A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.
A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in the LIVER.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).

Repression of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene in growth-arrested human diploid cells: the role of nuclear factor-1. (1/25)

Adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2) catalyzes the exchange of ATP for ADP across the mitochondrial membrane, thus playing an important role in maintaining the cytosolic phosphorylation potential required for cell growth. Expression of ANT2 is activated by growth stimulation of quiescent cells and is down-regulated when cells become growth-arrested. In this study, we address the mechanism of growth arrest repression. Using a combination of transfection, in vivo dimethyl sulfate mapping, and in vitro DNase I mapping experiments, we identified two protein-binding elements (Go-1 and Go-2) that are responsible for growth arrest of ANT2 expression in human diploid fibroblasts. Proteins that bound the Go elements were purified and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry as members of the NF1 family of transcription factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NF1 was bound to both Go-1 and Go-2 in quiescent human diploid cells in vivo, but not in the same cells stimulated to growth by serum. NF1 binding correlated with the disappearance of ANT2 transcripts in quiescent cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NF1-A, -C, and -X in NIH3T3 cells repressed expression of an ANT2-driven reporter gene construct. Two additional putative repressor elements in the ANT2 promoter, an Sp1 element juxtaposed to the transcription start site and a silencer centered at nucleotide -332, did not appear to contribute to growth arrest repression. Thus, enhanced binding of NF1 is a key step in the growth arrest repression of ANT2 transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing a role for NF1 in growth arrest.  (+info)

The ADP/ATP translocator is not essential for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. (2/25)

A sudden increase in permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, the so-called mitochondrial permeability transition, is a common feature of apoptosis and is mediated by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP). It is thought that the mtPTP is a protein complex formed by the voltage-dependent anion channel, members of the pro- and anti-apoptotic BAX-BCL2 protein family, cyclophilin D, and the adenine nucleotide (ADP/ATP) translocators (ANTs). The latter exchange mitochondrial ATP for cytosolic ADP and have been implicated in cell death. To investigate the role of the ANTs in the mtPTP, we genetically inactivated the two isoforms of ANT in mouse liver and analysed mtPTP activation in isolated mitochondria and the induction of cell death in hepatocytes. Mitochondria lacking ANT could still be induced to undergo permeability transition, resulting in release of cytochrome c. However, more Ca2+ than usual was required to activate the mtPTP, and the pore could no longer be regulated by ANT ligands. Moreover, hepatocytes without ANT remained competent to respond to various initiators of cell death. Therefore, ANTs are non-essential structural components of the mtPTP, although they do contribute to its regulation.  (+info)

Identification of NF1 as a silencer protein of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene. (3/25)

The human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2) promoter contains a silencer region that confers partial repression on the heterologous herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) promoter [Barath, P., Albert-Fournier, B., Luciakova, K., Nelson, B.D. (1999) J. Biol. Chem.274, 3378-3384]. Two sequences in the silencer (Site-2 and Site-3) are protected in the DNase I assay in vitro, and one of these is a repeated GTCCTG element previously shown to act as the active repressor element. We have now purified the DNA binding protein, and identified it using MALDI-TOF MS as a 33-kDa member of the nuclear factor 1 (NF1) family of transcription factors. NF1 purified from rat liver and HeLa cell nuclei bind to both silencer Site-2 and Site-3, resulting in a DNase I footprint identical to that obtained with purified recombinant NF1. Furthermore, transient transfection experiments with reporter constructs containing mutated silencer Site-2 and/or Site-3 show that both sites contribute to repression of the HSVtk promoter. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis reveals that NF1 is bound to both elements on the endogenous HeLa cell ANT2 promoter. Our data support the belief that NF1 acts as a repressor when bound to silencing Site-2 and Site-3 of the ANT2 gene.  (+info)

Recruitment of NF-kappaB into mitochondria is involved in adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1)-induced apoptosis. (4/25)

Overexpression of adenine nucleotide translocase-1 (ANT1) is known to induce apoptosis (Bauer, M. K., Schubert, A., Rocks, O., and Grimm, S. (1999) J. Cell Biol. 147, 1493-1501), but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study we show that ANT1 overexpression results in a recruitment of the IkappaBalpha-NF-kappaB complex into mitochondria, with a coincident decrease in nuclear NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. In this situation, NF-kappaB transcriptionally regulated genes with antiapoptotic activity, such as Bcl-XL, MnSOD2, and c-IAP2, are down-regulated, and consequently, cells are sensitized to apoptosis. Accordingly, co-expression of p65 partially interferes with the proapoptotic effect of ANT1 overexpression. Despite the high identity of the two isoforms, overexpression of ANT2 does not exert an apoptotic effect; this lack of apoptotic activity is correlated with the absence of mitochondrial IkappaBalpha-NF-kappaB recruitment or changes in NF-kappaB activity. Thus, we propose that the mitochondrial recruitment of NF-kappaB observed following ANT1 overexpression has an important role in ANT1 proapoptotic activity.  (+info)

Carboxyatractyloside effects on brown-fat mitochondria imply that the adenine nucleotide translocator isoforms ANT1 and ANT2 may be responsible for basal and fatty-acid-induced uncoupling respectively. (5/25)

In brown-fat mitochondria, fatty acids induce thermogenic uncoupling through activation of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). However, even in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-/- mice, fatty-acid-induced uncoupling exists. In the present investigation, we used the inhibitor CAtr (carboxyatractyloside) to examine the involvement of the ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) in the mediation of this UCP1-independent fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in brown-fat mitochondria. We found that the contribution of ANT to fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in UCP1-/- brown-fat mitochondria was minimal (whereas it was responsible for nearly half the fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in liver mitochondria). As compared with liver mitochondria, brown-fat mitochondria exhibit a relatively high (UCP1-independent) basal respiration ('proton leak'). Unexpectedly, a large fraction of this high basal respiration was sensitive to CAtr, whereas in liver mitochondria, basal respiration was CAtr-insensitive. Total ANT protein levels were similar in brown-fat mitochondria from wild-type mice and in liver mitochondria, but the level was increased in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-/- mice. However, in liver, only Ant2 mRNA was found, whereas in brown adipose tissue, Ant1 and Ant2 mRNA levels were equal. The data are therefore compatible with a tentative model in which the ANT2 isoform mediates fatty-acid-induced uncoupling, whereas the ANT1 isoform may mediate a significant part of the high basal proton leak in brown-fat mitochondria.  (+info)

Chemosensitization by knockdown of adenine nucleotide translocase-2. (6/25)

Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) is a rate-limiting step of apoptosis, including in anticancer chemotherapy. Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) mediates the exchange of ADP and ATP on the inner mitochondrial membrane in healthy cells. In addition, ANT can cooperate with Bax to form a lethal pore during apoptosis. Humans possess four distinct ANT isoforms, encoded by four genes, whose transcription depends on the cell type, developmental stage, cell proliferation, and hormone status. Here, we show that the ANT2 gene is up-regulated in several hormone-dependent cancers. Knockdown of ANT2 by RNA interference induced no major changes in the aspect of the mitochondrial network or cell cycle but provoked minor increase in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and reactive oxygen species level and reduced intracellular ATP concentration without affecting glycolysis. At expression and functional levels, ANT2 depletion was not compensated by other ANT isoforms. Most importantly, ANT2, but not ANT1, silencing facilitated MMP induction by lonidamine, a mitochondrion-targeted antitumor compound already used in clinical studies for breast, ovarian, glioma, and lung cancer as well as prostate adenoma. The combination of ANT2 knockdown with lonidamine induced apoptosis irrespective of the Bcl-2 status. These data identify ANT2 as an endogenous inhibitor of MMP and suggest that its selective inhibition could constitute a promising strategy of chemosensitization.  (+info)

Growth-dependent repression of human adenine nucleotide translocator-2 (ANT2) transcription: evidence for the participation of Smad and Sp family proteins in the NF1-dependent repressor complex. (7/25)

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Suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 by vector-based siRNA in human breast cancer cells induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. (8/25)

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The four known human ANT isoforms (ANT1, ANT2, ANT3, and ANT4) exhibit tissue-, cell-type-, and developmental stage-specific expression patterns [18]. ANT1 is strongly expressed in terminally differentiated cells; ANT2 is overexpressed in tissues that have high proliferative ability and in several cancer cell lines [16, 21]; and ANT3 is ubiquitously expressed in all tissues. Whereas ANT1 and ANT3 exert pro-apoptotic effects when overexpressed, ANT2, instead, has an anti-apoptotic function [20, 28]. We previously observed that ANT2 is overexpressed in the breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 but is absent from the non-neoplastic mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A [16]. Moreover, vector-based RNAi knockdown of ANT2 expression in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death; these events were accompanied by cellular energy (ATP) depletion, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, Bax induction, and Bcl-xL down-regulation [16]. TNF-α and TNF receptor I ...
In brown-fat mitochondria, fatty acids induce thermogenic uncoupling through activation of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). However, even in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1−/− mice, fatty-acid-induced uncoupling exists. In the present investigation, we used the inhibitor CAtr (carboxyatractyloside) to examine the involvement of the ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) in the mediation of this UCP1-independent fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in brown-fat mitochondria. We found that the contribution of ANT to fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in UCP1−/− brown-fat mitochondria was minimal (whereas it was responsible for nearly half the fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in liver mitochondria). As compared with liver mitochondria, brown-fat mitochondria exhibit a relatively high (UCP1-independent) basal respiration (proton leak). Unexpectedly, a large fraction of this high basal respiration was sensitive to CAtr, whereas in liver mitochondria, basal respiration was CAtr-insensitive. Total ANT protein ...
Zhang, Y.; Matsuyama, H.; Shiratsuchi, T.; Tian, D.; Hook, D. J.; Walters, M. A.; Georg, G. I.; Hawkinson, J. E.; Hamazaki, T.; Terada, N. Human Adenine Nucleotide Translocase (ANT) Modulators Identified by High-Throughput Screening of Transgenic Yeast. J Biomol Screen 2016.. Kurbanov, E. K.; Chiu, T.-L.; Solberg, J.; Francis, S.; Maize, K. M.; Fernandez, J.; Johnson, R. L.; Hawkinson, J. E.; Walters, M. A.; Finzel, B. C.; Amin, E. A. Probing the S2 Subsite of the Anthrax Toxin Lethal Factor Using Novel N-Alkylated Hydroxamates. J. Med. Chem. 2015, 58, 8723-8733.. Dahlin, J. L.; Nissink, J. W. M.; Strasser, J. M.; Francis, S.; Higgins, L.; Zhou, H.; Zhang, Z.; Walters, M. A. PAINS in the Assay: Chemical Mechanisms of Assay Interference and Promiscuous Enzymatic Inhibition Observed during a Sulfhydryl-Scavenging HTS. J. Med. Chem. 2015, 58, 2091-2113.. Dahlin, J. L.; Nissink, J. W. M.; Francis, S.; Strasser, J. M.; John, K.; Zhang, Z.; Walters, M. A. Post-HTS case report and structural alert: ...
Component of the cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly (CIA) complex, a multiprotein complex that mediates the incorporation of iron-sulfur cluster into extramitochondrial Fe/S proteins. As part of the mitotic spindle-associated MMXD complex it plays a role in chromosome segregation, probably by facilitating iron-sulfur cluster assembly into ERCC2/XPD.
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Synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator. 1 synonym for adenine: A. What are synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator?
The colorectal cancer (CRC) is one leading contributor of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The search for effective anti-CRC agents is valuable. In the current study, we showed that icaritin (ICT), an active natural ingredient from the Chinese plant Epimedium, potently inhibited proliferation and survival of established (HT-29, HCT-116, DLD-1, and SW-620) and primary (patient-derived) CRC cells. Significantly, ICT mainly induced necrosis, but not apoptosis, in CRC cells. The necrosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 attenuated ICT-mediated cytotoxicity in CRC cells. We showed that ICT treatment in CRC cells induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, which was evidenced by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decrease and mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator-1 (ANT-1)-cyclophilin-D (CyPD) association. On the other hand, mPTP blockers, including sanglifehrin A, cyclosporin A, and bongkrekic acid, as well as siRNA-mediated knockdown of mPTP component (CyPD or ANT-1), ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
Slc25a13 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 13 (Slc25a13), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 1, (10ug), 10 µg.
Slc25a4 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4 (cDNA clone, (10ug), 10 µg.
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody validated for WB, IP and tested in Human. With 2 independent reviews. Immunogen corresponding to…
Diabetes increases myocardial FA oxidation and MVO2, but underlying mechanisms are partially understood. We used perfused hearts, permeabilized fibers (fibers) and isolated mitochondria from diabetic db/db mice to assess mitochondrial (MITO) uncoupling and to elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. MITO uncoupling and reduced cardiac efficiency (CE) was absent in hearts perfused with glucose alone. However, in db/db hearts perfused with 1.0 mM Palmitate and 11mM glucose, RPP was reduced by 31% p, 0.02, MVO2 was increased by 45% p, 0.03, and CE reduced by 51% p,0.004. In fibers, state 3 respirations with palmitoyl carnitine were similar (16.4±1.3 and 16.7±1.5 nmol/min/mg), but ATP production rates were reduced by 36% in db/db fibers so that ATP/O ratios were 1.5±0.2 in db/db vs. 2.5±0.1 in controls (p,0.005), indicating FA-induced mitochondrial uncoupling. H2O2 production was also increased by 2.6 fold (p,0.001) in isolated db/db MITO exposed to the complex 1 substrate pyruvate. To ...
SLC25A31 antibody (solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 31) for ELISA, WB. Anti-SLC25A31 pAb (GTX87816) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Catalyzes the exchange of cytoplasmic ADP with mitochondrial ATP across the mitochondrial inner membrane. As part of the mitotic spindle-associated MMXD complex it may play a role in chromosome segregation.
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This report is the final of the Veterans and Agent Orange series, which was required by Public Law 102-4, The Agent Orange Act of 1991, and extended by Public Law 107-103. The Secretary of Veterans Affairs was directed to contract with the National ...
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Graham BH et al. (1997) A mouse model for mitochondrial myopathy and cardiomyopathy resulting from a deficiency in the heart/muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator.. [^] ...
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AIMS: In this study we investigated whether attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) could protect HepG2 cells from free fatty acid (FFA)-induced apoptosis. MAIN METHODS: Human liver cell line HepG2 cells were exposed to Sodium Palmitate (Pa) or Sodium Oleate (Ol). Apoptosis and ER stress of HepG2 cells were analyzed with flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR and Western Blotting. An expression plasmid encoding for the ER chaperone immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (Bip) was transfected into HepG2 cells to attenuate ER stress. Small interfering RNA siCHOP was used to knockdown the expression of C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP) in HepG2. KEY FINDINGS: Pa led to cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent pattern and also induced ER stress indicated by increased phosphorylation of eIF2alpha, upregulation of IRE1alpha and CHOP. Bip expression levels were slightly down regulated after Pa treatment. The unsaturated fatty acid, Ol, induced neither apoptosis nor ER stress in
Both cis and trans unsaturated fatty acids and sodium dodecyl sulfate activated NADPH oxidase in plasma membranes of human neutrophils in the presence of neutrophil cytosol. In contrast, 5,8,11,14-icosatetraynoic acid, saturated fatty acids, esters, peroxides and 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a potent activator of protein kinase C, were inactive. 5,8,11,14-icosatetraynoic acid inhibited superoxide formation elicited by fatty acids. Guanosine 5[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[gamma S]), a potent activator of guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (N-proteins) enhanced superoxide formation elicited by fatty acids up to fourfold, supporting our previous suggestion that NADPH oxidase is regulated by an N-protein [Seifert, R. et al. (1986) FEBS Lett. 205, 161-165]. Cytosols from various tissues, soybean lipoxygenase and protein kinase C, purified from chicken stomach, did not substitute neutrophil cytosol. The activity of neutrophil cytosol was destroyed by heating at 95 degrees C. Superoxide ...
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Our data show that gAcrp30 partially rescues beta cells from cytokine- and fatty-acid-induced apoptosis and completely restores autoimmune- and lipotoxicity-induced dysfunction of insulin-producing cells. We suggest that gAcrp30 exerts its anti-apoptotic function without modulating NF-kappaB activat …
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The HIV-1 encoded apoptogenic protein Vpr induces mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) via interactions with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). We have designed a peptide, TEAM-VP, composed of two functional domains, one a tumor blood v …
OXPHOS - this site is dedicated to mitochondria research. Theoretical and practical aspects, reagents, protocols, tools, funding agencies, databases, conferences, etc.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitroalkenes confer acute cardioprotection via adenine nucleotide translocase. AU - Nadtochiy, Sergiy M.. AU - Zhu, Qiuyu. AU - Urciuoli, William. AU - Rafikov, Ruslan. AU - Black, Stephen M.. AU - Brookes, Paul S.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2012/1/27. Y1 - 2012/1/27. N2 - Electrophilic nitrated lipids (nitroalkenes) are emerging as an important class of protective cardiovascular signaling molecules. Although species such as nitro-linoleate (LNO 2) and nitro-oleate can confer acute protection against cardiac ischemic injury, their mechanism of action is unclear. Mild uncoupling of mitochondria is known to be cardioprotective, and adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1) is a key mediator of mitochondrial uncoupling. ANT1 also contains redox-sensitive cysteines that may be targets for modification by nitroalkenes. Therefore, in this study we tested the hypothesis that nitroalkenes directly modify ANT1 and that nitroalkene-mediated ...
A computational model for the ATP-ADP steady-state exchange rate mediated by adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) versus mitochondrial membrane potential dependence in isolated rat liver mitochondria is presented. The model represents the system of three ordinary differential equations, and the basic components included are ANT,...
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"Control of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by adenine nucleotide translocator interacting with HIV-1 viral protein rR ... Nishikimi M, Ohta S, Suzuki H, Tanaka T, Kikkawa F, Tanaka M, Kagawa Y, Ozawa T (April 1988). "Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA ... 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Valnot I, Kassis J, Chretien D, de Lonlay P, Parfait B, ... 19 (2): 400-1. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1084. PMID 8188279. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano S ( ...
1982). "Quantification of the role of the adenine nucleotide translocator in the control of mitochondrial respiration in ... The first quantification of the controlling weight of adenine nucleotide transport in cellular bioenergetics. Quantification of ... 146 (2): 262-266. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(82)80931-9. PMID 6291990. Wojtczak, L.; et al. (1986). "Energy storage capacity of the ... 851 (2): 313-321. doi:10.1016/0005-2728(86)90138-6. PMID 3741850. Zabłocki, K.; et al. (2005). "Extracellular pH modifies ...
ROS increases uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and potentiate proton leakage through the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), the ... Nachman MW, Crowell SL (September 2000). "Estimate of the mutation rate per nucleotide in humans". Genetics. 156 (1): 297-304. ... Tumor cells require ample ATP to synthesize bioactive compounds such as lipids, proteins, and nucleotides for rapid ... The VDAC is the primary transporter of nucleotides, ions and metabolites between the cytosol and the intermembrane space. It is ...
... myopathy and cardiomyopathy resulting from a deficiency in the heart/muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator". ... MT-TT is a small 66 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 15888-15953) that transfers the amino acid threonine to a ... 2 (2): 121-7. doi:10.1007/s100480050063. PMID 10369889. Yoon KL, Aprille JR, Ernst SG (May 1991). "Mitochondrial tRNA(thr) ...
Kim JY, So KJ, Lee S, Park JH (Sep 2012). "Bcl-rambo induces apoptosis via interaction with the adenine nucleotide translocator ... Bcl-rambo mediates apoptosis by associating with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), a component of the mitochondrial ... Kataoka T, Holler N, Micheau O, Martinon F, Tinel A, Hofmann K, Tschopp J (Jun 2001). "Bcl-rambo, a novel Bcl-2 homologue that ... In addition to these domains, it has conserved B-cell lymphoma 2 homology motifs, as well as an extension at its c-terminal, ...
"Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator cooperate in the mitochondrial control of apoptosis". Science. 281 (5385): 2027-31. ... Bcl-2 family members share one or more of the four characteristic domains of homology entitled the Bcl-2 homology (BH) domains ... Apoptosis regulator BAX, also known as bcl-2-like protein 4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAX gene. BAX is a ... Bcl-2-associated X protein has been shown to interact with: Bcl-2, BCL2L1, BCL2A1 SH3GLB1, SLC25A4, VDAC1, TCTP, YWHAQ, Bid, ...
... but also to prevent mitochondria from straining glycolytic ATP reserves by maintaining the adenine nucleotide translocator in ' ... "Forward operation of adenine nucleotide translocase during F0F1-ATPase reversal: critical role of matrix substrate-level ... "Expression of two succinyl-CoA synthetases with different nucleotide specificities in mammalian tissues". The Journal of ... 2 molecules of NADH are also produced and can be used in oxidative phosphorylation to generate more ATP. ATP can be generated ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.575.750.500.200 - adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776.575.750.500.300 ... adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.580.210.175.325 - groes protein MeSH D12.776.580.210.180.325 - groel protein ... cofilin 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525.212.875 - destrin MeSH D12.776.220.525.246.500 - actin-related protein 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525. ... iron regulatory protein 2 MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.863 - electron transport complex i MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.863.500 ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.157.530.625.875.500.200 - adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530 ... 500.300 - adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.157.530.750.100 - aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator MeSH ... nucleotide transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.625.875.500 - mitochondrial adp, atp translocases MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... MeSH D12.776.157.057.030.124 - interferon regulatory factor-1 MeSH D12.776.157.057.030.249 - interferon regulatory factor-2 ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) 2.B: Nonribosomally synthesized porters, such as: The Nigericin family The Ionomycin ... such as rhodopsin The group translocators provide a special mechanism for the phosphorylation of sugars as they are transported ... 116 (2): 164-176. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.07109.x. PMC 3005101. PMID 21073468. Scholze P, Nørregaard L, Singer EA, ... 2.A: Porters (uniporters, symporters, antiporters), SLCs. Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) EAAT1 EAAT2 EAAT3 EAAT4 ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator-3 on the Y), AZF2 (azoospermia factor 2), BPY2 (basic protein on the Y chromosome), AZF1 ( ... RNA binding motif protein 2), and UTY (ubiquitously transcribed TPR gene on Y chromosome). USP9Y AMELY Genetic linkage Sex ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.235.200 - adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585 ... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.625.875.500.200 - adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585 ... 500.300 - adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.543.585.750.100 - aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator MeSH ... 235.300 - adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.276 - potassium-hydrogen antiporters MeSH D12.776. ...
Adenine+Nucleotide+Translocator+1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adenine+Nucleotide+ ... Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocase (ANT), ADP/ATP carrier protein (AAC) or ... Pressman BC (June 1958). "Intramitochondrial nucleotides. I. Some factors affecting net interconversions of adenine nucleotides ... Adenine+Nucleotide+Translocator+3 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e. ...
... the inner membrane protein adenine nucleotide translocator (AdNT) and the matrix protein cyclophilin D (CyD) (12). This pore ... It has also been shown that the nucleotide dATP as third component binds to apaf-1, however its exact role is still debated. ... A short linker and nucleotide binding a/b domains (NBD) that contain conserved Walker boxes A (p-loop 155-161) and B (239-243) ... Another model proposes that Apaf-1 is organized in an extended fashion such that both the N-terminal CARD and the nucleotide ...
... thiols in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore component adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). Overexpression of ... "Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense enzymes and susceptibility to breast cancer". Cancer Research. ... 66 (2): 1225-33. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1857. PMID 16424062. Collins JE, Wright CL, Edwards CA, Davis MP, Grinham JA, ... Wen S, Lu W, Zhu H, Yang W, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Islam A, Finnell RH (Feb 2009). "Genetic polymorphisms in the thioredoxin 2 ( ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator. *Adenosine deaminase. *Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. *Adenylosuccinate synthase. *AdoMet ...
UCP1 is very similar to the ATP/ADP Carrier protein, or Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT). The proposed alternating access ... UCP1 is related to other mitochondrial metabolite transporters such as the adenine nucleotide translocator, a proton channel in ... UCP1 is activated in the brown fat cell by fatty acids and inhibited by nucleotides. Fatty acids are released by the following ... overriding the inhibition caused by purine nucleotides (GDP and ADP). During the termination of thermogenesis, thermogenin is ...
... but also to prevent mitochondria from straining glycolytic ATP reserves by maintaining the adenine nucleotide translocator in ' ... "Forward operation of adenine nucleotide translocase during F0F1-ATPase reversal: critical role of matrix substrate-level ... This process utilizes the oxidation of NADH to NAD+, yielding 3 ATP, and of FADH2 to FAD, yielding 2 ATP. The potential energy ... Adenosine triphosphate is a major "energy currency" of the cell.[2] The high energy bonds between the phosphate groups can be ...
SLC25A25 adenine nucleotide - SLC25A4, SLC25A5, SLC25A6, SLC25A31 dicarboxylate - SLC25A10 oxoglutarate - SLC25A11 glutamate - ... "Site-directed mutagenesis of the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocator. Six arginines and one lysine are essential". Journal ... Mitochondrial carriers transport amino acids, keto acids, nucleotides, inorganic ions and co-factors through the mitochondrial ... nucleotides, amino acids, keto acids and cofactors across the membrane. Such proteins include: ADP/ATP carrier protein (ADP-ATP ...
Further hypothesis by Halestrap's group convincingly suggested the MPT was formed by the inner membrane Adenine Nucleotide ... "The ADP/ATP translocator is not essential for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore". Nature. 427 (6973): 461-465. doi ... "The nature of the calcium ion efflux induced in rat liver mitochondria by the oxidation of endogenous nicotinamide nucleotides ... "Regulation of the Inner Membrane Mitochondrial Permeability Transition by the Outer Membrane Translocator Protein (Peripheral ...
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody validated for WB, IP and tested in Human. With 2 independent ... Immunoprecipitation of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 transfected lysate using ab118125 and Protein A Magnetic Bead, and ... Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody. See all Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 primary antibodies. ... Recombinant full length protein, corresponding to amino acids 1-298 of Human Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 (NP_001143.2). ...
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Human. Independently ... All lanes : Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab221956) at 1/100 dilution. Lane 1 : RT-4 cell lysate. Lane ... Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. See all Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 primary antibodies. ... This product Rabbit Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab221956) IHC-P, WB ...
The mouse fetal and adult hearts express two adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) isoform genes. The predominant isoform is ... The mouse fetal and adult hearts express two adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) isoform genes. The predominant isoform is ... Deficiency in the mouse mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 2 gene is associated with cardiac noncompaction ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator 2; Short=ANT 2; AltName: Full=Petite colonies protein 9. gi,584738,sp,P18239.2,ADT2_YEAST ... Adenine nucleotide translocator 2; Short=ANT 2; AltName: Full=Petite colonies protein 9. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: P18239.2 ... Misfolding of mutant adenine nucleotide translocase in yeast supports a novel mechanism of Ant1-induced muscle diseases. [Mol ... Misfolding of mutant adenine nucleotide translocase in yeast supports a novel mechanism of Ant1-induced muscle diseases.. Liu Y ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator synonyms, Adenine nucleotide translocator pronunciation, Adenine nucleotide translocator ... English dictionary definition of Adenine nucleotide translocator. n. Abbr. A A purine base, C5H5N5, that is the constituent ... Related to Adenine nucleotide translocator: adenine nucleotide translocator 2. ad·e·nine. (ăd′n-ēn′, -ĭn). n. Abbr. A. A purine ... Adenine nucleotide translocator - definition of Adenine nucleotide translocator by The Free Dictionary https://www. ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (IPR002113). Homologous superfamilies. * Homologous superfamily. 1 50 100 150 200 250 298 ...
"The human fibroblast adenine nucleotide translocator gene. Molecular cloning and sequence.". Ku D.-H., Kagan J., Chen S.-T., ... "The human fibroblast adenine nucleotide translocator gene. Molecular cloning and sequence.". Ku D.-H., Kagan J., Chen S.-T., ... "The human fibroblast adenine nucleotide translocator gene. Molecular cloning and sequence.". Ku D.-H., Kagan J., Chen S.-T., ... adenine nucleotide transport Source: UniProtKBInferred from mutant phenotypei*. "Capsaicin binds to prohibitin 2 and displaces ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator 3. Short name: ANT 3. Solute carrier family 25 member 6 ... "Human FAM173A is a mitochondrial lysine-specific methyltransferase that targets adenine nucleotide translocase and affects ... "Human FAM173A is a mitochondrial lysine-specific methyltransferase that targets adenine nucleotide translocase and affects ... adeninenucleotide translocator), member 6 (SLC25A6), mRNA, RefSeq: NM_001636.1. MACFA ...
... intracristal space would inhibit export of ATP from the mitochondrial matrix by locking the adenine nucleotide translocator ( ... Following the discovery of adenine nucleotides, and their role in cellular energetics as a key link between spatially separated ... However, energy transfer by diffusional exchange of adenine nucleotides is kinetically and thermodynamically inefficient since ... was among the first to notice the analogy between the energy-carrying adenine nucleotide system and the electrical circuit. ...
ANT, adenine nucleotide translocator; BSA, bovine serum albumin; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; TUNEL, terminal ... Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator cooperate in the mitochondrial control of apoptosis. Science 281: 2027 -2031, 1998. ... the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) (15). ANT catalyses the exchange of ADP and ATP across the inner mitochondrial ... palmitic acid but not palmitoleic acid decreased the expression of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator and ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator), Member 6 Pseudogene 3 * Solute Carrier Family 25 (Mitochondrial Carrier; Adenine Nucleotide ... Solute Carrier Family 25 (Mitochondrial Carrier; Adenine Nucleotide Translocator), Member 6, Pseudogene 1 2 3 ... The GeneCards human gene database index: 1 2 3 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 Antibody. NBP2-57642. Rabbit Polyclonal Species Human. Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 Antibody. NBP2-57642. Rabbit Polyclonal Species Human. Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P ...
adenine nucleotide translocator. COX. Cytc oxidase. CPX. Cyt c peroxidase. DPH. 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. mtPOX. ... Fatty Acid Composition, Cytochrome c Oxidase, and Adenine Nucleotide Translocase Activities Aurelio De Santis, Pierangelo Landi ... Fatty Acid Composition, Cytochrome c Oxidase, and Adenine Nucleotide Translocase Activities Aurelio De Santis, Pierangelo Landi ... 1994) Effect of aging and acetyl-l-carnitine on the activity of cytochrome oxidase and adenine nucleotide translocase in rat ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator 3; adenine nucleotide translocator 3 (liver); ADP,ATP carrier protein 3; ADP,ATP carrier ... adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6; Solute carrier family 25 member 6; solute carrier family 25, member A6 ... translation protein targeting to mitochondrion apoptotic process adenine transport ADP transport ATP transport active induction ... structural constituent of ribosome ATP:ADP antiporter activity protein binding adenine transmembrane transporter activity ...
Deficiency in the mouse mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 2 gene is associated with cardiac noncompaction. ... myopathy and cardiomyopathy resulting from a deficiency in the heart/muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator. ... The ADP/ATP translocator is not essential for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. ... Diet-induced obesity in two C57BL/6 substrains with intact or mutant nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) gene. ...
... translocator explanation free. What is translocator? Meaning of translocator medical term. What does translocator mean? ... Looking for online definition of translocator in the Medical Dictionary? ... 38] proposed the participation of the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT) in the mitochondria as a new mechanism of ... Vpr protein interacts with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT, a component of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP ...
Deficiency in the mouse mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 2 gene is associated with cardiac noncompaction. ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator mediates the mitochondrial membrane permeabilization induced by lonidamine, arsenite and CD437 ... This compound is a ligand of adenine nucleotide translocator, also located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Bongkrekic acid ... Control of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by adenine nucleotide translocator interacting with HIV-1 viral protein R ... Several adenine nucleotide translocator ligands have been found to induce direct mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. These ...
Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator cooperate in the mitochondrial control of apoptosis. Science (1998) 281:2027-31. doi: ... ANT, adenine nucleotide translocator; Bax, Bcl-2-associated protein X; Bak, Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer; Bcl-2, B-cell ... the adenine nucleotide translocator ANT-2 is upregulated in renal tumors and transformed hepatocytes (78). This upregulation, ... Modulation of F0F1-ATP synthase activity by cyclophilin D regulates matrix adenine nucleotide levels. FEBS J (2011) 278:1112-25 ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1. Subscribe to New Research on Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 ... ANT-1 Transport Protein; ANT1 Transport Protein; Adenine Nucleotide Carrier Protein; Adenine Nucleotide Translocator, Muscle ... Nucleotide Transport Proteins*ATP Translocases Mitochondrial ADP: 95*Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: 14 ...
Abbreviations: ANT, adenine nucleotide translocator; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; MCS, mitochondrial contact site; MIM, ...
The human adenine nucleotide translocator sub-family is composed of four isoforms, namely ANT1-4, encoded by four nuclear genes ... The adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) is a mitochondrial bi-functional protein, which catalyzes the exchange of ADP and ATP ... The fourth isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator inhibits mitochondrial apoptosis in cancer cells. ... The fourth isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator inhibits mitochondrial apoptosis in cancer cells. International ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator, and cyclophilin D (9).. Among the components of the PTP complex, the role of PBR has not been ... 2b). Only a few cells still had a granular appearance by MitoTracker Red staining (Fig. 2b), and Bax staining had a ... 2. Bax is translocated to mitochondria after HA14-1 treatment. a, HL60 cells were fractionated before and 2 h after treatment ... The Bcl-2 family apoptotic regulators are the key players in the regulation of apoptosis (1, 2). The overexpression of the Bcl- ...
Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator cooperate in the mitochondrial control of apoptosis. Science 1998;281:2027-31. ... Belzacq AS, Vieira HL, Kroemer G, Brenner C. The adenine nucleotide translocator in apoptosis. Biochimie 2002;84:167-76. ... D, in mice bearing an MH134 tumor, 3-BrPA was given i.p. (5 mg/kg, daily for 5 d). 99mTc-HYNIC-Annexin V (50 μCi/2 μg/0.1 mL/ ... Figure 2. HK II inhibitor-induced compositional alterations of PTPC. A, Huh-BAT or MH134 cells were cultured in the presence of ...
Molecular biologic Changes of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator in J-2-N Cardiomyopathic Hamsters ... Differential Regulation of Calmodulin-Dependent Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Isozymes Rajendra K. Sharma, Jawahar Kalra ... Altered Myocardial Neurotransmitter and 1,2-Diacylglycerol Concentrations in Right Ventricular Hypertrophy and Failure in Rats ...
SLC25A5 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 [ Homo sapiens ]. ... SLC25A5; solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5; ANT2; ADP/ATP translocase ... Antigen standard for solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 (SLC25A5), ... ANT 2; ADP/ATP carrier protein; ADP,ATP carrier protein 2; solute carrier family 25 member 5; ADP,ATP carrier protein, ...
1995). Calcium indirectly increases the control exerted by the adenine nucleotide translocator over 2-oxoglutarate oxidation in ... adenine nucleotide translocase), and Cyp-D (cyclophilin D), however, deletion of each one of these proteins does not block the ... m can also modulate the adenine nucleotide transporter (Mildaziene et al., 1995) and the mitochondrial ATP synthase (complex V ... Glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibition slows mitochondrial adenine nucleotide transport and regulates voltage-dependent anion ...
Inhibition of adenine nucleotide translocator pore function and protection against apoptosis in vivo by an HIV protease ... 2001 Mar-Apr; 2(2):160-70. View PubMed. * Angel JB, Parato KG, Kumar A, Kravcik S, Badley AD, Fex C, Ashby D, Sun E, Cameron WD ... 2002; 13:71-2. * Hawley-Foss N, Mbisa G, Lum JJ, Pilon AA, Angel JB, Garber G, Badley AD. Effect of therapy cessation during a ... 2009; 4 (2):e4623 Epub 2009 Feb 27 View PubMed. * Bren GD, Trushin SA, Whitman J, Shepard B, Badley AD. HIV gp120 induces, NF- ...
  • Misfolding of mutant adenine nucleotide translocase in yeast supports a novel mechanism of Ant1-induced muscle diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocase (ANT), ADP/ATP carrier protein (AAC) or mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier, exchanges free ATP with free ADP across the inner mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATP and ADP are the only natural nucleotides recognized by the translocase. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADT1_HUMAN ADP,ATP carrier protein, heart/skeletal muscle isoform T1 (ADP/ATP translocase 1) (Adenine nucleotide translocator 1) (ANT 1) - Homo sapiens (Human). (tcdb.org)
  • Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) mediates the exchange of ADP and ATP on the inner mitochondrial membrane in healthy cells. (nih.gov)
  • PubMed ID 15063741) used bongkrekic acid to inhibit mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase 3 (ANT3)-mediated apoptosis in cultured cells. (scbt.com)
  • Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is a nuclear-encoded protein abundantly located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and the role of this protein is to catalyze the exchange of mitochondrial ATP with cytosolic ADP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We previously reported that the suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2) by short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) induces apoptosis of breast cancer cells, which frequently express high levels of ANT2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 weeks post injection, frequencies of splenic Tfh cells were determined by flow cytometric analysis, productions of IL-21 and anti-adenine nucleotide translocator(ANT) autoantibody were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anti-β1-adrenergic receptor autoantibodies, anti-adenine nucleotide translocator(ANT) autoantibodies and anti-cardiac myosin autoantibodies were common seen in VMC and DCM patients, suggesting the existence of abnormal humoral autoimmune responses in VMC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The researchers speculate that because the heart cells also produce ANT2, another form of the adenine nucleotide translocator protein, enough ATP gets out to prevent enlargement of the mitochondria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Additionally, palmitic acid but not palmitoleic acid decreased the expression of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator and induced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Transport is fully reversible, and its directionality is governed by the concentrations of its substrates (ADP and ATP inside and outside mitochondria), the chelators of the adenine nucleotides, and the mitochondrial membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main components of this pore are adenine nucleotide translocator and cyclophilin D in the inner membrane of the mitochondria, and voltage-dependent anion channel and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor in the outer mitochondrial membrane. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When Bcl-2 is inhibited by HA14-1, Bax translocated to the mitochondria. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vpr protein interacts with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT, a component of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP)) that is implicated in [Ca.sup.2+] influx into mitochondria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 38] proposed the participation of the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT) in the mitochondria as a new mechanism of protection against increased ROS production in aged skeletal muscle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The activity of rotenone-sensitive NADH:O 2 oxidoreductase, reflecting the overall activity of the respiratory chain, was measured in a mitochondrial fraction by a novel method based on providing access for NADH to intact mitochondria via alamethicin, a channel-forming antibiotic. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We conclude that there is an impaired bioenergetic capacity of skeletal muscle mitochondria in type 2 diabetes, with some impairment also present in obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Therefore, the current study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that skeletal muscle in obesity and type 2 diabetes has an impaired functional capacity of mitochondria. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It was shown that SkQ rapidly (1-2 h) and selectively accumulated in mitochondria and prevented oxidation of mitochondrial components under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. (springer.com)
  • When added to isolated mitochondria, TEAM-VP interacts with ANT and VDAC, reduces oxygen consumption and overcomes Bcl-2 protection to cause inner and outer MMP. (nih.gov)
  • Vpr52-96-induced matrix swelling and inner MMP both are prevented by preincubation of purified mitochondria with recombinant Bcl-2 protein. (nih.gov)
  • Tsujimoto, Y. Role of Bcl-2 family proteins in apoptosis: apoptosomes or mitochondria. (springer.com)
  • Shimizu, S., Shinohara, Y. and Tsujimoto, Y. Bax and Bcl-xL independently regulate apoptotic changes of yeast mitochondria that require VDAC but not adenine nucleotide translocator. (springer.com)
  • They play a central role in aging [ 2 ] and are subject to mitophagy, the pathway that mediates the selective elimination of dysfunctional or unwanted mitochondria and is critical to proper cellular functions [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • 4,12) Cyt c is an important contributor to redox reactions in the intermembrane space of mitochondria where it functions as (1) an electron shuttle between respiratory complexes III and IV and (2) a scavenger of superoxide anion radicals. (cdc.gov)
  • The roles of mitochondria in the generation of energy, 1 the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), 2 the regulation of calcium homeostasis, 3 and the orchestration of apoptosis 4 are all widely recognized. (ahajournals.org)
  • To gain insight into the role of the general transcription factor, Sp1, in the expression of nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, we investigated Sp1 activation of the adenine nucleotide translocator 2, cytochrome c1, F1-ATPase beta subunit, and the mitochondria transcription factor (mtTFA) promoters transfected into Drosophila cell lines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Apoptosis induced by these agents is inhibited by Bcl-2, suggesting the involvement of mitochondria in the death pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • Phosphoproteome analysis of isoflurane-protected heart mitochondria: phosphorylation of adenine nucleotide translocator-1 on Tyr194 regulates mitochondrial function. (uzh.ch)
  • The cell-permeable ceramide analog C 2 -ceramide mimicked both the palmitic acid-induced β-cell apoptosis and decrease in proliferation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Apoptosis regulator BAX, also known as bcl-2-like protein 4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAX gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bcl-2 family apoptotic regulators are the key players in the regulation of apoptosis ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is most interesting that the effect of PK11195 in facilitating apoptosis can partially reverse Bcl-2-mediated apoptosis inhibition ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prevention of lymphocyte apoptosis, same process by which these cell populations are regulat- through either genetic modification of the host or treatment ed during normal health ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 protein family are essential initiators of programmed cell death and are required for apoptosis induced by cytotoxic stimuli. (biologists.org)
  • Amongst the members of the Bcl-2 family, the BH3-only proteins have now been recognised as essential initiators of programmed cell death and stress-induced apoptosis ( Huang and Strasser, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • This review focuses on the `Bcl-2-regulated pathway', particularly on the role of the BH3-only proteins in the apoptosis signalling cascade. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, CpG selectively induced the antiapoptotic cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (c-IAP)-2 protein and inhibition of the c-IAP-2 gene by either specific small interfering RNA or synthetic second mitochondrial activator of caspases mimetic reversed CpG-induced resistance against Vpr(52-96)-mediated apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • The combination of ANT2 knockdown with lonidamine induced apoptosis irrespective of the Bcl-2 status. (nih.gov)
  • 8 Experimental support for this hypothesis comes from a number of studies showing that the interaction of NO with cytochrome C oxidase in different types of cells is associated with the resistance to apoptosis induced by various kinds of stressors, including growth factor deprivation, 9 treatment with staurosporine, 9,10 O 2 limitation, 10 or intracellular calcium overload. (ahajournals.org)
  • After receiving apoptotic signals, mitochondrial membrane permeability increases and the mediators such as cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factors are released to the cytoplasm, rapidly followed by the activations of caspase 9 and executive caspase 3 [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ANT2 shRNA treatment sensitized MCF7, T47 D, and BT474 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of TRAIL death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5) and down-regulating the TRAIL decoy receptor 2 (DcR2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunoprecipitation of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 transfected lysate using ab118125 and Protein A Magnetic Bead, and immunoblotted with an Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 mouse polyclonal antibody. (abcam.com)
  • Western Blot analysis of SLC25A13 expression in transfected 293T cell line by SLC25A13 monoclonal antibody (M01), clone 4F4.Lane 1: SLC25A13 transfected lysate(74.2 KDa).Lane 2: Non-transfected lysate. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Here we show that Bak changes conformation before activated T cells die, as detected by an antibody specific for a peptide near the NH 2 terminus of Bak, but Bax does not change its shape markedly until after the cells are dead, as detected by an antibody specific for a peptide near the NH 2 terminus of Bax. (rupress.org)
  • Recombinant full length protein, corresponding to amino acids 1-298 of Human Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 (NP_001143.2). (abcam.com)
  • The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. (nih.gov)
  • The BAX gene was the first identified pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because AHR associates with proteasomal complexes consisting of damaged-DNA-binding protein 1, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator , transducin-[beta]-like 3, and cullin 4B and itself possesses E3 ligase activity (Ohtake et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These include members of the Bcl-2 protein family, course, and extent of programmed cell death will aid man- which have both proapoptotic and antiapoptotic activity agement of patients with severe infections. (cdc.gov)
  • adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 (SLC25A5), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells transiently transfected with a TrueORF gene-carrying pCMV plasmid and then lysed in RIPA Buffer. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The predicted molecular weight of ANT1/2 protein is around 32 kDa. (ptglab.com)
  • While 60 kDa protein can also be observed, which has been proposed as the dimmer of ANT1/2. (ptglab.com)
  • The SURFE 2 R N1 works with reusable sensor chips on which the membranes containing the protein of interest are adsorbed. (nanion.de)
  • The HIV-1 encoded apoptogenic protein Vpr induces mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) via interactions with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). (nih.gov)
  • We show that genetic manipulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) directly affects substantia nigra dopamine cell function. (jneurosci.org)
  • Control of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by adenine nucleotide translocator interacting with HIV-1 viral protein rR and Bcl-2. (nih.gov)
  • Viral protein R (Vpr), an apoptogenic accessory protein encoded by HIV-1, induces mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) via a specific interaction with the permeability transition pore complex, which comprises the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in the outer membrane (OM) and the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) in the inner membrane. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrated that c-IAP-2 is regulated by the JNK and calcium signaling pathway, in particular calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II. (jimmunol.org)
  • It has been proposed that the appearance of a PCP-specific 77 K fluorescence emission band around 672-675 nm indicates that high light treatment results in PCP dissociation from intrinsic membrane antenna complexes, blocking excitation transfer to the intrinsic membrane-bound antenna complexes, chlorophyll a -chlorophyll c 2 -peridinin-protein-complex (acpPC) and associated photosystems (Reynolds et al. (chemweb.com)
  • This study showed that Bcl-2-like protein 13 (Bcl2-L-13 ) induces mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy in mammalian cells. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • This gene encodes a mitochondrially-localized protein with conserved B-cell lymphoma 2 homology motifs. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • NO, peroxynitrite and HNE also permeabilize proteoliposomes containing the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), one of the key components of the PTPC, yet have no or little effects on protein-free control liposomes. (elsevier.com)
  • ANT-dependent, NO-, peroxynitrite- or HNE-induced permeabilization is at least partially inhibited by recombinant Bcl-2 protein, as well as the antioxidants trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene. (elsevier.com)
  • Protein-protein interactions (PPI) are essential in every step of the HIV replication Koushik Chandra1,2, Michal cycle. (hmamedicalclinic.com)
  • Protein-protein interactions in the HHPID reports 15 essential HIV-1 pro- HIV-1 replication cycle teins [25,31,41-44] (Figures 1 & 2). (hmamedicalclinic.com)
  • A hydrophobic groove formed along the C-terminal of α2 to the N-terminal of α5, and some residues from α8, binds the BH3 domain of other BAX or BCL-2 proteins in its active form. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, it can become activated by binding BCL-2, as well as non-BCL-2 proteins such as p53 and Bif-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • We propose to call this the `Bcl-2 regulated pathway', because the Bcl-2 family of proteins are critical regulators of this process ( Adams and Cory, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • Adenine nucleotide translocators (ANTs) are mitochondrial carrier proteins that exchange ATP and ADP between the cytoplasm and the mitochondrial matrix. (ptglab.com)
  • In search of the binding partners that mediate the diverse and sometimes opposing functions of CHL1, the extracellular matrix-associated proteins vitronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) were identified as novel CHL1 interaction partners and tested for involvement in CHL1-dependent functions during mouse cerebellar development. (jneurosci.org)
  • CHL1 colocalized with vitronectin, PAI-2, and several integrins in cerebellar granule cells, suggesting an association among these proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Bcl2l2 encodes BCL-W, an antiapoptotic member of the BCL-2 family of proteins. (escholarship.org)
  • The Bcl-2 family of proteins is a major cell death regulator and is implicated in determining the survival or death of neurons under physiological as well as pathological conditions. (springer.com)
  • Shimizu, S., Narita, M. and Tsujimoto T, Y Bcl-2 family proteins regulate the release of apoptogenic cytochrome c by the mitochondrial channel VDAC. (springer.com)
  • Tsujimoto, Y. and Shimizu, S. VDAC regulation by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. (springer.com)
  • Genetic and biochemical studies have shown that import of substrates into peroxisomes for β-oxidation is mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins belonging to subfamily D [ 2 - 5 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Baker's yeast has a single heterodimeric peroxisomal ABC transporter, Pxa1p/Pxa2p ( Figure 1 A), required for utilization of fatty acids [ 7 , 8 ] and the pxa1/2Δ mutant has proved to be a useful tool for expression and analysis of ABCD proteins from other organisms [ 9 - 12 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument proteins VP1/2 and UL37 are associated with intranuclear capsids. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • It is by now well known that the death of many types of cells under many circumstances involves members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins ( 1 - 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • Other Bcl-2-related proteins, called "messengers," are thought to monitor the status of various parts of the cell and deliver the signal to the cell to die. (rupress.org)
  • A third subcategory of Bcl-2-related proteins is thought to execute cell death, hence the name of this family, "executioners. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, Bak and Bax change their shape during cell death ( 7 - 10 ), as detected by antibodies against peptides near the NH 2 terminus (Nter) of the proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Earlier observations made by various laboratories indicating that nitric oxide (NO) at physiological concentrations modulates respiration through the reversible inhibition of the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome C oxidase, in competition with O 2 , 5-7 gave rise to the hypothesis that NO may have an important function in the regulation of such mechanisms. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cytochrome C oxidase is situated on the inner membrane of the mitochondrion, where it catalyzes the oxidation of cytochrome C and the reduction of O 2 to water in a process linked to the pumping of protons out of the mitochondrial matrix. (ahajournals.org)
  • This PTP complex includes PBR, VDAC, adenine nucleotide translocator, and cyclophilin D ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast to König's polyanion (PA10), a specific inhibitor of the VDAC, Bcl-2 fails to prevent Vpr52-96 from crossing the mitochondrial OM. (nih.gov)
  • Deficiency in the mouse mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 2 gene is associated with cardiac noncompaction. (escholarship.org)
  • BAX is a member of the Bcl-2 gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Less commonly, mutations that change single nucleotides in genes found in mtDNA, such as the MT-TL1 gene, cause progressive external ophthalmoplegia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fan YS, Yang HM, Lin CC. Assignment of the human muscle adenine nucleotide translocator gene (ANT1) to4q35 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.Cytogenet Cell Genet. (tcdb.org)
  • The human muscle adenine nucleotide translocator gene (ANT1) was previously assigned to chromosome 4. (tcdb.org)
  • e) AP-2 enhances Sp1-dependent transactivation of the ANT2 promoter gene. (dissertations.se)
  • The mouse fetal and adult hearts express two adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) isoform genes. (escholarship.org)
  • The CGA approach may be limited because of probe selection in the Affymetrix Styl array.Among 498 SNPs associated with candidate genes, only 9 were located within exons {CYPJA2, ARNT2 (aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2), EPHX1 [epoxide hydrolase 1, microsomal (xenobiotic)], EPHX2, CYP26B1, GSTM3 (glutathione S-transferase mu 3 (brain)], and CYP4B11 and 87 were located within introns. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most TCDD effects are mediated by its binding to the awl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), leading to AhR nuclear translocation, heterodimerization with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), and binding to xenobiotic responsive elements present in the promoters of target genes (Barouki et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We have developed a porcine skeletal muscle cDNA microarray and have identified a number of candidate genes that could be involved in muscle phenotype determination, including several members of the casein kinase 2 signalling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These promoters are from the human cytochrome c1, the mitochondrial transcription factor, mtTFA, the F1-ATPase b-subunit, and the adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 2 (ANT2) genes. (dissertations.se)
  • Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) 2 is highly expressed in proliferative cells, and ANT2 induction in cancer cells is known to be directly associated with glycolytic metabolisms and carcinogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bcl-rambo is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 (zeige BCL2 Antikörper ) family, inducing the permeability transition via interaction with the adenine nucleotide translocator (zeige SLC25A4 Antikörper ) (ANT). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Activity of rotenone-sensitive NADH:O 2 oxidoreductase was normalized to creatine kinase activity, as was citrate synthase activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • HA14-1 is a small molecular compound that was identified based on the structure of Bcl-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The more direct approach is to use small molecular compounds to block Bcl-2 function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent improvements in survival of some malignancies owe much to advances in uncovering aberrantly active molecular pathways, against which molecularly targeted agents have been developed as new strategies to control cancers ( 1 , 2 ). (mcponline.org)
  • 1 Center for Cardiovascular Research and 2 Department of Medicine, 3 Department of Molecular Biology & Pharmacology, and 4 Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA. (jci.org)
  • ABC transporters have a core structure consisting of two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) and two transmembrane domains (TMDs). (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Electrons (e − ) from carbon oxidations are transferred via NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) into OXPHOS complex I, which is embedded in the lipid bilayer of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IMM), then transported to coenzyme Q (Q). Some electrons from organic‐acid oxidations are transferred, via other flavin‐containing enzyme complexes directly to CoQ. (els.net)
  • C57BL/6J mice (Mus musculus) have a mutant allele of nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) that can act as a modifier. (escholarship.org)
  • Loss of NNT decreases the concentration of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate within the mitochondrial matrix. (escholarship.org)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate is a cofactor for glutathione reductase, which regenerates reduced glutathione, an important antioxidant. (escholarship.org)
  • Prononciation de nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate à 1 prononciation audio, 2 synonymes, 1 sens, 7 traductions, et de plus pour nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. (losangelesorienteering.org)
  • Comment dire nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate Anglais? (losangelesorienteering.org)
  • Pronunciation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. (losangelesorienteering.org)
  • Health Details: Pronunciation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide with 2 audio pronunciations, 7 synonyms, 10 translations and more for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. (losangelesorienteering.org)
  • Hogyan kell mondani nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Angol? (losangelesorienteering.org)
  • How do you pronounce nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in English? (losangelesorienteering.org)
  • Pronunciation of Nicotinamide adenine with 1 audio pronunciation and more for Nicotinamide adenine. (losangelesorienteering.org)
  • In this study we tested the hypothesis that FOSAA and N-EtFOSAA interact with the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) resulting in a functional inhibition of the translocator and induction of the MPT. (uc.pt)
  • HA14-1 interacts with Bcl-2 and inhibits the antiapoptotic effect of Bcl-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group, involved in several important reactions in metabolism. (losangelesorienteering.org)
  • Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 transfected lysate. (abcam.com)
  • Lane 2: Non-transfected lysate. (abnova.com)
  • Because the insulin resistance of skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes and obesity entails dysregulation of the oxidation of both carbohydrate and lipid fuels, the current study was undertaken to examine the potential contribution of perturbation of mitochondrial function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Metabolism of both glucose and fatty acids by skeletal muscle is impaired in type 2 diabetes ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A reduction in the activity of marker enzymes of oxidative pathways has been observed in skeletal muscle obtained from individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes and correlates with the severity of insulin-resistant glucose metabolism ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Bongkrekic acid is a mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker that acts as an inhibitory ligand of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator. (scbt.com)
  • The last effect could be related to prevention of conformational change in the adenine nucleotide transporter, which depends on oxidation of critical thiols. (springer.com)
  • The specific activity of rotenone-sensitive NADH:O 2 oxidoreductase, representing the overall activity of the mitochondrial electron-transport chain, was measured. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • During ox-phos, electrons from reduced substrates are transferred to O 2 through a chain of respiratory electron transporters including the complex I, III, and IV H + pumps, which in turn generate a proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane. (bioscience.org)
  • 1,2 The desminopathies are characterized by accumulations of electron-dense granulofilamentous aggregates in the skeletal and cardiac myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Yeast ADP/ATP carrier isoform 2: conformational dynamics and role of the RRRMMM signature sequence methionines. (nih.gov)
  • Two residues of a conserved aromatic ladder of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier are crucial to nucleotide transport. (nih.gov)
  • Belongs to the mitochondrial carrier (TC 2.A.29) family. (mybiosource.com)
  • The overexpression of the Bcl-2 family is not only a poor prognostic indicator but is also related to chemotherapy resistance ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the activities of complexes I to V catalyzing oxidative phosphorylation and the pyruvate and the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes showed a 2- to 20-fold increase. (nature.com)
  • Because oxidative phosphorylation was not disturbed in fibroblasts and lymphocytes, we conclude that this patient suffers from a muscle-specific deficiency of his mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator, a defect unknown so far. (nature.com)
  • Oxidation of pyruvate or fatty acids yields acetyl-CoA, which is oxidized in the TCA cycle, yielding NADH and FAD[H.sub.2], which in turn are oxidized by the respiratory chain (RC) and complex V to yield ATP (2). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • It plays a very important role in the assembly and maintenance of functionally active respiratory complexes (I, III and IV and F0/F1-ATPase) in the mitochondrial membrane and in normal operation of other mitochondrial multicomponent machines such as adenine nucleotide translocator, as well as tricarboxylate, pyruvate and phosphate carriers. (cdc.gov)
  • Rats were killed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of experiment and blood and tissue samples were taken from all groups for the determination of tumour markers expression alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), M 2 -pyruvate kinase (M 2 -PK) and specific antigen for oval cells (OV-6). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other liver tumour markers of interest are pyruvate kinase isoenzymes M 2 -PK, transforming growth factor - β (TGF-β), and specific antigen for oval cells, OV-6. (biomedcentral.com)
  • M 2 -PK is highly expressed in oval cells, the precursor of liver tumour and it catalyzes the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate [ 20 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bcl2L13 binds to proapoptotic ceramide synthases 2 ( CerS2 (zeige CERS2 Antikörper )) and 6 ( CerS6 (zeige CERS6 Antikörper )) via a unique C-terminal 250-aa sequence located between its Bcl-2 (zeige BCL2 Antikörper ) homology and membrane anchor domains and blocks homo- and heteromeric CerS2 (zeige CERS2 Antikörper )/6 complex formation and activity. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Oxygen consumption was determined in the presence of 2 mM NADH (▪) as in A (trace c) and cytochrome c (15 μM) oxidation (○) was spectrofluorometrically measured, as described (reference 34). (nih.gov)
  • Adenine definition is - a purine base C5H5N5 that codes hereditary information in the genetic code in DNA and RNA. (losangelesorienteering.org)
  • Vastus lateralis muscle was obtained by percutaneous biopsy during fasting conditions from lean ( n = 10) and obese ( n = 10) nondiabetic volunteers and from volunteers with type 2 diabetes ( n = 10). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although fibroblasts or lymphocytes can be used for measurement of MEGS capacity, a muscle biopsy is preferred because a deficiency in muscle tissue is not always seen in other cell types (2). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • An impaired mitochondrial capacity for fat oxidation during fasting conditions, as noted in obesity and type 2 diabetes ( 7 ), could lead to insulin-resistant glucose metabolism through the accumulation of lipid intermediates ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Upon ligand binding, the AHR translocates to the nucleus, where it complexes with the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As a member of the PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domain family of transcriptional regulators, ligand-activated AhR translocates to the nucleus and heterodimerizes with AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT), leading to toxic responses (Bock 1994). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Taken together, our results suggest that CpG-induced protection may be mediated by c-IAP-2 through the calcium-activated JNK pathway via what appeared to be TLR9-independent signaling pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • Its caspases display regulation by nucleotides that is consistent with `applying the brakes' to cell death during energy limitation. (biologists.org)
  • The adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) transports ATP out of the mitochondrion. (thefreelibrary.com)