A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.
A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in the LIVER.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.
An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between a purine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free purine plus ribose-5-phosphate. EC
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
Proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases such as PYRIMIDINES and PURINES across membranes.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC
An adenosine monophosphate analog in which ribose is replaced by an arabinose moiety. It is the monophosphate ester of VIDARABINE with antiviral and possibly antineoplastic properties.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.
Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)
An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Nucleosides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.
An enzyme which catalyzes the catabolism of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE to ADENOSINE and HOMOCYSTEINE. It may play a role in regulating the concentration of intracellular adenosylhomocysteine.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide to nicotinate and ammonia. EC
An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC EC
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Nucleosides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of the adenylyl moiety of ATP to the phosphoryl group of NMN to form NAD+ and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is found predominantly in the nuclei and catalyzes the final reaction in the major pathway for the biosynthesis of NAD in mammals. EC
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Nucleotides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides with the elimination of ammonia.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Part of a MESSENGER RNA molecule that undergoes a conformation change upon binding a specific metabolite or other small molecule thereby regulating the messenger RNA's transcription, post-transcriptional processing, transport, translation, or stability in response to varying levels of the metabolite or other small molecule.

Marker effects on reversion of T4rII mutants. (1/3669)

The frequencies of 2-aminopurine- and 5-bromouracil-induced A:T leads to G:C transitions were compared at nonsense sites throughout the rII region of bacteriophage T4. These frequencies are influenced both by adjacent base pairs within the nonsense codons and by extracodonic factors. Following 2AP treatment, they are high in amber (UAG) and lower in opal (UGA) codons than in allelic ochre (UAA) codons. In general, 5BU-induced transitions are more frequent in both amber and opal codons than in the allelic ochre codons. 2AP- and 5BU-induced transition frequencies in the first and third positions of opal codons are correlated with those in the corresponding positions of the allelic ochre codons. Similarly, the frequencies of 2AP-induced transition in the first and second positions of amber codons and their ochre alleles are correlated. However, there is little correlation between the frequencies of 5BU-induced transitions in the first and second positions of allelic amber and ochre codons.  (+info)

Cytokinin activation of Arabidopsis cell division through a D-type cyclin. (2/3669)

Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate plant cell division. The D-type cyclin CycD3 was found to be elevated in a mutant of Arabidopsis with a high level of cytokinin and to be rapidly induced by cytokinin application in both cell cultures and whole plants. Constitutive expression of CycD3 in transgenic plants allowed induction and maintenance of cell division in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. Results suggest that cytokinin activates Arabidopsis cell division through induction of CycD3 at the G1-S cell cycle phase transition.  (+info)

Impact of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis in tumor cells. (3/3669)

Following exposure to 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (an inhibitor of the cellular DNA polymerases alpha, delta and epsilon), human erythroleukemia K562, human T-lymphoid CEM and murine leukemia L1210 cells markedly accumulated in the S phase of the cell cycle. In contrast to DNA replication, RNA synthesis (transcription) and protein synthesis (mRNA translation) were not affected by 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)-adenine. The ribonucleoside triphosphate pools were slightly elevated, while the intracellular levels of all four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates were 1.5-4-fold increased in 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562, CEM and L1210 cells. The effect of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on de novo (thymidylate synthase-mediated) and salvage (thymidine kinase-mediated) dTTP synthesis was investigated using radio-labelled nucleoside precursors. The amount of thymidylate synthase-derived dTTP in the acid soluble pool was 2-4-fold higher in PMEA-treated than in untreated K562 cells, which is in accord with the 3-4-fold expansion of the global dTTP level in the presence of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Strikingly, 2-derived dTTP accumulated to a much higher extent (i.e. 16-40-fold) in the soluble dTTP pool upon 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine treatment. In keeping with this finding, a markedly increased thymidine kinase activity could be demonstrated in extracts of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562 cell cultures. Also, in the presence of 200 microM 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine, 14-fold less thymidylate synthase-derived but only 3-fold less thymidine kinase-derived dTTP was incorporated into the DNA of the K562 cells. These data show that thymidine incorporation may be inappropriate as a cell proliferation marker in the presence of DNA synthesis inhibitors such as 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Our findings indicate that 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine causes a peculiar pattern of (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism deregulation in drug-treated tumor cells, as a result of the metabolic block imposed by the drug on the S phase of the cell cycle.  (+info)

The major, N2-dG adduct of (+)-anti-B[a]PDE induces G-->A mutations in a 5'-AGA-3' sequence context. (4/3669)

Previously, in a random mutagenesis study, the (+)-anti diol epoxide of benzo[a]pyrene [(+)-anti-B[a]PDE] was shown to induce a complex mutational spectrum in the supF gene of an Escherichia coli plasmid, which included insertions, deletions and base substitution mutations, notably a significant fraction of GC-->TA, GC-->AT and GC-->CG mutations. At some sites, a single type of mutation dominated and to understand individual mutagenic pathways these sites were chosen for study by site-specific means to determine whether the major adduct, [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG, was responsible. [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG was shown to induce approximately 95% G-->T mutations in a 5'-TGC-3' sequence context and approximately 80% G-->A mutations in a 5'-CGT-3' sequence context. (+)-anti-B[a]PDE induced principally GC-->CG mutations in the G133 sequence context (5'-AGA-3') in studies using both SOS-uninduced or SOS-induced E. coli. Herein, [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG is shown to induce principally G-->A mutations (>90%) either without or with SOS induction in a closely related 5'-AGA-3' sequence context (identical over 7 bp). This is the first time that there has been a discrepancy between the mutagenic specificity of (+)-anti-B[a]PDE versus [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG. Eight explanations for this discordance are considered. Four are ruled out; e.g. the second most prevalent adduct [+ca]-B[a]P-N2-dG also induces a preponderance of G-->A mutations (>90%), so it also is not responsible for (+)-anti-B[a]PDE-induced G133-->C mutations. The four explanations not ruled out are discussed and include that another minor adduct might be responsible and that the 5'-AGA-3' sequence context differed slightly in the studies with [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG versus (+)-anti-B[a]PDE. In spite of the discordance, [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG induces G-->A mutations in the context studied herein and this result has proven useful in generating a hypothesis for what conformations of [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG are responsible for G-->T versus G-->A mutations.  (+info)

Hprt mutant frequency and molecular analysis of Hprt mutations in Fischer 344 rats treated with thiotepa. (5/3669)

Thiotepa is a bifunctional alkylating anticancer drug that is a rodent carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen. In order to determine the sensitivity of mutant induction in the Hprt lymphocyte assay for detecting tumorigenic doses of thiotepa, Fischer 344 rats were treated for 4 weeks with thiotepa using a procedure adapted from a carcinogenesis protocol. At various times after beginning the treatment regimen, rats were killed and the lymphocyte Hprt assay was performed on splenic lymphocytes isolated from the animals. The 6-thioguanine-resistant T lymphocyte mutant frequency increased with time during the period of thiotepa exposure and declined slightly thereafter. Significant dose-dependent increases in mutant frequency were found using concentrations of thiotepa that eventually result in lymphoproliferative tumors. Hprt mRNA from mutant lymphocytes was reverse transcribed to cDNA, amplified by PCR and examined for mutations by DNA sequencing. This analysis indicated that the major type of point mutation was G:C-->T:A transversion and that 33% of the mutants contained simple or complex frameshifts. Also, a multiplex PCR performed on DNA from mutant clones that were expanded in vitro indicated that 34% of the clones had deletions in the Hprt gene. These results indicate that the induction of lymphocyte Hprt mutants is a sensitive biomarker for the carcinogenicity of thiotepa and that the types of mutations found in the lymphocyte Hprt gene reflect the kinds of DNA damage produced by thiotepa.  (+info)

In vitro reactions of butadiene monoxide with single- and double-stranded DNA: characterization and quantitation of several purine and pyrimidine adducts. (6/3669)

We have previously shown that butadiene monoxide (BM), the primary metabolite of 1,3-butadiene, reacted with nucleosides to form alkylation products that exhibited different rates of formation and different stabilities under in vitro physiological conditions. In the present study, BM was reacted with single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) calf thymus DNA and the alkylation products were characterized after enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA. The primary products were regioisomeric N-7-guanine adducts. N-3-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)adenine and N-3-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl)adenine, which were depurinated from the DNA more rapidly than the N-7-guanine adducts, were also formed. In addition, N6-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)deoxyadenosine and N6-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl)deoxyadenosine were detected and evidence was obtained that these adducts were formed by Dimroth rearrangement of the corresponding N-1-deoxyadenosine adducts, not while in the DNA, but following the release of the N-1-alkylated nucleosides by enzymatic hydrolysis. N-3-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)deoxyuridine adducts, which were apparently formed subsequent to deamination reactions of the corresponding deoxycytidine adducts, were also detected and were stable in the DNA. Adduct formation was linearly dependent upon BM concentration (10-1000 mM), with adduct ratios being similar at the various BM concentrations. At a high BM concentration (750 mM), the adducts were formed in a linear fashion for up to 8 h in both ssDNA and dsDNA. However, the rates of formation of the N-3-deoxyuridine and N6-deoxyadenosine adducts increased 10- to 20-fold in ssDNA versus dsDNA, whereas the N-7-guanine adducts increased only slightly, presumably due to differences in hydrogen bonding in ssDNA versus dsDNA. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis of both BM and its parent compound, 1,3-butadiene.  (+info)

Early short-term 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine treatment favorably alters the subsequent disease course in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected newborn Rhesus macaques. (7/3669)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of newborn macaques is a useful animal model of human pediatric AIDS to study disease pathogenesis and to develop intervention strategies aimed at delaying disease. In the present study, we demonstrate that very early events of infection greatly determine the ultimate disease course, as short-term antiviral drug administration during the initial viremia stage significantly delayed the onset of AIDS. Fourteen newborn macaques were inoculated orally with uncloned, highly virulent SIVmac251. The four untreated control animals showed persistently high virus levels and poor antiviral immune responses; they developed fatal immunodeficiency within 15 weeks. In contrast, SIV-infected newborn macaques which were started on 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA) treatment at 5 days of age and continued for either 14 or 60 days showed reduced virus levels and enhanced antiviral immune responses. This short-term PMPA treatment did not induce detectable emergence of SIV mutants with reduced in vitro susceptibility to PMPA. Although viremia increased in most animals after PMPA treatment was withdrawn, all animals remained disease-free for at least 6 months. Our data suggest that short-term treatment with a potent antiviral drug regimen during the initial viremia will significantly prolong AIDS-free survival for HIV-infected infants and adults.  (+info)

Enzyme-mononucleotide interactions: three different folds share common structural elements for ATP recognition. (8/3669)

Three ATP-dependent enzymes with different folds, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, D-Ala:D-Ala ligase and the alpha-subunit of the alpha2beta2 ribonucleotide reductase, have a similar organization of their ATP-binding sites. The most meaningful similarity was found over 23 structurally equivalent residues in each protein and includes three strands each from their beta-sheets, in addition to a connecting loop. The equivalent secondary structure elements in each of these enzymes donate four amino acids forming key hydrogen bonds responsible for the common orientation of the "AMP" moieties of their ATP-ligands. One lysine residue conserved throughout the three families binds the alpha-phosphate in each protein. The common fragments of structure also position some, but not all, of the equivalent residues involved in hydrophobic contacts with the adenine ring. These examples of convergent evolution reinforce the view that different proteins can fold in different ways to produce similar structures locally, and nature can take advantage of these features when structure and function demand it, as shown here for the common mode of ATP-binding by three unrelated proteins.  (+info)

Several new synthetic agents show high affinity for binding adenine derivatives. The structures feature complementary hydrogen bonds that cause the molecular chelation of the purine nucleus. The high lipophilicity of the new agents permits the transport of adenosine and deoxyadenosine across organic liquid membranes. The use of synthetic receptors for small biological targets may have application in drug delivery. ...
TY - PAT. T1 - Novel Adenine Derivatives and the Use Thereof. AU - Kim, Won-Ki. PY - 2017/8/16. Y1 - 2017/8/16. N2 - 신규한 아데닌 유도체 및 그 용도. AB - 신규한 아데닌 유도체 및 그 용도. M3 - Patent. M1 - 10-1770374. ER - ...
Cybulski, R L. and Goldman, I D., Discrimination between adenine transport and metabolism in l1210 cells. Abstr. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 836 ...
Adenine (sometimes known as vitamin B4) combines with the sugar ribose to form adenosine, which in turn can be bonded with from one to three phosphoric acid units, yielding AMP, ADP and ATP . These adenine derivatives perform important functions in cellular metabolism. Adenine is one of four nitrogenous bases utilized in the synthesis of nucleic acids. A modified form of adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) is an imporant secondary messenger in the propagation of many hormonal stimuli. Adenine is an integral part of the structure of many coenzymes. Adenosine (adenine with a ribose group) causes transient heart block in the AV node of the heart. In individuals suspected of suffering from a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), adenosine is used to help identify the rhythm. Certain SVTs can be successfully terminated with adenosine ...
The him1 mutation has been shown to influence the genetic effects of the mutagenic purine base analog 6-hydroxylaminopurine, i. e. inactivation of haploid cells, mutation induction, and inhibition of DNA synthesis in vivo. The influence observed is well consistent with the idea that the him1 mutation affects mismatch correction. We present evidence that during in vivo DNA replication 6-hydroxylaminopurine incorporates into the yeast DNA.
I want to start up some simple assays for cAMP levels in cultured cells. The approach I am going to take is to metabolically label the cells with [3H]-adenine, and then measure the [3H]-cAMP that is produced from drug treatments in the assay several hours later. Ideally, I would like the use cell culture medium that is deficient in adenine in order to increase the amount of hot adenine that is taken up. However, when I look over the list of ingredients in D-MEM, I see that adenine isnt one of them. Therefore, either the cells are making their own nucleotides, or their primary source of adenine must be from the FBS that we conventionally add to the D-MEM. Does anyone do these kind of assays, and do you typically remove the serum when you load the cells with hot adenine? If I can avoid serum-starving the cells, I would prefer to do so. John hines at pharm.med.upenn.edu ...
Reference data were obtained primarily from the PubChem database.. Three dimensional molecular rendering uses Jmol.. InChI string and atom numbering calculated using ALATIS (Hesam Dashti, William M. Westler, John L. Markley, Hamid R. Eghbalnia, Unique identifiers for small molecules enable rigorous labeling of their atoms, Scientific Data 4, Article number: 170073 (2017), doi:10.1038/sdata.2017.73, https://www.nature.com/articles/sdata201773). ...
1FJB: Structural Studies of the Ionizing Radiation Adduct 7,8-Dihydro-8-Oxoadenine (A Oxo) Positioned Opposite Thymine and Guanine in DNA Duplexes
99% high quality Adenine,CAS:73-24-5 Product name:Adenine CAS No.:73-24-5 Molecular formula:C5H5N5 Molecular weight:135.13 Product Specifications:Pharmacopoeial grade Purity:99%+ Brand:Hotai Origion:Hubei,China Price:Negotiable Package:Aluminum...
Adenine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Adenine is available on the Drugs.com website.
adenine: Organic compound belonging to the purine family, occurring free in tea or combined in many substances of biological importance, including the nucleic acids, which govern hereditary...
Learn more about Adenine sulphate. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
We provide secure, cost-effective access to the UKs richest collection of digital content: giving you access to the latest data and content from leading international publishers and providers.. Find out more at jisc.ac.uk. ...
What are the gens? They are the parts of DNA present on the chromosomes and they control the individuals hereditary traits, And the hereditary traits are transferred from the parents to their offspring through ...
2015 Elsevier Ltd. Background Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate can cause renal and bone toxic effects related to high plasma tenofovir concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide is a novel tenofovir prodrug with a 90% reduction in plasma tenofovir concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide-containing regimens can have improved renal and bone safety compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing regimens. Methods In these two controlled, double-blind phase 3 studies, we recruited treatment-naive HIV-infected patients with an estimated creatinine clearance of 50 mL per min or higher from 178 outpatient centres in 16 countries. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily oral tablets containing 150 mg elvitegravir, 150 mg cobicistat, 200 mg emtricitabine, and 10 mg tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/tenofovir alafenamide) or 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) with matching placebo. Randomisation was done by a computer-generated allocation sequence (block ...
Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate drug information: uses, indications, side effects, dosage. Compare prices for generic emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate substitutes: Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Tablets, Tavin- EM, Tenof- EM
Lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate - Get up-to-date information on Lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
TY - JOUR. T1 - Randomized trial of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate after hepatitis B immunoglobulin withdrawal after liver transplantation. AU - Teperman, Lewis W.. AU - Poordad, Fred. AU - Bzowej, Natalie. AU - Martin, Paul. AU - Pungpapong, Surakit. AU - Schiano, Thomas. AU - Flaherty, John. AU - Dinh, Phillip. AU - Rossi, Stephen. AU - Subramanian, G. Mani. AU - Spivey, James. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013/6. Y1 - 2013/6. N2 - Long-term prophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in patients with chronic HBV infection is inconvenient and costly. This randomized, prospective phase 2 study compared emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) after HBIG withdrawal to FTC/TDF plus HBIG for the prevention of HBV recurrence after OLT. Forty patients with a median time since liver transplantation of 3.4 years ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term (96-week) Efficacy and Safety After Switching from Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF) to Tenofovir Alafenamide (TAF) in HIV-infected, Virologically Suppressed Adults. AU - Raffi, Francois. AU - Orkin, Chloe. AU - Clarke, Amanda. AU - Slama, Laurence. AU - Gallant, Joel. AU - Daar, Eric. AU - Henry, Keith. AU - Santana-Bagur, Jorge. AU - Stein, David K.. AU - Bellos, Nicholaos. AU - Scarsella, Anthony. AU - Yan, Mingjin. AU - Abram, Michael E.. AU - Cheng, Andrew. AU - Rhee, Martin S S. PY - 2017/3/6. Y1 - 2017/3/6. N2 - ABSTRACT:: In a double-blind, phase 3 trial, 663 HIV-infected, virologically suppressed adults were randomized to switch to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF; n=333) vs. remain on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF; n=330), each coformulated with emtricitabine (FTC), while continuing their third agent (boosted protease inhibitor or unboosted third agent). At week 96, 88.6% on FTC/TAF and 89.1% on FTC/TDF had HIV-1 RNA ,50 copies/mL (adjusted difference -0.5%; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate monotherapy for nucleos(t)ide-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients in Korea. T2 - data from the clinical practice setting in a single-center cohort. AU - Ahn, Sung S.oo. AU - Chon, Young E.un. AU - Kim, Beom K.yung. AU - Kim, Seung U.p.. AU - Kim, Do Y.oung. AU - Ahn, Sang H.oon. AU - Han, Kwang Hyub. AU - Park, Jun Y.ong. PY - 2014/9/1. Y1 - 2014/9/1. N2 - BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study assessed the antiviral efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) for up to 12 months in Korean treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.METHODS: A total of 411 treatment-naïve CHB patients who had been treated with TDF for at least 3 months (median 5.6) were consecutively enrolled. Clinical, biochemical, virological parameters and treatment adherence were routinely assessed every 3 months.RESULTS: The median age was 51.3 years, 63.0% of the patients were male, 49.6% were HBeAg (+), and 210 patients had liver cirrhosis. The median baseline HBV ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Lymphoid Tissue Pharmacokinetics of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate and Tenofovir Alafenamide in HIV-Infected Persons. AU - Fletcher, Courtney V.. AU - Podany, Anthony T.. AU - Thorkelson, Ann. AU - Winchester, Lee C.. AU - Mykris, Timothy. AU - Anderson, Jodi. AU - Jorstad, Siri. AU - Baker, Jason V.. AU - Schacker, Timothy W.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by grants 1R01 AI‐124965 (to CVF) and U01 AI‐105872 (to TWS) from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Publisher Copyright: © 2020 The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics © 2020 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. PY - 2020/11/1. Y1 - 2020/11/1. N2 - The secondary lymphoid tissues (LT), lymph nodes (LN) and gut-associated lymphoid tissue are the primary sites of HIV replication and where the latent pool of virus is maintained. We compared the pharmacokinetics of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) in LT of 13 ...
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate(TDF) (CAS 202138-50-9) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate(tdf)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Infant growth outcomes after maternal tenofovir disoproxil fumarate use during pregnancy.. AU - Ransom, Carla E.. AU - Huo, Yanling. AU - Patel, Kunjal. AU - Scott, Gwendolyn B.. AU - Watts, Heather D.. AU - Williams, Paige. AU - Siberry, George K.. AU - Livingston, Elizabeth G.. PY - 2013/12/1. Y1 - 2013/12/1. N2 - To determine whether maternal use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for treatment of HIV in pregnancy predicts fetal and infant growth. The study population included HIV-uninfected live-born singleton infants of mothers enrolled in the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol P1025 (born 2002-2011) in the United States and exposed in utero to a combined (triple or more) antiretroviral regimen. Infant weight at birth and 6 months was compared between infants exposed and unexposed to tenofovir in utero using 2-sample t test, χ test, and multivariable linear and logistic regression models, including demographic and maternal ...
A Randomized, Phase II, Controlled Trial Comparing the Efficacy of Adefovir Dipivoxil and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate for the Treatment of Lamivudine-Resistant Hepatitis B Virus in Subjects Who Are Co-Infected With HIV ...
Buy 300 mg Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Tablets IP from Varun Medicals, A leading supplier, trader and wholesaler of 300 mg Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Tablets IP in Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) 300 mg plus placebo to match adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) (double-blind period), followed by TDF 300 mg (open-label period). Participants may have added emtricitabine (FTC) to their treatment regimen (as part of FTC 200 mg/TDF 300 mg fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet) in the open-label period ...
Looking to buy Efavirenz, Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil online at best price? View a list of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate brands in india @Drugssquare.com, order online and get fast shipping.
This study is to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics (PK) and confirm the dose of the elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF) single tablet regimen (STR) in HIV-1 infected, antiretroviral (ARV) treatment-naive adolescents. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy will also be evaluated through Week 48.. A total of 50 adolescent participants (12 to , 18 years of age) will be enrolled to receive EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF as follows:. ...
Background: Off-target renal and bone side effects may occur with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use. Compared with TDF, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) results in significantly reduced plasma tenofovir (TFV) and may have less renal and bone toxicity.. Methods: Treatment naïve HIV-1+ adults were randomized 1:1 to a single tablet regimen of E/C/F/TAF or E/C/F/TDF once daily in two double blind studies. Assessments included measures of renal function and bone mineral density (BMD). Four pre-specified secondary safety endpoints were tested: serum creatinine, treatment-emergent proteinuria, spine and hip BMD. Week 48 off-target side effects data are described.. Results: Combined, the two studies randomized and treated 1,733 subjects. Plasma TFV was ,90% lower (mean [%CV] AUCtau 297 (20) vs. 3,410 (25) nghr/mL) in the E/C/F/TAF arm, compared to the E/C/F/TDF arm. Serum creatinine (mean [SD] change: +0.08 [0.124] vs +0.11 [0.217] mg/dL, p,0.001), quantified proteinuria (UPCR, median [Q1, Q3] % ...
Learn about Atripla (Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
Learn about Complera (Emtricitabine/Rilpivirine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Tablets) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
Medication Guide TRUVADA (tru-vah-dah) (emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) Tablets Read this Medication Guide before you start taking TRUVADA and each time you get a refill. There may be
On June 8, 2017, the Food and Drug Administration approved the first generic version of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets, ...
Professional guide for Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more.
This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of entecavir versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
Brand Name: Cimduo Other Names: 3TC/TDF, Lamivudine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Drug Class: Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors WARNING:Cimduo can cause serious, life-threatening side effec
Background. The efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) as part of combination antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been demonstrated in several randomized, controlled trials. However, an increasing number of case reports suggest that TDF use may be associated with significant nephrotoxicity. Our objective was to determine the renal safety of TDF-containing ART regimens for HIV-infected individuals.. Methods. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Biosis Previews, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and existing systematic reviews were searched. Prospective studies comparing TDF-containing with non-TDF containing ART regimens were selected for inclusion. We extracted data on study characteristics, participant characteristics, therapeutic interventions, renal function, bone density, and fracture rates.. Results. A total of 17 studies (including 9 randomized, controlled trials) met the selection criteria. Median sample size was 517 participants. Constituent ART regimens were diverse. There ...
Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is the antiretroviral drug most commonly associated with renal dysfunction. However, few studies have examined this association in sub-Saharan Africa despite recent scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all people living wi...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Biovis \ Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate \ 1920-25 for more molecular products just contact us
SHREEJI PHARMA International based in Gujarat, India is a manufacturer, exporter & trader of TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL FUMARATE at the best price.
Lim, S.G., Marcellin, P., Tassopoulos, N., Hadziyannis, S., Chang, T.T., Tong, M., Sievert, W., Hu, P., Arterburn, S., Brosgart, C.L. (2007). Clinical trial: Effects of adefovir dipivoxil therapy in Asian and Caucasian patients with chronic hepatitis B. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 26 (10) : 1419-1428. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03506. ...
Darunavir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) 800/150/200/10 mg is a once-daily, single-tablet regimen for treatment of HIV-1 infection. The efficacy/safety of switching to D/C/F/TAF versus continuing boosted protease inhibitor (bPI) + emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (control) were demonstrated in a phase 3, randomized study (EMERALD) of treatment-experienced, virologically suppressed adults through week 48. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate EMERALD outcomes across subgroups of patients based on demographic characteristics, prior treatment experience, and baseline antiretroviral regimen. EMERALD patients were virologically suppressed (viral load [VL] | 50 copies/mL for ≥ 2 months at screening). Prior non-darunavir virologic failure (VF) was allowed. Primary endpoint was proportion of patients with virologic rebound (confirmed VL ≥ 50 copies/mL) cumulative through week 48. Virologic response was VL | 50 copies/mL (FDA snapshot). Safety was assessed by
FOSTER CITY, Calif. & WHITEHOUSE STATION, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Aug. 11, 2006--Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: GILD) and Merck & Co., Inc. (NYSE: MRK) today announced that the companies have established an agreement for the distribution of ATRIPLA(TM) (efavirenz 600 mg/ emtricitabine 200 mg/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg), a once-daily, single tablet regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults, in developing countries around the world.. ATRIPLA contains 600 mg of efavirenz, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), 200 mg of emtricitabine and 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, both nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Efavirenz is marketed by Merck under the tradename Stocrin(R) in all territories outside of the United States, Canada and certain European countries (where it is commercialized by Bristol-Myers Squibb under the tradename Sustiva(R)). Emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are commercialized by Gilead Sciences under ...
This retrospective single-center analysis included 212 people taking TDF with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs), 176 with nonnucleosides, 46 with dolutegravir or raltegravir, and 76 with elvitegravir/cobicistat. Tenofovir troughs proved significantly higher with elvitegravir/cobicistat or with boosted PIs than with nonnucleosides or integrase inhibitors (P < 0.01). Multivariate regression analysis with tenofovir trough concentration as the dependent variable indicated significantly higher tenofovir troughs with elvitegravir/cobicistat than with ritonavir-boosted PIs (beta 0.27, P = 0.001). In the same analysis, women had higher tenofovir troughs than men (beta 0.20, P = 0.004). Older age and lower weight were also associated with higher tenofovir troughs ...
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate at PatientsLikeMe. 48 patients with fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, diabetes type 2, systemic lupus erythematosus, post-traumatic stress disorder, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinsons disease, bipolar disorder, high blood pressure (hypertension), panic disorder, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), epilepsy, migraine, hypothyroidism, osteoarthritis, high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, bipolar II disorder, asthma, traumatic brain injury, social anxiety disorder, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease or bipolar I disorder currently take Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.
BACKGROUND: Effective two-drug regimens could decrease long-term drug exposure and toxicity with HIV-1 antiretroviral therapy (ART). We therefore aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a two-drug regimen compared with a three-drug regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in ART-naive adults.. METHODS: We conducted two identically designed, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trials: GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2. Both studies were done at 192 centres in 21 countries. We included participants (≥18 years) with HIV-1 infection and a screening HIV-1 RNA of 500 000 copies per mL or less, and who were naive to ART. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to receive a once-daily two-drug regimen of dolutegravir (50 mg) plus lamivudine (300 mg) or a once-daily three-drug regimen of dolutegravir (50 mg) plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg). Both drug regimens were administered orally. We masked participants and investigators to treatment ...
Wholesale Trader of Pharmaceutical Tablets - Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Tablets, Mydacla 60 Mg Daclastavir Tablets, Tenvir Tenofovir Tablets and Voriconazole Tablet offered by Radhakishan Pharmaceuticals, New Delhi, Delhi.
The addition of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) to ongoing lamivudine therapy is effective against lamivudine-resistant virus in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We studied 39 patients who received ADV added to lamivudine for breakthrough hepatitis. We determined early viral changes (12 wee …
Patrick Marcellin1, Maria Buti2, Edward Gane3, Naoky Tsai4, William Sievert5, Ira M. Jacobson6, George Germanidis7, Phillip Dinh8, John F. Flaherty8, Kathryn M. Kitrinos8, John G. McHutchison8, Nezam H. Afdhal9 1H pital Beaujon, Clichy, France; 2Hospital General Universitari Vall dHebron and Ciberehd, Barcelona, Spain; 3Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand; 4University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, United States; 5Monash University and Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 6Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States; 7AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University Medical School, Thessaloniki, Greece; 8Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA, United States; 9Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States ...
See Article on [Related article:] 230. Clinical resistance to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) did not develop in any patient after 8 years of TDF treatment in a phase III clinical trial for treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) [1]. Potent efficacy and high barrier to resistance of TDF have been established, even in patients who have been previously treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) or have NUC-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants. We previously reported that TDF-based rescue therapy was effective in patients harboring lamivudine (LAM)-resistant or multidrug-resistant HBV variants [2,3]. Moreover, two randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of TDF monotherapy in patients infected with HBV variants resistant to adefovir (ADV) and entecavir (ETV) were conducted, and non-inferior antiviral efficacy compared with TDF plus ETV combination therapy was demonstrated [4,5]. On the basis of in vitro and in vivo data, there was concern that HBV ...
Background and Aims: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is recommended for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment, but it may induce kidney dysfunction whose management is not yet known. This Italian, multicentre, retrospective study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of switching to entecavir (ETV) patients who developed TDF-associated glomerular and/or tubular dysfunction. Methods: A total of 103 TDF-treated patients were included as follows: age 64 years, 83% male, 49% cirrhotics, 98% with undetectable HBV DNA, 47% with previous lamivudine resistance (LMV-R) and 71% previously treated with adefovir. Twenty-nine (28%) were switched to ETV because estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR MDRD ) was <60 mL/min, 37 (36%) because blood phosphate (P) levels were <2.5 mg/dL and 37 (36%) for both reasons. Kidney, liver and virological parameters were recorded every 4 months thereafter. Results: During 46 (4-115) months of ETV treatment, all patients renal ...
Replication stress is a common feature of cancer cells. Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and Rad3-related (ATR) signalling, a DNA damage repair (DDR) pathway, is activated by regions of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that can arise during replication stress. ATR delays cell cycle progression and prevents DNA replication fork collapse, which prohibits cell death and promotes proliferation. Several ATR inhibitors have been developed in order to restrain this protective mechanism in tumours. It is known, however, that despite other effective anticancer chemotherapy treatments targeting DDR pathways, resistance occurs. This begets the need to identify combination treatments to overcome resistance and prevent tumour cell growth. We conducted a drug screen to identify potential synergistic combination treatments by screening an ATR inhibitor (VE822) together with compounds from a bioactive small molecule library. The screen identified adefovir dipivoxil, a reverse transcriptase inhibitor and nucleoside
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has demonstrated high antiviral efficacy in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection but experience in nucleoside/nucleotide analogue (NA)-experienced patients is limited. In this retrospective multicenter study we therefore assessed the long-term efficacy of TDF monotherapy in patients with prior failure or resistance to different NA treatments. Criteria for inclusion were HBV DNA levels ,4.0 log10copies/mL at the start and aminimum period of TDF therapy for at least 6 months. In all, 131 patients (mean age 42 ± 12 years, 95 male, 65% hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg]-positive) were eligible. Pretreatment consisted of either monotherapy with lamivudine (LAM; n = 18), adefovir (ADV; n = 8), and sequential LAM-ADV therapy (n = 73), or add-on combination therapy with both drugs (n = 29). Three patients had failed entecavir therapy. Resistance analysis in 113 of the 131 patients revealed genotypic LAM and ADV resistance in 62% and 19% ...
2014 International Medical Press. Background: Tenofovir (TDF) is associated with phosphaturia and elevated 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-OH(2)D). Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) causes phosphaturia and increases in response to elevated 1,25-OH(2)D. Vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) binds to 1,25-OH(2)D, decreasing its biological activity, and is elevated in individuals with higher plasma tenofovir concentrations. We compared FGF23 and VDBP before and after vitamin D3 (VITD) supplementation in youths treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing or not containing TDF.Methods: A randomized controlled trial in HIV-positive youths aged 18-25 years enrolled participants based on cART treatment with TDF (TDF; n=118) or without TDF (no-TDF; n=85), and randomized within those groups to VITD (50,000 IU every 4 weeks) or placebo (PL). We measured FGF23 and VDBP and calculated free 1,25-OH(2)D at baseline and week 12, and compared changes by TDF treatment and VITD randomized ...
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. References[edit]. *^ Hanukoglu I, Rapoport R (Feb-May 1995). "Routes and regulation of NADPH ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP+ or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a ... position of the ribose ring that carries the adenine moiety. ...
P0 (adenine). *Agonists: 8-Aminoadenine. *Adenine. P1. (adenosine). *Agonists: 2-(1-Hexynyl)-N-methyladenosine ...
P0 (adenine). *Agonists: 8-Aminoadenine. *Adenine. P1. (adenosine). *Agonists: 2-(1-Hexynyl)-N-methyladenosine ...
The word guarana comes from the Guaraní word guara-ná, which has its origins in the Sateré-Maué word for the plant, warana,[5] that in Tupi-Guarani means "fruit like the eyes of the people". Guarana plays an important role in Tupi and Guaraní Paraguayan culture. According to a myth attributed to the Sateré-Maué tribe, guarana's domestication originated with a deity killing a beloved village child. To console the villagers, a more benevolent god plucked the left eye from the child and planted it in the forest, resulting in the wild variety of guarana. The god then plucked the right eye from the child and planted it in the village, giving rise to domesticated guarana.[6]. The Guaranís would make an herbal tea by shelling, washing and drying the seeds, followed by pounding them into a fine powder. The powder is kneaded into a dough and then shaped into cylinders. This product is known as guarana bread, which would be grated and then immersed into hot water along with sugar.[7]. This plant ...
ADP consists of three important structural components: a sugar backbone attached to adenine and two phosphate groups bonded to ...
Adenine DNA metabolite; synthesized in body Vitamin B8 Adenylic acid DNA metabolite; synthesized in body ...
... including the DNA and RNA components adenine and guanine, were found in outer space.[6][7][8] ...
P0 (adenine). *Agonists: 8-Aminoadenine. *Adenine. P1. (adenosine). *Agonists: 2-(1-Hexynyl)-N-methyladenosine ...
adenine. adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT). AMP Folate biosynthesis[edit]. Tetrahydrofolic acid and its derivatives are ... There are two types of phosphoribosyltransferases: adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) and hypoxanthine-guanine ...
Adenine (A) C Cytosine (C) G Guanine (G) T Thymine (T) N A, C, G or T ...
BH = Adenine BH ⇌ B− + H+ 4.17 BH+. 2 ⇌ BH + H+ 9.65 H3A = Arsenic acid H3A ⇌ H2A− + H+ 2.22 ...
Adenine). HCN has been detected in the interstellar medium and in the atmospheres of carbon stars. Since then, extensive ...
Flavin adenine dinucleotide. References[edit]. *^ Tsibris, John C. M.; McCormick, Donald B.; Wright, Lemuel D. "Studies on the ...
Depletion of adenine nucleotidesEdit. Having eliminated loss of respiration, Albrich et al.[26] proposes that the cause of ... Barrette et al.[44] studied the loss of adenine nucleotides by studying the energy charge of HOCl-exposed cells and found that ... found that HOCl destroys cytochromes and iron-sulfur clusters and observed that oxygen uptake is abolished by HOCl and adenine ... death may be due to metabolic dysfunction caused by depletion of adenine nucleotides. ...
Adenine Pr. ISBN 0-940030-78-0. "(IUCr) G. N. Ramachandran". www.iucr.org. Retrieved 21 October 2020. Vijayan, M.; Johnson, L. ...
Adenine Pr. p. 386. ISBN 978-0940030350.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) D. P. Burma (2011). From Physiology and ...
... adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. It is also used to treat kidney stones caused by deficient activity of adenine ...
7a Adenine; 7b Thymine; 7 Adenine/thymine WC; 8a Methane; 8 Methane dimer; 9a Ethene; 9 Ethene dimer; 10 Benzene/methane; 11a ... Benzene; 11 Benzene dimer; 12a Pyrazine; 12 Pyrazine dimer; 13 Uracil dimer; 14a Indole; 14 Indole/benzene; 15 Adenine/thymine ...
... flavine adenine dicucleotide; FTHF: 10-formyltetrahydrofolate; MS: methionine synthase; MTHFR: methylenetetrahydrofolate ...
Kamatani, N (1996). "Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency". Nippon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine ... People afflicted with adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency may produce 2,8-dihydroxyadenine stones,[62] alkaptonurics ...
For example, adenine + PRPP --, AMP + PPi. This reaction requires the enzyme adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. Free guanine is ... Adenine and guanine are the two nucleotides classified as purines. In purine synthesis, PRPP is turned into inosine ...
FAD = flavin adenine dinucleotide Catalase, another peroxisomal enzyme, uses this H2O2 to oxidize other substrates, including ...
June 2009). "Thiaminylated adenine nucleotides. Chemical synthesis, structural characterization and natural occurrence". The ... April 2007). "Discovery of a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide". Nature Chemical Biology. 3 (4): 211-2. doi:10.1038/ ...
... adenine and 9-(2,3-epimino-2,3-dideoxy-.beta.-D-lyxofuranosyl)adenine". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 44 (8): 1317-22. doi: ...
Akerblom O, Kreuger A (1975). "Studies on citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) blood supplemented with adenine". Vox Sang. 29 (2): ... and adenine. This combination keeps the blood from clotting and preserves it during storage up to 42 days.[55][56][57] Other ... "Adenine in red cell preservation". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 41 (2): 351-359. doi:10.1172/JCI104489. ISSN 0021-9738 ... "The Mechanism of Action of Adenine in Red Cell Preservation*". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 44 (4): 629-642. doi:10.1172 ...
Sims N. R., Bowen D. M., Neary D., and Davison A. N. (1983) Metabolic process in Alzheimer's disease: adenine nucleotide ...
Adenine binds with thymine and uracil; thymine binds only with adenine; and cytosine and guanine can bind only with one another ... nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: oxidised form) to NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: reduced form). This does not ... The most common nitrogenous bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. The nitrogenous bases of each strand of ... adenine, cytosine, and guanine occur in both RNA and DNA, while thymine occurs only in DNA and uracil occurs in RNA. ...
rRNA adenine N-6-methyltransferase. Plasmid pSHaeB SH2305. msrSA. ATP-dependent efflux system. πSh1 ...
Plastic bag with 0.5-0.7 liters containing packed red blood cells in citrate, phosphate, dextrose, and adenine (CPDA) solution ... "ADENINE IN RED CELL PRESERVATION*". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 41 (2): 351-359. doi:10.1172/JCI104489. ISSN 0021-9738 ... "The Mechanism of Action of Adenine in Red Cell Preservation*". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 44 (4): 629-642. doi:10.1172 ...
Determination of Adenine Compounds". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 167: 445-459. Kalckar, H.M.; Shafran, Manya (1947c). " ...
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. References[edit]. *^ Hanukoglu I, Rapoport R (Feb-May 1995). "Routes and regulation of NADPH ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP+ or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a ... position of the ribose ring that carries the adenine moiety. ...
flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) A coenzyme in oxidation reactions, derived from vitamin B2, phosphate, ribose, and adenine.. ... flavin adenine dinucleotide A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition © A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition 2005, originally published ... flavin adenine dinucleotide A Dictionary of Plant Sciences © A Dictionary of Plant Sciences 1998, originally published by ... flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) A coenzyme derivative of the vitamin riboflavin, which participates in dehydrogenation ...
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is an inherited condition that affects the kidneys and urinary tract. ... A lack of functional enzyme impairs the conversion of adenine to AMP. As a result, adenine is converted to another molecule ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is an inherited condition that affects the kidneys and urinary tract. The ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012 Apr;27(4):571-9. doi: 10.1007/s00467-011-2037-0 ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Adenine is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Adenine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ...
Adenine definition, a purine base, C5H5N5, one of the fundamental components of nucleic acids, as DNA, in which it forms a base ... adenine. Historical Examples. of adenine. *. Adenine and guanine are constituents of all nucleic acids (see below) and, hence, ... Origin of adenine. 1880-85; < German Adenin; see aden-, -ine2. Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged ... Adenine is also part of other biologically important compounds, such as ATP, NAD, and vitamin B-12, and occurs in tea. Chemical ...
... the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), yielding NADH and FADH2. It is ... Other articles where Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is discussed: cell: Formation of the electron donors NADH and FADH2: … ... important hydrogen acceptors, the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), ... The coenzyme, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), is reduced to form NADH + H+ in the process. The NAD+ thus reduced is ...
adenine C_H_N_ 3D interactive model of adenine C_H_N_ for demonstrating molecular geometry, vibrations, symmetry and orbitals. ... You just viewed adenine C_H_N_. Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
Definition of adenine deaminase. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions ... adenine deaminase. Definition: an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of adenine to ammonia and hypoxanthine. A part of purine ...
... bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD ... The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA. The adjacent image shows pure adenine, as an ... Adenosine is adenine reacted with ribose, as used in RNA and ATP; deoxyadenosine is adenine attached to deoxyribose, as used to ... To extract the adenine from the charcoal-adsorbed adenine, ammonia gas dissolved in water (aqua ammonia) is poured onto the ...
In addition, the effect of the synchronizing temperature (34 °C) on adenine... ... The metabolism of acid soluble adenine nucleotides in heat-synchronized Tetrahymena pyriformisGL has been studied. ... Nucleotide Cell Cycle Cell Division Adenine Heat Treatment These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This ... The specific activities of the adenine nucleotides were found to be significantly higher during a pulse label period performed ...
In RNA, adenine binds to uracil (U). Adenine and thymine, together with cytosine and guanine, the two pyrimidine nucleobases, ... The vitamin folic acid is essential for adenine synthesis.. Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and ... In the human body, adenine is synthesized in the liver. Biological systems tend to conserve energy, so usually adenine is ... Adenine. Adenosine. A. A nucleobase covalently. bound to the 1. carbon of a ribose. or deoxyribose. is called a nucleoside.. A ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Buy your own T-Shirt with a Adenine design at Spreadshirt, your custom t-shirt printing platform! ... This Adenine T-Shirt is printed on a T-Shirt and designed by VectorPlanet. Available in many sizes and colours. ... I Wish I Was Adenine... So I Could Pair With U.. Tags: adenine, biochemistry, chemist, chemistry, chemistry puns, cute, funny, ... Chemistry Molecule Joke Puns Sarcasm Chemistry Joke Chemistry Molecule Biochemistry Adenine Chemistry Puns ...
In enzymology, an adenine deaminase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenine + H2O ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is adenine aminohydrolase. Other names in common use include adenase, adenine aminase ... Heppel LA, Hurwitz J, Horecker BL (1957). "Adenine deaminase of Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79 (3): 630-633. doi ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } hypoxanthine + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are adenine and H2O, whereas its ...
Chromatin profiling using targeted DNA adenine methyltransferase.. van Steensel B1, Delrow J, Henikoff S. ...
... if adenine was formed prebiotically on the primitive earth, eutectic freezing of hydrogen cyanide solutions is likely to have ... Winter, D. and Zubay, G.: 1995, Binding of Adenine and Adenine-Related Compounds to the Clay Montmorillonite and the Mineral ... adenine eutectic freezing hydrogen cyanide tetramer photo-isomerization prebiotic synthesis pyrimidines This is a preview of ... Shapiro, R.: 1995, The Prebiotic Role of Adenine: A Critical Analysis, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 25, 83-98.Google Scholar ...
Ideally, I would like the use cell culture medium that is deficient in adenine in order to increase the amount of hot adenine ... adenine-deficient media for cAMP?. John Hines hines at pharm.med.upenn.edu Thu Feb 10 17:42:30 EST 2000 *Previous message: ief ... Does anyone do these kind of assays, and do you typically remove the serum when you load the cells with hot adenine? If I can ... The approach I am going to take is to metabolically label the cells with [3H]-adenine, and then measure the [3H]-cAMP that is ...
adenine + H+ + H2O -, ammonium + hypoxanthine PlantCyc ADENINE. Adenine is a purine derivative and a nucleobase with a variety ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase TargetMol T0064. adenine[extracellular space] + H+[extracellular space] -, adenine[cytosol ... adenine + adenine + H2O + H+ + H+ + H2O -, hypoxanthine + ammonium + ammonium + hypoxanthine PlantCyc ADENINE. ... bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD ...
IS10 transposition is regulated by DNA adenine methylation.. Roberts D, Hoopes BC, McClure WR, Kleckner N. ...
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient mice develop 2,8-dihydroxyadenine nephrolithiasis. S J Engle, M G Stockelman, J ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient mice develop 2,8-dihydroxyadenine nephrolithiasis. S J Engle, M G Stockelman, J ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient mice develop 2,8-dihydroxyadenine nephrolithiasis. S J Engle, M G Stockelman, J ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient mice develop 2,8-dihydroxyadenine nephrolithiasis Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
adenine nucleotide translocase;. DNP,. 2,4-dinitrophenyl;. DNPH,. 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine;. HNE,. 4-hydroxynonenal. ... Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase is modified oxidatively during aging Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase is modified oxidatively during aging. Liang-Jun Yan and Rajindar S. Sohal ... Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) was found to be the only protein in the mitochondrial membranes exhibiting a detectable ...
adenine arabinoside synonyms, adenine arabinoside pronunciation, adenine arabinoside translation, English dictionary definition ... of adenine arabinoside. n. Abbr. A A purine base, C5H5N5, that is the constituent involved in base pairing with thymine in DNA ... adenine. (redirected from adenine arabinoside). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. ad·e·nine. (ăd′n-ēn′, -ĭn). n. ... Adenine arabinoside - definition of adenine arabinoside by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/adenine+ ...
adenine / adenine / 73-24-5 / 200-796-1 Type:. boundary composition of the substance. State Form:. solid: particulate/powder. ... Adenine EC Number:. 200-796-1. EC Name:. Adenine. CAS Number:. 73-24-5 Molecular formula:. C5H5N5 IUPAC Name:. 9H-purin-6-amine ... AdenineAdenine. CAS Number:. 73-24-5. Molecular formula:. C5H5N5. IUPAC Name:. 9H-purin-6- ... AdenineAdenine. CAS Number:. 73-24-5. Molecular formula:. C5H5N5. IUPAC Name:. 9H-purin-6- ...
About this substance This section provides an overview of the calculated volume at which the substance is manufactured or imported to the European Economic Area (EU28 + Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Additionally, if available, information on the use of the substance and how consumers and workers are likely to be exposed to it can also be displayed here.. The use information is displayed per substance life cycle stage (consumer use, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites or in manufacturing). The information is aggregated from the data coming from REACH substance registrations provided by industry.. For a detailed overview on identified uses and environmental releases, please consult the registered substance factsheet.. Use descriptors are adapted from ECHA guidance to improve readability and may not correspond textually to descriptor codes described in Chapter R.12: Use Descriptor system of ECHA Guidance on information ...
One nucleotide contains an adenine nucleobase and the other nicotinamide. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two forms ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a cofactor found in all living cells. The compound is called a dinucleotide because ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide has several essential roles in metabolism. It acts as a coenzyme in redox reactions, as a ... The nucleosides each contain a ribose ring, one with adenine attached to the first carbon atom (the 1 position) and the other ...
When adenine is attached to a ribose or deoxyribose sugar, the complex is called adenosine. It is in this from that adenine is ... Adenine is also present in adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), NADH and ... Adenine is a naturally occurring base found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. ...
Intravenous delivery of an adenine base editor and a single-guide RNA for the Fah gene can correct an A,G splice-site mutation ... Here we show in a mouse model of tyrosinaemia that hydrodynamic tail-vein injection of plasmid DNA encoding the adenine base ... Our findings suggest that adenine base editing can be used for the correction of genetic diseases in adult animals. ... 1: Adenine base editing rescues liver disease phenotype in a mouse model of tyrosinaemia.. ...
3-Acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide ≥85%; CAS Number: 86-08-8; Synonym: APAD; Linear Formula: C22H28N6O14P2; find Sigma- ...
  • flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) A coenzyme derivative of the vitamin riboflavin , which participates in dehydrogenation reactions mediated by flavoproteins . (encyclopedia.com)
  • important hydrogen acceptors, the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), yielding NADH and FADH 2 . (britannica.com)
  • Its derivatives have a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and Coenzyme A. It also has functions in protein synthesis and as a chemical component of DNA and RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, two B vitamins, niacin and riboflavin, bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenine ( A , Ade ) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative) with a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and protein synthesis, as a chemical component of DNA and RNA. (primidi.com)
  • In addition to ATP, adenosine also plays a key role in other organic molecules nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), both molecules of which are involved in metabolism. (wikibooks.org)
  • Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) redox coenzyme molecule. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Ang Adenine (A, Ade) ay isang nucleobase (deribatibong purine ) na may iba ibang mga tungkulin sa biokemika kabilang ang respirasyong selular sa anyo ng parehong mayaman sa enerhiyang adenosine triphosphate (ATP) at mga kapwa-paktor na nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) at flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), at sintesis ng protina bilang kemikal na sangkap ng DNA at RNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a cofactor in redox reactions. (biology-online.org)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate , abbreviated NADP + or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions , such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent . (wikipedia.org)
  • A dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), participates in many oxidation reactions as an electron carrier, along with the related compound nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). (britannica.com)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) is simply NAD with a third phosphate group attached, and is very important in the energy transformation process of photosynthesis. (fsu.edu)
  • NAD and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) both carry ions that are central to the metabolism of all cells. (hnip.net)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate , abbreviatit NADP + or, in aulder notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor uised in anabolic reactions , sic as lipid an nucleic acid synthesis, that require NADPH as a reducin augent . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) G6PD catalyzes the first oxidation reaction in the pentose phosphate shunt, in which glucose-6-phosphate is dehydrogenated to 6-phosphogluconolactone with the concurrent reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The measurement is based on the fact that the enzymatic reduction of diacetyl requires the cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 5 ml comprising 500 nmoles substrate, and 100 [micro]l of the cofactor solution containing 3 mg/ml nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), 4 mg/ml nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and 5. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 000228086 001__ 228086 000228086 005__ 20180913064325.0 000228086 013__ $$aWO2016131833$$bWO$$cA1$$d20160825 000228086 02470 $$2EPO Family ID$$a52477639 000228086 02470 $$2TTO$$a6.1470 000228086 037__ $$aPATENT 000228086 245__ $$aSensors, methods and kits for detecting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides 000228086 260__ $$c2016 000228086 269__ $$a2016 000228086 336__ $$aPatents 000228086 520__ $$aThe invention relates to the in vitro and in cellulo detection of the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). (epfl.ch)
  • The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In DNA, adenine binds to thymine via two hydrogen bonds to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In DNA, the structure of adenine (A) allows it to bind to thymine (T) via two hydrogen bonds to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures and the formation of the double helix. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In RNA, adenine binds to uracil (U). Adenine and thymine, together with cytosine and guanine , the two pyrimidine nucleobases, are the four "letters" that code for cellular synthesis of amino acids , the building blocks of proteins. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The derivatives of purine are called adenine (A) and guanine (G). The other three bases-thymine (T), cytosine (C), and uracil(U)-are derivatives of pyrimidine. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The structure of adenine is critical, in that having only two sites for hydrogen bonding, it binds only to thymine (and uracil in RNA), while cytosine, which has three sites for hydrogen bonding, binds only to guanine. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In DNA, adenine sticks to thymine with two hydrogen bonds to help in making the nucleic acid structures stronger. (wikipedia.org)
  • How Many Hydrogen Bonds Are Between Adenine and Thymine? (reference.com)
  • There are two hydrogen bonds that exist between adenine and thymine. (reference.com)
  • Adenine and thymine are two of the four nitrogen bases found in the structure of DNA. (reference.com)
  • Although there are only two hydrogen bonds between adenine and thymine, there are three hydrogen bond between the guanine and cytosine pairs. (reference.com)
  • The pyrimidines are cytosine and thymine, while adenine and guanine are the purines. (reference.com)
  • That's not surprising because the bond formed in DNA between guanine and cytosine is less likely to break at high temperatures than the adenine-thymine bond, so there would be selective pressure for bacteria dwelling in high temperatures to use these more stable bonds in their DNA. (acronymfinder.com)
  • In biology class you learned that DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the main component of our genetic material and it is formed by combining four parts: A, C, G and T (adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine), called bases of DNA. (science20.com)
  • Computer artwork of an A-T (adenine-thymine) base pair. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Adenine is at lower right and thymine is at upper left. (sciencephoto.com)
  • What Class of Biological Molecule Do Guanine, Adenine, Cytosine and Thymine All Belong To? (reference.com)
  • Nitrogenous bases are the class of biological molecule to which guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine belong. (reference.com)
  • Guanine and adenine belong to the purines, while thymine and cytosine are pyrimidines. (reference.com)
  • In DNA, adenine usually pairs with thymine and cytosine connects to guanine. (reference.com)
  • Adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine are the four chemical bases found in DNA. (reference.com)
  • In a given DNA molecule, adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine al. (reference.com)
  • Ang hugis ng adenine ay komplementaryo sa thymine sa DNA o uracil sa RNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases (the other being guanine) used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metabolism of acid soluble adenine nucleotides in heat-synchronized Tetrahymena pyriformis GL has been studied. (springer.com)
  • In cells induced to divide synchronously through heat treatment (cyclic pulses of 34 °C for 30 min alternating with a 30 min recovery period at 28 °C) variations occurred in the levels of adenine nucleotides when samples of cells were analysed at the end of the last thermal period and at various times preceding the first synchronous cell division. (springer.com)
  • The specific activities of the adenine nucleotides were found to be significantly higher during a pulse label period performed at the end of the last thermal period than at any time during the subsequent synchronous division cycle. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, either the cells are making their own nucleotides, or their primary source of adenine must be from the FBS that we conventionally add to the D-MEM. (bio.net)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a dinucleotide since it consists of two nucleotides joined by a pair of bridging phosphate groups. (bionity.com)
  • But a potentially less expensive and even simpler approach, according to the NIST, NRL and UMD team, might be to use a string of adenine nucleotides as an anchor. (biologynews.net)
  • Of the four nucleotides that comprise DNA molecules, adenine, turns out to have a particularly high affinity for gold. (biologynews.net)
  • The results support the concept that chlamydiae are energy parasites which are capable of drawing upon the adenine nucleotides of their hosts, hydrolyzing ATP, and establishing an energized membrane. (asm.org)
  • The action of adenine nucleotides on vascular endothelial cells is apparently mediated by the local flow conditions. (mit.edu)
  • In this study, we have calculated the concentration profiles of adenine nucleotides at the cell surface under flow conditions encountered in an in vitro parallel-plate flow system, as has been used in several related experimental studies. (mit.edu)
  • Also, adenine binds with other nucleotides to form energy, which is important for cellular function. (differencebetween.net)
  • 1. Our DNA and RNA are made up of nucleotides, in which adenine and guanine are purine-based. (differencebetween.net)
  • A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES. (umassmed.edu)
  • Adenine and guanine are constituents of all nucleic acids (see below) and, hence, are found in all plant and animal tissues. (dictionary.com)
  • Purine metabolism involves the formation of adenine and guanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both adenine and guanine are derived from the nucleotide inosine monophosphate (IMP), which in turn is synthesized from a pre-existing ribose phosphate through a complex pathway using atoms from the amino acids glycine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, as well as the coenzyme tetrahydrofolate. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the block does not interfere with interconversions among adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine and xanthine, then any of the purines can act as a feedback inhibitor. (sciencemag.org)
  • Among the 4, adenine and guanine are made up of purine-derivatives. (differencebetween.net)
  • participants associated with certain enzymes) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to form NADH. (britannica.com)
  • The coenzyme, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ), is reduced to form NADH + H + in the process. (britannica.com)
  • of aldehyde dehydrogenase-require a coenzyme, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), the acceptor of hydrogen from the alcohol molecule, for their effects. (britannica.com)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ( NAD ) is a cofactor found in all living cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two forms: an oxidized and reduced form abbreviated as NAD + and NADH respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • In metabolism , nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, like all dinucleotide s, consists of two nucleosides joined by a pair of bridging phosphate groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The redox reactions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Chemistry of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) Analogue. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Oncolytic C-nucleosides, tiazofurin (2-β-D-ribofuranosylthiazole-4- carboxamide) and benzamide riboside (3-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzamide) are converted in cell into active metabolites thiazole-4-carboxamide- and benzamide adenine dinucleotide, TAD and BAD, respectively. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • TAD and BAD as NAD analogues were found to bind at the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (cofactor NAD) site of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), an important target in cancer treatment. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide , abbreviated NAD + , is a coenzyme found in all living cells . (bionity.com)
  • β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2′-phosphate (NADP+) and β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2′-phosphate, reduced (NADPH) comprise a coenzyme redox pair (NADP+:NADPH) involved in a wide range of enzyme catalyzed oxidation reduction reactions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Release from intracellular Ca 2+ stores is accomplished by the small molecular compounds D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP 3 ), cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide prevents neuroaxonal degeneration induced by manganese in cochlear organotypic cultures. (cdc.gov)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme which functions in the electron transfer system within the mitochondria. (cdc.gov)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ( NAD ) and the phosphate derivative, NADP , are two coenzymes that are regularly utilized in the body for electron-transfer biochemical reactions as carriers of hydrogen ions. (fsu.edu)
  • View a second image of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. (fsu.edu)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is also available as pharmaceutical and reagent-grade synthesized white crystals. (fsu.edu)
  • Therapies for chronic fatigue syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, congestive heart failure, and Parkinson's disease are based on administering doses of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. (fsu.edu)
  • In the brain, medical research indicates that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide improves alertness and concentration, and helps balance moods and emotions by allowing the proper functioning of the enzyme monoamine oxidase. (fsu.edu)
  • Chih-Hao Lu, Chin-Sheng Yu, Yu-Feng Lin, and Jin-Yi Chen, "Predicting Flavin and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide-Binding Sites in Proteins Using the Fragment Transformation Method," BioMed Research International , vol. 2015, Article ID 402536, 13 pages, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • The Synthesis of NAD in the liver with the help of vitamin B6 and riboflavin coenzyme, derivative flavion adenine dinucleotide (FAD). (hnip.net)
  • This concept is demonstrated by developing a sensitive assay for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). (spie.org)
  • And the main reason behind this loss of communication is the decrease of the concentration of NAD + , the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. (blogspot.com)
  • The recipe to get younger is therefore simple: you just inject nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, or the elixir of youth for short, into your body and you will become young again. (blogspot.com)
  • El objetivo de este trabajo fue la determinacion, a traves de la reaccion histoquimica para nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetra-zolium redutase (NADH-TR), la distribucion de fibras de tipos I y II del musculo frontal de conejos de la raza Norfolk inglesa, del sexo femenino, con edad de seis a ocho meses, pesando de 2,8 a 3,1 Kg. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The activities of pyrimidine nucleotidase (P5'N) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthase (NADS) are also modified in blood after Pb exposure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tucson, AZ, has a continuous skin cell delivery system whose key ingredient is a patented pro- nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide which enables niacin to be efficiently converted within skin cells to its active form, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), which helps build skin resilience in three different ways. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide , dietary supplements, steroids, and antidepressants other than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are under study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • acetic and citric acids), as are other important cellular chemicals such as coenzyme A, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), and alpha lipoic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This week, the Boston-area team together report that just two cellular substances emit the bulk of the fluorescence:collagen, a major structural protein, and a form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADI-I), which is part of cells' energy-making machinery. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Deficiency of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase component of complex I of mitochondrial transport. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • NAD-Synthetase catalyzes the last step of the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) from deamido nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NaAD), using the ATP. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Adenine is one of the byproducts of the Purine metabolism, where inosine monophosphate (IMP) is synthesized with a pre-existing ribose through a complex process involving atoms from the amino acids glycine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, in addition to the formate ions transferred from coenzyme tetrahydrofolate. (wikibooks.org)
  • This gene provides instructions for making APRT, an enzyme that helps to convert a DNA building block (nucleotide) called adenine to a molecule called adenosine monophosphate (AMP). (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, adenine is converted to another molecule called 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The adjacent image shows pure adenine, as an independent molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remaining structure is called an adenine residue, as part of a larger molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different structures of adenine mainly result from tautomerization of adenine, which allows the molecule to be available in isomeric forms in chemical equilibrium. (wikibooks.org)
  • An adenine molecule bound to a deoxyribose, a sugar, is known as deoxyadenosine. (wikibooks.org)
  • In the water-to-adenine H-atom transfer reaction, an electron from one of the p orbitals of the water molecule fills the hole in the n (π) orbital of the nπ* (ππ*) excited state of adenine, resulting in a charge-separated electronic state. (rsc.org)
  • The electronic charge separation is neutralized by the transfer of a proton from the water molecule to adenine, resulting in the (adenine+H)⋯OH biradical in the electronic ground state. (rsc.org)
  • In the adenine-to-water H-atom transfer reaction, πσ* states localized at the acidic sites of adenine provide the mechanism for the photoejection of an electron from adenine, which is followed by proton transfer to the hydrogen-bonded water molecule, resulting in the (adenine-H)⋯H 3 O biradical. (rsc.org)
  • Adenine (A, Adenine) purine nucleobase molecule. (alamy.com)
  • This quiz tests your knowledge with a number of questions pertaining to the adenine molecule. (study.com)
  • NADP + differs from NAD + in the presence of an additional phosphate group on the 2' position of the ribose ring that carries the adenine moiety . (wikipedia.org)
  • In RNA, which is used for protein synthesis, adenine binds to uracil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenine /ˈædɪnɪn/ (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative). (wikipedia.org)
  • One nucleotide contains an adenine nucleobase and the other nicotinamide . (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenine is one of the nucleobase or basic molecules which form DNA and RNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenine is also present in adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), NADH and NADPH , chemicals involved in the energy cycle and oxidation reduction steps within biology cells . (citizendium.org)
  • [5] Both NAD + and NADH absorb strongly in the ultraviolet due to the adenine base. (bionity.com)
  • In addition, the effect of the synchronizing temperature (34 °C) on adenine nucleotide metabolism in heat-synchronized cells has been determined. (springer.com)
  • Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleosides each contain a ribose ring, one with adenine attached to the first carbon atom (the 1' position) and the other with nicotinamide at this position. (wikipedia.org)
  • When adenine is attached to a ribose or deoxyribose sugar, the complex is called adenosine . (citizendium.org)
  • An adenine bound to ribose, also a sugar, is known as adenosine, a key component in Adenosine Triphosphate. (wikibooks.org)
  • The only difference is how the ribose carbon number 2 phosphate is bound to adenine. (hnip.net)
  • the large adenine molecules, however, will attach or "adsorb" to the charcoal due to the van der waals forces that interact between the adenine and the carbon in the charcoal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some think that, at the origin of life on Earth, the first adenine was formed by the polymerizing of five hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecules. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When the adenine dimer is clustered with several water molecules, we observe a nanosecond lifetime from excimer states in π-stacked clusters . (rsc.org)
  • In the present study, we determined the monocyte adhesion in the adenine-induced uremic rats in vivo and effects of AST-120 on the adhesion molecules. (hindawi.com)
  • However it is no longer considered a true vitamin (see Vitamin B). Some think that, at the origin of life on Earth, the first adenine was formed by the polymerizing of 5 hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecules. (wikibooks.org)
  • The mechanisms of photoinduced reactions of adenine with water molecules in hydrogen-bonded adenine-water complexes were investigated with ab initio wave-function-based electronic-structure calculations. (rsc.org)
  • These reactions, which involve the reactivity of adenine with hydrogen-bonded water molecules, compete with the well-established intrinsic excited-state deactivation mechanisms of adenine via ring-puckering or ring-opening conical intersections. (rsc.org)
  • Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase belongs to the purine/pyrimidine phosphoribosyltransferase family. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The vitamin folic acid is essential for adenine synthesis. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Here we revisit the suggestion that the synthesis of adenine may have involved the photochemical conversion of the tetramer of hydrogen cyanide in eutectic solution to 4-amino-5-cyano-imidazole. (springer.com)
  • It is further suggested that the reaction of cyanoacetylene with cyanate in eutectic solution to give cytosine might have proceeded in parallel with adenine synthesis. (springer.com)
  • Oro, J.: 1961a, Mechanisms of Synthesis of Adenine from Hydrogen Cyanide Under Possible Primitive Earth Conditions, Nature 191 , 1193-1194. (springer.com)
  • A major goal of origin-of-life studies is to determine potential mechanisms for the prebiotic synthesis of nucleic acid bases, such as adenine. (acs.org)
  • A lack of functional enzyme impairs the conversion of adenine to AMP. (medlineplus.gov)
  • an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of adenine to ammonia and hypoxanthine. (drugs.com)
  • In enzymology, an adenine deaminase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } hypoxanthine + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are adenine and H2O, whereas its two products are hypoxanthine and NH3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is adenine aminohydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRTase) is a widely distributed enzyme, and its deficiency in humans causes the accumulation of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine. (rcsb.org)
  • This enzyme catalyzes the formation of AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate from adenine and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Liu, Y. In-Situ Self-Assembly of Zinc/Adenine Hybrid Nanomaterials for Enzyme Immobilization. (mdpi.com)
  • An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. (harvard.edu)
  • The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. (harvard.edu)
  • Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is an inherited condition that affects the kidneys and urinary tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Edvardsson VO, Sahota A, Palsson R. Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase Deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency in humans is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by the urinary excretion of adenine and the highly insoluble compound 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA) that can produce kidney stones or renal failure. (pnas.org)
  • A new mutation, p.Gln147X, in APRT gene, was found in a patient with adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Applications of adenine base editors (ABEs) have been constrained by the limited compatibility of the deoxyadenosine deaminase component with Cas homologs other than SpCas9. (nature.com)
  • 2. Adenine, with a chemical formula of C5H5N5, is responsible for cellular respiration. (differencebetween.net)
  • IS10 transposition is regulated by DNA adenine methylation. (nih.gov)
  • DNA Methylation on N6-Adenine in C. elegans. (harvard.edu)
  • Marinus MG, Casadesus J. Roles of DNA adenine methylation in host-pathogen interactions: mismatch repair, transcriptional regulation, and more. (umassmed.edu)
  • Biological systems tend to conserve energy, so usually adenine is obtained through the diet, the body degrading nucleic acid chains to obtain individual bases and reconstructing them through mitosis . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) was found to be the only protein in the mitochondrial membranes exhibiting a detectable age-associated increase in carbonyls. (pnas.org)
  • Results of the present study indicate that age-related increase in molecular oxidative damage to mitochondrial membrane proteins is indeed highly selective, primarily involving adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), with severe loss of its functional activity. (pnas.org)
  • Western Blot: Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 Antibody [NBP1-59594] - RPMI 8226 cell lysate, concentration 0.2-1 ug/ml. (novusbio.com)
  • Mice homozygous for a null Aprt allele excrete adenine and DHA crystals in the urine. (pnas.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 96 Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) Antikörper von 22 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The present work shows that in the purine.purine base-pairs the adenine adopts syn orientation with respect to the furanose moiety while the inosine is in the trans (anti) orientation. (rcsb.org)
  • In this study, a one-step and facile immobilization of enzymes by self-assembly of zinc ions and adenine in aqueous solution with mild conditions was reported. (mdpi.com)
  • sup 14/C-labeled adenine aqueous solution was irradiated with /sup 60/Co gamma-rays. (osti.gov)
  • misc{etde_5579541, title = {Adenine-N-oxide produced from adenine with gamma-rays and its binding to SH protein} author = {Yamamoto, O} abstractNote = {/sup 14/C-labeled adenine aqueous solution was irradiated with /sup 60/Co gamma-rays. (osti.gov)
  • Furthermore, adenine has a chemical formula of C5-H5-N5 (5carbons-5hydrogens-5nitrogens). (differencebetween.net)
  • Its difference from adenine lies in its chemical formula, C5-H5-N5-O (5carbons-5hydrogens-5nitrogens-1oxygen). (differencebetween.net)
  • Caffeine caused a dose-dependent inhibition of 14C-adenine transport but no clear change in that of 14C-adenosine. (nih.gov)
  • deoxyadenosine is adenine attached to deoxyribose, as used to form DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alford, " Adenine arabinoside therapy of biopsy proved herpes simplex encephalitis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chromatin profiling using targeted DNA adenine methyltransferase. (nih.gov)
  • DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) is widespread and conserved among the γ-proteobacteria. (osti.gov)
  • Immunoprecipitation of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 transfected lysate using ab118125 and Protein A Magnetic Bead, and immunoblotted with an Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 mouse polyclonal antibody. (abcam.com)
  • Single-strand DNA can be anchored to a gold substrate for use in biodetectors by attaching a tail of adenine bases. (biologynews.net)
  • Adenine(A) is one of the four bases that make up nucleic acids. (wikibooks.org)
  • Adenine is a naturally occurring base found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. (citizendium.org)
  • Our findings suggest that adenine base editing can be used for the correction of genetic diseases in adult animals. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 1: Adenine base editing rescues liver disease phenotype in a mouse model of tyrosinaemia. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 2: Adenine base editing partially corrects the Fah mutation in mouse liver. (nature.com)
  • Adenine base editing in mouse embryos and an adult mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (nature.com)
  • The sequence crystallises as a B-DNA helix with 10 Watson-Crick base-pairs (4 A.T. and 6 G.C) and 2 inosine.adenine (I.A) pairs. (rcsb.org)
  • Initiates repair of A*oxoG to C*G by removing the inappropriately paired adenine base from the DNA backbone. (uniprot.org)
  • Methyl-Adenine, A Sixth DNA Base? (science20.com)
  • ABE8e augments the effectiveness and applicability of adenine base editing. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 4: Adenine base editing with ABE8e at disease-relevant loci in human cells. (nature.com)
  • Improving cytidine and adenine base editors by expression optimization and ancestral reconstruction. (nature.com)
  • Adenine base. (wikibooks.org)
  • Adenine forms several tautomers, compounds that can be rapidly interconverted and are often considered equivalent. (wikipedia.org)