Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Barrett Esophagus: A condition with damage to the lining of the lower ESOPHAGUS resulting from chronic acid reflux (ESOPHAGITIS, REFLUX). Through the process of metaplasia, the squamous cells are replaced by a columnar epithelium with cells resembling those of the INTESTINE or the salmon-pink mucosa of the STOMACH. Barrett's columnar epithelium is a marker for severe reflux and precursor to ADENOCARCINOMA of the esophagus.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar: A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Cardia: That part of the STOMACH close to the opening from ESOPHAGUS into the stomach (cardiac orifice), the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION. The cardia is so named because of its closeness to the HEART. Cardia is characterized by the lack of acid-forming cells (GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Esophagogastric Junction: The area covering the terminal portion of ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of STOMACH at the cardiac orifice.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Cecal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CECUM.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Keratin-20: A type I keratin expressed predominately in gastrointestinal epithelia, MERKEL CELLS, and the TASTE BUDS of the oral mucosa.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Ileal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Jejunal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the JEJUNUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Carcinoma, Acinar Cell: A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Gastrectomy: Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.DeoxycytidineSigmoid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SIGMOID COLON.Esophagectomy: Excision of part (partial) or all (total) of the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)Endometrial Hyperplasia: Benign proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM in the UTERUS. Endometrial hyperplasia is classified by its cytology and glandular tissue. There are simple, complex (adenomatous without atypia), and atypical hyperplasia representing also the ascending risk of becoming malignant.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A premalignant change arising in the prostatic epithelium, regarded as the most important and most likely precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The neoplasia takes the form of an intra-acinar or ductal proliferation of secretory cells with unequivocal nuclear anaplasia, which corresponds to nuclear grade 2 and 3 invasive prostate cancer.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).Mucin-2: A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Esophagoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the esophagus.Genes, erbB-1: The proto-oncogene c-erbB-1 codes for the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral homolog v-erbB which was isolated from an avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV) where it was contained as a fragment of the chicken c-ErbB-1 gene lacking the amino-terminal ligand-binding domain. Overexpression of erbB-1 genes occurs in a wide range of tumors, commonly squamous carcinomas of various sites and less commonly adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-1 gene is located in the chromosomal region 7p14 and 7p12.Mesothelioma: A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Anal Sacs: A pair of anal glands or sacs, located on either side of the ANUS, that produce and store a dark, foul-smelling fluid in carnivorous animals such as MEPHITIDAE and DOGS. The expelled fluid is used as a defensive repellent (in skunks) or a material to mark territory (in dogs).QuinazolinesCystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Neoplasms, Unknown Primary: Metastases in which the tissue of origin is unknown.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Pleural Effusion, Malignant: Presence of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY as a complication of malignant disease. Malignant pleural effusions often contain actual malignant cells.Mucin-4: A transmembrane mucin that is found in a broad variety of epithelial tissue. Mucin-4 may play a role in regulating cellular adhesion and in cell surface signaling from the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. Mucin-4 is a heterodimer of alpha and beta chains. The alpha and beta chains result from the proteolytic cleavage of a precursor protein.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Gastroesophageal Reflux: Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Urachus: An embryonic structure originating from the ALLANTOIS. It is a canal connecting the fetal URINARY BLADDER and the UMBILICUS. It is normally converted into a fibrous cord postnatally. When the canal fails to be filled and remains open (patent urachus), urine leaks through the umbilicus.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus: A BETARETROVIRUS that causes pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE).Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Carcinosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Vaginal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Pulmonary Adenomatosis, Ovine: A contagious, neoplastic, pulmonary disease of sheep characterized by hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pneumocytes and epithelial cells of the lung. It is caused by JAAGSIEKTE SHEEP RETROVIRUS.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Rats, Inbred F344Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Duodenogastric Reflux: Retrograde flow of duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the STOMACH.

A new rapid technique for the fixation of thyroid gland surgical specimens. (1/468)

One of the main diagnostic problems in thyroid pathology is to distinguish between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Thorough sampling of the nodule's capsule is recommended in order to identify capsular invasion. However, during the hardening of the tissue, by the usual fixatives the capsule shrinks and rolls downwards and sometimes the capsule separates from the remaining tissue. The present work evaluates the use of "Lymph Node Revealing Solution" (LNRS) for the rapid fixation (2h) of different thyroid lesions as compared to that of formalin. Fifty-one unselected consecutive cases of thyroid nodules, which included various benign and malignant lesions, were examined. Each specimen was cut in two equal parts; one was fixed in LNRS, the other in formalin. Fixation in LNRS for 2 hours gave adequate results in sectioning and staining of the tissue, and excellent immunostains. Its advantage over formalin is the conservation of the natural relationship between the capsule and the rest of the tissue, on the same plane, as well as the short time required for the final diagnosis.  (+info)

Promoting effects of 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone on rat glandular stomach carcinogenesis initiated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. (2/468)

The modifying effects of 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), a mutagenic by-product in chlorinated water, on the development of glandular stomach cancers were investigated in Wistar rats. A total of 120 males, 6 weeks of age, were divided into six groups. After initiation with 100 ppm N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) solution and 5% NaCl diet for 8 weeks, 30 rats each in groups 1-3 were given MX in the drinking water at concentrations of 30, 10, or 0 ppm for the following 57 weeks. Ten animals each in groups 4-6 were administered the MX without prior carcinogen exposure. There were no statistical significant differences in final body weights between the groups. The incidences and multiplicities of adenocarcinomas in the glandular stomachs were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the initiated 30 ppm MX group than those in the MNNG/NaCl group. The incidences of atypical hyperplasias in the glandular stomachs were also significantly increased (P < 0.05 or 0.01) by the MX treatments. With their multiplicity, the effects were clearly dose dependent. Interestingly, the 30 ppm MX alone itself induced atypical hyperplasias in the pylorus, although the incidences and severity were low. Moreover, MX showed a tendency to enhance the development of intrahepatic cholangiocellular tumors and thyroid follicular cell tumors in the MNNG-treated animals. The results of the present study thus indicate that MX exerts promoting effects when given during the postinitiation phase of two-stage glandular stomach carcinogenesis in rats.  (+info)

DNA copy number changes in thyroid carcinoma. (3/468)

The genetic changes leading to thyroid cancer are poorly characterized. We studied DNA copy number changes by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in 69 primary thyroid carcinomas. In papillary carcinoma, DNA copy number changes were rare (3 of 26, 12%). The changes were all gains, and they were associated with old age (P = 0.01) and the presence of cervical lymph node metastases at presentation (P = 0.08). DNA copy number changes were much more frequent in follicular carcinoma (16 of 20, 80%) than in papillary carcinoma (P < 0.0001), and follicular carcinomas had more often deletions (13/20 versus 0/26, P < 0.0001). Loss of chromosome 22 was common in follicular carcinoma (n = 7, 35%), it was more often seen in widely invasive than in minimally invasive follicular carcinoma (54% versus 0%, P = 0.04), and it was associated with old age at presentation (P = 0.01). In three of the four patients with follicular carcinoma who died of cancer, the tumor had loss of chromosome 22. DNA copy number changes were found in 5 (50%) of the 10 medullary carcinomas studied. Four of these five carcinomas had deletions, and in two of them there was deletion of chromosome 22. Eleven (85%) of the thirteen anaplastic carcinomas investigated had DNA copy number changes, of which five had deletions, and one had deletion of chromosome 22. The most common gains in anaplastic carcinoma were in chromosomes 7p (p22-pter, 31%), 8q (q22-qter, 23%), and 9q (q34-qter, 23%). We conclude that DNA copy number changes are frequent in follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but rare in papillary carcinoma when studied by CGH. Loss of chromosome 22 is particularly common in follicular carcinoma, and it is associated with the widely invasive type.  (+info)

Relationship among 201T1 uptake, nuclear DNA content and clinical behavior in metastatic thyroid carcinoma. (4/468)

A prospective study of 201TI uptake was performed to compare 201TI uptake with nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content and clinical behavior of tumors in metastatic thyroid carcinoma and to assess the significance of 201TI uptake in evaluating clinical characteristics of thyroid carcinoma. METHODS: Fifty-six patients with metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma had 201TI scintigraphy. Grade of 201TI uptake was semiquantitatively assessed according to tumor-to-background ratio on 2-h late scan. Nuclear DNA content was analyzed within 3 wk of 201TI study by flow cytometry using biopsy material and was classified as diploidy or aneuploidy. Patients were followed up to examine incidence of tumor growth and/or anaplastic transformation. RESULTS: DNA content was diploidy in 48 patients and aneuploidy in 8 patients. 201TI uptake in the DNA-aneuploid group (2.61 +/- 0.29) was significantly higher than that in the DNA-diploid group (1.82 +/- 0.35, P < 0.01 for both groups). Tumor growth was observed in all patients with DNA aneuploidy but in only 5 of 48 patients with DNA diploidy (P < 0.01). Anaplastic transformation was observed in 3 patients in the DNA-aneuploid group but in none of the patients in the DNA-diploid group. CONCLUSION: High 201TI uptake indicates greater incidence of abnormal DNA content with aggressive clinical behavior of metastatic tumors. Thus, 201TI scintigraphy may be useful in characterizing metastatic thyroid carcinoma and in identifying those patients with poorer prognoses.  (+info)

Case-control study of thyroid cancer in Northern Italy: attributable risk. (5/468)

BACKGROUND: The percentage of thyroid cancer cases attributable to specific risk factors can be calculated to focus preventive strategies. The per cent population attributable risks (PAR) for thyroid cancer were estimated in relation to history of benign thyroid diseases, history of radiotherapy, residence in endemic goitre areas and selected indicators of a poor diet, using data from a case-control study conducted between 1986 and 1992 in Northern Italy. METHODS: Cases were 399 histologically confirmed incident thyroid cancers and controls were 617 patients, admitted to hospital for a wide range of acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone-related diseases. The PAR were computed on the basis of multivariate odds ratios (OR) and on the distribution of risk exposure among cases, assuming they are representative of the general population of cases. RESULTS: A history of benign thyroid disease accounted for 18.9% of cases, radiotherapy for 1.2%, residence for > or =20 years in endemic goitre areas for 2.4% of cases, and their combination for 21.7% of thyroid cancer cases; selected indicators of a poor diet accounted for 40.9% of thyroid cancer cases in this population. The combination of all factors considered explained over 57% of thyroid cancer cases in both sexes. The estimates for thyroid-related conditions were higher in women than men, whereas the opposite was true for dietary indicators. The overall PAR were somewhat higher in people aged > or =45 years (63.8%) than in younger subjects, and for follicular (69.1%) rather than papillary (53.7%) cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a few simply identified and potentially modifiable risk factors or indicators (benign thyroid disease, residence in endemic goitre area and a poor diet) explained about 60% of thyroid cancer cases in this Italian population, indicating the theoretical scope for prevention.  (+info)

Reproductive and hormonal risk factors for thyroid cancer in Los Angeles County females. (6/468)

We conducted an individually matched case-control study (292 pairs) of female thyroid cancer patients to examine the role of reproductive history and exogenous hormones in this disease. Radiation treatment to the head or neck [28 cases and 2 controls exposed; odds ratio (OR), 14.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.5-121.3] and certain benign thyroid diseases (including adolescent thyroid enlargement, goiter, and nodules or tumors) were strongly associated with thyroid cancer. Irregular menstruation increased risk (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.9-3.7). Age at menarche and pregnancy history were not related to disease. Women with natural menopause and hysterectomized women without oophorectomy had no increase in risk, but disease risk was elevated in women with bilateral oophorectomy (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.1-38.1). In general, use of oral contraceptives and other exogenous estrogens was not associated with thyroid cancer. However, risk increased with number of pregnancies in women using lactation suppressants (P = 0.03) and decreased with duration of breastfeeding (P = 0.04). These data provide only limited support for the hypothesis that reproductive and hormonal exposures are responsible for the marked excess of thyroid cancer risk in adult females.  (+info)

Non-suppressed thyrotropin and elevated thyroglobulin are independent predictors of recurrence in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. (7/468)

OBJECTIVE: Although in most cases differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) responds to surgery and radioiodine (RaI) therapy, some patients will have recurrence and eventually cancer-related death. However, although various prognostic factors of DTC have been identified (e.g. staging, suppressed thyrotropin), none of the previous studies have assessed simultaneously their role in multivariate analysis. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this retrospective population-based study, we reviewed the clinicopathological data of 254 DTC patients treated in eastern Finland during the years 1976-1995, for clinical characteristics, primary treatment, follow-up and cancer recurrence. Tumor stage was based on pathological tumor-node-metastasis (pTNM) classification, and histopathological specimens were re-evaluated. RESULTS: DTC recurrence occurred in 33 patients (13%). In univariate analyses, the predictors of recurrence were older age (>60 years, P<0.05), follicular tumor type (P<0.01), pTNM classification system (P<0.05) and post-ablative radioiodine uptake outside the neck (P<0.05). Non-suppressed serum thyrotropin (TSH) and elevated serum thyroglobulin (>3 microg/l) measured one year after operation were both related to tumor recurrence (P<0.05 and P<0.001 respectively). In multivariate analysis the independent predictors for recurrence were both elevated thyroglobulin (P<0.001) and non-suppressed TSH (P<0.05) independent of histology, pTNM stage and RaI uptake. Adjusted risk ratio for recurrence of DTC for unsuppressed thyrotropin was 2.3, for elevated thyroglobulin 14.0 and, if both conditions were present, the risk ratio increased to 45.1. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that both non-suppressed serum TSH and elevated serum thyroglobulin are related to an increased risk of DTC recurrence independent of tumor type and pTNM stage.  (+info)

Expression of cytokeratin 20 in thyroid carcinomas and peripheral blood detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. (8/468)

We investigated a nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) system to detect CK20 mRNA in thyroid carcinomas, benign thyroid diseases and peripheral blood to improve diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma and to detect disseminated tumour cells. Frozen tissue samples of 46 thyroid carcinomas and 30 benign thyroid diseases (14 multinodular goiters, 14 follicular adenomas, two Hashimoto's thyroiditis) were obtained intraoperatively. Preoperative blood samples were drawn from 31 patients with thyroid cancer, nine patients with benign thyroid disorders and 20 healthy volunteers. Nine out of nine medullary, 9/12 follicular, 7/19 papillary and 2/6 anaplastic carcinomas expressed CK20 transcripts. CK20 mRNA was undetectable in 30 tissue sections of benign thyroid diseases. Circulating tumour cells were found in the blood of 3/8 patients with medullary carcinoma, 2/8 patients with follicular carcinoma, 2/11 patients with papillary carcinoma and 1/4 patients with an anaplastic carcinoma. Nine blood samples of patients with benign thyroid diseases and 20 healthy volunteers tested negative. For the first time CK20 mRNA could be detected in tissue sections of thyroid carcinomas and peripheral blood samples of patients with thyroid cancer. It was not detectable in benign thyroid diseases. Our results therefore strongly suggest that CK20 RT-PCR assays may improve the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma and is able to detect circulating tumour cells in peripheral blood of thyroid carcinoma patients.  (+info)

Follicular thyroid carcinoma comprises about 25% of all thyroid cancers, and its malignancy generally exceeds that of papillary carcinoma. It spreads relatively early to distant sites such as bone, lungs, and liver by invasion of blood vessels, and regional lymph nodes are usually involved only late. Production of thyroid hormones is almost exclusively associated with the follicular histologic type. In many reported cases the production of thyroid hormones by metastases has been sufficient to cause hyperthyroidism. One of these cases was that of a patient with "T3 thyrotoxicosis" (1).. We describe here a patient having metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma with ...
Premenopausal women are at highest risk for papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, implicating a role for estrogens in thyroid cancer. The expression of estrogen receptors α and β (ER), the effects of estradiol (E2), selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) 4-hydroxytamoxifen and raloxifene, and ER subtype selective agonists were examined in NPA87 and KAT5 papillary and WRO follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines. All three thyroid cancer cell lines expressed full-length ERα and ERβ proteins with cytoplasmic localization that was unaffected by E2. ICI 182,780 (Fulvestrant, an ER antagonist), and inhibitors of non-genomic E2-activated MAPK and PI3K signaling blocked E2-induced cell proliferation. SERMs acted in a cell line-specific manner. No E2-induced estrogen response element (ERE)-driven reporter activity was observed in transiently transfected thyroid cancer cells. However, E2 increased transcription of established endogenous E2-target genes, i.e., cathepsin D in WRO and ...
Thalidomide has found new uses as a tumor anti-angiogenesis agent that is capable of diminishing the proliferation of angiogenesis-dependent solid malignancies. Distantly metastatic, unresectable medullary thyroid carcinomas, as well as de-differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, which no longer concentrate radioiodine, have no known effective systemic therapies. We have verified, in the context of a completed phase 2 clinical trial, that thalidomide has significant activity in thyroid carcinomas that are no longer radioiodine avid and are rapidly progressive. This activity has only limited durability of around 7 months and is associated with significant toxicities of sedation, constipation and neuropathy.. REVLIMID® (lenalidomide) is an analog of thalidomide with the chemical name, alpha-(3-aminophthalimido) glutarimide. REVLIMID® is noted to be more potent than thalidomide in inhibiting the production of TNF-alpha. It has more than doubled the inhibition of microvessel ...
PubMedID: 24185120 | Prognostic Value of p27 in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma and its Relation to Radioactive Iodine Response: Does it Aid in the Modification of Risk Stratification? | Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry | 10/31/2013
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The report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Follicular Thyroid Cancer, complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type.
Results: CD56 expression was significantly higher in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (conventional and follicular variants) compared to other categories of follicular thyroid lesions, and it was significantly higher in the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma compared to follicular adenomas (FA) and hyperplastic nodules (HN). A bivariate analysis showed that the malignancy in follicular thyroid lesions was significantly associated with higher CD56 expression and older patients age. Both parameters were used to build a logistic regression model and equation for prediction of malignancy in follicular thyroid lesions. On the application of the equation to the studied cases, it was found to conform to their diagnostic nature ...
Factor VIII-related antigen is a recognised marker of endothelial cells. A brief immunocytochemical study of its distribution in follicular carcinoma of the thyroid and its value in the recognition of vascular invasion by this tumour has been carried out. Ten cases of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid were studied. In each strong endothelial staining was found in the majority of vessels in the adjacent normal thyroid. Lymphatic endothelium was negative. In eight of the 10 cases the staining of vessels within the tumour was absent or very weak. Staining was also absent in the majority of vessels completely occluded by tumour, but was present in the endothelium of vessels only partly occluded by tumour. It is concluded that factor VIII-related antigen staining has only limited value in the recognition of vascular invasion in follicular carcinoma. The absence of vascular staining in the tumour leads us to suggest that inhibition of factor VIII production by the tumour could be a possible ...
Post-surgical evaluation and management (NCCN) Return to Follicular Neoplasm Resource Appropriate Guidelines Index: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Thyroid
The PAX 8 gene has some association with follicular thyroid tumors. PAX8/PPARy rearrangement account for 30-40% of conventional type follicular carcinomas[14] and less than 5% of oncocytic carcinomas (aka Hurthle-Cell Neoplasms).[15] Tumors expressing the PAX8/PPARy are usually present in at a young age, small in size, present in a solid/nested growth pattern and frequently involve vascular invasion. It has been observed that PAX8/PPAR y-positive tumors rarely express RAS mutations in combination. This suggests that follicular carcinomas develop in two distinct pathways either with PAX8/PPAR y or RAS. Some whole-genome sequencing studies have shown that PAX8 also targets BRCA1 (carcinogenesis), MAPK pathways (thyroid malignancies), and Ccnb1 and Ccnb2 (cell-cycle processes). PAX8 is shown to be involved in tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction, apoptosis, cell polarity and transport, cell motility and adhesion.[8]. Expression of PAX8 is increased in neoplastic renal ...
I have read with great interest the recent systematic review by Gartland and Lubitz. Their results and conclusion suggest that lobectomy and total …
To: David N Parente, Pim J Bongers, Raoul Verzijl, Lorne E Rotstein, Sylvia L Asa, Wouter P Kluijfhout, Karen M Devon, David P Goldstein, Ozgur Mete, Jesse D ...
Hi, Im hoping to get some clarity on the findings of my biopsy report. I dont have it in front of me, but the report listed a few different type of cells. Follicular Carcinoma is the one my Endocron...
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on the follicular tumour, from a highly experienced rat breeder on the NFRS forum. There are apparently different types and some contain hair follicules. They can get quite big, which I can imagine as Charlottes was growing fairly quickly and theres no particular reason why some rats get them. The good news is that its…
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Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is the second most common type of thyroid cancer after papillary carcinoma. It usually grows slowly and is clinically indolent; but rarely, its aggressive forms with distant metastases can occur. We report here an uncommon case of bilateral orbital metastasis of FTC. A 70-year-old woman presented with bilateral exophtalmus and past medical history of thyroid nodule surgery 15 years ago. Radiologic evaluation showed massive bilateral orbital mass with extension to calvarium. Tumor decompressed and removed with the suction and curettage and the patient was treated with chemoradiotherapy after operation. Pathologic examination showed metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. Although orbital metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma is uncommon, FTC should be considered as a potential primary neoplasm in a patient with orbital mass
TY - JOUR. T1 - Follicular thyroid carcinoma with skull metastases. AU - Chiofalo, Maria Grazia. AU - Setola, Sergio Venanzio. AU - Di Gennaro, Francesca. AU - Fulciniti, Franco. AU - Catapano, Giuseppe. AU - Losito, Nunzia Simona. AU - Sandomenico, Fabio. AU - Catalano, Orlando. AU - Pezzullo, Luciano. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Thyroid carcinoma with distant metastases at initial presentation, is uncommon. Skull metastases occur very rarely, with a reported incidence of 2.5-5.8%. Here we report two cases of follicular thyroid cancer with skull involvement, and describe the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to metastatic thyroid cancer. We present the cases of a 70-year-old female and a 74-year-old female who presented with painless, large slow-growing masses of the skull. The patients underwent surgical excision of the skull masses, which were histologically diagnosed as metastatic follicular thyroid cancer, and total thyroidectomy, which confirmed the diagnosis of follicular thyroid ...
Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is an indolent thyroid tumor that was previously classified as an encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, necessitating a new classification as it was recognized that encapsulated tumors without invasion have an indolent behavior, and may be over-treated if classified as a type of cancer. Definition of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP): A noninvasive neoplasm that arises from the thyroid follicular cells (cells that normally make thyroid hormone), showing a predominantly follicular growth pattern and with nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma. There are several specific inclusion and exclusion criteria (see below). When these are met, this tumor has an extremely low malignant potential. Abbreviations: NIFTP: Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features EFVPTC: Encapsulated follicular variant of ...
Six patients experienced voice change immediately after RFA. Voice change was recovered in 5 patients. One patient without recovery was treated with vocal cord medialization. All 6 patients with voice change had tumors in the level VI. There were no other significant complications, and most of the patients tolerated the RFA procedure well. Although some patients reported a burning sensation, pain, or both, the symptoms were relieved by reducing the RF power or stopping the ablation for several seconds.. In conclusion, RFA can be effective in treating loco-regional, recurrent, and well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma in patients at high surgical risk.. ...
Inclusion Criteria: - Histologically confirmed locally advanced or metastatic thyroid cancer - Measurable disease - Normal blood pressure (if history of hypertension, blood pressure must be controlled with medication) - Evidence of disease progression within 6 months before starting study (for differentiated thyroid cancer subjects) - Evidence of disease progression within 6 months before starting study OR symptomatic disease (for medullary thyroid cancer subjects) - Not a candidate for surgical resection, external beam radiotherapy, radioiodine therapy, or other local therapy - At least 18 years of age Exclusion Criteria: - Undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid cancer - Untreated or symptomatic brain metastases - Prior malignancy, unless cured with treatment and no evidence of disease for greater than or equal to 3 years before starting study (history of thyroid cancer, in situ cervical cancer, or basal cell cancer of skin are exceptions) - Myocardial infarction or any unstable cardiac condition ...
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) are the two most common thyroid cancers. They account for 90% to 95% of all thyroid malignancies and are most often seen in patients over 40 years of age (1). The tumor usually presents as an asymptomatic solitary intrathyroid nodule. In patients with FTC, distant metastases at the time of diagnosis are reported in 11% to 20% of patients (2). FTC tends to metastasize hematogeneously to lung and bone, whereas PTC is commonly metastatic to regional lymph nodes and lung. Synchronous lung metastasis in both types of cancers has been reported in ∼20% of cases, with a mean age at presentation of ,50 years (3).. Despite being classified collectively as well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, PTC and FTC have distinct clinicopathologic features, biological behavior, and clinical outcome (4, 5). FTC is generally considered to be a more aggressive tumor than PTC and is associated with a worse prognosis. Patients with FTC often present ...
The thyroid is the organ that has the greatest risk of malignant tumors among the endocrine tumors. The papillary carcinoma occupies 80% of the entire thyroid tumors. Immunohistochemical staining of galectin-3 has usually been used in differentiating papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma. The p53 gene of the cell cycle is a tumor suppressor gene acting in on the control points. The cyclin D1 genes in the cell cycle, involved in the implementation of G1 and S phase, plays an important role in the progression of thyroid tumors. This research compares and analyzes correlation between papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, p53, cyclin D1 and galectin-3 gene expression patterns. In a total of 30 cases from papillary carcinoma, 21 cases from p53 (70%), 27 cases in galectin-3 (90%), and 26 cases in cyclin D1 (86.7%) showed positive rate. The galectin-3 staining investigated, showed a significant difference between a papillary carcinoma and a follicular carcinoma. Follicular carcinoma from 15 ...
Anaplastic thyroid cancer arises from cells of the thyroid, which are normally involved in production and secretion of thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Anaplastic thyroid tumor is always considered as stage IV. Genes involved in the pathogenesis of follicular thyroid cancer include P53 and BRAF. ...
Thyroid cancers are malignant tumors in the thyroid gland. DNA polymorphisms are playing a decisive role in unscrambling the genomic basis of tumor formation and development in cancer. Thyroid cancer is influenced in a polygenic and low-penetrance manner by RET gene polymorphisms and this part of the world (North India) has not recorded any study regarding RET alterations in this very cancer. We assessed RET G691S (rs1799939), L769L (rs1800861) and S904S (rs1800863) polymorphisms by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in order to explain their potential role in the diagnosis and prognosis of Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). In RET G691S polymorphism, the total dissemination of variant alleles (GA + AA) was 62.9% in cases as related to 44.5% in controls (P < 0.05). RET L769L variant alleles (TG + GG) was 70% in cases versus 88% in controls (P < 0.05). In RET S904S, occurrence of variant alleles (CG + GG) was 56% in cases versus 44% in controls (P <
Persistent RET activation is a frequent event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). In these cancers, RET activates the ERK/MAPK, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and the JAK/STAT3 pathways. Here, we tested the efficacy of a JAK1/2- inhibitor, AZD1480, in the in vitro and in vivo growth of thyroid cancer cell lines expressing oncogenic RET. Thyroid cancer cell lines harboring RET/PTC1 (TPC-1), RET M918T (MZ-CRC1) and RET C634W (TT) alterations, as well as TPC-1 xenografts, were treated with JAK inhibitor, AZD1480. This inhibitor led to growth inhibition and/or apoptosis of the thyroid cancer cell lines in vitro, as well as to tumor regression of TPC-1 xenografts, where it efficiently blocked STAT3 activation in tumor and stromal cells. This inhibition was associated with decreased proliferation, decreased blood vessel density, coupled with increased necrosis. However, AZD1480 repressed the growth of STAT3- deficient TPC-1 cells in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating that its effects
Second of a new series of Mini-Editorials in Thyroid News. While accounting for only 1% of solid malignancies, thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The majority are patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma of follicular cell origin who are cured with adequate surgical management and radioiodine therapy. However, some thyroid malignancies, such as medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, frequently metastasize, precluding patients from a curative resection.. The molecular bases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, MTC, and anaplastic thyroid cancer are well characterized and the critical genetic pathways involved in the development of specific tumor histological types have been elucidated. Of primary importance has been the recognition of key oncogenic mutations such as BRAF, RET and RAS in papillary (PTC) and RET in medullary (MTC) carcinomas. These genes code for kinases that activate signalling through the ...
The vast majority of low grade follicular cell derived thyroid carcinomas follows an indolent clinical course and is associated with very low mortality. Risk stratification using multiple clinical and pathologic characteristics has become the standard of care to guide appropriate management and avoid overtreatment. Over the past few decades, the field of thyroid pathology has witnessed several major changes that significantly impacted upon patients care. These are: 1) The reclassification of non-invasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features; 2) the diagnosis of Hurthle cell carcinoma based on the presence of capsular and vascular invasion; 3) a detailed definition of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, taking into consideration mitosis and necrosis; and 4) the emphasis on a detailed pathologic analysis such as the extent of vascular invasion and extrathyroidal extension ...
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Sample type RNA Source Name follicular thyroid adenoma Organism(s) Homo sapiens Characteristics tumor: follicular thyroid adenoma age: 34 gender: Female Extracted molecule total RNA Extraction protocol Total RNA was extracted from 5-10 10µm slices of snap frozen material using the Qiagen RNeasy Mini kit according to manufacturers instructions. Label Digoxigenin Label protocol 1 microgram of total RNA was reverse transcribed, amplified and digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled using the Applied Biosystems Chemiluminescent RT-IVT Labeling Kit V.2.0 according to manufacturers instructions (Part Number 4363142 Rev.A). Hybridization protocol 10µg of DIG-labeled cRNA were hybridized to the Applied Biosystems Human Genome Survey Microarray V.2.0 using the Applied Biosystems Chemiluminescence Detection Kit according manufacturers instructions (Part Number 4346875D). Scan protocol The chemiluminescent signal detection, image acquisition and image preprocessing of the microarrays were performed on the ...
Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is a borderline thyroid tumour formerly known as noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The prevalence of NIFTP is estimated at 4.4-9.1% of all papillary thyroid carcinomas worldwide; however, the rate of occurrence of NIFTP is eight times lower in Asian countries than in Western Europe and America. At the molecular level, NIFTP is characterised by the lack of BRAF V600E and BRAF V600E-like mutations or other high-risk mutations (TERT, TP53) and a high rate of RAS mutations, which is similar to other follicular-pattern thyroid tumours. The diagnosis of NIFTP can only be made after histological examination of the entire tumour removed during surgery and is based on strictly defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Although the diagnosis is postoperative, the combination of certain findings of preoperative tests including ultrasonography, cytology, and molecular testing may ...
05 Feb 2016. The incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer, which includes papillary and follicular cancers, has increased nearly threefold in the United States over the past three decades, and breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women.. Advances in detection and treatment have resulted in many women surviving their initial illness, Grogan said.. "We now have large numbers of women who have survived one of the cancers. We saw evidence in the clinic that women who survived one seemed vulnerable to later developing the other," Grogan said.. Grogan and fellow researchers analysed studies of breast and thyroid cancer over several decades through a review of PubMed and Scopus databases.. The researchers queried the databases to find studies in which women who had survived either breast or thyroid cancer developed the other type later.. They then calculated odds ratios based on the numbers of observed and expected secondary malignancies.. The results showed that women who had ...
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Sulforaphane (SFN) an all natural compound produced from broccoli/broccoli sprouts continues to be proven used seeing that an RITA (NSC 652287) antitumor agent in various types of malignancies. cell routine arrest and apoptosis and inhibited thyroid tumor cell migration and invasion by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal changeover (EMT) procedure and appearance of and appearance with the activation of Erk and p38 signaling cascades and marketing mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis via reactive air species (ROS)-reliant pathway. Development of xenograft tumors produced from thyroid tumor cell range FTC133 in nude mice was also considerably inhibited by SFN. Significantly we didnt find significant aftereffect of SFN in body liver RITA (NSC 652287) organ and weight function of mice. Collectively we for the very first time demonstrate that SFN is certainly a possibly effective antitumor agent for thyroid tumor. types of either at the original presentation or being a recurrence which is certainly ...
Note: The determination of AJCC stage group from T, N, and M for thyroid depends on histologic type, grade, and age. The Histologies, Grade, Stage table shows the selection of the AJCC Stage table based on histology and grade. For papillary and follicular carcinomas, age is also needed for the selection; if age at diagnosis is unknown, AJCC stage will be derived as unknown for these histologies ...
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The most common sites of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer are the neck lymph nodes, while distant metastases typically involve the lungs, the bones, and less frequently the brain. Uncommon...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. T2 - Prognostic factors and results of surgical treatment. AU - McDonald, M. P.. AU - Sanders, L. E.. AU - Silverman, M. L.. AU - Chan, H. S.. AU - Buyske, J.. AU - Ditkoff, B. A.. AU - Hay, Ian D. AU - Heller, K.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Background. Hurtle cell carcinomas of the thyroid are unusual variants of well-differentiated thyroid cancers. Considered more aggressive tumors, their optimal treatment is controversial. Our institutions half century of experience, the largest series to date, includes 40 patients with Hurthle cell carcinomas of 1000 well-differentiated thyroid cancers. Methods. A retrospective study was carried out on 40 patients. Results: Seventy-two percent were female, with a median age of 53 years. Median follow-up was 9 years. With the AMES risk stratification (age, distant metastasis, capsular extent, tumor size), among the 21 high-risk patients, 10 (48%) had a recurrence or died, with median time to ...
Source:http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C0206682 MSH: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed),NCI: Cancer that forms in follicular cells in the thyroid. It grows slowly and is highly treatable.,NCI: A differentiated adenocarcinoma arising from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. The nuclear features which characterise the thyroid gland papillary carcinoma are absent. It is linked to radiation and comprises approximately 10% to 15% of thyroid cancers. Clinically, it usually presents as a solitary mass in the thyroid gland. It is generally unifocal and thickly encapsulated and shows invasion of the capsule or the vessels. Diagnostic procedures include: thyroid function tests, thyroid radioisotope scanning, thyroid ultrasound and fine needle biopsy. Treatment options include: partial or complete thyroidectomy. Adjuvant treatment options include: radioiodine therapy, TSH suppression and external ...
Whereas adenomas and goiters belong to highly prevalent lesions of the thyroid not only in iodine-deficient regions malignant thyroid tumors are rare. Both papillary and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid are supposed to originate from the thyroid epithelium. At least for the follicular carcinomas a possible continuum from thyroid adenomas to follicular carcinomas has been proposed [21]. This idea is at least supported by a particular subtype of follicular tumors i.e. those characterized by a PAX8-PPARγ fusion due to a chromosomal rearrangement between chromosomal bands 2q13 and 3p25. As witnessed by the results of several studies, this abnormality can be found in follicular adenomas as well as in carcinomas [22-24]. However, the question arises whether or not other genetic subtypes of thyroid adenomas may predispose to malignant transformation. Recently, we have been able to demonstrate that translocations of chromosomal band 19q13.4, a frequent genetic alteration in thyroid adenomas, ...
Falls Church, Virginia. Sep. 22, 2012-A spectrum of disparities exist in the surgical management of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, according to new data presented at the 82nd Annual Meeting of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) in Québec City, Québec, Canada.. Current ATA guidelines for well-differentiated thyroid cancer recommend therapeutic neck dissection for clinically involved or metastatic disease and prophylactic central neck dissection for advanced tumors. However, even with established guidelines in place, the surgical management of cervical nodes varies greatly.. A team of researchers led by Katherine Hayes, MD, of Emory University in Atlanta, Ga., reviewed data on 127,192 patients with papillary and follicular thyroid cancer who were treated surgically from 1998 to 2009 to identify disparities in the extent of lymph node dissection during thyroidectomy. Variables examined included patient age, race, gender, insurance status and education level, hospital classification, ...
Objective: To assess predictors of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) persistence/recurrence. Design: This was a retrospective chart review of thyroid carcinoma patients seen 1979-2007 in a Boston, Massachusetts-area multispecialty group. Of 1,025 patients, 431 met eligibility criteria. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess predictors (gender, age, ethnicity, tumor size, surgical histology) of WDTC persistence/recurrence (elevated thyroglobulin levels with negative thyroglobulin-antibodies; or positive imaging). Local extension of disease and lymph node involvement could not be assessed. Results: Mean age at initial surgery (n = 431, 74% women, 79% Caucasian) was 45.8 \(\pm\) 13.5(SD) years. Mean tumor (papillary, 91%; follicular, 5%; Hurthle cell, 2%; \(\ge\)1 type, 2%) size was 2.5 \(\pm\) 1.6(SD) cm. Most tumors were unifocal (57%) and \(\ge\)1 cm (89%). Over 2,600 person-years of follow-up, persistence/recurrence occurred in 52 patients (12%) 4.3 years (median; range ...
The incidence of thyroid cancer, the most common endocrine malignancy, continues to increase steadily during the past few decades worldwide [1, 2]. The majority of thyroid cancer types are classified as: follicular epithelial cell-derived papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), and para-follicular C-cell derived medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) [3]. The prognosis of patients with thyroid cancer is closely correlated with local invasion outside the thyroid capsule and the development of distant metastases [4]. Therefore, dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying thyroid cancer invasion and metastasis is still imperative and may put new insight into the clinical treatment of thyroid cancer.. Human tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2), also known as trophoblast cell-surface antigen 2 (Trop2), is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein originally identified in human placental trophoblastic tissue [5]. As a cell surface ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comprehensive genetic characterization of human thyroid cancer cell lines. T2 - A validated panel for preclinical studies. AU - Landa, Iñigo. AU - Pozdeyev, Nikita. AU - Korch, Christopher. AU - Marlow, Laura A.. AU - Smallridge, Robert Christian. AU - Copland, John A III. AU - Henderson, Ying C.. AU - Lai, Stephen Y.. AU - Clayman, Gary L.. AU - Onoda, Naoyoshi. AU - Tan, Aik Choon. AU - Garcia-Rendueles, Maria E.R.. AU - Knauf, Jeffrey A.. AU - Haugen, Bryan R.. AU - Fagin, James A.. AU - Schweppe, Rebecca E.. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Purpose: Thyroid cancer cell lines are valuable models but have been neglected in pancancer genomic studies. Moreover, their misidentification has been a significant problem. We aim to provide a validated dataset for thyroid cancer researchers. Experimental Design: We performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) and analyzed the transcriptome of 60 authenticated thyroid cell lines and compared our findings with the known genomic defects ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Synchronous Bony and Soft Tissue Metastases from Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is fatal if unresectable. However, improved survival has been reported after gross total resection and multimodality therapy. In this report, we describe the contrast-enhanced high-resolution CT characteristics of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in 57 patients. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma presented as a large neck mass with necrosis in 82% of cases. The tumors demonstrated common extrathyroidal extension (91%). Sixty-two percent of tumors demonstrated calcification. Visceral space invasion involved the esophagus (62%), trachea (57%), and larynx (29%). Carotid artery encasement was present in 42%, and 43% involved the internal jugular vein. Sixty-three percent had lateral compartment lymphadenopathy; 58% of these nodes were necrotic, and 11% were cystic. No metastatic nodes had calcification. Central compartment lymphadenopathy was seen in 56% of cases, and lateral retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy was detected in 12%. Knowledge of these imaging features aids in guiding ...
V.V. KHAZIEV Institute of Endocrine Pathology named after V.J. Danilevsky NAMS of Ukraine, 10 Artema St., Kharkiv, the Ukraine 61002 KhazievV.V. - Candidate of Medical Science, Head of the Department of Endocrine Surgery and Gynecology, e-mail: [email protected]¹ The expression of cytokeratins СK7, СK20, СК34Е12 was studied in 24 follicular adenomas drugs, 16 follicular cancers drugs and 19 papillary thyroid cancers drugs. Expression […]. ...
The preoperative diagnosis of thyroid lesions is not the only challenge faced by pathologists. Very often, establishing the differential diagnosis between benignancy and malignancy of a thyroid nodule, based only on the histopathological exam, can be quite difficult.. One of the greatest research challenges involving well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma is to develop a method to enable the correct differential diagnosis between benign and malignant lesions, trying to avoid a diagnostic surgery. To really reach this objective a test would need to have an especially high sensitivity rate,[11] but it has not yet been achieved in the literature even when genomic classifiers are employed[80]. Thus, the search for a "marker" that enhances this diagnostic capability is ongoing[81].. Cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) expression in thyroid nodules is in general intense and diffuse in papillary carcinoma and heterogeneous labeling in carcinoma and in follicular adenoma, with nil or low expression in other benign ...
Thyroglobulin (TG) levels can be elevated in well-differentiated papillary or follicular adenocarcinoma. It is often used to ... non-cancerous tumor Thyroid cancer Papillary Follicular Medullary Anaplastic Lymphomas and metastasis from elsewhere (rare) ...
In the thyroid, follicular and parafollicular cells are also positive for TTF-1. For lung cancers, adenocarcinomas are usually ... TTF1 is more than merely a clinical marker of lung adenocarcinoma. It plays an active role in sustaining lung cancer cells in ... However others have found that TTF-1 staining is often positive in pulmonary adenocarcinomas, large cell carcinomas, small-cell ... "Lineage-specific dependency of lung adenocarcinomas on the lung development regulator TTF-1". Cancer Research. 67 (13): 6007-11 ...
B cells have been implicated in the developmental of M cells, since they are also localized in high numbers in the follicular- ... Similarly, a human lymphoma cell line is also known to undergo transition from adenocarcinoma cells to M cells. Though many ...
Neoplastic thyroid gland follicular signet ring cell Signet ring adenocarcinoma cell Signet ring melanoma cell Signet ring ...
The highest levels of Ras mutations are found in adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (90%), colon (50%), and lung (30%) Bos, 1989). ... follicular thyroid adenoma, Renal cell carcinoma, urinary bladder Transitional cell carcinoma, esophagus squamous cell ... The proliferation of Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells in culture was stimulated by 12-HETE and inhibited ... carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, the Serous cystadenocarcinoma type of ovarian cancer, and uterine cervical carcinoma. Other ...
... adenocarcinoma, clear cell MeSH C04.557.470.200.025.060 --- adenocarcinoma, follicular MeSH C04.557.470.200.025.060.225 --- ... follicular MeSH C04.557.470.200.025.095 --- adenocarcinoma, scirrhous MeSH C04.557.470.200.025.095.410 --- linitis plastica ... carcinoma, papillary, follicular MeSH C04.557.470.200.025.075 --- adenocarcinoma, mucinous MeSH C04.557.470.200.025.085 --- ... follicular MeSH C04.557.386.480.350.350 --- lymphoma, large-cell, follicular MeSH C04.557.386.480.350.525 --- lymphoma, mixed- ...
M8330/3 Follicular adenocarcinoma, NOS (C73.9) Follicular carcinoma, NOS M8331/3 Follicular adenocarcinoma, well differentiated ... follicular variant (C73.9) Papillary adenocarcinoma, follicular variant Papillary and follicular adenocarcinoma Papillary and ... C73.9) Follicular carcinoma, well differentiated M8332/3 Follicular adenocarcinoma, trabecular (C73.9) Follicular carcinoma, ... follicular/follicle center, NOS M9691/3 Follicular lymphoma, grade 2 Follicular lymphoma, small cleaved cell M9698/3 Follicular ...
Primary cutaneous follicular lymphoma (follicular center cell lymphoma, follicular center lymphoma) Primary cutaneous ... Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (digital papillary adenocarcinoma, papillary adenoma) Apocrine gland carcinoma ... follicular mucinosis, Pinkus' follicular mucinosis-benign primary form) Localized lichen myxedematosus Myxoid cyst (digital ... follicular atrophoderma and basal cell cacinomas) Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome Bloom syndrome (Bloom-Torre-Machacek ...
... from adenocarcinoma, in which it is diffusely spread through the cytoplasm. MUC1 has been shown to interact with: CTNND1, ERBB2 ... Epithelioid sarcoma Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma, interdigitating dendritic cell / reticulum cell sarcoma Lung: type II ... Adenocarcinomas (breast, colorectal, pancreatic, other) Carcinoid tumor Chordoma Choriocarcinoma Desmoplastic small round cell ...
A Phase 2 Trial of Immunotherapy With Mitumprotimut-T (Id-KLH) and GM-CSF Following Rituximab in Follicular B-cell Lymphoma - ... resistant adenocarcinoma of the lung (NSCLA) - Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2007 ASCO Annual Meeting Proceedings Part I. Vol ... Bortezomib, bendamustine, and rituximab in patients (pts) with relapsed (rel) or refractory (ref) follicular lymphoma (FL): ... Phase II trial of vatalinib in patients with advanced or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma who failed gemcitabine therapy - ...
It is considered an adenocarcinoma. There are two subtypes: sporadic (that is, non-hereditary) and hereditary. Both such ... Multilocular cystic clear cell renal cell carcinoma Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma Thyroid-like follicular renal cell ...
"FDA approves new treatment for adults with relapsed follicular lymphoma". US Food and Drug Administration. September 14, 2017. ... "Mutations of PIK3CA in gastric adenocarcinoma". BMC Cancer. 5: 29. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-5-29. PMC 1079799 . PMID 15784156. ... got FDA approval for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL) who have received at least two ...
... is found to be overexpressed in malignant follicular thyroid nodules. In conjunction with cyclin A and galectin-3, HK3 ... "Expression of hexokinases and glucose transporters in treated and untreated oesophageal adenocarcinoma". Histology and ... cyclin A and galectin-3 are overexpressed in malignant follicular thyroid nodules". Clinical Endocrinology. 68 (2): 252-7. doi: ...
MiRNAs influence B cell maturation, generation of pre-, marginal zone, follicular, B1, plasma and memory B cells. A study of ... but not in sporadic colonic adenocarcinoma that lack mucinous components. In-vitro studies suggested that miR-205 and miR-373 ...
Adenocarcinoma Table 6-5 in: Mitchell, Richard Sheppard; Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson. Robbins Basic Pathology ... especially when the cells found at biopsy are of the follicular type. Pituitary adenomas are seen in 10% of neurological ... at which point they are called adenocarcinomas. Most adenomas do not transform. But even while benign, they have the potential ...
Endometrioid adenocarcinoma from biopsy. H&E stain. Micrograph of the endometrium. Micrograph of decidualized endometrium due ... Proliferation is induced by estrogen (follicular phase of menstrual cycle), and later changes in this layer are engendered by ... Baerwald, A. R.; Pierson, R. A. (2004). "Endometrial development in association with ovarian follicular waves during the ...
2004). "CEACAM6 gene silencing impairs anoikis resistance and in vivo metastatic ability of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells". ... 50/90-like molecule on follicular keratinocytes". Arch. Dermatol. Res. 289 (8): 457-65. doi:10.1007/s004030050221. PMID 9266023 ...
... follicular fluid and seminal plasma of the reproductive system. These glycoproteins have distinct and essential roles in ... in endometrial adenocarcinoma and effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate". British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 95 (12 ...
... follicular large cell lymphoma - follicular mixed cell lymphoma - follicular thyroid cancer - formaldehyde - FR901228 - ... clear cell adenocarcinoma - clear-cell sarcoma - clear cell sarcoma of the kidney - clinical breast exam - clinical resistance ... thyroid follicular cell - thyroid hormone - thyroid-stimulating hormone - thyroidectomy - thyrotropin alfa - tiazofurin - time ... adenocarcinoma - adenoid cystic cancer - adenoma - adenopathy - adenosine triphosphate - adenovirus - adjunct agent - ...
Low-grade serous adenocarcinomas resemble Fallopian tube epithelium, whereas high-grade serous adenocarcinomas show anaplasia ... including ovarian follicular cyst, leiomyoma, endometriosis, ectopic pregnancy, hydrosalpinx, tuboovarian abscess, ovarian ... Mucinous tumors include mucinous adenocarcinoma and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Mucinous adenocarcinomas make up 5-10% of ... Clear-cell adenocarcinomas are histopathologically similar to other clear cell carcinomas, with clear cells and hobnail cells. ...
"Deoxythymidine kinase in the staging of prostatic adenocarcinoma". The Prostate. 29 (1): 15-9. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0045( ... "High baseline serum thymidine kinase 1 level predicts unfavorable outcome in patients with follicular lymphoma". Leukemia & ...
Risk factors for pancreatic adenocarcinoma include:[2][6][11][35] *Age, sex, and ethnicity; the risk of developing pancreatic ... Typically, pancreatic adenocarcinoma first spreads to nearby lymph nodes, and later to the liver or to the peritoneal cavity, ... Four genes have each been found to be mutated in the majority of adenocarcinomas: KRAS (in 95% of cases), CDKN2A (also in 95 ... "Pancreatic adenocarcinoma. NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015" (PDF). NCCN Guidelines. National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. ...
Other B cells will internalize the antigen and present it to Follicular helper T cells on the B and T cell zone interface. If a ... Micrograph of a mesenteric lymph node with adenocarcinoma. Lymph nodes can be affected by both primary cancers of lymph tissue ... As part of the reticular network, there are follicular dendritic cells in the B cell follicle and fibroblastic reticular cells ... B cells are mainly found in the outer cortex where they are clustered together as follicular B cells in lymphoid follicles, and ...
IGFBP-3 has been identified in human lymph, nipple aspirate, milk, amniotic fluid, follicular fluid, seminal plasma, urine, ... significance of growth factors and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator system in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma". ...
Vaginal adenocarcinoma arises from secretory cells in the epithelium[36]. *Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina arises in ... During the luteal and follicular phases of the estrous cycle the structure of the vaginal epithelium varies. The number of cell ...
Follicular Characterized by follicular, flat, elevated or hemispherical erythematous papules with or without keratoses ... is characterized by the appearance of follicular LP on the trunk with LP follicularis decalvans on the scalp. Follicular LP on ... The scalp is rarely affected by a condition known as lichen planopilaris, acuminatus, follicular lichen planus, and peripilaris ... This pattern is characterized by hyperkeratotic thick pruritic red-brown to purple-gray plaques with follicular accentuation. ...
... multicentric paillary-follicular adenocarcinoma of the thyroid, two tubulovillous adenomas of the duodenum in which ... Adenocarcinoma / pathology*. Adenoma / pathology*. Adult. Duodenal Neoplasms / pathology*. Female. Humans. Intestinal Polyps / ...
Get guidance from medical experts to select best follicular adenocarcinoma hospital in Bangalore ... View details of top follicular adenocarcinoma hospitals in Bangalore. ... Best hospitals for follicular-adenocarcinoma in Bangalore List of best hospitals for follicular-adenocarcinoma in Bangalore. ... Check OPD schedule of doctors and book appointment online top hospitals for follicular-adenocarcinoma in Bangalore.. Call 8010 ...
Get guidance from medical experts to select best follicular adenocarcinoma hospital in Delhi NCR ... View details of top follicular adenocarcinoma hospitals in Delhi NCR. ... Best hospitals for follicular-adenocarcinoma in Delhi NCR List of best hospitals for follicular-adenocarcinoma in Delhi NCR. ... Need help in choosing the right follicular adenocarcinoma hospital? The medical expert will guide you for all hospital needs ...
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Endocrine System ... REVLIMID® (Lenalidomide) for Therapy of Radioiodine-Unresponsive Papillary and Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas. The safety and ... Alternatively, follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with large distant tumor burdens which have not sufficiently ... Adenocarcinoma. Lenalidomide. Thalidomide. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Angiogenesis Inhibitors. ...
gastric adenocarcinoma. 3. ClinicalTrials. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. D018263. EFO:0000501. follicular thyroid carcinoma. 1. ... Adenocarcinoma. D000230. EFO:0000228. adenocarcinoma. 2. ClinicalTrials. Colorectal Neoplasms. D015179. EFO:0000365. colorectal ... ductal adenocarcinoma. 3. ClinicalTrials. Carcinoma, Renal Cell. D002292. EFO:0000681. renal cell carcinoma. 1. ClinicalTrials ...
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. D018263. EFO:0000501. follicular thyroid carcinoma. 2. ClinicalTrials. Multiple Myeloma. D009101. ... colorectal adenocarcinoma. 4. ClinicalTrials. DailyMed. Endometrial Neoplasms. D016889. EFO:1001512. endometrial carcinoma. 2. ...
Follicular Adenocarcinoma. - Follicular Thyroid Cancer. - Gall Bladder Cancer. - Gallbladder & Biliary Tract Cancer. ...
Follicular Adenocarcinoma. - Follicular Thyroid Cancer. - Gall Bladder Cancer. - Gallbladder & Biliary Tract Cancer. ...
Follicular Adenocarcinoma. *Follicular Thyroid Cancer. *Gall Bladder Cancer. *Gallbladder & Biliary Tract Cancer ...
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Carcinoma, Medullary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by ... Recurrent Thyroid Cancer Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer Stage IV Papillary Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma ... Adenocarcinoma. Neuroendocrine Tumors. Neuroectodermal Tumors. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms, Ductal, Lobular, ...
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Thyroid Diseases. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. ... Adenocarcinoma, Papillary. Adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Neuroendocrine Tumors. Neuroectodermal Tumors. Neoplasms ... Insular Thyroid Cancer Recurrent Thyroid Cancer Stage II Follicular Thyroid Cancer Stage II Papillary Thyroid Cancer Stage IV ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Thyroid Cancer, Follicular Thyroid Cancer, ...
8. Adenocarcinoma of lung. 9. Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar. 10. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. More causes » , Show All 496 ...
6. Adenocarcinoma. 7. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. 8. Adenoid cystic carcinoma. 9. Adenoma. 10. Adult Fibrosarcoma. More causes ...
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. .map{width:100%;height:300px;margin-bottom:15px}. Name. Location. ... Alternatively, follicular or papillary thyroid. carcinoma patients with large distant tumor burdens which have not sufficiently ... papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, which no longer concentrate radioiodine, have. no known effective systemic ... Histological confirmation of follicular, papillary, insular, or Hürthle-cell thyroid. carcinoma. Histologic slides and/or ...
Thyroglobulin (TG) levels can be elevated in well-differentiated papillary or follicular adenocarcinoma. It is often used to ... non-cancerous tumor Thyroid cancer Papillary Follicular Medullary Anaplastic Lymphomas and metastasis from elsewhere (rare) ...
GPER1 and Follicular Adenocarcinoma. View Publications. 1. Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches ... Role of GPER1, EGFR and CXCR1 in differentiating between malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma and benign follicular thyroid ... It is extremely difficult to discriminate between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) ... into thyroid follicular cells to facilitate thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Considering its fundamental role in thyroid function ...
Follicular Lymphoma * Germ Cell Cancer (Germ Cell and Embryonal Neoplasm) * Glandular Cancer (Adenocarcinoma) ...
Progestins inhibit gonadotropin production which then prevents follicular maturation and ovulation. In women with adequate ... reduces the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia and risk of adenocarcinoma. ...
Categories: Adenocarcinoma, Follicular Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular ... hyperthyroidism*Adrenal adenoma, familial ... increased noradrenalin level, increased adrenalin ...
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular... hyperthyroidism *Adrenal adenoma, familial... increased noradrenalin level , increased adrenalin ...
... polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (n = 2), lymphoma (n = 1), chondrosarcoma (n = 1), metastatic adenocarcinoma (n = 1), ... Flow cytometry and histologic findings were consistent with Follicular B-cell lymphoma. ... 3.1.6. Metastatic Adenocarcinoma and Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma. The aspirate smears consisted of tumor cells with ... 3.1.3. Polymorphous Low-grade Adenocarcinoma. The FNA smears revealed uniform small blue tumor cells (basaloid cells) with ...
In adenocarcinoma cells, IL-4 inhibited COX-2, but not PGES expression (42). We are currently investigating the molecular ... Follicular dendritic cells (FDC)4 are stromal cells specialized in presenting unprocessed Ags to B cells. FDC are known to ... Human follicular dendritic cells and fibroblasts share the 3C8 antigen. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 304: 701-707. ... Human follicular dendritic cells inhibit superantigen-induced T-cell proliferation by distinct mechanisms. Blood 94: 216-224. ...
Endometrial Adenocarcinoma. *Follicular Thyroid Cancer. *Glioblastoma Multiforme. *Hodgkins Disease. *Intraductal Papillary ...
  • Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second commonest type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Western countries. (nature.com)
  • The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), as part of the institute's single technology appraisal (STA) process, invited the company that makes obinutuzumab (Roche Products Limited) to submit evidence of the clinical and cost effectiveness of the drug in combination with chemotherapy, with or without obinutuzumab as maintenance therapy for adult patients with untreated, advanced follicular lymphoma (FL) in the UK. (springer.com)
  • All of these adjustments did not exceed £30,000 per QALY gained and therefore the use of obinutuzumab for patients with advanced FL and a Follicular Lymphoma International Predictive Index (FLIPI) score of two or more could be recommended. (springer.com)
  • Obinutuzumab can be considered cost effective for the first-line treatment of adult patients with advanced follicular lymphoma and a Follicular Lymphoma International Predictive Index (FLIPI) score of two or more, given the (confidential) discount agreed in the patient access scheme. (springer.com)
  • He has not only Stage 2A Adenocarcinoma which resulted in a complete gastrectomy, but also Follicular Non Hodkins Lymphoma Stage 4. (cancer.org)
  • Simultaneous occurrence of pancreatic mixed acinar-ductal adenocarcinoma and primary follicular lymphoma of the duodenum, accompanied by increased number of IgG4 plasma cells in tumor-free parenchyma as concomitant IgG4-related disease or reaction to tumor? (termedia.pl)
  • There is no doubt that introduction of universal iodine prophylaxis in population previously in chronic iodine-deficiency leads to a changing pattern of more prevalent papillary thyroid cancer and declining of follicular thyroid cancer. (scielo.br)
  • Both chronic iodine deficiency and iodine excess have been associated with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of follicular cells, attributed to excessive secretion of TSH. (scielo.br)
  • Thyroglobulin is secreted from the endoplasmic reticulum to its site of iodination, and subsequent thyroxine biosynthesis, in the follicular lumen. (genetex.com)