Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.Atractyloside: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.Bongkrekic Acid: An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.Adenine NucleotidesAdenine Nucleotide Translocator 3: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in the LIVER.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels: A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Cyclophilins: A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Guanine NucleotidesAdenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 4: K-Cl cotransporter ubiquitously expressed with higher expression levels in ERYTHROCYTES of ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL. It mediates active potassium and chloride cotransport across the plasma membrane and contributes to cell volume homeostasisSearch Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 3: Na-Cl cotransporter in the convoluted segments of the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium and chloride and is inhibited by THIAZIDE DIURETICS.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.

Repression of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene in growth-arrested human diploid cells: the role of nuclear factor-1. (1/25)

Adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2) catalyzes the exchange of ATP for ADP across the mitochondrial membrane, thus playing an important role in maintaining the cytosolic phosphorylation potential required for cell growth. Expression of ANT2 is activated by growth stimulation of quiescent cells and is down-regulated when cells become growth-arrested. In this study, we address the mechanism of growth arrest repression. Using a combination of transfection, in vivo dimethyl sulfate mapping, and in vitro DNase I mapping experiments, we identified two protein-binding elements (Go-1 and Go-2) that are responsible for growth arrest of ANT2 expression in human diploid fibroblasts. Proteins that bound the Go elements were purified and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry as members of the NF1 family of transcription factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NF1 was bound to both Go-1 and Go-2 in quiescent human diploid cells in vivo, but not in the same cells stimulated to growth by serum. NF1 binding correlated with the disappearance of ANT2 transcripts in quiescent cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NF1-A, -C, and -X in NIH3T3 cells repressed expression of an ANT2-driven reporter gene construct. Two additional putative repressor elements in the ANT2 promoter, an Sp1 element juxtaposed to the transcription start site and a silencer centered at nucleotide -332, did not appear to contribute to growth arrest repression. Thus, enhanced binding of NF1 is a key step in the growth arrest repression of ANT2 transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing a role for NF1 in growth arrest.  (+info)

The ADP/ATP translocator is not essential for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. (2/25)

A sudden increase in permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, the so-called mitochondrial permeability transition, is a common feature of apoptosis and is mediated by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP). It is thought that the mtPTP is a protein complex formed by the voltage-dependent anion channel, members of the pro- and anti-apoptotic BAX-BCL2 protein family, cyclophilin D, and the adenine nucleotide (ADP/ATP) translocators (ANTs). The latter exchange mitochondrial ATP for cytosolic ADP and have been implicated in cell death. To investigate the role of the ANTs in the mtPTP, we genetically inactivated the two isoforms of ANT in mouse liver and analysed mtPTP activation in isolated mitochondria and the induction of cell death in hepatocytes. Mitochondria lacking ANT could still be induced to undergo permeability transition, resulting in release of cytochrome c. However, more Ca2+ than usual was required to activate the mtPTP, and the pore could no longer be regulated by ANT ligands. Moreover, hepatocytes without ANT remained competent to respond to various initiators of cell death. Therefore, ANTs are non-essential structural components of the mtPTP, although they do contribute to its regulation.  (+info)

Identification of NF1 as a silencer protein of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene. (3/25)

The human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2) promoter contains a silencer region that confers partial repression on the heterologous herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) promoter [Barath, P., Albert-Fournier, B., Luciakova, K., Nelson, B.D. (1999) J. Biol. Chem.274, 3378-3384]. Two sequences in the silencer (Site-2 and Site-3) are protected in the DNase I assay in vitro, and one of these is a repeated GTCCTG element previously shown to act as the active repressor element. We have now purified the DNA binding protein, and identified it using MALDI-TOF MS as a 33-kDa member of the nuclear factor 1 (NF1) family of transcription factors. NF1 purified from rat liver and HeLa cell nuclei bind to both silencer Site-2 and Site-3, resulting in a DNase I footprint identical to that obtained with purified recombinant NF1. Furthermore, transient transfection experiments with reporter constructs containing mutated silencer Site-2 and/or Site-3 show that both sites contribute to repression of the HSVtk promoter. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis reveals that NF1 is bound to both elements on the endogenous HeLa cell ANT2 promoter. Our data support the belief that NF1 acts as a repressor when bound to silencing Site-2 and Site-3 of the ANT2 gene.  (+info)

Recruitment of NF-kappaB into mitochondria is involved in adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1)-induced apoptosis. (4/25)

Overexpression of adenine nucleotide translocase-1 (ANT1) is known to induce apoptosis (Bauer, M. K., Schubert, A., Rocks, O., and Grimm, S. (1999) J. Cell Biol. 147, 1493-1501), but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study we show that ANT1 overexpression results in a recruitment of the IkappaBalpha-NF-kappaB complex into mitochondria, with a coincident decrease in nuclear NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. In this situation, NF-kappaB transcriptionally regulated genes with antiapoptotic activity, such as Bcl-XL, MnSOD2, and c-IAP2, are down-regulated, and consequently, cells are sensitized to apoptosis. Accordingly, co-expression of p65 partially interferes with the proapoptotic effect of ANT1 overexpression. Despite the high identity of the two isoforms, overexpression of ANT2 does not exert an apoptotic effect; this lack of apoptotic activity is correlated with the absence of mitochondrial IkappaBalpha-NF-kappaB recruitment or changes in NF-kappaB activity. Thus, we propose that the mitochondrial recruitment of NF-kappaB observed following ANT1 overexpression has an important role in ANT1 proapoptotic activity.  (+info)

Carboxyatractyloside effects on brown-fat mitochondria imply that the adenine nucleotide translocator isoforms ANT1 and ANT2 may be responsible for basal and fatty-acid-induced uncoupling respectively. (5/25)

In brown-fat mitochondria, fatty acids induce thermogenic uncoupling through activation of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). However, even in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-/- mice, fatty-acid-induced uncoupling exists. In the present investigation, we used the inhibitor CAtr (carboxyatractyloside) to examine the involvement of the ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) in the mediation of this UCP1-independent fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in brown-fat mitochondria. We found that the contribution of ANT to fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in UCP1-/- brown-fat mitochondria was minimal (whereas it was responsible for nearly half the fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in liver mitochondria). As compared with liver mitochondria, brown-fat mitochondria exhibit a relatively high (UCP1-independent) basal respiration ('proton leak'). Unexpectedly, a large fraction of this high basal respiration was sensitive to CAtr, whereas in liver mitochondria, basal respiration was CAtr-insensitive. Total ANT protein levels were similar in brown-fat mitochondria from wild-type mice and in liver mitochondria, but the level was increased in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-/- mice. However, in liver, only Ant2 mRNA was found, whereas in brown adipose tissue, Ant1 and Ant2 mRNA levels were equal. The data are therefore compatible with a tentative model in which the ANT2 isoform mediates fatty-acid-induced uncoupling, whereas the ANT1 isoform may mediate a significant part of the high basal proton leak in brown-fat mitochondria.  (+info)

Chemosensitization by knockdown of adenine nucleotide translocase-2. (6/25)

Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) is a rate-limiting step of apoptosis, including in anticancer chemotherapy. Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) mediates the exchange of ADP and ATP on the inner mitochondrial membrane in healthy cells. In addition, ANT can cooperate with Bax to form a lethal pore during apoptosis. Humans possess four distinct ANT isoforms, encoded by four genes, whose transcription depends on the cell type, developmental stage, cell proliferation, and hormone status. Here, we show that the ANT2 gene is up-regulated in several hormone-dependent cancers. Knockdown of ANT2 by RNA interference induced no major changes in the aspect of the mitochondrial network or cell cycle but provoked minor increase in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and reactive oxygen species level and reduced intracellular ATP concentration without affecting glycolysis. At expression and functional levels, ANT2 depletion was not compensated by other ANT isoforms. Most importantly, ANT2, but not ANT1, silencing facilitated MMP induction by lonidamine, a mitochondrion-targeted antitumor compound already used in clinical studies for breast, ovarian, glioma, and lung cancer as well as prostate adenoma. The combination of ANT2 knockdown with lonidamine induced apoptosis irrespective of the Bcl-2 status. These data identify ANT2 as an endogenous inhibitor of MMP and suggest that its selective inhibition could constitute a promising strategy of chemosensitization.  (+info)

Growth-dependent repression of human adenine nucleotide translocator-2 (ANT2) transcription: evidence for the participation of Smad and Sp family proteins in the NF1-dependent repressor complex. (7/25)

 (+info)

Suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 by vector-based siRNA in human breast cancer cells induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. (8/25)

 (+info)

The four known human ANT isoforms (ANT1, ANT2, ANT3, and ANT4) exhibit tissue-, cell-type-, and developmental stage-specific expression patterns [18]. ANT1 is strongly expressed in terminally differentiated cells; ANT2 is overexpressed in tissues that have high proliferative ability and in several cancer cell lines [16, 21]; and ANT3 is ubiquitously expressed in all tissues. Whereas ANT1 and ANT3 exert pro-apoptotic effects when overexpressed, ANT2, instead, has an anti-apoptotic function [20, 28]. We previously observed that ANT2 is overexpressed in the breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 but is absent from the non-neoplastic mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A [16]. Moreover, vector-based RNAi knockdown of ANT2 expression in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death; these events were accompanied by cellular energy (ATP) depletion, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, Bax induction, and Bcl-xL down-regulation [16]. TNF-α and TNF receptor I ...
In brown-fat mitochondria, fatty acids induce thermogenic uncoupling through activation of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). However, even in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1−/− mice, fatty-acid-induced uncoupling exists. In the present investigation, we used the inhibitor CAtr (carboxyatractyloside) to examine the involvement of the ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) in the mediation of this UCP1-independent fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in brown-fat mitochondria. We found that the contribution of ANT to fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in UCP1−/− brown-fat mitochondria was minimal (whereas it was responsible for nearly half the fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in liver mitochondria). As compared with liver mitochondria, brown-fat mitochondria exhibit a relatively high (UCP1-independent) basal respiration (proton leak). Unexpectedly, a large fraction of this high basal respiration was sensitive to CAtr, whereas in liver mitochondria, basal respiration was CAtr-insensitive. Total ANT protein ...
Zhang, Y.; Matsuyama, H.; Shiratsuchi, T.; Tian, D.; Hook, D. J.; Walters, M. A.; Georg, G. I.; Hawkinson, J. E.; Hamazaki, T.; Terada, N. Human Adenine Nucleotide Translocase (ANT) Modulators Identified by High-Throughput Screening of Transgenic Yeast. J Biomol Screen 2016.. Kurbanov, E. K.; Chiu, T.-L.; Solberg, J.; Francis, S.; Maize, K. M.; Fernandez, J.; Johnson, R. L.; Hawkinson, J. E.; Walters, M. A.; Finzel, B. C.; Amin, E. A. Probing the S2 Subsite of the Anthrax Toxin Lethal Factor Using Novel N-Alkylated Hydroxamates. J. Med. Chem. 2015, 58, 8723-8733.. Dahlin, J. L.; Nissink, J. W. M.; Strasser, J. M.; Francis, S.; Higgins, L.; Zhou, H.; Zhang, Z.; Walters, M. A. PAINS in the Assay: Chemical Mechanisms of Assay Interference and Promiscuous Enzymatic Inhibition Observed during a Sulfhydryl-Scavenging HTS. J. Med. Chem. 2015, 58, 2091-2113.. Dahlin, J. L.; Nissink, J. W. M.; Francis, S.; Strasser, J. M.; John, K.; Zhang, Z.; Walters, M. A. Post-HTS case report and structural alert: ...
Component of the cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly (CIA) complex, a multiprotein complex that mediates the incorporation of iron-sulfur cluster into extramitochondrial Fe/S proteins. As part of the mitotic spindle-associated MMXD complex it plays a role in chromosome segregation, probably by facilitating iron-sulfur cluster assembly into ERCC2/XPD.
Monsanto began in 1901. Its first product was saccharin, made from toluene and petroleum. In 1977, the FDA moved to ban the use of saccharin in prepared foods after testing showed that it could cause bladder cancer. Congress rejected the FDAs request and instead agreed that manufacturers would provide health warnings on their packaging. In the 1920s, Monsanto began producing pesticides and herbicides, including what came to be known of as Agent Orange. Agent Orange is a defoliant made from 2,4-D and 2,4-T. It was used extensively in Vietnam by the US armed forces during the Vietnam War. The Vietnam Veterans of America lists at least fifty illnesses and diseases and nearly twenty separate birth defects connected to exposure to Agent Orange. Agent Orange is the gift that keeps on giving, as to this day, children in Vietnam are born with ghastly birth defects and nervous disorders. During the 1930s, Monsanto began manufacturing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCBs are so toxic that they were ...
Synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator. 1 synonym for adenine: A. What are synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator?
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
Slc25a13 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 13 (Slc25a13), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 1, (10ug), 10 µg.
Slc25a4 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4 (cDNA clone, (10ug), 10 µg.
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody validated for WB, IP and tested in Human. With 2 independent reviews. Immunogen corresponding to…
Diabetes increases myocardial FA oxidation and MVO2, but underlying mechanisms are partially understood. We used perfused hearts, permeabilized fibers (fibers) and isolated mitochondria from diabetic db/db mice to assess mitochondrial (MITO) uncoupling and to elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. MITO uncoupling and reduced cardiac efficiency (CE) was absent in hearts perfused with glucose alone. However, in db/db hearts perfused with 1.0 mM Palmitate and 11mM glucose, RPP was reduced by 31% p, 0.02, MVO2 was increased by 45% p, 0.03, and CE reduced by 51% p,0.004. In fibers, state 3 respirations with palmitoyl carnitine were similar (16.4±1.3 and 16.7±1.5 nmol/min/mg), but ATP production rates were reduced by 36% in db/db fibers so that ATP/O ratios were 1.5±0.2 in db/db vs. 2.5±0.1 in controls (p,0.005), indicating FA-induced mitochondrial uncoupling. H2O2 production was also increased by 2.6 fold (p,0.001) in isolated db/db MITO exposed to the complex 1 substrate pyruvate. To ...
SLC25A31 antibody (solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 31) for ELISA, WB. Anti-SLC25A31 pAb (GTX87816) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
... expressa antígenos alogênicos paternos, depende de mecanismos que atuam localmente na interface materno-fetal
This report is the final of the Veterans and Agent Orange series, which was required by Public Law 102-4, The Agent Orange Act of 1991, and extended by Public Law 107-103. The Secretary of Veterans Affairs was directed to contract with the National ...
Looking for online definition of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in the Medical Dictionary? adenine nucleotide translocator 1 explanation free. What is adenine nucleotide translocator 1? Meaning of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 medical term. What does adenine nucleotide translocator 1 mean?
Graham BH et al. (1997) A mouse model for mitochondrial myopathy and cardiomyopathy resulting from a deficiency in the heart/muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator.. [^] ...
AIMS: In this study we investigated whether attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) could protect HepG2 cells from free fatty acid (FFA)-induced apoptosis. MAIN METHODS: Human liver cell line HepG2 cells were exposed to Sodium Palmitate (Pa) or Sodium Oleate (Ol). Apoptosis and ER stress of HepG2 cells were analyzed with flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR and Western Blotting. An expression plasmid encoding for the ER chaperone immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (Bip) was transfected into HepG2 cells to attenuate ER stress. Small interfering RNA siCHOP was used to knockdown the expression of C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP) in HepG2. KEY FINDINGS: Pa led to cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent pattern and also induced ER stress indicated by increased phosphorylation of eIF2alpha, upregulation of IRE1alpha and CHOP. Bip expression levels were slightly down regulated after Pa treatment. The unsaturated fatty acid, Ol, induced neither apoptosis nor ER stress in
APRT - APRT (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
These are given readers of the Dual-labeled download in post limit. We deliver you the best environmental focus for your door practice. here you have the lighting, you will Distract a effort to determine the project credit.
As in the rabbit, dBSA tended to enhance the CCCP fee, but this was only major for succinate alone (P,.05). Not like the rabbit tubules, basal and oligomycin
OXPHOS - this site is dedicated to mitochondria research. Theoretical and practical aspects, reagents, protocols, tools, funding agencies, databases, conferences, etc.
대전광역시 유성구 대학로 245 한국과학기술정보연구원TEL : 042.869.1234 서울시 동대문구 회기로 66NDSL고객센터 : 080.969.4114E-mail : [email protected] 대표자 : 한선화사업자등록번호 : 205-82-04043 ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
WDHD1 - WDHD1 - Human, 4 unique 29mer shRNA constructs in retroviral RFP vector shRNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Ku DH, Kagan J, Chen ST, Chang CD, Baserga R, Wurzel J (Sep 1990). "The human fibroblast adenine nucleotide translocator gene. ... The product of this gene, adenine nucleotide translocator 2 (ANT2), functions as a major constituent of the mitochondrial ... Solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 is a protein that in humans is ... adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5". Retrieved 2013-09-18. Chevrollier A, Loiseau D, Reynier P, Stepien G (Jun 2011). " ...
ADP/ATP translocase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SLC25A4 gene or adenine nucleotide translocator, ANT. ... "Entrez Gene: SLC25A4 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4". Marzo I, ... "Deficiency of the adenine nucleotide translocator in muscle of a patient with myopathy and lactic acidosis: a new mitochondrial ... "A human muscle adenine nucleotide translocator gene has four exons, is located on chromosome 4, and is differentially expressed ...
"The role of adenine nucleotide translocator in regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in heart mitochondria". FEBS Letters. ... "Calcium indirectly increases the control exerted by the adenine nucleotide translocator over 2-oxoglutarate oxidation in rat ... 3.0.co;2-9. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Demin, O.V.; Kholodenko, B.N.; Skulachev, V.P. (1998). "A model of ... 2: 1-13. doi:10.1006/mben.1999.0132. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Kholodenko, B.N., Hoek, J.B. & Westerhoff, ...
AGK also has an implicated role in the assembly of the adenine nucleotide translocator in the inner mitochondrial membrane. ... ATP + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol = ADP + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The enzyme is involved in the more general pathway of ... 33 (6): 960-2. doi:10.1002/humu.22071. PMID 22415731. Siriwardena K, Mackay N, Levandovskiy V, Blaser S, Raiman J, Kantor PF, ... 90 (2): 314-20. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.005. PMC 3276657 . PMID 22284826. Aldahmesh MA, Khan AO, Mohamed JY, Alghamdi MH, ...
2001). "Control of Mitochondrial Membrane Permeabilization by Adenine Nucleotide Translocator Interacting with HIV-1 Viral ... 1988). "Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding the precursor to human cytochrome c1". Nucleic Acids Res. 16 (8): 3577. doi: ... 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Duncan AM, Ozawa T, Suzuki H, Rozen R (1994). "Assignment of ... 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Valnot I, Kassis J, Chretien D, et al. (1999). "A ...
Kim JY, So KJ, Lee S, Park JH (Sep 2012). "Bcl-rambo induces apoptosis via interaction with the adenine nucleotide translocator ... Bcl-rambo mediates apoptosis by associating with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), a component of the mitochondrial ... Kataoka T, Holler N, Micheau O, Martinon F, Tinel A, Hofmann K, Tschopp J (Jun 2001). "Bcl-rambo, a novel Bcl-2 homologue that ... In addition to these domains, it has conserved B-cell lymphoma 2 homology motifs, as well as an extension at its c-terminal, ...
"Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator cooperate in the mitochondrial control of apoptosis". Science. 281 (5385): 2027-31. ... 2 (3): 238-40. doi:10.4161/auto.2730. PMID 16874066. [permanent dead link] Weng C, Li Y, Xu D, Shi Y, Tang H (March 2005). " ... Bcl-2 family members share one or more of the four characteristic domains of homology entitled the Bcl-2 homology (BH) domains ... 2 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1038/71316. PMID 10620799. Zhang H, Nimmer P, Rosenberg SH, Ng SC, Joseph M (2002). "Development of a high- ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.575.750.500.200 - adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776.575.750.500.300 ... adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.580.210.175.325 - groes protein MeSH D12.776.580.210.180.325 - groel protein ... cofilin 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525.212.875 - destrin MeSH D12.776.220.525.246.500 - actin-related protein 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525. ... iron regulatory protein 2 MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.863 - electron transport complex i MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.863.500 ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.157.530.625.875.500.200 -- adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776. ... adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.157.530.750.100 -- aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator MeSH D12.776. ... nucleotide transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.625.875.500 -- mitochondrial adp, atp translocases MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... peptide elongation factor 2 MeSH D12.776.157.325.332.100 -- gtp-binding protein alpha subunits MeSH D12.776.157.325.332.100.100 ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) 2.B: Nonribosomally synthesized porters, such as The Nigericin (Nigericin) Family The ... such as rhodopsin The group translocators provide a special mechanism for the phosphorylation of sugars as they are transported ... 116 (2): 164-176. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.07109.x. PMC 3005101 . PMID 21073468. Scholze P, Nørregaard L, Singer EA, ... 2.A: Porters ( uniporters, symporters, antiporters), SLCs. Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) EAAT1 EAAT2 EAAT3 EAAT4 ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator-3 on the Y), SOX21 (known to cause baldness), AZF2 (azoospermia factor 2), BPY2 (basic protein ... RNA binding motif protein 2), and UTY (ubiquitously transcribed TPR gene on Y chromosome). USP9Y AMELY Genetic linkage Sex ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.235.200 -- adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776. ... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.625.875.500.200 -- adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776. ... adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.543.585.750.100 -- aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator MeSH D12.776. ... adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.276 -- potassium-hydrogen antiporters MeSH D12.776.543.585. ...
... 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adenine Nucleotide ... Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocator, exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix and ... "Role of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in mtDNA maintenance". Science. 289 (5480): 782-785. doi:10.1126/science.289.5480.782 ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
"Role of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 in mtDNA Maintenance". Science. 289 (5480): 782-785. doi:10.1126/science.289.5480.782 ... Pressman BC (June 1958). "Intramitochondrial nucleotides. I. Some factors affecting net interconversions of adenine nucleotides ... Bruni A, Luciani S, Contessa AR (March 1964). "Inhibition by atractyloside of the binding of adenine-nucleotides to rat-liver ... In 1955, Siekevitz and Potter demonstrated that adenine nucleotides were distributed in cells in two pools located in the ...
"Entrez Gene: SLC25A31 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 31". Gallerne C ... "Computational analysis of the transcriptional regulation of the adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 4 gene and its role in ... "The fourth isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator inhibits mitochondrial apoptosis in cancer cells". The International ... Chevrollier A, Loiseau D, Reynier P, Stepien G (Jun 2011). "Adenine nucleotide translocase 2 is a key mitochondrial protein in ...
... the inner membrane protein adenine nucleotide translocator (AdNT) and the matrix protein cyclophilin D (CyD) (12). This pore ... It has also been shown that the nucleotide dATP as third component binds to apaf-1, however its exact role is still debated. ... A short linker and nucleotide binding a/b domains (NBD) that contain conserved Walker boxes A (p-loop 155-161) and B (239-243) ... Another model proposes that Apaf-1 is organized in an extended fashion such that both the N-terminal CARD and the nucleotide ...
... thiols in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore component adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). Overexpression of ... "Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense enzymes and susceptibility to breast cancer". Cancer Research. ... 66 (2): 1225-33. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1857. PMID 16424062. Collins JE, Wright CL, Edwards CA, Davis MP, Grinham JA, ... Wen S, Lu W, Zhu H, Yang W, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Islam A, Finnell RH (Feb 2009). "Genetic polymorphisms in the thioredoxin 2 ( ...
Jang JY, Lee CE (2003). "Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator 3 is regulated by IL-4 and IFN-gamma via STAT-dependent ... Adenine nucleotide translocator Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000169100 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human ... 2001). "A novel missense adenine nucleotide translocator-1 gene mutation in a Greek adPEO family". Neurology. 57 (12): 2295-8. ... 2002). "A novel D104G mutation in the adenine nucleotide translocator 1 gene in autosomal dominant progressive external ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator. *Adenosine deaminase. *Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. *Adenylosuccinate synthase. *AdoMet ...
UCP1 is related to other mitochondrial metabolite transporters such as the adenine nucleotide translocator, a proton channel in ... UCP1 is activated in the brown fat cell by fatty acids and inhibited by nucleotides. Fatty acids cause the following signaling ... overriding the inhibition caused by purine nucleotides (GDP and ADP). During the termination of thermogenesis, thermogenin is ... 1 (2): 61-72. doi:10.1046/j.1467-789x.2000.00009.x. PMID 12119988. Cassard AM, Bouillaud F, Mattei MG, Hentz E, Raimbault S, ...
SLC25A25 adenine nucleotide - SLC25A4, SLC25A5, SLC25A6, SLC25A31 dicarboxylate - SLC25A10 oxoglutarate - SLC25A11 glutamate - ... "Site-directed mutagenesis of the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocator. Six arginines and one lysine are essential". Journal ... nucleotides, amino acids, keto acids and cofactors across the membrane. Such proteins include: ADP/ATP carrier protein (ADP-ATP ... nucleotides, inorganic ions and co-factors through the mitochondrial inner membrane. The transporters consist of six ...
Further hypothesis by Halestrap´s group convincingly suggested the MPT was formed by the inner membrane Adenine Nucleotide ... "The ADP/ATP translocator is not essential for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore". Nature. 427 (6973): 461-465. doi ... "The nature of the calcium ion efflux induced in rat liver mitochondria by the oxidation of endogenous nicotinamide nucleotides ... "Regulation of the Inner Membrane Mitochondrial Permeability Transition by the Outer Membrane Translocator Protein (Peripheral ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1. Subscribe to New Research on Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 ... ANT-1 Transport Protein; ANT1 Transport Protein; Adenine Nucleotide Carrier Protein; Adenine Nucleotide Translocator, Muscle ... Nucleotide Transport Proteins*ATP Translocases Mitochondrial ADP: 95*Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: 14 ...
Antonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator. 1 synonym for adenine: A. What are synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator? ... Synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator in Free Thesaurus. ... Related to Adenine nucleotide translocator: adenine nucleotide ... Adenine nucleotide translocator synonyms, Adenine nucleotide translocator antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com https://www. ... adenine. (redirected from Adenine nucleotide translocator). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, ...
Stepien G, Torroni A, Chung AB, Hodge JA, Wallace DC: Differential expression of adenine nucleotide translocator isoforms in ... Adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2), one of the four adenine nucleotide translocase isoforms expressed in humans, is ... Adenine nucleotide translocase, a protein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, catalyzes the exchange of mitochondrial ... Jang JY, Jeon YK, Kim CW: Suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 by vector-based siRNA in human breast cancer cells ...
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody validated for WB, IP and tested in Human. With 2 independent ... Immunoprecipitation of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 transfected lysate using ab118125 and Protein A Magnetic Bead, and ... Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody. See all Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 primary antibodies. ... Recombinant full length protein, corresponding to amino acids 1-298 of Human Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 (NP_001143.2). ...
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Human. Independently ... All lanes : Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab221956) at 1/100 dilution. Lane 1 : RT-4 cell lysate. Lane ... Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. See all Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 primary antibodies. ... This product Rabbit Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab221956) IHC-P, WB ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator 2; Short=ANT 2; AltName: Full=Petite colonies protein 9. gi,584738,sp,P18239.2,ADT2_YEAST ... Adenine nucleotide translocator 2; Short=ANT 2; AltName: Full=Petite colonies protein 9. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: P18239.2 ... Misfolding of mutant adenine nucleotide translocase in yeast supports a novel mechanism of Ant1-induced muscle diseases. [Mol ... Misfolding of mutant adenine nucleotide translocase in yeast supports a novel mechanism of Ant1-induced muscle diseases.. Liu Y ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adenine Nucleotide ... Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocator, exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix and ... "Role of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in mtDNA maintenance". Science. 289 (5480): 782-785. doi:10.1126/science.289.5480.782 ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator synonyms, Adenine nucleotide translocator pronunciation, Adenine nucleotide translocator ... English dictionary definition of Adenine nucleotide translocator. n. Abbr. A A purine base, C5H5N5, that is the constituent ... Related to Adenine nucleotide translocator: adenine nucleotide translocator 2. ad·e·nine. (ăd′n-ēn′, -ĭn). n. Abbr. A. A purine ... Adenine nucleotide translocator - definition of Adenine nucleotide translocator by The Free Dictionary https://www. ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (IPR002113). Homologous superfamilies. * Homologous superfamily. 1 50 100 150 200 250 298 ...
ANT, adenine nucleotide translocator; BSA, bovine serum albumin; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; TUNEL, terminal ... Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator cooperate in the mitochondrial control of apoptosis. Science 281: 2027 -2031, 1998. ... the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) (15). ANT catalyses the exchange of ADP and ATP across the inner mitochondrial ... palmitic acid but not palmitoleic acid decreased the expression of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator and ...
Ku DH, Kagan J, Chen ST, Chang CD, Baserga R, Wurzel J (Sep 1990). "The human fibroblast adenine nucleotide translocator gene. ... The product of this gene, adenine nucleotide translocator 2 (ANT2), functions as a major constituent of the mitochondrial ... Solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 is a protein that in humans is ... adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5". Retrieved 2013-09-18. Chevrollier A, Loiseau D, Reynier P, Stepien G (Jun 2011). " ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator), Member 6 Pseudogene 3 * Solute Carrier Family 25 (Mitochondrial Carrier; Adenine Nucleotide ... Solute Carrier Family 25 (Mitochondrial Carrier; Adenine Nucleotide Translocator), Member 6, Pseudogene 1 2 3 ... The GeneCards human gene database index: 1 2 3 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 Antibody. NBP2-57642. Rabbit Polyclonal Species Human. Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 Antibody. NBP2-57642. Rabbit Polyclonal Species Human. Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P ...
adenine nucleotide translocator. COX. Cytc oxidase. CPX. Cyt c peroxidase. DPH. 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. mtPOX. ... Fatty Acid Composition, Cytochrome c Oxidase, and Adenine Nucleotide Translocase Activities Aurelio De Santis, Pierangelo Landi ... Fatty Acid Composition, Cytochrome c Oxidase, and Adenine Nucleotide Translocase Activities Aurelio De Santis, Pierangelo Landi ... 1994) Effect of aging and acetyl-l-carnitine on the activity of cytochrome oxidase and adenine nucleotide translocase in rat ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator 3; adenine nucleotide translocator 3 (liver); ADP,ATP carrier protein 3; ADP,ATP carrier ... adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6; Solute carrier family 25 member 6; solute carrier family 25, member A6 ... translation protein targeting to mitochondrion apoptotic process adenine transport ADP transport ATP transport active induction ... structural constituent of ribosome ATP:ADP antiporter activity protein binding adenine transmembrane transporter activity ...
Deficiency in the mouse mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 2 gene is associated with cardiac noncompaction. ... myopathy and cardiomyopathy resulting from a deficiency in the heart/muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator. ... The ADP/ATP translocator is not essential for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. ... Diet-induced obesity in two C57BL/6 substrains with intact or mutant nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) gene. ...
Deficiency in the mouse mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 2 gene is associated with cardiac noncompaction. ...
Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator cooperate in the mitochondrial control of apoptosis. Science (1998) 281:2027-31. doi: ... ANT, adenine nucleotide translocator; Bax, Bcl-2-associated protein X; Bak, Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer; Bcl-2, B-cell ... the adenine nucleotide translocator ANT-2 is upregulated in renal tumors and transformed hepatocytes (78). This upregulation, ... Modulation of F0F1-ATP synthase activity by cyclophilin D regulates matrix adenine nucleotide levels. FEBS J (2011) 278:1112-25 ...
... translocator explanation free. What is translocator? Meaning of translocator medical term. What does translocator mean? ... Looking for online definition of translocator in the Medical Dictionary? ... 38] proposed the participation of the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT) in the mitochondria as a new mechanism of ... Vpr protein interacts with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT, a component of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP ...
Abbreviations: ANT, adenine nucleotide translocator; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; MCS, mitochondrial contact site; MIM, ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator, and cyclophilin D (9).. Among the components of the PTP complex, the role of PBR has not been ... 2b). Only a few cells still had a granular appearance by MitoTracker Red staining (Fig. 2b), and Bax staining had a ... 2. Bax is translocated to mitochondria after HA14-1 treatment. a, HL60 cells were fractionated before and 2 h after treatment ... The Bcl-2 family apoptotic regulators are the key players in the regulation of apoptosis (1, 2). The overexpression of the Bcl- ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator 3 , solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator), Member 5 ELISA Kits * Solute Carrier Family 25 (Mitochondrial Carrier, Adenine Nucleotide ... Solute Carrier Family 25 (Mitochondrial Carrier, Adenine Nucleotide Translocator), Member 6 (SLC25A6) ELISA Kits. SLC25A6 is a ... ADP/ATP translocase 3 , solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6 , S- ...
Molecular biologic Changes of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator in J-2-N Cardiomyopathic Hamsters ... Differential Regulation of Calmodulin-Dependent Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Isozymes Rajendra K. Sharma, Jawahar Kalra ... Altered Myocardial Neurotransmitter and 1,2-Diacylglycerol Concentrations in Right Ventricular Hypertrophy and Failure in Rats ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator mediates the mitochondrial membrane permeabilization induced by lonidamine, arsenite and CD437 ... This compound is a ligand of adenine nucleotide translocator, also located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Bongkrekic acid ... Control of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by adenine nucleotide translocator interacting with HIV-1 viral protein R ... Several adenine nucleotide translocator ligands have been found to induce direct mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. These ...
  • On 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 weeks post injection, frequencies of splenic Tfh cells were determined by flow cytometric analysis, productions of IL-21 and anti-adenine nucleotide translocator(ANT) autoantibody were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anti-β1-adrenergic receptor autoantibodies, anti-adenine nucleotide translocator(ANT) autoantibodies and anti-cardiac myosin autoantibodies were common seen in VMC and DCM patients, suggesting the existence of abnormal humoral autoimmune responses in VMC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunoprecipitation of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 transfected lysate using ab118125 and Protein A Magnetic Bead, and immunoblotted with an Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 mouse polyclonal antibody. (abcam.com)
  • Western Blot analysis of SLC25A13 expression in transfected 293T cell line by SLC25A13 monoclonal antibody (M01), clone 4F4.Lane 1: SLC25A13 transfected lysate(74.2 KDa).Lane 2: Non-transfected lysate. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Here we show that Bak changes conformation before activated T cells die, as detected by an antibody specific for a peptide near the NH 2 terminus of Bak, but Bax does not change its shape markedly until after the cells are dead, as detected by an antibody specific for a peptide near the NH 2 terminus of Bax. (rupress.org)
  • Earlier observations made by various laboratories indicating that nitric oxide (NO) at physiological concentrations modulates respiration through the reversible inhibition of the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome C oxidase, in competition with O 2 , 5-7 gave rise to the hypothesis that NO may have an important function in the regulation of such mechanisms. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cytochrome C oxidase is situated on the inner membrane of the mitochondrion, where it catalyzes the oxidation of cytochrome C and the reduction of O 2 to water in a process linked to the pumping of protons out of the mitochondrial matrix. (ahajournals.org)
  • We propose to call this the `Bcl-2 regulated pathway', because the Bcl-2 family of proteins are critical regulators of this process ( Adams and Cory, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • Adenine nucleotide translocators (ANTs) are mitochondrial carrier proteins that exchange ATP and ADP between the cytoplasm and the mitochondrial matrix. (ptglab.com)
  • In search of the binding partners that mediate the diverse and sometimes opposing functions of CHL1, the extracellular matrix-associated proteins vitronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) were identified as novel CHL1 interaction partners and tested for involvement in CHL1-dependent functions during mouse cerebellar development. (jneurosci.org)
  • CHL1 colocalized with vitronectin, PAI-2, and several integrins in cerebellar granule cells, suggesting an association among these proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • The Bcl-2 family of proteins is a major cell death regulator and is implicated in determining the survival or death of neurons under physiological as well as pathological conditions. (springer.com)
  • Genetic and biochemical studies have shown that import of substrates into peroxisomes for β-oxidation is mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins belonging to subfamily D [ 2 - 5 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Baker's yeast has a single heterodimeric peroxisomal ABC transporter, Pxa1p/Pxa2p ( Figure 1 A), required for utilization of fatty acids [ 7 , 8 ] and the pxa1/2Δ mutant has proved to be a useful tool for expression and analysis of ABCD proteins from other organisms [ 9 - 12 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument proteins VP1/2 and UL37 are associated with intranuclear capsids. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • It is by now well known that the death of many types of cells under many circumstances involves members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins ( 1 - 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • Other Bcl-2-related proteins, called "messengers," are thought to monitor the status of various parts of the cell and deliver the signal to the cell to die. (rupress.org)
  • A third subcategory of Bcl-2-related proteins is thought to execute cell death, hence the name of this family, "executioners. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, Bak and Bax change their shape during cell death ( 7 - 10 ), as detected by antibodies against peptides near the NH 2 terminus (Nter) of the proteins. (rupress.org)
  • It directs molecular biologists to clone tissue- and organ-specific genes to determine the molecular basis of organ-associated symptoms and guides the molecular pharmacologist to look for chemicals that bind to tissue-specific proteins in hopes of treating organ-associated symptoms (Figure 2, upper left hand quadrant). (chop.edu)
  • The CGA approach may be limited because of probe selection in the Affymetrix Styl array.Among 498 SNPs associated with candidate genes, only 9 were located within exons {CYPJA2, ARNT2 (aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2), EPHX1 [epoxide hydrolase 1, microsomal (xenobiotic)], EPHX2, CYP26B1, GSTM3 (glutathione S-transferase mu 3 (brain)], and CYP4B11 and 87 were located within introns. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most TCDD effects are mediated by its binding to the awl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), leading to AhR nuclear translocation, heterodimerization with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), and binding to xenobiotic responsive elements present in the promoters of target genes (Barouki et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We have developed a porcine skeletal muscle cDNA microarray and have identified a number of candidate genes that could be involved in muscle phenotype determination, including several members of the casein kinase 2 signalling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These genes were found to be predominantly up-regulated in the early phase (2-6 h) of the stress response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HA14-1 is a small molecular compound that was identified based on the structure of Bcl-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The more direct approach is to use small molecular compounds to block Bcl-2 function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent improvements in survival of some malignancies owe much to advances in uncovering aberrantly active molecular pathways, against which molecularly targeted agents have been developed as new strategies to control cancers ( 1 , 2 ). (mcponline.org)
  • 1 Center for Cardiovascular Research and 2 Department of Medicine, 3 Department of Molecular Biology & Pharmacology, and 4 Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA. (jci.org)
  • The Center for Molecular Medicine (CMM) at Emory University and its progeny, the Center for Molecular and Mitochondrial Medicine and Genetics (MAMMAG) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI), were founded on the premise that the fault lies in the prevailing paradigms that guide today's biomedical research and medical practice (Figure 2). (chop.edu)
  • Because the insulin resistance of skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes and obesity entails dysregulation of the oxidation of both carbohydrate and lipid fuels, the current study was undertaken to examine the potential contribution of perturbation of mitochondrial function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Vastus lateralis muscle was obtained by percutaneous biopsy during fasting conditions from lean ( n = 10) and obese ( n = 10) nondiabetic volunteers and from volunteers with type 2 diabetes ( n = 10). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Metabolism of both glucose and fatty acids by skeletal muscle is impaired in type 2 diabetes ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A reduction in the activity of marker enzymes of oxidative pathways has been observed in skeletal muscle obtained from individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes and correlates with the severity of insulin-resistant glucose metabolism ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although fibroblasts or lymphocytes can be used for measurement of MEGS capacity, a muscle biopsy is preferred because a deficiency in muscle tissue is not always seen in other cell types (2). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 2,3 The metabolic actions of insulin maintain glucose homeostasis by promoting glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and suppressing glucose production in the liver. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2,4 Studies from our group have shown that increased tissue expression of angiotensin II via stimulation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT 1 R) can cause mitochondrial morphological and functional abnormalities in skeletal muscle, and liver ( Figure 1 ) as well as cardiovascular tissue ( Figure 2 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • A PAI-2-derived peptide, or antibodies against PAI-2, urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor, and several integrins reduced cell migration. (jneurosci.org)
  • The specific activity of rotenone-sensitive NADH:O 2 oxidoreductase, representing the overall activity of the mitochondrial electron-transport chain, was measured. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1,2 The desminopathies are characterized by accumulations of electron-dense granulofilamentous aggregates in the skeletal and cardiac myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Electrons (e − ) from carbon oxidations are transferred via NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) into OXPHOS complex I, which is embedded in the lipid bilayer of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IMM), then transported to coenzyme Q (Q). Some electrons from organic‐acid oxidations are transferred, via other flavin‐containing enzyme complexes directly to CoQ. (els.net)
  • 2-5) In normal cells, CL is predominantly localized in the inner membrane and contact sites. (cdc.gov)
  • It plays a very important role in the assembly and maintenance of functionally active respiratory complexes (I, III and IV and F0/F1-ATPase) in the mitochondrial membrane and in normal operation of other mitochondrial multicomponent machines such as adenine nucleotide translocator, as well as tricarboxylate, pyruvate and phosphate carriers. (cdc.gov)
  • Bcl2L13 binds to proapoptotic ceramide synthases 2 ( CerS2 (zeige CERS2 Antikörper )) and 6 ( CerS6 (zeige CERS6 Antikörper )) via a unique C-terminal 250-aa sequence located between its Bcl-2 (zeige BCL2 Antikörper ) homology and membrane anchor domains and blocks homo- and heteromeric CerS2 (zeige CERS2 Antikörper )/6 complex formation and activity. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Oxidation of pyruvate or fatty acids yields acetyl-CoA, which is oxidized in the TCA cycle, yielding NADH and FAD[H.sub.2], which in turn are oxidized by the respiratory chain (RC) and complex V to yield ATP (2). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Rats were killed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of experiment and blood and tissue samples were taken from all groups for the determination of tumour markers expression alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), M 2 -pyruvate kinase (M 2 -PK) and specific antigen for oval cells (OV-6). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other liver tumour markers of interest are pyruvate kinase isoenzymes M 2 -PK, transforming growth factor - β (TGF-β), and specific antigen for oval cells, OV-6. (biomedcentral.com)
  • M 2 -PK is highly expressed in oval cells, the precursor of liver tumour and it catalyzes the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate [ 20 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oxygen consumption was determined in the presence of 2 mM NADH (▪) as in A (trace c) and cytochrome c (15 μM) oxidation (○) was spectrofluorometrically measured, as described (reference 34). (nih.gov)
  • An impaired mitochondrial capacity for fat oxidation during fasting conditions, as noted in obesity and type 2 diabetes ( 7 ), could lead to insulin-resistant glucose metabolism through the accumulation of lipid intermediates ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Lack of UCP2 increased the sensitivity of dopamine neurons to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), whereas UCP2 overexpression decreased MPTP-induced nigral dopamine cell loss. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although Pxa1/2p has been proposed to transport acyl-CoAs of different chain lengths [ 8 , 13 ], medium chain free (non-esterified) fatty acids are also imported into yeast peroxisomes via a parallel, ABC-independent route which requires the peroxisomal acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), Faa2p and the adenine nucleotide translocator, Ant1p [ 8 , 14 , 15 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Upon ligand binding, the AHR translocates to the nucleus, where it complexes with the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As a member of the PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domain family of transcriptional regulators, ligand-activated AhR translocates to the nucleus and heterodimerizes with AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT), leading to toxic responses (Bock 1994). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Insulin resistance is characteristic of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and components of the cardiometabolic syndrome, including hypertension and dyslipidemia, that collectively contribute to a substantial risk for cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • The metabolic syndrome represents a cluster of abnormalities, including obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and Type 2 diabetes, that increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease and heart failure. (clinsci.org)
  • Recent findings suggest that myocardial mitochondrial dysfunction may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiac contractile dysfunction in obesity, insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. (clinsci.org)