Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)NADPH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.1.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Granulomatous Disease, Chronic: A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Adenine NucleotidesInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Batch Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: 3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.Nicotinamide-Nucleotide Adenylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of the adenylyl moiety of ATP to the phosphoryl group of NMN to form NAD+ and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is found predominantly in the nuclei and catalyzes the final reaction in the major pathway for the biosynthesis of NAD in mammals. EC 2.7.7.1.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH2 Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of or oxidation of compounds containing primary amines.Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.IMP Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 1.1.1.205.Mycophenolic Acid: An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)Inosine Monophosphate: Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Ribonucleoside Diphosphate Reductase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides using NADPH as the ultimate electron donor. The deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates are used in DNA synthesis. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.17.4.1.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Oxygen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain oxygen as an integral part of the molecule.Thioamides: Organic compounds containing the radical -CSNH2.Pseudomonas stutzeri: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, containing multiple genomovars. It is distinguishable from other pseudomonad species by its ability to use MALTOSE and STARCH as sole carbon and energy sources. It can degrade ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS and has been used as a model organism to study denitrification.Thiouridine: A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.Allyl CompoundsAdenine Nucleotide Translocator 2: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.Atractyloside: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.Bongkrekic Acid: An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in the LIVER.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Marker effects on reversion of T4rII mutants. (1/3669)

The frequencies of 2-aminopurine- and 5-bromouracil-induced A:T leads to G:C transitions were compared at nonsense sites throughout the rII region of bacteriophage T4. These frequencies are influenced both by adjacent base pairs within the nonsense codons and by extracodonic factors. Following 2AP treatment, they are high in amber (UAG) and lower in opal (UGA) codons than in allelic ochre (UAA) codons. In general, 5BU-induced transitions are more frequent in both amber and opal codons than in the allelic ochre codons. 2AP- and 5BU-induced transition frequencies in the first and third positions of opal codons are correlated with those in the corresponding positions of the allelic ochre codons. Similarly, the frequencies of 2AP-induced transition in the first and second positions of amber codons and their ochre alleles are correlated. However, there is little correlation between the frequencies of 5BU-induced transitions in the first and second positions of allelic amber and ochre codons.  (+info)

Cytokinin activation of Arabidopsis cell division through a D-type cyclin. (2/3669)

Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate plant cell division. The D-type cyclin CycD3 was found to be elevated in a mutant of Arabidopsis with a high level of cytokinin and to be rapidly induced by cytokinin application in both cell cultures and whole plants. Constitutive expression of CycD3 in transgenic plants allowed induction and maintenance of cell division in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. Results suggest that cytokinin activates Arabidopsis cell division through induction of CycD3 at the G1-S cell cycle phase transition.  (+info)

Impact of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis in tumor cells. (3/3669)

Following exposure to 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (an inhibitor of the cellular DNA polymerases alpha, delta and epsilon), human erythroleukemia K562, human T-lymphoid CEM and murine leukemia L1210 cells markedly accumulated in the S phase of the cell cycle. In contrast to DNA replication, RNA synthesis (transcription) and protein synthesis (mRNA translation) were not affected by 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)-adenine. The ribonucleoside triphosphate pools were slightly elevated, while the intracellular levels of all four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates were 1.5-4-fold increased in 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562, CEM and L1210 cells. The effect of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on de novo (thymidylate synthase-mediated) and salvage (thymidine kinase-mediated) dTTP synthesis was investigated using radio-labelled nucleoside precursors. The amount of thymidylate synthase-derived dTTP in the acid soluble pool was 2-4-fold higher in PMEA-treated than in untreated K562 cells, which is in accord with the 3-4-fold expansion of the global dTTP level in the presence of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Strikingly, 2-derived dTTP accumulated to a much higher extent (i.e. 16-40-fold) in the soluble dTTP pool upon 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine treatment. In keeping with this finding, a markedly increased thymidine kinase activity could be demonstrated in extracts of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562 cell cultures. Also, in the presence of 200 microM 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine, 14-fold less thymidylate synthase-derived but only 3-fold less thymidine kinase-derived dTTP was incorporated into the DNA of the K562 cells. These data show that thymidine incorporation may be inappropriate as a cell proliferation marker in the presence of DNA synthesis inhibitors such as 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Our findings indicate that 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine causes a peculiar pattern of (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism deregulation in drug-treated tumor cells, as a result of the metabolic block imposed by the drug on the S phase of the cell cycle.  (+info)

The major, N2-dG adduct of (+)-anti-B[a]PDE induces G-->A mutations in a 5'-AGA-3' sequence context. (4/3669)

Previously, in a random mutagenesis study, the (+)-anti diol epoxide of benzo[a]pyrene [(+)-anti-B[a]PDE] was shown to induce a complex mutational spectrum in the supF gene of an Escherichia coli plasmid, which included insertions, deletions and base substitution mutations, notably a significant fraction of GC-->TA, GC-->AT and GC-->CG mutations. At some sites, a single type of mutation dominated and to understand individual mutagenic pathways these sites were chosen for study by site-specific means to determine whether the major adduct, [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG, was responsible. [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG was shown to induce approximately 95% G-->T mutations in a 5'-TGC-3' sequence context and approximately 80% G-->A mutations in a 5'-CGT-3' sequence context. (+)-anti-B[a]PDE induced principally GC-->CG mutations in the G133 sequence context (5'-AGA-3') in studies using both SOS-uninduced or SOS-induced E. coli. Herein, [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG is shown to induce principally G-->A mutations (>90%) either without or with SOS induction in a closely related 5'-AGA-3' sequence context (identical over 7 bp). This is the first time that there has been a discrepancy between the mutagenic specificity of (+)-anti-B[a]PDE versus [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG. Eight explanations for this discordance are considered. Four are ruled out; e.g. the second most prevalent adduct [+ca]-B[a]P-N2-dG also induces a preponderance of G-->A mutations (>90%), so it also is not responsible for (+)-anti-B[a]PDE-induced G133-->C mutations. The four explanations not ruled out are discussed and include that another minor adduct might be responsible and that the 5'-AGA-3' sequence context differed slightly in the studies with [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG versus (+)-anti-B[a]PDE. In spite of the discordance, [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG induces G-->A mutations in the context studied herein and this result has proven useful in generating a hypothesis for what conformations of [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG are responsible for G-->T versus G-->A mutations.  (+info)

Hprt mutant frequency and molecular analysis of Hprt mutations in Fischer 344 rats treated with thiotepa. (5/3669)

Thiotepa is a bifunctional alkylating anticancer drug that is a rodent carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen. In order to determine the sensitivity of mutant induction in the Hprt lymphocyte assay for detecting tumorigenic doses of thiotepa, Fischer 344 rats were treated for 4 weeks with thiotepa using a procedure adapted from a carcinogenesis protocol. At various times after beginning the treatment regimen, rats were killed and the lymphocyte Hprt assay was performed on splenic lymphocytes isolated from the animals. The 6-thioguanine-resistant T lymphocyte mutant frequency increased with time during the period of thiotepa exposure and declined slightly thereafter. Significant dose-dependent increases in mutant frequency were found using concentrations of thiotepa that eventually result in lymphoproliferative tumors. Hprt mRNA from mutant lymphocytes was reverse transcribed to cDNA, amplified by PCR and examined for mutations by DNA sequencing. This analysis indicated that the major type of point mutation was G:C-->T:A transversion and that 33% of the mutants contained simple or complex frameshifts. Also, a multiplex PCR performed on DNA from mutant clones that were expanded in vitro indicated that 34% of the clones had deletions in the Hprt gene. These results indicate that the induction of lymphocyte Hprt mutants is a sensitive biomarker for the carcinogenicity of thiotepa and that the types of mutations found in the lymphocyte Hprt gene reflect the kinds of DNA damage produced by thiotepa.  (+info)

In vitro reactions of butadiene monoxide with single- and double-stranded DNA: characterization and quantitation of several purine and pyrimidine adducts. (6/3669)

We have previously shown that butadiene monoxide (BM), the primary metabolite of 1,3-butadiene, reacted with nucleosides to form alkylation products that exhibited different rates of formation and different stabilities under in vitro physiological conditions. In the present study, BM was reacted with single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) calf thymus DNA and the alkylation products were characterized after enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA. The primary products were regioisomeric N-7-guanine adducts. N-3-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)adenine and N-3-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl)adenine, which were depurinated from the DNA more rapidly than the N-7-guanine adducts, were also formed. In addition, N6-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)deoxyadenosine and N6-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl)deoxyadenosine were detected and evidence was obtained that these adducts were formed by Dimroth rearrangement of the corresponding N-1-deoxyadenosine adducts, not while in the DNA, but following the release of the N-1-alkylated nucleosides by enzymatic hydrolysis. N-3-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)deoxyuridine adducts, which were apparently formed subsequent to deamination reactions of the corresponding deoxycytidine adducts, were also detected and were stable in the DNA. Adduct formation was linearly dependent upon BM concentration (10-1000 mM), with adduct ratios being similar at the various BM concentrations. At a high BM concentration (750 mM), the adducts were formed in a linear fashion for up to 8 h in both ssDNA and dsDNA. However, the rates of formation of the N-3-deoxyuridine and N6-deoxyadenosine adducts increased 10- to 20-fold in ssDNA versus dsDNA, whereas the N-7-guanine adducts increased only slightly, presumably due to differences in hydrogen bonding in ssDNA versus dsDNA. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis of both BM and its parent compound, 1,3-butadiene.  (+info)

Early short-term 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine treatment favorably alters the subsequent disease course in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected newborn Rhesus macaques. (7/3669)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of newborn macaques is a useful animal model of human pediatric AIDS to study disease pathogenesis and to develop intervention strategies aimed at delaying disease. In the present study, we demonstrate that very early events of infection greatly determine the ultimate disease course, as short-term antiviral drug administration during the initial viremia stage significantly delayed the onset of AIDS. Fourteen newborn macaques were inoculated orally with uncloned, highly virulent SIVmac251. The four untreated control animals showed persistently high virus levels and poor antiviral immune responses; they developed fatal immunodeficiency within 15 weeks. In contrast, SIV-infected newborn macaques which were started on 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA) treatment at 5 days of age and continued for either 14 or 60 days showed reduced virus levels and enhanced antiviral immune responses. This short-term PMPA treatment did not induce detectable emergence of SIV mutants with reduced in vitro susceptibility to PMPA. Although viremia increased in most animals after PMPA treatment was withdrawn, all animals remained disease-free for at least 6 months. Our data suggest that short-term treatment with a potent antiviral drug regimen during the initial viremia will significantly prolong AIDS-free survival for HIV-infected infants and adults.  (+info)

Enzyme-mononucleotide interactions: three different folds share common structural elements for ATP recognition. (8/3669)

Three ATP-dependent enzymes with different folds, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, D-Ala:D-Ala ligase and the alpha-subunit of the alpha2beta2 ribonucleotide reductase, have a similar organization of their ATP-binding sites. The most meaningful similarity was found over 23 structurally equivalent residues in each protein and includes three strands each from their beta-sheets, in addition to a connecting loop. The equivalent secondary structure elements in each of these enzymes donate four amino acids forming key hydrogen bonds responsible for the common orientation of the "AMP" moieties of their ATP-ligands. One lysine residue conserved throughout the three families binds the alpha-phosphate in each protein. The common fragments of structure also position some, but not all, of the equivalent residues involved in hydrophobic contacts with the adenine ring. These examples of convergent evolution reinforce the view that different proteins can fold in different ways to produce similar structures locally, and nature can take advantage of these features when structure and function demand it, as shown here for the common mode of ATP-binding by three unrelated proteins.  (+info)

Several new synthetic agents show high affinity for binding adenine derivatives. The structures feature complementary hydrogen bonds that cause the molecular chelation of the purine nucleus. The high lipophilicity of the new agents permits the transport of adenosine and deoxyadenosine across organic liquid membranes. The use of synthetic receptors for small biological targets may have application in drug delivery. ...
Cybulski, R L. and Goldman, I D., "Discrimination between adenine transport and metabolism in l1210 cells. Abstr." (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 836 ...
Adenine (sometimes known as vitamin B4) combines with the sugar ribose to form adenosine, which in turn can be bonded with from one to three phosphoric acid units, yielding AMP, ADP and ATP . These adenine derivatives perform important functions in cellular metabolism. Adenine is one of four nitrogenous bases utilized in the synthesis of nucleic acids. A modified form of adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) is an imporant secondary messenger in the propagation of many hormonal stimuli. Adenine is an integral part of the structure of many coenzymes. Adenosine (adenine with a ribose group) causes transient heart block in the AV node of the heart. In individuals suspected of suffering from a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), adenosine is used to help identify the rhythm. Certain SVTs can be successfully terminated with adenosine ...
The him1 mutation has been shown to influence the genetic effects of the mutagenic purine base analog 6-hydroxylaminopurine, i. e. inactivation of haploid cells, mutation induction, and inhibition of DNA synthesis in vivo. The influence observed is well consistent with the idea that the him1 mutation affects mismatch correction. We present evidence that during in vivo DNA replication 6-hydroxylaminopurine incorporates into the yeast DNA.
I want to start up some simple assays for cAMP levels in cultured cells. The approach I am going to take is to metabolically label the cells with [3H]-adenine, and then measure the [3H]-cAMP that is produced from drug treatments in the assay several hours later. Ideally, I would like the use cell culture medium that is deficient in adenine in order to increase the amount of hot adenine that is taken up. However, when I look over the list of ingredients in D-MEM, I see that adenine isnt one of them. Therefore, either the cells are making their own nucleotides, or their primary source of adenine must be from the FBS that we conventionally add to the D-MEM. Does anyone do these kind of assays, and do you typically remove the serum when you load the cells with hot adenine? If I can avoid serum-starving the cells, I would prefer to do so. John hines at pharm.med.upenn.edu ...
1FJB: Structural Studies of the Ionizing Radiation Adduct 7,8-Dihydro-8-Oxoadenine (A Oxo) Positioned Opposite Thymine and Guanine in DNA Duplexes
99% high quality Adenine,CAS:73-24-5 Product name:Adenine CAS No.:73-24-5 Molecular formula:C5H5N5 Molecular weight:135.13 Product Specifications:Pharmacopoeial grade Purity:99%+ Brand:Hotai Origion:Hubei,China Price:Negotiable Package:Aluminum...
Adenine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Adenine is available on the Drugs.com website.
adenine: Organic compound belonging to the purine family, occurring free in tea or combined in many substances of biological importance, including the nucleic acids, which govern hereditary...
Learn more about Adenine sulphate. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
We provide secure, cost-effective access to the UKs richest collection of digital content: giving you access to the latest data and content from leading international publishers and providers.. Find out more at jisc.ac.uk. ...
What are the gens? They are the parts of DNA present on the chromosomes and they control the individuals hereditary traits, And the hereditary traits are transferred from the parents to their offspring through ...
2015 Elsevier Ltd. Background Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate can cause renal and bone toxic effects related to high plasma tenofovir concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide is a novel tenofovir prodrug with a 90% reduction in plasma tenofovir concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide-containing regimens can have improved renal and bone safety compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing regimens. Methods In these two controlled, double-blind phase 3 studies, we recruited treatment-naive HIV-infected patients with an estimated creatinine clearance of 50 mL per min or higher from 178 outpatient centres in 16 countries. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily oral tablets containing 150 mg elvitegravir, 150 mg cobicistat, 200 mg emtricitabine, and 10 mg tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/tenofovir alafenamide) or 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) with matching placebo. Randomisation was done by a computer-generated allocation sequence (block ...
Lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate - Get up-to-date information on Lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate monotherapy for nucleos(t)ide-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients in Korea. T2 - data from the clinical practice setting in a single-center cohort. AU - Ahn, Sung S.oo. AU - Chon, Young E.un. AU - Kim, Beom K.yung. AU - Kim, Seung U.p.. AU - Kim, Do Y.oung. AU - Ahn, Sang H.oon. AU - Han, Kwang Hyub. AU - Park, Jun Y.ong. PY - 2014/9/1. Y1 - 2014/9/1. N2 - BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study assessed the antiviral efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) for up to 12 months in Korean treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.METHODS: A total of 411 treatment-naïve CHB patients who had been treated with TDF for at least 3 months (median 5.6) were consecutively enrolled. Clinical, biochemical, virological parameters and treatment adherence were routinely assessed every 3 months.RESULTS: The median age was 51.3 years, 63.0% of the patients were male, 49.6% were HBeAg (+), and 210 patients had liver cirrhosis. The median baseline HBV ...
... aims at providing comprehensive data on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate(tdf)
A Randomized, Phase II, Controlled Trial Comparing the Efficacy of Adefovir Dipivoxil and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate for the Treatment of Lamivudine-Resistant Hepatitis B Virus in Subjects Who Are Co-Infected With HIV ...
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) 300 mg plus placebo to match adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) (double-blind period), followed by TDF 300 mg (open-label period). Participants may have added emtricitabine (FTC) to their treatment regimen (as part of FTC 200 mg/TDF 300 mg fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet) in the open-label period ...
This study is to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics (PK) and confirm the dose of the elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF) single tablet regimen (STR) in HIV-1 infected, antiretroviral (ARV) treatment-naive adolescents. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy will also be evaluated through Week 48.. A total of 50 adolescent participants (12 to , 18 years of age) will be enrolled to receive EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF as follows:. ...
Background: Off-target renal and bone side effects may occur with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use. Compared with TDF, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) results in significantly reduced plasma tenofovir (TFV) and may have less renal and bone toxicity.. Methods: Treatment naïve HIV-1+ adults were randomized 1:1 to a single tablet regimen of E/C/F/TAF or E/C/F/TDF once daily in two double blind studies. Assessments included measures of renal function and bone mineral density (BMD). Four pre-specified secondary safety endpoints were tested: serum creatinine, treatment-emergent proteinuria, spine and hip BMD. Week 48 off-target side effects data are described.. Results: Combined, the two studies randomized and treated 1,733 subjects. Plasma TFV was ,90% lower (mean [%CV] AUCtau 297 (20) vs. 3,410 (25) nghr/mL) in the E/C/F/TAF arm, compared to the E/C/F/TDF arm. Serum creatinine (mean [SD] change: +0.08 [0.124] vs +0.11 [0.217] mg/dL, p,0.001), quantified proteinuria (UPCR, median [Q1, Q3] % ...
Learn about Atripla (Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
Learn about Complera (Emtricitabine/Rilpivirine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Tablets) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
Medication Guide TRUVADA (tru-vah-dah) (emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) Tablets Read this Medication Guide before you start taking TRUVADA and each time you get a refill. There may be
On June 8, 2017, the Food and Drug Administration approved the first generic version of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets, ...
Professional guide for Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more.
This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of entecavir versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
Brand Name: Cimduo Other Names: 3TC/TDF, Lamivudine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Drug Class: Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors WARNING:Cimduo can cause serious, life-threatening side effec
Background. The efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) as part of combination antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been demonstrated in several randomized, controlled trials. However, an increasing number of case reports suggest that TDF use may be associated with significant nephrotoxicity. Our objective was to determine the renal safety of TDF-containing ART regimens for HIV-infected individuals.. Methods. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Biosis Previews, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and existing systematic reviews were searched. Prospective studies comparing TDF-containing with non-TDF containing ART regimens were selected for inclusion. We extracted data on study characteristics, participant characteristics, therapeutic interventions, renal function, bone density, and fracture rates.. Results. A total of 17 studies (including 9 randomized, controlled trials) met the selection criteria. Median sample size was 517 participants. Constituent ART regimens were diverse. There ...
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Lim, S.G., Marcellin, P., Tassopoulos, N., Hadziyannis, S., Chang, T.T., Tong, M., Sievert, W., Hu, P., Arterburn, S., Brosgart, C.L. (2007). Clinical trial: Effects of adefovir dipivoxil therapy in Asian and Caucasian patients with chronic hepatitis B. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 26 (10) : 1419-1428. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03506. ...
Darunavir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) 800/150/200/10 mg is a once-daily, single-tablet regimen for treatment of HIV-1 infection. The efficacy/safety of switching to D/C/F/TAF versus continuing boosted protease inhibitor (bPI) + emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (control) were demonstrated in a phase 3, randomized study (EMERALD) of treatment-experienced, virologically suppressed adults through week 48. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate EMERALD outcomes across subgroups of patients based on demographic characteristics, prior treatment experience, and baseline antiretroviral regimen. EMERALD patients were virologically suppressed (viral load [VL] | 50 copies/mL for ≥ 2 months at screening). Prior non-darunavir virologic failure (VF) was allowed. Primary endpoint was proportion of patients with virologic rebound (confirmed VL ≥ 50 copies/mL) cumulative through week 48. Virologic response was VL | 50 copies/mL (FDA snapshot). Safety was assessed by
FOSTER CITY, Calif. & WHITEHOUSE STATION, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Aug. 11, 2006--Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: GILD) and Merck & Co., Inc. (NYSE: MRK) today announced that the companies have established an agreement for the distribution of ATRIPLA(TM) (efavirenz 600 mg/ emtricitabine 200 mg/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg), a once-daily, single tablet regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults, in developing countries around the world.. ATRIPLA contains 600 mg of efavirenz, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), 200 mg of emtricitabine and 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, both nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Efavirenz is marketed by Merck under the tradename Stocrin(R) in all territories outside of the United States, Canada and certain European countries (where it is commercialized by Bristol-Myers Squibb under the tradename Sustiva(R)). Emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are commercialized by Gilead Sciences under ...
This retrospective single-center analysis included 212 people taking TDF with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs), 176 with nonnucleosides, 46 with dolutegravir or raltegravir, and 76 with elvitegravir/cobicistat. Tenofovir troughs proved significantly higher with elvitegravir/cobicistat or with boosted PIs than with nonnucleosides or integrase inhibitors (P < 0.01). Multivariate regression analysis with tenofovir trough concentration as the dependent variable indicated significantly higher tenofovir troughs with elvitegravir/cobicistat than with ritonavir-boosted PIs (beta 0.27, P = 0.001). In the same analysis, women had higher tenofovir troughs than men (beta 0.20, P = 0.004). Older age and lower weight were also associated with higher tenofovir troughs ...
Emtricitabine & Tenofovir - Get up-to-date information on Emtricitabine & Tenofovir side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Emtricitabine & Tenofovir
Introduction: More than a million people acquire HIV infection annually. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using antiretrovirals is currently being investigated for HIV prevention. Oral and topical formulations of tenofovir have undergone preclinical and clinical testing to assess acceptability, safety and effectiveness in preventing HIV infection. Areas covered: The tenofovir drug development pathway from compound discovery, preclinical animal model testing and human testing were reviewed for safety, tolerability and efficacy. Tenofovir is well tolerated and safe when used both systemically or applied topically for HIV prevention. High drug concentrations at the site of HIV transmission and concomitant low systemic drug concentrations are achieved with vaginal application. Coitally applied gel may be the favored prevention option for women compared with the tablets, which may be more suitable for prevention in men and sero-discordant couples. However, recent contradictory effectiveness outcomes ...
BACKGROUND: Reproductive-age women need effective interventions to prevent the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to assess daily treatment with oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), oral tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC), or 1% tenofovir (TFV) vaginal gel as preexposure prophylaxis against HIV-1 infection in women in South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. HIV-1 testing was performed monthly, and plasma TFV levels were assessed quarterly.
... - Product Developed Through Joint Venture Between Bristol-Myers Squib... Gilead Sciences the First of Its Kind in HIV Treatment - ...PRINCETON N.J. and FOSTER CITY Calif. Dec. 17 FirstCall... Historically HIV treatment regimens have been a challenge for manyp...,European,Commission,Approves,ATRIPLA(R),(efavirenz,600,mg/emtricitabine,200,mg/tenofovir,disoproxil,fumarate,300,mg),,the,First,Once-Daily,Single,Tablet,Regimen,for,Virologically,Suppressed,Adults,With,HIV-1,Infection,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
Tenofovir belongs to a class of antiretroviral drugs known as nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), which block reverse transcriptase, an enzyme crucial to viral production in HIV-infected people. Tenofovir is currently in late-stage clinical trials for the treatment of hepatitis B. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate diester analog of adenosine monophosphate. Tenofovir requires initial diester hydrolysis for conversion to tenofovir and subsequent phosphorylations by cellular enzymes to form tenofovir diphosphate. Tenofovir diphosphate is a weak inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerases α, β, and mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ ...
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This study will test the safety, side effects and antiviral activity of different doses of tenofovir DF in children and adolescents with human immunodef
Buy Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir online from Pharmapassport , a Canadian pharmacy that saves 30-80% on Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir .
A Phase 2 Randomized Open-Label Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of GS-4774 in combination with Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF) for the treatment of subjects with chronic hepatitis B and who are currently not on treatment
Consumer information about the medication EMTRICITABINE/TENOFOVIR - ORAL (Truvada), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. Read more about the prescription drug EMTRICITABINE/TENOFOVIR - ORAL.
FOSTER CITY, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Dec. 15, 2006--Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq:GILD) today announced the publication of 96-week data from an ongoing clinical trial, Study 934, in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (JAIDS). This study compares a once-daily regimen of Viread(R) (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate), Emtriva(R) (emtricitabine) and Sustiva(R) (efavirenz) to a twice-daily regimen of Combivir(R) (lamivudine/zidovudine) with Sustiva once daily. The study article, "Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, Emtricitabine, and Efavirenz Versus Fixed-Dose Zidovudine/Lamivudine and Efavirenz in Antiretroviral-Naive Patients," appears in the December 15 issue of JAIDS (Vol. 43; issue 5).. "The efficacy, safety and resistance profile of Viread/Emtriva/Sustiva in this study underscores the importance of this treatment option for antiretroviral therapy-naive patients," said lead author Anton Pozniak, MD, of the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London. "Sustiva, Emtriva and Viread were ...
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Because TAF is rapidly converted to tenofovir, and tenofovir exposure in rats and mice is lower after TAF administration compared to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) administration, carcinogenicity studies were performed with TDF. Long-term oral carcinogenicity studies of tenofovir in mice and rats were carried out at 167 times (mice) and 55 times (rats) tenofovir exposure compared to that seen after TAF administration at recommended doses in humans. In female mice, liver adenomas were increased. In rats, no carcinogenic findings were observed.1,2 Reproduction/Fertility ...
In a United Kingdom cohort of 71 pregnant women receiving TDF, retrospective analysis of serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measured throughout pregnancy and 6 weeks after delivery revealed no decline in renal function during pregnancy and normal renal function(,90 mL/min) 6 weeks postpartum (one womans postpartum eGFR was 60 mL/min).19. Among 382 pregnancies occurring in 302 women in Uganda and Zimbabwe participating in the DART trial-approximately two-thirds of whom received TDF through more than 90% of their pregnancies-there were no differences noted in mortality, birth defects, or growth.20 In the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study from the United States, 449 (21%) of the 2,029 HIV-exposed but uninfected infants had in utero exposure to TDF, and there was no difference at birth between those exposed to combination drug regimens with or without TDF in low birthweight, small-for-gestational-age, and newborn length-for-age and head circumference-for-age z-scores ...
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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. References[edit]. *^ Hanukoglu I, Rapoport R (Feb-May 1995). "Routes and regulation of NADPH ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP+ or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a ... position of the ribose ring that carries the adenine moiety. ...
P0 (adenine). *Agonists: 8-Aminoadenine. *Adenine. P1. (adenosine). *Agonists: 2-(1-Hexynyl)-N-methyladenosine ...
P0 (adenine). *Agonists: 8-Aminoadenine. *Adenine. P1. (adenosine). *Agonists: 2-(1-Hexynyl)-N-methyladenosine ...
The word guarana comes from the Guaraní word guara-ná, which has its origins in the Sateré-Maué word for the plant, warana,[5] that in Tupi-Guarani means "fruit like the eyes of the people". Guarana plays an important role in Tupi and Guaraní Paraguayan culture. According to a myth attributed to the Sateré-Maué tribe, guarana's domestication originated with a deity killing a beloved village child. To console the villagers, a more benevolent god plucked the left eye from the child and planted it in the forest, resulting in the wild variety of guarana. The god then plucked the right eye from the child and planted it in the village, giving rise to domesticated guarana.[6]. The Guaranís would make an herbal tea by shelling, washing and drying the seeds, followed by pounding them into a fine powder. The powder is kneaded into a dough and then shaped into cylinders. This product is known as guarana bread, which would be grated and then immersed into hot water along with sugar.[7]. This plant ...
ADP consists of three important structural components: a sugar backbone attached to adenine and two phosphate groups bonded to ...
... including the DNA and RNA components adenine and guanine, were found in outer space.[6][7][8] ...
P0 (adenine). *Agonists: 8-Aminoadenine. *Adenine. P1. (adenosine). *Agonists: 2-(1-Hexynyl)-N-methyladenosine ...
adenine. adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT). AMP Folate biosynthesis[edit]. Tetrahydrofolic acid and its derivatives are ... There are two types of phosphoribosyltransferases: adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) and hypoxanthine-guanine ...
Adenine (A) C Cytosine (C) G Guanine (G) T Thymine (T) N A, C, G or T ...
Flavin adenine dinucleotide. References[edit]. *^ Tsibris, John C. M.; McCormick, Donald B.; Wright, Lemuel D. "Studies on the ...
... flavine adenine dicucleotide; FTHF: 10-formyltetrahydrofolate; MS: methionine synthase; MTHFR: methylenetetrahydrofolate ...
Kamatani, N (1996). "Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency". Nippon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine ... People afflicted with adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency may produce 2,8-dihydroxyadenine stones,[62] alkaptonurics ...
For example, adenine + PRPP --, AMP + PPi. This reaction requires the enzyme adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. Free guanine is ... Adenine and guanine are the two nucleotides classified as purines. In purine synthesis, PRPP is turned into inosine ...
FAD = flavin adenine dinucleotide Catalase, another peroxisomal enzyme, uses this H2O2 to oxidize other substrates, including ...
Depletion of adenine nucleotidesEdit. Having eliminated loss of respiration, Albrich et al.[26] proposes that the cause of ... Barrette et al.[44] studied the loss of adenine nucleotides by studying the energy charge of HOCl-exposed cells and found that ... found that HOCl destroys cytochromes and iron-sulfur clusters and observed that oxygen uptake is abolished by HOCl and adenine ... death may be due to metabolic dysfunction caused by depletion of adenine nucleotides. ...
Sims N. R., Bowen D. M., Neary D., and Davison A. N. (1983) Metabolic process in Alzheimer's disease: adenine nucleotide ...
Adenine binds with thymine and uracil; thymine binds only with adenine; and cytosine and guanine can bind only with one another ... nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: oxidised form) to NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: reduced form). This does not ... The most common nitrogenous bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. The nitrogenous bases of each strand of ... adenine, cytosine, and guanine occur in both RNA and DNA, while thymine occurs only in DNA and uracil occurs in RNA. ...
rRNA adenine N-6-methyltransferase. Plasmid pSHaeB SH2305. msrSA. ATP-dependent efflux system. πSh1 ...
Plastic bag with 0.5-0.7 liters containing packed red blood cells in citrate, phosphate, dextrose, and adenine (CPDA) solution ... "ADENINE IN RED CELL PRESERVATION*". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 41 (2): 351-359. doi:10.1172/JCI104489. ISSN 0021-9738 ... "The Mechanism of Action of Adenine in Red Cell Preservation*". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 44 (4): 629-642. doi:10.1172 ...
flagellum . flavin adenine dinucleotide . food chain The chain of eating and getting nutrition which starts from a small ... adaptive radiation . adenine . adenosine triphosphate a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the ... cytochrome . cytosine One of the four main nucleotide bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, thymine, and ... deoxyribonucleic acid The four bases found in DNA are adenine (abbreviated A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T); these ...
RNA also uses a different set of bases than DNA-adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil, instead of adenine, guanine, cytosine ... Adenine readily binds uracil or thymine. Uracil is, however, one product of damage to cytosine that makes RNA particularly ... adenine, guanine and related organic molecules) may have been formed extraterrestrially in outer space.[55][56][57] In 2017, a ... the purine base known as adenine is merely a pentamer of hydrogen cyanide. Experiments with basic ribozymes, like Bacteriophage ...
Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming A-T and G-C base pairs.[18][19] ... Building blocks of DNA (adenine, guanine, and related organic molecules) may have been formed extraterrestrially in outer space ... Purines form hydrogen bonds to pyrimidines, with adenine bonding only to thymine in two hydrogen bonds, and cytosine bonding ... In DNA, the pyrimidines are thymine and cytosine; the purines are adenine and guanine. ...
Adenine Pr. ISBN 0-940030-78-0. Vijayan, M.; Johnson, L. N. (2005). "Gopalasamudram Narayana Ramachandran. 8 October 1922 - 7 ...
Adenine Pr. p. 386. ISBN 978-0940030350. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) D. P. Burma (2011). From Physiology and ...
... adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. It is also used to treat kidney stones caused by deficient activity of adenine ...
DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) is widespread and conserved among the γ-proteobacteria. Methylation of the Ade in GATC ... Title: Structures of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in complex with a non-GATC sequence: Potential ... Accepted Manuscript: Structures of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in complex with a non-GATC sequence: ...
The dependence of bacterial virulence on DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) has led to the proposal that selective Dam ... BackgroundDNA adenine methylation plays an important role in several critical bacterial processes including mismatch repair, ... expression and purification of Yersinia pestis Dam and the development of a continuous fluorescence based assay for DNA adenine ... inhibitors.Conclusions/SignificanceThe assay is therefore suitable for high throughput screening for inhibitors of DNA adenine ...
APRT: adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. *APTX: aprataxin. *AQP2: aquaporin 2. *AR: androgen receptor. *ARFGEF2: ADP ...
DHA crystalline nephropathy, see adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. *DHMN-V, see distal hereditary motor neuropathy ...
... bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD ... The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA. The image on the right shows pure adenine, as ... Adenosine is adenine reacted with ribose as used in RNA and ATP; deoxyadenosine, adenine attached to deoxyribose, as is used to ... In RNA, which is used for protein synthesis, adenine binds to uracil. Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ...
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. References[edit]. *^ Hanukoglu I, Rapoport R (Feb-May 1995). "Routes and regulation of NADPH ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP+ or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a ... position of the ribose ring that carries the adenine moiety. ...
In enzymology, an adenine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenine + H2O ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is adenine aminohydrolase. Other names in common use include adenase, adenine aminase ... Heppel LA, Hurwitz J, Horecker BL (1957). "Adenine deaminase of Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79 (3): 630-633. doi ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } hypoxanthine + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are adenine and H2O, whereas its ...
flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) A coenzyme in oxidation reactions, derived from vitamin B2, phosphate, ribose, and adenine.. ... flavin adenine dinucleotide A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition © A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition 2005, originally published ... flavin adenine dinucleotide A Dictionary of Plant Sciences © A Dictionary of Plant Sciences 1998, originally published by ... flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) A coenzyme derivative of the vitamin riboflavin, which participates in dehydrogenation ...
A lack of functional enzyme impairs the conversion of adenine to AMP. As a result, adenine is converted to another molecule ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is an inherited condition that affects the kidneys and urinary tract. The ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012 Apr;27(4):571-9. doi: 10.1007/s00467-011-2037-0 ... Bollée G, Harambat J, Bensman A, Knebelmann B, Daudon M, Ceballos-Picot I. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. Clin J ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Adenine is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Adenine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ...
Adenine definition, a purine base, C5H5N5, one of the fundamental components of nucleic acids, as DNA, in which it forms a base ... adenine. Historical Examples. of adenine. *. Adenine and guanine are constituents of all nucleic acids (see below) and, hence, ... Origin of adenine. 1880-85; < German Adenin; see aden-, -ine2. Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged ... Adenine is also part of other biologically important compounds, such as ATP, NAD, and vitamin B-12, and occurs in tea. Chemical ...
Definition of adenine deaminase. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions ... adenine deaminase. Definition: an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of adenine to ammonia and hypoxanthine. A part of purine ...
In addition, the effect of the synchronizing temperature (34 °C) on adenine... ... The metabolism of acid soluble adenine nucleotides in heat-synchronized Tetrahymena pyriformisGL has been studied. ... Nucleotide Cell Cycle Cell Division Adenine Heat Treatment These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This ... The specific activities of the adenine nucleotides were found to be significantly higher during a pulse label period performed ...
In RNA, adenine binds to uracil (U). Adenine and thymine, together with cytosine and guanine, the two pyrimidine nucleobases, ... The vitamin folic acid is essential for adenine synthesis.. Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and ... In the human body, adenine is synthesized in the liver. Biological systems tend to conserve energy, so usually adenine is ... Adenine. Adenosine. A. A nucleobase covalently. bound to the 1. carbon of a ribose. or deoxyribose. is called a nucleoside.. A ...
Buy your own T-Shirt with a Adenine design at Spreadshirt, your custom t-shirt printing platform! ... This Adenine T-Shirt is printed on a T-Shirt and designed by VectorPlanet. Available in many sizes and colours. ... I Wish I Was Adenine... So I Could Pair With U.. Tags: adenine, biochemistry, chemist, chemistry, chemistry puns, cute, funny, ... Chemistry Molecule Joke Puns Sarcasm Chemistry Joke Chemistry Molecule Biochemistry Adenine Chemistry Puns ...
Chromatin profiling using targeted DNA adenine methyltransferase.. van Steensel B1, Delrow J, Henikoff S. ...
... if adenine was formed prebiotically on the primitive earth, eutectic freezing of hydrogen cyanide solutions is likely to have ... Winter, D. and Zubay, G.: 1995, Binding of Adenine and Adenine-Related Compounds to the Clay Montmorillonite and the Mineral ... adenine eutectic freezing hydrogen cyanide tetramer photo-isomerization prebiotic synthesis pyrimidines This is a preview of ... Shapiro, R.: 1995, The Prebiotic Role of Adenine: A Critical Analysis, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 25, 83-98.Google Scholar ...
Ideally, I would like the use cell culture medium that is deficient in adenine in order to increase the amount of hot adenine ... adenine-deficient media for cAMP?. John Hines hines at pharm.med.upenn.edu Thu Feb 10 17:42:30 EST 2000 *Previous message: ief ... Does anyone do these kind of assays, and do you typically remove the serum when you load the cells with hot adenine? If I can ... The approach I am going to take is to metabolically label the cells with [3H]-adenine, and then measure the [3H]-cAMP that is ...
adenine + H+ + H2O -, ammonium + hypoxanthine PlantCyc ADENINE. Adenine is a purine derivative and a nucleobase with a variety ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase TargetMol T0064. adenine[extracellular space] + H+[extracellular space] -, adenine[cytosol ... adenine + adenine + H2O + H+ + H+ + H2O -, hypoxanthine + ammonium + ammonium + hypoxanthine PlantCyc ADENINE. ... bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD ...
IS10 transposition is regulated by DNA adenine methylation.. Roberts D, Hoopes BC, McClure WR, Kleckner N. ...
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient mice develop 2,8-dihydroxyadenine nephrolithiasis. S J Engle, M G Stockelman, J ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient mice develop 2,8-dihydroxyadenine nephrolithiasis. S J Engle, M G Stockelman, J ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient mice develop 2,8-dihydroxyadenine nephrolithiasis. S J Engle, M G Stockelman, J ... Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient mice develop 2,8-dihydroxyadenine nephrolithiasis Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
adenine nucleotide translocase;. DNP,. 2,4-dinitrophenyl;. DNPH,. 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine;. HNE,. 4-hydroxynonenal. ... Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase is modified oxidatively during aging Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase is modified oxidatively during aging. Liang-Jun Yan and Rajindar S. Sohal ... Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) was found to be the only protein in the mitochondrial membranes exhibiting a detectable ...
adenine / adenine / 73-24-5 / 200-796-1 Type:. boundary composition of the substance. State Form:. solid: particulate/powder. ... Adenine EC Number:. 200-796-1. EC Name:. Adenine. CAS Number:. 73-24-5 Molecular formula:. C5H5N5 IUPAC Name:. 9H-purin-6-amine ... AdenineAdenine. CAS Number:. 73-24-5. Molecular formula:. C5H5N5. IUPAC Name:. 9H-purin-6- ... AdenineAdenine. CAS Number:. 73-24-5. Molecular formula:. C5H5N5. IUPAC Name:. 9H-purin-6- ...
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Adenine derivative , C12H13N5O2 , CID 129160 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, ...
  • The metabolism of acid soluble adenine nucleotides in heat-synchronized Tetrahymena pyriformis GL has been studied. (springer.com)
  • In cells induced to divide synchronously through heat treatment (cyclic pulses of 34 °C for 30 min alternating with a 30 min recovery period at 28 °C) variations occurred in the levels of adenine nucleotides when samples of cells were analysed at the end of the last thermal period and at various times preceding the first synchronous cell division. (springer.com)
  • The specific activities of the adenine nucleotides were found to be significantly higher during a pulse label period performed at the end of the last thermal period than at any time during the subsequent synchronous division cycle. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, either the cells are making their own nucleotides, or their primary source of adenine must be from the FBS that we conventionally add to the D-MEM. (bio.net)
  • But a potentially less expensive and even simpler approach, according to the NIST, NRL and UMD team, might be to use a string of adenine nucleotides as an anchor. (biologynews.net)
  • Of the four nucleotides that comprise DNA molecules, adenine, turns out to have a particularly high affinity for gold. (biologynews.net)
  • The results support the concept that chlamydiae are energy parasites which are capable of drawing upon the adenine nucleotides of their hosts, hydrolyzing ATP, and establishing an energized membrane. (asm.org)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a dinucleotide since it consists of two nucleotides joined by a pair of bridging phosphate groups. (wikidoc.org)
  • Also, adenine binds with other nucleotides to form energy, which is important for cellular function. (differencebetween.net)
  • A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES. (umassmed.edu)
  • The adenine moiety, which is utilized by the red cells for net synthesis of various nucleotides, does not appear to be in a steady-state equilibrium between plasma and erythrocytes. (dtic.mil)
  • Adenine is also present in adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), NADH and NADPH , chemicals involved in the energy cycle and oxidation reduction steps within biology cells . (citizendium.org)
  • Some think that, at the origin of life on Earth, the first adenine was formed by the polymerizing of five hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecules. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When the adenine dimer is clustered with several water molecules, we observe a nanosecond lifetime from excimer states in π-stacked clusters . (rsc.org)
  • In the present study, we determined the monocyte adhesion in the adenine-induced uremic rats in vivo and effects of AST-120 on the adhesion molecules. (hindawi.com)
  • However it is no longer considered a true vitamin (see Vitamin B). Some think that, at the origin of life on Earth, the first adenine was formed by the polymerizing of 5 hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecules. (wikibooks.org)
  • The mechanisms of photoinduced reactions of adenine with water molecules in hydrogen-bonded adenine-water complexes were investigated with ab initio wave-function-based electronic-structure calculations. (rsc.org)
  • These reactions, which involve the reactivity of adenine with hydrogen-bonded water molecules, compete with the well-established intrinsic excited-state deactivation mechanisms of adenine via ring-puckering or ring-opening conical intersections. (rsc.org)
  • Found in both DNA and RNA, adenine is one of the most important biological molecules. (umsystem.edu)
  • The present work shows that in the purine.purine base-pairs the adenine adopts syn orientation with respect to the furanose moiety while the inosine is in the trans (anti) orientation. (rcsb.org)
  • In enzymology, an adenine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction adenine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } hypoxanthine + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are adenine and H2O, whereas its two products are hypoxanthine and NH3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological systems tend to conserve energy, so usually adenine is obtained through the diet, the body degrading nucleic acid chains to obtain individual bases and reconstructing them through mitosis . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) was found to be the only protein in the mitochondrial membranes exhibiting a detectable age-associated increase in carbonyls. (pnas.org)
  • Results of the present study indicate that age-related increase in molecular oxidative damage to mitochondrial membrane proteins is indeed highly selective, primarily involving adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), with severe loss of its functional activity. (pnas.org)
  • Western Blot: Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 Antibody [NBP1-- RPMI 8226 cell lysate, concentration 0.2-1 ug/ml. (novusbio.com)
  • A major goal of origin-of-life studies is to determine potential mechanisms for the prebiotic synthesis of nucleic acid bases, such as adenine. (acs.org)
  • This protein produces a dimethylation of the adenine residue at position 2085 in 23S rRNA, resulting in reduced affinity between ribosomes and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics. (rcsb.org)
  • 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + adenine 2085 in 23S rRNA = 2 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N 6 -dimethyladenine 2085 in 23S rRNA. (rcsb.org)
  • Definition of Adenine from the Genetics Home Reference - National Institutes of Health Plützer, Chr. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rainer Glaser of the University of Missouri, Columbia, and coworkers now have used a theoretical model of gas-phase chemistry to predict mechanisms for adenine production in space ( Astrobiology 2007 , 7, 455). (acs.org)
  • The sequence crystallises as a B-DNA helix with 10 Watson-Crick base-pairs (4 A.T. and 6 G.C) and 2 inosine.adenine (I.A) pairs. (rcsb.org)
  • 1885 Adenin, en all. (academic.ru)
  • adenine - (n.) crystaline base, 1885, coined by German physiologist/chemist Albrecht Kossel (1853 1927) from Gk. (academic.ru)