A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in the LIVER.
An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.
A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides with the elimination of ammonia.
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Very toxic and complex pyrone derivatives from the fungus Calcarisporium arbuscula. They bind to and inhibit mitochondrial ATPase, thereby uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. They are used as biochemical tools.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
An aminobenzoic acid isomer that combines with pteridine and GLUTAMIC ACID to form FOLIC ACID. The fact that 4-aminobenzoic acid absorbs light throughout the UVB range has also resulted in its use as an ingredient in SUNSCREENS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A mitochondrial myopathy characterized by slowly progressive paralysis of the levator palpebrae, orbicularis oculi, and extraocular muscles. Ragged-red fibers and atrophy are found on muscle biopsy. Familial and sporadic forms may occur. Disease onset is usually in the first or second decade of life, and the illness slowly progresses until usually all ocular motility is lost. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1422)
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. In humans, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 in muscle exists as the homotetramer of M subunits. Defects in this muscle enzyme cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE VII, also known as Tarui's disease.
An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Voltage-dependent anion channel 2 is a low abundance mammalian isoform of VDAC that interacts with the inactive form of BAK PROTEIN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC EC
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
Members of a family of highly conserved proteins which are all cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE). They bind the immunosuppressant drugs CYCLOSPORINE; TACROLIMUS and SIROLIMUS. They possess rotamase activity, which is inhibited by the immunosuppressant drugs that bind to them.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.
A polypeptide antibiotic mixture obtained from Bacillus brevis. It consists of a mixture of three tyrocidines (60%) and several gramicidins (20%) and is very toxic to blood, liver, kidneys, meninges, and the olfactory apparatus. It is used topically.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)

Cross-linking of two beta subunits in the closed conformation in F1-ATPase. (1/2294)

In the crystal structure of mitochondrial F1-ATPase, two beta subunits with a bound Mg-nucleotide are in "closed" conformations, whereas the third beta subunit without bound nucleotide is in an "open" conformation. In this "CCO" (beta-closed beta-closed beta-open) conformational state, Ile-390s of the two closed beta subunits, even though they are separated by an intervening alpha subunit, have a direct contact. We replaced the equivalent Ile of the alpha3beta3gamma subcomplex of thermophilic F1-ATPase with Cys and observed the formation of the beta-beta cross-link through a disulfide bond. The analysis of conditions required for the cross-link formation indicates that: (i) F1-ATPase takes the CCO conformation when two catalytic sites are filled with Mg-nucleotide, (ii) intermediate(s) with the CCO conformation are generated during catalytic cycle, (iii) the Mg-ADP inhibited form is in the CCO conformation, and (iv) F1-ATPase dwells in conformational state(s) other than CCO when only one (or none) of catalytic sites is filled by Mg-nucleotide or when catalytic sites are filled by Mg2+-free nucleotide. The alpha3beta3gamma subcomplex containing the beta-beta cross-link retained the activity of uni-site catalysis but lost that of multiple catalytic turnover, suggesting that open-closed transition of beta subunits is required for the rotation of gamma subunit but not for hydrolysis of a single ATP.  (+info)

Physiological characterization of viable-but-nonculturable Campylobacter jejuni cells. (2/2294)

Campylobacter jejuni is a pathogenic, microaerophilic, gram-negative, mesophilic bacterium. Three strains isolated from humans with enteric campylobacteriosis were able to survive at high population levels (10(7) cells ml-1) as viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC) forms in microcosm water. The VBNC forms of the three C. jejuni strains were enumerated and characterized by using 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride-4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole staining. Cellular volume, adenylate energy charge, internal pH, intracellular potassium concentration, and membrane potential values were determined in stationary-phase cell suspensions after 48 h of culture on Columbia agar and after 1 to 30 days of incubation in microcosm water and compared. A notable increase in cell volume was observed with the VBNC state; the average cell volumes were 1.73 microliter mg of protein-1 for the culturable form and 10.96 microliter mg of protein-1 after 30 days of incubation in microcosm water. Both the internal potassium content and the membrane potential were significantly lower in the VBNC state than in the culturable state. Culturable cells were able to maintain a difference of 0.6 to 0.9 pH unit between the internal and external pH values; with VBNC cells this difference decreased progressively with time of incubation in microcosm water. Measurements of the cellular adenylate nucleotide concentrations revealed that the cells had a low adenylate energy charge (0.66 to 0.26) after 1 day of incubation in microcosm water, and AMP was the only nucleotide detected in the three strains after 30 days of incubation in microcosm water.  (+info)

Regulation of a volume-sensitive anion channel in rat pancreatic beta-cells by intracellular adenine nucleotides. (3/2294)

1. The patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration was used to measure the effects of intracellular adenine nucleotides on activity of the volume-sensitive anion channel in single, isolated rat pancreatic beta-cells. 2. In the absence of intracellular nucleotides, swelling of cells with a hypertonic pipette solution failed to activate the conductance. Addition of ATP over the range 2-10 mM maintaining the same degree of hypertonicity caused a progressive activation of the conductance. An increase in ATP produced a similar activation of the conductance in non-swollen cells, albeit with reduced current amplitudes. 3. Activation of the conductance was also observed in the presence of ATPgammaS, adenylyl imidophosphate (AMP-PNP), ADP, diadenosine tetraphosphate and GTPgammaS. Neither ADP nor GDPbetaS inhibited activation of the conductance by ATP. 4. It is concluded that activity of the beta-cell volume-sensitive anion channel can be modulated by changes in intracellular concentrations of ATP within the physiological concentration range by a mechanism that does not require nucleotide hydrolysis. Activity of the channel does not appear to be modulated by a G protein-coupled mechanism.  (+info)

Comparison of the mechanism of cytotoxicity of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2- fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine, 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro- beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine, and 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro- beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine in CEM cells. (4/2294)

In an effort to understand biochemical features that are important to the selective antitumor activity of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine [Cl-F( upward arrow)-dAdo], we evaluated the biochemical pharmacology of three structurally similar compounds that have quite different antitumor activities. Cl-F( upward arrow)-dAdo was 50-fold more potent as an inhibitor of CEM cell growth than were either 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine [Cl-F( downward arrow)-dAdo] or 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2, 2-difluoro-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine [Cl-diF( upward arrow downward arrow)-dAdo]. The compounds were similar as substrates of deoxycytidine kinase. Similar amounts of their respective triphosphates accumulated in CEM cells, and the rate of disappearance of these metabolites was also similar. Cl-F( upward arrow)-dAdo was 10- to 30-fold more potent in its ability to inhibit the incorporation of cytidine into deoxycytidine nucleotides than either Cl-F( downward arrow)-dAdo or Cl-diF( upward arrow downward arrow)-dAdo, respectively, which indicated that ribonucleotide reductase was differentially inhibited by these three compounds. Thus, the differences in the cytotoxicity of these agents toward CEM cells were not related to quantitative differences in the phosphorylation of these agents to active forms but can mostly be accounted for by differences in the inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Furthermore, the inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis by Cl-F( downward arrow)-dAdo and Cl-diF( upward arrow downward arrow)-dAdo at concentrations similar to those required for the inhibition of DNA synthesis can help explain the poor antitumor selectivity of these two agents because all cells require RNA and protein synthesis.  (+info)

Hypotension induced by exercise is associated with enhanced release of adenyl purines from aged rat artery. (5/2294)

To determine whether the antihypertensive effects of exercise are associated with release of ATP and its metabolites from arteries, we assayed blood pressure and the release of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides from the caudal arteries of exercised and sedentary aged hypercholesterolemic rats. Exercise on a treadmill for 12 wk significantly decreased the rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 7.5 and 15.9%, respectively, with advanced age. The concentrations of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids in the caudal artery decreased significantly with exercise, demonstrating an association between exercise and the unsaturation index of caudal arterial fatty acids. The amounts of total adenyl purines released by the arterial segments from exercised rats, both spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine, were significantly greater by 80.0 and 60.7%, respectively, than those released by tissues from sedentary rats. These results suggest that exercise alters the membrane fatty acid composition in aged rats as well as the release of ATP from vascular endothelial cells and that these factors are associated with the regression of the rise in blood pressure normally observed with advanced age.  (+info)

Effect of zinc on adenine nucleotide pools in relation to aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. (6/2294)

The adenylic acid systems of Aspergillus parasiticus were studied in zinc-replete and zinc-deficient media. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels of the fungus were high during exponential phase and low during stationary phase in zinc-replete cultures. On the other hand, the levels of adenosine 5'-diphosphate and adenosine 5'-monophosphate were low during exponential phase of growth and high during stationary phase. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels during exponential phase may indicate higher primary metabolic activity of the fungus. On the other hand, high adenosine 5'-monophosphate levels during stationary phase may inhibit lipid formation and may enhance aflatoxin levels. The inorganic phosphorus content was low in a zinc-replete medium throughout the growth period, thereby favoring aflatoxin biosynthesis. The energy charge during the exponential phase was high but low during the stationary phase. In general the energy charge values were lower because of high adenosine 5'-monophosphate content.  (+info)

Metabolism and the triggering of germination of Bacillus megaterium. Concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, adenine nucleotides and nicotinamide nucleotides during germination. (7/2294)

A considerable amount of evidence suggests that metabolism of germinants or metabolism stimulated by them is involved in triggering bacterial-spore germination. On the assumption that such a metabolic trigger might lead to relatively small biochemical changes in the first few minutes of germination, sensitive analytical techniques were used to detect any changes in spore components during the L-alanine-triggered germination of Bacillus megaterium KM spores. These experiments showed that no changes in spore free amino acids or ATP occurred until 2-3 min after L-alanine addition. Spores contained almost no oxo acids (pyruvate, alpha-oxoglutarate, oxaloacetate), malate or reduced NAD. These compounds were again not detectable until 2-3 min after addition of germinants. It is suggested, therefore, that metabolism associated with these intermediates is not involved in the triggering of germination of this organism.  (+info)

Cyanobacterial PPP family protein phosphatases possess multifunctional capabilities and are resistant to microcystin-LR. (8/2294)

The structural gene for a putative PPP family protein-serine/threonine phosphatase from the microcystin-producing cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7820, pp1-cyano1, was cloned. The sequence of the predicted gene product, PP1-cyano1, was 98% identical to that of the predicted product of an open reading frame, pp1-cyano2, from a cyanobacterium that does not produce microcystins, M. aeruginosa UTEX 2063. By contrast, PP1-cyano1 displayed less than 20% identity with other PPP family protein phosphatases from eukaryotic, archaeal, or other bacterial organisms. PP1-cyano1 and PP1-cyano2 were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Both enzymes exhibited divalent metal dependent phosphohydrolase activity in vitro toward phosphoserine- and phosphotyrosine-containing proteins and 3-phosphohistidine- and phospholysine-containing amino acid homopolymers. This multifunctional potential also was apparent in samples of PP1-cyano1 and PP1-cyano2 isolated from M. aeruginosa. Catalytic activity was insensitive to okadaic acid or the cyanobacterially produced cyclic heptapeptide, microcystin-LR, both potent inhibitors of mammalian PP1 and PP2A. PP1-cyano1 and PP1-cyano2 displayed diadenosine tetraphosphatase activity in vitro. Diadenosine tetraphosphatases share conserved sequence features with PPP family protein phosphatases. The diadenosine tetraphosphatase activity of PP1-cyano1 and PP1-cyano2 confirms that these enzymes share a common catalytic mechanism.  (+info)

The symptoms of CPEO usually begin in adulthood and can progress slowly over time. They may include:

* Difficulty looking down and outward
* Double vision or diplopia
* Eye fatigue or strain
* Difficulty reading or performing other close-up tasks
* Weakness or paralysis of the eyelids

CPEO is caused by damage to the oculomotor nerve, which controls the lateral rectus muscles. This damage can result from a variety of factors, including:

* Trauma to the head or eye
* Inflammatory conditions such as myasthenia gravis or orbital pseudotumor
* Tumors or cysts in the orbit
* Infections such as neuroretinitis or optic neuropathy
* Genetic disorders such as oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

There is no cure for CPEO, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include:

* Eye exercises to strengthen the remaining muscles and improve eye movement
* Prism lenses to correct double vision
* Strabismus surgery to align the eyes properly
* Botulinum toxin injections to weaken the affected muscles and reduce spasms
* Physical therapy to improve eye movement and strength

It is important for individuals with CPEO to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their specific needs and symptoms. With appropriate management, many people with CPEO can maintain good vision and quality of life.

The signs and symptoms of CE can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:

* Lumps or swelling in the neck, underarm, or groin area
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the affected area

CE is caused by a genetic mutation that leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The exact cause of the mutation is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to exposure to certain viruses or chemicals.

Diagnosis of CE typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for CE depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include:

* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to shrink the tumor
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Immunotherapy to boost the immune system's ability to fight the cancer

Overall, CE is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

Adenine+Nucleotide+Translocator+1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adenine+Nucleotide+ ... Pressman BC (June 1958). "Intramitochondrial nucleotides. I. Some factors affecting net interconversions of adenine nucleotides ... Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocase (ANT), ADP/ATP carrier protein (AAC) or ... Bruni A, Luciani S, Contessa AR (March 1964). "Inhibition by atractyloside of the binding of adenine-nucleotides to rat-liver ...
Murugappan S, Shankar H, Kunapuli SP (2005). "Platelet receptors for adenine nucleotides and thromboxane A2". Semin. Thromb. ... A missense mutation that replaces thymine (T) with guanine (G) as the 175 nucleotide (c.175C>T) in the TBXA2R gene as well as ... A guanine (G) duplication at the 167th nucleotide causes a Frameshift mutation (c.165dupG) at amino acid #58 to yield a poorly ... Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variations in the TBXA2R gene have been associated with allergic and cardiovascular ...
Zifarelli G, Pusch M (October 2009). "Intracellular regulation of human ClC-5 by adenine nucleotides". EMBO Reports. 10 (10): ... Meyer S, Savaresi S, Forster IC, Dutzler R (January 2007). "Nucleotide recognition by the cytoplasmic domain of the human ...
Adenine Nucleotides in Cellular Energy Transfer and Signal Transduction. UNESCO. pp. 59-69. ISBN 9783034873154. Rây, Nirmalendu ...
Sanwal, B. D. (1969-04-10). "Regulatory mechanisms involving nicotinamide adenine nucleotides as allosteric effectors. I. ... Cohn, D. V. (1958-08-01). "The enzymatic formation of oxalacetic acid by nonpyridine nucleotide malic dehydrogenase of ... "The enzymatic formation of oxalacetic acid by nonpyridine nucleotide malic dehydrogenase of Micrococcus lysodeikticus". J. Biol ...
It consists of 4 nucleotides: guanine, thymine, cytosine, and adenine. The order of these nucleotides gives the "recipe" for ... Because of this, the changed nucleotide will lose its ability to pair with its original base pair and consequently changing the ... Photolyase works with its cofactor FADH, flavin adenine dinucleotide, while repairing the DNA. Photolyase is excited by visible ... In this model, a nucleotide may spontaneously change its form through a process of quantum tunneling. ...
... which donates the ribose and phosphate necessary to create a nucleotide. Adenine and guanine are the two nucleotides classified ... ATP, a purine nucleotide, is an activator of pyrimidine synthesis, while CTP, a pyrimidine nucleotide, is an inhibitor of ... Excess of either nucleotide could increase the likelihood of DNA mutations, where the wrong purine nucleotide is inserted. ... For example, adenine + PRPP --> AMP + PPi. This reaction requires the enzyme adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. Free guanine is ...
... containing two nucleotides. One of the nucleotides it contains is an adenine group, while the other is nicotinamide. In order ... that consists of an adenine nucleotide and a flavin mononucleotide. FAD is a unique electron acceptor. Its fully reduced form ... FAD, or flavin adenine dinucleotide, is a prosthetic group (a non-polypeptide unit bound to a protein that is required for ... Electron carriers are coenzymes that are often referred to as "redox cofactors." NAD+, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is ...
"Extracellular adenine nucleotides inhibit the activation of human CD4+ T lymphocytes". Journal of Immunology. 169 (1): 15-21. ...
2007). "Discovery of a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide". Nat. Chem. Biol. 3 (4): 211-2. doi:10.1038/nchembio867. PMID ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate, is a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide. It ... Nucleotides, Thiamine, Purines, Thiazoles, Pyrimidines, Phosphate esters). ...
2002). "Extracellular adenine nucleotides inhibit the activation of human CD4+ T lymphocytes". J. Immunol. 169 (1): 15-21. doi: ... 1995). "Initial assessment of human gene diversity and expression patterns based upon 83 million nucleotides of cDNA sequence ... for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor is coupled to the stimulation of the phosphoinositide and adenylyl ... "Structure and ligand-binding site characteristics of the human P2Y11 nucleotide receptor deduced from computational modelling ...
The rate at which PAP adds adenine nucleotides is dependent on the presence of another regulatory protein, PABPII (poly-adenine ... which accelerates the rate of adenine addition by PAP. The final tail is about 200-250 adenine nucleotides long in mammals. PAP ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing nucleotide groups ( ... whereas its two products are pyrophosphate and RNA with an extra adenosine nucleotide at its 3' end. Human genes with this ...
"Identification of Two Sites in Gelsolin with Different Sensitivities to Adenine Nucleotides". European Journal of Biochemistry ...
Other names in common use include adenylate deaminase, adenine nucleotide deaminase, and adenosine (phosphate) deaminase. The ... Yates MG (February 1969). "A non-specific adenine nucleotide deaminase from desulfovibrio desulfuricans". Biochimica et ... 5'-IMP is then catalyzed by Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis. This is at the ... facilitating guanine nucleotide biosynthesis. The initial step of AMP degradation is the conversion to xanthine into ...
ADP is the strongest adenine nucleotide activator of glutaminase. Studies have also suggested ADP lowered the Km for glutamine ...
This opening has several adenine and thymine nucleotides distal to the inverted repeat. As the unwound section gets larger, ... Cruciform DNA structures require at least a six nucleotide sequence of inverted repeats to form a structure consisting of a ... of the first scientists to propose an interaction between proteins and the grooves of specific double-stranded DNA nucleotide ...
Zimmermann, H. (1978). "Turnover of adenine nucleotides in cholinergic synaptic vesicles of the Torpedo electric organ". ... More recently he analyzed the proteome of synaptic vesicles and the role of nucleotide signaling in the control of adult ... Illes, P., Zimmermann H. (eds.) (1999) Nucleotides and their Receptors in the Nervous System. Elesevier, Amsterdam, New York, ... "Extracellular nucleotide signaling in adult neural stem cells: synergism with growth factor-mediated cellular proliferation". ...
Phillis, J. W.; Edstrom, J. P.; Kostopoulos, G. K.; Kirkpatrick, J. R. (1979). "Effects of adenosine and adenine nucleotides on ...
"Inhibition of sympathetic neurotransmission in canine blood vessels by adenosine and adenine nucleotides". Circulation Research ...
The first nucleotide to be expanded was the purine adenine. Nelson J. Leonard and colleagues synthesized this original x- ... By replacing one nucleotide in a double-helix with an expanded nucleotide, the strength of the stacking interactions increases ... The base pairs between y-nucleotides and natural nucleotides is planar, rather than slightly twisted as with xDNA. This ... nucleotide, which was referred to as "expanded adenine". xA was used as a probe in the investigation of active sites of ATP- ...
One nucleotide contains an adenine nucleobase and the other nicotinamide. NAD exists in two forms: an oxidized and reduced form ... In addition to these metabolic functions, NAD+ emerges as an adenine nucleotide that can be released from cells spontaneously ... Foster JW, Moat AG (1 March 1980). "Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis and pyridine nucleotide cycle metabolism in ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme central to metabolism. Found in all living cells, NAD is called a ...
Kim JY, So KJ, Lee S, Park JH (Sep 2012). "Bcl-rambo induces apoptosis via interaction with the adenine nucleotide translocator ... Bcl-rambo mediates apoptosis by associating with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), a component of the mitochondrial ...
There is a granular adenine nucleotide pool within the dense granule. It is thought that it is made up of system of insoluble ... This pool is likely to be different than that of the cytoplasmic nucleotides. In some animals it has been shown that the ... Dense granules have their components sent to maturing dense granules using vesicular nucleotide transporters. This is what is ...
Henderson, P. J. F.; Lardy, H. A. (1970). "Bongkrekic Acid: An Inhibitor of Adenine Nucleotide Translocase of Mitochondria" ( ...
"ARL2 and BART enter mitochondria and bind the adenine nucleotide transporter". Mol. Biol. Cell. 13 (1): 71-83. doi:10.1091/mbc. ...
Jones, Walter (1920). "The chemical constitution of Adenine nucleotide and of yeast nucleic acid". American Journal of ... He also noted the presence of thermostable enzymes that could break the nucleic acids by breaking the inter-nucleotide bonds. ... Another discovery was thermostable enzymes capable of breaking the inter-nucleotide bonds, now known to be ribonuclease A. He ... University who was among the early investigators of the composition of the nucleic acids including the presence of nucleotides ...
Rapaport, E.; Fontaine J (1989). "Anticancer activities of adenine nucleotides in mice are mediated through expansion of ... Most are designed to mimic single DNA bases, nucleosides, or nucleotides in order to nonspecifically target DNA. These have ...
July 2013). "Localisation of adenine nucleotides in heat-stabilised mouse brains using ion mobility enabled MALDI Imaging". Int ...
"Thiaminylated adenine nucleotides - chemical synthesis, structural characterization and natural occurrence FEBS J." The FEBS ... is a naturally occurring thiamine adenine nucleotide. It was chemically synthesized and exists in small amounts in vertebrate ...
Brüser A, Kirchberger J, Kloos M, Sträter N, Schöneberg T (May 2012). "Functional linkage of adenine nucleotide binding sites ...
... all water-soluble vitamins are phosphorylated or are coupled to nucleotides when they are used in cells. Nicotinamide adenine ... The two nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, are polymers of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of a phosphate attached to a ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two related forms in the cell, NADH and NADPH. The NAD+/NADH form is more important ... This nucleotide is used to transfer chemical energy between different chemical reactions. There is only a small amount of ATP ...
Hsp70s have also been shown to bind and stabilize mRNA rich in adenine and uracil bases, independent of the occupational states ... Patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection who harbor a HSPA1B-1267 single nucleotide polymorphism have a ... Rauch JN, Gestwicki JE (January 2014). "Binding of human nucleotide exchange factors to heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) generates ... Rauch JN, Gestwicki JE (January 2014). "Binding of human nucleotide exchange factors to heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) generates ...
H. T. Jacobs; D. J. Elliott; V. B. Math; A. Farquharson (20 July 1988). "Nucleotide sequence and gene organization of sea ... adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T) or uracil (U). Amino acids: Alanine (Ala, A), Arginine (Arg, R), ... P. Cantatore; M. Roberti; G. Rainaldi; M. N. Gadaleta; C. Saccone (5 July 1989). "The complete nucleotide sequence, gene ...
This SNP occurs in exon 3 at codon 58 of the gene, contains a guanine rather than adenine nucleotide at this site, and ... This variant is homozygous for a G nucleotide at this codon position and has been associated with an increased incidence of ... The gene has numerous single nucleotide variants as well as other variations, some of which have been associated with human ... most cases examined in the United States are associated with a particular homozygous single nucleotide polymorphism (i.e. SNP) ...
"The measurement of triphosphopyridine nucleotide and reduced triphosphopyridine nucleotide and the role of hemoglobin in ... Veech RL, Eggleston LV, Krebs HA (Dec 1969). "The redox state of free nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate in the ... Pollak N, Dölle C, Ziegler M (Mar 2007). "The power to reduce: pyridine nucleotides--small molecules with a multitude of ... NAD+ kinase (EC, NADK) is an enzyme that converts nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) into NADP+ through ...
March 2011). "A distinct sequence in the adenine nucleotide translocase from Artemia franciscana embryos is associated with ... insensitivity to bongkrekate and atypical effects of adenine nucleotides on Ca2+ uptake and sequestration". FEBS J. 278 (5): ...
The NADP+ structural site is quite different from the NADP+ catalytic coenzyme binding site, and contains the nucleotide- ... by maintaining the level of the co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). The NADPH in turn maintains the ... a nucleotide-binding fingerprint, GxxGDLA (residues 38-44 on human G6PD), and a partially conserved sequence EKPxG near the ...
This block of nucleotide biosynthesis is selectively toxic to rapidly growing cells, therefore methotrexate is often used in ... with cellular cofactors such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) respectively. As ...
... cyclic nucleotide - cyclic peptide - cyclin - cyclin A - cyclin B - cyclin E - cyclin-dependent kinase - cycloleucine - ... flavin adenine dinucleotide - flavine - flavoprotein - fluid mosaic model - fms gene - Formaldehyde - fos gene - free energy - ... nucleotide - nutrition octreotide - odorant receptor - olfaction - olfactory receptor neuron - oligopeptide - oncogene - ...
The mitochondrial DNA base composition is thought to reflect its nucleotide-specific (guanine, cytosine, thymidine and adenine ... Mouse models of nucleotide-excision-repair syndromes reveal a striking correlation between the degree to which specific DNA ... Bessho T (1999). "Nucleotide excision repair 3' endonuclease XPG stimulates the activity of base excision repair enzyme thymine ... Cockayne Syndrome is due to a defect in a protein necessary for the repair process, transcription coupled nucleotide excision ...
... which contained 27 random nucleotides, flanked by a defined 20 nucleotide sequence on each side. While no single nucleotide was ... For sequences that flanked the ATTGG motif with two adenine residues (AA) on its 5' end and G(A/G) on its 3' end, seems to have ... random nucleotides and 10 3' random nucleotides. Both these sequences are very similar and confirmed in multiple experiments. ... Secondly, the surrounding nucleotides in plants do not match the consensus sequence above determined by Bi et al. The CAAT box ...
studied the loss of adenine nucleotides by studying the energy charge of HClO-exposed cells and found that cells exposed to ... proposes that the cause of death may be due to metabolic dysfunction caused by depletion of adenine nucleotides. Barrette et al ... Hypochlorous acid reacts slowly with DNA and RNA as well as all nucleotides in vitro. GMP is the most reactive because HClO ... HClO destroys cytochromes and iron-sulfur clusters and observed that oxygen uptake is abolished by HClO and adenine nucleotides ...
"Forward operation of adenine nucleotide translocase during F0F1-ATPase reversal: critical role of matrix substrate-level ... but also to prevent mitochondria from straining glycolytic ATP reserves by maintaining the adenine nucleotide translocator in ' ... "Expression of two succinyl-CoA synthetases with different nucleotide specificities in mammalian tissues". The Journal of ...
When a nucleotide is incorporated by the DNA polymerase, the fluorescent tag is cleaved off and the detector detects the ... December 2012). "Genome-wide mapping of methylated adenine residues in pathogenic Escherichia coli using single-molecule real- ... Pulse width is a function of all kinetic steps after nucleotide binding and up to fluorophore release, and IPD is determined by ... While this now allows for methylation pattern to be determined on the highest resolution possible, on the single nucleotide ...
There are four bases in a DNA molecule: adenine (A), cytosine (C), thymine (T), and guanine (G). Nucleotides are a structural ... DNA is composed of base pairs in which adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. While DNA serves as template ...
APOBEC1 is a cytidine deaminase that has found use in base editors to catalyze the single nucleotide edit C-->T. In E. coli, ... "Phage-Assisted Evolution of an Adenine Base Editor with Enhanced Cas Domain Compatibility and Activity". Nat. Biotechnol. 38 (7 ... Deoxyadenosine deaminase is used in base editors to perform the single nucleotide edit A-->T. This was done by placing ...
In the guanine riboswitch this residue is always a cytosine (i.e. C74), in the adenine residue it is always a uracil (i.e. U74 ... but have more significant differences than a single nucleotide mutation. SAH riboswitches bind S-adenosylhomocysteine to ... Different forms of the purine riboswitch bind guanine (a form originally known as the G-box) or adenine. The specificity for ... and have moderately complex secondary structures and several highly conserved nucleotide positions, as these features are ...
Schrecker AW, Kornberg A (1950). "Reversible enzymatic synthesis of flavin-adenine dinucleotide". J. Biol. Chem. 182 (2): 795- ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing nucleotide groups ( ... transadenylase adenosine triphosphate-riboflavine mononucleotide transadenylase FAD synthetase riboflavin adenine dinucleotide ...
... sequence of purine bases in the DNA with a large section comprising almost exclusively Guanine or Adenine nucleotides, which ...
ISBN 978-0-471-21495-3. Beis I, Newsholme EA (October 1975). "The contents of adenine nucleotides, phosphagens and some ... and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Glycolysis is a sequence of ten reactions catalyzed by enzymes. ... which can be used in synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids, or it can be catabolized to pyruvate. Cellular uptake of ... Amino acid synthesis Nucleotide synthesis Tetrapyrrole synthesis Although gluconeogenesis and glycolysis share many ...
80 nucleotide RNA stem-loop that in turn forms part of a several hundred nucleotide-long miRNA precursor termed a pri-miRNA. ... Both plant and animal miRNAs may be altered by addition of adenine (A) residues to the 3' end of the miRNA. An extra A added to ... In contrast, animal miRNAs are able to recognize their target mRNAs by using as few as 6-8 nucleotides (the seed region) at the ... miRNAs with nearly identical sequences except for one or two nucleotides are annotated with an additional lower case letter. ...
One version, 189 bases long, had an error rate of just 1.1% per nucleotide when synthesizing an 11 nucleotide long RNA strand ... RNA also uses a different set of bases than DNA-adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil, instead of adenine, guanine, cytosine ... Nucleotides are the fundamental molecules that combine in series to form RNA. They consist of a nitrogenous base attached to a ... These nucleotides regularly formed bonds with one another, which often broke because the change in energy was so low. However, ...
AMP consists of a phosphate group, the sugar ribose, and the nucleobase adenine; it is an ester of phosphoric acid and the ... Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide. ...
The 5'-phosphate group of one nucleotide is linked to the 3'-hydroxyl group of the next nucleotide, creating a backbone of ... Both RNA and DNA contain two major purine bases, adenine (A) and guanine (G), and two major pyrimidines. In both DNA and RNA, ... Although the order of nucleotide components were well understood by Levene, the structure of nucleotide arrangement in space ... where IMP fate would lead to the formation of a purine nucleotide. Synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides is a much simpler ...
It states that, in single-stranded DNA, the number of adenine units is approximately equal to that of thymine (%A ≈ %T), and ... Chargaff's second parity rule appears to be extended from the nucleotide-level to populations of codon triplets, in the case of ... Prabhu VV (1993). "Symmetry observation in long nucleotide sequences". Nucleic Acids Research. 21 (12): 2797-2800. doi:10.1093/ ... the amount of guanine should be equal to the amount of cytosine and the amount of adenine should be equal to the amount of ...
A particular position in a nucleotide sequence can be either adenine, cytosine, guanine, or thymine / uracil, or a sequence gap ... This is often done for nucleotide sequence data; it has been empirically determined that certain base changes (A-C, A-T, G-C, G ... Also, the third codon position in a coding nucleotide sequence is particularly labile, and is sometimes downweighted, or given ... is that maximum parsimony assumes that the only way two species can share the same nucleotide at the same position is if they ...
Pol η is known to add the first adenine across the T^T photodimer using Watson-Crick base pairing and the second adenine will ... damaged single bases or nucleotides are most commonly repaired by removing the base or the nucleotide involved and then ... Loss of damaged nucleotides at the break site can lead to deletions, and joining of nonmatching termini forms insertions or ... The third type of DNA damage reversed by cells is certain methylation of the bases cytosine and adenine. When only one of the ...
Retrieved from "https://wiki.oroboros.at/index.php/Special:WhatLinksHere/Adenine_nucleotides" ...
View Mouse Monoclonal anti-SERCA1 ATPase Antibody (4B8) (H00000487-M05). Validated Applications: WB, ELISA, IHC, IHC-P. Validated Species: Human.
DNA is essentially a code with four components, the nucleotides guanine, adenine, cytosine, and thymine. In cells, the ... The group calculated how nucleotides should be arranged to activate the cancer prodrug in the presence of cancer microRNA, but ... arrangement of these four nucleotides determines the output-the proteins made by the DNA. Here, scientists have repurposed the ...
The SLC25A4 gene provides the instructions for making a protein called adenine nucleotide translocase type 1 (ANT1). Learn ... The adenine nucleotide translocase type 1 (ANT1): a new factor in mitochondrial disease. IUBMB Life. 2005 Sep;57(9):607-14. doi ... The SLC25A4 gene provides the instructions for making a protein called adenine nucleotide translocase type 1 (ANT1). ANT1 ... Severity of cardiomyopathy associated with adenine nucleotide translocator-1 deficiency correlates with mtDNA haplogroup. Proc ...
The effects of beta-adrenergic agonists on ATP utilization and adenine nucleotide breakdown in human adipocytes were examined. ... The catecholamine-induced increase in cAMP was associated with an enhancement of adenine nucleotide catabolism resulting in an ... Therefore, one-third of total cellular adenine nucleotides were irreversibly lost in the presence of 1 mumol/liter ... Beta-adrenergic stimulation of adenine nucleotide catabolism and purine release in human adipocytes.. ...
Role of critical thiol groups on the matrix surface of the adenine nucleotide translocase in the mechanism of the mitochondrial ...
Stitt, M.; Lilley, R. M.; Heldt, H.-W.: Adenine-Nucleotide Levels in the Cytosol, Chloroplasts, and Mitochondria of Wheat Leaf ...
Fold c.26: Adenine nucleotide alpha hydrolase-like [52373] (3 superfamilies). core: 3 layers, a/b/a ; parallel beta-sheet of 5 ...
Antimony-induced alterations in thiol homeostasis and adenine nucleotide status in cultured cardiac myocytes. ...
DNA is made of four nucleotide bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. A G-quadruplex forms when four guanines, the ... The authors of this study believe G4s temporarily hold the DNA strands apart so that proteins can read the nucleotide code and ...
A macromolecule made up of nucleotide units and hydrolysable into certain pyrimidine or purine bases (usually adenine, cytosine ... Wikipedia:Nicotinamide_adenine_dinucleotide. NAD. chebi_ontology. nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide. CHEBI:13389. NAD. A ... Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced). CHEBI:16908. NADH. A UDP-sugar having ... dihydronicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate. reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate. CHEBI:16474. NADPH. A ...
Thiamine pyrophosphate is also essential for nucleotide synthesis, production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate ( ...
Effects of antimony on mitochondrial function and protein thiol and adenine nucleotide status in cultured cardiac myocytes. ...
The four nucleotides in DNA contain the bases adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In nature, base pairs ... The twisted-ladder shape that two linear strands of DNA assume when complementary nucleotides on opposing strands bond together ... DNA is a double-stranded molecule held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. ...
Nucleotide metabolism * Purine metabolism * M00049 Adenine ribonucleotide biosynthesis * M00050 Guanine ribonucleotide ... Nucleotide metabolism [ Pathway menu , Pathway entry , Download , Help ] Option. Scale: 100% Image resolution: High ...
Long-range allostery mediates cooperative adenine nucleotide binding by the Ski2-like RNA helicase Brr2 ...
... and the loss of cellular ATP and adenine nucleotide pools, and reduced glutathione levels, but also the accumulation of ...
Adenine Dinucleotide; Nadide; Diphosphopyridine Nucleotide; Coenzyme I; NADH; Nucleotide, Diphosphopyridine; Nicotinamide ... Adenine; Dinucleotide, Dihydronicotinamide Adenine; Adenine Dinucleotide, Dihydronicotinamide; Dihydronicotinamide Adenine ... adenine dinucleotide 56541-76-5 NAD/*analogs & derivatives. Eur J Biochem 1981;118(3):479 3-. chloroacetylpyridine-. adenine ... picolyl azide adenine dinucleotide 0 NAD/*analogs & derivatives. J Phys Chem B. 2012 Jan 12;116(1):542-8. nadcin 0 *NAD * ...
Weaver JG, Tarze A, Moffat TC, Lebras M, Deniaud A, Brenner C, Inhibition of adenine nucleotide translocator pore function and ...
Adenylate kinases (AKs) are phosphotransferases that regulate the cellular adenine nucleotide composition and play a critical ... indicative of an energy-depleted adenine nucleotide profile. Antioxidant treatment rescued the hematopoietic phenotypes in vivo ...
... catalyzing the net uptake or efflux of adenine nucleotides across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Nucleotide transport is ... catalyzing the net uptake or efflux of adenine nucleotides a...[+] Calcium-dependent mitochondrial solute carrier. Mediates the ...
The contents of adenine nucleotides, phosphagens and some glycolytic intermediates in resting muscles from vertebrates and ...
The phosphate group of one nucleotide is attached to the sugar of the next nucleotide in line. • The result is a "backbone" of ... Adenine (purine) binds to thymine (pyrimidine) via two hydrogen bonds. • Cytosine (pyrimidine) binds to guanine (purine) via ... One at a time, nucleotides line up along the template strand according to the base-pairing rules. • The nucleotides are linked ... The rate of elongation is about 500 nucleotides per second in bacteria and 50 per second in human cells. The raw nucleotides ...
... adenine (PMPA), a nucleotide analogue, was started either 4 or 24 hours after IV inoculation and was continued for 28 days (17 ... Prevention of SIV infection in macaques by (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine. Science 1995;270:1197-9. * Tsai C-C, Emau ... Effectiveness of postinoculation (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine treatment for prevention of persistent simian ...
Adenine Nucleotides Entry term(s). Adenine Nucleotide Adenosine Phosphate Adenosine Phosphates Nucleotide, Adenine Nucleotides ... Adenine Nucleotide. Adenosine Phosphate. Adenosine Phosphates. Nucleotide, Adenine. Nucleotides, Adenine. Phosphate, Adenosine ... Adenine Nucleotides - Preferred Concept UI. M0000352. Preferred term. ...
Base: A small chemical molecule which is the information portion of the nucleotides in DNA. The chemical bases are: A (Adenine ... Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP which is pronounced snip): Variation in the nucleotide allele at a certain nucleotide ... LINE: See Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element.. Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element (LINE): A Unique Event Polymorphism which ... Nucleotide: A sub-unit of DNA made of a molecule of sugar, a molecule of phosphoric acid, and a molecule called a base. ...
The results show that the presence of adenine nucleotides converts RNA binding from a multimeric process to a largely monomeric ... The ten-nucleotide RNA loop binds to the surface of the beta-sheet as an open structure, and the AUUGCAC sequence of the loop ... The nucleotide is bound predominantly to one subunit, with conserved residues from a second subunit making up one wall of the ... These slowly exchanging nucleotide binding sites of rho are capable of hydrolyzing ATP, but the resulting products (ADP and Pi ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 D12.776.157.530.937.594.300 D12.776.543.585.937.688.300 Adenine Nucleotides D3.438.759.646. ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 D12.776.157.530.937.594.100 D12.776.543.585.937.688.100 Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 ... Cyclic Nucleotide 3-Phosphodiesterase D12.776.641.580.124 D12.776.631.580.124 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3- ... Purine Nucleotides D3.438.759.646 D3.633.100.759.646 Purines D3.438.759 D3.633.100.759 Purinones D3.438.759.758 D3.633.100.759. ...
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2-, 3-, or 5-position. /biosyn / ... Deoxyuracil Nucleotides Adenosine Monophosphate/*analogs & derivatives. Biophys J 2007 Mar 1;92(5):1659-72 (6-. (6-. (3- ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2000 Oct-Dec;19(10-12) adenosine 5-. hexadecylphosphate 0 Adenosine Monophosphate/* ... Deoxyadenine Nucleotides *Dideoxynucleotides Adenosine Monophosphate/*analogs & derivatives. J Med Chem 1999 May 6;42(9):1604- ...
  • Identify the four types of nucleotides: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). (al.us)
  • DNA contains only four nucleotides - adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G) - but this simple genetic alphabet is the starting point for making all of the proteins in the human body, estimated to be as many as one million. (nih.gov)
  • Its chemical composition was known, and Erwin Chargaff had noted that the amounts of adenine and cytosine bases always matched, respectively, the amounts of thymine and guanine bases in any given DNA sample. (nih.gov)
  • If the nucleotides--a nitrogenous base (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, or uracil) attached to a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and a phosphate group--were the basic building blocks, Kornberg needed to know how to make them. (nih.gov)
  • Several other researchers were working on the synthesis of adenine and guanine nucleotides, so Kornberg began with those of cytosine, thymine, and uracil. (nih.gov)
  • From there, Kornberg and his colleagues quickly found additional enzymes that could make three other nucleotides (those of cytosine, adenine, and guanine) using uridine or PRPP as starting points. (nih.gov)
  • In a sense, all life as we have known it boils down to four letters: G, C, A and T. Organized in unique patterns and repetition, these nucleotides (guanine, cytosine, adenine and thymine) form all DNA. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Now able to synthesize all five nucleotides (a colleague at Washington University had found an enzyme that made the thymine nucleotide), Kornberg felt ready to look for the enzymes that assemble nucleotides into RNA or DNA. (nih.gov)
  • The SLC25A4 gene provides the instructions for making a protein called adenine nucleotide translocase type 1 (ANT1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The mitochondrial adenine nucleotide transporters in myogenesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Adenine Nucleotide Translocator isoforms ( ANTs ) exchange ADP / ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane , are also voltage-activated proton channels and regulate mitophagy and apoptosis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Effects of antimony on mitochondrial function and protein thiol and adenine nucleotide status in cultured cardiac myocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • Some of the genetic changes alter single DNA building blocks (nucleotides), whereas others rearrange larger segments of mitochondrial DNA. (nih.gov)
  • 6. [Enzymes transforming extracellular adenine nucleotides]. (nih.gov)
  • My current focus is on receptors for purines, encompassing both adenosine receptors and P2 receptors, which are activated by ATP, UTP and other extracellular nucleotides. (nih.gov)
  • To find the crucial enzyme in broken cell extracts from E. coli bacteria, he added ATP, plus the appropriate nucleotides, tagged with radioactive isotopes to trace their incorporation into the nucleic acid chain, and then added DNA as a primer for the chain. (nih.gov)
  • Students are able to manipulate models to explore transcription to demonstrate how complementary nucleotides bind to ensure a correct copy. (al.us)
  • The twisted-ladder shape that two linear strands of DNA assume when complementary nucleotides on opposing strands bond together. (theodora.com)
  • Mediates the reversible, electroneutral exchange of Mg-ATP or Mg-ADP against phosphate ions, catalyzing the net uptake or efflux of adenine nucleotides a. (xenbase.org)
  • The authors of this study believe G4s temporarily hold the DNA strands apart so that proteins can read the nucleotide code and produce proteins. (iflscience.com)
  • The catecholamine-induced increase in cAMP was associated with an enhancement of adenine nucleotide catabolism resulting in an increase in release of inosine and hypoxanthine which can not be reutilized for adenine nucleotide synthesis. (jci.org)
  • Working with a team that included Robert Lehman, Maurice Bessman, and others, Kornberg began his investigation into nucleotide synthesis by looking at orotic acid, a likely precursor of uracil, because it is uracil with a carbon dioxide molecule added. (nih.gov)
  • Enzymes called kinases move the missing pieces to these larger fragments to complete the nucleotide. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, one-third of total cellular adenine nucleotides were irreversibly lost in the presence of 1 mumol/liter isoproterenol. (jci.org)
  • MBDB caused not only concentration (0-4.0 mM)- and time (0-2 h)-dependent cell death accompanied by the formation of cell blebs, and the loss of cellular ATP and adenine nucleotide pools, and reduced glutathione levels, but also the accumulation of oxidized glutathione. (erowid.org)
  • Nanopore DNA sequencing is a laboratory technique for determining the exact sequence of nucleotides, or bases, in a DNA molecule. (genome.gov)
  • DNA is a double-stranded molecule held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. (theodora.com)
  • Within each strand, chemicals called nucleotides are used as a code for making proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the current study was undertaken in a rat model of CA to test the hypothesis that prolonged VF will lead to significantly impaired functional capacity of cerebral mitochondria and complete depletion of high-energy nucleotides. (hindawi.com)
  • The effects of beta-adrenergic agonists on ATP utilization and adenine nucleotide breakdown in human adipocytes were examined. (jci.org)
  • more frequently they use larger pieces of nucleotides salvaged from the breakdown of older nucleic acids, or from digested food. (nih.gov)
  • Trinitrophenyl derivatives bind differently from parent adenine nucleotides to Ca2+-ATPase in the absence of Ca2+. (expasy.org)
  • The decay mechanism of adenine in particular has been the focus of intense investigation, as has how these correlate to those of its more biologically relevant nucleotide and oligonucleotides in aqueous solution. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Based on his experience with coenzymes, Kornberg guessed that DNA or RNA would be made in cells by an enzyme that would string together whole nucleotides rather than assemble smaller chemical pieces. (nih.gov)
  • Describe how it takes three nucleotides (called a triplet) to code for each amino acid of a protein. (al.us)
  • A third enzyme then splits the CO2 off the orotic ribose P, leaving uracil ribose P, also known as uridine monophosphate, which is a complete nucleotide. (nih.gov)
  • Nucleotide transport is inactive when cytosolic calcium levels are low, and is activated by an increase in cytosolic calcium levels. (xenbase.org)
  • B) Graphical representation of the 940 single-nucleotide polymorphisms specific to the 8 genotypes, showing interdifferences and intradifferences of all genomes. (cdc.gov)