Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Adenine NucleotidesAdenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.Atractyloside: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in the LIVER.2-Aminopurine: A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Bongkrekic Acid: An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.AminohydrolasesDNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Inosine NucleotidesRibose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Inosine Monophosphate: Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)AMP Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.ThymineFlavin Mononucleotide: A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.Coformycin: A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.PyruvatesAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.UracilOxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between a purine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free purine plus ribose-5-phosphate. EC 2.4.2.1.IndophenolNAD+ NucleosidaseGuanine NucleotidesOrganophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.Nucleobase Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases such as PYRIMIDINES and PURINES across membranes.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Cyclic ADP-Ribose: A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Nicotinic Acids: 2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins: N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.Vidarabine Phosphate: An adenosine monophosphate analog in which ribose is replaced by an arabinose moiety. It is the monophosphate ester of VIDARABINE with antiviral and possibly antineoplastic properties.Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: 3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.S-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)NADPH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.1.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Thionucleosides: Nucleosides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Azaserine: Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.Adenosylhomocysteinase: An enzyme which catalyzes the catabolism of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE to ADENOSINE and HOMOCYSTEINE. It may play a role in regulating the concentration of intracellular adenosylhomocysteine.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate: The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.MalatesAlkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Amobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Nicotinamidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide to nicotinate and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.19.Zeatin: An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.FlavoproteinsMethyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseChromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Ribosemonophosphates: Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Cyclophilins: A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Arabinonucleosides: Nucleosides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.TritiumDiphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.PentosephosphatesPseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.PhotochemistryMyocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Nicotinamide-Nucleotide Adenylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of the adenylyl moiety of ATP to the phosphoryl group of NMN to form NAD+ and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is found predominantly in the nuclei and catalyzes the final reaction in the major pathway for the biosynthesis of NAD in mammals. EC 2.7.7.1.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Granulomatous Disease, Chronic: A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.Nucleotide Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Arabinonucleotides: Nucleotides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.Nucleotide Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides with the elimination of ammonia.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
(1/3669) Marker effects on reversion of T4rII mutants.

The frequencies of 2-aminopurine- and 5-bromouracil-induced A:T leads to G:C transitions were compared at nonsense sites throughout the rII region of bacteriophage T4. These frequencies are influenced both by adjacent base pairs within the nonsense codons and by extracodonic factors. Following 2AP treatment, they are high in amber (UAG) and lower in opal (UGA) codons than in allelic ochre (UAA) codons. In general, 5BU-induced transitions are more frequent in both amber and opal codons than in the allelic ochre codons. 2AP- and 5BU-induced transition frequencies in the first and third positions of opal codons are correlated with those in the corresponding positions of the allelic ochre codons. Similarly, the frequencies of 2AP-induced transition in the first and second positions of amber codons and their ochre alleles are correlated. However, there is little correlation between the frequencies of 5BU-induced transitions in the first and second positions of allelic amber and ochre codons.  (+info)

(2/3669) Cytokinin activation of Arabidopsis cell division through a D-type cyclin.

Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate plant cell division. The D-type cyclin CycD3 was found to be elevated in a mutant of Arabidopsis with a high level of cytokinin and to be rapidly induced by cytokinin application in both cell cultures and whole plants. Constitutive expression of CycD3 in transgenic plants allowed induction and maintenance of cell division in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. Results suggest that cytokinin activates Arabidopsis cell division through induction of CycD3 at the G1-S cell cycle phase transition.  (+info)

(3/3669) Impact of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis in tumor cells.

Following exposure to 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (an inhibitor of the cellular DNA polymerases alpha, delta and epsilon), human erythroleukemia K562, human T-lymphoid CEM and murine leukemia L1210 cells markedly accumulated in the S phase of the cell cycle. In contrast to DNA replication, RNA synthesis (transcription) and protein synthesis (mRNA translation) were not affected by 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)-adenine. The ribonucleoside triphosphate pools were slightly elevated, while the intracellular levels of all four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates were 1.5-4-fold increased in 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562, CEM and L1210 cells. The effect of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on de novo (thymidylate synthase-mediated) and salvage (thymidine kinase-mediated) dTTP synthesis was investigated using radio-labelled nucleoside precursors. The amount of thymidylate synthase-derived dTTP in the acid soluble pool was 2-4-fold higher in PMEA-treated than in untreated K562 cells, which is in accord with the 3-4-fold expansion of the global dTTP level in the presence of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Strikingly, 2-derived dTTP accumulated to a much higher extent (i.e. 16-40-fold) in the soluble dTTP pool upon 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine treatment. In keeping with this finding, a markedly increased thymidine kinase activity could be demonstrated in extracts of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562 cell cultures. Also, in the presence of 200 microM 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine, 14-fold less thymidylate synthase-derived but only 3-fold less thymidine kinase-derived dTTP was incorporated into the DNA of the K562 cells. These data show that thymidine incorporation may be inappropriate as a cell proliferation marker in the presence of DNA synthesis inhibitors such as 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Our findings indicate that 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine causes a peculiar pattern of (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism deregulation in drug-treated tumor cells, as a result of the metabolic block imposed by the drug on the S phase of the cell cycle.  (+info)

(4/3669) The major, N2-dG adduct of (+)-anti-B[a]PDE induces G-->A mutations in a 5'-AGA-3' sequence context.

Previously, in a random mutagenesis study, the (+)-anti diol epoxide of benzo[a]pyrene [(+)-anti-B[a]PDE] was shown to induce a complex mutational spectrum in the supF gene of an Escherichia coli plasmid, which included insertions, deletions and base substitution mutations, notably a significant fraction of GC-->TA, GC-->AT and GC-->CG mutations. At some sites, a single type of mutation dominated and to understand individual mutagenic pathways these sites were chosen for study by site-specific means to determine whether the major adduct, [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG, was responsible. [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG was shown to induce approximately 95% G-->T mutations in a 5'-TGC-3' sequence context and approximately 80% G-->A mutations in a 5'-CGT-3' sequence context. (+)-anti-B[a]PDE induced principally GC-->CG mutations in the G133 sequence context (5'-AGA-3') in studies using both SOS-uninduced or SOS-induced E. coli. Herein, [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG is shown to induce principally G-->A mutations (>90%) either without or with SOS induction in a closely related 5'-AGA-3' sequence context (identical over 7 bp). This is the first time that there has been a discrepancy between the mutagenic specificity of (+)-anti-B[a]PDE versus [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG. Eight explanations for this discordance are considered. Four are ruled out; e.g. the second most prevalent adduct [+ca]-B[a]P-N2-dG also induces a preponderance of G-->A mutations (>90%), so it also is not responsible for (+)-anti-B[a]PDE-induced G133-->C mutations. The four explanations not ruled out are discussed and include that another minor adduct might be responsible and that the 5'-AGA-3' sequence context differed slightly in the studies with [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG versus (+)-anti-B[a]PDE. In spite of the discordance, [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG induces G-->A mutations in the context studied herein and this result has proven useful in generating a hypothesis for what conformations of [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG are responsible for G-->T versus G-->A mutations.  (+info)

(5/3669) Hprt mutant frequency and molecular analysis of Hprt mutations in Fischer 344 rats treated with thiotepa.

Thiotepa is a bifunctional alkylating anticancer drug that is a rodent carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen. In order to determine the sensitivity of mutant induction in the Hprt lymphocyte assay for detecting tumorigenic doses of thiotepa, Fischer 344 rats were treated for 4 weeks with thiotepa using a procedure adapted from a carcinogenesis protocol. At various times after beginning the treatment regimen, rats were killed and the lymphocyte Hprt assay was performed on splenic lymphocytes isolated from the animals. The 6-thioguanine-resistant T lymphocyte mutant frequency increased with time during the period of thiotepa exposure and declined slightly thereafter. Significant dose-dependent increases in mutant frequency were found using concentrations of thiotepa that eventually result in lymphoproliferative tumors. Hprt mRNA from mutant lymphocytes was reverse transcribed to cDNA, amplified by PCR and examined for mutations by DNA sequencing. This analysis indicated that the major type of point mutation was G:C-->T:A transversion and that 33% of the mutants contained simple or complex frameshifts. Also, a multiplex PCR performed on DNA from mutant clones that were expanded in vitro indicated that 34% of the clones had deletions in the Hprt gene. These results indicate that the induction of lymphocyte Hprt mutants is a sensitive biomarker for the carcinogenicity of thiotepa and that the types of mutations found in the lymphocyte Hprt gene reflect the kinds of DNA damage produced by thiotepa.  (+info)

(6/3669) In vitro reactions of butadiene monoxide with single- and double-stranded DNA: characterization and quantitation of several purine and pyrimidine adducts.

We have previously shown that butadiene monoxide (BM), the primary metabolite of 1,3-butadiene, reacted with nucleosides to form alkylation products that exhibited different rates of formation and different stabilities under in vitro physiological conditions. In the present study, BM was reacted with single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) calf thymus DNA and the alkylation products were characterized after enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA. The primary products were regioisomeric N-7-guanine adducts. N-3-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)adenine and N-3-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl)adenine, which were depurinated from the DNA more rapidly than the N-7-guanine adducts, were also formed. In addition, N6-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)deoxyadenosine and N6-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl)deoxyadenosine were detected and evidence was obtained that these adducts were formed by Dimroth rearrangement of the corresponding N-1-deoxyadenosine adducts, not while in the DNA, but following the release of the N-1-alkylated nucleosides by enzymatic hydrolysis. N-3-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)deoxyuridine adducts, which were apparently formed subsequent to deamination reactions of the corresponding deoxycytidine adducts, were also detected and were stable in the DNA. Adduct formation was linearly dependent upon BM concentration (10-1000 mM), with adduct ratios being similar at the various BM concentrations. At a high BM concentration (750 mM), the adducts were formed in a linear fashion for up to 8 h in both ssDNA and dsDNA. However, the rates of formation of the N-3-deoxyuridine and N6-deoxyadenosine adducts increased 10- to 20-fold in ssDNA versus dsDNA, whereas the N-7-guanine adducts increased only slightly, presumably due to differences in hydrogen bonding in ssDNA versus dsDNA. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis of both BM and its parent compound, 1,3-butadiene.  (+info)

(7/3669) Early short-term 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine treatment favorably alters the subsequent disease course in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected newborn Rhesus macaques.

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of newborn macaques is a useful animal model of human pediatric AIDS to study disease pathogenesis and to develop intervention strategies aimed at delaying disease. In the present study, we demonstrate that very early events of infection greatly determine the ultimate disease course, as short-term antiviral drug administration during the initial viremia stage significantly delayed the onset of AIDS. Fourteen newborn macaques were inoculated orally with uncloned, highly virulent SIVmac251. The four untreated control animals showed persistently high virus levels and poor antiviral immune responses; they developed fatal immunodeficiency within 15 weeks. In contrast, SIV-infected newborn macaques which were started on 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA) treatment at 5 days of age and continued for either 14 or 60 days showed reduced virus levels and enhanced antiviral immune responses. This short-term PMPA treatment did not induce detectable emergence of SIV mutants with reduced in vitro susceptibility to PMPA. Although viremia increased in most animals after PMPA treatment was withdrawn, all animals remained disease-free for at least 6 months. Our data suggest that short-term treatment with a potent antiviral drug regimen during the initial viremia will significantly prolong AIDS-free survival for HIV-infected infants and adults.  (+info)

(8/3669) Enzyme-mononucleotide interactions: three different folds share common structural elements for ATP recognition.

Three ATP-dependent enzymes with different folds, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, D-Ala:D-Ala ligase and the alpha-subunit of the alpha2beta2 ribonucleotide reductase, have a similar organization of their ATP-binding sites. The most meaningful similarity was found over 23 structurally equivalent residues in each protein and includes three strands each from their beta-sheets, in addition to a connecting loop. The equivalent secondary structure elements in each of these enzymes donate four amino acids forming key hydrogen bonds responsible for the common orientation of the "AMP" moieties of their ATP-ligands. One lysine residue conserved throughout the three families binds the alpha-phosphate in each protein. The common fragments of structure also position some, but not all, of the equivalent residues involved in hydrophobic contacts with the adenine ring. These examples of convergent evolution reinforce the view that different proteins can fold in different ways to produce similar structures locally, and nature can take advantage of these features when structure and function demand it, as shown here for the common mode of ATP-binding by three unrelated proteins.  (+info)

*  Adenine
... bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD ... The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA. The image on the right shows pure adenine, as ... Adenosine is adenine reacted with ribose as used in RNA and ATP; deoxyadenosine, adenine attached to deoxyribose, as is used to ... In RNA, which is used for protein synthesis, adenine binds to uracil. Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ...
*  Adenine deaminase
In enzymology, an adenine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenine + H2O ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is adenine aminohydrolase. Other names in common use include adenase, adenine aminase ... Heppel LA, Hurwitz J, Horecker BL (1957). "Adenine deaminase of Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79 (3): 630-633. doi ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } hypoxanthine + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are adenine and H2O, whereas its ...
*  Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase
"Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase isoforms of Arabidopsis and their potential contributions to adenine and cytokinin metabolism ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRTase) is an enzyme encoded by the APRT gene, found in humans on chromosome 16. It is part ... It can salvage adenine from the polyamine biosynthetic pathway or from dietary sources of purines. Although APRTase is ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human APRT genome ...
*  Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency
... at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases APRT at the Rare Kidney Stones Consortium. ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (also called APRT deficiency or 2,8 dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis) is an autosomal ... Terai, C; Hakoda, M; Yamanaka, H; Kamatani, N; Okai, M; Takahashi, F; Kashiwazaki, S (November 1995). "Adenine ... Patients with the disease deficiency lack the enzyme adenine phosphoribosyltransferase and therefore have difficulties breaking ...
*  Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
One nucleotide contains an adenine base and the other nicotinamide. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two forms: an ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. The compound is a dinucleotide, because it ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide has several essential roles in metabolism. It acts as a coenzyme in redox reactions, as a ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, like all dinucleotides, consists of two nucleosides joined by a pair of bridging phosphate ...
*  Adenine nucleotide translocator
... 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adenine Nucleotide ... Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocator, exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix and ... "Role of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in mtDNA maintenance". Science. 289 (5480): 782-785. doi:10.1126/science.289.5480.782 ... Translocator 2 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 at the ...
*  Flavin adenine dinucleotide
... consists of two main portions: an adenine nucleotide (adenosine monophosphate) and a flavin ... Adenine is bound to a cyclic ribose at the 1' carbon, while phosphate is bound to the ribose at the 5' carbon to form the ... In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, ... Kuppuraj G, Kruise D, Yura K (Nov 2014). "Conformational behavior of flavin adenine dinucleotide: conserved stereochemistry in ...
*  Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Hanukoglu I, Rapoport R (Feb-May 1995). "Routes and regulation of NADPH production in ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP+ or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a ... position of the ribose ring that carries the adenine moiety. In photosynthetic organisms, NADPH is produced by ferredoxin-NADP+ ...
*  TRNA (adenine-N1-)-methyltransferase
Other names in common use include transfer ribonucleate adenine 1-methyltransferase, transfer RNA (adenine-1) methyltransferase ... 1-methyladenine transfer RNA methyltransferase, adenine-1-methylase, and S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (adenine-1-N-)- ... In enzymology, a tRNA (adenine-N1-)-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.36) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S- ... Glick JM, Leboy PS (1977). "Purification and properties of tRNA(adenine-1)-methyltransferase from rat liver". J. Biol. Chem. ...
*  DNA adenine methyltransferase identification
... adenine methylation is catalyzed by the adenine methyltransferase Dam (DNA adenine methyltransferase), which catalyses adenine ... DamID (DNA adenine methyltransferase identification) is a molecular biology protocol used to map the binding sites of DNA- and ... N6-methyladenine (m6A) is the product of the addition of a methyl group (CH3) at position 6 of the adenine. This modified ... Greil F, Moorman C, van Steensel B (2006). "DamID: mapping of in vivo protein-genome interactions using tethered DNA adenine ...
*  TRNA (adenine-N6-)-methyltransferase
The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (adenine-N6-)-methyltransferase. This enzyme is also ... In enzymology, a tRNA (adenine-N6-)-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.55) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S- ... called S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (adenine-6-N-)-methyltransferase. Mandel LR, Hacker B, Maag TA (1971). "Altered transfer ...
*  RRNA (adenine-N6-)-methyltransferase
... ribonucleic acid-adenine (N6) methylase, ErmC 23S rRNA methyltransferase, and S-adenosyl-L-methionine:rRNA (adenine-6-N-)- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:rRNA (adenine-N6-)-methyltransferase. Other names in common ... In enzymology, a rRNA (adenine-N6-)-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.48) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S- ... Sipe JE, Anderson WM, Remy CN, Love SH (1972). "Characterization of S-adenosylmethionine: ribosomal ribonucleic acid-adenine (N ...
*  Flavin adenine dinucleotide synthetase 1
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FLAD1 gene. This gene encodes the enzyme ... Flavin adenine dinucleotide synthetase 1". Retrieved 2016-03-04. This article incorporates text from the United States National ... that catalyzes adenylation of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) to form flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) coenzyme. Alternatively ...
*  Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate
... , (NAADP), is a Ca2+-mobilizing second messenger synthesised in response to ... Chini, EN; Dousa, TP (1996-06-15). "Nicotinate-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-induced Ca2+-release does not behave as a Ca2+- ... Aley, PK; Mikolajczyk, AM; Munz, B; Churchill, GC; Galione, A; Berger, F (2010-11-16). "Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide ... Wilson, HL; Galione, A (1998-05-01). "Differential regulation of nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate and cADP-ribose ...
*  Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) transhydrogenase
... may stand for NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase (Re/Si-specific) NAD(P)+ ...
*  Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-coenzyme Q reductase
... may stand for NADH dehydrogenase NADH:ubiquinone reductase (non- ...
*  Site-specific DNA-methyltransferase (adenine-specific)
"A complete listing of all of these enzymes". Site-specific DNA-methyltransferase (adenine-specific) at the US National Library ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA adenine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons ... Site-specific DNA-methyltransferase (adenine-specific) (EC 2.1.1.72, modification methylase, restriction-modification system) ...
*  Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-coenzyme Q reductase
... may stand for NADH dehydrogenase NADH:ubiquinone reductase (non- ...
*  Glossary of biology
flagellum . flavin adenine dinucleotide . food chain The chain of eating and getting nutrition which starts from a small ... adaptive radiation . adenine . adenosine triphosphate a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the ... cytochrome . cytosine One of the four main nucleotide bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, thymine, and ... deoxyribonucleic acid The four bases found in DNA are adenine (abbreviated A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T); these ...
*  G. N. Ramachandran
Adenine Pr. ISBN 0-940030-78-0. Vijayan, M.; Johnson, L. N. (2005). "Gopalasamudram Narayana Ramachandran. 8 October 1922 - 7 ...
*  K. R. K. Easwaran
Adenine Pr. p. 386. ISBN 978-0940030350. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) D. P. Burma (2011). From Physiology and ...
*  Allopurinol
... adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. It is also used to treat kidney stones caused by deficient activity of adenine ...
*  [email protected]
7a Adenine; 7b Thymine; 7 Adenine/thymine WC; 8a Methane; 8 Methane dimer; 9a Ethene; 9 Ethene dimer; 10 Benzene/methane; 11a ... Benzene; 11 Benzene dimer; 12a Pyrazine; 12 Pyrazine dimer; 13 Uracil dimer; 14a Indole; 14 Indole/benzene; 15 Adenine/thymine ...
*  Life
Adenine Press. 29 (4): 647-50. doi:10.1080/073911012010525017. ISSN 0739-1102. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 January ... NASA findings in 2011, based on studies with meteorites found on Earth, suggest DNA and RNA components (adenine, guanine and ... Each nucleotide is composed of a nitrogen-containing nucleobase-either cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A), or thymine (T)- ...
*  Thiamine
"Thiaminylated adenine nucleotides. Chemical synthesis, structural characterization and natural occurrence". FEBS Journal. 276 ( ... "Discovery of a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide". Nature Chemical Biology. 3 (4): 211-212. doi:10.1038/nchembio867. PMID ...
Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody (ab118125)  Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody (ab118125)
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody validated for WB, IP and tested in Human. With 2 independent ... Anti-Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody. See all Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 primary antibodies. ... Immunoprecipitation of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 transfected lysate using ab118125 and Protein A Magnetic Bead, and ... Recombinant full length protein, corresponding to amino acids 1-298 of Human Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 (NP_001143.2). ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/adenine-nucleotide-translocator-2-antibody-ab118125.html
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1
     Summary Report | CureHunter  Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 Summary Report | CureHunter
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM ... Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1. Subscribe to New Research on Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 ... ANT-1 Transport Protein; ANT1 Transport Protein; Adenine Nucleotide Carrier Protein; Adenine Nucleotide Translocator, Muscle ... 04/01/2005 - "Only four different mutations in the adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1) gene have been found in families ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD033741-Adenine-Nucleotide-Translocator-1.do
Sequence Similarity 









- 1AQI: STRUCTURE OF ADENINE-N6-DNA-METHYLTRANSFERASE TAQI Sequence Similarity Report Page  Sequence Similarity - 1AQI: STRUCTURE OF ADENINE-N6-DNA-METHYLTRANSFERASE TAQI Sequence Similarity Report Page
Differential binding of S-adenosylmethionine S-adenosylhomocysteine and Sinefungin to the adenine-specific DNA ... ADENINE-N6-DNA-METHYLTRANSFERASE TAQI protein, length: 421 (BLAST) Sequence Similarity Cutoff. Rank. Chains in Cluster. Cluster ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/sequenceCluster.do?structureId=1AQI
2016 Flavin adenine dinucleotide (CAS 146-14-5) Industry Market Report  2016 Flavin adenine dinucleotide (CAS 146-14-5) Industry Market Report
Global and Chinese Flavin adenine dinucleotide Industry, 2011-2021 Market Research Report ' is a professional and - Market ... 2016 Flavin adenine dinucleotide (CAS 146-14-5) Industry Market Report The ' ... 8.3 Effects to Flavin adenine dinucleotide Industry. Chapter Nine Market Dynamics of Flavin adenine dinucleotide Industry. 9.1 ... 1.3 Status of Flavin adenine dinucleotide Industry. Chapter Two Manufacturing Technology of Flavin adenine dinucleotide. 2.1 ...
more infohttps://www.marketresearch.com/Prof-Research-v4036/Flavin-adenine-dinucleotide-CAS-10267949/
Abstract 1295: Mitochondrial Uncoupling in db/db Mouse Hearts is Mediated by the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT) |...  Abstract 1295: Mitochondrial Uncoupling in db/db Mouse Hearts is Mediated by the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT) |...
Abstract 1295: Mitochondrial Uncoupling in db/db Mouse Hearts is Mediated by the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT). Sihem ... Abstract 1295: Mitochondrial Uncoupling in db/db Mouse Hearts is Mediated by the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT) ... Abstract 1295: Mitochondrial Uncoupling in db/db Mouse Hearts is Mediated by the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT) ... Abstract 1295: Mitochondrial Uncoupling in db/db Mouse Hearts is Mediated by the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT) ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/114/Suppl_18/II_244.5
Structures of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in complex with a non-GATC sequence: Potential implications...  Structures of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in complex with a non-GATC sequence: Potential implications...
DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) is widespread and conserved among the γ-proteobacteria. Methylation of the Ade in GATC ... Title: Structures of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in complex with a non-GATC sequence: Potential ... Accepted Manuscript: Structures of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in complex with a non-GATC sequence: ...
more infohttps://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1223724-structures-escherichia-coli-dna-adenine-methyltransferase-dam-complex-non-gatc-sequence-potential-implications-methylation-independent-transcriptional-repression
PLOS ONE: Kinetic Analysis of Yersinia pestis DNA Adenine Methyltransferase Activity Using a Hemimethylated Molecular Break...  PLOS ONE: Kinetic Analysis of Yersinia pestis DNA Adenine Methyltransferase Activity Using a Hemimethylated Molecular Break...
The dependence of bacterial virulence on DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) has led to the proposal that selective Dam ... BackgroundDNA adenine methylation plays an important role in several critical bacterial processes including mismatch repair, ... expression and purification of Yersinia pestis Dam and the development of a continuous fluorescence based assay for DNA adenine ... inhibitors.Conclusions/SignificanceThe assay is therefore suitable for high throughput screening for inhibitors of DNA adenine ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/email?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0000801
Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Mediates Ca2+ Signals and Contraction in Arterial Smooth Muscle via a Two-Pool...  Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Mediates Ca2+ Signals and Contraction in Arterial Smooth Muscle via a Two-Pool...
Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Mediates Ca2+ Signals and Contraction in Arterial Smooth Muscle via a Two-Pool ... Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Mediates Ca2+ Signals and Contraction in Arterial Smooth Muscle via a Two-Pool ... Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Mediates Ca2+ Signals and Contraction in Arterial Smooth Muscle via a Two-Pool ... Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Mediates Ca2+ Signals and Contraction in Arterial Smooth Muscle via a Two-Pool ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/early/2002/11/14/01.RES.0000047507.22487.85
Slc25a4 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4 (cDNA...  Slc25a4 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4 (cDNA...
... adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4 (cDNA clone, (10ug), 10 µg. ... Home » cDNA » Mouse cDNA » Slc25a4 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide ... MC218137 Slc25a4 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4 ... Properties for Slc25a4 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), ...
more infohttps://www.acris-antibodies.com/cdna/mouse-cdna/slc25a4-untagged-mouse-solute-carrier-family-25-mitochondrial-carrier-adenine-nucleotide-translocator-member-4-cdna-clone-10ug-mc218137.htm
Slc25a13 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 13 ...  Slc25a13 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 13 ...
... adenine nucleotide translocator), member 13 (Slc25a13), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 1, ( ... Home » cDNA » Mouse cDNA » Slc25a13 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide ... MC220340 Slc25a13 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member ... Properties for Slc25a13 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), ...
more infohttps://www.acris-antibodies.com/cdna/mouse-cdna/slc25a13-untagged-mouse-solute-carrier-family-25-mitochondrial-carrier-adenine-nucleotide-translocator-member-13-slc25a13-nuclear-gene-encoding-mitochondrial-protein-transcript-variant-1-10ug-mc220340.htm
Adenine nucleotide translocator synonyms, Adenine nucleotide translocator antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com  Adenine nucleotide translocator synonyms, Adenine nucleotide translocator antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
Antonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator. 1 synonym for adenine: A. What are synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator? ... Synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator in Free Thesaurus. ... redirected from Adenine nucleotide translocator). Also found in ... Related to Adenine nucleotide translocator: adenine nucleotide translocator 2 #vtZoom,.vt-link{cursor:pointer} .vt-container{ ... Synonyms for adenine. (biochemistry) purine base found in DNA and RNA. Synonyms. *A ...
more infohttps://www.freethesaurus.com/Adenine+nucleotide+translocator
Export Data and Price of NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE | www.eximpulse.com  Export Data and Price of NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE | www.eximpulse.com
B-NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE (REDUCED)DISODIUM SALT. HUNTSVILLE, AL. 1. PAC. 664. 664. Sahar Air Cargo ACC. HS-CCR. More ... LABORATORY REAGENTS --NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE 95% (NA. BOGOTA. 1. NOS. 563.43. 563.43. Sahar Air Cargo ACC. HS-CCR. ... B NICOTINAMIDE-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE. KHARTOUM. 1. NOS. 3905.99. 3905.99. Sahar Air Cargo ACC. HS-CCR. More ... B-NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE*99+%. Hamburg. 1. NOS. 3126.79. 3126.79. Bangalore ICD. HS-CCR. More ...
more infohttps://www.eximpulse.com/export-product-NICOTINAMIDE-ADENINE-DINUCLEOTIDE.htm
Flavin adenine dinucleotide disodium salt 84366-81-4 Chemical Properties   Physical Properties  Flavin adenine dinucleotide disodium salt 84366-81-4 Chemical Properties Physical Properties
What are the chemical properties of Flavin adenine dinucleotide disodium salt 84366-81-4, What are the physical properties of ... Flavin adenine dinucleotide disodium salt chemical properties, ... Flavin adenine dinucleotide disodium salt. CAS No.: 84366-81-4 ...
more infohttp://www.molbase.com/en/properties_84366-81-4-moldata-80620.html
Short-hairpin RNA-induced suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 in breast cancer cells restores their susceptibility...  Short-hairpin RNA-induced suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 in breast cancer cells restores their susceptibility...
Adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2), one of the four adenine nucleotide translocase isoforms expressed in humans, is ... Adenine nucleotide translocase, a protein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, catalyzes the exchange of mitochondrial ... Jang JY, Jeon YK, Kim CW: Suppression of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 by vector-based siRNA in human breast cancer cells ... Luciakova K, Barath P, Poliakova D, Persson A, Nelson BD: Repression of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene in ...
more infohttps://molecular-cancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1476-4598-9-262
Extracellular adenine nucleotides regulate Na/H exchanger NHE3 activity in A6-NHE3 transfectants by a cAMP/PKA-dependent...  Extracellular adenine nucleotides regulate Na/H exchanger NHE3 activity in A6-NHE3 transfectants by a cAMP/PKA-dependent...
Extracellular adenine nucleotides regulate Na/H exchanger NHE3 activity in A6-NHE3 transfectants by a cAMP/PKA-dependent ... Extracellular adenine nucleotides regulate Na/H exchanger NHE3 activity in A6-NHE3 transfectants by a cAMP/PKA-dependent ... We investigated the influence of extracellular adenine nucleotides on Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) activity in A6-NHE3 ... We investigated the influence of extracellular adenine nucleotides on Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) activity in A6-NHE3 ...
more infohttps://ricerca.uniba.it/handle/11586/130713
TIGR00571  TIGR00571
All proteins in this family for which functions are known are DNA-adenine methyltransferases. This family is based on the ... GO:0009007: site-specific DNA-methyltransferase (adenine-specific) activity molecular_function. Author. Loftus BJ, Eisen JA, ... phylogenomic analysis of JA Eisen (1999, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University). The DNA adenine methylase (dam) of E. coli and ...
more infohttp://www.jcvi.org/cgi-bin/tigrfams/HmmReportPage.cgi?acc=TIGR00571
The Small Molecule GMX1778 Is a Potent Inhibitor of NAD+ Biosynthesis: Strategy for Enhanced Therapy in Nicotinic Acid...  The Small Molecule GMX1778 Is a Potent Inhibitor of NAD+ Biosynthesis: Strategy for Enhanced Therapy in Nicotinic Acid...
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism as an attractive target for drug discovery. Expert Opin. Ther. Targets 11:695-705. ... Biochemical pathways of apoptosis: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-deficient cells are resistant to tumor necrosis factor or ... NA adenine dinucleotide. The three columns in panel B are from one autoradiogram with intervening lanes removed. The two ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/29/21/5872?ijkey=1ea8ce6088c9da2aec00428a0c4fac9117239882&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Adenine - Wikipedia  Adenine - Wikipedia
... bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD ... The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA. The image on the right shows pure adenine, as ... Adenosine is adenine reacted with ribose as used in RNA and ATP; deoxyadenosine, adenine attached to deoxyribose, as is used to ... In RNA, which is used for protein synthesis, adenine binds to uracil. Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenine
Adenine deaminase - Wikipedia  Adenine deaminase - Wikipedia
In enzymology, an adenine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenine + H2O ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is adenine aminohydrolase. Other names in common use include adenase, adenine aminase ... Heppel LA, Hurwitz J, Horecker BL (1957). "Adenine deaminase of Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79 (3): 630-633. doi ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } hypoxanthine + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are adenine and H2O, whereas its ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenine_deaminase
  • In enzymology, an adenine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } hypoxanthine + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are adenine and H2O, whereas its two products are hypoxanthine and NH3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rainer Glaser of the University of Missouri, Columbia, and coworkers now have used a theoretical model of gas-phase chemistry to predict mechanisms for adenine production in space ( Astrobiology 2007 , 7, 455). (acs.org)
  • Biological systems tend to conserve energy, so usually adenine is obtained through the diet, the body degrading nucleic acid chains to obtain individual bases and reconstructing them through mitosis . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of adenine to ammonia and hypoxanthine. (drugs.com)
  • This enzyme catalyzes the formation of AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate from adenine and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). (nih.gov)
  • If adenine formation occurs throughout space, 'life everywhere might have started out pretty much the same way,' he adds. (acs.org)
  • This base, for which I suggest the name "adenine", was first prepared from the pancreas glands of steer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Does anyone do these kind of assays, and do you typically remove the serum when you load the cells with hot adenine? (bio.net)
  • The approach I am going to take is to metabolically label the cells with [3H]-adenine, and then measure the [3H]-cAMP that is produced from drug treatments in the assay several hours later. (bio.net)