Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
An in vitro test used in the diagnosis of allergies including drug hypersensitivity. The allergen is added to the patient's white blood cells and the subsequent histamine release is measured.
A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.
An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.
A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).
A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.
A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A genus of intestinal nematode parasites belonging to the superfamily HELIGMOSOMATOIDEA, which commonly occurs in rats but has been experimentally transmitted to other rodents and rabbits. Infection is usually through the skin.
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.
Allergic reaction to peanuts that is triggered by the immune system.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)
The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.

An R201H activating mutation of the GNAS1 (Gsalpha) gene in a corticotroph pituitary adenoma. (1/9)

In the pituitary gland, activating mutations of the GNAS1 (Gsalpha) gene at Gln227 have been identified in adrenocorticotrophin secreting, growth hormone secreting, and prolactin secreting adenomas. To date, mutations at the codon encoding R201, typically underlying the McCune-Albright syndrome and isolated fibrous dysplasia of bone, have been demonstrated only in growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction amplified target sequence in exon 8 of the GNAS1 gene was sequenced, identifying the first R201 mutation seen in an isolated basophilic adenoma which generated Cushing's disease in a child. This case adds Cushing's disease to the range of human diseases caused by R201 mutations of the GNAS1 gene.  (+info)

A 2-year dose-response study of lesion sequences during hepatocellular carcinogenesis in the male B6C3F(1) mouse given the drinking water chemical dichloroacetic acid. (2/9)

Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is carcinogenic to the B6C3F(1) mouse and the F344 rat. Given the carcinogenic potential of DCA in rodent liver and the known concentrations of this compound in drinking water, reliable biologically based models to reduce the uncertainty of risk assessment for human exposure to DCA are needed. Development of such models requires identification and quantification of premalignant hepatic lesions, identification of the doses at which these lesions occur, and determination of the likelihood that these lesions will progress to cancer. In this study we determined the dose response of histopathologic changes occurring in the livers of mice exposed to DCA (0.05-3.5 g/L) for 26-100 weeks. Lesions were classified as foci of cellular alteration smaller than one liver lobule (altered hepatic foci; AHF), foci of cellular alteration larger than one liver lobule (large foci of cellular alteration; LFCA), adenomas (ADs), or carcinomas (CAs). Histopathologic analysis of 598 premalignant lesions revealed that (a)) each lesion class had a predominant phenotype; (b)) AHF, LFCA, and AD demonstrated neoplastic progression with time; and (c)) independent of DCA dose and length of exposure effects, some toxic/adaptive changes in non-involved liver were related to this neoplastic progression. A lesion sequence for carcinogenesis in male B6C3F(1) mouse liver has been proposed that will enable development of a biologically based mathematical model for DCA. Because all classes of premalignant lesions and CAs were found at both lower and higher doses, these data are consistent with the conclusion that nongenotoxic mechanisms, such as negative selection, are relevant to DCA carcinogenesis at lower doses where DCA genotoxicity has not been observed.  (+info)

Analysis of pituitary hormones and chromogranin A mRNAs in null cell adenomas, oncocytomas, and gonadotroph adenomas by in situ hybridization. (3/9)

To study the relationship between null cell adenomas, oncocytomas and gonadotroph adenomas, we analyzed 32 surgically removed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pituitary tumors for the expression of pituitary hormone messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by in situ hybridization (ISH). Most tumors were also analyzed for chromogranin A mRNA. To identify the cell type constituting the tumors and to assess hormone content, all tumors were investigated by histology, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Most null cell adenomas (6/11) and gonadotroph adenomas (9/10) expressed the mRNAs for alpha-subunit of glycoprotein hormones whereas only 2/11 oncocytomas expressed alpha-subunit mRNA. FSH beta and/or LH beta mRNA were present in most null cell and gonadotroph adenomas but only in a few oncocytomas. Prolactin (PRL) mRNA was detected in two null cell tumors and in one gonadotroph adenoma, whereas GH and POMC mRNA were present in one null cell adenoma. Chromogranin A mRNA, which codes for the major secretory granule protein, was present in 25/26 tumors including all tumors that were negative for pituitary hormone mRNAs, indicating adequate preservation of specific mRNA transcripts in the paraffin-embedded sections of tumor cells. These results indicate that null cell adenomas and gonadotroph adenomas are closely related neoplasms and that oncocytomas may represent a functionally defective form of null cell adenoma characterized by mitochondrial abundance, which has retained the capacity to synthesize the major secretory granule protein chromogranin A. Although the cytogenesis of null cell adenomas and oncocytomas is not clear, it can be suggested that these two tumor types are derived from a pluripotential precursor cell that is capable of undergoing multidirectional differentiation and synthesizing various hormones, mainly glycoproteins.  (+info)

Transcranial management of pituitary tumours with suprasellar extension. (4/9)

A consecutive series of 101 pituitary tumours treated in the 10 year period 1968-78 has been examined, giant lesions being excluded. There were 48 female cases and 53 male, women predominating in the ratio of three to two in the age group 40-50 years and men showing a slight predominance in the age group 50-60 years. Most cases presented with visual deterioration which in 22 cases had been present for between one and two years, and in a further 22 for an even longer period, between two and 10 years. All patients underwent subfrontal craniotomy with mainly radical excision of the tumour followed by radiotherapy. The operative mortality was 0.99%. A system of grading of visual field defect has been described and used to compare preoperatively visual loss with postoperative visual recovery. Fifty-six per cent of cases returned to normal vision over the first two years, and a further 37% showed appreciable improvement in visual fields or acuity or both. Six per cent of cases showed no improvement in visual fields, and one patient died of postoperative deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The degree of visual improvement has been correlated with the extent of visual defect, length of visual complaint, and size of the tumour. The importance of central and peripheral visual field analysis is emphasised yet again.  (+info)

Gonadotroph adenomas of the human pituitary: sex-related fine-structural dichotomy. A histologic, immunocytochemical, and electron-microscopic study of 30 tumors. (5/9)

Thirty pituitary tumors, removed from 14 men and 15 women, were diagnosed as gonadotroph adenomas on the basis of their immunocytochemical and/or ultrastructural features. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), but not luteinizing hormone (LH), was elevated in 8 men, whereas none of the women had gonadotropin levels, as measured by radioimmunoassay, inappropriately high for their age. Immunoreactive FSH (sometimes also LH) was present in 13 of 15 tumors in men but only 6 of 13 adenomas in women. By electron microscopy, gonadotroph adenomas in men had uncharacteristic features often similar to those of null-cell adenomas with poorly or moderately developed cytoplasmic organelles. In women, all tumors were well differentiated, with a highly distinctive vesicular dilatation of the Golgi complex ("honeycomb Golgi") as a diagnostic marker present in 14 of 15 adenomas. To the author's knowledge, this is the first example of sex-linked dichotomy within a tumor type expressed as the markedly different ultrastructural appearance of cytoplasmic organelles, especially the Golgi apparatus.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic filaments of Crooke's hyaline change belong to the cytokeratin class. An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study. (6/9)

Crooke's hyaline change was studied by immunocytochemistry using an anti-adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) antiserum and five different antisera against cytokeratins. Crooke's hyaline appears in basophil cells of the adenohypophysis in patients with hypercortisolism, presumably as a part of the negative feedback on corticotropin secretion. Previous studies have identified the hyaline material as a simple protein, apparently unrelated to ACTH, and electron microscopy has revealed a loss of secretory granules and an accumulation of 6-9-nm filaments in the cytoplasm of affected cells. In this study, the secretory granules in adenohypophysial cells exhibiting Crooke's hyaline change were labeled by anti-ACTH antibodies, while the hyaline material was positive for cytokeratin with each of the five antisera used. The results suggest that high levels of glucocorticoids may stimulate elaboration of cytokeratins in basophils while they suppress the production and release of ACTH.  (+info)

Silent corticotropic adenomas of the human pituitary gland: a histologic, immunocytologic, and ultrastructural study. (7/9)

Among 300 surgically removed pituitary adenomas, 17 tumors containing immunoreactive 1-39 adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and/or 19-39 ACTH, beta-lipotropin, and alpha-endorphin but unassociated with clinical signs of Cushing's disease have been detected. These neoplasms were divided into basophilic adenomas with strong periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and lead-hematoxylin positivity and chromophobic tumors with moderate or no PAS and lead-hematoxylin positivity. The former were densely granulated tumors with a fine structure strikingly similar to that of functioning corticotropic cell adenomas. The latter were sparsely granulated with varying ultrastructural patterns. The marked morphologic diversity suggests that these adenomas, despite their similar immunocytologic characteristics, represent more than one entity. Clinically, the most common finding was a rapidly progressing visual defect. An unusually high incidence of infarction (5 cases) and recurrence (5 cases) was noted, underlining the importance of correct morphologic diagnosis and careful follow-up.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron-microscopic study of pituitary adenomas associated with Cushing's disease. A report of 13 cases. (8/9)

Thirteen pituitary adenomas were removed from patients with Cushing's disease by the transphenoidal route. All cases demonstrated a typical histochemical and ultrastructural pattern. Immunocytochemical study by means of the immunoperoxidase technique and light or electron microscopy demonstrated 1-24/1-39 adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in all cases, lipotropin/melanotropin (beta-LPH/beta-MSH) in 10 cases, beta-endorphin in 8 cases, and an absence of calcitonin in all cases. In addition, in 2 cases tumor tissue contained a few antiprolactin immunoreactive cells. These ACTH, beta-LPH, and beta-endorphin immunoreactivities may reflect either the peptides themselves or their precursors or intermediate products. The authors also suggest a possible intermediate-lobe-like processing of beta-LPH leading to beta-endorphin production, which may act on PRL cells. In addition, no positive arguments for the existence of a common precursor for calcitonin and ACTH could be provided from this study.  (+info)

Basophils are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system. They are granulocytes, which means they contain granules filled with chemicals that can be released in response to an infection or inflammation. Basophils are relatively rare, making up less than 1% of all white blood cells.

When basophils become activated, they release histamine and other chemical mediators that can contribute to allergic reactions, such as itching, swelling, and redness. They also play a role in inflammation, helping to recruit other immune cells to the site of an infection or injury.

Basophils can be identified under a microscope based on their characteristic staining properties. They are typically smaller than other granulocytes, such as neutrophils and eosinophils, and have a multi-lobed nucleus with dark purple-staining granules in the cytoplasm.

While basophils play an important role in the immune response, abnormal levels of basophils can be associated with various medical conditions, such as allergies, infections, and certain types of leukemia.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

The Basophil Degranulation Test is a medical test that measures the degree of degranulation (the release of granules and their contents) in basophils, a type of white blood cell, in response to a stimulus. This test is often used to diagnose allergies or hypersensitivity reactions, as basophils are known to degranulate when exposed to allergens or certain medications.

In this test, basophils are isolated from a patient's blood sample and then exposed to a suspected allergen or other stimuli. After incubation, the cells are stained with a dye that detects the presence of histamine or other mediators released during degranulation. The degree of staining is then measured and used as an indicator of basophil activation and degranulation.

It's important to note that this test is not commonly used in clinical practice due to its complexity, variability, and limited availability. Other tests, such as skin prick tests or blood tests for specific IgE antibodies, are more commonly used to diagnose allergies.

A pleomorphic adenoma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that typically develops in the salivary glands, although they can also occur in other areas such as the nasopharynx and skin. "Pleomorphic" refers to the diverse appearance of the cells within the tumor, which can vary in size, shape, and arrangement.

Pleomorphic adenomas are composed of a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal cells, which can form glandular structures, squamous (scale-like) cells, and areas that resemble cartilage or bone. These tumors tend to grow slowly and usually do not spread to other parts of the body.

While pleomorphic adenomas are generally not dangerous, they can cause problems if they become large enough to press on surrounding tissues or structures. In some cases, these tumors may also undergo malignant transformation, leading to a cancerous growth known as carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Surgical removal is the standard treatment for pleomorphic adenomas, and the prognosis is generally good with proper management.

Histamine release is the process by which mast cells and basophils (types of white blood cells) release histamine, a type of chemical messenger or mediator, into the surrounding tissue fluid in response to an antigen-antibody reaction. This process is a key part of the body's immune response to foreign substances, such as allergens, and helps to initiate local inflammation, increase blood flow, and recruit other immune cells to the site of the reaction.

Histamine release can also occur in response to certain medications, physical trauma, or other stimuli. When histamine is released in large amounts, it can cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, watery eyes, and hives. In severe cases, it can lead to anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction that requires immediate medical attention.

A villous adenoma is a type of polyp (a growth that protrudes from the lining of an organ) found in the colon or rectum. It is named for its appearance under a microscope, which reveals finger-like projections called "villi" on the surface of the polyp.

Villous adenomas are typically larger than other types of polyps and can be several centimeters in size. They are also more likely to be cancerous or precancerous, meaning that they have the potential to develop into colon or rectal cancer over time.

Because of this increased risk, it is important for villous adenomas to be removed surgically if they are found during a colonoscopy or other diagnostic procedure. Regular follow-up colonoscopies may also be recommended to monitor for the development of new polyps or recurrence of previous ones.

Pituitary neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), with most being benign. They can vary in size and may cause various symptoms depending on their location, size, and hormonal activity.

Pituitary neoplasms can produce and secrete excess hormones, leading to a variety of endocrine disorders such as Cushing's disease (caused by excessive ACTH production), acromegaly (caused by excessive GH production), or prolactinoma (caused by excessive PRL production). They can also cause local compression symptoms due to their size, leading to headaches, vision problems, and cranial nerve palsies.

The exact causes of pituitary neoplasms are not fully understood, but genetic factors, radiation exposure, and certain inherited conditions may increase the risk of developing these tumors. Treatment options for pituitary neoplasms include surgical removal, radiation therapy, and medical management with drugs that can help control hormonal imbalances.

An adrenocortical adenoma is a benign tumor that arises from the cells of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal gland. These tumors can produce and release various hormones, such as cortisol, aldosterone, or androgens, depending on the type of cells they originate from.

Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning that they do not secrete excess hormones and may not cause any symptoms. However, some functioning adenomas can produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to a variety of clinical manifestations. For example:

* Cortisol-secreting adenomas can result in Cushing's syndrome, characterized by weight gain, muscle wasting, thin skin, easy bruising, and mood changes.
* Aldosterone-producing adenomas can cause Conn's syndrome, marked by hypertension (high blood pressure), hypokalemia (low potassium levels), and metabolic alkalosis.
* Androgen-secreting adenomas may lead to hirsutism (excessive hair growth) or virilization (development of male secondary sexual characteristics) in women.

The diagnosis of an adrenocortical adenoma typically involves imaging tests, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal evaluations to determine if the tumor is functioning or not. Treatment usually consists of surgical removal of the tumor, especially if it is causing hormonal imbalances or growing in size.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. It is produced by B cells in response to stimulation by antigens, such as pollen, pet dander, or certain foods. Once produced, IgE binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells found in tissues and blood respectively. When an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, the cross-linking of IgE molecules bound to the FcεRI receptor triggers the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and various cytokines from these cells. These mediators cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and redness. IgE also plays a role in protecting against certain parasitic infections by activating eosinophils, which can kill the parasites.

In summary, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune response to allergens and parasitic infections, it binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, when an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, it triggers the release of mediators from these cells causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

A liver cell adenoma is a benign tumor that develops in the liver and is composed of cells similar to those normally found in the liver (hepatocytes). These tumors are usually solitary, but multiple adenomas can occur, especially in women who have taken oral contraceptives for many years. Liver cell adenomas are typically asymptomatic and are often discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other reasons. In rare cases, they may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain or discomfort, or complications such as bleeding or rupture. Treatment options include monitoring with periodic imaging studies or surgical removal of the tumor.

A chromophobe adenoma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that typically arises in the pituitary gland, which is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The term "chromophobe" refers to the appearance of the cells under a microscope - they lack pigment and have a characteristic appearance with abundant clear or lightly stained cytoplasm.

Chromophobe adenomas are slow-growing tumors that can vary in size, and they may cause symptoms due to pressure on surrounding structures or by producing excess hormones. The most common hormone produced by chromophobe adenomas is prolactin, leading to symptoms such as menstrual irregularities, milk production (galactorrhea), and decreased sexual function in women, and decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility in men.

Treatment for chromophobe adenomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, often through a transsphenoidal approach (through the nose and sphenoid sinus). In some cases, radiation therapy or medical management with hormone-blocking drugs may also be necessary. Regular follow-up with an endocrinologist is important to monitor for any recurrence or hormonal imbalances.

IgE receptors, also known as Fc epsilon RI receptors, are membrane-bound proteins found on the surface of mast cells and basophils. They play a crucial role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. IgE receptors bind to the Fc region of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies, which are produced by B cells in response to certain antigens. When an allergen cross-links two adjacent IgE molecules bound to the same IgE receptor, it triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins. These mediators cause the symptoms associated with allergic reactions, including inflammation, itching, and vasodilation. IgE receptors are also involved in the activation of the adaptive immune response by promoting the presentation of antigens to T cells.

A Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma (GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, or GHoma) is a type of benign tumor that develops in the pituitary gland and results in excessive production of growth hormone (GH). This leads to a condition known as acromegaly if it occurs in adults, or gigantism if it occurs in children before the closure of the growth plates.

Symptoms of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma may include:

1. Coarsening of facial features
2. Enlargement of hands and feet
3. Deepened voice due to thickening of vocal cords
4. Increased sweating and body odor
5. Joint pain and stiffness
6. Sleep apnea
7. Fatigue, weakness, or muscle wasting
8. Headaches
9. Vision problems
10. Irregular menstrual periods in women
11. Erectile dysfunction in men

Diagnosis typically involves measuring the levels of GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the blood, along with imaging tests like MRI or CT scans to locate and characterize the tumor. Treatment options include surgical removal of the tumor, radiation therapy, and medication to control GH production. Regular follow-ups are necessary to monitor for potential recurrence.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

CD63 is a type of protein found on the surface of certain cells, including platelets and some immune cells. It is also known as granulophysin and is a member of the tetraspanin family of proteins. CD63 is often used as a marker for activated immune cells, particularly those involved in the immune response to viruses and other pathogens.

In the context of antigens, CD63 may be referred to as a target antigen, which is a molecule on the surface of a cell that can be recognized by the immune system. In this case, CD63 may be targeted by antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection or other stimulus.

It's important to note that while CD63 is often used as a marker for activated immune cells, it is not itself an antigen in the sense of being a foreign molecule that can elicit an immune response. Rather, it is a protein that can be targeted by the immune system in certain contexts.

Colonic polyps are abnormal growths that protrude from the inner wall of the colon (large intestine). They can vary in size, shape, and number. Most colonic polyps are benign, meaning they are not cancerous. However, some types of polyps, such as adenomas, have a higher risk of becoming cancerous over time if left untreated.

Colonic polyps often do not cause any symptoms, especially if they are small. Larger polyps may lead to symptoms like rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits, abdominal pain, or iron deficiency anemia. The exact cause of colonic polyps is not known, but factors such as age, family history, and certain medical conditions (like inflammatory bowel disease) can increase the risk of developing them.

Regular screening exams, such as colonoscopies, are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 to detect and remove polyps before they become cancerous. If you have a family history of colonic polyps or colorectal cancer, your doctor may recommend earlier or more frequent screenings.

An ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma is a type of tumor that develops in the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. This type of tumor is also known as Cushing's disease.

ACTH stands for adrenocorticotropic hormone, which is a hormone produced and released by the pituitary gland. ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands (small glands located on top of the kidneys) to produce cortisol, a steroid hormone that helps regulate metabolism, helps the body respond to stress, and suppresses inflammation.

In an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, the tumor cells produce and release excessive amounts of ACTH, leading to overproduction of cortisol by the adrenal glands. This can result in a constellation of symptoms known as Cushing's syndrome, which may include weight gain (especially around the trunk), fatigue, muscle weakness, mood changes, thinning of the skin, easy bruising, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Treatment for an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by medications to manage cortisol levels if necessary. Radiation therapy may also be used in some cases.

A basophilic adenoma is a rare type of benign tumor that arises from the glandular cells of an endocrine gland, specifically the cells that produce and store hormones. The term "basophilic" refers to the appearance of the tumor cells under a microscope, which have a high affinity for basic dyes due to their rich content of ribonucleic acid (RNA).

Basophilic adenomas are most commonly found in the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These tumors can produce and secrete excessive amounts of hormones, leading to various clinical symptoms depending on the type of hormone involved. The most common types of basophilic adenomas are prolactinomas, which secrete high levels of the hormone prolactin, and growth hormone-secreting adenomas, which produce excessive amounts of growth hormone.

Treatment for basophilic adenomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy or medical management with drugs that suppress hormone production. The prognosis for patients with basophilic adenomas is generally good, with most individuals experiencing a significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life following treatment. However, regular follow-up care is necessary to monitor for recurrence and manage any residual hormonal imbalances.

An adenoma is a benign tumor that forms in glandular tissue. When referring to "acidophil," it describes the appearance of the cells under a microscope. Acidophils are cells that take up acidic dyes, giving them a distinct appearance. In the context of an adenoma, an acidophil adenoma would be a benign tumor composed of acidophil cells.

Acidophil adenomas are most commonly found in the pituitary gland and are also known as lactotroph or mammosomatotroph adenomas. These tumors can produce and release prolactin, growth hormone, or both, leading to various endocrine disorders such as hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly, or gigantism. Treatment options typically include surgical removal of the tumor or medical management with dopamine agonists or somatostatin analogs.

A colonoscopy is a medical procedure used to examine the large intestine, also known as the colon and rectum. It is performed using a flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end, called a colonoscope, which is inserted into the rectum and gently guided through the entire length of the colon.

The procedure allows doctors to visually inspect the lining of the colon for any abnormalities such as polyps, ulcers, inflammation, or cancer. If any polyps are found during the procedure, they can be removed immediately using special tools passed through the colonoscope. Colonoscopy is an important tool in the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide.

Patients are usually given a sedative to help them relax during the procedure, which is typically performed on an outpatient basis in a hospital or clinic setting. The entire procedure usually takes about 30-60 minutes to complete, although patients should plan to spend several hours at the medical facility for preparation and recovery.

Adenomatous polyps, also known as adenomas, are benign (noncancerous) growths that develop in the lining of the glandular tissue of certain organs, most commonly occurring in the colon and rectum. These polyps are composed of abnormal glandular cells that can grow excessively and form a mass.

Adenomatous polyps can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. They may be flat or have a stalk (pedunculated). While adenomas are generally benign, they can potentially undergo malignant transformation and develop into colorectal cancer over time if left untreated. The risk of malignancy increases with the size of the polyp and the presence of certain histological features, such as dysplasia (abnormal cell growth).

Regular screening for adenomatous polyps is essential to detect and remove them early, reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Screening methods include colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and stool-based tests.

Hypersensitivity is an exaggerated or inappropriate immune response to a substance that is generally harmless to most people. It's also known as an allergic reaction. This abnormal response can be caused by various types of immunological mechanisms, including antibody-mediated reactions (types I, II, and III) and cell-mediated reactions (type IV). The severity of the hypersensitivity reaction can range from mild discomfort to life-threatening conditions. Common examples of hypersensitivity reactions include allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylaxis.

A prolactinoma is a type of pituitary tumor that produces an excess amount of the hormone prolactin, leading to various symptoms. The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, is responsible for producing and releasing several hormones that regulate different bodily functions. Prolactin is one such hormone, primarily known for its role in stimulating milk production in women during lactation (breastfeeding).

Prolactinoma tumors can be classified into two types: microprolactinomas and macroprolactinomas. Microprolactinomas are smaller tumors, typically less than 10 millimeters in size, while macroprolactinomas are larger tumors, generally greater than 10 millimeters in size.

The overproduction of prolactin caused by these tumors can lead to several clinical manifestations, including:

1. Galactorrhea: Unusual and often spontaneous milk production or leakage from the nipples, which can occur in both men and women who do not have a recent history of pregnancy or breastfeeding.
2. Menstrual irregularities: In women, high prolactin levels can interfere with the normal functioning of other hormones, leading to menstrual irregularities such as infrequent periods (oligomenorrhea) or absent periods (amenorrhea), and sometimes infertility.
3. Sexual dysfunction: In both men and women, high prolactin levels can cause decreased libido and sexual desire. Men may also experience erectile dysfunction and reduced sperm production.
4. Bone loss: Over time, high prolactin levels can lead to decreased bone density and an increased risk of osteoporosis due to the disruption of other hormones that regulate bone health.
5. Headaches and visual disturbances: As the tumor grows, it may put pressure on surrounding structures in the brain, leading to headaches and potential vision problems such as blurred vision or decreased peripheral vision.

Diagnosis typically involves measuring prolactin levels in the blood and performing imaging tests like an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan to assess the size of the tumor. Treatment usually consists of medication to lower prolactin levels, such as dopamine agonists (e.g., bromocriptine or cabergoline), which can also help shrink the tumor. In some cases, surgery may be necessary if medication is ineffective or if the tumor is large and causing severe symptoms.

Mast cells are a type of white blood cell that are found in connective tissues throughout the body, including the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. They play an important role in the immune system and help to defend the body against pathogens by releasing chemicals such as histamine, heparin, and leukotrienes, which help to attract other immune cells to the site of infection or injury. Mast cells also play a role in allergic reactions, as they release histamine and other chemicals in response to exposure to an allergen, leading to symptoms such as itching, swelling, and redness. They are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and mature in the tissues where they reside.

Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is a type of cytokine, which is a small signaling protein that modulates the immune response, cell growth, and differentiation. IL-3 is primarily produced by activated T cells and mast cells. It plays an essential role in the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells, which give rise to all blood cell types. Specifically, IL-3 supports the development of myeloid lineage cells, including basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, megakaryocytes, and erythroid progenitors.

IL-3 binds to its receptor, the interleukin-3 receptor (IL-3R), which consists of two subunits: CD123 (the alpha chain) and CD131 (the beta chain). The binding of IL-3 to its receptor triggers a signaling cascade within the cell that ultimately leads to changes in gene expression, promoting cell growth and differentiation. Dysregulation of IL-3 production or signaling has been implicated in several hematological disorders, such as leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) in the adrenal gland's outer layer, known as the adrenal cortex. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors are called adrenal adenomas, while cancerous tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms can produce various hormones, leading to different clinical presentations. For instance, they may cause Cushing's syndrome (characterized by excessive cortisol production), Conn's syndrome (caused by aldosterone excess), or virilization (due to androgen excess). Some tumors may not produce any hormones and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies for unrelated conditions.

The diagnosis of adrenal cortex neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal assessments to determine if the tumor is functional or non-functional. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and hormonal activity of the neoplasm and may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Anti-idiotypic antibodies are a type of immune protein that recognizes and binds to the unique identifying region (idiotype) of another antibody. These antibodies are produced by the immune system as part of a regulatory feedback mechanism, where they can modulate or inhibit the activity of the original antibody. They have been studied for their potential use in immunotherapy and vaccine development.

Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening systemic allergic reaction that occurs suddenly after exposure to an allergen (a substance that triggers an allergic reaction) to which the person has previously been sensitized. The symptoms of anaphylaxis include rapid onset of symptoms such as itching, hives, swelling of the throat and tongue, difficulty breathing, wheezing, cough, chest tightness, rapid heartbeat, hypotension (low blood pressure), shock, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness and death. Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment with epinephrine (adrenaline) and other supportive measures to stabilize the patient's condition.

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the body's immune response. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they can travel to different tissues and organs throughout the body. Eosinophils are characterized by their granules, which contain various proteins and enzymes that are toxic to parasites and can contribute to inflammation.

Eosinophils are typically associated with allergic reactions, asthma, and other inflammatory conditions. They can also be involved in the body's response to certain infections, particularly those caused by parasites such as worms. In some cases, elevated levels of eosinophils in the blood or tissues (a condition called eosinophilia) can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as a parasitic infection, autoimmune disorder, or cancer.

Eosinophils are named for their staining properties - they readily take up eosin dye, which is why they appear pink or red under the microscope. They make up only about 1-6% of circulating white blood cells in healthy individuals, but their numbers can increase significantly in response to certain triggers.

Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of numerous adenomatous polyps in the colon and rectum. APC is caused by mutations in the APC gene, which is a tumor suppressor gene that helps regulate cell growth and division. When the APC gene is mutated, it can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of polyps, which can eventually become cancerous.

Individuals with APC typically develop hundreds to thousands of polyps in their colon and rectum, usually beginning in adolescence or early adulthood. If left untreated, APC can lead to colorectal cancer in nearly all affected individuals by the age of 40.

APC is an autosomal dominant disorder, which means that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent. However, some cases of APC may also occur spontaneously due to new mutations in the APC gene. Treatment for APC typically involves surgical removal of the colon and rectum (colectomy) to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Regular surveillance with colonoscopy is also recommended to monitor for the development of new polyps.

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) is a type of lipid mediator called a cysteinyl leukotriene, which is derived from arachidonic acid through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. It is primarily produced by activated mast cells and basophils, and to a lesser extent by eosinophils, during an allergic response or inflammation.

LTC4 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases by causing bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, mucus secretion, and recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of inflammation. It exerts its effects by binding to cysteinyl leukotriene receptors (CysLT1 and CysLT2) found on various cell types, including airway smooth muscle cells, bronchial epithelial cells, and immune cells.

LTC4 is rapidly metabolized to Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and then to Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) by enzymes such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and dipeptidases, which are present in the extracellular space. These metabolites also have biological activity and contribute to the inflammatory response.

Inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase or leukotriene receptor antagonists are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of asthma, allergies, and other inflammatory conditions.

Histamine is defined as a biogenic amine that is widely distributed throughout the body and is involved in various physiological functions. It is derived primarily from the amino acid histidine by the action of histidine decarboxylase. Histamine is stored in granules (along with heparin and proteases) within mast cells and basophils, and is released upon stimulation or degranulation of these cells.

Once released into the tissues and circulation, histamine exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions through its interaction with four types of G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors). Histamine's effects are diverse and include modulation of immune responses, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, stimulation of gastric acid secretion, and regulation of neurotransmission.

Histamine is also a potent mediator of allergic reactions and inflammation, causing symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing. Antihistamines are commonly used to block the actions of histamine at H1 receptors, providing relief from these symptoms.

Strongylida infections are a group of parasitic diseases caused by roundworms that belong to the order Strongylida. These nematodes infect various hosts, including humans, causing different clinical manifestations depending on the specific species involved. Here are some examples:

1. Strongyloidiasis: This is an infection caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. The parasite can penetrate the skin and migrate to the lungs and small intestine, causing respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms such as cough, wheezing, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. In immunocompromised individuals, the infection can become severe and disseminated, leading to systemic illness and even death.
2. Hookworm infections: The hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus infect humans through skin contact with contaminated soil. The larvae migrate to the lungs and then to the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on blood. Heavy infections can cause anemia, protein loss, and developmental delays in children.
3. Trichostrongyliasis: This is a group of infections caused by various species of nematodes that infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. The parasites can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and anemia.
4. Toxocariasis: This is an infection caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, which infect dogs and cats, respectively. Humans can become infected through accidental ingestion of contaminated soil or food. The larvae migrate to various organs such as the liver, lungs, and eyes, causing symptoms such as fever, cough, abdominal pain, and vision loss.

Preventive measures for Strongylida infections include personal hygiene, proper sanitation, and avoidance of contact with contaminated soil or water. Treatment usually involves antiparasitic drugs such as albendazole or ivermectin, depending on the specific infection and severity of symptoms.

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a type of cytokine, which is a cell signaling molecule that mediates communication between cells in the immune system. Specifically, IL-4 is produced by activated T cells and mast cells, among other cells, and plays an important role in the differentiation and activation of immune cells called Th2 cells.

Th2 cells are involved in the immune response to parasites, as well as in allergic reactions. IL-4 also promotes the growth and survival of B cells, which produce antibodies, and helps to regulate the production of certain types of antibodies. In addition, IL-4 has anti-inflammatory effects and can help to downregulate the immune response in some contexts.

Defects in IL-4 signaling have been implicated in a number of diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain types of cancer.

Nippostrongylus is a genus of parasitic nematode (roundworm) that primarily infects the gastrointestinal tract of various mammalian hosts, including rodents and primates. The most common species that infects humans is Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, although it's not a common human parasite in normal circumstances. It is more frequently used in laboratory settings as a model organism to study immunology and host-parasite interactions.

The adult worms live in the alveoli of the lungs, where they mature and reproduce, releasing eggs that are coughed up, swallowed, and then hatch in the small intestine. The larvae then mature into adults and complete the life cycle. Infections can cause symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, but these are typically mild in immunocompetent individuals.

It's worth noting that human infections with Nippostrongylus are rare and usually occur in people who have close contact with infected animals or who consume contaminated food or water. Proper sanitation and hygiene practices can help prevent infection.

Desensitization, Immunologic is a medical procedure that aims to decrease the immune system's response to an allergen. This is achieved through the controlled exposure of the patient to gradually increasing amounts of the allergen, ultimately leading to a reduction in the severity of allergic reactions upon subsequent exposures. The process typically involves administering carefully measured and incrementally larger doses of the allergen, either orally, sublingually (under the tongue), or by injection, under medical supervision. Over time, this repeated exposure can help the immune system become less sensitive to the allergen, thereby alleviating allergic symptoms.

The specific desensitization protocol and administration method may vary depending on the type of allergen and individual patient factors. Immunologic desensitization is most commonly used for environmental allergens like pollen, dust mites, or pet dander, as well as insect venoms such as bee or wasp stings. It is important to note that this procedure should only be performed under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as there are potential risks involved, including anaphylaxis (a severe and life-threatening allergic reaction).

Peanut hypersensitivity, also known as peanut allergy, is an abnormal immune response to proteins found in peanuts. It is a type of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorder. The body's immune system recognizes the peanut proteins as harmful and produces antibodies (IgE) against them. When the person comes into contact with peanuts again, these antibodies trigger the release of histamine and other chemicals, leading to a range of symptoms that can be mild or severe, including skin reactions, digestive problems, respiratory difficulties, and in some cases, anaphylaxis, which is a life-threatening emergency. It's important to note that peanut hypersensitivity should be diagnosed and managed by a medical professional.

Acromegaly is a rare hormonal disorder that typically occurs in middle-aged adults. It results from the pituitary gland producing too much growth hormone (GH) during adulthood. The excessive production of GH leads to abnormal growth of body tissues, particularly in the hands, feet, and face.

The term "acromegaly" is derived from two Greek words: "akros," meaning extremities, and "megaly," meaning enlargement. In most cases, acromegaly is caused by a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland, which results in overproduction of GH.

Common symptoms include enlarged hands and feet, coarse facial features, deepened voice, joint pain, and sweating. If left untreated, acromegaly can lead to serious complications such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and arthritis. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, radiation therapy, or medication to control GH production.

Cell degranulation is the process by which cells, particularly immune cells like mast cells and basophils, release granules containing inflammatory mediators in response to various stimuli. These mediators include histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and other chemicals that play a role in allergic reactions, inflammation, and immune responses. The activation of cell surface receptors triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the exocytosis of these granules, resulting in degranulation. This process is important for the immune system's response to foreign invaders and for the development of allergic reactions.

Cushing syndrome is a hormonal disorder that occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol for a long time. This can happen due to various reasons such as taking high doses of corticosteroid medications or tumors that produce cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

The symptoms of Cushing syndrome may include:

* Obesity, particularly around the trunk and upper body
* Thinning of the skin, easy bruising, and purple or red stretch marks on the abdomen, thighs, breasts, and arms
* Weakened bones, leading to fractures
* High blood pressure
* High blood sugar
* Mental changes such as depression, anxiety, and irritability
* Increased fatigue and weakness
* Menstrual irregularities in women
* Decreased fertility in men

Cushing syndrome can be diagnosed through various tests, including urine and blood tests to measure cortisol levels, saliva tests, and imaging tests to locate any tumors. Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or adjusting medication dosages.

Filarioidea is a superfamily of parasitic nematode (roundworm) worms, many of which are important pathogens in humans and animals. They are transmitted to their hosts through the bite of insect vectors, such as mosquitoes or flies. The filarioid worms can cause a range of diseases known as filariases. Some examples include Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Onchocerca volvulus, which cause lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) and river blindness, respectively. The adult worms live in the lymphatic system or subcutaneous tissues of their hosts, where they produce microfilariae, the infective stage for the insect vector.

The medical definition of Filarioidea is: A superfamily of parasitic nematode worms that includes several important human pathogens and causes various filariases. The adult worms live in the lymphatic system or subcutaneous tissues, while the microfilariae are taken up by insect vectors during a blood meal and develop into infective larvae inside the vector. These larvae are then transmitted to a new host through the bite of the infected vector.

APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) gene is a tumor suppressor gene that provides instructions for making a protein called adenomatous polyposis coli. This protein plays a crucial role in regulating the growth and division of cells in the colon and rectum. Specifically, it helps to maintain the stability of the cell's genetic material (DNA) by controlling the process of beta-catenin degradation.

When the APC gene is mutated or altered, it can lead to an accumulation of beta-catenin in the cell, which can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division. This can ultimately lead to the development of colon polyps, which are benign growths that can become cancerous over time if left untreated.

Mutations in the APC gene are associated with several inherited cancer syndromes, including familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and attenuated FAP (AFAP). These conditions are characterized by the development of numerous colon polyps at a young age, which can increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Anti-allergic agents, also known as antihistamines, are a class of medications used to treat allergies. They work by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that is released during an allergic reaction and causes symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes.

There are two main types of antihistamines: first-generation and second-generation. First-generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), can cause drowsiness and other side effects, such as dry mouth and blurred vision. They are typically used for the treatment of short-term symptoms, such as those caused by seasonal allergies or a mild reaction to an insect bite.

Second-generation antihistamines, such as loratadine (Claritin) and cetirizine (Zyrtec), are less likely to cause drowsiness and other side effects. They are often used for the long-term treatment of chronic allergies, such as those caused by dust mites or pet dander.

In addition to their use in treating allergies, antihistamines may also be used to treat symptoms of motion sickness, insomnia, and anxiety. It is important to follow the instructions on the label when taking antihistamines and to talk to a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using these medications.

Hyperparathyroidism is a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH). There are four small parathyroid glands located in the neck, near or within the thyroid gland. They release PTH into the bloodstream to help regulate the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

In hyperparathyroidism, overproduction of PTH can lead to an imbalance in these minerals, causing high blood calcium levels (hypercalcemia) and low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia). This can result in various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and cognitive issues.

There are two types of hyperparathyroidism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs when there is a problem with one or more of the parathyroid glands, causing them to become overactive and produce too much PTH. Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops as a response to low calcium levels in the body due to conditions like vitamin D deficiency, chronic kidney disease, or malabsorption syndromes.

Treatment for hyperparathyroidism depends on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms. In primary hyperparathyroidism, surgery to remove the overactive parathyroid gland(s) is often recommended. For secondary hyperparathyroidism, treating the underlying condition and managing calcium levels with medications or dietary changes may be sufficient.

Salivary gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the salivary glands. These glands are responsible for producing saliva, which helps in digestion, lubrication of food and maintaining oral health. Salivary gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as swelling, painless lumps, or difficulty swallowing if they grow large enough to put pressure on surrounding tissues.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and have the potential to invade nearby structures and metastasize (spread) to distant organs. Symptoms of malignant salivary gland neoplasms may include rapid growth, pain, numbness, or paralysis of facial nerves.

Salivary gland neoplasms can occur in any of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands) or in the minor salivary glands located throughout the mouth and throat. The exact cause of these neoplasms is not fully understood, but risk factors may include exposure to radiation, certain viral infections, and genetic predisposition.

'Betula' is the genus name for a group of trees commonly known as birches. These trees belong to the family Betulaceae and are native to the cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere. There are around 30-60 species in this genus, depending on the classification system used.

Birch trees are known for their distinctive bark, which is often white and peels away in thin layers. They also have simple, ovate leaves that are usually toothed or serrated along the edges. Many birches produce catkins, which are long, slender flowering structures that contain either male or female flowers.

Birch trees have a number of uses, both practical and cultural. The wood is lightweight and easy to work with, making it popular for uses such as furniture-making, paper production, and fuel. Birch bark has also been used historically for a variety of purposes, including canoe construction, writing surfaces, and medicinal remedies.

In addition to their practical uses, birch trees have cultural significance in many regions where they grow. For example, they are often associated with renewal and rebirth due to their ability to regrow from stumps or roots after being cut down. In some cultures, birch trees are also believed to have spiritual or mystical properties.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

Intestinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the intestines, which can be benign or malignant. These growths are called neoplasms and they result from uncontrolled cell division. In the case of intestinal neoplasms, these growths occur in the small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, or appendix.

Benign intestinal neoplasms are not cancerous and often do not invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to obstruct the intestines or cause bleeding. Common types of benign intestinal neoplasms include polyps, leiomyomas, and lipomas.

Malignant intestinal neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant intestinal neoplasm is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells lining the inside of the intestines. Other types of malignant intestinal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and carcinoid tumors.

Symptoms of intestinal neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and type. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fatigue. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, leading to an enlargement of the affected area. It's a response to various stimuli such as hormones, chronic irritation, or inflammation. Hyperplasia can be physiological, like the growth of breast tissue during pregnancy, or pathological, like in the case of benign or malignant tumors. The process is generally reversible if the stimulus is removed. It's important to note that hyperplasia itself is not cancerous, but some forms of hyperplasia can increase the risk of developing cancer over time.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Th2 cells, or T helper 2 cells, are a type of CD4+ T cell that plays a key role in the immune response to parasites and allergens. They produce cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 which promote the activation and proliferation of eosinophils, mast cells, and B cells, leading to the production of antibodies such as IgE. Th2 cells also play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis.

It's important to note that an imbalance in Th1/Th2 response can lead to immune dysregulation and disease states. For example, an overactive Th2 response can lead to allergic reactions while an underactive Th2 response can lead to decreased ability to fight off parasitic infections.

It's also worth noting that there are other subsets of CD4+ T cells such as Th1, Th17, Treg and others, each with their own specific functions and cytokine production profiles.

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

Urticaria, also known as hives, is an allergic reaction that appears on the skin. It is characterized by the rapid appearance of swollen, pale red bumps or plaques (wheals) on the skin, which are often accompanied by itching, stinging, or burning sensations. These wheals can vary in size and shape, and they may change location and appear in different places over a period of hours or days. Urticaria is usually caused by an allergic reaction to food, medication, or other substances, but it can also be triggered by physical factors such as heat, cold, pressure, or exercise. The condition is generally harmless, but severe cases of urticaria may indicate a more serious underlying medical issue and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.

Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Also known as Type I hypersensitivity, it is an exaggerated and abnormal immune response that occurs within minutes to a few hours after exposure to a second dose of an allergen (a substance that triggers an allergic reaction). This type of hypersensitivity is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies, which are produced by the immune system in response to the first exposure to the allergen. Upon subsequent exposures, these IgE antibodies bind to mast cells and basophils, leading to their degranulation and the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins. These mediators cause a variety of symptoms, including itching, swelling, redness, and pain at the site of exposure, as well as systemic symptoms such as difficulty breathing, wheezing, and hypotension (low blood pressure). Examples of immediate hypersensitivity reactions include allergic asthma, hay fever, anaphylaxis, and some forms of food allergy.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of immune cells. In plants, antigens are typically found on the surface of plant cells and may be derived from various sources such as:

1. Pathogens: Plant pathogens like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and oomycetes have unique molecules on their surfaces that can serve as antigens for the plant's immune system. These antigens are recognized by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and trigger an immune response.
2. Endogenous proteins: Some plant proteins, when expressed in abnormal locations or quantities, can be recognized as foreign by the plant's immune system and elicit an immune response. These proteins may serve as antigens and are involved in self/non-self recognition.
3. Glycoproteins: Plant cell surface glycoproteins, which contain carbohydrate moieties, can also act as antigens. They play a role in plant-microbe interactions and may be recognized by both the plant's immune system and pathogens.
4. Allergens: Certain plant proteins can cause allergic reactions in humans and animals when ingested or inhaled. These proteins, known as allergens, can also serve as antigens for the human immune system, leading to the production of IgE antibodies and triggering an allergic response.
5. Transgenic proteins: In genetically modified plants, new proteins introduced through genetic engineering may be recognized as foreign by the plant's immune system or even by the human immune system in some cases. These transgenic proteins can serve as antigens and have been a subject of concern in relation to food safety and potential allergies.

Understanding plant antigens is crucial for developing effective strategies for plant disease management, vaccine development, and improving food safety and allergy prevention.

Adrenal gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of each kidney and are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, and stress response. Adrenal gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign adrenal tumors are called adenomas and are usually small and asymptomatic. However, some adenomas may produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to symptoms such as high blood pressure, weight gain, and mood changes.

Malignant adrenal tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas and are rare but aggressive cancers that can spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms of adrenocortical carcinoma may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and hormonal imbalances.

It is important to diagnose and treat adrenal gland neoplasms early to prevent complications and improve outcomes. Diagnostic tests may include imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs, as well as hormone level testing and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Pituitary ACTH hypersecretion, also known as Cushing's disease, is a condition characterized by the excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. This results in an overproduction of cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, leading to a constellation of symptoms known as Cushing's syndrome.

In Cushing's disease, a benign tumor called an adenoma develops on the pituitary gland, causing it to release excess ACTH. This in turn stimulates the adrenal glands to produce more cortisol than necessary. The resulting high levels of cortisol can cause various symptoms such as weight gain, particularly around the trunk and face (central obesity), thinning of the skin, bruising, weakness, fatigue, mood changes, high blood pressure, and an increased risk of infections.

It is important to distinguish Cushing's disease from other causes of Cushing's syndrome, such as cortisol-producing adrenal tumors or exogenous sources of corticosteroid use, as the treatment approach may differ. Treatment for Cushing's disease typically involves surgical removal of the pituitary tumor, with additional medical management and/or radiation therapy in some cases.

Parotid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the parotid gland, which is the largest of the salivary glands and is located in front of the ear and extends down the neck. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign parotid neoplasms are typically slow-growing, painless masses that may cause facial asymmetry or difficulty in chewing or swallowing if they become large enough to compress surrounding structures. The most common type of benign parotid tumor is a pleomorphic adenoma.

Malignant parotid neoplasms, on the other hand, are more aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. They may present as rapidly growing masses that are firm or fixed to surrounding structures. Common types of malignant parotid tumors include mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

The diagnosis of parotid neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to determine the nature of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Complement C5a is a protein fragment that is generated during the activation of the complement system, which is a part of the immune system. The complement system helps to eliminate pathogens and damaged cells from the body by tagging them for destruction and attracting immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

C5a is formed when the fifth component of the complement system (C5) is cleaved into two smaller fragments, C5a and C5b, during the complement activation cascade. C5a is a potent pro-inflammatory mediator that can attract and activate various immune cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils, to the site of infection or injury. It can also increase vascular permeability, promote the release of histamine, and induce the production of reactive oxygen species, all of which contribute to the inflammatory response.

However, excessive or uncontrolled activation of the complement system and generation of C5a can lead to tissue damage and inflammation, contributing to the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, targeting C5a or its receptors has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy for these conditions.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

CCR3 (C-C chemokine receptor type 3) is a type of cell surface receptor that binds to specific chemokines, which are a group of small signaling proteins involved in immune responses and inflammation. CCR3 is primarily expressed on the surface of certain types of immune cells, including eosinophils, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes.

The binding of chemokines to CCR3 triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that regulate various cellular functions, such as chemotaxis (directed migration), activation, and degranulation. CCR3 plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several diseases, including asthma, allergies, and inflammatory bowel disease, where it contributes to the recruitment and activation of immune cells that mediate tissue damage and inflammation.

Therefore, CCR3 is a potential target for the development of therapies aimed at modulating immune responses and reducing inflammation in these conditions.

Hyperaldosteronism is a medical condition characterized by the overproduction of aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium retention and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

There are two types of hyperaldosteronism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperaldosteronism is caused by an overproduction of aldosterone from an abnormality within the adrenal gland, such as a tumor (Conn's syndrome) or hyperplasia. Secondary hyperaldosteronism occurs when there is an excess production of renin, a hormone produced by the kidneys, which then stimulates the adrenal glands to produce more aldosterone. This can be caused by various conditions that affect kidney function, such as renal artery stenosis or heart failure.

Symptoms of hyperaldosteronism may include high blood pressure, low potassium levels (hypokalemia), muscle weakness, and frequent urination. Diagnosis typically involves measuring aldosterone and renin levels in the blood, as well as other tests to determine the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the type and cause of hyperaldosteronism but may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

The sphenoid bone is a complex, irregularly shaped bone located in the middle cranial fossa and forms part of the base of the skull. It articulates with several other bones, including the frontal, parietal, temporal, ethmoid, palatine, and zygomatic bones. The sphenoid bone has two main parts: the body and the wings.

The body of the sphenoid bone is roughly cuboid in shape and contains several important structures, such as the sella turcica, which houses the pituitary gland, and the sphenoid sinuses, which are air-filled cavities within the bone. The greater wings of the sphenoid bone extend laterally from the body and form part of the skull's lateral walls. They contain the superior orbital fissure, through which important nerves and blood vessels pass between the cranial cavity and the orbit of the eye.

The lesser wings of the sphenoid bone are thin, blade-like structures that extend anteriorly from the body and form part of the floor of the anterior cranial fossa. They contain the optic canal, which transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery between the brain and the orbit of the eye.

Overall, the sphenoid bone plays a crucial role in protecting several important structures within the skull, including the pituitary gland, optic nerves, and ophthalmic arteries.

N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine (fMLP) is not a medical condition, but rather a synthetic peptide that is often used in laboratory settings for research purposes. It is a formylated methionine residue linked to a leucine and phenylalanine tripeptide.

fMLP is a potent chemoattractant for certain types of white blood cells, including neutrophils and monocytes. When these cells encounter fMLP, they are stimulated to migrate towards the source of the peptide and release various inflammatory mediators. As such, fMLP is often used in studies of inflammation, immune cell function, and signal transduction pathways.

It's important to note that while fMLP has important research applications, it is not a substance that would be encountered or used in clinical medicine.

Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a cytokine that plays a crucial role in the immune response, particularly in the development of allergic inflammation and hypersensitivity reactions. It is primarily produced by activated Th2 cells, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. IL-13 mediates its effects through binding to the IL-13 receptor complex, which consists of the IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα chains.

IL-13 has several functions in the body, including:

* Regulation of IgE production by B cells
* Induction of eosinophil differentiation and activation
* Inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production by macrophages
* Promotion of mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness in the lungs, contributing to the pathogenesis of asthma.

Dysregulation of IL-13 has been implicated in various diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis. Therefore, targeting IL-13 with biologic therapies has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of these conditions.

Food hypersensitivity is an umbrella term that encompasses both immunologic and non-immunologic adverse reactions to food. It is also known as "food allergy" or "food intolerance." Food hypersensitivity occurs when the body's immune system or digestive system reacts negatively to a particular food or food component.

Immunologic food hypersensitivity, commonly referred to as a food allergy, involves an immune response mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. Upon ingestion of the offending food, IgE antibodies bind to the food antigens and trigger the release of histamine and other chemical mediators from mast cells and basophils, leading to symptoms such as hives, swelling, itching, difficulty breathing, or anaphylaxis.

Non-immunologic food hypersensitivity, on the other hand, does not involve the immune system. Instead, it is caused by various mechanisms, including enzyme deficiencies, pharmacological reactions, and metabolic disorders. Examples of non-immunologic food hypersensitivities include lactose intolerance, gluten sensitivity, and histamine intolerance.

It's important to note that the term "food hypersensitivity" is often used interchangeably with "food allergy," but it has a broader definition that includes both immunologic and non-immunologic reactions.

Reprinted in Cushing H (April 1969). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body". Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 44 (4): 180-1. PMC ... ISBN 978-0-470-67201-3. Cushing, Harvey (1932). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations ... was that the basophil adenoma Minnie might have harbored underwent partial infarction, leading to symptom regression. The other ... Pituitary adenomas are responsible for 80% of endogenous Cushing's syndrome, when excluding Cushing's syndrome from exogenously ...
Reprinted in Cushing, Harvey (April 1969). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body". Annals of the Royal College of ... ISBN 978-0-89093-547-7. Cushing, Harvey (1932). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations ...
Reprinted in Cushing, Harvey (April 1969). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations ( ... ISBN 1560531649 Cushing, Harvey (1932). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations ( ... "The Basophil Adenomas of the Pituitary Body and Their Clinical Manifestations: pituitary Basophilism". Cushing was elected to ...
First description of what is now known as the Cushing reflex Cushing, Harvey (1932). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary ...
... adenoma, acidophil MeSH C04.557.470.035.075 - adenoma, basophil MeSH C04.557.470.035.085 - adenoma, bile duct MeSH C04.557. ... adenoma, acidophil MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.075 - adenoma, basophil MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.095 - adenoma, chromophobe MeSH ... adenoma, acidophil MeSH C04.557.580.625.650.075 - adenoma, basophil MeSH C04.557.580.625.650.095 - adenoma, chromophobe MeSH ... adenoma, liver cell MeSH C04.557.470.035.140 - adenoma, oxyphilic MeSH C04.557.470.035.155 - adenoma, pleomorphic MeSH C04.557. ...
M8300/0 Basophil adenoma (C75.1) Mucoid cell adenoma M8300/3 Basophil carcinoma (C75.1) Basophil adenocarcinoma Mucoid cell ... Black adenoma Pigmented adenoma M8373/0 Adrenal cortical adenoma, clear cell (C74.0) M8374/0 Adrenal cortical adenoma, ... Oxyphilic adenoma Oncocytic adenoma Oncocytoma Hurthle cell adenoma (C73.9) Hurthle cell tumor Follicular adenoma, oxyphilic ... NOS Pick tubular adenoma Sertoli cell adenoma Tubular androblastoma, NOS Testicular adenoma M8640/3 Sertoli cell carcinoma (C62 ...
... basophil - batimastat - BAY 12-9566 - BAY 43-9006 - BAY 56-3722 - BAY 59-8862 - BB-10901 - BBBD - BBR 2778 - BBR 3464 - BCG - ... tubulovillous adenoma - tumor - tumor antigen vaccine - tumor board review - tumor burden - tumor debulking - tumor ... villous adenoma - villus - vinblastine - vinca alkaloid - vincristine - vindesine - vinorelbine - viral vector - virotherapy - ... adenoma - adenopathy - adenosine triphosphate - adenovirus - adjunct agent - adjunctive therapy - adjuvant therapy - ...
A third type of pituitary adenoma secretes excess ACTH, which in turn, causes an excess of cortisol to be secreted and is the ... This is due to the possible confusion with white blood cells, where one may also find basophils and acidophils. Microanatomy of ... This hypersecretion often results in the formation of a pituitary adenoma (tumour), which are benign apart from a tiny fraction ... The chromophils can be further divided into acidophils (alpha cells) and basophils (beta cells). These cells all together ...
Head and neck anatomy Chromophobe cell Melanotroph Chromophil Acidophil cell Basophil cell Oxyphil cell (parathyroid) ... pituitary gland Panhypopituitarism a decreased secretion of most of the pituitary hormones Pituitary tumours Pituitary adenomas ...
Basophils and mast cells are also present in these skin lesions, producing IL-4, and PGD2, further activating ILC2s. Psoriasis ... November 2012). "Adenoma-linked barrier defects and microbial products drive IL-23/IL-17-mediated tumour growth". Nature. 491 ( ...
Reprinted in Cushing H (April 1969). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body". Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 44 (4): 180-1. PMC ... ISBN 978-0-470-67201-3. Cushing, Harvey (1932). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations ... was that the basophil adenoma Minnie might have harbored underwent partial infarction, leading to symptom regression. The other ... Pituitary adenomas are responsible for 80% of endogenous Cushings syndrome, when excluding Cushings syndrome from exogenously ...
Adenoma, Basophil - 2 Studies Found. Status. Study Terminated. Study Name: Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating ...
Basophil adenoma (morphologic abnormality). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Basophil adenoma (morphologic abnormality). ...
Adenoma, Acidophil. *Adenoma, Basophil. *Adenoma, Chromophobe. *Apudoma. *Carcinoid Tumor. *Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. * ...
Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization. ... Acidophil Adenoma: 25. *Pulmonary Adenomatosis: 20. *Basophil ... Adenomas; Follicular Adenoma; Monomorphic Adenoma; Adenoma, Follicular; Adenomas, Basal Cell; Adenomas, Follicular; Adenomas, ... Adenomas, Papillary; Adenomas, Trabecular; Basal Cell Adenoma; Basal Cell Adenomas; Follicular Adenomas; Microcystic Adenoma; ... Monomorphic Adenomas; Papillary Adenoma; Papillary Adenomas; Trabecular Adenoma; Trabecular Adenomas; Adenoma, Basal Cell; ...
Cushing H. The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations (pituitary basophilism). Bulletin of ...
"The Basophil Adenomas of the Pituitary Body and Their Clinical Manifestations: pituitary Basophilism". ... ACTH Addisons disease adenoma adrenal adrenal crisis adrenal insufficiency Alice Alice Stamm (Dearest) awareness bilateral ...
Adenoma. *ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma. *Adenoma, Acidophil. *Adenoma, Basophil. *Adenoma, Bile Duct ... "ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma" by people in Profiles over the past ten ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma" by people in UAMS Profiles ...
Intestine - Small Intestine - Brunners gland adenoma. Intestine - Small Intestine - Brunners gland. 0 ... Leukocyte - Myelocyte (Granulocyte) - Basophil - Mast cell tumor. Eye - Eyelid. 0. 0. References: Sundberg JP, Pathobiol Aging ...
White blood cell count (basophil) ( 29403010). *Alcohol use disorder ( 30940813). *Allergic disease (asthma, hay fever or ... Colorectal cancer or advanced adenoma ( 30510241). *Diffuse large B cell lymphoma ( 25261932) ...
C) Basophils were defined as viable FcεRI+DX5+ cells. (D) NK cells were defined as viable DX5+ CD3− cells. (E) Epithelial cells ... The loss-of-function rs7578597 variant of THADA, encoding thyroid adenoma-associated protein, is associated with lower beta- ... F) Total number of live lung cells, (G) CD4+ Th2 cells, and (H) basophils. Data plotted as mean+SEM. n=3-6 mice per group ... GLP-1R agonist treatment in RSV-infected mice significantly decreased the numbers of CD4+ T cells and basophils, as well as IL- ...
A basophil activation test (BAT) and a lymphoblastic transformation test (LTT) were also performed. RESULTS: Sixteen patients ... The pathology result reported a large adenoma as the cause of invagination. Conclusion. There are controversies regarding the ... El resultado anatomopatológico informó un adenoma de gran tamaño como causante de la invaginación. Conclusión. Existen ...
8 weeks p.i. by Mann-Whitney). A distal colonic adenoma (2.4 × 1.5 mm wide), coated with a dense BF, was observed in one mouse ... and basophils; P = 0.026), and type III ILCs (ILC3; P = 0.009) in mouse distal colons at 2 weeks p.i. IHC staining of 3728T ... A, Colonic microadenoma and adenoma counts. B, Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of a representative microadenoma is shown ... A, Colonic microadenoma and adenoma counts. B, Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of a representative microadenoma is shown ...
Sum basophil neutrophil counts ( 27863252). *Sum neutrophil eosinophil counts ( 27863252). *Systolic blood pressure ( 30224653) ... Colorectal cancer or advanced adenoma ( 30510241). *Cutaneous malignant melanoma ( 32341527). *EGFR mutation-positive lung ...
Secretory adenomas are typically monoclonal--that is, they secrete a single hormone. Approximately 1 to 2% of adenomas secrete ... Histochemical staining of these granules with pH-dependent dyes allows categorization of the cells into acidophils, basophils, ... GH-secreting adenomas are next most common adenomas, followed by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting tumors and ... 21] The vast majority originate in the adenohypophysis and are typically nonsecretory benign adenomas. These adenomas ...
The most common tumors are liver adenomas and hepatomas, primarily in patients who had aplastic anemia that was treated with ... and basophil lineages. The microenvironment, consisting of lymphocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial elements, and ...
Latest Most Read Most Cited Selective suppression of oral allergen-induced anaphylaxis by Allergin-1 on basophils in mice. Are ... Immunohistochemical evaluation of the small and large proteoglycans in pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands. The Education ...
Adenoma, Basophil [C04.557.470.035.075] * Adenoma, Bile Duct [C04.557.470.035.085] * Adenoma, Chromophobe [C04.557.470.035.095] ... Adenoma, Liver Cell Preferred Concept UI. M0027477. Scope Note. A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.. Terms. Adenoma, Liver ... Adenoma, Hepatocellular Hepatoma, Benign Previous Indexing. Adenoma (1966-1993). Carcinoma, Hepatocellular (1966-1993). Liver ... Adenoma, Liver Cell. Tree Number(s). C04.557.470.035.120. C04.588.274.623.040. C06.301.623.040. C06.552.697.040. Unique ID. ...
Prussin C, Metcalfe DD (2003). IgE, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111 (2 Suppl): S486-94; ... Feldman M (University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Adrenal Adenoma in Clinical Conns Syndrome. http://commons.wikimedia ...
Hormone excess can be the result of an adenoma, for example a thyroid adenoma (a benign tumor), that results in an ... Cell membrane damage also triggers mast cells (stationary immune response cells similar to basophils) to release histamine. ...
A) Pituitary adenoma. B) Drug included C) Chronu renal failure D) Hypothyroidism. ...
In all but a three-month Iranians, adenomas was these parties involved grossly live from the relative spread. ... the coastline of basophils( services Retrieved in poor activity), the diencephalon of termites and the north and system of ... resources have concentrated into two adenomas, common( sure) and disguised. World Trade Organization( WTO), the homeostasis of ...
The role of the IL-33/IL-1RL1 axis in mast cell and basophil activation in allergic disorders. Mol Immunol (2015) 63(1):80-5.10 ... and colon adenoma. Asthma. ... Histamine is synthesized by mast cells, basophils, platelets, ... Substance P and allergy-inducing drugs that bind to G-protein-coupled receptors can also trigger basophils and mast cells to ... Antigen crosslinking of antigen-specific IgE bound to the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, on the mast cell and basophil ...
Basophil-derived tumor necrosis factor can enhance survival in a sepsis model in mice. Piliponsky A, Shubin N, Lahiri A, Truong ... Difference in expression of two neurokinin‑1 receptors in adenoma and carcinoma from patients that underwent radical surgery ...
At 3 months, males showed a decrease in basophil count at 400 ppm and in erythrocyte volume fraction at 200, 400 and 800 ppm. ... In males at 2400 ppm that were killed at termination, the incidences of both follicular-cell adenoma and total follicular-cell ... An increased prevalence of hepatocellular adenoma was seen in males at the highest dietary concentration, in those killed at ... Males at the highest dietary concentration had an increased prevalence of hepatocellular adenoma, and an increased incidence of ...
... adduct adducted adductor adducts adeem adeemed adeeming adeems adenine adenines adenitis adenoid adenoids adenoma adenomas ... basinal basined basinet basinets basing basins basion basions basis bask basked basket basketry baskets basking basks basophil ...
... efficiently triggers basophils to release the immunomodulatory key cytokine interleukin-4. Activation by IPSE/α-1 requires the ... Cushing disease is a neuroendocrine condition caused by partially glucocorticoid-resistant corticotroph adenomas that ... Mediates IgE Binding for Antigen-independent Basophil Activation ... presence of IgE on the basophils, but the detailed molecular ...
Yousefi S., Morshed M., Amini P., Stojkov D., Simon D., von Gunten S., Kaufmann T., Simon H.U. Basophils exhibit antibacterial ... or adenomas // Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000 Apr;906:44-50. - 2000. - V. 906 - P. 44-50 ... NADPH oxidase-independent formation of extracellular DNA traps by basophils // J Immunol. - 2014. - V. 192 - P. 5314-5323 ...
  • This is most often as a result of a pituitary adenoma (specifically pituitary basophilism) or due to excess production of hypothalamus CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) (tertiary hypercortisolism/hypercorticism) that stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pituitary adenomas are responsible for 80% of endogenous Cushing's syndrome, when excluding Cushing's syndrome from exogenously administered corticosteroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tests are based on the glucocorticoid sensitivity of pituitary adenomas compared to non-pituitary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uams.edu)
  • A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE. (uams.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uams.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (uams.edu)
  • Case report: ACTH-secreting pituitary carcinoma metastatic to the liver in a patient with a history of atypical pituitary adenoma and Cushing's disease. (uams.edu)
  • Orbital invasion by ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas. (uams.edu)
  • In all but a three-month Iranians, adenomas was these parties involved grossly live from the relative spread. (responsiveconcepts.com)
  • The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. (curehunter.com)
  • A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (nih.gov)
  • One cat had a double (somatotroph and melanotroph) adenoma. (nih.gov)
  • Over production of ACTH, usually the result of a basophil micro-adenoma, can result in Cushing' disease because of adrenal cortex overstimulation. (aviation.govt.nz)
  • This is most often as a result of a pituitary adenoma (specifically pituitary basophilism) or due to excess production of hypothalamus CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) (tertiary hypercortisolism/hypercorticism) that stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cushing HW (1932) The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations (pituitary basophilism). (altmeyers.org)
  • Histological staining techniques classify the cells of the pituitary as acidophils, basophils, or chromophobes. (oncohemakey.com)
  • 6. Dynamics of the IL-33/ST2 network in the progression of human colorectal adenoma to sporadic colorectal cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Known As Pituitary adenoma is also known as adenoma of pituitary, adenoma pituitary, benign neoplasm of D35.02 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes. (stradanove.net)
  • Adenoma and hyperplasia were the most common lesions at 13 cases each. (nih.gov)
  • Over production of Prolactin is usually the result of a micro-adenoma (size less than 1cm) or macro-adenoma (size 1 cm or more). (aviation.govt.nz)
  • The treatment is by trans-sphenoidal excision of the adenoma. (aviation.govt.nz)