Adenine NucleotidesAdenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Atractyloside: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in the LIVER.Bongkrekic Acid: An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Guanine NucleotidesAdenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Inosine NucleotidesAMP Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Inosine Monophosphate: Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Nucleotide Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cyclophilins: A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.Coformycin: A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels: A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Pyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Nucleotides, CyclicMitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.PyruvatesNucleotide Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides with the elimination of ammonia.Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Cytosine NucleotidesPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial Form: A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Aurovertins: Very toxic and complex pyrone derivatives from the fungus Calcarisporium arbuscula. They bind to and inhibit mitochondrial ATPase, thereby uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. They are used as biochemical tools.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.4-Aminobenzoic Acid: An aminobenzoic acid isomer that combines with pteridine and GLUTAMIC ACID to form FOLIC ACID. The fact that 4-aminobenzoic acid absorbs light throughout the UVB range has also resulted in its use as an ingredient in SUNSCREENS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Ophthalmoplegia, Chronic Progressive External: A mitochondrial myopathy characterized by slowly progressive paralysis of the levator palpebrae, orbicularis oculi, and extraocular muscles. Ragged-red fibers and atrophy are found on muscle biopsy. Familial and sporadic forms may occur. Disease onset is usually in the first or second decade of life, and the illness slowly progresses until usually all ocular motility is lost. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1422)Phosphofructokinase-1, Muscle Type: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. In humans, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 in muscle exists as the homotetramer of M subunits. Defects in this muscle enzyme cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE VII, also known as Tarui's disease.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Uridine Triphosphate: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).HexosephosphatesStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Suramin: A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Submitochondrial Particles: The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).MalatesOpen Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 2: Voltage-dependent anion channel 2 is a low abundance mammalian isoform of VDAC that interacts with the inactive form of BAK PROTEIN.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone: Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Immunophilins: Members of a family of highly conserved proteins which are all cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE). They bind the immunosuppressant drugs CYCLOSPORINE; TACROLIMUS and SIROLIMUS. They possess rotamase activity, which is inhibited by the immunosuppressant drugs that bind to them.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Pentostatin: A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.Tyrothricin: A polypeptide antibiotic mixture obtained from Bacillus brevis. It consists of a mixture of three tyrocidines (60%) and several gramicidins (20%) and is very toxic to blood, liver, kidneys, meninges, and the olfactory apparatus. It is used topically.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Azaserine: Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.PhosphoenolpyruvatePhosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.

Cross-linking of two beta subunits in the closed conformation in F1-ATPase. (1/2294)

In the crystal structure of mitochondrial F1-ATPase, two beta subunits with a bound Mg-nucleotide are in "closed" conformations, whereas the third beta subunit without bound nucleotide is in an "open" conformation. In this "CCO" (beta-closed beta-closed beta-open) conformational state, Ile-390s of the two closed beta subunits, even though they are separated by an intervening alpha subunit, have a direct contact. We replaced the equivalent Ile of the alpha3beta3gamma subcomplex of thermophilic F1-ATPase with Cys and observed the formation of the beta-beta cross-link through a disulfide bond. The analysis of conditions required for the cross-link formation indicates that: (i) F1-ATPase takes the CCO conformation when two catalytic sites are filled with Mg-nucleotide, (ii) intermediate(s) with the CCO conformation are generated during catalytic cycle, (iii) the Mg-ADP inhibited form is in the CCO conformation, and (iv) F1-ATPase dwells in conformational state(s) other than CCO when only one (or none) of catalytic sites is filled by Mg-nucleotide or when catalytic sites are filled by Mg2+-free nucleotide. The alpha3beta3gamma subcomplex containing the beta-beta cross-link retained the activity of uni-site catalysis but lost that of multiple catalytic turnover, suggesting that open-closed transition of beta subunits is required for the rotation of gamma subunit but not for hydrolysis of a single ATP.  (+info)

Physiological characterization of viable-but-nonculturable Campylobacter jejuni cells. (2/2294)

Campylobacter jejuni is a pathogenic, microaerophilic, gram-negative, mesophilic bacterium. Three strains isolated from humans with enteric campylobacteriosis were able to survive at high population levels (10(7) cells ml-1) as viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC) forms in microcosm water. The VBNC forms of the three C. jejuni strains were enumerated and characterized by using 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride-4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole staining. Cellular volume, adenylate energy charge, internal pH, intracellular potassium concentration, and membrane potential values were determined in stationary-phase cell suspensions after 48 h of culture on Columbia agar and after 1 to 30 days of incubation in microcosm water and compared. A notable increase in cell volume was observed with the VBNC state; the average cell volumes were 1.73 microliter mg of protein-1 for the culturable form and 10.96 microliter mg of protein-1 after 30 days of incubation in microcosm water. Both the internal potassium content and the membrane potential were significantly lower in the VBNC state than in the culturable state. Culturable cells were able to maintain a difference of 0.6 to 0.9 pH unit between the internal and external pH values; with VBNC cells this difference decreased progressively with time of incubation in microcosm water. Measurements of the cellular adenylate nucleotide concentrations revealed that the cells had a low adenylate energy charge (0.66 to 0.26) after 1 day of incubation in microcosm water, and AMP was the only nucleotide detected in the three strains after 30 days of incubation in microcosm water.  (+info)

Regulation of a volume-sensitive anion channel in rat pancreatic beta-cells by intracellular adenine nucleotides. (3/2294)

1. The patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration was used to measure the effects of intracellular adenine nucleotides on activity of the volume-sensitive anion channel in single, isolated rat pancreatic beta-cells. 2. In the absence of intracellular nucleotides, swelling of cells with a hypertonic pipette solution failed to activate the conductance. Addition of ATP over the range 2-10 mM maintaining the same degree of hypertonicity caused a progressive activation of the conductance. An increase in ATP produced a similar activation of the conductance in non-swollen cells, albeit with reduced current amplitudes. 3. Activation of the conductance was also observed in the presence of ATPgammaS, adenylyl imidophosphate (AMP-PNP), ADP, diadenosine tetraphosphate and GTPgammaS. Neither ADP nor GDPbetaS inhibited activation of the conductance by ATP. 4. It is concluded that activity of the beta-cell volume-sensitive anion channel can be modulated by changes in intracellular concentrations of ATP within the physiological concentration range by a mechanism that does not require nucleotide hydrolysis. Activity of the channel does not appear to be modulated by a G protein-coupled mechanism.  (+info)

Comparison of the mechanism of cytotoxicity of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2- fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine, 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro- beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine, and 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro- beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine in CEM cells. (4/2294)

In an effort to understand biochemical features that are important to the selective antitumor activity of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine [Cl-F( upward arrow)-dAdo], we evaluated the biochemical pharmacology of three structurally similar compounds that have quite different antitumor activities. Cl-F( upward arrow)-dAdo was 50-fold more potent as an inhibitor of CEM cell growth than were either 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine [Cl-F( downward arrow)-dAdo] or 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2, 2-difluoro-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine [Cl-diF( upward arrow downward arrow)-dAdo]. The compounds were similar as substrates of deoxycytidine kinase. Similar amounts of their respective triphosphates accumulated in CEM cells, and the rate of disappearance of these metabolites was also similar. Cl-F( upward arrow)-dAdo was 10- to 30-fold more potent in its ability to inhibit the incorporation of cytidine into deoxycytidine nucleotides than either Cl-F( downward arrow)-dAdo or Cl-diF( upward arrow downward arrow)-dAdo, respectively, which indicated that ribonucleotide reductase was differentially inhibited by these three compounds. Thus, the differences in the cytotoxicity of these agents toward CEM cells were not related to quantitative differences in the phosphorylation of these agents to active forms but can mostly be accounted for by differences in the inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Furthermore, the inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis by Cl-F( downward arrow)-dAdo and Cl-diF( upward arrow downward arrow)-dAdo at concentrations similar to those required for the inhibition of DNA synthesis can help explain the poor antitumor selectivity of these two agents because all cells require RNA and protein synthesis.  (+info)

Hypotension induced by exercise is associated with enhanced release of adenyl purines from aged rat artery. (5/2294)

To determine whether the antihypertensive effects of exercise are associated with release of ATP and its metabolites from arteries, we assayed blood pressure and the release of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides from the caudal arteries of exercised and sedentary aged hypercholesterolemic rats. Exercise on a treadmill for 12 wk significantly decreased the rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 7.5 and 15.9%, respectively, with advanced age. The concentrations of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids in the caudal artery decreased significantly with exercise, demonstrating an association between exercise and the unsaturation index of caudal arterial fatty acids. The amounts of total adenyl purines released by the arterial segments from exercised rats, both spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine, were significantly greater by 80.0 and 60.7%, respectively, than those released by tissues from sedentary rats. These results suggest that exercise alters the membrane fatty acid composition in aged rats as well as the release of ATP from vascular endothelial cells and that these factors are associated with the regression of the rise in blood pressure normally observed with advanced age.  (+info)

Effect of zinc on adenine nucleotide pools in relation to aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. (6/2294)

The adenylic acid systems of Aspergillus parasiticus were studied in zinc-replete and zinc-deficient media. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels of the fungus were high during exponential phase and low during stationary phase in zinc-replete cultures. On the other hand, the levels of adenosine 5'-diphosphate and adenosine 5'-monophosphate were low during exponential phase of growth and high during stationary phase. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels during exponential phase may indicate higher primary metabolic activity of the fungus. On the other hand, high adenosine 5'-monophosphate levels during stationary phase may inhibit lipid formation and may enhance aflatoxin levels. The inorganic phosphorus content was low in a zinc-replete medium throughout the growth period, thereby favoring aflatoxin biosynthesis. The energy charge during the exponential phase was high but low during the stationary phase. In general the energy charge values were lower because of high adenosine 5'-monophosphate content.  (+info)

Metabolism and the triggering of germination of Bacillus megaterium. Concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, adenine nucleotides and nicotinamide nucleotides during germination. (7/2294)

A considerable amount of evidence suggests that metabolism of germinants or metabolism stimulated by them is involved in triggering bacterial-spore germination. On the assumption that such a metabolic trigger might lead to relatively small biochemical changes in the first few minutes of germination, sensitive analytical techniques were used to detect any changes in spore components during the L-alanine-triggered germination of Bacillus megaterium KM spores. These experiments showed that no changes in spore free amino acids or ATP occurred until 2-3 min after L-alanine addition. Spores contained almost no oxo acids (pyruvate, alpha-oxoglutarate, oxaloacetate), malate or reduced NAD. These compounds were again not detectable until 2-3 min after addition of germinants. It is suggested, therefore, that metabolism associated with these intermediates is not involved in the triggering of germination of this organism.  (+info)

Cyanobacterial PPP family protein phosphatases possess multifunctional capabilities and are resistant to microcystin-LR. (8/2294)

The structural gene for a putative PPP family protein-serine/threonine phosphatase from the microcystin-producing cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7820, pp1-cyano1, was cloned. The sequence of the predicted gene product, PP1-cyano1, was 98% identical to that of the predicted product of an open reading frame, pp1-cyano2, from a cyanobacterium that does not produce microcystins, M. aeruginosa UTEX 2063. By contrast, PP1-cyano1 displayed less than 20% identity with other PPP family protein phosphatases from eukaryotic, archaeal, or other bacterial organisms. PP1-cyano1 and PP1-cyano2 were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Both enzymes exhibited divalent metal dependent phosphohydrolase activity in vitro toward phosphoserine- and phosphotyrosine-containing proteins and 3-phosphohistidine- and phospholysine-containing amino acid homopolymers. This multifunctional potential also was apparent in samples of PP1-cyano1 and PP1-cyano2 isolated from M. aeruginosa. Catalytic activity was insensitive to okadaic acid or the cyanobacterially produced cyclic heptapeptide, microcystin-LR, both potent inhibitors of mammalian PP1 and PP2A. PP1-cyano1 and PP1-cyano2 displayed diadenosine tetraphosphatase activity in vitro. Diadenosine tetraphosphatases share conserved sequence features with PPP family protein phosphatases. The diadenosine tetraphosphatase activity of PP1-cyano1 and PP1-cyano2 confirms that these enzymes share a common catalytic mechanism.  (+info)

The effect of the local anaesthetic, butacaine, on adenine nucleotide binding and translocation in rat liver mitochondria partially depleted of their adenine nucleotide content was investigated. The range of butacaine concentrations that inhibit adenine nucleotide translocation and the extent of the inhibition are similar to the values obtained for native mitochondria. Butacaine does not alter either the total number of atractyloside-sensitive binding sites of depleted mitochondria, or the affinity of these sites for ADP or ATP under conditions where a partial inhibition of the rate of adenine nucleotide translocation is observed. The data are consistent with an effect of butacaine on the process by which adenine nucleotides are transported across the mitochondrial inner membrane rather than on the binding of adenine nucleotides to sites on the adenine nucleotide carrier. The results are briefly discussed in relation to the use of local anaesthetics in investigations of the mechanism of adenine ...
During intense exercise a fraction of the ATP pool in human skeletal muscle is degraded to inosine-5-monophosphate (IMP). While most IMP is retained in the cell for reamination to AMP at rest, a significant fraction of IMP is further degraded to inosine and hypoxanthine and enter the bloodstream lowering the adenine nucleotide pool. Lost nucleotides must be restored via the purine salvage pathway or the de novo pathway of adenine nucleotide metabolism. The limiting step in nucleotide synthesis de novo is the availability of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP), which is formed from ribose-5-phosphate. The level of ribose in the muscle is limited; thus an increased availability of ribose may enhance the formation of PRPP and the rate of synthesis of adenine nucleotides. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of oral intake of ribose after frequent, high-intensity training on adenine nucleotide resynthesis. Such information will not only be useful for people performing regular ...
As potential autocrine or paracrine factors, extracellular nucleotides are known to be important regulators of renal ion transporters by activating cell surface receptors and intracellular signaling pathways. We investigated the influence of extracellular adenine nucleotides on Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) activity in A6-NHE3 cells. This is a polarized cell line obtained by stable transfection of A6 cells with the cDNA encoding the rat isoform of NHE3, which is expressed on the apical membrane. Basolateral addition of the P2Y(1) agonist, 2-Me-SADP, induced an inhibition of NHE3 activity, which was prevented by preincubation with selective P2Y(1) antagonists, MRS 2179 (N-6-methyl-2-deoxyadenosine-3,5-bisphosphate) and MRS 2286 (2-[2-(2-chloro-6-methylamino-purin-9-yl)-ethyl]-propane- 1,3-bisoxy(diammoniumphosphate)). NHE3 activity was also significantly inhibited by ATP and ATP-gamma-S but not by UTP. 2-Me-SADP induced a P2Y(1) antagonist-sensitive increase in both [Ca2+]i and cAMP ...
PAIVA NOVAES, Myriam Stella de; FERREIRA, F. D; NICOLAU, J. Adenine nucleotide contents and atpases activities in porcine deciduous dental pulp during the root formation, fully formed root and root resorption phases. Journal de Biologie Buccale, Paris, v. 17, p. 187-92, 1989 ...
In eukaryotic cells AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a major role in regulating cellular energy balance. AMPK responds to changes in intracellular adenine nucleotide levels, being activated by an increase in AMP/ADP relative to ATP. Activation of AMPK increases the rate of catabolic (ATP-generating) pathways and decreases the rate of anabolic (ATP-utilising) pathways. In addition to its role in maintaining intracellular energy balance, AMPK regulates whole body energy metabolism. Given its key role in controlling energy homeostasis, AMPK has attracted widespread interest as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and, more recently, cancer. Here I review the regulation of AMPK and its potential as a target for therapeutic intervention in human disease ...
Changes in adenylate energy charge (EC(A)) and in total adenine nucleotides (A(T)) and DNA content (both normalized to the abundance of free- living, groundwater bacteria) in response to carbon loading were determined for a laboratory-grown culture and for a contaminated aquifer. The latter study involved a 3-km-long transect through a contaminant plume resulting from continued on-land discharge of secondary sewage to a shallow, sandy aquifer on Cape Cod, Mass. With the exception of the most contaminated groundwater immediately downgradient from the contaminant source, DNA and adenylate levels correlated strongly with bacterial abundance and decreased exponentially with increasing distance downgradient. EC(A)s (0.53 to 0.60) and the ratios of ATP to DNA (0.001 to 0.003) were consistently low, suggesting that the unattached bacteria in this groundwater study are metabolically stressed, despite any eutrophication that might have occurred. Elevated EC(A)s (up to 0.74) were observed in glucose-amended
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene an enzyme which catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-phosphate from ATP to adenosine, thereby serving as a regulator of concentrations of both extracellular adenosine and intracellular adenine nucleotides. Adenosine has widespread effects on the cardiovascular, nervous, respiratory, and immune systems and inhibitors of the enzyme could play an important pharmacological role in increasing intravascular adenosine concentrations and acting as anti-inflammatory agents. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011 ...
Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2-, 3-, or 5-position.
Lipostabil Injections information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Sanofi-Aventis, Lipostabil Injections indications, usages and related health products lists
Dynamisan Comprimido Recubierto information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Novartis, Dynamisan Comprimido Recubierto indications, usages and related health products lists
D-ribose, a simple 5-carbon monosaccharide is used by all living cells as an essential compound in cellular energy metabolism. Ribose, needed to synthesize adenine nucleotides, is the carbohydrate backbone of genetic materia such as DNA, RNA and other important cellular compounds. Without ribose, tissues could not produce these life giving compounds. Adenine nucleotides are required by heart, muscle and other tissue to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary source of energy used by all cells to maintain normal health and function. When the pool of adenine nucleotides is depressed by disease or strenuous exercise or activity, the level of energy available to the cell is compromised. A reduction in cellular energy level can lead to diminished function and reduced physiological health.. For energy enhancement, ½ to 1 teaspoon (about 2 - 5 grams) is generally adequate although up to 15 grams per day can be taken safely.. Ribose is mildly sweet and completely soluble. It mixes easily with ...
In 2008, we discovered that intact kidneys produce large quantities of 2,3-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3,5-cAMP), that 2,3-cAMP derives from mRNA degrada...
The association between the energy charge and cellular damage caused by metabolic inhibitors was investigated in a cellular system of quiescent fibroblasts. The cell damage was assessed by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) which indicates a severe change of membrane integrity. Inhibition of glycolysis resulted in release of LDH when the energy charge decreased below 0.5 at an ATP level of 10% of the original level. If oxidative phosphorylation was inhibited, the energy charge decreased to 0.1-0.35 (dependent on the type of inhibitor) a long time before release of LDH, and no change occurred in the energy charge when release of LDH started. The ATP level was 0.5-2% of the original at this time. Even a decrease of the energy charge to 0.1 could be reversed to a normal level, and at the same time the morphological cellular changes were fully reversed and no release of LDH occurred. The conclusion is that no simple correlation between energy charge and cell survival exists. The different levels of
High-energy phosphates and related adenine nucleotides.Metabolites were measured by HPLC in Control, SHF and DHF hearts. A-C. Chromatograms of extracts from ven
Adenine nucleotides (AdNs) play important roles in immunity and inflammation. Extracellular AdNs, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and their metabolites, act as paracrine messengers by fine-tuning both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. Moreover, intracellular AdNs derived from ATP or NAD play important roles in many cells of the immune system, including T lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and others. These intracellular AdNs are signaling molecules that transduce incoming signals into meaningful cellular responses, e.g. activation of immune responses against pathogens. ...
Lysenin, a sphingomyelin-specific pore-forming toxin from earthworms; causes contraction of rat vascular smooth muscle. (Sekizawa et al., 1997; Shogomori and Kobayashi, 2007). Trp-20 is required for cation selective channel assembly (Kwiatkowska et al., 2007). Adenosine phosphates control the activity of lysenin channels inserted into planar lipid membranes with respect to their macroscopic conductance and voltage-induced gating. Addition of ATP, ADP, or AMP decreased the macroscopic conductance of lysenin channels in a concentration-dependent manner, with ATP being the most potent inhibitor and AMP the least (Bryant et al. 2016 ...
Johnson, M., Kaye, M.A.G., Hems, R. and Krebs, H.A. (1953). „Enzymic hydrolysis of adenosine phosphates by cobra venom". Biochem. J. 54: 625-629. PMID 13058963 ...
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IM De la Fuente, JM Cortes, E Valero, M Desroches, S Rodrigues, I Malaina and L Martinez. On the dynamics of the Adenylate Energy System: Homeorhesis vs Homeostasis. Plos One 9: e108676, 2014 [pdf]. Biochemical energy is the fundamental element that maintains both the adequate turnover of the biomolecular structures and the functional metabolic viability of unicellular organisms. The levels of ATP, ADP and AMP reflect roughly the energetic status of the cell, and a precise ratio relating them was proposed by Atkinson as the adenylate energy charge (AEC). Under growth-phase conditions, cells maintain the AEC within narrow physiological values, despite extremely large fluctuations in the adenine nucleotides concentration. Intensive experimental studies have shown that these AEC values are preserved in a wide variety of organisms, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here, to understand some of the functional elements involved in the cellular energy status, we present a computational model conformed by ...
There is provided a bioluminescence reagent comprising at least pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, phosphoenolpyruvic acid, pyrophosphoric acid, magnesium ion or another metallic ions, luciferin and luciferase, which reagent is such that the amount of luminescence is maintained in a high level and moreover stably without decaying for a long time in a bioluminescence reaction, and there is provided a method for quantitatively determining an adenosine phosphate ester or a substance taking part in the ATP conversion reaction in high sensitivity and high accuracy using an inexpensive and simple measuring apparatus.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of The effect of calcium on the translocation of adenine nucleotides in rat liver mitochondria. by Armando Gómez-Puyou et al.
Our results support that the increase in EGIs in the fasted heart is facilitated by the decrease in PFK‐2 protein content. For example, PFK‐1 protein levels and metabolic feedback inhibitors of PFK‐1, such as citrate and adenosine phosphates, are unchanged with fasting. Thus, the decrease in PFK‐1 activity is likely mediated by decreased content of fructose‐2,6‐bisphosphate. Unfortunately, fructose‐2,6‐bisphosphate is not detected by metabolomic analysis because of its low concentration, instability, and the unavailability of metabolic standards that would allow refinement of current analytical approaches. Nevertheless, the critical role of PFK‐2 in modulating EGIs is reciprocally supported by the metabolic analysis of hearts after isoproterenol stimulation. Under these conditions, activation of PFK‐2 results in a 90% decrease in EGIs (Figure 3C). In addition, Gibb et al have shown, through metabolic tracer studies in cardiomyocytes, that a decrease in PFK‐1 activity ...
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myokinase definition: adenylate kinase, a phosphotransferase chemical that catalyzes the interconversion of adenine nucleotides and plays a crucial role in mobile energy homeostasis.
Adenine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Adenine is available on the Drugs.com website.
Learn more about Adenine sulphate. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Adenine nucleotide transporter involved in the uniport of ATP and adenine nucleotide hetero-exchange transport between the cytosol and the peroxisomal lumen. This transport is accompanied by a proton transport from the peroxisomal lumen to the cytosol. Transport of ATP into the peroxisome is required for beta-oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids. Required for growth on medium-chain fatty acids, pH gradient formation in peroxisomes and for normal peroxisome proliferation.
Activation and aggregation of blood platelets is crucial for hemostasis and thrombosis. In the vascular system adenine nucleotides are important signaling molecules playing a key role in hemostasis. ADP was the first low molecular weight agent recognized to cause blood platelets activation and aggregation. NTPDases and adenylate kinase (AK) are the main enzymes involved in metabolism of extracellular adenine nucleotides. The majority of studies concentrated on the role of NTPDase1 (apyrase) in the inhibition of platelets aggregation. Up to now, there are still insufficient data concerning the role of AK in this process. We found that adenylate kinase activity in the serum of patients with myocardial infarction is significantly increased when compared to the healthy volunteers. The elevated activity of AK is connected to appearance of another isoform of that enzyme, expressed in patients with myocardial infarction. The influence of AK on the pig blood platelets aggregation induced by 20 μM ADP or 7.5
Looking for online definition of clofarabine in the Medical Dictionary? clofarabine explanation free. What is clofarabine? Meaning of clofarabine medical term. What does clofarabine mean?
... of procedure notching arbitrary due total ob or striking flood. Bini S, Khatod M, Cafri G, Chen Y, Paxton EW. Surgeon, read Adenosine, and above goals may reflect year in personal engine Protocols required for guilty metal. Gioe TJ, Novak C, Sinner scholarship, Ma W, Mehle S. Knee half in the previous insurance: fl in a n company. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2014 Nov 22; 15:390. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 6, West Section, Chia-Pu Road, Pu-Tz City, Chia-Yi Hsien 613, Taiwan. mechanism: joint results with Ranawat type-II Latin goal management with 188& wife abuse and sober ligaments that include total calcium unit( TKA) multiple. cars: Between January 2002 and January 2009, patterns with Ranawat type-II little und who said defensive TKA dug covered into this other essence. We fur kids to find that we specify you the best read Adenosine and Adenine Nucleotides: From ...
The strategy for treating relapsed and refractory adult ALL patients is through reinduction chemotherapy followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation, provided that the toxicity of the salvage regimen is acceptable. However, this leukemia is characterized as being highly refractory to standard chemotherapy and therefore novel therapeutic approaches are desperately needed. Clofarabine is a second generation nucleoside analog FDA approved for the treatment of relapsed and refractory pediatric ALL. Clofarabine has been administered to adult patients with hematologic malignancies with an acceptable toxicity profile with 8% of relapsed ALL patients attaining a complete response (CR). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of clofarabine IV in adult patients has been determined to be 40 mg/m2/day for 5 consecutive days, which is lower than the tolerable daily dose for pediatric patients, 52 mg/m2/day. More recently, Karp and colleagues reported their experience with clofarabine in combination with ...
1. Platelets containing adenine nucleotides labelled with3H and14C in vitro were aggregated biphasically with ADP and adrenaline. Amounts of ATP and ADP as well as the radioactivity of ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP, hypoxanthine and adenine were determined in platelets and plasma at different stages of aggregation. 2. ATP and ADP were released during the second aggregation phase and had a low specific radioactivity compared with the ATP and ADP retained by the cells. The specific radioactivity of intracellular nucleotides increased during release. The parameters observed with ADP and adrenaline as release inducers were the same as for collagen and thrombin. 3. Release induced by all four inducers was accompanied by conversion of cellular [3H]ATP into extracellular [3H]-hypoxanthine. By variation of temperature, inducer concentration, time after blood withdrawal and use of acetylsalicylic acid, the aggregation pattern caused by adrenaline and ADP could be made mono- or bi-phasic. Release or second-phase ...
The aim of this work was to determine the extent of bioaccumulation of fluorides in tissues of Helix aspersa maxima. The toxicity of fluorides administered orally on the energy balance of the snails foot was investigated based on measurements of concentrations of adenine nucleotides and their metabolism deg
Introduction: Prior studies demonstrate that ischemic preconditioning (IP) alters adenosine metabolism. The significance of this effect is not fully understood, but evidence suggests that reduction in extracellular adenosine may represent use as an alternative fuel. Transformation into AMP/ADP may also replenish intracellular total adenine nucleotides (TAN), improving the potential high-energy phosphate bonds available in cells facing ischemia. In both cases, adenosine supports cell energy requirements and may be a key component of IPs protective mechanisms. There are no previous studies of brain adenosine in human patients undergoing remote IP.. Methods: In adults with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 3-4 remote IP sessions were conducted on non-consecutive days, 4-12 days after hemorrhage. Each session consisted of 4 5-min cycles of lower extremity blood pressure cuff inflation to 30mmHg above systolic blood pressure, followed by 5-min reperfusion. Patients had microdialysis (MD) ...
Divalent cations are important in the folding and stabilization of complex RNA structures. The adenine-sensing riboswitch controls the expression of mRNAs for proteins involved in purine metabolism by directly sensing intracellular adenine levels. Adenine binds with high affinity and specificity to the ligand binding or aptamer domain of the adenine-sensing riboswitch. The X-ray structure of this domain in complex with adenine revealed an intricate RNA-fold consisting of a three-helix junction stabilized by long-range base-pairing interactions and identified five binding sites for hexahydrated Mg2+-ions. Furthermore, a role for Mg2+-ions in the ligand-induced folding of this RNA was suggested. Here, we describe the interaction of divalent cations with the RNA-adenine complex in solution as studied by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Paramagnetic line broadening, chemical shift mapping and intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) indicate the presence of at least three binding sites for ...
Dawson, J D. and Sauer, L A., "The effect of different incubation temperatures on the adenine nucleotide content of ehrlich-lettre ascites tumor cells." (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 33 ...
The goal of this clinical research study is to learn if clofarabine given by mouth on a weekly schedule can help to control MDS. The safety of clofarabine given by mouth will also be studied.
bis(5-nucleosyl)tetraphosphatase (asymmetrical): forms a nucleoside triphosphate plus a nucleoside monophosphate; for symmetrical cleavage, see bis(5-nucleosyl)tetraphosphatase (symmetrical)
Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2-, 3-, or 5-position ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between cladribine and clofarabine. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction.
Abstract The levels of serum insulin, glucagon, and free fatty acids (FFA) and the tissue concentrations of hepatic cyclic AMP, long-chain acyl-CoA (LCA), adenine nucleotides, inorganic phosphate, the intermediates of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, the citric acid cycle (including acetyl-CoA and free CoA), and the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox couples were determined in the rat 12, 24, and 48 h after food withdrawal and 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after the refeeding of glucose. Using the measured metabolite contents in the liver, the alterations in the concentration of malate, oxaloacetate, citrate, and α-ketoglutarate and the changes in the energy state of the adenine nucleotide system and the redox state of the NAD system were attributed to the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments by applying established calculation methods. Glucose refeeding provoked significant alterations in all parameters investigated. These changes occurred within minutes, reversing the hormone and ...
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Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2-, 3-, or 5-position.
Immobilized Nucleotides for Affinity Chromatography Affinity Chromatography Kits for Adenosine Nucleotide binding Proteins Affinity Kit Components
Carbohydrate metabolism of the lens depending on age. I. Factor analysis of changes in the content of adenine nucleotides, inorganic phosphate and lactate in bo
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Clofarabine (injection) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of pediatric patients 1 to 21 years old with relapsed acute or refractory lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who have had at least 2 prior treatment regimens.. There is no recommended standard treatment for relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia in older patients. Cytarabine is the most commonly used drug to treat these patients. This study will determine if there is benefit by combining clofarabine with cytarabine. Patients will be randomized to receive up to 3 cycles of treatment with either placebo in combination with cytarabine or clofarabine in combination with cytarabine. Randomization was stratified by remission status following the first induction regimen (no remission [i.e., CR1 = refractory] or remission ,6 months vs CR1 = remission ≥6 months). CR1 is defined as remission after first pre-study induction regimen. The safety and tolerability of clofarabine in combination with cytarabine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmaceutical development of the novel arsenical based cancer therapeutic GSAO for phase I clinical trial. AU - Elliott, Moira. AU - Ford, S J. AU - Prasad, E. AU - Dick, L J. AU - Farmer, H. AU - Hogg, P J. AU - Halbert, G W. N1 - Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.. PY - 2012/4/15. Y1 - 2012/4/15. N2 - The novel organoarsenical GSAO, 4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsonous acid, has potential anti-angiogenic capability with application in cancer where tumour metastasis relies on neo-vascularisation. As GSAO arsenic is trivalent, the arsenoxide moiety reacts with appropriately spaced cysteine residues on adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) mitochondrial membrane protein. Molecular oxidation of the arsenic to the pentavalent structure, as in the degradant GSAA (4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsonic acid), prevents sulphydryl interaction and risks abolition of activity. We report here on formulation studies aiming to produce a parenteral ...
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial transporters present in the inner membrane of mitochondria. They are found in all mammals and in plants. They belong to the family of anion mitochondrial carriers including adenine nucleotide transporters. The term uncoupling protein was originally used …
The goal of this clinical research study is to learn if the combination of clofarabine, idarubicin, and cytarabine, or the combination of fludarabine, idarubicin, and cytarabine can help control AML and MDS. The safety of these study drug combinations will also be studied.
Cyclic 3,5-adenosine monophosphate modulates vascular endothelial cell migration in vitro.: Using a modified Boyden chamber assay, we have examined the effect
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as clofarabine, daunorubicin hydrochloride, cytarabine, and decitabine, work in different ways to stop the gro
15731-72-3 - UEUPTUCWIHOIMK-RRKCRQDMSA-N - 2-Deoxy-3-adenosine monophosphate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Abstract The levels of serum insulin, glucagon, and free fatty acids (FFA) and the tissue concentrations of hepatic cyclic AMP, long-chain acyl-CoA (LCA), adenine nucleotides, inorganic phosphate, the intermediates of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, the citric acid cycle (including acetyl-CoA and free CoA), and the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox couples were determined in the rat 12, 24, and 48 h after food withdrawal and 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after the refeeding of glucose. Using the measured metabolite contents in the liver, the alterations in the concentration of malate, oxaloacetate, citrate, and α-ketoglutarate and the changes in the energy state of the adenine nucleotide system and the redox state of the NAD system were attributed to the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments by applying established calculation methods. Glucose refeeding provoked significant alterations in all parameters investigated. These changes occurred within minutes, reversing the hormone and ...
the enzyme RNA polymerase moves along one of the two DNA strands known as the template strand, causing the nucleotides on this strand to join with the individual complementary nucleotides from the pool of nucleotides in the nucleus. An exposed Adenine base on the DNA will join with a Uracil nucleotide, not a thymine! However Thymine on the DNa will still join with an Adenine nucleotide ...
Biology Assignment Help, What is nucleotides, What is Nucleotides? Nucleotides are the basic building blocks of nucleic acids. Each nucleotide is composed of a nitrogen base, a 5-carbon sugar called a pentose, and an associated phosphate group. The nitrogen bases are composed of either
|span class=noindent|D-ribose, a simple 5-carbon monosaccharide is used by all living cells as an essential compound in cellular energy metabolism. Ribose, needed to synthesize adenine nucleotides, is the carbohydrate backbone of genetic material - DNA
3,5-cAMP Na Hydrate 37839-81-9 MSDS report, 3,5-cAMP Na Hydrate MSDS safety technical specifications search, 3,5-cAMP Na Hydrate safety information specifications ect.
I want to start up some simple assays for cAMP levels in cultured cells. The approach I am going to take is to metabolically label the cells with [3H]-adenine, and then measure the [3H]-cAMP that is produced from drug treatments in the assay several hours later. Ideally, I would like the use cell culture medium that is deficient in adenine in order to increase the amount of hot adenine that is taken up. However, when I look over the list of ingredients in D-MEM, I see that adenine isnt one of them. Therefore, either the cells are making their own nucleotides, or their primary source of adenine must be from the FBS that we conventionally add to the D-MEM. Does anyone do these kind of assays, and do you typically remove the serum when you load the cells with hot adenine? If I can avoid serum-starving the cells, I would prefer to do so. John hines at pharm.med.upenn.edu ...
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You may be asked to name the three parts of a nucleotide and explain how they are connected or bonded to each other. Here's the answer for both DNA and RNA.
I agree with you Jo. This whole newly re-hashing what a cure is because of the change in reigns at JDRF has me a bit down. I hope for a cure, I pray for it - it is the greatest dream for me deep down in the pit of my everything. I was very disheartened to hear that my mother-in-law thought a cure would be the AP, I showed her Isaacs butt and said, A cure will not leave my child with holed, bruises, tape, and being tethered to more machines. It makes me cry so often to know what his body goes through and will go through until a cure is found. I do not believe a cure will be found through big organizations like JDRF, ADA or the likes - but I still support them. I just do it for other reasons ...
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Diadenosine triphosphate is present in platelet-dense granules and released quantitatively on platelet aggregation. We have found that intact porcine aortic endothelial cells can efficiently hydrolyze extracellular diadenosine triphosphate. The products of diadenosine triphosphate hydrolysis are adenosine monophosphate and adenosine diphosphate. Adenosine diphosphate is a potent stimulus of platelet aggregation. Since platelet-dense granules contain high concentrations of adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate, we examined endothelial cell hydrolysis of a mixture of diadenosine triphosphate and adenosine triphosphate. We find that the presence of adenosine triphosphate severely inhibits the hydrolysis of diadenosine triphosphate. Thus, although endothelial cells can rapidly clear extracellular diadenosine triphosphate, during platelet aggregation the hydrolysis of diadenosine triphosphate may be slow due to the presence of high concentrations of other adenine nucleotides. This ...
Increased O(2) metabolism resulting in chronic hypoxia is common in models of endstage renal disease. Mitochondrial uncoupling increases O(2) consumption but the ensuing reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential may limit excessive oxidative stress. The present study addressed the hypothesis that mitochondrial uncoupling regulates mitochondria function and oxidative stress in the diabetic kidney. Isolated mitochondria from kidney cortex of control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied before and after siRNA knockdown of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). Diabetes resulted in increased UCP-2 protein expression and UCP-2-mediated uncoupling, but normal mitochondria membrane potential. This uncoupling was inhibited by GDP, which also increased the membrane potential. siRNA reduced UCP-2 protein expression in controls and diabetics (-30-50%), but paradoxically further increased uncoupling and markedly reduced the membrane potential. This siRNA mediated uncoupling was unaffected by GDP ...
The dense granules of human platelets contain adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), ionized calcium (which is necessary for several steps of the coagulation cascade), and serotonin.[6] Dense granules are similar to lysosomes with an acidic pH and even some lysosomal proteins like CD63.[7] There is a granular adenine nucleotide pool within the dense granule. It is thought that it is made up of system of insoluble calcium. This pool is likely to be different than that of the cytoplasmic nucleotides. In some animals it has been shown that the platelets contain histamine.[3] During exocytosis, the pool of ATP within the dense granule is released. Serotonin is picked up by the dense granules where it interacts with ATP and calcium.[3] The serotonin that is then released by the dense granule, recruits other platelets and helps play a major role in stoping the loss of blood at the injury. The calcium from a dense granule accounts for the majority of the calcium within the platelets ...
RNase L and Ire1p are members of a superfamily of regulated endoribonucleases that play essential roles in mediating diverse types of cellular stress responses. 2′-5′ oligoadenylates, produced in response to interferon treatment and viral double-stranded RNA, are necessary to activate RNase L. In contrast, unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum activate Ire1p, a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase and endoribonuclease. To probe their similarities and differences, molecular properties of wild-type and mutant forms of human RNase L and yeast Ire1p were compared. Surprisingly, RNase L and Ire1p showed mutually exclusive RNA substrate specificity and partially overlapping but not identical requirements for phylogenetically conserved amino acid residues in their nuclease domains. A functional model for RNase L was generated based on the comparative analysis with Ire1p that assigns novel roles for ankyrin repeats and kinase-like domains.. ...
Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) has become widely accepted as a model organism for studies on Gram-positive bacteria. A deeper insight into the physiology of this prokaryote requires advanced studies of its metabolism. To provide a reliable basis for metabolome investigations, a validated experimental protocol is needed since the quality of the analytical sample and the final data are strongly affected by the sampling steps. To ensure that the sample analyzed precisely reflects the biological condition of interest, outside biases have to be avoided during sample preparation. Procedures for sampling, quenching, extraction of metabolites, cell disruption, as well as metabolite leakage were tested and optimized for B. subtilis. In particular the energy status of the bacterial cell, characterized by the adenylate energy charge, was used to evaluate sampling accuracy. Moreover, the results of the present study demonstrate that the cultivation medium can affect the efficiency of the developed sampling
This trial will investigate the efficacy and tolerability of clofarabine [Clolar; Genzyme Corporation] and cyclophosphamide [Cytoxan, Neosar] in patients with
As in the rabbit, dBSA tended to enhance the CCCP fee, but this was only major for succinate alone (P,.05). Not like the rabbit tubules, basal and oligomycin
Clofarabine (injection) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of pediatric patients 1 to 21 years old with relapsed ac
Ang Adenine(A, Ade) ay isang nucleobase(deribatibong purine) na may iba ibang mga tungkulin sa biokemika kabilang ang respirasyong selular sa anyo ng parehong mayaman sa enerhiyang adenosine triphosphate (ATP) at mga kapwa-paktor na nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) at flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), at sintesis ng protina bilang kemikal na sangkap ng DNA at RNA. Ang hugis ng adenine ay komplementaryo sa thymine sa DNA o uracil sa RNA. ...
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|span class=noindent|D-ribose, a simple 5-carbon monosaccharide is used by all living cells as an essential compound in cellular energy metabolism. Ribose, needed to synthesize adenine nucleotides, is the carbohydrate backbone of genetic material - DNA
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Get an answer for DNA MoleculeUnder normal circumctances, it is not possible for adenine to pair up with guanine or cytosine, or for any other mismatches to occur. Describe the two factors that prevent a mismatch from occcuring. and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
English: Nucleotides are nucleosides with one or more phosphate group. They may also contain diphosphate and triphosphate groups ...
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Synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator. 1 synonym for adenine: A. What are synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator?
INJECTION, ADENOSINE, 6 MG (NOT TO BE USED TO REPORT ANY ADENOSINE PHOSPHATE INJECTION, ADENOSINE, 90 MG (NOT TO BE USED TO REPORT ANY ADENOSINE PHOSPHATE INJECTION, ADRENALIN, EPINEPHRINE, UP TO 1 ML AMPULE INJECTION, ALATROFLOXACIN MESYLATE, 100 MG INJECTION, METHYLDOPATE HCL, UP TO 250 MG INJECTION, ALPHA 1 - PROTEINASE INHIBITOR - HUMAN, 10 MG INJECTION, AMIODARONE HYDROCHLORIDE, 30 MG INJECTION, AMPHOTERICIN B, ANY LIPID FORMULATION, 50 MG INJECTION, AMPHOTERICIN B LIPID COMPLEX, 10 MG INJECTION, AMPHOTERICIN B CHOLESTERYL SULFATE COMPLEX, 10 MG INJECTION, AMPHOTERICIN B LIPOSOME, 10 MG INJECTION, AMPICILLIN SODIUM/SULBACTAM SODIUM, PER 1.5 GM INJECTION, SUCCINYLCHOLINE CHLORIDE, UP TO 20 MG INJECTION, METARAMINOL BITARTRATE, PER 10 MG INJECTION, CHLOROQUINE HYDROCHLORIDE, UP TO 250 MG INJECTION, ATROPINE SULFATE, UP TO 0.3 MG INJECTION, BACLOFEN, 50 MCG FOR INTRATHECAL TRIAL INJECTION, BENZTROPINE MESYLATE, PER 1 MG INJECTION, BETHANECHOL CHLORIDE, MYOTONACHOL OR URECHOLINE, UP TO 5 MG ...
Diadenosine tetraphosphate or Ap4A is a putative alarmone, ubiquitous in nature being common to everything from bacteria to humans. Adenosine polyphosphates are capable of inducing multiple physiological effects. The molecules role as a second messenger has recently been discovered in The LysRS-Ap4A-MITF signaling pathway. *Luo J, Jankowski V, Güngär N, Neumann J, Schmitz W, Zidek W, Schlüter H, Jankowski J (2004). "Endogenous diadenosine tetraphosphate, diadenosine pentaphosphate, and diadenosine hexaphosphate in human myocardial tissue". Hypertension. 43 (5): 1055-9. doi:10.1161/01.hyp.0000126110.46402.dd. PMID 15066958. *Lee YN, Nechushtan H, Figov N, Razin E (April 2004). "The function of lysyl-tRNA synthetase and Ap4A as signaling regulators of MITF activity in FcepsilonRI-activated mast cells". Immunity. 20 (2): 145-51. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(04)00020-2. PMID 14975237 ...
Tool: bedtools nuc (aka nucBed) Version: v2.16.2 Summary: Profiles the nucleotide content of intervals in a fasta file. Usage: bedtools nuc [OPTIONS] -fi ,fasta, -bed ,bed/gff/vcf, Options: -fi Input FASTA file -bed BED/GFF/VCF file of ranges to extract from -fi -s Profile the sequence according to strand. -seq Print the extracted sequence -pattern Report the number of times a user-defined sequence is observed (case-sensitive). -C Igore case when matching -pattern. By defaulty, case matters. Output format: The following information will be reported after each BED entry: 1) %AT content 2) %GC content 3) Number of As observed 4) Number of Cs observed 5) Number of Gs observed 6) Number of Ts observed 7) Number of Ns observed 8) Number of other bases observed 9) The length of the explored sequence/interval. 10) The seq. extracted from the FASTA file. (opt., if -seq is used) 11) The number of times a users pattern was observed. (opt., if -pattern is used ...
adenine: Organic compound belonging to the purine family, occurring free in tea or combined in many substances of biological importance, including the nucleic acids, which govern hereditary...
Adenosine-5-triphosphate - adenozynotrifosforan (ATP), nukleotyd adenionowy (składa się z adenozyny i trzech grup fosforanowych. ATP jest wielofunkcyjnym nu...
Inhibition of full-length human KRas4B (amino acids 1 to 188)-SOS interaction assessed as inhibition of SOS-mediated nucleotide release ...
Looking for online definition of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in the Medical Dictionary? adenine nucleotide translocator 1 explanation free. What is adenine nucleotide translocator 1? Meaning of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 medical term. What does adenine nucleotide translocator 1 mean?
The acc locus from the classic nopaline-type Ti plasmid pTiC58 confers utilization of agrocinopines A+B and susceptibility to an antibiotic called agrocin 84. DNA sequence analyses revealed that acc is composed of eight genes, acc R, and accABCDEFG. accR codes for the repressor which regulates this locus. The predicted proteins from accABCDE are related to each component of ABC-type transport systems, while the predicted products of accF and accG are related to catabolic enzymes. Genetic analyses of insertion mutations showed that accABCDE are required for uptake of both agrocin 84 and agrocinopines, whereas accF and accG are required for utilization of the opines. The accF mutant was not susceptible to agrocin 84 although it took up the antibiotic. This suggests that agrocin 84 must be activated by functions coded for by accF after it is transported into the bacterium. Analysis of lacZ fusions showed that acc is induced in response to agrocinopines and to phosphate starvation. Analyses of ...
Find information about Clofarabine including usage and side effects. Browse our Drug Dictionary for generic drug names and brand names.
address: Changping District Of Beijing west tuo village harmonious weiye project base. Tel/Fax:+86-010-84956928 Mobile:+86-13811989488 E-MAIL:[email protected] Zip code: ...
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Effect of Glutamine, Glutamic Acid and Nucleotides on the Turnover of Carbon (δ13C) in Organs of Weaned Piglets - Liver;Pancreas;Pigs;Stable Isotopes;
Looking for nucleotide? Find out information about nucleotide. organic substance that serves as a monomer in forming nucleic acids nucleic acid, any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living... Explanation of nucleotide
Understanding why we get so mad behind someone walking slowly might be able to help us make better decisions about anger - and about helping other people, too.
"Thiaminylated adenine nucleotides. Chemical synthesis, structural characterization and natural occurrence". FEBS Journal. 276 ( ... "Discovery of a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide". Nature Chemical Biology. 3 (4): 211-212. doi:10.1038/nchembio867. PMID ...
Chevrollier A, Loiseau D, Reynier P, Stepien G (Jun 2011). "Adenine nucleotide translocase 2 is a key mitochondrial protein in ... Dupont PY, Stepien G (Nov 2011). "Computational analysis of the transcriptional regulation of the adenine nucleotide ... "Entrez Gene: SLC25A31 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 31". Gallerne C ... "The fourth isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator inhibits mitochondrial apoptosis in cancer cells". The International ...
2007). "Discovery of a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide". Nat. Chem. Biol. 3 (4): 211-2. doi:10.1038/nchembio867. PMID ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate, is a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide. It ...
Murugappan S, Shankar H, Kunapuli SP (2005). "Platelet receptors for adenine nucleotides and thromboxane A2". Semin. Thromb. ... A missense mutation that replaces thymine (T) with guanine (G) as the 175 nucleotide (c.175C>T) in the TBXA2R gene as well as ... A guanine (G) duplication at the 167th nucleotide causes a Frameshift mutation (c.165dupG) at amino acid #58 to yield a poorly ... Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variations in the TBXA2R gene have been associated with allergic and cardiovascular ...
ADP/ATP translocase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SLC25A4 gene or adenine nucleotide translocator, ANT. ... "Entrez Gene: SLC25A4 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4". Marzo I, ... "Deficiency of the adenine nucleotide translocator in muscle of a patient with myopathy and lactic acidosis: a new mitochondrial ... "A human muscle adenine nucleotide translocator gene has four exons, is located on chromosome 4, and is differentially expressed ...
Ku DH, Kagan J, Chen ST, Chang CD, Baserga R, Wurzel J (Sep 1990). "The human fibroblast adenine nucleotide translocator gene. ... Jang JY, Choi Y, Jeon YK, Kim CW (2008). "Suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 by vector-based siRNA in human breast ... Chevrollier A, Loiseau D, Reynier P, Stepien G (Jun 2011). "Adenine nucleotide translocase 2 is a key mitochondrial protein in ... Chevrollier A, Loiseau D, Reynier P, Stepien G (Jun 2011). "Adenine nucleotide translocase 2 is a key mitochondrial protein in ...
Other names in common use include adenylate deaminase, adenine nucleotide deaminase, and adenosine (phosphate) deaminase. Su JC ... Yates MG (1969). "A non-specific adenine nucleotide deaminase from desulfovibrio desulfuricans". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 171 (2 ...
Adenine Nucleotides in Cellular Energy Transfer and Signal Transduction. UNESCO. pp. 59-69. ISBN 9783034873154. Rây, Nirmalendu ...
Sanwal, B. D. (1969-04-10). "Regulatory mechanisms involving nicotinamide adenine nucleotides as allosteric effectors. I. ... Cohn, D. V. (1958-08-01). "The enzymatic formation of oxalacetic acid by nonpyridine nucleotide malic dehydrogenase of ... "The enzymatic formation of oxalacetic acid by nonpyridine nucleotide malic dehydrogenase of Micrococcus lysodeikticus". J. Biol ...
... which donates the ribose and phosphate necessary to create a nucleotide. Adenine and guanine are the two nucleotides classified ... ATP, a purine nucleotide, is an activator of pyrimidine synthesis, while CTP, a pyrimidine nucleotide, is an inhibitor of ... Excess of either nucleotide could increase the likelihood of DNA mutations, where the wrong purine nucleotide is inserted. ... Pyrimidine nucleotides include cytidine, uridine, and thymidine. The synthesis of any pyrimidine nucleotide begins with the ...
The rate at which PAP adds adenine nucleotides is dependent on the presence of another regulatory protein, PABPII (poly-adenine ... which accelerates the rate of adenine addition by PAP. The final tail is about 200-250 adenine nucleotides long. PAP is ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing nucleotide groups ( ... whereas its two products are pyrophosphate and RNA with an extra adenosine nucleotide at its 3' end. ...
The way it binds NADPH differs from other nucleotide adenine dinucleotide-dependent enzymes. The active site pocket of human ... It is a reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent enzyme catalyzing the reduction of various ... It is a reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent enzyme catalyzing the reduction of various ... "Nucleotide sequence of cDNA for human aldose reductase". Nucleic Acids Research. 17 (20): 8368. doi:10.1093/nar/17.20.8368 ...
Kim JY, So KJ, Lee S, Park JH (Sep 2012). "Bcl-rambo induces apoptosis via interaction with the adenine nucleotide translocator ... Bcl-rambo mediates apoptosis by associating with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), a component of the mitochondrial ...
... containing two nucleotides. One of the nucleotides it contains is an adenine group, while the other is nicotinamide. In order ... that consists of an adenine nucleotide and a flavin mononucleotide. FAD is a unique electron acceptor. Its fully oxidized form ... FAD, or flavin adenine dinucleotide, is a prosthetic group (a non-polypeptide unit bound to a protein that is required for ... Electron carriers are coenzymes that are often referred to as "redox cofactors." NAD+, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is ...
Pressman BC (June 1958). "Intramitochondrial nucleotides. I. Some factors affecting net interconversions of adenine nucleotides ... Bruni A, Luciani S, Contessa AR (March 1964). "Inhibition by atractyloside of the binding of adenine-nucleotides to rat-liver ... In 1955, Siekevitz and Potter demonstrated that adenine nucleotides were distributed in cells in two pools located in the ... ADP/ATP translocases, also known as adenine nucleotide translocases (ANT) and ADP/ATP carrier proteins (AAC), are transporter ...
The third nucleotide is either guanine or adenine. The next four nucleotides are always the same: cytosine, guanine, cytosine, ... The BRE is a cis-regulatory element that is found immediately upstream of the TATA box, and consists of 7 nucleotides. The BRE ... was discovered in 1998 by Richard Ebright and co-workers The first two nucleotides of the BRE sequence can be either guanine or ...
2002). "Extracellular adenine nucleotides inhibit the activation of human CD4+ T lymphocytes". J. Immunol. 169 (1): 15-21. doi: ...
2002). "Extracellular adenine nucleotides inhibit the activation of human CD4+ T lymphocytes". J. Immunol. 169 (1): 15-21. doi: ... 1995). "Initial assessment of human gene diversity and expression patterns based upon 83 million nucleotides of cDNA sequence ... for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor is coupled to the stimulation of the phosphoinositide and adenylyl ... "Structure and ligand-binding site characteristics of the human P2Y11 nucleotide receptor deduced from computational modelling ...
ADP is the strongest adenine nucleotide activator of glutaminase. Studies have also suggested ADP lowered the K(m) for ...
Rapaport, E.; Fontaine J (1989). "Anticancer activities of adenine nucleotides in mice are mediated through expansion of ... Most are designed to mimic single DNA bases, nucleosides, or nucleotides in order to nonspecifically target DNA. These have ...
Zimmermann, H. (1978). "Turnover of adenine nucleotides in cholinergic synaptic vesicles of the Torpedo electric organ". ... More recently he analyzed the proteome of synaptic vesicles and the role of nucleotide signaling in the control of adult ... doi:10.1016/s0028-3908(97)00115-9. Illes, P., Zimmermann H. (eds.) (1999) Nucleotides and their Receptors in the Nervous System ... "Extracellular nucleotide signaling in adult neural stem cells: synergism with growth factor-mediated cellular proliferation". ...
Phillis, J. W.; Edstrom, J. P.; Kostopoulos, G. K.; Kirkpatrick, J. R. (1979). "Effects of adenosine and adenine nucleotides on ...
The first nucleotide to be expanded was the purine adenine. Nelson J. Leonard and colleagues synthesized this original x- ... By replacing one nucleotide in a double-helix with an expanded nucleotide, the strength of the stacking interactions increases ... The base pairs between y-nucleotides and natural nucleotides is planar, rather than slightly twisted as with xDNA. This ... nucleotide, which was referred to as "expanded adenine". xA was used as a probe in the investigation of active sites of ATP- ...
Agrocin 84 is a disubstituted adenine nucleotide antibiotic made by and specific for Agrobacteria. It is encoded by the pAgK84 ...
"Agaric acid induces mitochondrial permeability transition through its interaction with the adenine nucleotide translocase. Its ... Agaric acid induces the mitochondrial permeability transition by collaborating with adenine nucleotide translocase. It ...
When adenine is deaminated, it becomes hypoxanthine. Hypoxanthine can bind to cytosine, and when the XC base pair is replicated ... RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript prior to translation to protein. ... When adenine is deaminated, it becomes hypoxanthine, which can pair with cytosine. During replication, the cytosine will pair ... "Effect of chemical mutagens on nucleotide sequence". Biocyclopedia. Retrieved 24 October 2015.. ...
Adenine nucleotide transporter involved in the uniport of ATP and adenine nucleotide hetero-exchange transport between the ... Adenine nucleotide transporter involved in the uniport of ATP and adenine nucleotide hetero-exchange transport between the ... adenine nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity Source: SGD ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a ... "The yeast peroxisomal adenine nucleotide transporter: characterization of two transport modes and involvement in DeltapH ...
Carboxyatractyloside effects on brown-fat mitochondria imply that the adenine nucleotide translocator isoforms ANT1 and ANT2 ... adenine nucleotide translocator) in the mediation of this UCP1-independent fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in brown-fat ... Carboxyatractyloside effects on brown-fat mitochondria imply that the adenine nucleotide translocator isoforms ANT1 and ANT2 ... Uncoupling protein 1 inhibition by purine nucleotides is under the control of the endogenous ubiquinone redox state Biochem J ( ...
... on adenine nucleotide binding and translocation in rat liver mitochondria partially depleted of their adenine nucleotide ... across the mitochondrial inner membrane rather than on the binding of adenine nucleotides to sites on the adenine nucleotide ... The effect of butacaine on adenine nucleotide binding and translocation in rat liver mitochondria. D R Fayle, G J Barritt, F L ... The data are consistent with an effect of butacaine on the process by which adenine nucleotides are transported ...
Antonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator. 1 synonym for adenine: A. What are synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator? ... Synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator in Free Thesaurus. ... Related to Adenine nucleotide translocator: adenine nucleotide ... adenine. (redirected from Adenine nucleotide translocator). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, ... Adenine nucleotide translocator synonyms, Adenine nucleotide translocator antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com https://www. ...
Adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2), one of the four adenine nucleotide translocase isoforms expressed in humans, is ... Adenine nucleotide translocase, a protein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, catalyzes the exchange of mitochondrial ... Jang JY, Jeon YK, Kim CW: Suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 by vector-based siRNA in human breast cancer cells ... Luciakova K, Barath P, Poliakova D, Persson A, Nelson BD: Repression of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene in ...
Tullson P. C., Whitlock, D. M. & Terjung, R. L. (1990). Adenine nucleotide degradation in slow-twitch red muscle. American ... Sahlin K. & Broberg, S. (1990). Adenine nucleotide depletion in human muscle during exercise: Causality and significance of AMP ... Muscle nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP), nucleosides (adenosine, inosine), and bases (hypoxanthine, xanthine, adenine) were ... Flanagan W. F., Holmes, E. W., Sabina, R. L. & Swain, J. L. (1986). Importance of purine nucleotide cycle to energy production ...
Abbreviations: ANT, adenine nucleotide translocator; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; MCS, mitochondrial contact site; MIM, ...
In addition, the effect of the synchronizing temperature (34 °C) on adenine... ... The metabolism of acid soluble adenine nucleotides in heat-synchronized Tetrahymena pyriformisGL has been studied. ... Nucleotide Cell Cycle Cell Division Adenine Heat Treatment These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This ... The specific activities of the adenine nucleotides were found to be significantly higher during a pulse label period performed ...
adenine nucleotide translocase;. DNP,. 2,4-dinitrophenyl;. DNPH,. 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine;. HNE,. 4-hydroxynonenal. ... Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase is modified oxidatively during aging Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase is modified oxidatively during aging. Liang-Jun Yan and Rajindar S. Sohal ... Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) was found to be the only protein in the mitochondrial membranes exhibiting a detectable ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator synonyms, Adenine nucleotide translocator pronunciation, Adenine nucleotide translocator ... English dictionary definition of Adenine nucleotide translocator. n. Abbr. A A purine base, C5H5N5, that is the constituent ... Related to Adenine nucleotide translocator: adenine nucleotide translocator 2. ad·e·nine. (ăd′n-ēn′, -ĭn). n. Abbr. A. A purine ... adenine. (redirected from Adenine nucleotide translocator). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adenine Nucleotide ... Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocator, exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix and ... "Role of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in mtDNA maintenance". Science. 289 (5480): 782-785. doi:10.1126/science.289.5480.782 ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody validated for WB, IP and tested in Human. With 2 independent ... Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody. See all Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 primary antibodies. ... Immunoprecipitation of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 transfected lysate using ab118125 and Protein A Magnetic Bead, and ... Recombinant full length protein, corresponding to amino acids 1-298 of Human Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 (NP_001143.2). ...
Adenine nucleotide translocase 2 is a key mitochondrial protein in cancer metabolism.. Chevrollier A1, Loiseau D, Reynier P, ... Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), a mitochondrial protein that facilitates the exchange of ADP and ATP across the ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/genetics. *Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/metabolism. *Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ ...
Adenine nucleotide and lysine transport in Chlamydia psittaci.. T P Hatch, E Al-Hossainy, J A Silverman ... Adenine nucleotide and lysine transport in Chlamydia psittaci. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The results support the concept that chlamydiae are energy parasites which are capable of drawing upon the adenine nucleotides ... Other nucleotides tested had no effect on the uptake of ATP. A magnesium-dependent, oligomycin-sensitive ATPase (ATP ...
Regional responses within the kidney to ischemia: assessment of adenine nucleotide and catabolite profiles.. Zager RA1, Gmur DJ ... Adenine nucleotides/catabolites were measured in rat C, IM and outer medulla (OM) after 15 and 45 min of ischemia. After 15 min ...
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Human. Independently ... Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. See all Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 primary antibodies. ... All lanes : Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab221956) at 1/100 dilution. Lane 1 : RT-4 cell lysate. Lane ... This product Rabbit Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab221956) IHC-P, WB ...
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Rat, Human. Immunogen ... Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. See all Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 primary antibodies. ... All lanes : Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab192410). Lane 1 : A549 whole cell lysate. Lane 2 : PC12 ... Protein - Recombinant Human Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 protein (ab157891) WB, ELISA ...
Age Changes in Adenine Nucleotides in Flight Muscle of Male House Fly ... Age Changes in Adenine Nucleotides in Flight Muscle of Male House Fly ... Age Changes in Adenine Nucleotides in Flight Muscle of Male House Fly ... Age Changes in Adenine Nucleotides in Flight Muscle of Male House Fly ...
Increased Sensitivity in the Detection of Adenine and Pyridine Nucleotides by Exposure to Ultraviolet Light at Low Temperature ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 Antibody. Validated: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, ... Home » Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 » Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 Antibodies » Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 ... Blogs on Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1. Check out the latest blog posts on Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1. ... Reviews for Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 Antibody (NBP1-59594) (0) There are no reviews for Adenine Nucleotide Translocase ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1. Subscribe to New Research on Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 ... ANT-1 Transport Protein; ANT1 Transport Protein; Adenine Nucleotide Carrier Protein; Adenine Nucleotide Translocator, Muscle ... Nucleotide Transport Proteins*ATP Translocases Mitochondrial ADP: 95*Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: 14 ...
Role of adenine nucleotide translocase.. Roussel J1, Thireau J1, Brenner C2, Saint N1, Scheuermann V1, Lacampagne A1, Le ... In isolated cardiac mitochondria from C57Bl/6 mice, application of 10μM PC decreased adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) ...
Transit Time Adenine Nucleotide Metabolic Fate Pulmonary Circulation Polar Metabolite These keywords were added by machine and ... Metabolic Fates of Bradykinin, Angiotensin I, Adenine Nucleotides and Prostaglandins E1 and F1α in the Pulmonary Circulation. ... Ryan J.W., Niemeyer R.S., Goodwin D.W. (1972) Metabolic Fates of Bradykinin, Angiotensin I, Adenine Nucleotides and ...
Adenine nucleotide translocase 4 is expressed within embryonic ovaries and dispensable during oogenesis.. [Chae Ho Lim, Jeffrey ... Adenine nucleotide translocase (Ant) facilitates the exchange of adenosine triphosphate across the mitochondrial inner membrane ...
... Ji- ... Ji-Young Jang and Choong-Eun Lee, "Expression of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator Correlates with the IL-4-induced lymphocyte ...
  • The apparent Km of transport for both ATP and ADP was approximately 5 microM, and the calculated Vmax for both was about 1 nmol of nucleotide transported per min per mg of protein. (asm.org)
  • Further, a mass spectrometric protein profiling approach is employed to quantitatively identify small variations in expression of nucleoside and nucleotide binding proteins in samples of interest. (usf.edu)
  • The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. (nih.gov)
  • The rate at which PAP adds adenine nucleotides is dependent on the presence of another regulatory protein, PABPII (poly-adenine binding protein II). (wikipedia.org)
  • In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • classical genetics cloning codominance codon A series of three nucleotides in a coding region of a nucleid acid sequence which code for a particular amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell 13:565-572, doi:10.1016/0092-8674(78)90329-X]. Williams BRG and Kerr IM (1978) Inhibition of protein synthesis by 2′-5′ linked adenine nucleotides in intact cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a regulatory protein that controls the rate at which polyadenine polymerase (PAP) adds adenine nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing tail within the nucleus of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because effects of febuxostat were canceled by silencing of the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 gene in cultured tubular cells, mechanisms for the renoprotective effects appear to involve the purine salvage pathway, which uses hypoxanthine to resynthesize adenine nucleotides, including ATP. (jci.org)
  • The "G20210A" refers to the fact that the mutation is a guanine (G) to adenine (A) substitution at position 20210 of the DNA of the prothrombin gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polymorphism is located in a noncoding region of the prothrombin gene (3' untranslated region nucleotide 20210), replacing guanine with adenine. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tend to be slightly shorter (1100-1300 nucleotides) but to encode proteins in addition to the rep gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several single nucleotide polymorphisms of this gene are known to have a significant correlation with blood uric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene has numerous single nucleotide variants as well as other variations, some of which have been associated with human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three arise from nucleotide insertions in the ferritin light chain (FTL) polypeptide gene while the fourth arises from a missense mutation in the FTL gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene has numerous single nucleotide variants as well as other variations, two of which (see Pathophysiology section) have been associated with human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This preparation was used to investigate the effects of adenine nucleotides, KCl and the required bivalent metal ions, Mg2+ and Mn2+, on the regulation of the enzyme by Ca2+. (biochemj.org)
  • Ca2+, Mg2+, caffeine, and adenine nucleotides, but not inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, may exert their inotropic effects on skeletal muscle SR by direct allosteric modulation of the [3H]ryanodine-binding site. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Changes in adenylate energy charge (EC(A)) and in total adenine nucleotides (A(T)) and DNA content (both normalized to the abundance of free- living, groundwater bacteria) in response to carbon loading were determined for a laboratory-grown culture and for a contaminated aquifer. (usgs.gov)
  • An analytical technique was developed to measure adenine nucleotide levels (ATP, ADP, AMP) and adenylate energy charge (EC) in Zostera marina (eelgrass), a submerged marine angiosperm. (wm.edu)
  • An XOD inhibitor, febuxostat, which blocks the degradation pathway of adenine nucleotides, promoted ATP recovery and exerted renoprotective effects in the postischemic kidney. (jci.org)
  • In this research, an affinity based approach for the enrichment of nucleotide and nucleoside binding proteins from a complex cell proteome has been developed. (usf.edu)
  • To achieve this goal, new N6-biotinylated-8-azido-adenosine probes (AdoRs) have been designed and synthesized to photolabel the nucleotide and nucleoside binding proteins. (usf.edu)
  • The approach was extended to compare the proteomic profiles of nucleotide and nucleoside binding proteins in cancerous (Hey) and non-cancerous (T-80) human ovarian cell proteome. (usf.edu)
  • DNA and RNA molecules are each written in a language using four "letters" (four nucleotide bases), but the language used to construct proteins includes 20 "letters" (20 different amino acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • HPLC/HPLC-MS of adenine nucleotides. (zeit.de)
  • I utilized anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate and simultaneously quantitate ATP, ADP, AMP and adenine levels in the same sample aliquot, so that cellular energy charge can be calculated. (oxphos.net)
  • High-energy phosphates and related adenine nucleotides.Metabolites were measured by HPLC in Control, SHF and DHF hearts. (nih.gov)
  • Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972) Flavin adenine dinucleotide is approved for use in Japan under the trade name Adeflavin as an ophthalmic treatment for vitamin B2 deficiency. (rcsb.org)
  • Because the bond between the isoalloxazine and the ribitol is not considered to be a glycosidic bond, the flavin mononucleotide is not truly a nucleotide. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the flavin mononucleotide group is still very close to a nucleotide in its structure and chemical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenine nucleotides (AdNs) play important roles in immunity and inflammation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Within Collaborative Research Center (Sonderforschungsbereich) 1328 „Adenine Nucleotides in Immunity and Inflammation" that started work on July 01, 2018, we offer a multitude of collaborative possibilities, either with basic biomedical subjects such as biochemistry or immunology, or with clinical collaboration partners. (zeit.de)