A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.
A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.
Adenine nucleotides are molecules that consist of an adenine base attached to a ribose sugar and one, two, or three phosphate groups, including adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which play crucial roles in energy transfer and signaling processes within cells.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in the LIVER.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Guanine nucleotides are cyclic or linear molecules that consist of a guanine base, a pentose sugar (ribose in the cyclic form, deoxyribose in the linear form), and one or more phosphate groups, playing crucial roles in signal transduction, protein synthesis, and regulation of enzymatic activities.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.

Adenine nucleotide translocase 3 (ANT3) overexpression induces apoptosis in cultured cells. (1/10)

Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1), but not ANT2, can dominantly induce apoptosis. Nothing is known, however, about the apoptotic activity of ANT3. We have transfected HeLa cells with the three human ANT isoforms to compare their potential as inducers of apoptosis. Transient overexpression of ANT3 resulted, like ANT1, in apoptosis as shown by an increase in the sub-G1 fraction, annexin V staining, low DeltaPsi(m), and activation of caspases 9 and 3. Moreover, the apoptosis produced by ANT3 was inhibited by bongkrekic acid and by cyclosporin A. The pro-apoptotic activities of the ANT1 and ANT3 isoforms contrast with the lack of apoptotic activity of ANT2. This finding may help to identify the specific factors associated with the pro-apoptotic activities of ANT isoforms.  (+info)

Effects of extramitochondrial ADP on permeability transition of mouse liver mitochondria. (2/10)

Carboxyatractylate (CAT) and atractylate inhibit the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) and stimulate the opening of permeability transition pore (PTP). Following pretreatment of mouse liver mitochondria with 5 microM CAT and 75 microM Ca2+, the activity of PTP increased, but addition of 2 mM ADP inhibited the swelling of mitochondria. Extramitochondrial Ca2+ concentration measured with Calcium-Green 5N evidenced that 2 mM ADP did not remarkably decrease the free Ca2+ but the release of Ca2+ from loaded mitochondria was stopped effectively after addition of 2 mM ADP. CAT caused a remarkable decrease of the maximum amount of calcium ions, which can be accumulated by mitochondria. Addition of 2 mM ADP after 5 microM CAT did not change the respiration, but increased the mitochondrial capacity for Ca2+ at more than five times. Bongkrekic acid (BA) had a biphasic effect on PT. In the first minutes 5 microM BA increased the stability of mitochondrial membrane followed by a pronounced opening of PTP too. BA abolished the action about of 1 mM ADP, but was not able to induce swelling of mitochondria in the presence of 2 mM ADP. We conclude that the outer side of inner mitochondrial membrane has a low affinity sensor for ADP, modifying the activity of PTP. The pathophysiological importance of this process could be an endogenous prevention of PT at conditions of energetic depression.  (+info)

Dinitrophenol-induced mitochondrial uncoupling in vivo triggers respiratory adaptation in HepG2 cells. (3/10)

Here, we show that 3 days of mitochondrial uncoupling, induced by low concentrations of dinitrophenol (10 and 50 microM) in cultured human HepG2 cells, triggers cellular metabolic adaptation towards oxidative metabolism. Chronic respiratory uncoupling of HepG2 cells induced an increase in cellular oxygen consumption, oxidative capacity and cytochrome c oxidase activity. This was associated with an upregulation of COXIV and ANT3 gene expression, two nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Glucose consumption, lactate and pyruvate production and growth rate were unaffected, indicating that metabolic adaptation of HepG2 cells undergoing chronic respiratory uncoupling allows continuous and efficient mitochondrial ATP production without the need to increase glycolytic activity. In contrast, 3 days of dinitrophenol treatment did not change the oxidative capacity of human 143B.TK(-) cells, but it increased glucose consumption, lactate and pyruvate production. Despite a large increase in glycolytic metabolism, the growth rate of 143B.TK(-) cells was significantly reduced by dinitrophenol-induced mitochondrial uncoupling. We propose that chronic respiratory uncoupling may constitute an internal bioenergetic signal, which would initiate a coordinated increase in nuclear respiratory gene expression, which ultimately drives mitochondrial metabolic adaptation within cells.  (+info)

Functioning of oxidative phosphorylation in liver mitochondria of high-fat diet fed rats. (4/10)

We proposed that inhibition of mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) by long chain acyl-CoA (LCAC) underlies the mechanism associating obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we test that after long-term exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD): (i) there is no adaptation of the mitochondrial compartment that would hinder such ANT inhibition, and (ii) ANT has significant control of the relevant aspects of oxidative phosphorylation. After 7 weeks, HFD induced a 24+/-6% increase in hepatic LCAC concentration and accumulation of the oxidative stress marker N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine. HFD did not significantly affect mitochondrial copy number, oxygen uptake, membrane potential (Deltapsi), ADP/O ratio, and the content of coenzyme Q(9), cytochromes b and a+a(3). Modular kinetic analysis showed that the kinetics of substrate oxidation, phosphorylation, proton leak, ATP-production and ATP-consumption were not influenced significantly. After HFD-feeding ANT exerted considerable control over oxygen uptake (control coefficient C=0.14) and phosphorylation fluxes (C=0.15), extra- (C=0.23) and intramitochondrial (C=-0.56) ATP/ADP ratios, and Deltapsi (C=-0.11). We conclude that although HFD induces accumulation of LCAC and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, oxidative phosphorylation does not adapt to these metabolic challenges. Furthermore, ANT retains control of fluxes and intermediates, making inhibition of this enzyme a more probable link between obesity and type 2 diabetes.  (+info)

Adenine nucleotide (ADP/ATP) translocase 3 participates in the tumor necrosis factor induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. (5/10)

Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is believed to be a component or a regulatory component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP), which controls mitochondrial permeability transition during apoptosis. However, the role of ANT in apoptosis is still uncertain, because hepatocytes isolated from ANT knockout and wild-type mice are equally sensitive to TNF- and Fas-induced apoptosis. In a screen for genes required for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells using retrovirus insertion-mediated random mutagenesis, we discovered that the ANT3 gene is involved in TNF-alpha-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells. We further found that ANT3 is selectively required for TNF- and oxidative stress-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells, but it is dispensable for cell death induced by several other inducers. This data supplements previous data obtained from ANT knockout studies, indicating that ANT is involved in some apoptotic processes. We found that the resistance to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis observed in ANT3 mutant (ANT3(mut)) cells is associated with a deficiency in the regulation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. It is not related to intracellular ATP levels or survival pathways, supporting a previous model in which ANT regulates mtPTP. Our study provides genetic evidence supporting a role of ANT in apoptosis and suggests that the involvement of ANT in cell death is cell type- and stimulus-dependent.  (+info)

Down-regulation of adenine nucleotide translocase 3 and its role in camptothecin-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma QGY7703 cells. (6/10)

 (+info)

Overexpression of GAP-43 reveals unexpected properties of hippocampal mossy fibers. (7/10)

 (+info)

Full-length enriched cDNA library construction from tissues related to energy metabolism in pigs. (8/10)

 (+info)

Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 (ANT1) is a protein found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of cells. It plays a crucial role in cellular energy metabolism by facilitating the exchange of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) across the mitochondrial membrane.

In simpler terms, ANT1 helps to transport ATP, which is a major source of energy for cells, out of the mitochondria and exchange it for ADP, which can be converted back into ATP through cellular respiration. This process is essential for maintaining the energy balance within the cell and supporting various physiological functions.

Mutations in the gene that encodes ANT1 have been associated with certain mitochondrial disorders, such as autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) and maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD). These genetic conditions can result in a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and neurological problems.

Mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocases, also known as adenine nucleotide translocators (ANT), are a group of proteins located in the inner mitochondrial membrane that play a crucial role in cellular energy production. These translocases facilitate the exchange of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) across the mitochondrial membrane, which is essential for oxidative phosphorylation and thus, energy homeostasis in the cell.

In more detail, during oxidative phosphorylation, ATP is produced within the mitochondria as a result of the electron transport chain's activity. This ATP must be exported to the cytosol for use by the cell's various processes. Simultaneously, the mitochondria need a continuous supply of ADP to sustain the production of ATP. The mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocases facilitate this exchange, allowing for the import of ADP into the mitochondria and the export of ATP to the cytosol.

There are multiple isoforms of the ADP/ATP translocase in humans (ANT1, ANT2, ANT3, and ANT4), encoded by different genes, with varying tissue distributions and functions. Dysfunction of these translocases has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cancer.

Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 (ANT2) is a protein found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of cells. It is responsible for regulating the exchange of adenine nucleotides, specifically ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and ADP (adenosine diphosphate), between the mitochondrial matrix and the cytoplasm. This process plays a crucial role in cellular energy metabolism. ANT2 has also been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, or programmed cell death. Mutations in the gene that encodes ANT2 have been associated with various diseases, including mitochondrial disorders and neurodegenerative conditions.

Atractyloside is a toxic diterpene compound that can be found in various plants, including Atractylis gummifera (commonly known as gum cistus or rabbit-ear cistus) and other members of the Asteraceae family. This toxin is known to inhibit the mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocase, which plays a crucial role in cellular energy production.

Inhibition of this translocase leads to a disruption in the balance of adenine nucleotides inside the mitochondria, resulting in a decrease in ATP synthesis and an increase in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This can ultimately cause cell damage and even cell death.

Atractyloside poisoning can lead to various symptoms, such as gastrointestinal distress, liver and kidney damage, neurological issues, and, in severe cases, multi-organ failure. It is essential to seek immediate medical attention if atractyloside poisoning is suspected.

Bongkrekic acid is a toxic compound that is produced by certain strains of the bacterium Pseudomonas cocovenenans. This bacterium can contaminate foods, particularly coconut products such as tempeh, a traditional Indonesian soybean fermented food. Bongkrekic acid inhibits the function of the mitochondria, the energy-producing structures in cells, leading to cell death and potentially serious illness or death in humans. Consumption of food contaminated with bongkrekic acid can cause a severe form of food poisoning known as bongkrek fever, which is characterized by symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and neurological symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma. Bongkrek fever is often fatal if not treated promptly and effectively. It is important to handle and store food properly to prevent contamination with bongkrekic acid and other harmful bacteria.

Adenine nucleotides are molecules that consist of a nitrogenous base called adenine, which is linked to a sugar molecule (ribose in the case of adenosine monophosphate or AMP, and deoxyribose in the case of adenosine diphosphate or ADP and adenosine triphosphate or ATP) and one, two, or three phosphate groups. These molecules play a crucial role in energy transfer and metabolism within cells.

AMP contains one phosphate group, while ADP contains two phosphate groups, and ATP contains three phosphate groups. When a phosphate group is removed from ATP, energy is released, which can be used to power various cellular processes such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. The reverse reaction, in which a phosphate group is added back to ADP or AMP to form ATP, requires energy input and often involves the breakdown of nutrients such as glucose or fatty acids.

In addition to their role in energy metabolism, adenine nucleotides also serve as precursors for other important molecules, including DNA and RNA, coenzymes, and signaling molecules.

The Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 (ANT3) is a protein found in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It plays a crucial role in cellular energy metabolism by facilitating the exchange of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) across the mitochondrial membrane.

More specifically, ANT3 transports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix to the cytoplasm, where it can be used for various cellular processes, while simultaneously transporting ADP in the opposite direction. This exchange is essential for maintaining the balance of adenine nucleotides and ensuring the proper functioning of the energy-producing machinery within the mitochondria.

ANT3 has also been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis or programmed cell death, as it can interact with pro-apoptotic proteins to facilitate the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, leading to caspase activation and cell death. Dysregulation of ANT3 function has been linked to various pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.

Oxidative phosphorylation is the metabolic process by which cells use enzymes to generate energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the oxidation of nutrients, such as glucose or fatty acids. This process occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells and is facilitated by the electron transport chain, which consists of a series of protein complexes that transfer electrons from donor molecules to acceptor molecules. As the electrons are passed along the chain, they release energy that is used to pump protons across the membrane, creating a gradient. The ATP synthase enzyme then uses the flow of protons back across the membrane to generate ATP, which serves as the main energy currency for cellular processes.

Mitochondria are specialized structures located inside cells that convert the energy from food into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary form of energy used by cells. They are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate most of the cell's supply of chemical energy. Mitochondria are also involved in various other cellular processes, such as signaling, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Mitochondria have their own DNA, known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited maternally. This means that mtDNA is passed down from the mother to her offspring through the egg cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a variety of diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and aging.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. Mitochondria are organelles found in the cells of all complex living organisms, including humans, while the liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen. They don't have a medical definition together. I can certainly provide you with separate definitions for each:

1. Mitochondria: These are double-membrane-bound cellular organelles that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell's biochemical reactions. Commonly known as the "powerhouse of the cell," mitochondria convert organic substrates, such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria are dynamic structures that can change their shape, size, and number through fission (division) and fusion (merging) processes. They play essential roles in various cellular functions, including calcium signaling, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and the regulation of cellular metabolism.

2. Liver: The liver is a large, lobulated organ that lies mainly in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm. It plays a crucial role in various physiological functions, such as detoxification, protein synthesis, metabolism, and nutrient storage. The liver is responsible for removing toxins from the bloodstream, producing bile to aid in digestion, regulating glucose levels, synthesizing plasma proteins, and storing glycogen, vitamins, and minerals. It also contributes to the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, helping maintain energy homeostasis in the body.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any further questions or need more information, please don't hesitate to ask.

Nucleotidyltransferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nucleotides to an acceptor molecule, such as RNA or DNA. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including DNA replication, repair, and recombination, as well as RNA synthesis and modification.

The reaction catalyzed by nucleotidyltransferases typically involves the donation of a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) to an acceptor molecule, resulting in the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the nucleotides. The reaction can be represented as follows:

NTP + acceptor → NMP + pyrophosphate

where NTP is the nucleoside triphosphate donor and NMP is the nucleoside monophosphate product.

There are several subclasses of nucleotidyltransferases, including polymerases, ligases, and terminases. These enzymes have distinct functions and substrate specificities, but all share the ability to transfer nucleotides to an acceptor molecule.

Examples of nucleotidyltransferases include DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase, telomerase, and ligase. These enzymes are essential for maintaining genome stability and function, and their dysregulation has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Intracellular membranes refer to the membrane structures that exist within a eukaryotic cell (excluding bacteria and archaea, which are prokaryotic and do not have intracellular membranes). These membranes compartmentalize the cell, creating distinct organelles or functional regions with specific roles in various cellular processes.

Major types of intracellular membranes include:

1. Nuclear membrane (nuclear envelope): A double-membraned structure that surrounds and protects the genetic material within the nucleus. It consists of an outer and inner membrane, perforated by nuclear pores that regulate the transport of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm.
2. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): An extensive network of interconnected tubules and sacs that serve as a major site for protein folding, modification, and lipid synthesis. The ER has two types: rough ER (with ribosomes on its surface) and smooth ER (without ribosomes).
3. Golgi apparatus/Golgi complex: A series of stacked membrane-bound compartments that process, sort, and modify proteins and lipids before they are transported to their final destinations within the cell or secreted out of the cell.
4. Lysosomes: Membrane-bound organelles containing hydrolytic enzymes for breaking down various biomolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids) in the process called autophagy or from outside the cell via endocytosis.
5. Peroxisomes: Single-membrane organelles involved in various metabolic processes, such as fatty acid oxidation and detoxification of harmful substances like hydrogen peroxide.
6. Vacuoles: Membrane-bound compartments that store and transport various molecules, including nutrients, waste products, and enzymes. Plant cells have a large central vacuole for maintaining turgor pressure and storing metabolites.
7. Mitochondria: Double-membraned organelles responsible for generating energy (ATP) through oxidative phosphorylation and other metabolic processes, such as the citric acid cycle and fatty acid synthesis.
8. Chloroplasts: Double-membraned organelles found in plant cells that convert light energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis, producing oxygen and organic compounds (glucose) from carbon dioxide and water.
9. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): A network of interconnected membrane-bound tubules involved in protein folding, modification, and transport; it is divided into two types: rough ER (with ribosomes on the surface) and smooth ER (without ribosomes).
10. Nucleus: Double-membraned organelle containing genetic material (DNA) and associated proteins involved in replication, transcription, RNA processing, and DNA repair. The nuclear membrane separates the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm and contains nuclear pores for transporting molecules between the two compartments.

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a chemical compound that plays a crucial role in energy transfer within cells. It is a nucleotide, which consists of a adenosine molecule (a sugar molecule called ribose attached to a nitrogenous base called adenine) and two phosphate groups.

In the cell, ADP functions as an intermediate in the conversion of energy from one form to another. When a high-energy phosphate bond in ADP is broken, energy is released and ADP is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which serves as the main energy currency of the cell. Conversely, when ATP donates a phosphate group to another molecule, it is converted back to ADP, releasing energy for the cell to use.

ADP also plays a role in blood clotting and other physiological processes. In the coagulation cascade, ADP released from damaged red blood cells can help activate platelets and initiate the formation of a blood clot.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels (VDACs) are large protein channels found in the outer mitochondrial membrane. They play a crucial role in the regulation of metabolite and ion exchange between the cytosol and the mitochondria. VDACs are permeable to anions such as chloride, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions, as well as to small molecules and metabolites like ATP, ADP, NADH, and others.

The voltage-dependent property of these channels arises from the fact that their permeability can be modulated by changes in the membrane potential across the outer mitochondrial membrane. At low membrane potentials, VDACs are predominantly open and facilitate the flow of metabolites and ions. However, as the membrane potential becomes more positive, VDACs can transition to a closed or partially closed state, which restricts ion and metabolite movement.

VDACs have been implicated in various cellular processes, including apoptosis, calcium homeostasis, and energy metabolism. Dysregulation of VDAC function has been associated with several pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Mitochondrial membrane transport proteins are a type of integral membrane proteins located in the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. They play a crucial role in the regulation of molecule exchange between the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix, allowing only specific ions and molecules to pass through while maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondria.

The inner mitochondrial membrane transport proteins, also known as the mitochondrial carrier proteins or the solute carriers, are a family of about 50 different types of proteins that facilitate the passage of various metabolites, such as nucleotides, amino acids, fatty acids, and inorganic ions (like calcium, sodium, and potassium). These transport proteins usually function as exchangers or uniporters, moving one type of solute in one direction in exchange for another type of solute or a proton.

The outer mitochondrial membrane is more permeable than the inner membrane due to the presence of voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) and other porins that allow small molecules, ions, and metabolites to pass through. VDACs are the most abundant proteins in the outer mitochondrial membrane and play a significant role in controlling the flow of metabolites between the cytosol and the intermembrane space.

In summary, mitochondrial membrane transport proteins are essential for maintaining the proper functioning of mitochondria by regulating the movement of molecules across the inner and outer membranes. They facilitate the exchange of nutrients, metabolites, and ions required for oxidative phosphorylation, energy production, and other cellular processes.

Mitochondrial swelling is a pathological change in the structure of mitochondria, which are the energy-producing organelles found in cells. This condition is characterized by an increase in the volume of the mitochondrial matrix, which is the space inside the mitochondrion that contains enzymes and other molecules involved in energy production.

Mitochondrial swelling can occur as a result of various cellular stressors, such as oxidative damage, calcium overload, or decreased levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the primary energy currency of the cell. This swelling can lead to disruption of the mitochondrial membrane and release of cytochrome c, a protein involved in apoptosis or programmed cell death.

Mitochondrial swelling has been implicated in several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and drug toxicity. It can be observed under an electron microscope as part of an ultrastructural analysis of tissue samples or detected through biochemical assays that measure changes in mitochondrial membrane potential or matrix volume.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems like there are two terms combined into one request: "Mitochondria" and "Heart." I will provide separate definitions for each.

Mitochondrion (singular) or Mitochondria (plural): These are specialized structures found in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus), including human cells. They are often referred to as the "powerhouse" of the cell because they generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria contain their own DNA, which is distinct from the nuclear DNA, and are believed to have originated from ancient bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive eukaryotic cells.

Heart: In human anatomy, the heart is a muscular organ responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It is located in the thoracic cavity, slightly left of the center, and is enclosed by the pericardium, a double-walled sac that provides protection and lubrication for the heart's movement. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body. The heart's pumping action is regulated by electrical signals that originate in a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells called the sinoatrial node (SA node).

Adenine is a purine nucleotide base that is a fundamental component of DNA and RNA, the genetic material of living organisms. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine via double hydrogen bonds, while in RNA, it pairs with uracil. Adenine is essential for the structure and function of nucleic acids, as well as for energy transfer reactions in cells through its role in the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy currency of the cell.

Oxygen consumption, also known as oxygen uptake, is the amount of oxygen that is consumed or utilized by the body during a specific period of time, usually measured in liters per minute (L/min). It is a common measurement used in exercise physiology and critical care medicine to assess an individual's aerobic metabolism and overall health status.

In clinical settings, oxygen consumption is often measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate cardiovascular function, pulmonary function, and exercise capacity in patients with various medical conditions such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory or cardiac disorders.

During exercise, oxygen is consumed by the muscles to generate energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The amount of oxygen consumed during exercise can provide important information about an individual's fitness level, exercise capacity, and overall health status. Additionally, measuring oxygen consumption can help healthcare providers assess the effectiveness of treatments and rehabilitation programs in patients with various medical conditions.

Cyclophilins are a family of proteins that have peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity, which means they help with the folding and functioning of other proteins in cells. They were first identified as binding proteins for the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A, hence their name.

Cyclophilins are found in various organisms, including humans, and play important roles in many cellular processes such as signal transduction, protein trafficking, and gene expression. In addition to their role in normal cell function, cyclophilins have also been implicated in several diseases, including viral infections, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

In medicine, the most well-known use of cyclophilins is as a target for immunosuppressive drugs used in organ transplantation. Cyclosporine A and its derivatives work by binding to cyclophilins, which inhibits their activity and subsequently suppresses the immune response.

Mitochondrial membrane potential is the electric potential difference (voltage) across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is negative inside the mitochondria and positive outside. This electrical gradient is established by the active transport of hydrogen ions (protons) out of the mitochondrial matrix and into the intermembrane space by complexes in the electron transport chain during oxidative phosphorylation. The energy stored in this electrochemical gradient is used to generate ATP, which is the main source of energy for cellular metabolism.

Uncoupling agents are chemicals that interfere with the normal process of oxidative phosphorylation in cells. In this process, the energy from food is converted into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the main source of energy for cellular functions. Uncouplers disrupt this process by preventing the transfer of high-energy electrons to oxygen, which normally drives the production of ATP.

Instead, the energy from these electrons is released as heat, leading to an increase in body temperature. This effect is similar to what happens during shivering or exercise, when the body generates heat to maintain its core temperature. Uncoupling agents are therefore also known as "mitochondrial protonophores" because they allow protons to leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane, bypassing the ATP synthase enzyme that would normally use the energy from this proton gradient to produce ATP.

Uncoupling agents have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, such as in weight loss and the treatment of metabolic disorders. However, they can also be toxic at high doses, and their long-term effects on health are not well understood.

Cell respiration is the process by which cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. The three main stages of cell respiration are glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and the electron transport chain.

During glycolysis, which takes place in the cytoplasm, glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and reducing power in the form of NADH.

The citric acid cycle occurs in the mitochondria and involves the breakdown of acetyl-CoA (formed from pyruvate) to produce more ATP, NADH, and FADH2.

Finally, the electron transport chain, also located in the mitochondria, uses the energy from NADH and FADH2 to pump protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane, creating a proton gradient. The flow of protons back across the membrane drives the synthesis of ATP, which is used as a source of energy by the cell.

Cell respiration is a crucial process that allows cells to generate the energy they need to perform various functions and maintain homeostasis.

In the context of medicine and physiology, permeability refers to the ability of a tissue or membrane to allow the passage of fluids, solutes, or gases. It is often used to describe the property of the capillary walls, which control the exchange of substances between the blood and the surrounding tissues.

The permeability of a membrane can be influenced by various factors, including its molecular structure, charge, and the size of the molecules attempting to pass through it. A more permeable membrane allows for easier passage of substances, while a less permeable membrane restricts the movement of substances.

In some cases, changes in permeability can have significant consequences for health. For example, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (a specialized type of capillary that regulates the passage of substances into the brain) has been implicated in a number of neurological conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and traumatic brain injury.

The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the functioning of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling pathway. The AhR signaling pathway is involved in various biological processes, including the regulation of xenobiotic metabolism and cellular responses to environmental contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins.

The ARNT protein forms a heterodimer with the AhR protein upon ligand binding, which then translocates into the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, this complex binds to specific DNA sequences called xenobiotic response elements (XREs), leading to the activation or repression of target genes involved in various cellular processes such as detoxification, cell cycle regulation, and immune responses.

Therefore, the ARNT protein is an essential component of the AhR signaling pathway, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 are a group of proteins that play a role in regulating cell death (apoptosis). The c-bcl-2 gene produces one of these proteins, which helps to prevent cells from undergoing apoptosis. This protein is located on the membrane of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and it can inhibit the release of cytochrome c, a key player in the activation of caspases, which are enzymes that trigger apoptosis.

In normal cells, the regulation of c-bcl-2 protein helps to maintain a balance between cell proliferation and cell death, ensuring proper tissue homeostasis. However, when the c-bcl-2 gene is mutated or its expression is dysregulated, it can contribute to cancer development by allowing cancer cells to survive and proliferate. High levels of c-bcl-2 protein have been found in many types of cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, and carcinomas, and are often associated with a poor prognosis.

Mitochondrial proteins are any proteins that are encoded by the nuclear genome or mitochondrial genome and are located within the mitochondria, an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes including energy production, metabolism of lipids, amino acids, and steroids, regulation of calcium homeostasis, and programmed cell death or apoptosis.

Mitochondrial proteins can be classified into two main categories based on their origin:

1. Nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins (NEMPs): These are proteins that are encoded by genes located in the nucleus, synthesized in the cytoplasm, and then imported into the mitochondria through specific import pathways. NEMPs make up about 99% of all mitochondrial proteins and are involved in various functions such as oxidative phosphorylation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and mitochondrial dynamics.

2. Mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins (MEPs): These are proteins that are encoded by the mitochondrial genome, synthesized within the mitochondria, and play essential roles in the electron transport chain (ETC), a key component of oxidative phosphorylation. The human mitochondrial genome encodes only 13 proteins, all of which are subunits of complexes I, III, IV, and V of the ETC.

Defects in mitochondrial proteins can lead to various mitochondrial disorders, which often manifest as neurological, muscular, or metabolic symptoms due to impaired energy production. These disorders are usually caused by mutations in either nuclear or mitochondrial genes that encode mitochondrial proteins.

Nucleotides are the basic structural units of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. They consist of a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine or uracil), a pentose sugar (ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA) and one to three phosphate groups. Nucleotides are linked together by phosphodiester bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of another, forming long chains known as polynucleotides. The sequence of these nucleotides determines the genetic information carried in DNA and RNA, which is essential for the functioning, reproduction and survival of all living organisms.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

Membrane potential is the electrical potential difference across a cell membrane, typically for excitable cells such as nerve and muscle cells. It is the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a cell, created by the selective permeability of the cell membrane to different ions. The resting membrane potential of a typical animal cell is around -70 mV, with the interior being negative relative to the exterior. This potential is generated and maintained by the active transport of ions across the membrane, primarily through the action of the sodium-potassium pump. Membrane potentials play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses and the contraction of muscle cells.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the genetic material present in the mitochondria, which are specialized structures within cells that generate energy. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is present in the cell nucleus and inherited from both parents, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother.

MtDNA is a circular molecule that contains 37 genes, including 13 genes that encode for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, a process that generates energy in the form of ATP. The remaining genes encode for rRNAs and tRNAs, which are necessary for protein synthesis within the mitochondria.

Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases, which can affect any organ system in the body. These mutations can also be used in forensic science to identify individuals and establish biological relationships.

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is a nucleotide that is the monophosphate ester of adenosine, consisting of the nitrogenous base adenine attached to the 1' carbon atom of ribose via a β-N9-glycosidic bond, which in turn is esterified to a phosphate group. It is an important molecule in biological systems as it plays a key role in cellular energy transfer and storage, serving as a precursor to other nucleotides such as ADP and ATP. AMP is also involved in various signaling pathways and can act as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

The myocardium is the middle layer of the heart wall, composed of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It forms the thickest part of the heart wall and is divided into two sections: the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The myocardium contains several types of cells, including cardiac muscle fibers, connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. The muscle fibers are arranged in a highly organized pattern that allows them to contract in a coordinated manner, generating the force necessary to pump blood through the heart and circulatory system.

Damage to the myocardium can occur due to various factors such as ischemia (reduced blood flow), infection, inflammation, or genetic disorders. This damage can lead to several cardiac conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptors are a type of neurotransmitter receptor found in the central nervous system. They are responsible for mediating the inhibitory effects of the neurotransmitter GABA, which is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain.

GABA receptors can be classified into two main types: GABA-A and GABA-B receptors. GABA-A receptors are ligand-gated ion channels, which means that when GABA binds to them, it opens a channel that allows chloride ions to flow into the neuron, resulting in hyperpolarization of the membrane and decreased excitability. GABA-B receptors, on the other hand, are G protein-coupled receptors that activate inhibitory G proteins, which in turn reduce the activity of calcium channels and increase the activity of potassium channels, leading to hyperpolarization of the membrane and decreased excitability.

GABA receptors play a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability and are involved in various physiological processes such as sleep, anxiety, muscle relaxation, and seizure control. Dysfunction of GABA receptors has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, anxiety disorders, and insomnia.

Aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs) are a type of intracellular receptor that play a crucial role in the response to environmental contaminants and other xenobiotic compounds. They are primarily found in the cytoplasm of cells, where they bind to aromatic hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are common environmental pollutants.

Once activated by ligand binding, AhRs translocate to the nucleus, where they dimerize with the AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) protein and bind to specific DNA sequences called xenobiotic response elements (XREs). This complex then regulates the expression of a variety of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, including those encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes.

In addition to their role in xenobiotic metabolism, AhRs have been implicated in various physiological processes, such as immune response, cell differentiation, and development. Dysregulation of AhR signaling has been associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of AhR activation and regulation is essential for developing strategies to prevent or treat environmental toxicant-induced diseases and other conditions linked to AhR dysfunction.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Purine nucleotides are fundamental units of life that play crucial roles in various biological processes. A purine nucleotide is a type of nucleotide, which is the basic building block of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Nucleotides consist of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and at least one phosphate group.

In purine nucleotides, the nitrogenous bases are either adenine (A) or guanine (G). These bases are attached to a five-carbon sugar called ribose in the case of RNA or deoxyribose for DNA. The sugar and base together form the nucleoside, while the addition of one or more phosphate groups creates the nucleotide.

Purine nucleotides have several vital functions within cells:

1. Energy currency: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a purine nucleotide that serves as the primary energy currency in cells, storing and transferring chemical energy for various cellular processes.
2. Genetic material: Both DNA and RNA contain purine nucleotides as essential components of their structures. Adenine pairs with thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA), while guanine pairs with cytosine.
3. Signaling molecules: Purine nucleotides, such as adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), act as intracellular signaling molecules that regulate various cellular functions, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell growth.
4. Coenzymes: Purine nucleotides can also function as coenzymes, assisting enzymes in catalyzing biochemical reactions. For example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a purine nucleotide that plays a critical role in redox reactions and energy metabolism.

In summary, purine nucleotides are essential biological molecules involved in various cellular functions, including energy transfer, genetic material formation, intracellular signaling, and enzyme cofactor activity.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Guanine nucleotides are molecules that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling, cellular regulation, and various biological processes within cells. They consist of a guanine base, a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and one or more phosphate groups. The most common guanine nucleotides are GDP (guanosine diphosphate) and GTP (guanosine triphosphate).

GTP is hydrolyzed to GDP and inorganic phosphate by certain enzymes called GTPases, releasing energy that drives various cellular functions such as protein synthesis, signal transduction, vesicle transport, and cell division. On the other hand, GDP can be rephosphorylated back to GTP by nucleotide diphosphate kinases, allowing for the recycling of these molecules within the cell.

In addition to their role in signaling and regulation, guanine nucleotides also serve as building blocks for RNA (ribonucleic acid) synthesis during transcription, where they pair with cytosine nucleotides via hydrogen bonds to form base pairs in the resulting RNA molecule.

Adenosine is a purine nucleoside that is composed of a sugar (ribose) and the base adenine. It plays several important roles in the body, including serving as a precursor for the synthesis of other molecules such as ATP, NAD+, and RNA.

In the medical context, adenosine is perhaps best known for its use as a pharmaceutical agent to treat certain cardiac arrhythmias. When administered intravenously, it can help restore normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) by slowing conduction through the atrioventricular node and interrupting the reentry circuit responsible for the arrhythmia.

Adenosine can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help differentiate between narrow-complex tachycardias of supraventricular origin and those that originate from below the ventricles (such as ventricular tachycardia). This is because adenosine will typically terminate PSVT but not affect the rhythm of VT.

It's worth noting that adenosine has a very short half-life, lasting only a few seconds in the bloodstream. This means that its effects are rapidly reversible and generally well-tolerated, although some patients may experience transient symptoms such as flushing, chest pain, or shortness of breath.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Hypoxanthine is not a medical condition but a purine base that is a component of many organic compounds, including nucleotides and nucleic acids, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In the body, hypoxanthine is produced as a byproduct of normal cellular metabolism and is converted to xanthine and then uric acid, which is excreted in the urine.

However, abnormally high levels of hypoxanthine in the body can indicate tissue damage or disease. For example, during intense exercise or hypoxia (low oxygen levels), cells may break down ATP (adenosine triphosphate) rapidly, releasing large amounts of hypoxanthine. Similarly, in some genetic disorders such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, there is an accumulation of hypoxanthine due to a deficiency of the enzyme that converts it to xanthine. High levels of hypoxanthine can lead to the formation of kidney stones and other complications.

Adenine+Nucleotide+Translocator+1 at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adenine+Nucleotide+ ... Translocator+2 at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adenine+Nucleotide+Translocator+3 at ... Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocase (ANT), ADP/ATP carrier protein (AAC) or ... Pressman BC (June 1958). "Intramitochondrial nucleotides. I. Some factors affecting net interconversions of adenine nucleotides ...
Kim JY, So KJ, Lee S, Park JH (Sep 2012). "Bcl-rambo induces apoptosis via interaction with the adenine nucleotide translocator ... Bcl-rambo mediates apoptosis by associating with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), a component of the mitochondrial ... 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. Banga S, Gao P, Shen X, Fiscus V, Zong WX, Chen ... 534 (1-3): 61-8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03778-X. PMID 12527362. S2CID 7018829. Human BCL2L13 genome location and BCL2L13 ...
"Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator cooperate in the mitochondrial control of apoptosis". Science. 281 (5385): 2027-31. ... Weng C, Li Y, Xu D, Shi Y, Tang H (March 2005). "Specific cleavage of Mcl-1 by caspase-3 in tumor necrosis factor-related ... 2 (3): 238-40. doi:10.4161/auto.2730. PMID 16874066. McArthur, Kate; Whitehead, Lachlan W.; Heddleston, John M.; Li, Lucy; ... Nomura M, Shimizu S, Sugiyama T, Narita M, Ito T, Matsuda H, Tsujimoto Y (2003). "14-3-3 Interacts directly with and negatively ...
AGK also has an implicated role in the assembly of the adenine nucleotide translocator in the inner mitochondrial membrane. ... 50 (3): 363-71. doi:10.1007/s00592-012-0422-1. PMID 22864860. S2CID 22594417. Human AGK genome location and AGK gene details ... ATP + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol = ADP + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The enzyme is involved in the more general pathway of ... In the proliferation of prostate cancer, AGK interacts with and regulates PC-3 prostate cancer cells markedly increased ...
... myopathy and cardiomyopathy resulting from a deficiency in the heart/muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator". ... MT-TG is a small 68 nucleotide transfer RNA (human mitochondrial map position 9991-10058) that transfers the amino acid glycine ... "Maternally inherited hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to a novel T-to-C transition at nucleotide 9997 in the mitochondrial tRNA( ... 55 (3): 437-46. PMC 1918404. PMID 8079988. Bidooki SK, Johnson MA, Chrzanowska-Lightowlers Z, Bindoff LA, Lightowlers RN (June ...
... myopathy and cardiomyopathy resulting from a deficiency in the heart/muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator". ... MT-TT is a small 66 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 15888-15953) that transfers the amino acid threonine to a ... 16 (3): 226-34. doi:10.1038/ng0797-226. PMID 9207786. S2CID 7285265. Grasbon-Frodl EM, Kösel S, Sprinzl M, von Eitzen U, ... 176 (3): 1112-5. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(91)90399-R. PMID 1645537. Reference, Genetics Home. "MT-TT gene". Genetics Home ...
... but also to prevent mitochondria from straining glycolytic ATP reserves by maintaining the adenine nucleotide translocator in ' ... "Forward operation of adenine nucleotide translocase during F0F1-ATPase reversal: critical role of matrix substrate-level ... "Expression of two succinyl-CoA synthetases with different nucleotide specificities in mammalian tissues". The Journal of ... ISBN 978-3-642-33430-6. Agteresch, Hendrik J.; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; van den Berg, J Willem; Wilson, J H. (1999). "Adenosine ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.575.750.500.200 - adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776.575.750.500.300 ... adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.580.210.175.325 - groes protein MeSH D12.776.580.210.180.325 - groel protein ... actin-related protein 3 MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.100 - myosin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.200 - myosin light chains ... type 3 MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.130 - muts homolog 2 protein MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.148 - myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.157.530.625.875.500.200 - adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530 ... 500.300 - adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.157.530.750.100 - aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator MeSH ... nucleotide transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.625.875.500 - mitochondrial adp, atp translocases MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... aquaporin 3 MeSH D12.776.157.530.400.500.040.249.750 - aquaporin 6 MeSH D12.776.157.530.400.500.040.374 - aquaporin 1 MeSH ...
... a codon for the amino acid asparagine Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP carrier protein (AAC) ... coded aac in ISO 639-3 Augmentative and alternative communication, a class of communications methods for people with speech ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) 2.B: Nonribosomally synthesized porters, such as: The Nigericin family The Ionomycin ... such as rhodopsin The group translocators provide a special mechanism for the phosphorylation of sugars as they are transported ... 38 (3): 305-315. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2016.11.008. ISSN 1873-3735. PMID 27939446. Huang, Y; Anderle, P; Bussey, KJ; Barbacioru, C ... chloroplast ATP synthase1 3.B: Decarboxylation-driven transporters 3.C: Methyltransfer-driven transporters 3.D: Oxidoreduction- ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator-3 on the Y), AZF2 (azoospermia factor 2), BPY2 (basic protein on the Y chromosome), AZF1 ( ... 16 (3): 277-281. doi:10.1161/01.hyp.16.3.277. PMID 2394486. Stern, Curt (1964). "New Data on the Problem of Y-Linkage of Hairy ... 9 (3): 147-166. PMC 1931892. PMID 13469791. Lee, Andrew (2004). "Molecular evidence for absence of Y-linkage of the Hairy Ears ... interleukin-3 receptor), SRY (sex-determining region), ZFY (zinc finger protein), PRKY (protein kinase, Y-linked), AMELY ( ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.235.200 - adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585 ... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.625.875.500.200 - adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585 ... 500.300 - adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.543.585.750.100 - aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator MeSH ... 235.300 - adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.276 - potassium-hydrogen antiporters MeSH D12.776. ...
... an approach to social theory and research Adenine nucleotide translocator Anacamptis (abbreviation Ant), a genus of orchids ... ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 country code) River Ant, a river in Norfolk, England ANT (network), a wireless personal area network ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator, abbreviated as ANT, provides ATP from mitochondria to the cytosol in exchanging of cytosolic ... Henderson, P. J. F.; Lardy, H. A. (1970). "Bongkrekic Acid: An Inhibitor of Adenine Nucleotide Translocase of Mitochondria" ( ... preventing the binding of adenosine nucleotides. This means ANT can't receive ADP from the cytosol, ultimately preventing the ... The Fragments 1, 2, and 3 were individually synthesized in the lab. After the synthesis of each fragment required for Bongkrek ...
"Control of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by adenine nucleotide translocator interacting with HIV-1 viral protein rR ... Nishikimi M, Ohta S, Suzuki H, Tanaka T, Kikkawa F, Tanaka M, Kagawa Y, Ozawa T (April 1988). "Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA ... doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Valnot I, Kassis J, Chretien D, de Lonlay P, Parfait B, Munnich A, Kachaner J ... Yuan J, Murrell GA, Trickett A, Wang MX (June 2003). "Involvement of cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in the ...
UCP1 is very similar to the ATP/ADP Carrier protein, or Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT). The proposed alternating access ... UCP1 is related to other mitochondrial metabolite transporters such as the adenine nucleotide translocator, a proton channel in ... UCP1 is activated in the brown fat cell by fatty acids and inhibited by nucleotides. Fatty acids are released by the following ... overriding the inhibition caused by purine nucleotides (GDP and ADP). During the termination of thermogenesis, thermogenin is ...
The SLC25A4 gene encodes the heart and muscle-specific isoform 1 of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator. The ... AGK gene encodes the mitochondrial acylglycerol kinase which plays a role in the assembly of adenine nucleotide translocator. ... 139 (3): 107626. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2023.107626. ISSN 1096-7206. PMID 37354892. "Orphanet: Sengers syndrome". orpha.net. ...
... thiols in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore component adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). Overexpression of ... "Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense enzymes and susceptibility to breast cancer". Cancer Research. ... 443 (3): 821-7. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.12.050. PMID 24342608. Wang Z, Zhang H, Li XF, Le XC (2007). "Study of interactions ... Two mRNA transcripts of the TXN2 gene differ by ~330 bp in the length of the 3′-untranslated region, and both are believed to ...
ROS increases uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and potentiate proton leakage through the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), the ... One of the two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) strands has a disproportionately higher ratio of the heavier nucleotides adenine and ... Nachman MW, Crowell SL (September 2000). "Estimate of the mutation rate per nucleotide in humans". Genetics. 156 (1): 297-304. ... Tumor cells require ample ATP to synthesize bioactive compounds such as lipids, proteins, and nucleotides for rapid ...
... the inner membrane protein adenine nucleotide translocator (AdNT) and the matrix protein cyclophilin D (CyD) (12). This pore ... It has also been shown that the nucleotide dATP as third component binds to apaf-1, however its exact role is still debated. ... A short linker and nucleotide binding a/b domains (NBD) that contain conserved Walker boxes A (p-loop 155-161) and B (239-243) ... Another model proposes that Apaf-1 is organized in an extended fashion such that both the N-terminal CARD and the nucleotide ...
SLC25A25 adenine nucleotide - SLC25A4, SLC25A5, SLC25A6, SLC25A31 dicarboxylate - SLC25A10 oxoglutarate - SLC25A11 glutamate - ... "Site-directed mutagenesis of the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocator. Six arginines and one lysine are essential". Journal ... Mitochondrial carriers transport amino acids, keto acids, nucleotides, inorganic ions and co-factors through the mitochondrial ... nucleotides, amino acids, keto acids and cofactors across the membrane. Such proteins include: ADP/ATP carrier protein (ADP-ATP ...
Further hypothesis by Halestrap's group convincingly suggested the MPT was formed by the inner membrane Adenine Nucleotide ... "The ADP/ATP translocator is not essential for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore". Nature. 427 (6973): 461-465. ... "The nature of the calcium ion efflux induced in rat liver mitochondria by the oxidation of endogenous nicotinamide nucleotides ... "Regulation of the Inner Membrane Mitochondrial Permeability Transition by the Outer Membrane Translocator Protein (Peripheral ...
Adenine+Nucleotide+Translocator+1 at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adenine+Nucleotide+ ... Translocator+2 at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adenine+Nucleotide+Translocator+3 at ... Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocase (ANT), ADP/ATP carrier protein (AAC) or ... Pressman BC (June 1958). "Intramitochondrial nucleotides. I. Some factors affecting net interconversions of adenine nucleotides ...
The SLC25A4 gene provides the instructions for making a protein called adenine nucleotide translocase type 1 (ANT1). Learn ... Severity of cardiomyopathy associated with adenine nucleotide translocator-1 deficiency correlates with mtDNA haplogroup. Proc ... SOLUTE CARRIER FAMILY 25 (MITOCHONDRIAL CARRIER, ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCATOR), MEMBER 4; SLC25A4 ... Complete loss-of-function of the heart/muscle-specific adenine nucleotide translocator is associated with mitochondrial ...
Increased levels of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 protein and response to oxidative stress are early events in ... DUX4 transcript from the last D4Z4 (most telomeric) unit generates small si/miRNA-sized fragments; uncapped, polyadenylated 3- ...
... improves ADP sensitivity in aged mitochondria by increasing uptake through the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) Article ...
Mitochondrial nucleotide transporter subfamily in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY. ... adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4 , solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator ... adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 , solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator ... adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6 , solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator ...
Adenine Nucleotide. Translocator 2 Antibo ... NBP2-92630. Species: Hu, Mu, Rt. Applications: ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, WB ... The first 30 kb of DNA encodes 3 kb of the mRNA yielding an exon:intron ratio of 1:10, whereas the remaining 270 kb encodes 5.7 ... A striking structural difference between the 5-prime and 3-prime parts of the gene suggested that it is composed of 2 ... Reviews for Thyroglobulin Antibody (NBP2-34294) (3) 53. Average Rating: 5 ...
solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4. Image. No pdb structure. ... nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptor). ...
Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator 2/ADP/ATP translocase 2 in Human [ChEMBL: CHEMBL3709670] [GtoPdb: 1063] [ ... Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator 3/ADP/ATP translocase 3 in Human [ChEMBL: CHEMBL4105854] [GtoPdb: 1064] [ ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase in Human [ChEMBL: CHEMBL4105819] [UniProtKB: P07741] There should be some charts here, you ... Actin-related protein 3 in Human [ChEMBL: CHEMBL4105857] [UniProtKB: P61158] There should be some charts here, you may need to ...
Role of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in mtDNA maintenance. Science 2000;289(5480):782-5. PMID 10926541 ... Mutations in the gene for 1 isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT1) have been identified in patients with ... The function of complex V depends on the integrity of 2 partners, the adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT1) and the inorganic ... Mitochondrial DNA mutations at nucleotide 8993 show a lack of tissue- or age-related variation. J Inherit Metab Dis 1999;22(8): ...
Adenine Nucleotide. Translocator 2 Antibo ... NBP2-92630. Species: Hu, Mu, Rt. Applications: ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, WB ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 D12.776.157.530.937.594.100 D12.776.543.585.937.688.100 Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 D12.776.157.530.937.594.300 D12.776.543.585.937.688.300 Adenine Nucleotides D3.438.759.646. ... Cyclic Nucleotide 3-Phosphodiesterase D12.776.641.580.124 D12.776.631.580.124 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3- ... Purine Nucleotides D3.438.759.646 D3.633.100.759.646 Purines D3.438.759 D3.633.100.759 Purinones D3.438.759.758 D3.633.100.759. ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 D12.776.543.585.475.500.100 Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 D12.776.543.585.475.500.200 ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 D12.776.543.585.475.500.300 Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein D5.500.117.249 D12.776.476.81. ... E5.478.566.159 fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 D23.101.100.110.284 Food Irradiation J1.576.423.850.700.400 J1.576.423.850.700.700. ... D12.776.476.24.386 Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, alpha Subunit D12.776.476.24.387.500 D12.776.476.24.386.500 Interferon- ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 D12.776.157.530.937.594.100 D12.776.543.585.937.688.100 Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 D12.776.157.530.937.594.300 D12.776.543.585.937.688.300 Adenine Nucleotides D3.438.759.646. ... Cyclic Nucleotide 3-Phosphodiesterase D12.776.641.580.124 D12.776.631.580.124 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3- ... Purine Nucleotides D3.438.759.646 D3.633.100.759.646 Purines D3.438.759 D3.633.100.759 Purinones D3.438.759.758 D3.633.100.759. ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 D12.776.543.585.475.500.100 Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 D12.776.543.585.475.500.200 ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 D12.776.543.585.475.500.300 Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein D5.500.117.249 D12.776.476.81. ... E5.478.566.159 fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 D23.101.100.110.284 Food Irradiation J1.576.423.850.700.400 J1.576.423.850.700.700. ... D12.776.476.24.386 Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, alpha Subunit D12.776.476.24.387.500 D12.776.476.24.386.500 Interferon- ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 D12.776.543.585.475.500.100 Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 D12.776.543.585.475.500.200 ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 D12.776.543.585.475.500.300 Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein D5.500.117.249 D12.776.476.81. ... E5.478.566.159 fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 D23.101.100.110.284 Food Irradiation J1.576.423.850.700.400 J1.576.423.850.700.700. ... D12.776.476.24.386 Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, alpha Subunit D12.776.476.24.387.500 D12.776.476.24.386.500 Interferon- ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 D12.776.543.585.475.500.100 Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 D12.776.543.585.475.500.200 ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 D12.776.543.585.475.500.300 Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein D5.500.117.249 D12.776.476.81. ... E5.478.566.159 fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 D23.101.100.110.284 Food Irradiation J1.576.423.850.700.400 J1.576.423.850.700.700. ... D12.776.476.24.386 Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, alpha Subunit D12.776.476.24.387.500 D12.776.476.24.386.500 Interferon- ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 D12.776.543.585.475.500.100 Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 D12.776.543.585.475.500.200 ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 D12.776.543.585.475.500.300 Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein D5.500.117.249 D12.776.476.81. ... E5.478.566.159 fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 D23.101.100.110.284 Food Irradiation J1.576.423.850.700.400 J1.576.423.850.700.700. ... D12.776.476.24.386 Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, alpha Subunit D12.776.476.24.387.500 D12.776.476.24.386.500 Interferon- ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 D12.776.157.530.937.594.100 D12.776.543.585.937.688.100 Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 D12.776.157.530.937.594.300 D12.776.543.585.937.688.300 Adenine Nucleotides D3.438.759.646. ... Cyclic Nucleotide 3-Phosphodiesterase D12.776.641.580.124 D12.776.631.580.124 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3- ... Purine Nucleotides D3.438.759.646 D3.633.100.759.646 Purines D3.438.759 D3.633.100.759 Purinones D3.438.759.758 D3.633.100.759. ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 D12.776.543.585.475.500.100 Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 D12.776.543.585.475.500.200 ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 D12.776.543.585.475.500.300 Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein D5.500.117.249 D12.776.476.81. ... E5.478.566.159 fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 D23.101.100.110.284 Food Irradiation J1.576.423.850.700.400 J1.576.423.850.700.700. ... D12.776.476.24.386 Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, alpha Subunit D12.776.476.24.387.500 D12.776.476.24.386.500 Interferon- ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 D12.776.157.530.937.594.100 D12.776.543.585.937.688.100 Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 D12.776.157.530.937.594.300 D12.776.543.585.937.688.300 Adenine Nucleotides D3.438.759.646. ... Cyclic Nucleotide 3-Phosphodiesterase D12.776.641.580.124 D12.776.631.580.124 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3- ... Purine Nucleotides D3.438.759.646 D3.633.100.759.646 Purines D3.438.759 D3.633.100.759 Purinones D3.438.759.758 D3.633.100.759. ...
... with the involvement of the adenine nucleotide translocator because carboxyatractyloside significantly attenuated the increased ... This includes the levels and activity of glycosyltransferases and glycosidases, nucleotide sugar metabolism, substrate ... Group 1 received 0.7 mL 0.9% saline (control), and the other groups received 1.5 mg/ kg of As+5, As+3, Cd, Pb, Cr VI, or Ni, ... Pb and As+3 exposure triggered moderate tubular pathologies and changes in the SOD activity and carbonyl protein levels, ...
... adenine nucleotide translocators) and glucose-6-phosphate translocators were significantly activated and continued to be ... Additional file 3:. Primary metabolism-related gene expression changes following PVY NTN infection in cv. Désirée (NT) and NahG ... 3. RuBisCO transcripts are specifically regulated in virus-induced responses. Gene expression values of RuBisCO small and large ... 3). Interestingly, RuBisCO large subunit followed the expression pattern of small chains 2 and 3 and was induced from 1 dpi to ...
ANT3Y (adenine nucleotide translocator-3 on the Y),. AZF2 (azoospermia factor 2),. BPY2 (basic protein on the Y chromosome),. ... adenine nucleotide translocator-3 on the Y), AZF2 (azoospermia factor 2), BPY2 (basic protein on […] ... IL3RAY (interleukin-3 receptor),. SRY (sex-determining region),. TDF (testis determining factor),. ZFY (zinc finger protein), ... A measurement of length that is equal to 0.9 meters, 3 feet, or 36 inches. ...
Name: solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4 ... 3 An aliquot is one straw or vial with sufficient sperm to recover at least one litter of mice, as per provided protocols, when ... recovered litter usually available to ship in 3 to 4 months. Cryopreserved material may be available upon request, please ...
2006). Interaction between the HIV-1 protein Vpr and the adenine nucleotide translocator. Chem Biol Drug Des 67: 145-154. ... The 3-D structure of Vpr is known. The cationic C-terminal domain includes an amphipathic/hydrophobic helix (residues 55-83) ... 2012). HIV, a member of the lentivirus subfamily of retroviruses, encodes 3 genes (gag, pol and env) found in all retroviruses ...
Production of adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), novel ANT ligands and screening assays therefor. ... Production of adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), novel ANT ligands and screening assays therefor ... Production of adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), novel ANT ligands and screening assays therefor ... Production of adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), novel ANT ligands and screening assays therefor ...
The core components of the PTP are the adenine nucleotide translocator (found in the IMM) and the voltage-dependent anion ... Interestingly, in cells lacking a downstream caspase activation mechanism (caspase-3−/−, caspase-9−/− or Apaf-1−/−), a delayed ... such as caspase-3 (Chinnaiyan, 1999). Two major models have been put forward to explain the molecular mechanism by which ... that are not altered in IL-3 deprived apoptotic cells. ... in the OMM upon induction of apoptosis in response to IL-3 ...
... the RCAN1-1S protein directly binds to adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1) mRNA at a region comprising the first 327 ... the RCAN1-1S protein directly binds to adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1) mRNA at a region comprising the first 327 ... The regulator of calcineurin 1 increases adenine nucleotide translocator 1 and leads to mitochondrial dysfunctions. J. ... The regulator of calcineurin 1 increases adenine nucleotide translocator 1 and leads to mitochondrial dysfunctions. J. ...
This gene is responsible for producing a protein called adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). Mutations in this gene can lead ... 3. Age: The syndrome is more common in children and young adults.. 4. Gender: The syndrome is more common in males than females ...
  • Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocase (ANT), ADP/ATP carrier protein (AAC) or mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier, exchanges free ATP with free ADP across the inner mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transport is fully reversible, and its directionality is governed by the concentrations of its substrates (ADP and ATP inside and outside mitochondria), the chelators of the adenine nucleotides, and the mitochondrial membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relationship of these parameters can be expressed by an equation solving for the 'reversal potential of the ANT" (Erev_ANT), a value of the mitochondrial membrane potential at which no net transport of adenine nucleotides takes place by the ANT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial nucleotide transporters, defined by structural similarlities, include the adenine nucleotide translocator family (SLC25A4, SLC25A5, SLC25A6 and SLC25A31), which under conditions of aerobic metabolism, allow coupling between mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cytosolic energy consumption by exchanging cytosolic ADP for mitochondrial ATP . (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Further members of the mitochondrial nucleotide transporter subfamily convey diverse substrates including CoA, although not all members have had substrates identified. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Categorizing and describing a mitochondrial disorder is complicated in part because there are 3 ways to do so. (medlink.com)
  • A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. (nih.gov)
  • ATP and ADP are the only natural nucleotides recognized by the translocase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SLC25A4 gene provides the instructions for making a protein called adenine nucleotide translocase type 1 (ANT1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • 2006). Interaction between the HIV-1 protein Vpr and the adenine nucleotide translocator. (tcdb.org)
  • Upon cytosolic entry, it serves as a cofactor in the formation of the "apoptosome," a complex consisting of the adaptor protein Apaf-1 and procaspase-9, which in turn causes the activation of caspase-9 and downstream caspases, such as caspase-3 ( Chinnaiyan, 1999 ). (rupress.org)
  • This gene is responsible for producing a protein called adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). (rarediseaseshealthcenter.com)
  • Mot en sadan hantering ar de nuvarande ansvarsbestammelserna inte tillrackligt effektiva, protein per ägg. (anabelcastroplaza.com)
  • AIM AND STUDY: This study aims to investigate the antifibrotic mechanism of FZHY treatment by exploring its effects on the activation of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in macrophages. (bvsalud.org)
  • To study inflammasome function, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/adenine triphosphate (ATP) induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation was induced in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) isolated from wild mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Associations of DPP9 with human liver cancer, exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DPP9 and loss of function (LoF) variants have not been explored. (preprints.org)
  • Compositions and methods are provided for producing adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) polypeptides and fusion proteins, including the production and use of recombinant expression constructs having a regulated promoter. (justia.com)
  • 5. Human cytomegalovirus miR-UL36-5p inhibits apoptosis via downregulation of adenine nucleotide translocator 3 in cultured cells. (nih.gov)
  • 3BP (3 Bromo Pyruvate) is a small non-toxic molecule that induces apoptosis in cancer cells while sparing normal cells, thus providing the most promising cancer treatment we have seen in many years. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3(SMAD3) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (antibody-tech.com)
  • Most nucleotide-sugar transporter in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi of eukaryotic cells are members of the DMT superfamily ( Song 2013 ). (tcdb.org)
  • 3. Over-expression of human cytomegalovirus miR-US25-2-3p downregulates eIF4A1 and inhibits HCMV replication. (nih.gov)
  • Key words: adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), electron increased 3-fold compared with that observed in control mito- microscopy, micro-compartment, mitochondrion, octameric mito- chondria. (nih.gov)
  • part of family of 3'-to5' exonucleases. (lbl.gov)
  • We invite you to complete a survey that will take no more than 3 minutes. (bvsalud.org)
  • A number of genes and signaling pathways involved in the progression of SCC have been previously identified ( 3 , 6 - 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Additionally, talin 1 and laminin alpha 3, which participate in signaling pathways associated with adhesion and migration, have been previously observed to be overexpressed in SCC ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)