Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.Atractyloside: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.Bongkrekic Acid: An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.Adenine NucleotidesAdenine Nucleotide Translocator 3: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in the LIVER.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels: A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Cyclophilins: A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Guanine NucleotidesAdenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
(1/25) Repression of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene in growth-arrested human diploid cells: the role of nuclear factor-1.

Adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2) catalyzes the exchange of ATP for ADP across the mitochondrial membrane, thus playing an important role in maintaining the cytosolic phosphorylation potential required for cell growth. Expression of ANT2 is activated by growth stimulation of quiescent cells and is down-regulated when cells become growth-arrested. In this study, we address the mechanism of growth arrest repression. Using a combination of transfection, in vivo dimethyl sulfate mapping, and in vitro DNase I mapping experiments, we identified two protein-binding elements (Go-1 and Go-2) that are responsible for growth arrest of ANT2 expression in human diploid fibroblasts. Proteins that bound the Go elements were purified and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry as members of the NF1 family of transcription factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NF1 was bound to both Go-1 and Go-2 in quiescent human diploid cells in vivo, but not in the same cells stimulated to growth by serum. NF1 binding correlated with the disappearance of ANT2 transcripts in quiescent cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NF1-A, -C, and -X in NIH3T3 cells repressed expression of an ANT2-driven reporter gene construct. Two additional putative repressor elements in the ANT2 promoter, an Sp1 element juxtaposed to the transcription start site and a silencer centered at nucleotide -332, did not appear to contribute to growth arrest repression. Thus, enhanced binding of NF1 is a key step in the growth arrest repression of ANT2 transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing a role for NF1 in growth arrest.  (+info)

(2/25) The ADP/ATP translocator is not essential for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

A sudden increase in permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, the so-called mitochondrial permeability transition, is a common feature of apoptosis and is mediated by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP). It is thought that the mtPTP is a protein complex formed by the voltage-dependent anion channel, members of the pro- and anti-apoptotic BAX-BCL2 protein family, cyclophilin D, and the adenine nucleotide (ADP/ATP) translocators (ANTs). The latter exchange mitochondrial ATP for cytosolic ADP and have been implicated in cell death. To investigate the role of the ANTs in the mtPTP, we genetically inactivated the two isoforms of ANT in mouse liver and analysed mtPTP activation in isolated mitochondria and the induction of cell death in hepatocytes. Mitochondria lacking ANT could still be induced to undergo permeability transition, resulting in release of cytochrome c. However, more Ca2+ than usual was required to activate the mtPTP, and the pore could no longer be regulated by ANT ligands. Moreover, hepatocytes without ANT remained competent to respond to various initiators of cell death. Therefore, ANTs are non-essential structural components of the mtPTP, although they do contribute to its regulation.  (+info)

(3/25) Identification of NF1 as a silencer protein of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene.

The human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2) promoter contains a silencer region that confers partial repression on the heterologous herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) promoter [Barath, P., Albert-Fournier, B., Luciakova, K., Nelson, B.D. (1999) J. Biol. Chem.274, 3378-3384]. Two sequences in the silencer (Site-2 and Site-3) are protected in the DNase I assay in vitro, and one of these is a repeated GTCCTG element previously shown to act as the active repressor element. We have now purified the DNA binding protein, and identified it using MALDI-TOF MS as a 33-kDa member of the nuclear factor 1 (NF1) family of transcription factors. NF1 purified from rat liver and HeLa cell nuclei bind to both silencer Site-2 and Site-3, resulting in a DNase I footprint identical to that obtained with purified recombinant NF1. Furthermore, transient transfection experiments with reporter constructs containing mutated silencer Site-2 and/or Site-3 show that both sites contribute to repression of the HSVtk promoter. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis reveals that NF1 is bound to both elements on the endogenous HeLa cell ANT2 promoter. Our data support the belief that NF1 acts as a repressor when bound to silencing Site-2 and Site-3 of the ANT2 gene.  (+info)

(4/25) Recruitment of NF-kappaB into mitochondria is involved in adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1)-induced apoptosis.

Overexpression of adenine nucleotide translocase-1 (ANT1) is known to induce apoptosis (Bauer, M. K., Schubert, A., Rocks, O., and Grimm, S. (1999) J. Cell Biol. 147, 1493-1501), but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study we show that ANT1 overexpression results in a recruitment of the IkappaBalpha-NF-kappaB complex into mitochondria, with a coincident decrease in nuclear NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. In this situation, NF-kappaB transcriptionally regulated genes with antiapoptotic activity, such as Bcl-XL, MnSOD2, and c-IAP2, are down-regulated, and consequently, cells are sensitized to apoptosis. Accordingly, co-expression of p65 partially interferes with the proapoptotic effect of ANT1 overexpression. Despite the high identity of the two isoforms, overexpression of ANT2 does not exert an apoptotic effect; this lack of apoptotic activity is correlated with the absence of mitochondrial IkappaBalpha-NF-kappaB recruitment or changes in NF-kappaB activity. Thus, we propose that the mitochondrial recruitment of NF-kappaB observed following ANT1 overexpression has an important role in ANT1 proapoptotic activity.  (+info)

(5/25) Carboxyatractyloside effects on brown-fat mitochondria imply that the adenine nucleotide translocator isoforms ANT1 and ANT2 may be responsible for basal and fatty-acid-induced uncoupling respectively.

In brown-fat mitochondria, fatty acids induce thermogenic uncoupling through activation of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). However, even in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-/- mice, fatty-acid-induced uncoupling exists. In the present investigation, we used the inhibitor CAtr (carboxyatractyloside) to examine the involvement of the ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) in the mediation of this UCP1-independent fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in brown-fat mitochondria. We found that the contribution of ANT to fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in UCP1-/- brown-fat mitochondria was minimal (whereas it was responsible for nearly half the fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in liver mitochondria). As compared with liver mitochondria, brown-fat mitochondria exhibit a relatively high (UCP1-independent) basal respiration ('proton leak'). Unexpectedly, a large fraction of this high basal respiration was sensitive to CAtr, whereas in liver mitochondria, basal respiration was CAtr-insensitive. Total ANT protein levels were similar in brown-fat mitochondria from wild-type mice and in liver mitochondria, but the level was increased in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-/- mice. However, in liver, only Ant2 mRNA was found, whereas in brown adipose tissue, Ant1 and Ant2 mRNA levels were equal. The data are therefore compatible with a tentative model in which the ANT2 isoform mediates fatty-acid-induced uncoupling, whereas the ANT1 isoform may mediate a significant part of the high basal proton leak in brown-fat mitochondria.  (+info)

(6/25) Chemosensitization by knockdown of adenine nucleotide translocase-2.

Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) is a rate-limiting step of apoptosis, including in anticancer chemotherapy. Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) mediates the exchange of ADP and ATP on the inner mitochondrial membrane in healthy cells. In addition, ANT can cooperate with Bax to form a lethal pore during apoptosis. Humans possess four distinct ANT isoforms, encoded by four genes, whose transcription depends on the cell type, developmental stage, cell proliferation, and hormone status. Here, we show that the ANT2 gene is up-regulated in several hormone-dependent cancers. Knockdown of ANT2 by RNA interference induced no major changes in the aspect of the mitochondrial network or cell cycle but provoked minor increase in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and reactive oxygen species level and reduced intracellular ATP concentration without affecting glycolysis. At expression and functional levels, ANT2 depletion was not compensated by other ANT isoforms. Most importantly, ANT2, but not ANT1, silencing facilitated MMP induction by lonidamine, a mitochondrion-targeted antitumor compound already used in clinical studies for breast, ovarian, glioma, and lung cancer as well as prostate adenoma. The combination of ANT2 knockdown with lonidamine induced apoptosis irrespective of the Bcl-2 status. These data identify ANT2 as an endogenous inhibitor of MMP and suggest that its selective inhibition could constitute a promising strategy of chemosensitization.  (+info)

(7/25) Growth-dependent repression of human adenine nucleotide translocator-2 (ANT2) transcription: evidence for the participation of Smad and Sp family proteins in the NF1-dependent repressor complex.

 (+info)

(8/25) Suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 by vector-based siRNA in human breast cancer cells induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo.

 (+info)

*  Boris Kholodenko
"The role of adenine nucleotide translocator in regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in heart mitochondria". FEBS Letters. ... "Calcium indirectly increases the control exerted by the adenine nucleotide translocator over 2-oxoglutarate oxidation in rat ... 3.0.co;2-9. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Demin, O.V.; Kholodenko, B.N.; Skulachev, V.P. (1998). "A model of ... 2: 1-13. doi:10.1006/mben.1999.0132. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Kholodenko, B.N., Hoek, J.B. & Westerhoff, ...
*  Adenine nucleotide translocator
... 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adenine Nucleotide ... Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocator, exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix and ... "Role of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in mtDNA maintenance". Science. 289 (5480): 782-785. doi:10.1126/science.289.5480.782 ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
*  CYC1
2001). "Control of Mitochondrial Membrane Permeabilization by Adenine Nucleotide Translocator Interacting with HIV-1 Viral ... 1988). "Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding the precursor to human cytochrome c1". Nucleic Acids Res. 16 (8): 3577. doi: ... 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Duncan AM, Ozawa T, Suzuki H, Rozen R (1994). "Assignment of ... 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Valnot I, Kassis J, Chretien D, et al. (1999). "A ...
*  Bcl-2-associated X protein
"Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator cooperate in the mitochondrial control of apoptosis". Science. 281 (5385): 2027-31. ... 2 (3): 238-40. doi:10.4161/auto.2730. PMID 16874066. [permanent dead link] Weng C, Li Y, Xu D, Shi Y, Tang H (March 2005). " ... Bcl-2 family members share one or more of the four characteristic domains of homology entitled the Bcl-2 homology (BH) domains ... 2 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1038/71316. PMID 10620799. Zhang H, Nimmer P, Rosenberg SH, Ng SC, Joseph M (2002). "Development of a high- ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.776)
... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.575.750.500.200 - adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776.575.750.500.300 ... adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.580.210.175.325 - groes protein MeSH D12.776.580.210.180.325 - groel protein ... cofilin 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525.212.875 - destrin MeSH D12.776.220.525.246.500 - actin-related protein 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525. ... iron regulatory protein 2 MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.863 - electron transport complex i MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.863.500 ...
*  SLC25A5
Ku DH, Kagan J, Chen ST, Chang CD, Baserga R, Wurzel J (Sep 1990). "The human fibroblast adenine nucleotide translocator gene. ... The product of this gene, adenine nucleotide translocator 2 (ANT2), functions as a major constituent of the mitochondrial ... Solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 is a protein that in humans is ... adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5". Retrieved 2013-09-18. Chevrollier A, Loiseau D, Reynier P, Stepien G (Jun 2011). " ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)
... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.157.530.625.875.500.200 -- adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776. ... adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.157.530.750.100 -- aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator MeSH D12.776. ... nucleotide transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.625.875.500 -- mitochondrial adp, atp translocases MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... peptide elongation factor 2 MeSH D12.776.157.325.332.100 -- gtp-binding protein alpha subunits MeSH D12.776.157.325.332.100.100 ...
*  Membrane transport protein
Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) 2.B: Nonribosomally synthesized porters, such as The Nigericin (Nigericin) Family The ... such as rhodopsin The group translocators provide a special mechanism for the phosphorylation of sugars as they are transported ... 116 (2): 164-176. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.07109.x. PMC 3005101 . PMID 21073468. Scholze P, Nørregaard L, Singer EA, ... 2.A: Porters ( uniporters, symporters, antiporters), SLCs. Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) EAAT1 EAAT2 EAAT3 EAAT4 ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)
... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.235.200 -- adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776. ... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.625.875.500.200 -- adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776. ... adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.543.585.750.100 -- aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator MeSH D12.776. ... adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.276 -- potassium-hydrogen antiporters MeSH D12.776.543.585. ...
*  SLC25A4
ADP/ATP translocase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SLC25A4 gene or adenine nucleotide translocator, ANT. ... "Entrez Gene: SLC25A4 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4". Marzo I, ... "Deficiency of the adenine nucleotide translocator in muscle of a patient with myopathy and lactic acidosis: a new mitochondrial ... "A human muscle adenine nucleotide translocator gene has four exons, is located on chromosome 4, and is differentially expressed ...
*  Y linkage
... adenine nucleotide translocator-3 on the Y), SOX21 (known to cause baldness), AZF2 (azoospermia factor 2), BPY2 (basic protein ... RNA binding motif protein 2), and UTY (ubiquitously transcribed TPR gene on Y chromosome). USP9Y AMELY Genetic linkage Sex ...
*  AGK (gene)
AGK also has an implicated role in the assembly of the adenine nucleotide translocator in the inner mitochondrial membrane. ... ATP + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol = ADP + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The enzyme is involved in the more general pathway of ... 33 (6): 960-2. doi:10.1002/humu.22071. PMID 22415731. Siriwardena K, Mackay N, Levandovskiy V, Blaser S, Raiman J, Kantor PF, ... 90 (2): 314-20. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.005. PMC 3276657 . PMID 22284826. Aldahmesh MA, Khan AO, Mohamed JY, Alghamdi MH, ...
*  BCL2L13
Kim JY, So KJ, Lee S, Park JH (Sep 2012). "Bcl-rambo induces apoptosis via interaction with the adenine nucleotide translocator ... Bcl-rambo mediates apoptosis by associating with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), a component of the mitochondrial ... Kataoka T, Holler N, Micheau O, Martinon F, Tinel A, Hofmann K, Tschopp J (Jun 2001). "Bcl-rambo, a novel Bcl-2 homologue that ... In addition to these domains, it has conserved B-cell lymphoma 2 homology motifs, as well as an extension at its c-terminal, ...
*  ADP/ATP translocase
"Role of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 in mtDNA Maintenance". Science. 289 (5480): 782-785. doi:10.1126/science.289.5480.782 ... Pressman BC (June 1958). "Intramitochondrial nucleotides. I. Some factors affecting net interconversions of adenine nucleotides ... Bruni A, Luciani S, Contessa AR (March 1964). "Inhibition by atractyloside of the binding of adenine-nucleotides to rat-liver ... In 1955, Siekevitz and Potter demonstrated that adenine nucleotides were distributed in cells in two pools located in the ...
*  SLC25A31
"Entrez Gene: SLC25A31 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 31". Gallerne C ... "Computational analysis of the transcriptional regulation of the adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 4 gene and its role in ... "The fourth isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator inhibits mitochondrial apoptosis in cancer cells". The International ... Chevrollier A, Loiseau D, Reynier P, Stepien G (Jun 2011). "Adenine nucleotide translocase 2 is a key mitochondrial protein in ...
*  Apoptosome
... the inner membrane protein adenine nucleotide translocator (AdNT) and the matrix protein cyclophilin D (CyD) (12). This pore ... It has also been shown that the nucleotide dATP as third component binds to apaf-1, however its exact role is still debated. ... A short linker and nucleotide binding a/b domains (NBD) that contain conserved Walker boxes A (p-loop 155-161) and B (239-243) ... Another model proposes that Apaf-1 is organized in an extended fashion such that both the N-terminal CARD and the nucleotide ...
*  TXN2
... thiols in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore component adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). Overexpression of ... "Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense enzymes and susceptibility to breast cancer". Cancer Research. ... 66 (2): 1225-33. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1857. PMID 16424062. Collins JE, Wright CL, Edwards CA, Davis MP, Grinham JA, ... Wen S, Lu W, Zhu H, Yang W, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Islam A, Finnell RH (Feb 2009). "Genetic polymorphisms in the thioredoxin 2 ( ...
*  SLC25A6
Jang JY, Lee CE (2003). "Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator 3 is regulated by IL-4 and IFN-gamma via STAT-dependent ... Adenine nucleotide translocator Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000169100 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human ... 2001). "A novel missense adenine nucleotide translocator-1 gene mutation in a Greek adPEO family". Neurology. 57 (12): 2295-8. ... 2002). "A novel D104G mutation in the adenine nucleotide translocator 1 gene in autosomal dominant progressive external ...
*  Thermogenin
UCP1 is related to other mitochondrial metabolite transporters such as the adenine nucleotide translocator, a proton channel in ... UCP1 is activated in the brown fat cell by fatty acids and inhibited by nucleotides. Fatty acids cause the following signaling ... overriding the inhibition caused by purine nucleotides (GDP and ADP). During the termination of thermogenesis, thermogenin is ... 1 (2): 61-72. doi:10.1046/j.1467-789x.2000.00009.x. PMID 12119988. Cassard AM, Bouillaud F, Mattei MG, Hentz E, Raimbault S, ...
*  Mitochondrial carrier
SLC25A25 adenine nucleotide - SLC25A4, SLC25A5, SLC25A6, SLC25A31 dicarboxylate - SLC25A10 oxoglutarate - SLC25A11 glutamate - ... "Site-directed mutagenesis of the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocator. Six arginines and one lysine are essential". Journal ... nucleotides, amino acids, keto acids and cofactors across the membrane. Such proteins include: ADP/ATP carrier protein (ADP-ATP ... nucleotides, inorganic ions and co-factors through the mitochondrial inner membrane. The transporters consist of six ...
*  Mitochondrial permeability transition pore
Further hypothesis by Halestrap´s group convincingly suggested the MPT was formed by the inner membrane Adenine Nucleotide ... "The ADP/ATP translocator is not essential for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore". Nature. 427 (6973): 461-465. doi ... "The nature of the calcium ion efflux induced in rat liver mitochondria by the oxidation of endogenous nicotinamide nucleotides ... "Regulation of the Inner Membrane Mitochondrial Permeability Transition by the Outer Membrane Translocator Protein (Peripheral ...
Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody (ab118125)  Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody (ab118125)
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody validated for WB, IP and tested in Human. With 2 independent ... Immunoprecipitation of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 transfected lysate using ab118125 and Protein A Magnetic Bead, and ... Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody. See all Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 primary antibodies. ... Recombinant full length protein, corresponding to amino acids 1-298 of Human Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 (NP_001143.2). ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/adenine-nucleotide-translocator-2-antibody-ab118125.html
RecName: Full=ADP,ATP carrier protein 2; AltName: Full=ADP/ATP translo - Protein - NCBI  RecName: Full=ADP,ATP carrier protein 2; AltName: Full=ADP/ATP translo - Protein - NCBI
Adenine nucleotide translocator 2; Short=ANT 2; AltName: Full=Petite colonies protein 9. gi,584738,sp,P18239.2,ADT2_YEAST ... Adenine nucleotide translocator 2; Short=ANT 2; AltName: Full=Petite colonies protein 9. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: P18239.2 ... Misfolding of mutant adenine nucleotide translocase in yeast supports a novel mechanism of Ant1-induced muscle diseases. [Mol ... Misfolding of mutant adenine nucleotide translocase in yeast supports a novel mechanism of Ant1-induced muscle diseases.. Liu Y ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/584738
Short-hairpin RNA-induced suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 in breast cancer cells restores their susceptibility...  Short-hairpin RNA-induced suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 in breast cancer cells restores their susceptibility...
Stepien G, Torroni A, Chung AB, Hodge JA, Wallace DC: Differential expression of adenine nucleotide translocator isoforms in ... Adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2), one of the four adenine nucleotide translocase isoforms expressed in humans, is ... Adenine nucleotide translocase, a protein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, catalyzes the exchange of mitochondrial ... Jang JY, Jeon YK, Kim CW: Suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 by vector-based siRNA in human breast cancer cells ...
more infohttps://molecular-cancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1476-4598-9-262
Adenine nucleotide translocator synonyms, Adenine nucleotide translocator antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com  Adenine nucleotide translocator synonyms, Adenine nucleotide translocator antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
Antonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator. 1 synonym for adenine: A. What are synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator? ... Synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator in Free Thesaurus. ... Related to Adenine nucleotide translocator: adenine nucleotide ... Adenine nucleotide translocator synonyms, Adenine nucleotide translocator antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com https://www. ... adenine. (redirected from Adenine nucleotide translocator). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, ...
more infohttps://www.freethesaurus.com/Adenine+nucleotide+translocator
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1
     Summary Report | CureHunter  Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 Summary Report | CureHunter
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1. Subscribe to New Research on Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 ... ANT-1 Transport Protein; ANT1 Transport Protein; Adenine Nucleotide Carrier Protein; Adenine Nucleotide Translocator, Muscle ... Nucleotide Transport Proteins*ATP Translocases Mitochondrial ADP: 95*Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: 14 ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD033741-Adenine-Nucleotide-Translocator-1.do
Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab221956) | Abcam  Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab221956) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Human. Independently ... All lanes : Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab221956) at 1/100 dilution. Lane 1 : RT-4 cell lysate. Lane ... Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. See all Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 primary antibodies. ... This product Rabbit Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab221956) IHC-P, WB ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/adenine-nucleotide-translocator-2ant-2-antibody-ab221956.html
SLC25A6 Antibody (PA5-70402)
                
                
		        
	  SLC25A6 Antibody (PA5-70402)
Adenine nucleotide translocator 3; adenine nucleotide translocator 3 (liver); ADP,ATP carrier protein 3; ADP,ATP carrier ... adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6; Solute carrier family 25 member 6; solute carrier family 25, member A6 ... translation protein targeting to mitochondrion apoptotic process adenine transport ADP transport ATP transport active induction ... structural constituent of ribosome ATP:ADP antiporter activity protein binding adenine transmembrane transporter activity ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/SLC25A6-Antibody-Polyclonal/PA5-70402
Recombinant Human SLC25A5 293 Cell Lysate SLC25A5-1757HCL - Creative BioMart  Recombinant Human SLC25A5 293 Cell Lysate SLC25A5-1757HCL - Creative BioMart
SLC25A5 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 [ Homo sapiens ]. ... SLC25A5; solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5; ANT2; ADP/ATP translocase ... Antigen standard for solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 (SLC25A5), ... ANT 2; ADP/ATP carrier protein; ADP,ATP carrier protein 2; solute carrier family 25 member 5; ADP,ATP carrier protein, ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_403423_318.htm
SLC25A6P1 Gene - GeneCards | SLC25A6P1 Pseudogene  SLC25A6P1 Gene - GeneCards | SLC25A6P1 Pseudogene
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator), Member 6 Pseudogene 3 * Solute Carrier Family 25 (Mitochondrial Carrier; Adenine Nucleotide ... Solute Carrier Family 25 (Mitochondrial Carrier; Adenine Nucleotide Translocator), Member 6, Pseudogene 1 2 3 ... The GeneCards human gene database index: 1 2 3 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=SLC25A6P1
UPENN Biomedical Graduate Studies | Douglas C Wallace  UPENN Biomedical Graduate Studies | Douglas C Wallace
Deficiency in the mouse mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 2 gene is associated with cardiac noncompaction. ...
more infohttps://www.med.upenn.edu/apps/faculty/index.php/g20000320/p8415634
anti-SLC25A5 antibody | Rabbit SLC25A5 Polyclonal Antibody-NP 001143.2  anti-SLC25A5 antibody | Rabbit SLC25A5 Polyclonal Antibody-NP 001143.2
2F1; AAC2; Adenine nucleotide translocator 2; ADP; ADP ATP carrier protein 2; ADP/ATP translocase 2; ADT2_HUMAN; ANT 2; ANT2; ... mitochondrial carrier adenine nucleotide translocator) member 5; Solute carrier family 25 member 5; T2; T3 ... ADP,ATP carrier protein 2; ADP,ATP carrier protein, fibroblast isoform; Adenine nucleotide translocator 2; ANT 2 ... ATP carrier protein 2; ATP carrier protein; fibroblast isoform; OTTHUMP00000024324; SLC25A5; Solute carrier family 25 ( ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/polyclonal-human-mouse-rat-antibody/slc25a5/9609496
Mechanisms of Heart Failure | Springer for Research & Development  Mechanisms of Heart Failure | Springer for Research & Development
Molecular biologic Changes of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator in J-2-N Cardiomyopathic Hamsters ... Differential Regulation of Calmodulin-Dependent Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Isozymes Rajendra K. Sharma, Jawahar Kalra ... Altered Myocardial Neurotransmitter and 1,2-Diacylglycerol Concentrations in Right Ventricular Hypertrophy and Failure in Rats ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4615-2003-0
SLC25A6P6 Gene - GeneCards | SLC25A6P6 Pseudogene  SLC25A6P6 Gene - GeneCards | SLC25A6P6 Pseudogene
Solute Carrier Family 25 (Mitochondrial Carrier; Adenine Nucleotide Translocator), Member 6 Pseudogene 6 2 ... The GeneCards human gene database index: 2 3 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=SLC25A6P6
Frontiers | The Influence of MicroRNAs on Mitochondrial Calcium | Physiology  Frontiers | The Influence of MicroRNAs on Mitochondrial Calcium | Physiology
1995). Calcium indirectly increases the control exerted by the adenine nucleotide translocator over 2-oxoglutarate oxidation in ... adenine nucleotide translocase), and Cyp-D (cyclophilin D), however, deletion of each one of these proteins does not block the ... m can also modulate the adenine nucleotide transporter (Mildaziene et al., 1995) and the mitochondrial ATP synthase (complex V ... Glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibition slows mitochondrial adenine nucleotide transport and regulates voltage-dependent anion ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2018.01291/full?utm_source=Email_to_authors_&utm_medium=Email&utm_content=T1_11.5e1_author&utm_campaign=Email_publication&field=&journalName=Frontiers_in_Physiology&id=406691
nature.com search  nature.com search
Adenovirus adenine nucleotide translocator-2 shRNA effectively induces apoptosis and enhances chemosensitivity by the down- ... Rights & permissionsfor article Adenovirus adenine nucleotide translocator-2 shRNA effectively induces apoptosis and enhances ... 2 November 2017 , Open Palmitate inhibits arthritis by inducing t-bet and gata-3 mRNA degradation in iNKT cells via IRE1α- ... Rights & permissionsfor article Clinicopathologic analysis of programmed cell death-1 and programmed cell death-ligand 1 and 2 ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/search?author=%22Yoon%20Kyung%20Jeon%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=0e2c3477-548e-4085-aece-0bf06d4d6320
Frontiers | The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore and Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Cell Death | Oncology  Frontiers | The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore and Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Cell Death | Oncology
Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator cooperate in the mitochondrial control of apoptosis. Science (1998) 281:2027-31. doi: ... ANT, adenine nucleotide translocator; Bax, Bcl-2-associated protein X; Bak, Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer; Bcl-2, B-cell ... the adenine nucleotide translocator ANT-2 is upregulated in renal tumors and transformed hepatocytes (78). This upregulation, ... Modulation of F0F1-ATP synthase activity by cyclophilin D regulates matrix adenine nucleotide levels. FEBS J (2011) 278:1112-25 ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2014.00302/full
Involvement of non-protein thiols, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species and p53 in honey-induced apoptosis |...  Involvement of non-protein thiols, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species and p53 in honey-induced apoptosis |...
Costantini P, Belzacq AS, Vieira HL et al (2000) Oxidation of a critical thiol residue of the adenine nucleotide translocator ... Modulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore by pyridine nucleotides and dithiol oxidation at two separate ... 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Flow cytometric analysis showed the increasing ... enforces Bcl-2- independent permeability transition pore opening and apoptosis. Oncogene 19:307-314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10637-009-9302-0
ADP/ATP translocase 2 (P05141) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI  ADP/ATP translocase 2 (P05141) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (IPR002113). Homologous superfamilies. * Homologous superfamily. 1 50 100 150 200 250 298 ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/P05141
  • ANT2 shRNA treatment sensitized MCF7, T47 D, and BT474 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of TRAIL death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5) and down-regulating the TRAIL decoy receptor 2 (DcR2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oxygen consumption was determined in the presence of 2 mM NADH (▪) as in A (trace c) and cytochrome c (15 μM) oxidation (○) was spectrofluorometrically measured, as described (reference 34). (nih.gov)
  • To gain insight into the role of the general transcription factor, Sp1, in the expression of nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, we investigated Sp1 activation of the adenine nucleotide translocator 2, cytochrome c1, F1-ATPase beta subunit, and the mitochondria transcription factor (mtTFA) promoters transfected into Drosophila cell lines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In contrast to König's polyanion (PA10), a specific inhibitor of the VDAC, Bcl-2 fails to prevent Vpr52-96 from crossing the mitochondrial OM. (nih.gov)
  • Mathupala SP, Ko YH, Pedersen PL (2009) Hexokinase-2 bound to mitochondria: cancer's stygian link to the "Warburg Effect" and a pivotal target for effective therapy. (springer.com)
  • Recent improvements in survival of some malignancies owe much to advances in uncovering aberrantly active molecular pathways, against which molecularly targeted agents have been developed as new strategies to control cancers ( 1 , 2 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Upon exposure to stress (e.g., wounding and pathogens), jasmonates are produced in plants and cause the induction of a proteinase inhibitor (2) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • 3. The siRNA according to claim 2, which comprises the sense sequence, a 7-11 mer hairpin loop sequence and an antisense sequence binding complementarily to the sense sequence. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 4. The siRNA according to claim 2, wherein the sense sequence is selected from a group consisting of sequences represented by SEQ. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 5. The siRNA according to claim 2 wherein the hairpin loop sequence is the sequence represented by SEQ. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Rather, Bcl-2 reduces the ANT-Vpr interaction, as determined by affinity purification and plasmon resonance studies.Concomitantly, Bcl-2 suppresses channel formation by the ANT-Vpr complex in synthetic membranes.In conclusion, both Vpr and Bcl-2 modulate MMP through a direct interaction with ANT. (nih.gov)
  • Concomitantly, Bcl-2 suppresses channel formation by the ANT-Vpr complex in synthetic membranes. (nih.gov)
  • Rather, Bcl-2 reduces the ANT-Vpr interaction, as determined by affinity purification and plasmon resonance studies. (nih.gov)
  • Western blot analysis of SLC25A13 over-expressed 293 cell line, cotransfected with SLC25A13 Validated Chimera RNAi ( Cat # H00010165-R01V ) (Lane 2) or non-transfected control (Lane 1). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In conclusion, both Vpr and Bcl-2 modulate MMP through a direct interaction with ANT. (nih.gov)
  • The interest in this unusual mitochondrial state increased exponentially in the 1990s after the MPT was shown to be a strategic regulator of cell death ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Porin 2 is abundant in testis but in small amounts in ovaries. (tcdb.org)