A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in the LIVER.
An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.
A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides with the elimination of ammonia.
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Very toxic and complex pyrone derivatives from the fungus Calcarisporium arbuscula. They bind to and inhibit mitochondrial ATPase, thereby uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. They are used as biochemical tools.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
An aminobenzoic acid isomer that combines with pteridine and GLUTAMIC ACID to form FOLIC ACID. The fact that 4-aminobenzoic acid absorbs light throughout the UVB range has also resulted in its use as an ingredient in SUNSCREENS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A mitochondrial myopathy characterized by slowly progressive paralysis of the levator palpebrae, orbicularis oculi, and extraocular muscles. Ragged-red fibers and atrophy are found on muscle biopsy. Familial and sporadic forms may occur. Disease onset is usually in the first or second decade of life, and the illness slowly progresses until usually all ocular motility is lost. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1422)
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. In humans, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 in muscle exists as the homotetramer of M subunits. Defects in this muscle enzyme cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE VII, also known as Tarui's disease.
An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Voltage-dependent anion channel 2 is a low abundance mammalian isoform of VDAC that interacts with the inactive form of BAK PROTEIN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
Members of a family of highly conserved proteins which are all cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE). They bind the immunosuppressant drugs CYCLOSPORINE; TACROLIMUS and SIROLIMUS. They possess rotamase activity, which is inhibited by the immunosuppressant drugs that bind to them.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.
A polypeptide antibiotic mixture obtained from Bacillus brevis. It consists of a mixture of three tyrocidines (60%) and several gramicidins (20%) and is very toxic to blood, liver, kidneys, meninges, and the olfactory apparatus. It is used topically.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)

Cross-linking of two beta subunits in the closed conformation in F1-ATPase. (1/2294)

In the crystal structure of mitochondrial F1-ATPase, two beta subunits with a bound Mg-nucleotide are in "closed" conformations, whereas the third beta subunit without bound nucleotide is in an "open" conformation. In this "CCO" (beta-closed beta-closed beta-open) conformational state, Ile-390s of the two closed beta subunits, even though they are separated by an intervening alpha subunit, have a direct contact. We replaced the equivalent Ile of the alpha3beta3gamma subcomplex of thermophilic F1-ATPase with Cys and observed the formation of the beta-beta cross-link through a disulfide bond. The analysis of conditions required for the cross-link formation indicates that: (i) F1-ATPase takes the CCO conformation when two catalytic sites are filled with Mg-nucleotide, (ii) intermediate(s) with the CCO conformation are generated during catalytic cycle, (iii) the Mg-ADP inhibited form is in the CCO conformation, and (iv) F1-ATPase dwells in conformational state(s) other than CCO when only one (or none) of catalytic sites is filled by Mg-nucleotide or when catalytic sites are filled by Mg2+-free nucleotide. The alpha3beta3gamma subcomplex containing the beta-beta cross-link retained the activity of uni-site catalysis but lost that of multiple catalytic turnover, suggesting that open-closed transition of beta subunits is required for the rotation of gamma subunit but not for hydrolysis of a single ATP.  (+info)

Physiological characterization of viable-but-nonculturable Campylobacter jejuni cells. (2/2294)

Campylobacter jejuni is a pathogenic, microaerophilic, gram-negative, mesophilic bacterium. Three strains isolated from humans with enteric campylobacteriosis were able to survive at high population levels (10(7) cells ml-1) as viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC) forms in microcosm water. The VBNC forms of the three C. jejuni strains were enumerated and characterized by using 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride-4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole staining. Cellular volume, adenylate energy charge, internal pH, intracellular potassium concentration, and membrane potential values were determined in stationary-phase cell suspensions after 48 h of culture on Columbia agar and after 1 to 30 days of incubation in microcosm water and compared. A notable increase in cell volume was observed with the VBNC state; the average cell volumes were 1.73 microliter mg of protein-1 for the culturable form and 10.96 microliter mg of protein-1 after 30 days of incubation in microcosm water. Both the internal potassium content and the membrane potential were significantly lower in the VBNC state than in the culturable state. Culturable cells were able to maintain a difference of 0.6 to 0.9 pH unit between the internal and external pH values; with VBNC cells this difference decreased progressively with time of incubation in microcosm water. Measurements of the cellular adenylate nucleotide concentrations revealed that the cells had a low adenylate energy charge (0.66 to 0.26) after 1 day of incubation in microcosm water, and AMP was the only nucleotide detected in the three strains after 30 days of incubation in microcosm water.  (+info)

Regulation of a volume-sensitive anion channel in rat pancreatic beta-cells by intracellular adenine nucleotides. (3/2294)

1. The patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration was used to measure the effects of intracellular adenine nucleotides on activity of the volume-sensitive anion channel in single, isolated rat pancreatic beta-cells. 2. In the absence of intracellular nucleotides, swelling of cells with a hypertonic pipette solution failed to activate the conductance. Addition of ATP over the range 2-10 mM maintaining the same degree of hypertonicity caused a progressive activation of the conductance. An increase in ATP produced a similar activation of the conductance in non-swollen cells, albeit with reduced current amplitudes. 3. Activation of the conductance was also observed in the presence of ATPgammaS, adenylyl imidophosphate (AMP-PNP), ADP, diadenosine tetraphosphate and GTPgammaS. Neither ADP nor GDPbetaS inhibited activation of the conductance by ATP. 4. It is concluded that activity of the beta-cell volume-sensitive anion channel can be modulated by changes in intracellular concentrations of ATP within the physiological concentration range by a mechanism that does not require nucleotide hydrolysis. Activity of the channel does not appear to be modulated by a G protein-coupled mechanism.  (+info)

Comparison of the mechanism of cytotoxicity of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2- fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine, 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro- beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine, and 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro- beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine in CEM cells. (4/2294)

In an effort to understand biochemical features that are important to the selective antitumor activity of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine [Cl-F( upward arrow)-dAdo], we evaluated the biochemical pharmacology of three structurally similar compounds that have quite different antitumor activities. Cl-F( upward arrow)-dAdo was 50-fold more potent as an inhibitor of CEM cell growth than were either 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine [Cl-F( downward arrow)-dAdo] or 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2, 2-difluoro-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine [Cl-diF( upward arrow downward arrow)-dAdo]. The compounds were similar as substrates of deoxycytidine kinase. Similar amounts of their respective triphosphates accumulated in CEM cells, and the rate of disappearance of these metabolites was also similar. Cl-F( upward arrow)-dAdo was 10- to 30-fold more potent in its ability to inhibit the incorporation of cytidine into deoxycytidine nucleotides than either Cl-F( downward arrow)-dAdo or Cl-diF( upward arrow downward arrow)-dAdo, respectively, which indicated that ribonucleotide reductase was differentially inhibited by these three compounds. Thus, the differences in the cytotoxicity of these agents toward CEM cells were not related to quantitative differences in the phosphorylation of these agents to active forms but can mostly be accounted for by differences in the inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Furthermore, the inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis by Cl-F( downward arrow)-dAdo and Cl-diF( upward arrow downward arrow)-dAdo at concentrations similar to those required for the inhibition of DNA synthesis can help explain the poor antitumor selectivity of these two agents because all cells require RNA and protein synthesis.  (+info)

Hypotension induced by exercise is associated with enhanced release of adenyl purines from aged rat artery. (5/2294)

To determine whether the antihypertensive effects of exercise are associated with release of ATP and its metabolites from arteries, we assayed blood pressure and the release of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides from the caudal arteries of exercised and sedentary aged hypercholesterolemic rats. Exercise on a treadmill for 12 wk significantly decreased the rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 7.5 and 15.9%, respectively, with advanced age. The concentrations of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids in the caudal artery decreased significantly with exercise, demonstrating an association between exercise and the unsaturation index of caudal arterial fatty acids. The amounts of total adenyl purines released by the arterial segments from exercised rats, both spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine, were significantly greater by 80.0 and 60.7%, respectively, than those released by tissues from sedentary rats. These results suggest that exercise alters the membrane fatty acid composition in aged rats as well as the release of ATP from vascular endothelial cells and that these factors are associated with the regression of the rise in blood pressure normally observed with advanced age.  (+info)

Effect of zinc on adenine nucleotide pools in relation to aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. (6/2294)

The adenylic acid systems of Aspergillus parasiticus were studied in zinc-replete and zinc-deficient media. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels of the fungus were high during exponential phase and low during stationary phase in zinc-replete cultures. On the other hand, the levels of adenosine 5'-diphosphate and adenosine 5'-monophosphate were low during exponential phase of growth and high during stationary phase. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels during exponential phase may indicate higher primary metabolic activity of the fungus. On the other hand, high adenosine 5'-monophosphate levels during stationary phase may inhibit lipid formation and may enhance aflatoxin levels. The inorganic phosphorus content was low in a zinc-replete medium throughout the growth period, thereby favoring aflatoxin biosynthesis. The energy charge during the exponential phase was high but low during the stationary phase. In general the energy charge values were lower because of high adenosine 5'-monophosphate content.  (+info)

Metabolism and the triggering of germination of Bacillus megaterium. Concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, adenine nucleotides and nicotinamide nucleotides during germination. (7/2294)

A considerable amount of evidence suggests that metabolism of germinants or metabolism stimulated by them is involved in triggering bacterial-spore germination. On the assumption that such a metabolic trigger might lead to relatively small biochemical changes in the first few minutes of germination, sensitive analytical techniques were used to detect any changes in spore components during the L-alanine-triggered germination of Bacillus megaterium KM spores. These experiments showed that no changes in spore free amino acids or ATP occurred until 2-3 min after L-alanine addition. Spores contained almost no oxo acids (pyruvate, alpha-oxoglutarate, oxaloacetate), malate or reduced NAD. These compounds were again not detectable until 2-3 min after addition of germinants. It is suggested, therefore, that metabolism associated with these intermediates is not involved in the triggering of germination of this organism.  (+info)

Cyanobacterial PPP family protein phosphatases possess multifunctional capabilities and are resistant to microcystin-LR. (8/2294)

The structural gene for a putative PPP family protein-serine/threonine phosphatase from the microcystin-producing cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7820, pp1-cyano1, was cloned. The sequence of the predicted gene product, PP1-cyano1, was 98% identical to that of the predicted product of an open reading frame, pp1-cyano2, from a cyanobacterium that does not produce microcystins, M. aeruginosa UTEX 2063. By contrast, PP1-cyano1 displayed less than 20% identity with other PPP family protein phosphatases from eukaryotic, archaeal, or other bacterial organisms. PP1-cyano1 and PP1-cyano2 were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Both enzymes exhibited divalent metal dependent phosphohydrolase activity in vitro toward phosphoserine- and phosphotyrosine-containing proteins and 3-phosphohistidine- and phospholysine-containing amino acid homopolymers. This multifunctional potential also was apparent in samples of PP1-cyano1 and PP1-cyano2 isolated from M. aeruginosa. Catalytic activity was insensitive to okadaic acid or the cyanobacterially produced cyclic heptapeptide, microcystin-LR, both potent inhibitors of mammalian PP1 and PP2A. PP1-cyano1 and PP1-cyano2 displayed diadenosine tetraphosphatase activity in vitro. Diadenosine tetraphosphatases share conserved sequence features with PPP family protein phosphatases. The diadenosine tetraphosphatase activity of PP1-cyano1 and PP1-cyano2 confirms that these enzymes share a common catalytic mechanism.  (+info)

The effect of the local anaesthetic, butacaine, on adenine nucleotide binding and translocation in rat liver mitochondria partially depleted of their adenine nucleotide content was investigated. The range of butacaine concentrations that inhibit adenine nucleotide translocation and the extent of the inhibition are similar to the values obtained for native mitochondria. Butacaine does not alter either the total number of atractyloside-sensitive binding sites of depleted mitochondria, or the affinity of these sites for ADP or ATP under conditions where a partial inhibition of the rate of adenine nucleotide translocation is observed. The data are consistent with an effect of butacaine on the process by which adenine nucleotides are transported across the mitochondrial inner membrane rather than on the binding of adenine nucleotides to sites on the adenine nucleotide carrier. The results are briefly discussed in relation to the use of local anaesthetics in investigations of the mechanism of adenine ...
During intense exercise a fraction of the ATP pool in human skeletal muscle is degraded to inosine-5-monophosphate (IMP). While most IMP is retained in the cell for reamination to AMP at rest, a significant fraction of IMP is further degraded to inosine and hypoxanthine and enter the bloodstream lowering the adenine nucleotide pool. Lost nucleotides must be restored via the purine salvage pathway or the de novo pathway of adenine nucleotide metabolism. The limiting step in nucleotide synthesis de novo is the availability of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP), which is formed from ribose-5-phosphate. The level of ribose in the muscle is limited; thus an increased availability of ribose may enhance the formation of PRPP and the rate of synthesis of adenine nucleotides. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of oral intake of ribose after frequent, high-intensity training on adenine nucleotide resynthesis. Such information will not only be useful for people performing regular ...
As potential autocrine or paracrine factors, extracellular nucleotides are known to be important regulators of renal ion transporters by activating cell surface receptors and intracellular signaling pathways. We investigated the influence of extracellular adenine nucleotides on Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) activity in A6-NHE3 cells. This is a polarized cell line obtained by stable transfection of A6 cells with the cDNA encoding the rat isoform of NHE3, which is expressed on the apical membrane. Basolateral addition of the P2Y(1) agonist, 2-Me-SADP, induced an inhibition of NHE3 activity, which was prevented by preincubation with selective P2Y(1) antagonists, MRS 2179 (N-6-methyl-2-deoxyadenosine-3,5-bisphosphate) and MRS 2286 (2-[2-(2-chloro-6-methylamino-purin-9-yl)-ethyl]-propane- 1,3-bisoxy(diammoniumphosphate)). NHE3 activity was also significantly inhibited by ATP and ATP-gamma-S but not by UTP. 2-Me-SADP induced a P2Y(1) antagonist-sensitive increase in both [Ca2+]i and cAMP ...
Cardiac adenine nucleotide concentrations and cellular energy charge were determined in rats 24 hr after initiating cardiac hypertrophy by a single dose of either triiodothyronine or isoproterenol. No significant differences in adenine nucleotide concentrations or in cellular energy charge were observed between control and treated animals. These data do not support the proposal that changes in the myocardial concentration of high-energy phosphate compounds, particularly a decline in ATP concentrations, may play an important role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy by causing activation of the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins.
PAIVA NOVAES, Myriam Stella de; FERREIRA, F. D; NICOLAU, J. Adenine nucleotide contents and atpases activities in porcine deciduous dental pulp during the root formation, fully formed root and root resorption phases. Journal de Biologie Buccale, Paris, v. 17, p. 187-92, 1989 ...
In eukaryotic cells AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a major role in regulating cellular energy balance. AMPK responds to changes in intracellular adenine nucleotide levels, being activated by an increase in AMP/ADP relative to ATP. Activation of AMPK increases the rate of catabolic (ATP-generating) pathways and decreases the rate of anabolic (ATP-utilising) pathways. In addition to its role in maintaining intracellular energy balance, AMPK regulates whole body energy metabolism. Given its key role in controlling energy homeostasis, AMPK has attracted widespread interest as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and, more recently, cancer. Here I review the regulation of AMPK and its potential as a target for therapeutic intervention in human disease ...
Changes in adenylate energy charge (EC(A)) and in total adenine nucleotides (A(T)) and DNA content (both normalized to the abundance of free- living, groundwater bacteria) in response to carbon loading were determined for a laboratory-grown culture and for a contaminated aquifer. The latter study involved a 3-km-long transect through a contaminant plume resulting from continued on-land discharge of secondary sewage to a shallow, sandy aquifer on Cape Cod, Mass. With the exception of the most contaminated groundwater immediately downgradient from the contaminant source, DNA and adenylate levels correlated strongly with bacterial abundance and decreased exponentially with increasing distance downgradient. EC(A)s (0.53 to 0.60) and the ratios of ATP to DNA (0.001 to 0.003) were consistently low, suggesting that the unattached bacteria in this groundwater study are metabolically stressed, despite any eutrophication that might have occurred. Elevated EC(A)s (up to 0.74) were observed in glucose-amended
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene an enzyme which catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-phosphate from ATP to adenosine, thereby serving as a regulator of concentrations of both extracellular adenosine and intracellular adenine nucleotides. Adenosine has widespread effects on the cardiovascular, nervous, respiratory, and immune systems and inhibitors of the enzyme could play an important pharmacological role in increasing intravascular adenosine concentrations and acting as anti-inflammatory agents. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011 ...
Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2-, 3-, or 5-position.
flects ATP hydrolysis. This reduction is accompanied by a rise of intracellular ADP content and a decrease in ATP/ADP ratio, respectively. However, in parallel with the ongoing slight reduction of intracellular ATP level, the intracellular AMP content gradually raises. The regulatory significance of ATP/ADP ratio gradually decreases and becomes replaced by the control of ATP synthesis through the ATP/AMP ratio. At the last stage of hypoxia, when a linear decrease in ATP content is observed, the regulatory role of ATP/ADP and ATP/AMP ratios becomes minimal, and total adenine nucleotides plus energetic charges decrease [3,9]. The hypoxia-induced changes in adenine nucleotides pool resulting from disturbed electron flow and oxidative phosphorylation reactions precede changes in other functional and metabolic parameters responsible for the cell vital activity. Contrastingly, the compensatory role of glycolysis as an ATP supplier is effective only in early hypoxia. During the terminal period, despite ...
Lipostabil Injections information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Sanofi-Aventis, Lipostabil Injections indications, usages and related health products lists
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D-ribose, a simple 5-carbon monosaccharide is used by all living cells as an essential compound in cellular energy metabolism. Ribose, needed to synthesize adenine nucleotides, is the carbohydrate backbone of genetic materia such as DNA, RNA and other important cellular compounds. Without ribose, tissues could not produce these life giving compounds. Adenine nucleotides are required by heart, muscle and other tissue to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary source of energy used by all cells to maintain normal health and function. When the pool of adenine nucleotides is depressed by disease or strenuous exercise or activity, the level of energy available to the cell is compromised. A reduction in cellular energy level can lead to diminished function and reduced physiological health.. For energy enhancement, ½ to 1 teaspoon (about 2 - 5 grams) is generally adequate although up to 15 grams per day can be taken safely.. Ribose is mildly sweet and completely soluble. It mixes easily with ...
In 2008, we discovered that intact kidneys produce large quantities of 2,3-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3,5-cAMP), that 2,3-cAMP derives from mRNA degrada...
The association between the energy charge and cellular damage caused by metabolic inhibitors was investigated in a cellular system of quiescent fibroblasts. The cell damage was assessed by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) which indicates a severe change of membrane integrity. Inhibition of glycolysis resulted in release of LDH when the energy charge decreased below 0.5 at an ATP level of 10% of the original level. If oxidative phosphorylation was inhibited, the energy charge decreased to 0.1-0.35 (dependent on the type of inhibitor) a long time before release of LDH, and no change occurred in the energy charge when release of LDH started. The ATP level was 0.5-2% of the original at this time. Even a decrease of the energy charge to 0.1 could be reversed to a normal level, and at the same time the morphological cellular changes were fully reversed and no release of LDH occurred. The conclusion is that no simple correlation between energy charge and cell survival exists. The different levels of
High-energy phosphates and related adenine nucleotides.Metabolites were measured by HPLC in Control, SHF and DHF hearts. A-C. Chromatograms of extracts from ven
Adenine nucleotides (AdNs) play important roles in immunity and inflammation. Extracellular AdNs, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and their metabolites, act as paracrine messengers by fine-tuning both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. Moreover, intracellular AdNs derived from ATP or NAD play important roles in many cells of the immune system, including T lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and others. These intracellular AdNs are signaling molecules that transduce incoming signals into meaningful cellular responses, e.g. activation of immune responses against pathogens. ...
Lysenin, a sphingomyelin-specific pore-forming toxin from earthworms; causes contraction of rat vascular smooth muscle. (Sekizawa et al., 1997; Shogomori and Kobayashi, 2007). Trp-20 is required for cation selective channel assembly (Kwiatkowska et al., 2007). Adenosine phosphates control the activity of lysenin channels inserted into planar lipid membranes with respect to their macroscopic conductance and voltage-induced gating. Addition of ATP, ADP, or AMP decreased the macroscopic conductance of lysenin channels in a concentration-dependent manner, with ATP being the most potent inhibitor and AMP the least (Bryant et al. 2016 ...
Johnson, M., Kaye, M.A.G., Hems, R. and Krebs, H.A. (1953). „Enzymic hydrolysis of adenosine phosphates by cobra venom. Biochem. J. 54: 625-629. PMID 13058963 ...
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OXPHOS - this site is dedicated to mitochondria research. Theoretical and practical aspects, reagents, protocols, tools, funding agencies, databases, conferences, etc.
IM De la Fuente, JM Cortes, E Valero, M Desroches, S Rodrigues, I Malaina and L Martinez. On the dynamics of the Adenylate Energy System: Homeorhesis vs Homeostasis. Plos One 9: e108676, 2014 [pdf]. Biochemical energy is the fundamental element that maintains both the adequate turnover of the biomolecular structures and the functional metabolic viability of unicellular organisms. The levels of ATP, ADP and AMP reflect roughly the energetic status of the cell, and a precise ratio relating them was proposed by Atkinson as the adenylate energy charge (AEC). Under growth-phase conditions, cells maintain the AEC within narrow physiological values, despite extremely large fluctuations in the adenine nucleotides concentration. Intensive experimental studies have shown that these AEC values are preserved in a wide variety of organisms, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here, to understand some of the functional elements involved in the cellular energy status, we present a computational model conformed by ...
There is provided a bioluminescence reagent comprising at least pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, phosphoenolpyruvic acid, pyrophosphoric acid, magnesium ion or another metallic ions, luciferin and luciferase, which reagent is such that the amount of luminescence is maintained in a high level and moreover stably without decaying for a long time in a bioluminescence reaction, and there is provided a method for quantitatively determining an adenosine phosphate ester or a substance taking part in the ATP conversion reaction in high sensitivity and high accuracy using an inexpensive and simple measuring apparatus.
AIM: To research the protective aftereffect of isoflurane on energy stability in isolated hepatocytes during in vitro anoxia/reoxygenation also to review isoflurane with halothane. nucleotide gradually increased using the isoflurane dosage from 0 to 2 minimal alveolar anesthetic focus (Mac pc) then reduced from 2-3 3 MAC. In a nutshell incubations (30-35 min) at 1 Mac pc isoflurane energy charge modestly reduced during anoxia that was partially avoided by isoflurane and totally reversed by reoxygenation and total adenine nucleotide didnt decrease. In lengthy incubations (60-70 min) both energy charge and total adenine nucleotide significantly reduced during anoxia with incomplete no reversal by reoxygenation respectively. Isoflurane partially prevented reduces in both energy charge and total adenine nucleotide during anoxia and reoxygenation. In addition 1 MAC isoflurane obviously increased ATP/ADP which could not be changed by 1 MAC halothane. CONCLUSION: Isoflurane partially protects isolated ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of The effect of calcium on the translocation of adenine nucleotides in rat liver mitochondria. by Armando Gómez-Puyou et al.
Our results support that the increase in EGIs in the fasted heart is facilitated by the decrease in PFK‐2 protein content. For example, PFK‐1 protein levels and metabolic feedback inhibitors of PFK‐1, such as citrate and adenosine phosphates, are unchanged with fasting. Thus, the decrease in PFK‐1 activity is likely mediated by decreased content of fructose‐2,6‐bisphosphate. Unfortunately, fructose‐2,6‐bisphosphate is not detected by metabolomic analysis because of its low concentration, instability, and the unavailability of metabolic standards that would allow refinement of current analytical approaches. Nevertheless, the critical role of PFK‐2 in modulating EGIs is reciprocally supported by the metabolic analysis of hearts after isoproterenol stimulation. Under these conditions, activation of PFK‐2 results in a 90% decrease in EGIs (Figure 3C). In addition, Gibb et al have shown, through metabolic tracer studies in cardiomyocytes, that a decrease in PFK‐1 activity ...
Physician reviewed clofarabine patient information - includes clofarabine description, dosage and directions.Print coupons and compare prices.
Information on Middlesex University's Research Repository: a online collection of Middlesex University's research outputs
Evoltra infusion contains the active ingredient clofarabine, which is a type of chemotherapy medicine used to treat cancer known as a cytotoxic antimetabolite. Evoltra infusion is used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children and adolescents.
CLOLAR(TM)- clofarabine door FDA goedgekeurd medicijn voor ALL - Acute lymfatische Leukemie en dan met name voor kinderen 1 - 21 jaar - met recidief van ALL. Recente studiepublicatie toegevoegd. Artikel update 11 juli 2012
myokinase definition: adenylate kinase, a phosphotransferase chemical that catalyzes the interconversion of adenine nucleotides and plays a crucial role in mobile energy homeostasis.
Adenine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Adenine is available on the Drugs.com website.
Learn more about Adenine sulphate. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Adenine nucleotide transporter involved in the uniport of ATP and adenine nucleotide hetero-exchange transport between the cytosol and the peroxisomal lumen. This transport is accompanied by a proton transport from the peroxisomal lumen to the cytosol. Transport of ATP into the peroxisome is required for beta-oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids. Required for growth on medium-chain fatty acids, pH gradient formation in peroxisomes and for normal peroxisome proliferation.
Activation and aggregation of blood platelets is crucial for hemostasis and thrombosis. In the vascular system adenine nucleotides are important signaling molecules playing a key role in hemostasis. ADP was the first low molecular weight agent recognized to cause blood platelets activation and aggregation. NTPDases and adenylate kinase (AK) are the main enzymes involved in metabolism of extracellular adenine nucleotides. The majority of studies concentrated on the role of NTPDase1 (apyrase) in the inhibition of platelets aggregation. Up to now, there are still insufficient data concerning the role of AK in this process. We found that adenylate kinase activity in the serum of patients with myocardial infarction is significantly increased when compared to the healthy volunteers. The elevated activity of AK is connected to appearance of another isoform of that enzyme, expressed in patients with myocardial infarction. The influence of AK on the pig blood platelets aggregation induced by 20 μM ADP or 7.5
Looking for online definition of clofarabine in the Medical Dictionary? clofarabine explanation free. What is clofarabine? Meaning of clofarabine medical term. What does clofarabine mean?
AK1 [ENSP00000362271]. Adenylate monophosphate kinase; Catalyzes the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between ATP and AMP. Also displays broad nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity. Plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis and in adenine nucleotide metabolism; Belongs to the adenylate kinase family. AK1 subfamily.. Synonyms: AK1, AK1p, hAK1, AK1-008, AK1-009 .... Linkouts: STRING Pharos UniProt ...
read Adenosine and Adenine Nucleotides: From Molecular Biology to Integrative Physiology 1995 of procedure notching arbitrary due total ob or striking flood. Bini S, Khatod M, Cafri G, Chen Y, Paxton EW. Surgeon, read Adenosine, and above goals may reflect year in personal engine Protocols required for guilty metal. Gioe TJ, Novak C, Sinner scholarship, Ma W, Mehle S. Knee half in the previous insurance: fl in a n company. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2014 Nov 22; 15:390. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 6, West Section, Chia-Pu Road, Pu-Tz City, Chia-Yi Hsien 613, Taiwan. mechanism: joint results with Ranawat type-II Latin goal management with 188& wife abuse and sober ligaments that include total calcium unit( TKA) multiple. cars: Between January 2002 and January 2009, patterns with Ranawat type-II little und who said defensive TKA dug covered into this other essence. We fur kids to find that we specify you the best read Adenosine and Adenine Nucleotides: From ...
The strategy for treating relapsed and refractory adult ALL patients is through reinduction chemotherapy followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation, provided that the toxicity of the salvage regimen is acceptable. However, this leukemia is characterized as being highly refractory to standard chemotherapy and therefore novel therapeutic approaches are desperately needed. Clofarabine is a second generation nucleoside analog FDA approved for the treatment of relapsed and refractory pediatric ALL. Clofarabine has been administered to adult patients with hematologic malignancies with an acceptable toxicity profile with 8% of relapsed ALL patients attaining a complete response (CR). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of clofarabine IV in adult patients has been determined to be 40 mg/m2/day for 5 consecutive days, which is lower than the tolerable daily dose for pediatric patients, 52 mg/m2/day. More recently, Karp and colleagues reported their experience with clofarabine in combination with ...
1. Platelets containing adenine nucleotides labelled with3H and14C in vitro were aggregated biphasically with ADP and adrenaline. Amounts of ATP and ADP as well as the radioactivity of ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP, hypoxanthine and adenine were determined in platelets and plasma at different stages of aggregation. 2. ATP and ADP were released during the second aggregation phase and had a low specific radioactivity compared with the ATP and ADP retained by the cells. The specific radioactivity of intracellular nucleotides increased during release. The parameters observed with ADP and adrenaline as release inducers were the same as for collagen and thrombin. 3. Release induced by all four inducers was accompanied by conversion of cellular [3H]ATP into extracellular [3H]-hypoxanthine. By variation of temperature, inducer concentration, time after blood withdrawal and use of acetylsalicylic acid, the aggregation pattern caused by adrenaline and ADP could be made mono- or bi-phasic. Release or second-phase ...
The aim of this work was to determine the extent of bioaccumulation of fluorides in tissues of Helix aspersa maxima. The toxicity of fluorides administered orally on the energy balance of the snails foot was investigated based on measurements of concentrations of adenine nucleotides and their metabolism deg
Introduction: Prior studies demonstrate that ischemic preconditioning (IP) alters adenosine metabolism. The significance of this effect is not fully understood, but evidence suggests that reduction in extracellular adenosine may represent use as an alternative fuel. Transformation into AMP/ADP may also replenish intracellular total adenine nucleotides (TAN), improving the potential high-energy phosphate bonds available in cells facing ischemia. In both cases, adenosine supports cell energy requirements and may be a key component of IPs protective mechanisms. There are no previous studies of brain adenosine in human patients undergoing remote IP.. Methods: In adults with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 3-4 remote IP sessions were conducted on non-consecutive days, 4-12 days after hemorrhage. Each session consisted of 4 5-min cycles of lower extremity blood pressure cuff inflation to 30mmHg above systolic blood pressure, followed by 5-min reperfusion. Patients had microdialysis (MD) ...
Divalent cations are important in the folding and stabilization of complex RNA structures. The adenine-sensing riboswitch controls the expression of mRNAs for proteins involved in purine metabolism by directly sensing intracellular adenine levels. Adenine binds with high affinity and specificity to the ligand binding or aptamer domain of the adenine-sensing riboswitch. The X-ray structure of this domain in complex with adenine revealed an intricate RNA-fold consisting of a three-helix junction stabilized by long-range base-pairing interactions and identified five binding sites for hexahydrated Mg2+-ions. Furthermore, a role for Mg2+-ions in the ligand-induced folding of this RNA was suggested. Here, we describe the interaction of divalent cations with the RNA-adenine complex in solution as studied by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Paramagnetic line broadening, chemical shift mapping and intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) indicate the presence of at least three binding sites for ...
Dawson, J D. and Sauer, L A., The effect of different incubation temperatures on the adenine nucleotide content of ehrlich-lettre ascites tumor cells. (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 33 ...
The goal of this clinical research study is to learn if clofarabine given by mouth on a weekly schedule can help to control MDS. The safety of clofarabine given by mouth will also be studied.
bis(5-nucleosyl)tetraphosphatase (asymmetrical): forms a nucleoside triphosphate plus a nucleoside monophosphate; for symmetrical cleavage, see bis(5-nucleosyl)tetraphosphatase (symmetrical)
Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2-, 3-, or 5-position ...
Abstract. High dose cytarabine (HiDAC) is the most effective single agent for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML); clofarabine (CLOF) is also an activ
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between cladribine and clofarabine. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction.
Abstract The levels of serum insulin, glucagon, and free fatty acids (FFA) and the tissue concentrations of hepatic cyclic AMP, long-chain acyl-CoA (LCA), adenine nucleotides, inorganic phosphate, the intermediates of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, the citric acid cycle (including acetyl-CoA and free CoA), and the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox couples were determined in the rat 12, 24, and 48 h after food withdrawal and 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after the refeeding of glucose. Using the measured metabolite contents in the liver, the alterations in the concentration of malate, oxaloacetate, citrate, and α-ketoglutarate and the changes in the energy state of the adenine nucleotide system and the redox state of the NAD system were attributed to the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments by applying established calculation methods. Glucose refeeding provoked significant alterations in all parameters investigated. These changes occurred within minutes, reversing the hormone and ...
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Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2-, 3-, or 5-position.
Immobilized Nucleotides for Affinity Chromatography Affinity Chromatography Kits for Adenosine Nucleotide binding Proteins Affinity Kit Components
Carbohydrate metabolism of the lens depending on age. I. Factor analysis of changes in the content of adenine nucleotides, inorganic phosphate and lactate in bo
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Nucleotides may help maintain the optimum rate of cell replacement and help support the immune system. Quality Nucleotide supplements plus free UK delivery.
TY - PAT. T1 - Novel Adenine Derivatives and the Use Thereof. AU - Kim, Won-Ki. PY - 2017/8/16. Y1 - 2017/8/16. N2 - 신규한 아데닌 유도체 및 그 용도. AB - 신규한 아데닌 유도체 및 그 용도. M3 - Patent. M1 - 10-1770374. ER - ...
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June 2009). "Thiaminylated adenine nucleotides. Chemical synthesis, structural characterization and natural occurrence". The ... April 2007). "Discovery of a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide". Nature Chemical Biology. 3 (4): 211-2. doi:10.1038/ ...
Depletion of adenine nucleotidesEdit. Having eliminated loss of respiration, Albrich et al.[26] proposes that the cause of ... Barrette et al.[44] studied the loss of adenine nucleotides by studying the energy charge of HOCl-exposed cells and found that ... Reaction with DNA and nucleotidesEdit. Hypochlorous acid reacts slowly with DNA and RNA as well as all nucleotides in vitro.[15 ... Dennis, W. H., Jr, V. P. Olivieri, and C. W. Krusé (1979). "The reaction of nucleotides with aqueous hypochlorous acid". Water ...
2007). "Discovery of a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide". Nat. Chem. Biol. 3 (4): 211-2. doi:10.1038/nchembio867. PMID ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate, is a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide. It ...
Murugappan S, Shankar H, Kunapuli SP (2005). "Platelet receptors for adenine nucleotides and thromboxane A2". Semin. Thromb. ... A missense mutation that replaces thymine (T) with guanine (G) as the 175 nucleotide (c.175C>T) in the TBXA2R gene as well as ... A guanine (G) duplication at the 167th nucleotide causes a Frameshift mutation (c.165dupG) at amino acid #58 to yield a poorly ... Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variations in the TBXA2R gene have been associated with allergic and cardiovascular ...
Zifarelli G, Pusch M (October 2009). "Intracellular regulation of human ClC-5 by adenine nucleotides". EMBO Reports. 10 (10): ... Meyer S, Savaresi S, Forster IC, Dutzler R (January 2007). "Nucleotide recognition by the cytoplasmic domain of the human ...
Adenine Nucleotides in Cellular Energy Transfer and Signal Transduction. UNESCO. pp. 59-69. ISBN 9783034873154. Rây, Nirmalendu ...
Sanwal, B. D. (1969-04-10). "Regulatory mechanisms involving nicotinamide adenine nucleotides as allosteric effectors. I. ... Cohn, D. V. (1958-08-01). "The enzymatic formation of oxalacetic acid by nonpyridine nucleotide malic dehydrogenase of ... "The enzymatic formation of oxalacetic acid by nonpyridine nucleotide malic dehydrogenase of Micrococcus lysodeikticus". J. Biol ...
It consists of 4 nucleotides guanine, thymine, cytosine, and adenine. The order of these nucleotides gives the "recipe" for the ... In this model, a nucleotide may change its form through a process of quantum tunneling. Because of this, the changed nucleotide ... Photolyase works with its cofactor FADH, flavin adenine dinucleotide, while repairing the DNA. Photolyase is excited by visible ...
... which donates the ribose and phosphate necessary to create a nucleotide. Adenine and guanine are the two nucleotides classified ... ATP, a purine nucleotide, is an activator of pyrimidine synthesis, while CTP, a pyrimidine nucleotide, is an inhibitor of ... Excess of either nucleotide could increase the likelihood of DNA mutations, where the wrong purine nucleotide is inserted. ... For example, adenine + PRPP --> AMP + PPi. This reaction requires the enzyme adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. Free guanine is ...
The rate at which PAP adds adenine nucleotides is dependent on the presence of another regulatory protein, PABPII (poly-adenine ... which accelerates the rate of adenine addition by PAP. The final tail is about 200-250 adenine nucleotides long. PAP is ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing nucleotide groups ( ... whereas its two products are pyrophosphate and RNA with an extra adenosine nucleotide at its 3' end. Human genes with this ...
Kim JY, So KJ, Lee S, Park JH (Sep 2012). "Bcl-rambo induces apoptosis via interaction with the adenine nucleotide translocator ... Bcl-rambo mediates apoptosis by associating with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), a component of the mitochondrial ...
... containing two nucleotides. One of the nucleotides it contains is an adenine group, while the other is nicotinamide. In order ... that consists of an adenine nucleotide and a flavin mononucleotide. FAD is a unique electron acceptor. Its fully reduced form ... FAD, or flavin adenine dinucleotide, is a prosthetic group (a non-polypeptide unit bound to a protein that is required for ... Electron carriers are coenzymes that are often referred to as "redox cofactors." NAD+, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is ...
"Extracellular adenine nucleotides inhibit the activation of human CD4+ T lymphocytes". Journal of Immunology. 169 (1): 15-21. ...
2002). "Extracellular adenine nucleotides inhibit the activation of human CD4+ T lymphocytes". J. Immunol. 169 (1): 15-21. doi: ... 1995). "Initial assessment of human gene diversity and expression patterns based upon 83 million nucleotides of cDNA sequence ... for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor is coupled to the stimulation of the phosphoinositide and adenylyl ... "Structure and ligand-binding site characteristics of the human P2Y11 nucleotide receptor deduced from computational modelling ...
"Identification of Two Sites in Gelsolin with Different Sensitivities to Adenine Nucleotides". European Journal of Biochemistry ...
Other names in common use include adenylate deaminase, adenine nucleotide deaminase, and adenosine (phosphate) deaminase. Su JC ... Yates MG (1969). "A non-specific adenine nucleotide deaminase from desulfovibrio desulfuricans". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 171 (2 ...
ADP is the strongest adenine nucleotide activator of glutaminase. Studies have also suggested ADP lowered the Km for glutamine ...
This opening has several adenine and thymine nucleotides distal to the inverted repeat. As the unwound section gets larger, ... Cruciform DNA structures require at least a six nucleotide sequence of inverted repeats to form a structure consisting of a ... of the first scientists to propose an interaction between proteins and the grooves of specific double-stranded DNA nucleotide ...
Zimmermann, H. (1978). "Turnover of adenine nucleotides in cholinergic synaptic vesicles of the Torpedo electric organ". ... More recently he analyzed the proteome of synaptic vesicles and the role of nucleotide signaling in the control of adult ... Illes, P., Zimmermann H. (eds.) (1999) Nucleotides and their Receptors in the Nervous System. Elesevier, Amsterdam, New York, ... "Extracellular nucleotide signaling in adult neural stem cells: synergism with growth factor-mediated cellular proliferation". ...
Phillis, J. W.; Edstrom, J. P.; Kostopoulos, G. K.; Kirkpatrick, J. R. (1979). "Effects of adenosine and adenine nucleotides on ...
The first nucleotide to be expanded was the purine adenine. Nelson J. Leonard and colleagues synthesized this original x- ... By replacing one nucleotide in a double-helix with an expanded nucleotide, the strength of the stacking interactions increases ... The base pairs between y-nucleotides and natural nucleotides is planar, rather than slightly twisted as with xDNA. This ... nucleotide, which was referred to as "expanded adenine". xA was used as a probe in the investigation of active sites of ATP- ...
There is a granular adenine nucleotide pool within the dense granule. It is thought that it is made up of system of insoluble ... This pool is likely to be different than that of the cytoplasmic nucleotides. In some animals it has been shown that the ... Dense granules have their components sent to maturing dense granules using vesicular nucleotide transporters. This is what is ...
Henderson, P. J. F.; Lardy, H. A. (1970). "Bongkrekic Acid: An Inhibitor of Adenine Nucleotide Translocase of Mitochondria" ( ...
"ARL2 and BART enter mitochondria and bind the adenine nucleotide transporter". Mol. Biol. Cell. 13 (1): 71-83. doi:10.1091/mbc. ...
Rapaport, E.; Fontaine J (1989). "Anticancer activities of adenine nucleotides in mice are mediated through expansion of ... Most are designed to mimic single DNA bases, nucleosides, or nucleotides in order to nonspecifically target DNA. These have ...
July 2013). "Localisation of adenine nucleotides in heat-stabilised mouse brains using ion mobility enabled MALDI Imaging". Int ...
"Thiaminylated adenine nucleotides - chemical synthesis, structural characterization and natural occurrence FEBS J." The FEBS ... is a naturally occurring thiamine adenine nucleotide. It was chemically synthesized and exists in small amounts in vertebrate ...
8: 313-320.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Warnick CT, Lazarus HM (1979). "The maintenance of adenine nucleotide ... Warnick CT, Lazarus HM (1979). "The maintenance of adenine nucleotide levels during kidney storage in intracellular solutions ... The level of nucleotides remaining in the cell after storage was thought by Warnick to be important in determining whether the ... the perfusate or the use of a large volume of perfusate has the theoretical disadvantage that broken down adenine nucleotides ...
Brüser A, Kirchberger J, Kloos M, Sträter N, Schöneberg T (May 2012). "Functional linkage of adenine nucleotide binding sites ...
Foster JW, Moat AG (1 March 1980). "Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis and pyridine nucleotide cycle metabolism in ... As a vitamin, it is precursor of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ... As the precursor for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), niacin is ... Erythrocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) concentrations potentially provide another sensitive indicator of niacin ...
When adenine is deaminated, it becomes hypoxanthine. Hypoxanthine can bind to cytosine, and when the XC base pair is replicated ... RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript prior to translation to protein. ... When adenine is deaminated, it becomes hypoxanthine, which can pair with cytosine. During replication, the cytosine will pair ... "Effect of chemical mutagens on nucleotide sequence". Biocyclopedia. Retrieved 24 October 2015.. ...
... including elevated composition of adenine (A) and thymine (T), and high substitution rates.[4][6][7] ... "Complete nucleotide sequence of the chlorarachniophyte nucleomorph: Nature's smallest nucleus". Proceedings of the National ...
nucleotide). P2X. (ATP). *Agonists: 2-Me-SATP. *α,β-Me-ATP. *Adenosine ... P0 (adenine). *Agonists: 8-Aminoadenine. *Adenine. P1. (adenosine). *Agonists: 2-(1-Hexynyl)-N-methyladenosine ...
This nucleotide contains the five-carbon succar deoxyribose, a nitrogenous base cried adenine, an ane phosphate group. ... Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, o nucleic acids lik DNA an RNA. ... Wi the ane phosphate group includit, whole structur is considered a deoxyribonucleotide (a nucleotide constituent o DNA) wi the ... Thegither, the deoxyribose an adenine mak up a nucleoside (speceefically, a deoxyribonucleoside) cried deoxyadenosine. ...
An increase in ATP concentration opposes this activation by displacing AMP from the nucleotide binding site, indicating ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. *Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. *Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. * ...
A common SNP in the BDNF gene is rs6265.[39] This point mutation in the coding sequence, a guanine to adenine switch at ... BDNF has several known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), including, but not limited to, rs6265, C270T, rs7103411, ...
RNA also uses a different set of bases than DNA-adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil, instead of adenine, guanine, cytosine ... One version, 189-bases long, had an error rate of just 1.1% per nucleotide when synthesizing an 11 nucleotide long RNA strand ... All three spontaneously form nucleotides with ribose.[67] Evolution of DNA[edit]. One of the challenges posed by the RNA world ... Nucleotides are the fundamental molecules that combine in series to form RNA. They consist of a nitrogenous base attached to a ...
A) Adenine. (G) Guanine. (C) Cytosine. (U) Uracil. Adenine forms bonds with uracil, and guanine forms bonds with cytosine. In ... Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a short molecule of about 80 nucleotides which carries a specific amino acid to the polypeptide chain at ... The first three bases are also found in DNA, but uracil replaces thymine as a complement to adenine. ... They are quite small (20/25 nucleotides) double-stranded molecules. Their discovery has caused a surge in biomedical research ...
The mutation caused a change from guanine to adenine at complementary DNA nucleotide 1181 (c.1181G,A) in the gene, which ...
The way it binds NADPH differs from other nucleotide adenine dinucleotide-dependent enzymes. The active site pocket of human ... It is a reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent enzyme catalyzing the reduction of various ... It is a reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent enzyme catalyzing the reduction of various ... "Nucleotide sequence of cDNA for human aldose reductase". Nucleic Acids Research. 17 (20): 8368. doi:10.1093/nar/17.20.8368 ...
The ATP-ADP translocase (also called adenine nucleotide translocase, ANT) is an antiporter and exchanges ADP and ATP across the ...
Bacteria also use DNA adenine methylation (rather than DNA cytosine methylation) as an epigenetic signal. DNA adenine ... MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are members of non-coding RNAs that range in size from 17 to 25 nucleotides. miRNAs regulate a large variety ... In Alphaproteobacteria, methylation of adenine regulates the cell cycle and couples gene transcription to DNA replication. In ... sRNAs are small (50-250 nucleotides), highly structured, non-coding RNA fragments found in bacteria. They control gene ...
ஒற்றைச்சக்கரை மூலக்கூறுகள் ஒவ்வொன்றுடனும், அடினின் (Adenine - A), தையமின் (Thymine -T), சைற்றோசின் (Cytosine - C), குவானின் ( ... நியூக்கிளியோடைட்டுக்கள் (nucleotide) எசுத்தர் பிணைப்பால் இணைக்கப்பட்ட ஒற்றைச்சர்க்கரைகளையும், அவற்றுடன் இணைந்த தாங்கி (base) ... Isaksson J, Acharya S, Barman J, Cheruku P, Chattopadhyaya J (2004). "Single-stranded adenine-rich DNA and RNA retain ...
... adenine-uracil-guanine) is the code for methionine. Because DNA contains four nucleotides, the total number of possible codons ... The genetic code is a set of three-nucleotide sets called codons and each three-nucleotide combination designates an amino acid ... The mRNA is loaded onto the ribosome and is read three nucleotides at a time by matching each codon to its base pairing ... Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence that is specified by the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding this ...
Ethanol also increases the plasma concentrations of hypoxanthine and xanthine via the acceleration of adenine nucleotide ... Several single nucleotide polymorphisms of this gene are known to have a significant correlation with blood uric acid.[12] ... Diet alone generally is not sufficient to cause hyperuricemia (see Gout). Foods high in the purines adenine and hypoxanthine ... in serum and urinary uric acid levels in normal human subjects fed purine-rich foods containing different amounts of adenine ...
The 3' poly(A) tail is a long sequence of adenine nucleotides (often several hundred) added to the 3' end of the pre-mRNA. This ... A 5' cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap, or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ... As in DNA, mRNA genetic information is in the sequence of nucleotides, which are arranged into codons consisting of three base ... In some instances, an mRNA will be edited, changing the nucleotide composition of that mRNA. An example in humans is the ...
Nucleic acids (including RNA and DNA) are nucleotide polymers synthesized by polymerase enzymes during either transcription or ... Orange, blue, green, and purple lines represent adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine respectively. The three short black ... Nucleic acid denaturation occurs when hydrogen bonding between nucleotides is disrupted, and results in the separation of ...
Chromosomes all contain DNA made up of four nucleotides, abbreviated C (cytosine), G (guanine), A (adenine), or T (thymine), ... Nucleotide. They form the rungs of the DNA ladder and are the repeating units in DNA. There are four types of nucleotides (A, T ... an A nucleotide must go opposite a T nucleotide, and a G opposite a C. This exact pairing is called base pairing.[12] ... These units are four types of nucleotides (A,T,G and C) and the sequence of nucleotides stores information in an alphabet ...
adaptor molecules ("they might contain nucleotides") to match short sequences of nucleotides in the RNA messenger molecules to ... The similar structures of guanine:cytosine and adenine:thymine base pairs is illustrated. The base pairs are held together by ... They consulted Jerry Donohue who confirmed the most likely structures of the nucleotide bases.[45] The base pairs are held ... In his 1958 article, Crick speculated, as had others, that a triplet of nucleotides could code for an amino acid. Such a code ...
Beis I., and Newsholme E. A. (October 1, 1975). "The contents of adenine nucleotides, phosphagens and some glycolytic ...
The ribosomal protein S1 binds to adenine sequences upstream of the RBS. Increasing the concentration of adenine upstream of ... A ribosome binding site, or ribosomal binding site (RBS), is a sequence of nucleotides upstream of the start codon of an mRNA ... The composition of nucleotides in the spacer region itself was also found to affect the rate of translation initiation in one ...
Alteration of the adenine nucleotide response and increased Rubisco activation activity of Arabidopsis rubisco activase by site ...
Main article: Nucleotide. The canonical structure of DNA has four bases: thymine (T), adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G ... Each strand is composed of four complementary nucleotides - adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T) - with an A ... If the introduced nucleotide is complementary to the leading template nucleotide it is incorporated into the growing ... Wu R (1972). "Nucleotide sequence analysis of DNA". Nature New Biology. 236 (68): 198-200. doi:10.1038/newbio236198a0. PMID ...
The nucleobases are divided into purines (guanine and adenine) and pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine and uracil). Anti-metabolites ... The building blocks are nucleotides; a molecule comprising a nucleobase, a sugar and a phosphate group. ... resemble either nucleobases or nucleosides (a nucleotide without the phosphate group), but have altered chemical groups.[37] ...
Nucleotides. *Deoxynucleotides. Ribonucleic acids .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. (coding, non-coding). ...
... adenine [A] ama thymine [T]), sonkor loo yaqaanno deoxyribose, iyo koox fosfate ah. Nucleotides ayaa isku xidhaya silsilad isku ... 2] [3] Nucleotide kasta wuxuu ka kooban yahay mid ka mid ah afar nukleobasiyam oo nitrogen ah (cytosine [C], guanine [G], ... DNA-da, pyrimidines waa thymine iyo cytosine; nadiifinta waa adenine iyo guanine. ... sidoo kale loo yaqaannaa polynucleotides tan iyo markii ay ka kooban yihiin unugyo monomeric fudud oo la yiraahdo nucleotides ...
... these compounds are reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the "energy ...
The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide bases of a DNA strand - adenine, cytosine, guanine, ... Main article: Nucleotide. Nucleic acids consist of a chain of linked units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of ... A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using ... Apart from adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T) and uracil (U), DNA and RNA also contain bases that have been ...
... adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). Genetic information exists in the sequence of these nucleotides, and ... Each nucleotide in DNA preferentially pairs with its partner nucleotide on the opposite strand: A pairs with T, and C pairs ... molecules with nucleotides very similar to DNA. The nucleotide sequence of a messenger RNA is used to create an amino acid ... Their double-helix model had two strands of DNA with the nucleotides pointing inward, each matching a complementary nucleotide ...
2003). "Coordinated adenine nucleotide phosphohydrolysis and nucleoside signaling in posthypoxic endothelium: role of ...
Adenine+Nucleotide+Translocator+1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adenine+Nucleotide+ ... Pressman BC (June 1958). "Intramitochondrial nucleotides. I. Some factors affecting net interconversions of adenine nucleotides ... Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocase (ANT), ADP/ATP carrier protein (AAC) or ... Bruni A, Luciani S, Contessa AR (March 1964). "Inhibition by atractyloside of the binding of adenine-nucleotides to rat-liver ...
In addition, the effect of the synchronizing temperature (34 °C) on adenine... ... The metabolism of acid soluble adenine nucleotides in heat-synchronized Tetrahymena pyriformisGL has been studied. ... Nucleotide Cell Cycle Cell Division Adenine Heat Treatment These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This ... The specific activities of the adenine nucleotides were found to be significantly higher during a pulse label period performed ...
adenine nucleotide translocase;. DNP,. 2,4-dinitrophenyl;. DNPH,. 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine;. HNE,. 4-hydroxynonenal. ... Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase is modified oxidatively during aging Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase is modified oxidatively during aging. Liang-Jun Yan and Rajindar S. Sohal ... Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) was found to be the only protein in the mitochondrial membranes exhibiting a detectable ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator synonyms, Adenine nucleotide translocator pronunciation, Adenine nucleotide translocator ... English dictionary definition of Adenine nucleotide translocator. n. Abbr. A A purine base, C5H5N5, that is the constituent ... Related to Adenine nucleotide translocator: adenine nucleotide translocator 2. ad·e·nine. (ăd′n-ēn′, -ĭn). n. Abbr. A. A purine ... adenine. (redirected from Adenine nucleotide translocator). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, ...
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody validated for WB, IP and tested in Human. With 2 independent ... Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody. See all Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 primary antibodies. ... Immunoprecipitation of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 transfected lysate using ab118125 and Protein A Magnetic Bead, and ... Recombinant full length protein, corresponding to amino acids 1-298 of Human Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 (NP_001143.2). ...
Adenine nucleotide translocase 2 is a key mitochondrial protein in cancer metabolism.. Chevrollier A1, Loiseau D, Reynier P, ... Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), a mitochondrial protein that facilitates the exchange of ADP and ATP across the ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/genetics. *Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/metabolism. *Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ ...
Adenine nucleotide and lysine transport in Chlamydia psittaci.. T P Hatch, E Al-Hossainy, J A Silverman ... Adenine nucleotide and lysine transport in Chlamydia psittaci. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The results support the concept that chlamydiae are energy parasites which are capable of drawing upon the adenine nucleotides ... Other nucleotides tested had no effect on the uptake of ATP. A magnesium-dependent, oligomycin-sensitive ATPase (ATP ...
Regional responses within the kidney to ischemia: assessment of adenine nucleotide and catabolite profiles.. Zager RA1, Gmur DJ ... Adenine nucleotides/catabolites were measured in rat C, IM and outer medulla (OM) after 15 and 45 min of ischemia. After 15 min ...
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Human. Independently ... Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. See all Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 primary antibodies. ... All lanes : Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab221956) at 1/100 dilution. Lane 1 : RT-4 cell lysate. Lane ... This product Rabbit Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab221956) IHC-P, WB ...
Immunostaining of Western blots revealed a 4-fold decrease in the concentration of the adenine nucleotide translocator in the ... we conclude that this patient suffers from a muscle-specific deficiency of his mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator, a ... the ADP/ATP or adenine nucleotide translocator, could be affected. ... Bakker, H., Scholte, H., Van Den Bogert, C. et al. Deficiency of the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator in Muscle of a Patient ...
Increased Sensitivity in the Detection of Adenine and Pyridine Nucleotides by Exposure to Ultraviolet Light at Low Temperature ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 Antibody. Validated: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, ... Home » Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 » Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 Antibodies » Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 ... Blogs on Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1. Check out the latest blog posts on Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1. ... Reviews for Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 Antibody (NBP1-59594) (0) There are no reviews for Adenine Nucleotide Translocase ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1. Subscribe to New Research on Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 ... ANT-1 Transport Protein; ANT1 Transport Protein; Adenine Nucleotide Carrier Protein; Adenine Nucleotide Translocator, Muscle ... Nucleotide Transport Proteins*ATP Translocases Mitochondrial ADP: 95*Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: 14 ...
Transit Time Adenine Nucleotide Metabolic Fate Pulmonary Circulation Polar Metabolite These keywords were added by machine and ... Metabolic Fates of Bradykinin, Angiotensin I, Adenine Nucleotides and Prostaglandins E1 and F1α in the Pulmonary Circulation. ... Ryan J.W., Niemeyer R.S., Goodwin D.W. (1972) Metabolic Fates of Bradykinin, Angiotensin I, Adenine Nucleotides and ...
Adenine nucleotide translocase 4 is expressed within embryonic ovaries and dispensable during oogenesis.. [Chae Ho Lim, Jeffrey ... Adenine nucleotide translocase (Ant) facilitates the exchange of adenosine triphosphate across the mitochondrial inner membrane ...
... Ji- ... Ji-Young Jang and Choong-Eun Lee, "Expression of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator Correlates with the IL-4-induced lymphocyte ...
Inhibition of adenine nucleotide translocator pore function and protection against apoptosis in vivo by an HIV protease ... Inhibition of adenine nucleotide translocator pore function and protection against apoptosis in vivo by an HIV protease ... the preservation of mitochondrial integrity and that in vitro PIs act to prevent pore function of the adenine nucleotide ...
Adenine nucleotide transporter involved in the uniport of ATP and adenine nucleotide hetero-exchange transport between the ... Adenine nucleotide transporter involved in the uniport of ATP and adenine nucleotide hetero-exchange transport between the ... adenine nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity Source: SGD ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a ... "The yeast peroxisomal adenine nucleotide transporter: characterization of two transport modes and involvement in DeltapH ...
These results support the view that depletion of adenine nucleotides is involved in the development of cardiac necrosis. ... Reduction of the isoproterenol-induced alterations in cardiac adenine nucleotides and morphology by ribose ... Reduction of the isoproterenol-induced alterations in cardiac adenine nucleotides and morphology by ribose ... Reduction of the isoproterenol-induced alterations in cardiac adenine nucleotides and morphology by ribose ...
Modulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DnaAprotein-adenine nucleotide interactions by acidic phospholipids K. YAMAMOTO K. ... This is a correction to: Modulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DnaA protein-adenine-nucleotide interactions by acidic ... Modulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DnaA protein-adenine-nucleotide interactions by acidic phospholipids Biochem J (April ... Modulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DnaAprotein-adenine nucleotide interactions by acidic phospholipids. Biochem J 15 June ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 explanation free. What is adenine nucleotide translocator 1? Meaning of adenine nucleotide ... Looking for online definition of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in the Medical Dictionary? ... Adenine nucleotide translocator 1 , definition of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 by Medical dictionary https://medical- ... redirected from adenine nucleotide translocator 1) SLC25A4. A gene on chromosome 4q35 that encodes a mitochondrial solute ...
Oncotarget , SLC25A32 sustains cancer cell proliferation by regulating flavin adenine nucleotide (FAD) metabolism. February 28 ...
... on the energy balance of the snails foot was investigated based on measurements of concentrations of adenine nucleotides and ... Adenine. nucleotides. in snail muscles as one of biomarkers. of fluoride toxicity M. Rac, K. Safranow, K. Jakubowska, D. ... adenine. nucleotides. and their metabolism degradation products. Quantitation of fluoride levels was done in soft tissues (foot ... Adenine. nucleotides. in snail muscles as one of biomarkers. of fluoride toxicity ...
Abstract 1295: Mitochondrial Uncoupling in db/db Mouse Hearts is Mediated by the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT). Sihem ... Abstract 1295: Mitochondrial Uncoupling in db/db Mouse Hearts is Mediated by the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT) ... Abstract 1295: Mitochondrial Uncoupling in db/db Mouse Hearts is Mediated by the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT) ... Abstract 1295: Mitochondrial Uncoupling in db/db Mouse Hearts is Mediated by the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT) ...
The Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Activates the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade via an Adenine Nucleotide-Independent ... The Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Activates the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade via an Adenine Nucleotide-Independent ... The Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Activates the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade via an Adenine Nucleotide-Independent ... The Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Activates the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade via an Adenine Nucleotide-Independent ...
Acute Knockdown of Uncoupling Protein-2 Increases Uncoupling via the Adenine Nucleotide Transporter and Decreases Oxidative ... that further increased mitochondria uncoupling after siRNA towards UCP-2 is mediated through the adenine nucleotide transporter ...
Adenine nucleotides as paracrine mediators and intracellular second messengers in immunity and inflammation Ralf Fliegert; Ralf ... An Abnormal Ratio of Inosine plus Adenine Nucleotides to Guanine Nucleotides Clin Sci (Lond) (January,1982) ... Adenine nucleotides (AdNs) play important roles in immunity and inflammation. Extracellular AdNs, such as adenosine ... Adenine nucleotides as paracrine mediators and intracellular second messengers in immunity and inflammation. Biochem Soc Trans ...
... for Adenine Nucleotide Signaling - Research in Hamburg-Eppendorf - jetzt bewerben! ... Professorship (W3) for Adenine Nucleotide Signaling - Research. Veröffentlicht am 5. März 2019 (vor 327 Tagen) Bewerbungsende 1 ... The Professorship for Adenine Nucleotide Signaling should considerably strengthen research and academic education in the ... To establish a research group dedicated to adenine nucleotide signaling, preferably in the context of immunology and/or ...
Adenine nucleotide translocase-1, a component of the permeability transition pore, can dominantly induce apoptosis View in MDC ... Here, we describe the isolation of adenine nucleotide translocase-1 (ANT-1) in a screen for dominant, apoptosis-inducing genes ...
THE EFFECT OF RESERPINE ON THE CATECHOLAMINE AND ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE CONTENTS OF ADRENAL GLAND. W. R. Burack, N. Weiner and P. B ... THE EFFECT OF RESERPINE ON THE CATECHOLAMINE AND ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE CONTENTS OF ADRENAL GLAND. W. R. Burack, N. Weiner and P. B ... THE EFFECT OF RESERPINE ON THE CATECHOLAMINE AND ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE CONTENTS OF ADRENAL GLAND. W. R. Burack, N. Weiner and P. B ... THE EFFECT OF RESERPINE ON THE CATECHOLAMINE AND ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE CONTENTS OF ADRENAL GLAND ...
  • Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocase (ANT), ADP/ATP carrier protein (AAC) or mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier, exchanges free ATP with free ADP across the inner mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATP and ADP are the only natural nucleotides recognized by the translocase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) was found to be the only protein in the mitochondrial membranes exhibiting a detectable age-associated increase in carbonyls. (pnas.org)
  • Results of the present study indicate that age-related increase in molecular oxidative damage to mitochondrial membrane proteins is indeed highly selective, primarily involving adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), with severe loss of its functional activity. (pnas.org)
  • Adenine nucleotide translocase 2 is a key mitochondrial protein in cancer metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), a mitochondrial protein that facilitates the exchange of ADP and ATP across the mitochondrial inner membrane, plays an essential role in cellular energy metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Western Blot: Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 Antibody [NBP1-59594] - RPMI 8226 cell lysate, concentration 0.2-1 ug/ml. (novusbio.com)
  • Adenine nucleotide translocase 4 is expressed within embryonic ovaries and dispensable during oogenesis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Adenine nucleotide translocase (Ant) facilitates the exchange of adenosine triphosphate across the mitochondrial inner membrane and plays a critical role for bioenergetics in eukaryotes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we describe the isolation of adenine nucleotide translocase-1 (ANT-1) in a screen for dominant, apoptosis-inducing genes. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • GSAO (4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsonous acid) and PENAO (4-(N-(S-penicillaminylacetyl)amino) phenylarsonous acid) are tumour metabolism inhibitors that target adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) of the inner-mitochondrial membrane. (springermedizin.de)
  • Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) mediates the exchange of ADP and ATP on the inner mitochondrial membrane in healthy cells. (nih.gov)
  • Our Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 Antibodies can be used in a variety of model adenine nucleotide translocase secondary active transport uses species: If necessary, briefly centrifuge adenine nucleotide translocase secondary active transport uses chemical engineering topics for thesis in education the vial on a tabletop centrifuge to dislodge any liquid in postcolonial feminist thought essays the container`s cap. (halo4iphone.com)
  • Here, we describe dump truck company business plan sample the isolation of adenine nucleotide translocase-1 (ANT-1) in a screen for dominant, apoptosis-inducing genes. (halo4iphone.com)
  • This is usually to accumulate high concentrations of molecules that a cell needs, such as abai kunanbaev essay writer glucose or adenine nucleotide translocase secondary active transport uses amino acids. (halo4iphone.com)
  • B) Give adenine nucleotide translocase secondary active transport uses a diagrammatic representation of sites of ATP formation and inhibitors of the mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain How to Take Recommended dosage, active little mac smash bros wallpaper yoshi amounts, other details. (halo4iphone.com)
  • Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is a nuclear-encoded protein abundantly located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and the role of this protein is to catalyze the exchange of mitochondrial ATP with cytosolic ADP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that the proton conductance of muscle mitochondria from mice in which isoform 1 of the adenine nucleotide translocase has been ablated is half that of wild-type controls. (edu.au)
  • Overexpression of the adenine nucleotide translocase encoded by the stress-sensitive B gene in Drosophila mitochondria increases proton conductance, and underexpression decreases it, even when the carrier is fully inhibited using carboxyatractylate. (edu.au)
  • Mild uncoupling of mitochondria is known to be cardioprotective, and adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1) is a key mediator of mitochondrial uncoupling. (elsevier.com)
  • Patch of mitochondrial inner membrane with attached octameric creatine kinase and transmembrane adenine nucleotide translocase proteins. (ioc.ee)
  • Interaction between mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) can play an important role in determining energy transfer pathways in the cell. (ioc.ee)
  • The SLC25A4 gene provides the instructions for making a protein called adenine nucleotide translocase type 1 (ANT1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lipid-Loving ANTs: Molecular Simulations of Cardiolipin Interactions and the Organization of the Adenine Nucleotide Translocase in Model Mitochondrial Membranes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This exchange is facilitated by the adenine nucleotide translocase, the structure and function of which are critically dependent on the signature phospholipid of mitochondria, cardiolipin (CL). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Transport is fully reversible, and its directionality is governed by the concentrations of its substrates (ADP and ATP inside and outside mitochondria), the chelators of the adenine nucleotides, and the mitochondrial membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers speculate that because the heart cells also produce ANT2, another form of the adenine nucleotide translocator protein, enough ATP gets out to prevent enlargement of the mitochondria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This demonstrated that further increased mitochondria uncoupling after siRNA towards UCP-2 is mediated through the adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT). (diva-portal.org)
  • The effect of the local anaesthetic, butacaine, on adenine nucleotide binding and translocation in rat liver mitochondria partially depleted of their adenine nucleotide content was investigated. (biochemj.org)
  • The range of butacaine concentrations that inhibit adenine nucleotide translocation and the extent of the inhibition are similar to the values obtained for native mitochondria. (biochemj.org)
  • Butacaine does not alter either the total number of atractyloside-sensitive binding sites of depleted mitochondria, or the affinity of these sites for ADP or ATP under conditions where a partial inhibition of the rate of adenine nucleotide translocation is observed. (biochemj.org)
  • We conclude that half to two-thirds of the basal proton conductance of mitochondria is catalysed by the adenine nucleotide carrier, independently of its ATP/ADP exchange or fatty-acid-dependent proton-leak functions. (edu.au)
  • The effect of calcium on the translocation of adenine nucleotides in rat liver mitochondria. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Oliveira, PJ & Wallace, KB 2006, ' Depletion of adenine nucleotide translocator protein in heart mitochondria from doxorubicin-treated rats - Relevance for mitochondrial dysfunction ', Toxicology , vol. 220, no. 2-3, pp. 160-168. (elsevier.com)
  • Recombinant full length protein, corresponding to amino acids 1-298 of Human Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 (NP_001143.2). (abcam.com)
  • Immunoprecipitation of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 transfected lysate using ab118125 and Protein A Magnetic Bead, and immunoblotted with an Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 mouse polyclonal antibody. (abcam.com)
  • The apparent Km of transport for both ATP and ADP was approximately 5 microM, and the calculated Vmax for both was about 1 nmol of nucleotide transported per min per mg of protein. (asm.org)
  • Further, a mass spectrometric protein profiling approach is employed to quantitatively identify small variations in expression of nucleoside and nucleotide binding proteins in samples of interest. (usf.edu)
  • The adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (Ant1) is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein involved with energy mobilization during oxidative phosphorylation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NO, peroxynitrite and HNE also permeabilize proteoliposomes containing the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), one of the key components of the PTPC, yet have no or little effects on protein-free control liposomes. (elsevier.com)
  • The ANT1 gene encodes the adenine nucleotide translocator-1 (ANT1). (elsevier.com)
  • Further, we demonstrate that both in vitro and in vivo, PIs block apoptosis through the preservation of mitochondrial integrity and that in vitro PIs act to prevent pore function of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) subunit of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex. (jci.org)
  • Effects of temperature shift on cell cycle, apoptosis and nucleotide pools in CHO cell batch cultues. (springer.com)
  • The metabolism of acid soluble adenine nucleotides in heat-synchronized Tetrahymena pyriformis GL has been studied. (springer.com)
  • In addition, the effect of the synchronizing temperature (34 °C) on adenine nucleotide metabolism in heat-synchronized cells has been determined. (springer.com)
  • The toxicity of fluorides administered orally on the energy balance of the snail's foot was investigated based on measurements of concentrations of adenine nucleotides and their metabolism degradation products. (rsc.org)
  • The effect of fluorides on energy metabolism of foot muscle was evidenced by elevated AMP levels, increased adenine nucleotide pool and reduced conversion of ADP to ATP. (rsc.org)
  • Lost nucleotides must be restored via the purine salvage pathway or the de novo pathway of adenine nucleotide metabolism. (bioenergylifescience.com)
  • The culture of previous conferences can also be maintained through together with within the application shows of latest examine within the parts of purine metabolism and body structure, and pharmacology of adenosine and adenine nucleotides. (onlinespielenautomaten.com)
  • Continuous intravenous infusion of ribose (200 milligrams per kilogram per hour) for 24 hours induced a marked stimulation of cardiac adenine nucleotide biosynthesis in unanesthetized and unrestrained rats that had been treated with isoproterenol subcutaneously (25 milligrams per kilogram). (sciencemag.org)
  • The diminution of adenine nucleotides characteristic for the action of high doses of isoproterenol was entirely prevented, and the incidence of the isoproterenol-induced myocardial cell damage was significantly reduced when ribose was administered. (sciencemag.org)
  • The effect appeared to be specific for adenine ribose monomers. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Nucleotides are organic molecules and are made up of three subunits: a nitrogenous base (purine or pyrimidine base), a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and one to three phosphate groups. (mitophysiology.org)
  • The limiting step in nucleotide synthesis de novo is the availability of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP), which is formed from ribose-5-phosphate. (bioenergylifescience.com)
  • thus an increased availability of ribose may enhance the formation of PRPP and the rate of synthesis of adenine nucleotides. (bioenergylifescience.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of oral intake of ribose after frequent, high-intensity training on adenine nucleotide resynthesis. (bioenergylifescience.com)
  • AMP consists of a phosphate group, the sugar ribose, and the nucleobase adenine. (sellsteroid.com)
  • In this study we tested the hypothesis that FOSAA and N-EtFOSAA interact with the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) resulting in a functional inhibition of the translocator and induction of the MPT. (uc.pt)
  • An XOD inhibitor, febuxostat, which blocks the degradation pathway of adenine nucleotides, promoted ATP recovery and exerted renoprotective effects in the postischemic kidney. (jci.org)
  • abstract = "Monoamino derivatives of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) having an amino group either at the primary (1) or secondary hydroxy group side (2) were employed for investigating the superiority of the secondary hydroxy side modification to the guest binding of adenine nucleotides. (elsevier.com)
  • The results are briefly discussed in relation to the use of local anaesthetics in investigations of the mechanism of adenine nucleotide translocation. (biochemj.org)
  • Changes in adenylate energy charge (EC(A)) and in total adenine nucleotides (A(T)) and DNA content (both normalized to the abundance of free- living, groundwater bacteria) in response to carbon loading were determined for a laboratory-grown culture and for a contaminated aquifer. (usgs.gov)
  • Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in RNA. (sellsteroid.com)
  • Probably specific for multiple cofactors like coenzyme A (CoA), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and nucleotide adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and to a lesser extend for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate (PAP). (tcdb.org)
  • Ca2+, Mg2+, caffeine, and adenine nucleotides, but not inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, may exert their inotropic effects on skeletal muscle SR by direct allosteric modulation of the [3H]ryanodine-binding site. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Breakdown of adenine nucleotide pool in fatiguing skeletal mus. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • Extracellular AdNs, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and their metabolites, act as paracrine messengers by fine-tuning both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. (portlandpress.com)
  • High purity β-Nicotinamide Adenine Di-nucleotide Reduced Salt for use as a cofactor for research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis. (megazyme.com)
  • Charges of Nicotinamide Adenine nucleotides and Adenylate Energy Charg. (ku.dk)
  • To assess whether guanine nucleotides have a specific role in stimulus-secretion coupling, their concentration should be modified selectively. (biochemj.org)
  • Contrary to previous claims, MPA is not an adequate tool for evaluating a specific role of guanine nucleotides in the control of insulin secretion. (biochemj.org)
  • These results support the view that depletion of adenine nucleotides is involved in the development of cardiac necrosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this research, an affinity based approach for the enrichment of nucleotide and nucleoside binding proteins from a complex cell proteome has been developed. (usf.edu)
  • To achieve this goal, new N6-biotinylated-8-azido-adenosine probes (AdoRs) have been designed and synthesized to photolabel the nucleotide and nucleoside binding proteins. (usf.edu)
  • The approach was extended to compare the proteomic profiles of nucleotide and nucleoside binding proteins in cancerous (Hey) and non-cancerous (T-80) human ovarian cell proteome. (usf.edu)
  • Because effects of febuxostat were canceled by silencing of the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 gene in cultured tubular cells, mechanisms for the renoprotective effects appear to involve the purine salvage pathway, which uses hypoxanthine to resynthesize adenine nucleotides, including ATP. (jci.org)
  • Adenine nucleotides (AdNs) play important roles in immunity and inflammation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Within Collaborative Research Center (Sonderforschungsbereich) 1328 „Adenine Nucleotides in Immunity and Inflammation" that started work on July 01, 2018, we offer a multitude of collaborative possibilities, either with basic biomedical subjects such as biochemistry or immunology, or with clinical collaboration partners. (zeit.de)
  • With this, in short, nucleotides are nucleosides with attached phosphate group(s). (mitophysiology.org)
  • While most IMP is retained in the cell for reamination to AMP at rest, a significant fraction of IMP is further degraded to inosine and hypoxanthine and enter the bloodstream lowering the adenine nucleotide pool. (bioenergylifescience.com)
  • Because oxidative phosphorylation was not disturbed in fibroblasts and lymphocytes, we conclude that this patient suffers from a muscle-specific deficiency of his mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator, a defect unknown so far. (nature.com)
  • HPLC/HPLC-MS of adenine nucleotides. (zeit.de)
  • I utilized anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate and simultaneously quantitate ATP, ADP, AMP and adenine levels in the same sample aliquot, so that cellular energy charge can be calculated. (oxphos.net)
  • High-energy phosphates and related adenine nucleotides.Metabolites were measured by HPLC in Control, SHF and DHF hearts. (nih.gov)
  • A magnesium-dependent, oligomycin-sensitive ATPase (ATP phosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.3) was associated with reticulate bodies, and most of the transported ATP was hydrolyzed to ADP, which was exchanged for additional, extracellular nucleotide. (asm.org)
  • Extracellular adenine nucleotides are metabolized by a number of enzymes including NTPDases and 5'-nucleotidase, which are considered to be the major regulators of purinergic signaling in the blood. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • High-energy phosphates and related adenine nucleotides. (nih.gov)
  • The relationship of these parameters can be expressed by an equation solving for the 'reversal potential of the ANT" (Erev_ANT), a value of the mitochondrial membrane potential at which no net transport of adenine nucleotides takes place by the ANT. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results indicate that the nucleotide form shifts of DnaA are tightly linked with an epistatic cell cycle event and with the chromosomal replication system. (elsevier.com)
  • Analysis of complex formation indicates that increased activity is achieved when the catalytic Nucleotide binding subunit is phosphorylated and bound to regulatory subunits. (deepdyve.com)
  • In contrast, attempts to stimulate ATP synthesis specifically (by provision of adenine or adenosine) failed to reverse any of the effects of MPA. (biochemj.org)
  • Adenine nucleotide transporter involved in the uniport of ATP and adenine nucleotide hetero-exchange transport between the cytosol and the peroxisomal lumen. (uniprot.org)
  • While this may be related to the mechanism of the adenosine effect, a direct effect of adenosine on adenyl cyclase or cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase could not be implicated in homogenates. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Collaborative Research Center (Sonderforschungsbereich) 1328 is dedicated to decipher the roles of adenine nucleotides as essential and ubiquitous signal molecules for cell-cell interaction or as intracellular second messengers. (zeit.de)
  • Adenine nucleotides , which are also sometimes referred to as adenosines or adenylates, are a group of organic molecules including AMP, ADP and ATP . (mitophysiology.org)
  • An analytical technique was developed to measure adenine nucleotide levels (ATP, ADP, AMP) and adenylate energy charge (EC) in Zostera marina (eelgrass), a submerged marine angiosperm. (wm.edu)
  • These data suggest that the DNA content of groundwater bacteria may be more sensitive than their A(T) to the degree of carbon loading, which may have significant ramifications in the use of nucleic acids and adenine nucleotides for estimating the metabolic status of bacterial communities within more highly contaminated aquifers. (usgs.gov)
  • Nucleotides present the building blocks of nucleic acids and by this form a part of essential biomolecules of life such as, for example, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). (mitophysiology.org)
  • It is concluded that guanine and adenine nucleotide pools are tightly linked and cannot be specifically affected by MPA in pancreatic islet cells, probably because of the activity of nucleoside diphosphate kinase and because of the role of GTP in several reactions leading to adenine nucleotide generation. (biochemj.org)