Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.Atractyloside: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.Bongkrekic Acid: An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.Adenine NucleotidesAdenine Nucleotide Translocator 3: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in the LIVER.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels: A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Cyclophilins: A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Guanine NucleotidesAdenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.

Induction of an unregulated channel by mutations in adenine nucleotide translocase suggests an explanation for human ophthalmoplegia. (1/69)

Adenine nucleotide translocase (Ant) is primarily involved in ATP/ADP exchange across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Recently, the A114P missense mutation in the human Ant1 protein was found to be associated with autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO). Ant1(A114P) was proposed to cause an imbalance of the mitochondrial deoxynucleotide pool that subsequently affects the accuracy of mtDNA replication, thereby leading to accumulation of mutant mtDNA. In the present study, it has been shown that the A128P mutation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Aac2 protein, equivalent to A114P in human Ant1p, does not always affect respiratory growth. However, expression of aac2(A128P) results in depolarization, structural swelling and disintegration of mitochondria, and ultimately an arrest of cell growth in a dominant-negative manner. The aac2(A128P) mutation likely induces an unregulated channel allowing free passage of solutes across the inner membrane. These data raise the possibility that the formation of an unregulated channel, rather than a defect in ATP/ADP exchange, is a direct pathogenic factor in human adPEO. The accumulation of mtDNA mutations might be a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction.  (+info)

Skeletal muscle mitochondrial free-fatty-acid content and membrane potential sensitivity in different thyroid states: involvement of uncoupling protein-3 and adenine nucleotide translocase. (2/69)

The effect of triiodothyronine (T3) on mitochondrial efficiency could be related to an increase in the concentrations of some proteins, such as uncoupling proteins (UCPs). Free fatty acids (FFA) seem to be a cofactor essential for the uncoupling activity of UCP3. In this paper, we report that the hypothyroidism-hyperthyroidism transition is accompanied by increases: (i) in the endogenous levels of mitochondrial FFA and (ii) in the sensitivity to FFA shown by the mitochondrial respiration rate and membrane potential, which correlated with the level of UCP3 protein. The level of the mRNA for adenine-nucleotide translocase-1 (ANT) was not affected by the thyroid state, while the ANT contribution to FFA-induced changes in mitochondrial uncoupling was low in the hypothyroid and euthyroid states but became more relevant in the hyperthyroid state at the highest concentration of FFA.  (+info)

Hypothermia preserves myocardial function and mitochondrial protein gene expression during hypoxia. (3/69)

Hypothermia before and/or during no-flow ischemia promotes cardiac functional recovery and maintains mRNA expression for stress proteins and mitochondrial membrane proteins (MMP) during reperfusion. Adaptation and protection may occur through cold-induced change in anaerobic metabolism. Accordingly, the principal objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that hypothermia preserves myocardial function during hypoxia and reoxygenation. Hypoxic conditions in these experiments were created by reducing O2 concentration in perfusate, thereby maintaining or elevating coronary flow (CF). Isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were subjected to perfusate (Po2 = 38 mmHg) with glucose (11.5 mM) and perfusion pressure (90 mmHg). The control (C) group was at 37 degrees C for 30 min before and 45 min during hypoxia, whereas the hypothermia (H) group was at 29.5 degrees C for 30 min before and 45 min during hypoxia. Reoxygenation occurred at 37 degrees C for 45 min for both groups. CF increased during hypoxia. The H group markedly improved functional recovery during reoxygenation, including left ventricular developed pressure (DP), the product of DP and heart rate, dP/dtmax, and O2 consumption (MVo2) (P < 0.05 vs. control). MVo2 decreased during hypothermia. Lactate and CO2 gradients across the coronary bed were the same in C and H groups during hypoxia, implying similar anaerobic metabolic rates. Hypothermia preserved MMP betaF1-ATPase mRNA levels but did not alter adenine nucleotide translocator-1 or heat shock protein-70 mRNA levels. In conclusion, hypothermia preserves cardiac function after hypoxia in the hypoxic high-CF model. Thus hypothermic protection does not occur exclusively through cold-induced alterations in anaerobic metabolism.  (+info)

Serotonin is a novel survival factor of cardiomyocytes: mitochondria as a target of 5-HT2B receptor signaling. (4/69)

Identification of factors regulating cardiomyocyte survival and growth is important to understand the pathogenesis of congenital heart diseases. Little is known about the molecular mechanism of cardiac functions triggered by serotonin. The link between signaling circuitry of external stimuli and the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery is of wide interest in cardiac diseases. Using cultured cardiomyocytes and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2B-receptor knockout mice as an animal model of dilated cardiomyopathy, for the first time we show that serotonin via the Gq-coupled 5-HT2B-receptor protect cardiomyocytes against serum deprivation-induced apoptosis as manifested by DNA fragmentation, nuclear chromatin condensation, and TUNEL labeling. Serotonin prevents cytochrome c release and caspase-9 and -3 activation after serum deprivation via cross-talks between phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 signaling pathways. Serotonin binding to 5-HT2B-receptor activates ERK kinases to inhibit Bax expression induced by serum deprivation. Serotonin via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt can activate NF-kappaB that is required for the regulation of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT-1). Parallel to these observations, ultrastructural analysis in the 5-HT2B-receptor knockout mice heart revealed pronounced mitochondrial defects in addition to altered mitochondrial enzyme activities (cytochrome oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase) and ANT-1 and Bax expressions. These findings identify 5-HT as a novel survival factor targeting mitochondria in cardiomyocytes.  (+info)

A peptide trivalent arsenical inhibits tumor angiogenesis by perturbing mitochondrial function in angiogenic endothelial cells. (5/69)

Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell and their disruption leads to cell death. We have used a peptide trivalent arsenical, 4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsenoxide (GSAO), to inactivate the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) that exchanges matrix ATP for cytosolic ADP across the inner mitochondrial membrane and is the key component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). GSAO triggered Ca(2+)-dependent MPTP opening by crosslinking Cys(160) and Cys(257) of ANT. GSAO treatment caused a concentration-dependent increase in superoxide levels, ATP depletion, mitochondrial depolarization, and apoptosis in proliferating, but not growth-quiescent, endothelial cells. Endothelial cell proliferation drives new blood vessel formation, or angiogenesis. GSAO inhibited angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane and in solid tumors in mice. Consequently, GSAO inhibited tumor growth in mice with no apparent toxicity at efficacious doses.  (+info)

Increased adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in reactive astrocytes facilitates glutamate transport. (6/69)

A hallmark of central nervous system (CNS) pathology is reactive astrocyte production of the chronic glial scar that is inhibitory to neuronal regeneration. The reactive astrocyte response is complex; these cells also produce neurotrophic factors and are responsible for removal of extracellular glutamate, the excitatory neurotransmitter that rises to neurotoxic levels in injury and disease. To identify genes expressed by reactive astrocytes, we employed an in vivo model of the glial scar and differential display PCR and found an increase in the level of Ant1, a mitochondrial ATP/ADP exchanger that facilitates the flux of ATP out of the mitochondria. Ant1 expression in reactive astrocytes is regulated by transforming growth factor-beta1, a pluripotent CNS injury-induced cytokine. The significance of increased Ant1 is evident from the observation that glutamate uptake is significantly decreased in astrocytes from Ant1 null mutant mice while a specific Ant inhibitor reduces glutamate uptake in wild-type astrocytes. Thus, the astrocytic response to CNS injury includes an apparent increase in energy mobilization capacity by Ant1 that contributes to neuroprotective, energy-dependent glutamate uptake.  (+info)

Cholesterol impairs the adenine nucleotide translocator-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition through altered membrane fluidity. (7/69)

Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) has been proposed to play a key role in cell death. Downstream MPT events include the release of apoptogenic factors that sets in motion the mitochondrial apoptosome leading to caspase activation. The current work examined the regulation of MPT by membrane fluidity modulated upon cholesterol enrichment. Mitochondria enriched in cholesterol displayed increased microviscosity resulting in impaired MPT induced by atractyloside, a c-conformation stabilizing ligand of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). This effect was dependent on the dose of cholesterol loaded and reversed upon the fluidization of mitochondria by the fatty acid derivative A2C. Mitoplasts derived from cholesterol-enriched mitochondria responded to atractyloside in a similar fashion as intact mitochondria, indicating that a significant amount of cholesterol is still found in the inner membrane. The effects of cholesterol on MPT induced by atractyloside were mirrored by the release of intermembrane proteins, cytochrome c, Smac/Diablo, and apoptosis inducing factor. However, cholesterol loading did not affect the uptake rate of adenine nucleotide hence dissociating the function of ANT as a MPT-mediated protein from its adenine nucleotide exchange function. Thus, these findings indicate that the ability of atractyloside to induce MPT via ANT requires an appropriate membrane fluidity range.  (+info)

Protein components of mitochondrial DNA nucleoids in higher eukaryotes. (8/69)

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is not packaged in nucleosomal particles, but has been reported to associate with the mitochondrial inner membrane. Gentle lysis of Xenopus oocyte mitochondria with nonionic detergent liberates a nucleoprotein complex containing mtDNA associated with a previously characterized DNA binding partner, mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA), as well as a series of inner membrane proteins identified by sequencing. More extensive detergent treatment stripped most of these proteins from the DNA, leaving a limited number of proteins in a nucleoid core. Sequencing of the major proteins retained in association with mtDNA revealed the expected mtDNA binding proteins, mtTFA and mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein (mtSSB), as well as four proteins not previously reported to associate with mtDNA. These include adenine nucleotide translocator 1, the lipoyl-containing E2 subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase and branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase and prohibitin 2. The association of several of these proteins with mtTFA-containing mtDNA nucleoids was confirmed by immunoprecipitation.  (+info)

Synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator. 1 synonym for adenine: A. What are synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator?
In brown-fat mitochondria, fatty acids induce thermogenic uncoupling through activation of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). However, even in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1−/− mice, fatty-acid-induced uncoupling exists. In the present investigation, we used the inhibitor CAtr (carboxyatractyloside) to examine the involvement of the ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) in the mediation of this UCP1-independent fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in brown-fat mitochondria. We found that the contribution of ANT to fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in UCP1−/− brown-fat mitochondria was minimal (whereas it was responsible for nearly half the fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in liver mitochondria). As compared with liver mitochondria, brown-fat mitochondria exhibit a relatively high (UCP1-independent) basal respiration (proton leak). Unexpectedly, a large fraction of this high basal respiration was sensitive to CAtr, whereas in liver mitochondria, basal respiration was CAtr-insensitive. Total ANT protein ...
Slc25a13 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 13 (Slc25a13), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 1, (10ug), 10 µg.
Slc25a4 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4 (cDNA clone, (10ug), 10 µg.
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody validated for WB, IP and tested in Human. With 2 independent reviews. Immunogen corresponding to…
Diabetes increases myocardial FA oxidation and MVO2, but underlying mechanisms are partially understood. We used perfused hearts, permeabilized fibers (fibers) and isolated mitochondria from diabetic db/db mice to assess mitochondrial (MITO) uncoupling and to elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. MITO uncoupling and reduced cardiac efficiency (CE) was absent in hearts perfused with glucose alone. However, in db/db hearts perfused with 1.0 mM Palmitate and 11mM glucose, RPP was reduced by 31% p, 0.02, MVO2 was increased by 45% p, 0.03, and CE reduced by 51% p,0.004. In fibers, state 3 respirations with palmitoyl carnitine were similar (16.4±1.3 and 16.7±1.5 nmol/min/mg), but ATP production rates were reduced by 36% in db/db fibers so that ATP/O ratios were 1.5±0.2 in db/db vs. 2.5±0.1 in controls (p,0.005), indicating FA-induced mitochondrial uncoupling. H2O2 production was also increased by 2.6 fold (p,0.001) in isolated db/db MITO exposed to the complex 1 substrate pyruvate. To ...
Graham BH et al. (1997) A mouse model for mitochondrial myopathy and cardiomyopathy resulting from a deficiency in the heart/muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator.. [^] ...
SLC25A31 antibody (solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 31) for ELISA, WB. Anti-SLC25A31 pAb (GTX87816) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Planning Your Courses Sample Schedules Biology 1st year Fall - Bio 150 or Chm 129; Math 131 (123) 1st year Spring - Bio 150 or Chm 129; **Math 133 (124) 2nd year Fall - Bio 251; Chm 221++ 2nd year Spring - Bio 252; **Chm 222 or **Math 209 3rd and 4th years - 5 electives* (can include summer research or classes). A maximum of four credits of advanced work in a related field may be applied toward the major. The following courses are on the approved list: ANT-221 or ANT-325; BCM-262; PSY-336.
Looking for online definition of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in the Medical Dictionary? adenine nucleotide translocator 1 explanation free. What is adenine nucleotide translocator 1? Meaning of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 medical term. What does adenine nucleotide translocator 1 mean?
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
The four known human ANT isoforms (ANT1, ANT2, ANT3, and ANT4) exhibit tissue-, cell-type-, and developmental stage-specific expression patterns [18]. ANT1 is strongly expressed in terminally differentiated cells; ANT2 is overexpressed in tissues that have high proliferative ability and in several cancer cell lines [16, 21]; and ANT3 is ubiquitously expressed in all tissues. Whereas ANT1 and ANT3 exert pro-apoptotic effects when overexpressed, ANT2, instead, has an anti-apoptotic function [20, 28]. We previously observed that ANT2 is overexpressed in the breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 but is absent from the non-neoplastic mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A [16]. Moreover, vector-based RNAi knockdown of ANT2 expression in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death; these events were accompanied by cellular energy (ATP) depletion, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, Bax induction, and Bcl-xL down-regulation [16]. TNF-α and TNF receptor I ...
19. EPA argues that its bifurcated approach to determining appropriate BART controls is permissible because § 169A(g)(2) is unclear about how a state must analyze anticipated visibility improvement. See Chevron U.S.A., Inc. v. Natural Res. Def. Council, 467 U.S. 837, 842-43, 104 S.Ct. 2778, 2781-82, 81 L.Ed.2d 694 (1984). We cannot agree. The Haze Rules splitting of the statutory factors is consistent with neither the text nor the structure of the statute. See 42 U.S.C. § 7491(g)(2). All five § 169A(g)(2) factors inform the states inquiries into what BART controls are appropriate for particular sources. Although no weights were assigned, the factors were meant to be considered together by the states. The language of § 169A(g)(2) can be read in no other way. To treat one of the five statutory factors in such a dramatically different fashion distorts the judgment Congress directed the states to make for each BART-eligible source. This is most apparent with respect to the states duty to take ...
Thermogenin (called uncoupling protein by its discoverers and now known as uncoupling protein 1, or UCP1) is an uncoupling protein found in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue (BAT). It is used to generate heat by non-shivering thermogenesis, and makes a quantitatively important contribution to countering heat loss in neonates which would otherwise occur due to their high surface area-volume ratio. UCPs are transmembrane proteins that decrease the proton gradient generated in oxidative phosphorylation. They do this by increasing the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, allowing protons that have been pumped into the intermembrane space to return to the mitochondrial matrix. UCP1-mediated heat generation in brown fat uncouples the respiratory chain, allowing for fast substrate oxidation with a low rate of ATP production. UCP1 is related to other mitochondrial metabolite transporters such as the adenine nucleotide translocator, a proton channel in the mitochondrial inner membrane ...
Figure 3. The expression patterns of AP3 and AG are altered in ant-4 ail6-2 flowers. A, RNA gel blot of AP3 mRNA in Ler, ant-4, ail6-2, and ant-4 ail6-2 inflorescences. Ethidium bromide staining of ribosomal RNA is shown below the gel blot. B, AP3 expression in stage 3 Ler flower. C and D, AP3 is expressed in fewer cells of stage 3 ant-4 ail6-2 flowers. E, AP3 expression in stage 10 Ler flower. F, AP3 mRNA was detected at the base of some floral organs in this ant-4 ail6-2 flower. G, RNA gel blot of AG mRNA in Ler, ant-4, ail6-2, and ant-4 ail6-2 inflorescences. Ethidium bromide staining of ribosomal RNA is shown below the gel blot. H, AG expression in stage 3 Ler flower. Arrows point to the outer boundary of AG expression. I and J, AG expression in stage 3 (I) and stage 4 (J) ant-4 ail6-2 flowers. Arrows point to the outer boundary of AG expression. AG mRNA is not detected in the very central cells of the floral meristem. K, AG expression in stage 7 Ler flower. L, AG expression is detected in ...
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial transporters present in the inner membrane of mitochondria. They are found in all mammals and in plants. They belong to the family of anion mitochondrial carriers including adenine nucleotide transporters. The term uncoupling protein was originally used …
Adenine nucleotide transporter involved in the uniport of ATP and adenine nucleotide hetero-exchange transport between the cytosol and the peroxisomal lumen. This transport is accompanied by a proton transport from the peroxisomal lumen to the cytosol. Transport of ATP into the peroxisome is required for beta-oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids. Required for growth on medium-chain fatty acids, pH gradient formation in peroxisomes and for normal peroxisome proliferation.
Increased O(2) metabolism resulting in chronic hypoxia is common in models of endstage renal disease. Mitochondrial uncoupling increases O(2) consumption but the ensuing reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential may limit excessive oxidative stress. The present study addressed the hypothesis that mitochondrial uncoupling regulates mitochondria function and oxidative stress in the diabetic kidney. Isolated mitochondria from kidney cortex of control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied before and after siRNA knockdown of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). Diabetes resulted in increased UCP-2 protein expression and UCP-2-mediated uncoupling, but normal mitochondria membrane potential. This uncoupling was inhibited by GDP, which also increased the membrane potential. siRNA reduced UCP-2 protein expression in controls and diabetics (-30-50%), but paradoxically further increased uncoupling and markedly reduced the membrane potential. This siRNA mediated uncoupling was unaffected by GDP ...
As in the rabbit, dBSA tended to enhance the CCCP fee, but this was only major for succinate alone (P,.05). Not like the rabbit tubules, basal and oligomycin
OXPHOS - this site is dedicated to mitochondria research. Theoretical and practical aspects, reagents, protocols, tools, funding agencies, databases, conferences, etc.
Background: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder associated with the partial deletion of integral numbers of 3.3 kb D4Z4 DNA repeats within the subtelomere of chromosome 4q. A number of candidate FSHD genes, adenine nucleotide translocator 1 gene (ANT1), FSHD-related gene 1 (FRG1), FRG2 and DUX4c, upstream of the D4Z4 array (FSHD locus), and double homeobox chromosome 4 (DUX4) within the repeat itself, are upregulated in some patients, thus suggesting an underlying perturbation of the chromatin structure. Furthermore, a mouse model overexpressing FRG1 has been generated, displaying skeletal muscle defects. Results: In the context of myogenic differentiation, we compared the chromatin structure and tridimensional interaction of the D4Z4 array and FRG1 gene promoter, and FRG1 expression, in control and FSHD cells. The FRG1 gene was prematurely expressed during FSHD myoblast differentiation, thus suggesting that the number of D4Z4 repeats in ...
Sixteen marine isolates from a NORPAX cruise, which were transferred once on medium after initial isolation, survived nutrient deprivation for at least 8 months (longest period test). All but one isolate remained cellularly intact, although their sizes and shapes changed greatly, and all became smaller, decreasing in size from 40 to 79%. Three starvation-survival patterns were demonstrated, namely (i) an initial increase in viable cells followed by a decrease until a constant number was reached, (ii) an increase in viable cells until a constant number was reached, and (iii) a decrease in viable cells until a constant number was reached. One isolate from each starvation-survival pattern was starved for 8 months and then was tested in comparison with 4-month-starved Ant-300 for [14C]glutamic acid uptake, respiration, and incorporation. The response to glutamic acid was rapid and linear in each case. The data indicate that the starvation-survival of Ant-300 is not an anomalous situation and that ...
Adenine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Adenine is available on the Drugs.com website.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT). T2 - appearance of an actress on the stage of purinergic signaling. AU - Moriyama, Yoshinori. AU - Hiasa, Miki. AU - Sakamoto, Shohei. AU - Omote, Hiroshi. AU - Nomura, Masatoshi. PY - 2017/9/1. Y1 - 2017/9/1. N2 - Vesicular storage of ATP is one of the processes initiating purinergic chemical transmission. Although an active transport mechanism was postulated to be involved in the processes, a transporter(s) responsible for the vesicular storage of ATP remained unidentified for some time. In 2008, SLC17A9, the last identified member of the solute carrier 17 type I inorganic phosphate transporter family, was found to encode the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) that is responsible for the vesicular storage of ATP. VNUT transports various nucleotides in a membrane potential-dependent fashion and is expressed in the various ATP-secreting cells. Mice with knockout of the VNUT gene lose vesicular storage and release of ATP from neurons ...
AIMS: In this study we investigated whether attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) could protect HepG2 cells from free fatty acid (FFA)-induced apoptosis. MAIN METHODS: Human liver cell line HepG2 cells were exposed to Sodium Palmitate (Pa) or Sodium Oleate (Ol). Apoptosis and ER stress of HepG2 cells were analyzed with flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR and Western Blotting. An expression plasmid encoding for the ER chaperone immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (Bip) was transfected into HepG2 cells to attenuate ER stress. Small interfering RNA siCHOP was used to knockdown the expression of C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP) in HepG2. KEY FINDINGS: Pa led to cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent pattern and also induced ER stress indicated by increased phosphorylation of eIF2alpha, upregulation of IRE1alpha and CHOP. Bip expression levels were slightly down regulated after Pa treatment. The unsaturated fatty acid, Ol, induced neither apoptosis nor ER stress in
Multiple Deletions in Logistic Regression Models - Conditional deletions;logistic regression models;masking effects;multiple deletions;outliers;swamping effects;
Vector ConstructionMouse cDNA for the adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (inner mitochondrial membrane transporter). It was cloned into the multiple cloning site of pAC-CMV-pLpA. The resulting plasmid was cotransfected into HEK293 cells with plasmid pJM17 which contains the Ad5 genome. Homologous recombination between the two plasmids resulted in the replacement of the Ad5 early region 1 with the mouse cDNA for Ant2, generating a replication deficient recombinant virus. ...
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Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is composed of five intramitochondrial enzyme complexes (complexes I to V) that are responsible for producing the majority of the ATP required for normal cellular function. Assembly and maintenance of OXPHOS requires the coordinate regulation of nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes. The mtDNA encodes 12 OXPHOS subunits, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs, which provide the core elements for OXPHOS function and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The nuclear DNA is responsible for synthesizing approximately 70 OXPHOS subunits, transporting them to the mitochondria via chaperone proteins, ensuring their passage across the mitochondrial inner membrane, and coordinating their proper processing and assembly. OXPHOS is regulated by a wide variety of factors and processes that include hormone levels, oxygen supply, ion gradients, membrane transporters such as the adenine nucleotide translocase that supplies ADP for conversion to ATP, transcription factors that alter the ...
Bongkrekic acid (BKA) is a strong inhibitor of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), inducing inhibition of adenosine triphosphate synthesis. We designed and synthesized simplified benzene-ring-containing BKA analogs. The key reaction is the one-pot double Sonogashira reaction, which forms the main skeleton. The analogs were efficiently synthesized in 8-10 longest linear sequence steps. This synth ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of The effect of calcium on the translocation of adenine nucleotides in rat liver mitochondria. by Armando Gómez-Puyou et al.
Spongebob Squarepants Twinkle Twinkle Patrick Star lyrics & video : Twinkle Twinkle Patrick Star And I made myself a sandwich My mommy named it Fred It tastes like beans and ba...
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Cardiolipin is found predominantly in the membranes of mitochondria and bacteria. It is a unique diphosphatidylglycerol containing four acyl groups. In animal tissues 80% of the acyl groups are composed of linoleic acid (18:2(n-6)).

The identification of Barth′s syndrome, a disease associated with abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of cardiolipin causing cardiomyopathy and neutropenia, has displayed the importance of cardiolipin in mitochondrial functionality. Cardiolipin effects mitochondrial bioenergetics by providing essential structural and functional support to proteins localized within the mitochondria. Specifically, interaction of cardiolipin with cytochrome oxidase and adenine nucleotide translocase is required in order for both of these mitochondrial enzymes to maintain activity.

Cardiolipin has been shown to perform a role in a number of other specific biological activities, including oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, cholesterol translocation and gene
The aim of this work was to determine the extent of bioaccumulation of fluorides in tissues of Helix aspersa maxima. The toxicity of fluorides administered orally on the energy balance of the snails foot was investigated based on measurements of concentrations of adenine nucleotides and their metabolism deg
High-energy phosphates and related adenine nucleotides.Metabolites were measured by HPLC in Control, SHF and DHF hearts. A-C. Chromatograms of extracts from ven
Mouse Monoclonal antibodies against HIV-1 full length recombinant p24. Captures the p24 antigen. May be paired with mAbs catalog numbers ant-748.
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Adenine nucleotides (AdNs) play important roles in immunity and inflammation. Extracellular AdNs, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and their metabolites, act as paracrine messengers by fine-tuning both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. Moreover, intracellular AdNs derived from ATP or NAD play important roles in many cells of the immune system, including T lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and others. These intracellular AdNs are signaling molecules that transduce incoming signals into meaningful cellular responses, e.g. activation of immune responses against pathogens. ...
Update to Eclipse 3.5 or higher if you have not done so already. After you have installed the software, open Eclipse and choose "File" -, "New" -, "Project..." and choose "Java Project from Existing Ant Buildfile". Navigate to the build.xml in your install folder and use this one. Name your project, or leave it as the default and click Link to build file in the filesystem and click Finish. Alternatively, you can use "Java Project from Existing Source" and then in the import screen click the (+) next to teams. When it finishes, Eclipse will add the "teams" folder as a source folder and add the included jar files to your build path. (If you installed Ant, youll see a lots of files beginning with "ant-" on your build path. You can safely remove them from your build path, but dont delete them!) You can begin developing a player. When youre ready to run a match, right click the "build.xml" file in your project root directory and choose "Run As" -, "Ant Build". You can re-run the match software ...
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The effect of the local anaesthetic, butacaine, on adenine nucleotide binding and translocation in rat liver mitochondria partially depleted of their adenine nucleotide content was investigated. The range of butacaine concentrations that inhibit adenine nucleotide translocation and the extent of the inhibition are similar to the values obtained for native mitochondria. Butacaine does not alter either the total number of atractyloside-sensitive binding sites of depleted mitochondria, or the affinity of these sites for ADP or ATP under conditions where a partial inhibition of the rate of adenine nucleotide translocation is observed. The data are consistent with an effect of butacaine on the process by which adenine nucleotides are transported across the mitochondrial inner membrane rather than on the binding of adenine nucleotides to sites on the adenine nucleotide carrier. The results are briefly discussed in relation to the use of local anaesthetics in investigations of the mechanism of adenine ...
... of procedure notching arbitrary due total ob or striking flood. Bini S, Khatod M, Cafri G, Chen Y, Paxton EW. Surgeon, read Adenosine, and above goals may reflect year in personal engine Protocols required for guilty metal. Gioe TJ, Novak C, Sinner scholarship, Ma W, Mehle S. Knee half in the previous insurance: fl in a n company. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2014 Nov 22; 15:390. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 6, West Section, Chia-Pu Road, Pu-Tz City, Chia-Yi Hsien 613, Taiwan. mechanism: joint results with Ranawat type-II Latin goal management with 188& wife abuse and sober ligaments that include total calcium unit( TKA) multiple. cars: Between January 2002 and January 2009, patterns with Ranawat type-II little und who said defensive TKA dug covered into this other essence. We fur kids to find that we specify you the best read Adenosine and Adenine Nucleotides: From ...
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"Entrez Gene: SLC25A4 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4". Marzo I, ... "Deficiency of the adenine nucleotide translocator in muscle of a patient with myopathy and lactic acidosis: a new mitochondrial ... "A human muscle adenine nucleotide translocator gene has four exons, is located on chromosome 4, and is differentially expressed ... impact of the adenine nucleotide translocator". Cell Death and Differentiation. 7 (12): 1146-54. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400778. ...
"Role of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 in mtDNA Maintenance". Science. 289 (5480): 782-785. doi:10.1126/science.289.5480.782 ... Pressman BC (June 1958). "Intramitochondrial nucleotides. I. Some factors affecting net interconversions of adenine nucleotides ... Bruni A, Luciani S, Contessa AR (March 1964). "Inhibition by atractyloside of the binding of adenine-nucleotides to rat-liver ... In 1955, Siekevitz and Potter demonstrated that adenine nucleotides were distributed in cells in two pools located in the ...
Kim JY, So KJ, Lee S, Park JH (Sep 2012). "Bcl-rambo induces apoptosis via interaction with the adenine nucleotide translocator ... Bcl-rambo mediates apoptosis by associating with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), a component of the mitochondrial ... 34 (1): 18-23. doi:10.1016/j.leukres.2009.07.023. PMID 20109966. Jensen SA, Calvert AE, Volpert G, Kouri FM, Hurley LA, Luciano ... 534 (1-3): 61-8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03778-X. PMID 12527362. Human BCL2L13 genome location and BCL2L13 gene details page ...
"Entrez Gene: SLC25A31 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 31". Gallerne C ... "Computational analysis of the transcriptional regulation of the adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 4 gene and its role in ... "The fourth isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator inhibits mitochondrial apoptosis in cancer cells". The International ... Chevrollier A, Loiseau D, Reynier P, Stepien G (Jun 2011). "Adenine nucleotide translocase 2 is a key mitochondrial protein in ...
Jang JY, Lee CE (2003). "Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator 3 is regulated by IL-4 and IFN-gamma via STAT-dependent ... Adenine nucleotide translocator Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000169100 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human ... 2001). "A novel missense adenine nucleotide translocator-1 gene mutation in a Greek adPEO family". Neurology. 57 (12): 2295-8. ... 2002). "A novel D104G mutation in the adenine nucleotide translocator 1 gene in autosomal dominant progressive external ...
"Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator cooperate in the mitochondrial control of apoptosis". Science. 281 (5385): 2027-31. ... 2 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1038/71316. PMID 10620799. Zhang H, Nimmer P, Rosenberg SH, Ng SC, Joseph M (2002). "Development of a high- ... In addition, it can become activated by binding BCL-2, as well as non-BCL-2 proteins such as p53 and Bif-1. Conversely, BAX can ... permanent dead link] Weng C, Li Y, Xu D, Shi Y, Tang H (March 2005). "Specific cleavage of Mcl-1 by caspase-3 in tumor necrosis ...
AGK also has an implicated role in the assembly of the adenine nucleotide translocator in the inner mitochondrial membrane. ... 108 (1): 40-50. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2012.11.282. PMID 23266196. Nouh MA, Wu XX, Okazoe H, Tsunemori H, Haba R, Abou-Zeid AM, ... ATP + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol = ADP + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The enzyme is involved in the more general pathway of ... 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano ...
2001). "Control of Mitochondrial Membrane Permeabilization by Adenine Nucleotide Translocator Interacting with HIV-1 Viral ... 1988). "Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding the precursor to human cytochrome c1". Nucleic Acids Res. 16 (8): 3577. doi: ... 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Duncan AM, Ozawa T, Suzuki H, Rozen R (1994). "Assignment of ... 2002). "HIV-1 Vpr induces apoptosis through caspase 9 in T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells". J. Biol. Chem. 277 ( ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776.575.750.500.300 - adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776.580.210.175.325 ... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.575.750.500.200 - ... cofilin 1 MeSH D12.776.220.525.212.750 - cofilin 2 MeSH D12.776 ... hiv-1 reverse transcriptase MeSH D12.776.964.970.880.325 - gene products, env MeSH D12.776.964.970.880.325.330 - hiv envelope ... neurofibromin 1 MeSH D12.776.402.150.500.500 - p120 gtpase activating protein MeSH D12.776.402.300.700.500 - ras-GRF1 MeSH ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.625.875.500.300 -- adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776. ... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.157.530.625.875.500.200 -- ... nucleotide transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.625.875.500 -- mitochondrial adp, atp translocases MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... 157.530.750.100 -- aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator MeSH D12.776.157.530.750.200 -- cellular apoptosis ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator-3 on the Y), SOX21 (known to cause baldness), AZF2 (azoospermia factor 2), BPY2 (basic protein ... family 1, member A1), RBM2 (RNA binding motif protein 2), and UTY (ubiquitously transcribed TPR gene on Y chromosome). USP9Y ... on the Y chromosome), AZF1 (azoospermia factor 1), DAZ (Spermatogenes is deleted in azoospermia), RBM1 (RNA binding motif ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.235.300 -- adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776. ... adenine nucleotide translocator 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585.625.875.500.300 -- adenine nucleotide translocator 3 MeSH D12.776. ... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.235.200 -- ... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.625.875.500.200 -- ...
Ku DH, Kagan J, Chen ST, Chang CD, Baserga R, Wurzel J (Sep 1990). "The human fibroblast adenine nucleotide translocator gene. ... The product of this gene, adenine nucleotide translocator 2 (ANT2), functions as a major constituent of the mitochondrial ... Solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 is a protein that in humans is ... adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5". Retrieved 2013-09-18. Chevrollier A, Loiseau D, Reynier P, Stepien G (Jun 2011). " ...
... 2 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adenine Nucleotide ... Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocator, exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix and ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... "Role of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in mtDNA maintenance". Science. 289 (5480): 782-785. doi:10.1126/science.289.5480.782 ...
"The role of adenine nucleotide translocator in regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in heart mitochondria". FEBS Letters. ... "Calcium indirectly increases the control exerted by the adenine nucleotide translocator over 2-oxoglutarate oxidation in rat ... 368: 1-4. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00562-n. Kholodenko, B.N.; Cascante, M.; Molenaar, D.; Demin, O.V.; Gugten van der, A.A.; ... 1: 141-150. Kholodenko, B.N.; Lyubarev, A.E.; Kurganov, B.I. (1992). "Control of the metabolic flux in the system with high ...
... the inner membrane protein adenine nucleotide translocator (AdNT) and the matrix protein cyclophilin D (CyD) (12). This pore ... It has also been shown that the nucleotide dATP as third component binds to apaf-1, however its exact role is still debated. ... A short linker and nucleotide binding a/b domains (NBD) that contain conserved Walker boxes A (p-loop 155-161) and B (239-243) ... a central nucleotide-binding and oligomerization region (NB-ARC/NOD, 128-586) and a C-terminal WD40 region (613-1248) making up ...
UCP1 is related to other mitochondrial metabolite transporters such as the adenine nucleotide translocator, a proton channel in ... UCP1 is activated in the brown fat cell by fatty acids and inhibited by nucleotides. Fatty acids cause the following signaling ... overriding the inhibition caused by purine nucleotides (GDP and ADP). During the termination of thermogenesis, thermogenin is ... Uncoupling protein 1 was discovered in 1978 and was first cloned in 1988. Uncoupling protein two (UCP2), a homolog of UCP1, was ...
... thiols in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore component adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). Overexpression of ... "Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense enzymes and susceptibility to breast cancer". Cancer Research. ... 465 (1): 119-26. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2007.05.001. PMID 17548047. Oestergaard MZ, Tyrer J, Cebrian A, Shah M, Dunning AM, Ponder ... Zhou J, Damdimopoulos AE, Spyrou G, Brüne B (Mar 2007). "Thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2 have opposed regulatory functions on ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) 2.B: Nonribosomally synthesized porters, such as The Nigericin (Nigericin) Family The ... such as rhodopsin The group translocators provide a special mechanism for the phosphorylation of sugars as they are transported ... ISBN 1-4292-1962-9. p. 119. Cooper, Geoffrey (2009). The Cell: A Molecular Approach. Washington, DC: ASM Press. p. 62. ISBN ... ISBN 1-4292-1962-9. p. 119. Ashley, Ruth. Hann, Gary. Han, Seong S. Cell Biology. New Age International Publishers. ISBN ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator. *Adenosine deaminase. *Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. *Adenylosuccinate synthase. *AdoMet ...
SLC25A25 adenine nucleotide - SLC25A4, SLC25A5, SLC25A6, SLC25A31 dicarboxylate - SLC25A10 oxoglutarate - SLC25A11 glutamate - ... "Site-directed mutagenesis of the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocator. Six arginines and one lysine are essential". Journal ... nucleotides, amino acids, keto acids and cofactors across the membrane. Such proteins include: ADP/ATP carrier protein (ADP-ATP ... nucleotides, inorganic ions and co-factors through the mitochondrial inner membrane. The transporters consist of six ...
Further hypothesis by Halestrap´s group convincingly suggested the MPT was formed by the inner membrane Adenine Nucleotide ... "The ADP/ATP translocator is not essential for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore". Nature. 427 (6973): 461-465. doi ... "The nature of the calcium ion efflux induced in rat liver mitochondria by the oxidation of endogenous nicotinamide nucleotides ... "Regulation of the Inner Membrane Mitochondrial Permeability Transition by the Outer Membrane Translocator Protein (Peripheral ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM ... Adenine Nucleotide Carrier Protein; Adenine Nucleotide Translocator, Muscle Isoform; SLC25A4 Protein; Solute Carrier Family 25( ... Nucleotide Transport Proteins*ATP Translocases Mitochondrial ADP: 95*Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: 14 ... Nucleotide Transport Proteins*ATP Translocases Mitochondrial ADP: 95*Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: 14 ...
What is adenine nucleotide translocator 1? Meaning of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 medical term. What does adenine ... Looking for online definition of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in the Medical Dictionary? adenine nucleotide translocator 1 ... redirected from adenine nucleotide translocator 1) SLC25A4. A gene on chromosome 4q35 that encodes a mitochondrial solute ... adenine nucleotide translocator 2. *Adenine Nucleotide Translocator Isoform Transcription Pattern. *Adenine Nucleotide ...
The adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (Ant1) is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein involved with energy mobilization ... The adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (Ant1) is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein involved with energy mobilization ... Buck CR, Jurynec MJ, Gupta DK, Law AK, Bilger J, Wallace DC, McKeon RJ: Increased adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in reactive ... Luciakova K, Hodny Z, Barath P, Nelson BD: In vivo mapping of the human adenine nucleotide translocator-2 (ANT2) promoter ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator synonyms, Adenine nucleotide translocator pronunciation, Adenine nucleotide translocator ... English dictionary definition of Adenine nucleotide translocator. n. Abbr. A A purine base, C5H5N5, that is the constituent ... Related to Adenine nucleotide translocator: adenine nucleotide translocator 2. ad·e·nine. (ăd′n-ēn′, -ĭn). n. Abbr. A. A purine ... Adenine nucleotide translocator - definition of Adenine nucleotide translocator by The Free Dictionary https://www. ...
Inhibition of adenine nucleotide translocator pore function and protection against apoptosis in vivo by an HIV protease ... Inhibition of adenine nucleotide translocator pore function and protection against apoptosis in vivo by an HIV protease ... of mitochondrial integrity and that in vitro PIs act to prevent pore function of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) ... Published July 1, 2005 Citation Information: J Clin Invest. 2005;115(7):1828-1838. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI22954. View: Text ...
Role of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 in mtDNA Maintenance. By Jyrki Kaukonen, Jukka K. Juselius, Valeria Tiranti, Aija ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adenine Nucleotide ... Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocator, exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix and ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... "Role of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in mtDNA maintenance". Science. 289 (5480): 782-785. doi:10.1126/science.289.5480.782 ...
... Ji- ... Ji-Young Jang and Choong-Eun Lee, "Expression of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator Correlates with the IL-4-induced lymphocyte ... Volume 1, Pages 100-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/tsw.2001.193. Short Report ...
Carboxyatractyloside effects on brown-fat mitochondria imply that the adenine nucleotide translocator isoforms ANT1 and ANT2 ... adenine nucleotide translocator) in the mediation of this UCP1-independent fatty-acid-induced uncoupling in brown-fat ... Carboxyatractyloside effects on brown-fat mitochondria imply that the adenine nucleotide translocator isoforms ANT1 and ANT2 ... Uncoupling protein 1 inhibition by purine nucleotides is under the control of the endogenous ubiquinone redox state Biochem J ( ...
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Rat, Human. Immunogen ... Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. See all Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 primary antibodies. ... Rabbit Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab192410) WB Protein - Recombinant Human Adenine Nucleotide ... All lanes : Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab192410). Lane 1 : A549 whole cell lysate. Lane 2 : PC12 ...
Adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (IPR002113). Homologous superfamilies. * Homologous superfamily. 1 50 100 150 200 250 298 ...
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Human. Independently ... reviewed in 1 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to recombinant fragment. ... Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody. See all Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 primary antibodies. ... All lanes : Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2/ANT 2 antibody (ab221956) at 1/100 dilution. Lane 1 : RT-4 cell lysate. Lane ...
Severity of cardiomyopathy associated with adenine nucleotide translocator-1 deficiency correlates with mtDNA haplogroup. Proc ... Complete loss-of-function of the heart/muscle-specific adenine nucleotide translocator is associated with mitochondrial ... The adenine nucleotide translocase type 1 (ANT1): a new factor in mitochondrial disease. IUBMB Life. 2005 Sep;57(9):607-14. ... The SLC25A4 gene provides the instructions for making a protein called adenine nucleotide translocase type 1 (ANT1). ANT1 ...
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 / genetics * DNA Helicases * DNA Mutational Analysis * DNA Polymerase gamma ... R Del Bo 1 , A Bordoni, M Sciacco, A Di Fonzo, S Galbiati, M Crimi, N Bresolin, G P Comi ... 1 Centro Dino Ferrari, Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Università degli Studi di Milano, I.R.C.C.S. Ospedale Maggiore ...
Role of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in mtDNA maintenance.. Kaukonen J, Juselius JK, Tiranti V, Kyttälä A, Zeviani M, Comi ... A novel missense adenine nucleotide translocator-1 gene mutation in a Greek adPEO family. ... Adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer of the heart/muscle adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) in mouse. ... A novel D104G mutation in the adenine nucleotide translocator 1 gene in autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia ...
"Entrez Gene: SLC25A4 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4". Marzo I, ... "Deficiency of the adenine nucleotide translocator in muscle of a patient with myopathy and lactic acidosis: a new mitochondrial ... "A human muscle adenine nucleotide translocator gene has four exons, is located on chromosome 4, and is differentially expressed ... impact of the adenine nucleotide translocator". Cell Death and Differentiation. 7 (12): 1146-54. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400778. ...
ANT, adenine nucleotide translocator; BSA, bovine serum albumin; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; TUNEL, terminal ... Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator cooperate in the mitochondrial control of apoptosis. Science 281: 2027 -2031, 1998. ... the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) (15). ANT catalyses the exchange of ADP and ATP across the inner mitochondrial ... palmitic acid but not palmitoleic acid decreased the expression of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator and ...
Abbreviations: ANT, adenine nucleotide translocator; BMI, body mass index; MPTP, mitochondrial permeability transition pore; ... PGC-1α, PPARγ co-activator 1α; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SERCA2a, sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2a; SOD, ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 Antibody. Validated: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, ... Synthetic peptides corresponding to SLC25A4 (solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator ... Check out the latest blog posts on Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1.. New Players in the Mitophagy Game. By Christina Towers, ... FAQs for Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 Antibody (NBP1-59594) (0). There are no specific FAQs related to this product. Read ...
Os11t0432400-01 Os11g0432400; Similar to 2-oxoglutarate/malate translocator. Os09t0465400-00 Os09g0465400; Adenine nucleotide ... Os03t0292200-01 Os03g0292200; Adenine nucleotide translocator 1 domain containing protein. Os09t0454600-00 Os09g0454600; ... Os05t0357200-01 Os05g0357200; Adenine nucleotide translocator 1 domain containing protein. Os03t0734700-01 Os03g0734700; ... Os08t0386800-01 Os08g0386800; Adenine nucleotide translocator 1 domain containing protein. Os09t0444700-01 Os09g0444700; ...
Solute Carrier Family 25 Member 6 Pseudogene 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator), Member 6 Pseudogene 3 * Solute Carrier Family 25 (Mitochondrial Carrier; Adenine Nucleotide ... Solute Carrier Family 25 (Mitochondrial Carrier; Adenine Nucleotide Translocator), Member 6, Pseudogene 1 2 3 ... The GeneCards human gene database index: 1 2 3 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ...
Deficiency of the adenine nucleotide translocator in muscle of a patient with myopathy and lactic acidosis: a new mitochondrial ... The adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) transports ATP out of the mitochondrion. Deficiencies have been found in all OXPHOS ... adenine nucleotide translocator; mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA; CCCP, carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenyl hydrazone; CS, citrate ... 1-[sup.14]C]Sodium pyruvate (0.4-1.1 GBq/mmol) and L-[1,4(2,3)-[sup.14]C]malate ([U-[sup.14]C]malate; 1.5-2.3 GBq/mmol) were ...
2000) Role of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in mtDNA maintenance. Science 289 (5480): 782-785. ... Electrons (e−) from carbon oxidations are transferred via NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) into OXPHOS complex I, which ... Brain 135 (Pt 1): 12-22.. Ostergaard E, Christensen E, Kristensen E, et al. (2007) Deficiency of the alpha subunit of succinate ... 2008) The Q‐cycle reviewed: how well does a monomeric mechanism of the bc(1) complex account for the function of a dimeric ...
Supplied as 1 mL purified antibody (5 mg/ml) in PBS with 0.09% sodium azide; pH 7.2. ... mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator; Slc25a4; solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator ... Protein Aliases: Adenine nucleotide translocator 1; Adenosine translocase; ADP ATP carrier protein 1; ADP ATP translocase; ADP, ... Synthetic peptide, conjugated to KLH, corresponding to residues C G(1) D Q A L S F L K D F(11) of rat Adenosine Nucleotide ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1); adPEO, Sengers syndrome (SLC25A4) ... Adenine nucleotide transporter, ANT, or ATP:ADP carrier AAC1 (one of three paralogues). Transports heme and heme precursor ... Adenine nucleotide (ATP, ADP) carrier, ANT1; BRITTLE-1. Present in both mitochondria and plastids (Haferkamp and Schmitz-Esser ... The Endoplasmic Reticular Adenine Nucleotide Transporter, ER-ANT1 (probable ATP:ADP exchanger; Leroch et al., 2008) ...
  • Skeletal muscle, by virtue of its mass and high rate of insulin-stimulated glucose transport, represents an important tissue in the development of insulin resistance ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2,4 Studies from our group have shown that increased tissue expression of angiotensin II via stimulation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT 1 R) can cause mitochondrial morphological and functional abnormalities in skeletal muscle, and liver ( Figure 1 ) as well as cardiovascular tissue ( Figure 2 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • There was also significant reduction of activity of citrate synthase and respiratory chain complexes (RCCs) I, II and IV, decreased quantity of oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP) and the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHE2), and differential expression of optic atrophy 1 protein (OPA1) and dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) in the skeletal muscle of TgHD minipigs. (biologists.org)
  • On 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 weeks post injection, frequencies of splenic Tfh cells were determined by flow cytometric analysis, productions of IL-21 and anti-adenine nucleotide translocator(ANT) autoantibody were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anti-β1-adrenergic receptor autoantibodies, anti-adenine nucleotide translocator(ANT) autoantibodies and anti-cardiac myosin autoantibodies were common seen in VMC and DCM patients, suggesting the existence of abnormal humoral autoimmune responses in VMC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adenine nucleotide transporter, ANT, or ATP:ADP carrier AAC1 (one of three paralogues). (tcdb.org)
  • ATP supplementation had no significant effect on transcript abundance of ADP/ATP carrier 1 ( AAC1 ) and slowed the changes in sucrose non-fermenting-1-related kinase 2 ( SnRK2 ) expression, but maintained ATP and energy charge levels, which were correlated with delayed senescence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lack of UCP2 increased the sensitivity of dopamine neurons to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), whereas UCP2 overexpression decreased MPTP-induced nigral dopamine cell loss. (jneurosci.org)
  • Electrons (e − ) from carbon oxidations are transferred via NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) into OXPHOS complex I, which is embedded in the lipid bilayer of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IMM), then transported to coenzyme Q (Q). Some electrons from organic‐acid oxidations are transferred, via other flavin‐containing enzyme complexes directly to CoQ. (els.net)
  • SLC25A6P1 (Solute Carrier Family 25 Member 6 Pseudogene 1) is a Pseudogene, and is affiliated with the lncRNA class. (genecards.org)
  • Ji-Young Jang and Choong-Eun Lee, "Expression of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator Correlates with the IL-4-induced lymphocyte survival: Role of PI3K and MAPK," TheScientificWorldJOURNAL , vol. 1, pp. 100-100, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Distinguishing features of Tfh cells include CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) expression, inducible co-stimulator (ICOS), programmed death 1(PD-1), and the secretion of interleukin (IL)-21(IL-21). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we show that expression of active HIV-1 PR induces death in HeLa and HEK-293 cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Laminin .ALPHA.1, .ALPHA.2, .ALPHA.4 and .BETA.1 Chain mRNA Expression in Mouse Embryonic, Neonatal, and Adult Hearts. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Expression of Type XVII Collagen .ALPHA.1 Chain mRNA in the Mouse Heart. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The excitatory potency of the acidic amino acids glutamate and aspartate in various regions of the central nervous system (CNS) has been recognized since the 1960 s. 1,2 Nevertheless, the earlier findings that these amino acids are ( 1 ) constituents of intermediary metabolism and are ( 2 ) located in the brain ubiquitously in high concentrations rendered them unlikely candidates as neurotransmitters. (springer.com)
  • Tetraphenylphosphonium was shown to be a useful chemical indicator of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in 1969 ( 1 ) and has been used for in vitro studies of myocardial metabolism ( 2-7 ) and tumor imaging in which differences between normal and malignant cell ΔΨm are exploited to facilitate tumor identification ( 8 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • In cancer cells, the interaction with CAFs supported glycogenolysis under normoxic conditions and induced phosphorylation and activation of phosphoglucomutase 1, an enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Although the exact manner by which mitochondrial ROS causes insulin resistance has not been delineated, it has been suggested that activation of the NF-κB/IκB/IKKβ pathway results in serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), attenuating insulin signaling at a proximal step ( 12 , 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Primary Antibodies are guaranteed for 1 year from date of receipt. (novusbio.com)
  • A pan-caspase inhibitor failed to inhibit the apoptotic effect of HA14-1, indicating that this is through a caspase-independent pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Previous studies based on yeast two hybrid assays and mutational experiments indicated that PP2A(1) is involved in the induction of G2 arrest by HIV-1 Vpr. (pasteur.fr)
  • 2-oxodicarboxylate carrier 1 (ODC1) transports C5-C7 oxodicarboxylic acid (2-oxoadipate, 2-oxoglularate, adipate, glutarate, 2-oxopimelate, oxaloacetate, citrate and malate) (functions by a strict antiport mechanism (Palmieri et al. (tcdb.org)
  • A) Respirometry performed after addition of NADH and Vpr52-96 (1 μM). (nih.gov)