rather than the ...
  • Hypersecretion of glucagon, somatostatin, chromogranin, or calcitonin, ectopic secretion of ACTH resulting in Cushing's syndrome, and hypersecretion of somatotropin-releasing hormone (causing acromegaly) sometimes occur in non-β-cell tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bonfils S, Bader JP: The diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome with special reference to the multiple endocrine adenomas, in Progress in Gastroenterology , Vol. 2 ( GB Jersey Glass, editor). (springer.com)
  • The cystic lesions with the largest one being 1 cm in diameter, were reported as microcystic adenoma ( Figure 2 ) and at the immunophenotypic studies, the cells that were covering the cystic structures were determined CD 34 negative and cytokeratine 8/18, cytokeratine 19 positive. (scirp.org)
  • 2. a new growth of tissue in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled and progressive. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • After administration of 10 mL of IV gadolinium, two nonenhancing foci, separated by normally enhanced pituitary tissue, were revealed ( Fig 2B-E ). The appearance was consistent with two separate 4-mm pituitary adenomas. (ajnr.org)
  • C - E , T1-weighted (637/14/2), fat-saturated, contrast-enhanced sagittal scans from right to left reveal two adenomas ( C, E ). Interposed between the two adenomas is normal pituitary tissue and the infundibulum ( D ). (ajnr.org)
  • 8. A method for inducing cell death in a neoplastic tissue in a subject comprising administering to said subject an effective amount of a composition according to claim 1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Approximately 90-95% of acromegaly cases are caused by a pituitary adenoma and it most commonly affects middle aged adults, Acromegly can result in severe disfigurement, serious complicating conditions, and premature death if unchecked. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastrin is secreted by many non-β-cell tumors (increased gastrin secretion in MEN 1 also often originates from the duodenum). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this regard, the MEN syndromes may well provide the most intriguing models for studying the relationship of proliferation and neoplastic transformation of endocrine cells to synthesis and secretion of their hormone and monoamine products. (elsevier.com)
  • hyperglycemia, anion gap metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia (K outside of cells, and a buffer for acid). (brainscape.com)
  • There were three false positive cytological diagnoses mainly as a result of the misinterpretation of cases with relatively scant and/or degenerative atypical epithelial cells. (bmj.com)
  • Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream and regulate the function of cells and tissues throughout the body. (thefullwiki.org)
  • RNA isolated from fresh-frozen primary tumors, fresh-frozen nondiseased head and neck epithelial tissues, and HNSCC cell lines was profiled for the expression of 662 microRNAs by microarray. (aacrjournals.org)