A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.
A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in the LIVER.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.
An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between a purine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free purine plus ribose-5-phosphate. EC
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
Proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases such as PYRIMIDINES and PURINES across membranes.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC
An adenosine monophosphate analog in which ribose is replaced by an arabinose moiety. It is the monophosphate ester of VIDARABINE with antiviral and possibly antineoplastic properties.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.
Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)
An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Nucleosides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.
An enzyme which catalyzes the catabolism of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE to ADENOSINE and HOMOCYSTEINE. It may play a role in regulating the concentration of intracellular adenosylhomocysteine.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide to nicotinate and ammonia. EC
An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC EC
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Nucleosides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of the adenylyl moiety of ATP to the phosphoryl group of NMN to form NAD+ and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is found predominantly in the nuclei and catalyzes the final reaction in the major pathway for the biosynthesis of NAD in mammals. EC
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Nucleotides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides with the elimination of ammonia.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Part of a MESSENGER RNA molecule that undergoes a conformation change upon binding a specific metabolite or other small molecule thereby regulating the messenger RNA's transcription, post-transcriptional processing, transport, translation, or stability in response to varying levels of the metabolite or other small molecule.

Marker effects on reversion of T4rII mutants. (1/3669)

The frequencies of 2-aminopurine- and 5-bromouracil-induced A:T leads to G:C transitions were compared at nonsense sites throughout the rII region of bacteriophage T4. These frequencies are influenced both by adjacent base pairs within the nonsense codons and by extracodonic factors. Following 2AP treatment, they are high in amber (UAG) and lower in opal (UGA) codons than in allelic ochre (UAA) codons. In general, 5BU-induced transitions are more frequent in both amber and opal codons than in the allelic ochre codons. 2AP- and 5BU-induced transition frequencies in the first and third positions of opal codons are correlated with those in the corresponding positions of the allelic ochre codons. Similarly, the frequencies of 2AP-induced transition in the first and second positions of amber codons and their ochre alleles are correlated. However, there is little correlation between the frequencies of 5BU-induced transitions in the first and second positions of allelic amber and ochre codons.  (+info)

Cytokinin activation of Arabidopsis cell division through a D-type cyclin. (2/3669)

Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate plant cell division. The D-type cyclin CycD3 was found to be elevated in a mutant of Arabidopsis with a high level of cytokinin and to be rapidly induced by cytokinin application in both cell cultures and whole plants. Constitutive expression of CycD3 in transgenic plants allowed induction and maintenance of cell division in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. Results suggest that cytokinin activates Arabidopsis cell division through induction of CycD3 at the G1-S cell cycle phase transition.  (+info)

Impact of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis in tumor cells. (3/3669)

Following exposure to 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (an inhibitor of the cellular DNA polymerases alpha, delta and epsilon), human erythroleukemia K562, human T-lymphoid CEM and murine leukemia L1210 cells markedly accumulated in the S phase of the cell cycle. In contrast to DNA replication, RNA synthesis (transcription) and protein synthesis (mRNA translation) were not affected by 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)-adenine. The ribonucleoside triphosphate pools were slightly elevated, while the intracellular levels of all four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates were 1.5-4-fold increased in 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562, CEM and L1210 cells. The effect of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on de novo (thymidylate synthase-mediated) and salvage (thymidine kinase-mediated) dTTP synthesis was investigated using radio-labelled nucleoside precursors. The amount of thymidylate synthase-derived dTTP in the acid soluble pool was 2-4-fold higher in PMEA-treated than in untreated K562 cells, which is in accord with the 3-4-fold expansion of the global dTTP level in the presence of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Strikingly, 2-derived dTTP accumulated to a much higher extent (i.e. 16-40-fold) in the soluble dTTP pool upon 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine treatment. In keeping with this finding, a markedly increased thymidine kinase activity could be demonstrated in extracts of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562 cell cultures. Also, in the presence of 200 microM 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine, 14-fold less thymidylate synthase-derived but only 3-fold less thymidine kinase-derived dTTP was incorporated into the DNA of the K562 cells. These data show that thymidine incorporation may be inappropriate as a cell proliferation marker in the presence of DNA synthesis inhibitors such as 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Our findings indicate that 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine causes a peculiar pattern of (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism deregulation in drug-treated tumor cells, as a result of the metabolic block imposed by the drug on the S phase of the cell cycle.  (+info)

The major, N2-dG adduct of (+)-anti-B[a]PDE induces G-->A mutations in a 5'-AGA-3' sequence context. (4/3669)

Previously, in a random mutagenesis study, the (+)-anti diol epoxide of benzo[a]pyrene [(+)-anti-B[a]PDE] was shown to induce a complex mutational spectrum in the supF gene of an Escherichia coli plasmid, which included insertions, deletions and base substitution mutations, notably a significant fraction of GC-->TA, GC-->AT and GC-->CG mutations. At some sites, a single type of mutation dominated and to understand individual mutagenic pathways these sites were chosen for study by site-specific means to determine whether the major adduct, [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG, was responsible. [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG was shown to induce approximately 95% G-->T mutations in a 5'-TGC-3' sequence context and approximately 80% G-->A mutations in a 5'-CGT-3' sequence context. (+)-anti-B[a]PDE induced principally GC-->CG mutations in the G133 sequence context (5'-AGA-3') in studies using both SOS-uninduced or SOS-induced E. coli. Herein, [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG is shown to induce principally G-->A mutations (>90%) either without or with SOS induction in a closely related 5'-AGA-3' sequence context (identical over 7 bp). This is the first time that there has been a discrepancy between the mutagenic specificity of (+)-anti-B[a]PDE versus [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG. Eight explanations for this discordance are considered. Four are ruled out; e.g. the second most prevalent adduct [+ca]-B[a]P-N2-dG also induces a preponderance of G-->A mutations (>90%), so it also is not responsible for (+)-anti-B[a]PDE-induced G133-->C mutations. The four explanations not ruled out are discussed and include that another minor adduct might be responsible and that the 5'-AGA-3' sequence context differed slightly in the studies with [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG versus (+)-anti-B[a]PDE. In spite of the discordance, [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG induces G-->A mutations in the context studied herein and this result has proven useful in generating a hypothesis for what conformations of [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG are responsible for G-->T versus G-->A mutations.  (+info)

Hprt mutant frequency and molecular analysis of Hprt mutations in Fischer 344 rats treated with thiotepa. (5/3669)

Thiotepa is a bifunctional alkylating anticancer drug that is a rodent carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen. In order to determine the sensitivity of mutant induction in the Hprt lymphocyte assay for detecting tumorigenic doses of thiotepa, Fischer 344 rats were treated for 4 weeks with thiotepa using a procedure adapted from a carcinogenesis protocol. At various times after beginning the treatment regimen, rats were killed and the lymphocyte Hprt assay was performed on splenic lymphocytes isolated from the animals. The 6-thioguanine-resistant T lymphocyte mutant frequency increased with time during the period of thiotepa exposure and declined slightly thereafter. Significant dose-dependent increases in mutant frequency were found using concentrations of thiotepa that eventually result in lymphoproliferative tumors. Hprt mRNA from mutant lymphocytes was reverse transcribed to cDNA, amplified by PCR and examined for mutations by DNA sequencing. This analysis indicated that the major type of point mutation was G:C-->T:A transversion and that 33% of the mutants contained simple or complex frameshifts. Also, a multiplex PCR performed on DNA from mutant clones that were expanded in vitro indicated that 34% of the clones had deletions in the Hprt gene. These results indicate that the induction of lymphocyte Hprt mutants is a sensitive biomarker for the carcinogenicity of thiotepa and that the types of mutations found in the lymphocyte Hprt gene reflect the kinds of DNA damage produced by thiotepa.  (+info)

In vitro reactions of butadiene monoxide with single- and double-stranded DNA: characterization and quantitation of several purine and pyrimidine adducts. (6/3669)

We have previously shown that butadiene monoxide (BM), the primary metabolite of 1,3-butadiene, reacted with nucleosides to form alkylation products that exhibited different rates of formation and different stabilities under in vitro physiological conditions. In the present study, BM was reacted with single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) calf thymus DNA and the alkylation products were characterized after enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA. The primary products were regioisomeric N-7-guanine adducts. N-3-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)adenine and N-3-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl)adenine, which were depurinated from the DNA more rapidly than the N-7-guanine adducts, were also formed. In addition, N6-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)deoxyadenosine and N6-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl)deoxyadenosine were detected and evidence was obtained that these adducts were formed by Dimroth rearrangement of the corresponding N-1-deoxyadenosine adducts, not while in the DNA, but following the release of the N-1-alkylated nucleosides by enzymatic hydrolysis. N-3-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)deoxyuridine adducts, which were apparently formed subsequent to deamination reactions of the corresponding deoxycytidine adducts, were also detected and were stable in the DNA. Adduct formation was linearly dependent upon BM concentration (10-1000 mM), with adduct ratios being similar at the various BM concentrations. At a high BM concentration (750 mM), the adducts were formed in a linear fashion for up to 8 h in both ssDNA and dsDNA. However, the rates of formation of the N-3-deoxyuridine and N6-deoxyadenosine adducts increased 10- to 20-fold in ssDNA versus dsDNA, whereas the N-7-guanine adducts increased only slightly, presumably due to differences in hydrogen bonding in ssDNA versus dsDNA. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis of both BM and its parent compound, 1,3-butadiene.  (+info)

Early short-term 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine treatment favorably alters the subsequent disease course in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected newborn Rhesus macaques. (7/3669)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of newborn macaques is a useful animal model of human pediatric AIDS to study disease pathogenesis and to develop intervention strategies aimed at delaying disease. In the present study, we demonstrate that very early events of infection greatly determine the ultimate disease course, as short-term antiviral drug administration during the initial viremia stage significantly delayed the onset of AIDS. Fourteen newborn macaques were inoculated orally with uncloned, highly virulent SIVmac251. The four untreated control animals showed persistently high virus levels and poor antiviral immune responses; they developed fatal immunodeficiency within 15 weeks. In contrast, SIV-infected newborn macaques which were started on 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA) treatment at 5 days of age and continued for either 14 or 60 days showed reduced virus levels and enhanced antiviral immune responses. This short-term PMPA treatment did not induce detectable emergence of SIV mutants with reduced in vitro susceptibility to PMPA. Although viremia increased in most animals after PMPA treatment was withdrawn, all animals remained disease-free for at least 6 months. Our data suggest that short-term treatment with a potent antiviral drug regimen during the initial viremia will significantly prolong AIDS-free survival for HIV-infected infants and adults.  (+info)

Enzyme-mononucleotide interactions: three different folds share common structural elements for ATP recognition. (8/3669)

Three ATP-dependent enzymes with different folds, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, D-Ala:D-Ala ligase and the alpha-subunit of the alpha2beta2 ribonucleotide reductase, have a similar organization of their ATP-binding sites. The most meaningful similarity was found over 23 structurally equivalent residues in each protein and includes three strands each from their beta-sheets, in addition to a connecting loop. The equivalent secondary structure elements in each of these enzymes donate four amino acids forming key hydrogen bonds responsible for the common orientation of the "AMP" moieties of their ATP-ligands. One lysine residue conserved throughout the three families binds the alpha-phosphate in each protein. The common fragments of structure also position some, but not all, of the equivalent residues involved in hydrophobic contacts with the adenine ring. These examples of convergent evolution reinforce the view that different proteins can fold in different ways to produce similar structures locally, and nature can take advantage of these features when structure and function demand it, as shown here for the common mode of ATP-binding by three unrelated proteins.  (+info)

Several new synthetic agents show high affinity for binding adenine derivatives. The structures feature complementary hydrogen bonds that cause the molecular chelation of the purine nucleus. The high lipophilicity of the new agents permits the transport of adenosine and deoxyadenosine across organic liquid membranes. The use of synthetic receptors for small biological targets may have application in drug delivery. ...
TY - PAT. T1 - Novel Adenine Derivatives and the Use Thereof. AU - Kim, Won-Ki. PY - 2017/8/16. Y1 - 2017/8/16. N2 - 신규한 아데닌 유도체 및 그 용도. AB - 신규한 아데닌 유도체 및 그 용도. M3 - Patent. M1 - 10-1770374. ER - ...
Cybulski, R L. and Goldman, I D., Discrimination between adenine transport and metabolism in l1210 cells. Abstr. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 836 ...
Adenine (sometimes known as vitamin B4) combines with the sugar ribose to form adenosine, which in turn can be bonded with from one to three phosphoric acid units, yielding AMP, ADP and ATP . These adenine derivatives perform important functions in cellular metabolism. Adenine is one of four nitrogenous bases utilized in the synthesis of nucleic acids. A modified form of adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) is an imporant secondary messenger in the propagation of many hormonal stimuli. Adenine is an integral part of the structure of many coenzymes. Adenosine (adenine with a ribose group) causes transient heart block in the AV node of the heart. In individuals suspected of suffering from a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), adenosine is used to help identify the rhythm. Certain SVTs can be successfully terminated with adenosine ...
The him1 mutation has been shown to influence the genetic effects of the mutagenic purine base analog 6-hydroxylaminopurine, i. e. inactivation of haploid cells, mutation induction, and inhibition of DNA synthesis in vivo. The influence observed is well consistent with the idea that the him1 mutation affects mismatch correction. We present evidence that during in vivo DNA replication 6-hydroxylaminopurine incorporates into the yeast DNA.
I want to start up some simple assays for cAMP levels in cultured cells. The approach I am going to take is to metabolically label the cells with [3H]-adenine, and then measure the [3H]-cAMP that is produced from drug treatments in the assay several hours later. Ideally, I would like the use cell culture medium that is deficient in adenine in order to increase the amount of hot adenine that is taken up. However, when I look over the list of ingredients in D-MEM, I see that adenine isnt one of them. Therefore, either the cells are making their own nucleotides, or their primary source of adenine must be from the FBS that we conventionally add to the D-MEM. Does anyone do these kind of assays, and do you typically remove the serum when you load the cells with hot adenine? If I can avoid serum-starving the cells, I would prefer to do so. John hines at pharm.med.upenn.edu ...
Reference data were obtained primarily from the PubChem database.. Three dimensional molecular rendering uses Jmol.. InChI string and atom numbering calculated using ALATIS (Hesam Dashti, William M. Westler, John L. Markley, Hamid R. Eghbalnia, Unique identifiers for small molecules enable rigorous labeling of their atoms, Scientific Data 4, Article number: 170073 (2017), doi:10.1038/sdata.2017.73, https://www.nature.com/articles/sdata201773). ...
1FJB: Structural Studies of the Ionizing Radiation Adduct 7,8-Dihydro-8-Oxoadenine (A Oxo) Positioned Opposite Thymine and Guanine in DNA Duplexes
99% high quality Adenine,CAS:73-24-5 Product name:Adenine CAS No.:73-24-5 Molecular formula:C5H5N5 Molecular weight:135.13 Product Specifications:Pharmacopoeial grade Purity:99%+ Brand:Hotai Origion:Hubei,China Price:Negotiable Package:Aluminum...
Adenine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Adenine is available on the Drugs.com website.
adenine: Organic compound belonging to the purine family, occurring free in tea or combined in many substances of biological importance, including the nucleic acids, which govern hereditary...
Learn more about Adenine sulphate. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
We provide secure, cost-effective access to the UKs richest collection of digital content: giving you access to the latest data and content from leading international publishers and providers.. Find out more at jisc.ac.uk. ...
What are the gens? They are the parts of DNA present on the chromosomes and they control the individuals hereditary traits, And the hereditary traits are transferred from the parents to their offspring through ...
2015 Elsevier Ltd. Background Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate can cause renal and bone toxic effects related to high plasma tenofovir concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide is a novel tenofovir prodrug with a 90% reduction in plasma tenofovir concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide-containing regimens can have improved renal and bone safety compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing regimens. Methods In these two controlled, double-blind phase 3 studies, we recruited treatment-naive HIV-infected patients with an estimated creatinine clearance of 50 mL per min or higher from 178 outpatient centres in 16 countries. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily oral tablets containing 150 mg elvitegravir, 150 mg cobicistat, 200 mg emtricitabine, and 10 mg tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/tenofovir alafenamide) or 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) with matching placebo. Randomisation was done by a computer-generated allocation sequence (block ...
Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate drug information: uses, indications, side effects, dosage. Compare prices for generic emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate substitutes: Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets, Tavin- EM, Tenof- EM
Lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate - Get up-to-date information on Lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
TY - JOUR. T1 - Randomized trial of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate after hepatitis B immunoglobulin withdrawal after liver transplantation. AU - Teperman, Lewis W.. AU - Poordad, Fred. AU - Bzowej, Natalie. AU - Martin, Paul. AU - Pungpapong, Surakit. AU - Schiano, Thomas. AU - Flaherty, John. AU - Dinh, Phillip. AU - Rossi, Stephen. AU - Subramanian, G. Mani. AU - Spivey, James. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013/6. Y1 - 2013/6. N2 - Long-term prophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in patients with chronic HBV infection is inconvenient and costly. This randomized, prospective phase 2 study compared emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) after HBIG withdrawal to FTC/TDF plus HBIG for the prevention of HBV recurrence after OLT. Forty patients with a median time since liver transplantation of 3.4 years ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term (96-week) Efficacy and Safety After Switching from Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF) to Tenofovir Alafenamide (TAF) in HIV-infected, Virologically Suppressed Adults. AU - Raffi, Francois. AU - Orkin, Chloe. AU - Clarke, Amanda. AU - Slama, Laurence. AU - Gallant, Joel. AU - Daar, Eric. AU - Henry, Keith. AU - Santana-Bagur, Jorge. AU - Stein, David K.. AU - Bellos, Nicholaos. AU - Scarsella, Anthony. AU - Yan, Mingjin. AU - Abram, Michael E.. AU - Cheng, Andrew. AU - Rhee, Martin S S. PY - 2017/3/6. Y1 - 2017/3/6. N2 - ABSTRACT:: In a double-blind, phase 3 trial, 663 HIV-infected, virologically suppressed adults were randomized to switch to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF; n=333) vs. remain on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF; n=330), each coformulated with emtricitabine (FTC), while continuing their third agent (boosted protease inhibitor or unboosted third agent). At week 96, 88.6% on FTC/TAF and 89.1% on FTC/TDF had HIV-1 RNA ,50 copies/mL (adjusted difference -0.5%; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate monotherapy for nucleos(t)ide-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients in Korea. T2 - data from the clinical practice setting in a single-center cohort. AU - Ahn, Sung S.oo. AU - Chon, Young E.un. AU - Kim, Beom K.yung. AU - Kim, Seung U.p.. AU - Kim, Do Y.oung. AU - Ahn, Sang H.oon. AU - Han, Kwang Hyub. AU - Park, Jun Y.ong. PY - 2014/9/1. Y1 - 2014/9/1. N2 - BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study assessed the antiviral efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) for up to 12 months in Korean treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.METHODS: A total of 411 treatment-naïve CHB patients who had been treated with TDF for at least 3 months (median 5.6) were consecutively enrolled. Clinical, biochemical, virological parameters and treatment adherence were routinely assessed every 3 months.RESULTS: The median age was 51.3 years, 63.0% of the patients were male, 49.6% were HBeAg (+), and 210 patients had liver cirrhosis. The median baseline HBV ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Lymphoid Tissue Pharmacokinetics of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate and Tenofovir Alafenamide in HIV-Infected Persons. AU - Fletcher, Courtney V.. AU - Podany, Anthony T.. AU - Thorkelson, Ann. AU - Winchester, Lee C.. AU - Mykris, Timothy. AU - Anderson, Jodi. AU - Jorstad, Siri. AU - Baker, Jason V.. AU - Schacker, Timothy W.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by grants 1R01 AI‐124965 (to CVF) and U01 AI‐105872 (to TWS) from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Publisher Copyright: © 2020 The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics © 2020 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. PY - 2020/11/1. Y1 - 2020/11/1. N2 - The secondary lymphoid tissues (LT), lymph nodes (LN) and gut-associated lymphoid tissue are the primary sites of HIV replication and where the latent pool of virus is maintained. We compared the pharmacokinetics of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) in LT of 13 ...
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate(TDF) (CAS 202138-50-9) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate(tdf)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Infant growth outcomes after maternal tenofovir disoproxil fumarate use during pregnancy.. AU - Ransom, Carla E.. AU - Huo, Yanling. AU - Patel, Kunjal. AU - Scott, Gwendolyn B.. AU - Watts, Heather D.. AU - Williams, Paige. AU - Siberry, George K.. AU - Livingston, Elizabeth G.. PY - 2013/12/1. Y1 - 2013/12/1. N2 - To determine whether maternal use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for treatment of HIV in pregnancy predicts fetal and infant growth. The study population included HIV-uninfected live-born singleton infants of mothers enrolled in the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol P1025 (born 2002-2011) in the United States and exposed in utero to a combined (triple or more) antiretroviral regimen. Infant weight at birth and 6 months was compared between infants exposed and unexposed to tenofovir in utero using 2-sample t test, χ test, and multivariable linear and logistic regression models, including demographic and maternal ...
A Randomized, Phase II, Controlled Trial Comparing the Efficacy of Adefovir Dipivoxil and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate for the Treatment of Lamivudine-Resistant Hepatitis B Virus in Subjects Who Are Co-Infected With HIV ...
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Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) 300 mg plus placebo to match adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) (double-blind period), followed by TDF 300 mg (open-label period). Participants may have added emtricitabine (FTC) to their treatment regimen (as part of FTC 200 mg/TDF 300 mg fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet) in the open-label period ...
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This study is to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics (PK) and confirm the dose of the elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF) single tablet regimen (STR) in HIV-1 infected, antiretroviral (ARV) treatment-naive adolescents. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy will also be evaluated through Week 48.. A total of 50 adolescent participants (12 to , 18 years of age) will be enrolled to receive EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF as follows:. ...
Background: Off-target renal and bone side effects may occur with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use. Compared with TDF, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) results in significantly reduced plasma tenofovir (TFV) and may have less renal and bone toxicity.. Methods: Treatment naïve HIV-1+ adults were randomized 1:1 to a single tablet regimen of E/C/F/TAF or E/C/F/TDF once daily in two double blind studies. Assessments included measures of renal function and bone mineral density (BMD). Four pre-specified secondary safety endpoints were tested: serum creatinine, treatment-emergent proteinuria, spine and hip BMD. Week 48 off-target side effects data are described.. Results: Combined, the two studies randomized and treated 1,733 subjects. Plasma TFV was ,90% lower (mean [%CV] AUCtau 297 (20) vs. 3,410 (25) nghr/mL) in the E/C/F/TAF arm, compared to the E/C/F/TDF arm. Serum creatinine (mean [SD] change: +0.08 [0.124] vs +0.11 [0.217] mg/dL, p,0.001), quantified proteinuria (UPCR, median [Q1, Q3] % ...
Learn about Atripla (Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
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Medication Guide TRUVADA (tru-vah-dah) (emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) Tablets Read this Medication Guide before you start taking TRUVADA and each time you get a refill. There may be
On June 8, 2017, the Food and Drug Administration approved the first generic version of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets, ...
Professional guide for Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more.
This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of entecavir versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
Brand Name: Cimduo Other Names: 3TC/TDF, Lamivudine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Drug Class: Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors WARNING:Cimduo can cause serious, life-threatening side effec
Background. The efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) as part of combination antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been demonstrated in several randomized, controlled trials. However, an increasing number of case reports suggest that TDF use may be associated with significant nephrotoxicity. Our objective was to determine the renal safety of TDF-containing ART regimens for HIV-infected individuals.. Methods. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Biosis Previews, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and existing systematic reviews were searched. Prospective studies comparing TDF-containing with non-TDF containing ART regimens were selected for inclusion. We extracted data on study characteristics, participant characteristics, therapeutic interventions, renal function, bone density, and fracture rates.. Results. A total of 17 studies (including 9 randomized, controlled trials) met the selection criteria. Median sample size was 517 participants. Constituent ART regimens were diverse. There ...
Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is the antiretroviral drug most commonly associated with renal dysfunction. However, few studies have examined this association in sub-Saharan Africa despite recent scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all people living wi...
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Lim, S.G., Marcellin, P., Tassopoulos, N., Hadziyannis, S., Chang, T.T., Tong, M., Sievert, W., Hu, P., Arterburn, S., Brosgart, C.L. (2007). Clinical trial: Effects of adefovir dipivoxil therapy in Asian and Caucasian patients with chronic hepatitis B. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 26 (10) : 1419-1428. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03506. ...
Darunavir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) 800/150/200/10 mg is a once-daily, single-tablet regimen for treatment of HIV-1 infection. The efficacy/safety of switching to D/C/F/TAF versus continuing boosted protease inhibitor (bPI) + emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (control) were demonstrated in a phase 3, randomized study (EMERALD) of treatment-experienced, virologically suppressed adults through week 48. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate EMERALD outcomes across subgroups of patients based on demographic characteristics, prior treatment experience, and baseline antiretroviral regimen. EMERALD patients were virologically suppressed (viral load [VL] | 50 copies/mL for ≥ 2 months at screening). Prior non-darunavir virologic failure (VF) was allowed. Primary endpoint was proportion of patients with virologic rebound (confirmed VL ≥ 50 copies/mL) cumulative through week 48. Virologic response was VL | 50 copies/mL (FDA snapshot). Safety was assessed by
FOSTER CITY, Calif. & WHITEHOUSE STATION, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Aug. 11, 2006--Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: GILD) and Merck & Co., Inc. (NYSE: MRK) today announced that the companies have established an agreement for the distribution of ATRIPLA(TM) (efavirenz 600 mg/ emtricitabine 200 mg/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg), a once-daily, single tablet regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults, in developing countries around the world.. ATRIPLA contains 600 mg of efavirenz, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), 200 mg of emtricitabine and 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, both nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Efavirenz is marketed by Merck under the tradename Stocrin(R) in all territories outside of the United States, Canada and certain European countries (where it is commercialized by Bristol-Myers Squibb under the tradename Sustiva(R)). Emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are commercialized by Gilead Sciences under ...
This retrospective single-center analysis included 212 people taking TDF with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs), 176 with nonnucleosides, 46 with dolutegravir or raltegravir, and 76 with elvitegravir/cobicistat. Tenofovir troughs proved significantly higher with elvitegravir/cobicistat or with boosted PIs than with nonnucleosides or integrase inhibitors (P < 0.01). Multivariate regression analysis with tenofovir trough concentration as the dependent variable indicated significantly higher tenofovir troughs with elvitegravir/cobicistat than with ritonavir-boosted PIs (beta 0.27, P = 0.001). In the same analysis, women had higher tenofovir troughs than men (beta 0.20, P = 0.004). Older age and lower weight were also associated with higher tenofovir troughs ...
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate at PatientsLikeMe. 48 patients with fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, diabetes type 2, systemic lupus erythematosus, post-traumatic stress disorder, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinsons disease, bipolar disorder, high blood pressure (hypertension), panic disorder, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), epilepsy, migraine, hypothyroidism, osteoarthritis, high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, bipolar II disorder, asthma, traumatic brain injury, social anxiety disorder, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease or bipolar I disorder currently take Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.
BACKGROUND: Effective two-drug regimens could decrease long-term drug exposure and toxicity with HIV-1 antiretroviral therapy (ART). We therefore aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a two-drug regimen compared with a three-drug regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in ART-naive adults.. METHODS: We conducted two identically designed, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trials: GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2. Both studies were done at 192 centres in 21 countries. We included participants (≥18 years) with HIV-1 infection and a screening HIV-1 RNA of 500 000 copies per mL or less, and who were naive to ART. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to receive a once-daily two-drug regimen of dolutegravir (50 mg) plus lamivudine (300 mg) or a once-daily three-drug regimen of dolutegravir (50 mg) plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg). Both drug regimens were administered orally. We masked participants and investigators to treatment ...
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The addition of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) to ongoing lamivudine therapy is effective against lamivudine-resistant virus in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We studied 39 patients who received ADV added to lamivudine for breakthrough hepatitis. We determined early viral changes (12 wee …
Patrick Marcellin1, Maria Buti2, Edward Gane3, Naoky Tsai4, William Sievert5, Ira M. Jacobson6, George Germanidis7, Phillip Dinh8, John F. Flaherty8, Kathryn M. Kitrinos8, John G. McHutchison8, Nezam H. Afdhal9 1H pital Beaujon, Clichy, France; 2Hospital General Universitari Vall dHebron and Ciberehd, Barcelona, Spain; 3Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand; 4University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, United States; 5Monash University and Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 6Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States; 7AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University Medical School, Thessaloniki, Greece; 8Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA, United States; 9Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States ...
See Article on [Related article:] 230. Clinical resistance to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) did not develop in any patient after 8 years of TDF treatment in a phase III clinical trial for treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) [1]. Potent efficacy and high barrier to resistance of TDF have been established, even in patients who have been previously treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) or have NUC-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants. We previously reported that TDF-based rescue therapy was effective in patients harboring lamivudine (LAM)-resistant or multidrug-resistant HBV variants [2,3]. Moreover, two randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of TDF monotherapy in patients infected with HBV variants resistant to adefovir (ADV) and entecavir (ETV) were conducted, and non-inferior antiviral efficacy compared with TDF plus ETV combination therapy was demonstrated [4,5]. On the basis of in vitro and in vivo data, there was concern that HBV ...
Background and Aims: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is recommended for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment, but it may induce kidney dysfunction whose management is not yet known. This Italian, multicentre, retrospective study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of switching to entecavir (ETV) patients who developed TDF-associated glomerular and/or tubular dysfunction. Methods: A total of 103 TDF-treated patients were included as follows: age 64 years, 83% male, 49% cirrhotics, 98% with undetectable HBV DNA, 47% with previous lamivudine resistance (LMV-R) and 71% previously treated with adefovir. Twenty-nine (28%) were switched to ETV because estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR MDRD ) was <60 mL/min, 37 (36%) because blood phosphate (P) levels were <2.5 mg/dL and 37 (36%) for both reasons. Kidney, liver and virological parameters were recorded every 4 months thereafter. Results: During 46 (4-115) months of ETV treatment, all patients renal ...
Replication stress is a common feature of cancer cells. Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and Rad3-related (ATR) signalling, a DNA damage repair (DDR) pathway, is activated by regions of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that can arise during replication stress. ATR delays cell cycle progression and prevents DNA replication fork collapse, which prohibits cell death and promotes proliferation. Several ATR inhibitors have been developed in order to restrain this protective mechanism in tumours. It is known, however, that despite other effective anticancer chemotherapy treatments targeting DDR pathways, resistance occurs. This begets the need to identify combination treatments to overcome resistance and prevent tumour cell growth. We conducted a drug screen to identify potential synergistic combination treatments by screening an ATR inhibitor (VE822) together with compounds from a bioactive small molecule library. The screen identified adefovir dipivoxil, a reverse transcriptase inhibitor and nucleoside
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has demonstrated high antiviral efficacy in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection but experience in nucleoside/nucleotide analogue (NA)-experienced patients is limited. In this retrospective multicenter study we therefore assessed the long-term efficacy of TDF monotherapy in patients with prior failure or resistance to different NA treatments. Criteria for inclusion were HBV DNA levels ,4.0 log10copies/mL at the start and aminimum period of TDF therapy for at least 6 months. In all, 131 patients (mean age 42 ± 12 years, 95 male, 65% hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg]-positive) were eligible. Pretreatment consisted of either monotherapy with lamivudine (LAM; n = 18), adefovir (ADV; n = 8), and sequential LAM-ADV therapy (n = 73), or add-on combination therapy with both drugs (n = 29). Three patients had failed entecavir therapy. Resistance analysis in 113 of the 131 patients revealed genotypic LAM and ADV resistance in 62% and 19% ...
2014 International Medical Press. Background: Tenofovir (TDF) is associated with phosphaturia and elevated 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-OH(2)D). Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) causes phosphaturia and increases in response to elevated 1,25-OH(2)D. Vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) binds to 1,25-OH(2)D, decreasing its biological activity, and is elevated in individuals with higher plasma tenofovir concentrations. We compared FGF23 and VDBP before and after vitamin D3 (VITD) supplementation in youths treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing or not containing TDF.Methods: A randomized controlled trial in HIV-positive youths aged 18-25 years enrolled participants based on cART treatment with TDF (TDF; n=118) or without TDF (no-TDF; n=85), and randomized within those groups to VITD (50,000 IU every 4 weeks) or placebo (PL). We measured FGF23 and VDBP and calculated free 1,25-OH(2)D at baseline and week 12, and compared changes by TDF treatment and VITD randomized ...
Adenine). HCN has been detected in the interstellar medium and in the atmospheres of carbon stars. Since then, extensive ...
Adenine Pr. ISBN 0-940030-78-0. "(IUCr) G. N. Ramachandran". www.iucr.org. Retrieved 21 October 2020. Vijayan, M.; Johnson, L. ...
Adenine Pr. p. 386. ISBN 978-0940030350. {{cite book}}: ,author= has generic name (help) D. P. Burma (2011). From Physiology ...
... adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. It is also used to treat kidney stones caused by deficient activity of adenine ...
7a Adenine; 7b Thymine; 7 Adenine/thymine WC; 8a Methane; 8 Methane dimer; 9a Ethene; 9 Ethene dimer; 10 Benzene/methane; 11a ... Benzene; 11 Benzene dimer; 12a Pyrazine; 12 Pyrazine dimer; 13 Uracil dimer; 14a Indole; 14 Indole/benzene; 15 Adenine/thymine ...
Adeniji, Ade. "Nine Questions for Clarisse Machanguana, Former WNBA Player". Inside Philanthropy. Retrieved 13 May 2022. " ...
... adenine and 9-(2,3-epimino-2,3-dideoxy-.beta.-D-lyxofuranosyl)adenine". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 44 (8): 1317-22. doi: ...
Determination of Adenine Compounds". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 167: 445-459. Kalckar, H.M.; Shafran, Manya (1947c). " ...
... adenine + epoxyqueuosine34 in tRNA The reaction is a combined transfer and isomerization of the ribose moiety of S-adenosyl-L- ... adenine releasing). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 7-aminomethyl-7- ...
People affected by adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency may produce 2,8-dihydroxyadenine stones, alkaptonurics produce ... Kamatani N (December 1996). "[Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase(APRT) deficiency]". Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical ...
For example, adenine + PRPP --> AMP + PPi. This reaction requires the enzyme adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. Free guanine is ... Adenine and guanine are the two nucleotides classified as purines. In purine synthesis, PRPP is turned into inosine ...
I. Adenine from hydrogen cyanide". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 94 (2): 217-227. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(61)90033-9. ... One of his most important contributions was the prebiotic synthesis of the nucleobase adenine (a key component of nucleic acids ... Oró, J. (1961). "Mechanism of Synthesis of Adenine from Hydrogen Cyanide under Possible Primitive Earth Conditions". Nature. ...
The blood is usually stored in a flexible plastic bag that also contains sodium citrate, phosphate, dextrose, and adenine. This ... Sugita, Yoshiki; Simon, Ernest R. (1965). "The Mechanism of Action of Adenine in Red Cell Preservation*". Journal of Clinical ... Akerblom O, Kreuger A (1975). "Studies on citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) blood supplemented with adenine". Vox Sang. 29 (2): ... Simon, Ernest R.; Chapman, Robert G.; Finch, Clement A. (1962). "Adenine in red cell preservation". Journal of Clinical ...
In 1961, Joan Oró found that the nucleotide base adenine could be made from hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and ammonia in a water ... I. Adenine from hydrogen cyanide". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 94 (2): 217-27. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(61)90033-9. ... His experiment produced a large amount of adenine, the molecules of which were formed from 5 molecules of HCN. Also, many amino ... Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (2007) Orgel, Leslie E. (2004). "Prebiotic Adenine Revisited: Eutectics and ...
Sugita, Yoshiki; Simon, Ernest R. (1965). "The Mechanism of Action of Adenine in Red Cell Preservation*". Journal of Clinical ... Simon, Ernest R.; Chapman, Robert G.; Finch, Clement A. (1962). "Adenine in Red Cell Preservation". Journal of Clinical ...
In 1961, Joan Oró found that the nucleotide base adenine could be made from hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and ammonia in a water ... I. Adenine from hydrogen cyanide". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 94 (2): 217-27. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(61)90033-9. ...
Nicotinamide Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide PubChem. "Isonicotinamide". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-07-25. " ...
NAD See nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide. NADP See nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate. nascent In the process of ... nick nick translation nicking enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP ... Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are classified as purines. The letter R is sometimes used to indicate a generic purine; e.g. in a ... Uracil forms a base pair with adenine. In DNA, uracil is not used at all, and is instead replaced with thymine. uridine (U, Urd ...
ISBN 978-3-540-13255-4. Sugita, Yoshiki; Simon, Ernest R. (1965). "The Mechanism of Action of Adenine in Red Cell Preservation ... Simon, Ernest R.; Chapman, Robert G.; Finch, Clement A. (1962). "Adenine in Red Cell Preservation". Journal of Clinical ...
RNA also uses a different set of bases than DNA-adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil, instead of adenine, guanine, cytosine ... Adenine readily binds uracil or thymine. Uracil is, however, one product of damage to cytosine that makes RNA particularly ... adenine, is merely a pentamer of hydrogen cyanide, and it happens that this particular base is used as omnipresent energy ... adenine, guanine, and related organic molecules) may have been formed in outer space. In 2017, research using a numerical model ...
The nitrogen bases adenine and guanine are purine in structure and form a glycosidic bond between their 9 nitrogen and the 1' - ... The purines are adenine and guanine. Purines consist of a double ring structure, a six-membered and a five-membered ring ... A purine base always pairs with a pyrimidine base (guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C) and adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T) ... Nucleotides consist of 3 components: Nitrogenous base Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine (present in DNA only) Uracil (present in ...
Koo, H. S.; Drak, J.; Rice, J. A.; Crothers, D. M. (1990). "Determination of the extent of DNA bending by an adenine-thymine ... Koo, H. S.; Wu, H. M.; Crothers, D. M. (1986). "DNA bending at adenine · thymine tracts". Nature. 320 (6062): 501-6. Bibcode: ...
However, while adenine and guanine require freezing conditions for synthesis, cytosine and uracil may require boiling ... Nucleobases like guanine and adenine can be synthesized from simple carbon and nitrogen sources like hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and ... NASA studies of meteorites suggest that all four DNA nucleobases (adenine, guanine and related organic molecules) have been ... Levy, Matthew; Miller, Stanley L.; Brinton, Karen; Bada, Jeffrey L. (June 2000). "Prebiotic Synthesis of Adenine and Amino ...
Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming A-T and G-C base pairs. The nucleobases are classified into ... The four bases found in DNA are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). These four bases are attached to the ... In DNA, the pyrimidines are thymine and cytosine; the purines are adenine and guanine. Both strands of double-stranded DNA ... Modifications of the bases cytosine and adenine, the more common and modified DNA bases, play vital roles in the epigenetic ...
Albany, New York, USA: Adenine Press. pp. 69-78. ISBN 0-940030-29-2. Bolshoy, Alexander; McNamara, Peter; Harrington, Robert E ...
Adenine (programming language written in RDF). XQuery, or XML Query, is a standard query language for XML documents. Graph ...
... s have either FMN or FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) as a prosthetic group or as a cofactor. The flavin is ... Similar experiments with D-amino acid oxidase led to the identification of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a second form ... A synthesis of flavin?adenine dinucleotide". Journal of the Chemical Society: 46-52. doi:10.1039/JR9540000046. "NADPH P450 ...
"Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a photocatalyst". Science Advances. 5 (7): eaax0501. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aax0501. List of ... "Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a photocatalyst". Science Advances. 5 (7): eaax0501. Bibcode:2019SciA....5..501K. doi: ...
Schrecker AW, Kornberg A (1950). "Reversible enzymatic synthesis of flavin-adenine dinucleotide". J. Biol. Chem. 182 (2): 795- ... transadenylase adenosine triphosphate-riboflavine mononucleotide transadenylase FAD synthetase riboflavin adenine dinucleotide ...
The enzyme adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) salvages adenine. The enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase ... Both adenine and guanine are derived from the nucleotide inosine monophosphate (IMP), which is the first compound in the ...
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is an inherited condition that affects the kidneys and urinary tract. ... A lack of functional enzyme impairs the conversion of adenine to AMP. As a result, adenine is converted to another molecule ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is an inherited condition that affects the kidneys and urinary tract. The ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012 Apr;27(4):571-9. doi: 10.1007/s00467-011-2037-0 ...
... bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD ... The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA. The adjacent image shows pure adenine, as an ... Adenosine is adenine reacted with ribose, as used in RNA and ATP; deoxyadenosine is adenine attached to deoxyribose, as used to ... To extract the adenine from the charcoal-adsorbed adenine, ammonia gas dissolved in water (aqua ammonia) is poured onto the ...
Adenine has been used in yeast extract supplemented (YES) broth and yeast nitrogen base glutamate (YNG)l media; Adenine (Ade) ... Adenine (6-Aminopurine ); BioReagent, ,= 99%; Suitable for plant cell culture; ... Adenine may be used as a plant cell culture additive. Adenine Sulphate (25mg/L) in the culture media such as Murashige & Skoog ... Adenine (Ade) is a purine base, which is present in nucleic acids. It binds with ribose to form nucleoside adenosine (A) and ...
We assessed in utero adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) delivery of an adenine base editor (ABE) targeting the Idua G→A ( ... and the adenine deaminase converts a nearby adenine to hypoxanthine and, ultimately, guanine. Unlike HDR, adenine base editing ... In utero adenine base editing corrects multi-organ pathology in a lethal lysosomal storage disease. *Sourav K. Bose1,2 na1, ... Adenine base editing in mouse embryos and an adult mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Nat. Biotechnol. 36, 536-539 ( ...
Adenine is found in brewers yeast, whole grains, raw unadulterated honey, bee pollen, royal jelly, fresh vegetables and others ... also known as adenine, is one of the five nitrogenous bases that helps make up the code in DNA and RNA. ... Adenine is one of the two purine bases used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, adenine (A) binds ... Adenine is a purine. Purines are six-membered rings attached to five membered rings. When Adenine is attached to DNA, it forms ...
where to buy 73-24-5(Adenine).Also offer free database of 73-24-5(Adenine) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards ... Adenine Synonyms: Adenin;Adeninimine;Leuco-4;Purine, 6-amino-;USAF CB-18;usafcb-18;vitaminb4(adenine);ADENINE FREE BASE PLANT ... bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide , ... Adenine (JAN/USP);6-Amino-9H-purine;Leuco-4;Adenin;Crytidine;6-Aminopurine (Adenine);5H-purin-6-amine;6-Amino-3H-purine; ...
Synthesis and biological evaluation of conformationally restricted adenine bicycloribonucleosides H. Hřebabecký, E. Procházková ...
Label incorporation into adenine nucleotides from the [1-14C]glycine precursor was determined and used to calculate synthesis ... Management of adenine nucleotide catabolism differs among skeletal muscle fiber types. This study evaluated whether there are ... Turnover rates (de novo synthesis rate/adenine nucleotide pool size) were highest in high oxidative muscle (0.82-1.06%/h), ... demonstrate that differences in adenine nucleotide management among fiber types extends to the process of de novo adenine ...
More info for Superfamily c.26.2: Adenine nucleotide alpha hydrolases-like. Timeline for Superfamily c.26.2: Adenine nucleotide ... Superfamily c.26.2: Adenine nucleotide alpha hydrolases-like appears in SCOP 1.75. *Superfamily c.26.2: Adenine nucleotide ... Fold c.26: Adenine nucleotide alpha hydrolase-like [52373] (3 superfamilies). core: 3 layers, a/b/a ; parallel beta-sheet of 5 ... Superfamily c.26.2: Adenine nucleotide alpha hydrolases-like [52402] (7 families) share similar mode of ligand (Adenosine group ...
Weight loss observed in animals upon progression of the fast-growing CT26 tumors was slowed markedly in adenine nucleotide- ... Daily intraperitoneal injections of adenine nucleotides in large volumes of saline, starting after the tumors became palpable, ... Anticancer activities of adenine nucleotides in mice are mediated through expansion of erythrocyte ATP pools. *Rapaport, ... Weight loss observed in animals upon progression of the fast-growing CT26 tumors was slowed markedly in adenine nucleotide- ...
Recombinant Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) Protein (Myc-DYKDDDDK Tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: HEK-293 Cells. Jetzt ... Tb07.43M14.200, Tb07.43M14.180, C85684, AMP, APRTD, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, adenine phosphoribosyl transferase, ... Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) (AA 2-180) protein (His tag) APRT Spezies: Ratte Wirt: Hefe Recombinant > 90 % ELISA ... Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) (AA 2-180) protein (His tag) APRT Spezies: Rind (Kuh) Wirt: Hefe Recombinant > 90 % ...
... whereas adenine is a nucleobase. The terms adenosine and adenine are re ... The key difference between adenosine and adenine is that adenosine is a nucleoside, ... What is Adenine?. Adenine is a purine nucleobase. That means; it is a purine derivative. It is important as one of the four ... Adenine is a purine nucleobase. Therefore, the key difference between adenosine and adenine is that adenosine is a nucleoside, ...
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Adenine arabinoside 5-monophosphate in patients with chronic hepatitis B: comparison of the efficacy in patients with high and ... Adenine arabinoside 5-monophosphate in patients with chronic hepatitis B: comparison of the efficacy in patients with high and ...
Up-regulation of nuclear and mitochondrial genes in the skeletal muscle of mice lacking the heart/muscle isoform of the adenine ... Role of an adenine-nucleotide translocator in regulation of mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation in the heart. Bulletin of ... Inhibition of the adenine nucleotide translocator by matrix-localized palmityl-CoA in rat heart mitochondria. Biochimica et ... Participation of the adenine nucleotide translocator in the regulation of pyruvate oxidation in heart mitochondria. Biulleten& ...
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+): essential redox metabolite, co-substrate and an anti-cancer and anti-ageing ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and its reduced form NADH are essential coupled redox metabolites that primarily ... Hollie B.S. Griffiths, Courtney Williams, Sarah J. King, Simon J. Allison; Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+): essential ...
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This is a large group of enzymes, most of which form so-called restriction-modification systems, with nucleases that possess similar site specificity (the nucleases are listed as either EC, EC and EC ...
Efficacy of adenine arabinoside 5′-monophosphate in kidney recipients with chronic active hepatitis B: a pilot study. ...
... a Key Enzyme in the Tryptophan-Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Pathway, by Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α and Peroxisome ... a Key Enzyme in the Tryptophan-Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Pathway, by Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α and Peroxisome ... a Key Enzyme in the Tryptophan-Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Pathway, by Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α and Peroxisome ... a Key Enzyme in the Tryptophan-Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Pathway, by Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α and Peroxisome ...
STRUCTURAL STUDY AND INVESTIGATION OF NMR TENSORS IN INTERACTION OF DOPAMINE WITH ADENINE AND GUANINE * A. Bagheri Department ... The interaction of dopamine with adenine and guanine were studied at the Hartree-Fock level theory. The structural and ...
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... membrane permeable adenine nucleotide analogues, such as tributyryl-AMP and 8-bromo-AMP ; and 3) liposome-entrapped adenine ... We speculate that loss of adenine nucleotides during ischemia may occur from the ADP store near the contractile elements. We ... The candidates for energy ameliorants are 1) some precursors of adenine nucleotide, such as adenosine, inosine, AICAr and OG-VI ... Publications] Nakai, T., Kano, S., Satoh, K.and Ichihara, K.: Effects of adenine nucleotide anlogues on myocardial dysfunction ...
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Adenine nucleotides decrease the apparent Km of endogenous natriuretic peptide receptors for GTP. / Antos, Laura K.; Potter, ... Adenine nucleotides decrease the apparent Km of endogenous natriuretic peptide receptors for GTP. American Journal of ... Antos, L. K., & Potter, L. R. (2007). Adenine nucleotides decrease the apparent Km of endogenous natriuretic peptide receptors ... Antos, LK & Potter, LR 2007, Adenine nucleotides decrease the apparent Km of endogenous natriuretic peptide receptors for GTP ...
Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 plays a key role in stellate cell activation and liver ... Dive into the research topics of Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 plays a key role in stellate ...
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... coli host-extensive in vivo adenine methylation activity is revealed. M.EcoGII methylates adenine residues in any DNA sequence ... expression and characterization of the first truly non-specific adenine DNA methyltransferase, M.EcoGII. It is encoded in the ... The non-specific adenine DNA methyltransferase M.EcoGII. Authors: Murray, Iain A and Morgan, Richard D and Luyten, Yvette and ... coli host-extensive in vivo adenine methylation activity is revealed. M.EcoGII methylates adenine residues in any DNA sequence ...
  • Purine metabolism involves the formation of adenine and guanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both adenine and guanine are derived from the nucleotide inosine monophosphate (IMP), which in turn is synthesized from a pre-existing ribose phosphate through a complex pathway using atoms from the amino acids glycine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, as well as the coenzyme tetrahydrofolate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases (the other being guanine) used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin B4 , also known as adenine, is one of the five nitrogenous bases (cytosine, guanine, adenine, thymine and uracil) that helps make up the code in DNA and RNA. (demotix.com)
  • The interaction of dopamine with adenine and guanine were studied at the Hartree-Fock level theory. (ajol.info)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Adenine and guanine complexes with acridine orange dye: study of semiconductive properties. (who.int)
  • Guanine and Adenine both are purine nucleobases but differ in their structure. (biologybard.com)
  • Guanine pairs with cytosine with 3 hydrogen bonds while adenine pairs with thymine in DNA and in RNA it pairs complementary to Uracil with two hydrogen bonds. (biologybard.com)
  • In vivo footprinting of the human alpha-globin locus upstream regulatory element by guanine and adenine ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In addition, we have modified the dimethyl sulfate-based ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction in vivo footprinting procedure to permit the assessment of interactions at guanine and adenine residues, rather than guanines alone. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Purine bases: uric acid, adenine, guanine. (medicinalplants-pharmacognosy.com)
  • Other derivatives such as adenine and guanine are forming structures of nucleic acids. (medicinalplants-pharmacognosy.com)
  • Adenine and guanine are complementary, so they should be in the same proportion. (gradesaver.com)
  • Nucleobases come in five primary flavors - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and uracil (U) - but previously, only A, G and U had ever been identified in meteorites. (livescience.com)
  • Thymine pairs with adenine, guanine pairs with cytosine, cytosine pairs with guanine, falling a little bit down here. (khanacademy.org)
  • Cytosine and guanine form three hydrogen bonds and adenine and thymine form two double bonds. (gradesaver.com)
  • In the double helix DNA, these bases can only pair with specific bases such as cytosine pairing with guanine and thymine pairing with adenine. (slashgear.com)
  • In all cases with diagnosis of promotor polymorphisms single base transitions from guanine to adenine were confirmed. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The team found adenine and guanine, which are components of DNA called nucleobases. (earthfiles.com)
  • The four types of nitrogen bases found in nucleotides are: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. (cdc.gov)
  • The nitrogen bases protruding from the existing strand bind to bases of the strand being synthesized according to the base pairing rules: Adenine binds to Thymine, and Cytosine binds to Guanine. (cdc.gov)
  • The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In DNA, adenine binds to thymine via two hydrogen bonds to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • When Adenine is attached to DNA, it forms a bond with another molecule called Thymine, a pyrimidine, on the other side of the DNA strand. (demotix.com)
  • Adenine is an organic purine nitrogenous base having the formula C 5 H 5 N 5 that complementarily pairs with thymine and uracil in RNA and DNA respectively. (biologybard.com)
  • Thymine and adenine are complementary to each other so they should make up the rest. (gradesaver.com)
  • So adenine pairs with thymine just like that. (khanacademy.org)
  • Thymine pairs with adenine Let me do that a little bit neater. (khanacademy.org)
  • So we have an adenine and thymine, adenine and thymine, adenine and thymine. (khanacademy.org)
  • Thymine, adenine. (khanacademy.org)
  • You can subtract that 40 percent from 100 percent and determine 60 percent of the sample must be adenine and thymine together. (newsbasis.com)
  • TA cloning technology relies on the complimentary of thymine & adenine. (thermofisher.com)
  • Adenine is one of the two purine bases used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. (demotix.com)
  • De novo synthesis of adenine nucleotides in different skeletal muscle fiber types. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Purine salvage to adenine nucleotides in different skeletal muscle fiber types. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Decreased resting levels of adenine nucleotides in human skeletal muscle after high-intensity training. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We speculate that loss of adenine nucleotides during ischemia may occur from the ADP store near the contractile elements. (nii.ac.jp)
  • and 3) liposome-entrapped adenine nucleotides. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Antos, LK & Potter, LR 2007, ' Adenine nucleotides decrease the apparent K m of endogenous natriuretic peptide receptors for GTP ', American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 293, no. 6, pp. (umn.edu)
  • Adenine used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids. (pharmaffiliates.com)
  • PCr and Cr have higher diffusivity than the adenine nucleotides. (physiomeproject.org)
  • This gene provides instructions for making APRT, an enzyme that helps to convert a DNA building block (nucleotide) called adenine to a molecule called adenosine monophosphate (AMP). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose, and it forms adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide, when three phosphate groups are added to adenosine. (demotix.com)
  • Management of adenine nucleotide catabolism differs among skeletal muscle fiber types. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This study evaluated whether there are corresponding differences in the rates of de novo synthesis of adenine nucleotide among fiber type sections of skeletal muscle using an isolated perfused rat hindquarter preparation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is indicated that high-intensity intermittent exercise causes a decrease in resting levels of skeletal muscle adenine nucleotide without a concomitant indication of muscle damage. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In support of this notion, intracellular cardiac antigens, like cardiac myosin heavy chain-α, cardiac troponin-I, and adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1), have been identified as autoantigens in cardiac autoimmunity. (eurekamag.com)
  • Adenine nucleotide-creatine-phosphate module in myocardial metabolic system explains fast phase of dynamic regulation of oxidative phosphorylation, Johannes H.G.M. van Beek, 2007, American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology , 293, C815-C829. (physiomeproject.org)
  • Scheme of the adenine nucleotide-creatine-phosphate (ACP) module. (physiomeproject.org)
  • Effects of antimony on mitochondrial function and protein thiol and adenine nucleotide status in cultured cardiac myocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • Chemically, ATP is an adenine nucleotide bound to three phosphates. (nfpt.com)
  • Pronunciation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide with 2 audio pronunciations, 7 synonyms, 10 translations and more for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. (rehabsociety.org.hk)
  • NAD + and NADP +: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +, coenzyme I) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP +,coenzyme II, which is an oxidized form of NADPH). (senyi-chem.com)
  • Photometric measurement of the amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) (NADPH) formed. (iso.org)
  • Coupled Microsomal-Activating/Embryo Culture System: Toxicity of Reduced beta-Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH). (epa.gov)
  • Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influence of ribose on adenine salvage after intense muscle contractions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Data indicate that adenine salvage rates were essentially unaltered during recovery from intense contractions, and ribose supplementation did not affect subsequent muscle force production after 60 min of recovery. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Adenosine (adenine with a ribose group) causes transient heart block in the AV node of the heart. (lmdb.ca)
  • Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose, and it forms adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which drives many cellular metabolic processes by transferring chemical energy between reactions. (lmdb.ca)
  • The structure of ATP is a nucleoside triphosphate, consisting of a nitrogenous base (adenine), a ribose sugar, and three serially bonded phosphate groups. (nih.gov)
  • In RNA, which is used for protein synthesis, adenine binds to uracil. (wikipedia.org)
  • In RNA, adenine binds to uracil (U). (demotix.com)
  • Its derivatives have a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and Coenzyme A. It also has functions in protein synthesis and as a chemical component of DNA and RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • xH 2 O . Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) (C 27 H 33 N 9 O 15 P 2) is a coenzyme that acts as a hydrogen acceptor in dehydrogenation reactions in an oxidized or reduced form. (rehabsociety.org.hk)
  • NAD or Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme that is necessary to the mitochondria in our cells. (growingoldwithdiabetes.com)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a coenzyme required for mitochondria to produce energy. (blogspot.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a ubiquitous coenzyme involved in electron transport and a co-substrate for sirtuin function. (tamu.edu)
  • NAD stands for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which is the chemical term for a molecule that reacts with oxygen in the mitochondria in every cell of your body to create energy so you can move, breathe, pump blood, digest food, think, and generally, live your life. (healmindbody.com)
  • NAD+ stands for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. (stemedix.com)
  • Edvardsson VO, Sahota A, Palsson R. Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase Deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the natural history of the hereditary forms of nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease (CKD), primary hyperoxaluria (PH), cystinuria, Dent disease and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRTd) and acquired enteric hyperoxaluria (EH). (mayo.edu)
  • As a result, adenine is converted to another molecule called 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The adjacent image shows pure adenine, as an independent molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remaining structure is called an adenine residue, as part of a larger molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecule consists of a riboflavin … In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide is a redox cofactor involved in several important reactions in metabolism. (rehabsociety.org.hk)
  • Adenine synthesis is important, but because Titan lacks water and essentially lacks any molecule that includes oxygen, prebiotic synthesis cannot get very far," he told New Scientist . (newscientist.com)
  • To measure the value, Tribedi and colleagues carefully prepared a jet of adenine molecule vapour, which they crossed with a beam of high-energy carbon ions. (springer.com)
  • In this clip, Dr. Eric Verdin explains how nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels diminish with age and describe the ongoing research to understand the reasons why. (blogspot.com)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) and its reduced form NADH are essential coupled redox metabolites that primarily promote cellular oxidative (catabolic) metabolic reactions. (portlandpress.com)
  • CH 3 COCO 2 H ). The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy molecules adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been identified as a most efficient enhancer of DAFP-1 (J. Mol. (calstatela.edu)
  • Our factory profile : China Biggest factory manufacturer sales Beta-Nicotinamide Adenine Dinuclotide Phosphate (NADP) which is also the China Biggest factory manufacturer export of Beta-Nicotinamide Adenine Dinuclotide Phosphate (NADP) we can produce. (ecplaza.net)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP + ) play key roles as carriers of electrons in the transfer of reduction potential. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Transformation of the gluconate in the extract by the following reactions: 1) with adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) and 2) with concomitant reduction of an equivalent amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). (iso.org)
  • Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate triggers Ca2+ release from brain microsomes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 6450-77-7-Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide-Hangzhou Huarong Pharm Co., Ltd. (huarongpharm.com)
  • Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate regulates skeletal muscle differentiation via action at two-pore channels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we demonstrate a crucial role for nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) signaling in skeletal muscle differentiation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Nicotinic acidity adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is certainly the most powerful Ca2+-mobilizing intracellular messenger and is certainly connected to a variety of stimuli and cell surface area receptors. (casein-kinases.com)
  • Prolonged inactivation of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate-induced Ca2+ release mediates a spatiotemporal Ca2+ memory. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We investigated the effect of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) inactivation on spatiotemporal Ca(2+) signals in intact sea urchin eggs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is a thermostable, oxygen insensitive redox enzyme used in bioelectrochemical applications. (rehabsociety.org.hk)
  • Direct and mediated electron transfer (DET and MET) in enzyme electrodes with a novel flavin adenine dinucleotidedependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) from fungi are compared for the first time. (elsevier.com)
  • In new research published in EPJ D , researchers in India and Argentina, led by Lokesh Tribedi at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, have successfully determined the characteristics of electron emission when high-velocity ions collide with adenine - one of the four key nucleobases of DNA. (springer.com)
  • Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is an inherited condition that affects the kidneys and urinary tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide Deficiency. (rehabsociety.org.hk)
  • Differential role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide deficiency in acute and chronic kidney disease. (tamu.edu)
  • Adenine is one of four nitrogenous bases utilized in the synthesis of nucleic acids. (demotix.com)
  • A lack of functional enzyme impairs the conversion of adenine to AMP. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vitamin B4 (adenine) is a substance that acts as a co-enzyme with other substances, such as other vitamins to produce energy. (demotix.com)
  • Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a cofactor for cytochrome-b 5 reductase, the enzyme that maintains hemoglobin in its functional reduced state, and for glutathione reductase, an enzyme that also protects erythrocytes from oxidative damage. (rehabsociety.org.hk)
  • Degradation of adenine occurs in several steps, first enzyme purine nucleoside phosphorylase converts adenosine into inosine which in the presence of enzyme xanthine oxidase is converted to hypoxanthine that is finally metabolised into uric acid. (biologybard.com)
  • Enzyme adenine phosphoribosyltransferase aids in the salvaging of adenine formed and in its re-utilisation. (biologybard.com)
  • Adenine like other purines is an aromatic heterocyclic compound. (biologybard.com)
  • However, two B vitamins, niacin and riboflavin, bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • flavin adenine dinucleotide: [ fla´vin ] any of a group of water-soluble yellow pigments widely distributed in animals and plants, including riboflavin and yellow enzymes. (rehabsociety.org.hk)
  • In humans, adenine is involved in riboflavin metabolism. (lmdb.ca)
  • Vitamin B2, or riboflavin, is a water-soluble vitamin most commonly found in the body in the form of the flavocoenzymes flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), the latter being most abundant. (medscape.com)
  • How do you calculate adenine bases? (newsbasis.com)
  • Since those two bases always exist in equal concentrations, you know the DNA sample is 30 percent adenine. (newsbasis.com)
  • In older literature, adenine was sometimes called Vitamin B4. (wikipedia.org)
  • the large adenine molecules, however, will attach or "adsorb" to the charcoal due to the van der Waals forces that interact between the adenine and the carbon in the charcoal. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is why the molecules ATP, and its nitrogenous base Adenine, are so important. (demotix.com)
  • The structures and vibrational spectra of neutral and protonated adenine molecules were calculated at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Which represents the greater mass: $40.0 \mathrm{g}$ of adenine or $3.0 \times 10^{23}$ molecules of the compound? (itprospt.com)
  • He points out that adenine is just one of many molecules used by life on Earth, so its creation in the experiment does not mean Titan has all the elements needed to create life as we know it. (newscientist.com)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is proposed that complexes of adenine (dAMP) with silver generate the observed spectra. (utwente.nl)
  • The SERS spectra of the silver-adenine complexes show broad, unresolved bands between 1200 and 1500 cm-1, while the spectra of complexes of silver with dAMP show clearly resolved bands. (utwente.nl)
  • The SERS spectra of adenine can be obtained in solutions with a pH of 3.0, 7.5 and 11.0 whereas the SERS spectra of dAMP can only be obtained at a pH of 7.5 and 11.0. (utwente.nl)
  • The observed spectra are completely different from the 'classica' SERS spectrum of adenine and dAMP. (utwente.nl)
  • Based on vibration analysis, we assigned the fundamental vibrations of this configuration and analyzed the Raman spectra of adenine in the HClO4 (pH=1) solution. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Structures and Vibrational Spectra of Adenine and Protonated Adenine[J].Acta Phys. (pku.edu.cn)
  • ATP is thus a derivative of adenine, adenosine, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and adenosine diphosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA methyltransferases transfer a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to either adenine or cytosine residues and can be used to generate methylated DNA at specific sites for gene expression studies. (neb.com)
  • Here adenine residues =120, cytosine residues = 120. (newsbasis.com)
  • Adenine-based protocols to induce renal failure are available in rats, but have not been adapted in mice due to their reluctance to consume adenine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cytosine, but not adenine, base editors induce genome-wide off-target mutations in rice. (nature.com)
  • Finally, we show that an adenine base editor 7 can also induce transcriptome-wide RNA edits. (massgeneral.org)
  • In the study, the researchers administered adenine to mice to induce chronic kidney failure. (naturalnews.com)
  • Adenine forms several tautomers, compounds that can be rapidly interconverted and are often considered equivalent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other compounds that comprise Adenine include co-factors like FAD and NAD. (biologybard.com)
  • Adenine, also known as 6-aminopurine or Ade, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 6-aminopurines. (lmdb.ca)
  • These adenine derivatives perform important functions in cellular metabolism. (demotix.com)
  • Besides DNA and RNA, adenine is also an important part of adenosine triphosphate , or ATP. (demotix.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate is the nitrogenous base adenine bonded to a five carbon sugar. (demotix.com)
  • Adenine sulphate.Catalog Number: PCT0801. (plexdb.org)
  • Adenine, a DNA base, exists under several tautomers and isomers that are closely lying in energy and that may form a mixture upon vaporization of solid adenine. (chemeurope.com)
  • In the current paper we developed a novel method for induction of renal failure through dietary delivery of adenine mixed in a casein-based diet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To circumvent these obstacles, we aimed at establishing a novel, non-surgical model of renal failure in mice by employing an adenine-based protocol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, there are well-characterized protocols for adenine-induced renal failure in rats, yet this technique has not been adapted in mice due to their aversion to adenine feeding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • in this work, we investigated some effects of three graded oral doses of chrysin (10, 50 and 250 mg/kg) on kidney structure and function in rats with experimental chronic renal disease (CKD) induced by adenine (0.25% w/w in feed for 35 days), which is known to involve inflammation and oxidative stress. (elsevier.com)
  • The nucleosides of adenine include deoxyadenosine and adenosine. (biologybard.com)
  • The non-specific adenine DNA methyltransferase M.EcoGII. (pacb.com)
  • Adenine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. (lmdb.ca)
  • In humans, there is approximately 30% adenine. (newsbasis.com)
  • Adenine has an amine group at the 6th position and an additional double bond between C-6 and N-1 in its pyrimidine ring. (biologybard.com)
  • Whereas the direct introduction of the peptide sequence on the adenine exocyclic N6 amine gave an imidazopurinone derivative, the introduction of an aminoethyl linker between the adenine group and the peptide chain led to the expected candidate probes. (ibmmpeptide.com)
  • deoxyadenosine is adenine attached to deoxyribose, as used to form DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The behaviour of adenine and 2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate (dAMP) at positive surface potentials of a silver working electrode was investigated using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). (utwente.nl)
  • Adenine and dAMP can be distinguished spectroscopically due to various different complexes that can be formed for adenine and not for dAMP. (utwente.nl)
  • The formation of Ag+-adenine complexes gives rise to a decrease in pH and must therefore be associated with deprotonation of the adenine ring system. (utwente.nl)
  • Greve, Jan. / Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering of the Complexes of Silver with Adenine and dAMP . (utwente.nl)
  • Adenine (/ˈædɪnɪn/) (symbol A or Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative). (wikipedia.org)
  • Eritadenine is an adenine derivative isolated from Lentinus edodes only, it lowers all the plasma lipid levels and it is more than 10 times as activesas clofibrate. (rehabsociety.org.hk)
  • Adenine Sulfate is a purine nucleobase with a wide range of chemical and biochemical roles in vivo and in vitro. (discofinechem.com)
  • Send us your enquiry for Adenine Sulfate . (discofinechem.com)
  • We value your input so if you have suggestions regarding new applications for Adenine Sulfate email us and we will include your contribution on the website. (discofinechem.com)
  • TDF is manufactured from (R)-9-[2-(phosphonylmethoxy)propyl]adenine (R-PMPA or tenofovir), which is commercially obtained. (who.int)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: Biosynthesis, consumption and therapeutic role in cardiac diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the existing cytosine and adenine base editors can only install transition mutations. (cell.com)
  • Adenine is a nucleobase.Reference standards of Adenine API,and its pharmacopeial, non pharmacopeial impurities, and stable isotopes are listed below. (pharmaffiliates.com)