Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Gambling: An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Opiate Substitution Treatment: Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Drive: A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Prescription Drug Misuse: Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Morphine Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Neuropharmacology: The branch of pharmacology dealing especially with the action of drugs upon various parts of the nervous system.Pleasure: Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.Residential Treatment: A specialized residential treatment program for behavior disorders including substance abuse. It may include therapeutically planned group living and learning situations including teaching of adaptive skills to help patient functioning in the community. (From Kahn, A. P. and Fawcett, J. Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 1993, p320.)Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Bacteriophage P1: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Central Nervous System Agents: A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Receptors, Opioid: Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Dynorphins: A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.Endophenotypes: Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.Receptors, Dopamine D3: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.Euphoria: An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.Physician Impairment: The physician's inability to practice medicine with reasonable skill and safety to the patient due to the physician's disability. Common causes include alcohol and drug abuse, mental illness, physical disability, and senility.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.GABA Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that suppress or block the plasma membrane transport of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID by GABA PLASMA MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.United StatesLove: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.National Institute on Drug Abuse (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports a comprehensive research portfolio that focuses on the biological, social, behavioral and neuroscientific bases of drug abuse on the body and brain as well as its causes, prevention, and treatment. NIDA, NIAAA, and NIMH were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.Berberine Alkaloids: A group of related plant alkaloids that contain the BERBERINE heterocyclic ring structure.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Receptors, Opioid, kappa: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Opioid Peptides: The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Western World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Pleasure-Pain Principle: The psychoanalytic concept that man instinctively seeks to avoid pain and discomfort and strives for gratification and pleasure.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to substance abuse and mental health. It is commonly referred to by the acronym SAMHSA. On 1 October 1992, the United States Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) became SAMHSA.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Buddhism: The teaching ascribed to Gautama Buddha (ca. 483 B.C.) holding that suffering is inherent in life and that one can escape it into nirvana by mental and moral self-purification. (Webster, 3d ed)Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Halfway Houses: Specialized residences for persons who do not require full hospitalization, and are not well enough to function completely within the community without professional supervision, protection and support.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Therapeutic Community: Psychotherapeutic technique which emphasizes socioenvironmental and interpersonal influences in the resocialization and rehabilitation of the patient. The setting is usually a hospital unit or ward in which professional and nonprofessional staff interact with the patients.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Self Stimulation: Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Ganglionic Stimulants: Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.Pedophilia: A sexual disorder occurring in a person 16 years or older and that is recurrent with intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child (generally age 13 or younger). (from APA, DSM-IV, 1994).Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Shamanism: An intermediate stage between polytheism and monotheism, which assumes a "Great Spirit", with lesser deities subordinated. With the beginnings of shamanism there was the advent of the medicine man or witch doctor, who assumed a supervisory relation to disease and its cure. Formally, shamanism is a religion of Ural-Altaic peoples of Northern Asia and Europe, characterized by the belief that the unseen world of gods, demons, ancestral spirits is responsive only to shamans. The Indians of North and South America entertain religious practices similar to the Ural-Altaic shamanism. The word shaman comes from the Tungusic (Manchuria and Siberia) saman, meaning Buddhist monk. The shaman handles disease almost entirely by psychotherapeutic means; he frightens away the demons of disease by assuming a terrifying mien. (From Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p22; from Webster, 3d ed)Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Bupropion: A unicyclic, aminoketone antidepressant. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not well understood, but it does appear to block dopamine uptake. The hydrochloride is available as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Hypothalamic Area, Lateral: Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Drug Partial Agonism: Drug agonism involving selective binding but reduced effect. This can result in some degree of DRUG ANTAGONISM.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Benztropine: A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Health Facility Administrators: Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of health care facilities such as nursing homes.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Criminal Law: A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Tobacco Use Cessation: Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.Ibogaine: One of several indole alkaloids extracted from Tabernanthe iboga, Baill. It has a complex pharmacological profile, and interacts with multiple systems of neurotransmission. Ibogaine has psychoactive properties and appears to modulate tolerance to opiates.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Crack Cocaine: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.Raclopride: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.Word Association Tests: Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Evidence-Based Practice: A way of providing health care that is guided by a thoughtful integration of the best available scientific knowledge with clinical expertise. This approach allows the practitioner to critically assess research data, clinical guidelines, and other information resources in order to correctly identify the clinical problem, apply the most high-quality intervention, and re-evaluate the outcome for future improvement.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Obsessive Behavior: Persistent, unwanted idea or impulse which is considered normal when it does not markedly interfere with mental processes or emotional adjustment.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Allostasis: Biological adaptation, such as the rise of EPINEPHRINE in response to exercise, stress or perceived danger, followed by a fall of epinephrine during RELAXATION. Allostasis is the achievement of stability by turning on and turning off the allostatic systems including the IMMUNE SYSTEM; the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM and NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEMS.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Fetal and neonatal addiction and withdrawal as a result of the mother's dependence on drugs during pregnancy. Withdrawal or abstinence symptoms develop shortly after birth. Symptoms exhibited are loud, high-pitched crying, sweating, yawning and gastrointestinal disturbances.Tobacco, Smokeless: Powdered or cut pieces of leaves of NICOTIANA TABACUM which are inhaled through the nose, chewed, or stored in cheek pouches. It includes any product of tobacco that is not smoked.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Mice, Inbred C57BLTobacco Use: Use of TOBACCO (Nicotiana tabacum L) and TOBACCO PRODUCTS.Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32: A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.Cannabis: The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
New Zealand - DMT is classified as a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975. DMT is listed as a Schedule 9 prohibited ... Addiction. 102 (1): 24-34. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01652.x. PMID 17207120. Haroz, Rachel; Greenberg, Michael I. (November ... United Kingdom - DMT is classified as a Class A drug. Canada - DMT is classified as a Schedule III drug under the Controlled ... Rothman R.B.; Baumann M.H. (May 2009). "Serotonergic Drugs and Valvular Heart Disease" (PDF). Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 8 ...
Drug Addiction And Alcoholism, MIDAA". Journal of Mental Health Administration. 23 (3): 288-297. doi:10.1007/bf02522303. ... Discontinuation of the drug is expected to result in symptoms of psychiatric illness which resolve once the drug is restarted. ... However addictive drugs or exposure to gambling will not lead to addictive behaviors or drug dependence in most individuals but ... Drug abuse, including alcohol and prescription drugs, can induce symptomatology which resembles mental illness, which can make ...
Moncrieff is not completely opposed to the use of drugs for mental health problems, but believes that the action of drugs in ... Addiction. 92 (8): 939-947. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1997.tb02966.x. PMID 9376777. Moncrieff, Joanna (2009). A Straight Talking ... It highlights the lack of evidence for the disease-centred model of drug action for every major class of psychiatric drug. It ... The current mainstream understanding of psychiatric drug action is based on a 'disease-centred' model that suggests that drugs ...
DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a ... Using control drugs implicated in both ΔFosB induction and addiction (ethanol and nicotine), similar ΔFosB expression was ... Ruffle JK (November 2014). "Molecular neurobiology of addiction: what's all the (Δ)FosB about?". Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 40 (6 ... of alcohol addiction. See the discussion in the ADHS Forum in the Social History of Alcohol and Drugs: An Interdisciplinary ...
Vicodin U.S. DEA Drug Schedule Vicodin U.S. Federal Regulations U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal - ... "Norco Addiction , The Fix". The Fix. Retrieved 2015-11-04. "Hydrocodone (Trade Names: Vicodin, Lortab, Lorcet-HD, Hycodan, ... In October 2014, the Drug Enforcement Administration rescheduled hydrocodone combination drugs from schedule III to schedule II ... "Acetaminophen / Hydrocodone Dosage Guide with Precautions - Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Retrieved 2015-11-04. "Rules - 2014 - ...
Aminopterin, a cytostatic drug with anti-folate effect, was used during the 1950s and 1960s to induce therapeutic abortions. In ... Abel, E. L. (2004). "Paternal contribution to fetal alcohol syndrome". Addiction Biology. 9 (2): 127-133. doi:10.1080/ ... Probably, the most well-known teratogenic drug is thalidomide. It was developed near the end of the 1950s by Chemie Grűnenthal ... Another 10-13% of anomalies have a purely environmental cause (e.g. infections, illness, or drug abuse in the mother). Only 12- ...
... drug and alcohol addictions; and eating disorders. Celebrate Recovery is one of the seven largest addiction recovery support ... "Broadening the base of addiction mutual-help organizations" (PDF). Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery. 7 (2-4): 82-101. ... Addiction recovery groups List of twelve-step groups Recovery model Self-help groups for mental health Lobdell 1999. Kelly & ... He wanted a specifically Christian addiction recovery group, so with the support of Rick Warren, Celebrate Recovery began as a ...
"Drug addiction. Part III. Pharmacotherapy of addiction" (PDF). Polish Journal of Pharmacology. 53 (5): 415-34. PMID 11990060. ... Preti, A (2000). "Vanoxerine National Institute on Drug Abuse". Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs. 1 (2): 241-51. PMID ... Vanoxerine is a drug that was in the midst of recruiting participants for a phase III human clinical trial for its use as a ... "Drug developer ChanRx closes series A investment, hires CEO". MEDCITY News. Retrieved 11 March 2012. Lacerda, Antonio E.; ...
Drug addiction. Alcohol abuse. Crime. A culture of disruption and irresponsibility that cascades down the generations... a ... 3% of adults were recorded as treated for alcohol dependency and a further 3% of adults for drug dependency. The families were ... The programme initially intends to change the repeating generational patterns of poor parenting, abuse, violence, drug use, ... and drugs & alcohol use. The definitive report, 'National Evaluation of the Troubled Families Programme' found that 49% of ...
"Drugs associated with drug-related deaths in Edinburgh and Glasgow, November 1990 to October 1992". Addiction. 90 (7): 959-965 ... "Adverse effects of stimulant drugs in a community sample of drug users". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 44 (2-3): 87-94. doi: ... In Northern Ireland statistics of individuals attending drug addiction treatment centers found that benzodiazepines were the ... Benzodiazepine abuse is mostly limited to individuals who abuse other drugs, i.e. poly-drug abusers. Most prescribed users do ...
EMCDDA ANVISA resolution - Portaria SVS/MS 344/98 "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration ... Addiction (Abingdon, England). 104 (12): 2057-66. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02707.x. PMID 19804461. Tancer M, Johanson CE ( ... It was initially developed in the late-1970s and used in scientific research before being sold as a designer drug in the mid- ... An amnesty for possession and usage of these drugs remained until October 2008, at which point they became
FDA (4 May 2009). "FDA 2009 Study Data: Evaluation of e-cigarettes" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration (US) -center for drug ... "Nicotine addiction". Health Canada. 7 March 2013. "DrugFacts: Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products". National Institute on ... Users may alter many of the devices, such as using them to administer other drugs like cannabis. E-liquid mixing is another way ... While there are currently no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) manufacturing standards for e-liquid, the FDA has proposed ...
"Phoenix Number Two Kidnapping Capital as Drug Cartel Wars Intensify". Drug Addiction Treatment. January 28, 2010. Retrieved ... or related to illegal drug trade, while the kidnappers are believed to be part of Mexican drug cartels, particularly the ... As the first decade of the new century came to a close, Arizona had become the gateway to the U.S. for drug trafficking. By ... Street gangs and the drug trade had turned into public safety issues by the 1980s. Despite continued improvements in the size ...
Combating drug addiction. Solving the water crisis. Ayman Nour has been tightly associated with both the El-Ghad name and party ...
Chawla S, Le Pichon T (2006). "World Drug Report 2006" (PDF). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. pp. 143-144. Retrieved ... Steiner H, Van Waes V (January 2013). "Addiction-related gene regulation: risks of exposure to cognitive enhancers vs. other ... These assertions appear to contradict the 2006 World Drug Report published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2008-09-25. Retrieved 2009-08-05. Adams G. (9 July 2008). "Harvard medics "concealed drug ...
WFS), is a non-profit secular addiction recovery group for women with addiction problems. WFS was created by sociologist Jean ... Kaskutas, Lee Ann (1 May 1996). "Pathways to Self-Help Among Women for Sobriety". The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol ... cited in Kaskutas, Lee Ann (1996). "Predictors of Self Esteem Among Members of Women for Sobriety". Addiction Research & Theory ... Kaskutas, Lee Ann (1996). "Predictors of Self Esteem Among Members of Women for Sobriety". Addiction Research & Theory. 4 (3): ...
"What Are the Long-Term Effects of Methamphetamine Abuse?" Misuse of Prescription Drugs. Advancing Addiction Science. Sept 2013 ... "What Are the Long-Term Effects of Methamphetamine Abuse?" Misuse of Prescription Drugs. Advancing Addiction Science. Sept 2013 ... "What Are the Immediate (Short-Term) Effects of Methamphetamine Abuse?" Misuse of Prescription Drugs. Advancing Addiction ... "Stimulant ADHD Medications: Methylphenidate and Amphetamines."Misuse of Prescription Drugs. Advancing Addiction Science. Jan ...
"Drugs associated with drug-related deaths in Edinburgh and Glasgow, November 1990 to October 1992". Addiction. 90 (7): 959-65. ... The remaining 115 deaths were due to accidents (N = 16), suicide (N = 60), drug addiction (N = 29) or alcoholism (N = 10). In a ... The majority of drug-related deaths involve misuse of heroin or other opioids in combination with benzodiazepines or other CNS ... Cases where other drugs, including ethanol, had contributed to the death were excluded. In the remaining five cases, death was ...
"Low-threshold services". The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Retrieved 23 March 2012. Centers for ... According to that Editorial, low-threshold services for drug users can be defined as those which offer services to drug users; ... complications of the drug itself or of the lifestyle associated with drug use and dependence. Furthermore, unrelated health ... a survey showed that a third of the public believed that NSPs encouraged drug use, and 20% believed that NSPs dispensed drugs. ...
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. "Understanding the Spice Phenomenon." 2009. ISBN 978-92-9168-411-3.[1 ... Drug Test. Anal. Sep 24, 2010. [Epub ahead of print] Teske J, et al. Sensitive and rapid quantification of the cannabinoid ... Determination of the parent drug in serum or its metabolites in urine has been accomplished by GC-MS or LC-MS. Serum JWH-018 ... in Swedish) "Illicit Drug Report of Turkey 2010" (PDF) (in Turkish). Department of Anti-smuggling and Organised Crime. ...
Nonaka R, Nagai F, Ogata A, Satoh K (December 2007). "In vitro screening of psychoactive drugs by [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding in ... Principles of Addiction Medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 216-218. ISBN 978-0-7817-7477-2. Richard R. Laing (2003). ... Many α-alkyltryptamines are drugs, acting as monoamine releasing agents, non-selective serotonin receptor agonists, and/or ... Hallucinogens: A Forensic Drug Handbook. Academic Press. pp. 102-. ISBN 978-0-12-433951-4. Thomas L. Lemke; David A. Williams ( ...
Food and Drug Administration, retrieved 24 June 2015 "Alcohol". Drugs.com. Retrieved 7 July 2015. Vengeliene, V; Bilbao, A; ... Swift, Robert (December 2003). "Direct measurement of alcohol and its metabolites". Addiction. 98: 73-80. doi:10.1046/j.1359- ... Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 142: 74-78. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.05.026. PMID 25012895. Gilman, Jodi M; Ramchandani, ... Tobacco and Firearms and The Food and Drug Administration regarding the Promulgation and Enforcement of the Labeling ...
"Drugs scourge takes hold in Argentina". BBC News. 2007-08-29. Retrieved 2010-04-30. Oxi: New Drug Terrifies Brazil , The Rio ... Jeri, FR (1984). "Coca-paste smoking in some Latin American countries: a severe and unabated form of addiction". Bulletin on ... Per the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in Colombia there were 4644 basuco users in Bogotá alone; the drug's illicitness ... Inside Brazil's toxic drug culture - Features. Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2011-10-10. Paco Under Scrutiny: The cocaine base paste ...
Hughes' research interests include problematised consumption; drugs, addiction and health; emotions, work and identity; ...
Drug & Alcohol Addiction 8. Gynecology related problems including Menstrual Disorders. Also Hormonal Imbalance related ...
Following Thin Lizzy, Lynott increasingly suffered drug-related problems, particularly an addiction to heroin. He had a final ... I knew they were drug-pushers and I made an effort to stop them getting passes. He [Lynott] said 'They're my mates!' But I said ... Lynott's last years were dogged by drug and alcohol dependency leading to his collapse on 25 December 1985, at his home in Kew ... By the early 1980s, Thin Lizzy were starting to struggle commercially, and Lynott started showing symptoms of drug abuse, ...
Liberty Root Ibogaine Therapy MACKLEMORE Takes on Big Pharma with DRUG DEALER on Addiction Therapy ... Liberty Root Ibogaine Therapy MACKLEMORE Laying Some Truth Down with DRUG DEALER on Addiction Therapy ... "The interruption of my addiction that ibogaine has offered has freed me to explore the nature and implications of my addiction ... "The interruption of my addiction that ibogaine has offered has freed me to explore the nature and implications of my addiction ...
6. "Psychopharmacology and Neurobiology of Addictions" by Lance Longo, MD Aurora Psychiatric Hospital, Wauwatosa, WI ; This ... Benztropine cogentin drug classification. Probable IFI while receiving fluconazole compared to patients receiving itraconazole ... The physician will inquire about concomitant use of any other medications that might cause drug interactions and will document ... This workshop is designed to discuss the significant change that is happening in the field of drug and alcohol counseling while ...
They offer treatment options for drug abuse and alcoholism. ... has access to a wide variety of drug rehab and addiction ... of drug addiction, as well as drug addiction trends.. Related Links. Cocaine Abuse. Drug Rehab. Drug Treatment. Drug Rehab ... Prescription Drugs. The path to drug addiction begins with that first act of taking drugs. Over time, a person may need more of ... Drug Addiction. Treatment Frequently Asked Questions. The following articles contain useful information about drug addiction: * ...
Ask questions and get answers about Addiction. Our support group helps people share their own experience. 208 questions, 1614 ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Should I leave my husband because of his drug addiction?. Updated 30 Jan 2018 • 19 answers ... Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ...
... strategy of addiction treatment, experts are exploring cannabinoids to ease addiction to cocaine, opioids and other drugs. ... weaning themselves off drugs over time. Others want to maintain sobriety from a drug by using a less harsh drug, such as ... Schrank is clear on the value of simply reducing drug use.. "We think of addiction as this light switch you can turn on and off ... She notes that although cannabidiol is believed to be a "treatment to consider for opioid addiction and other drugs," there ...
Find out why no one is safe from addiction, and what factors increase your risk. ... Doctors define drug addiction as an irresistible craving for a drug, out-of-control and compulsive use of the drug, and ... Prior drug or alcohol rehabilitation. In addition, women have a unique set of risk factors for opioid addiction. Women are more ... This is the first milestone on the path toward potential addiction.. Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Feb 6, ...
There are different types of treatment for drug abuse but the best is to prevent it. Understand more about substance abuse. ... Drug use can also lead to addiction.. What is drug addiction?. Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease. It causes a person to ... Drugged Driving (National Institute on Drug Abuse) Also in Spanish * Effects of Drugs (National Institute on Drug Abuse) Also ... Repeated drug use can change the brain and lead to addiction.. The brain changes from addiction can be lasting, so drug ...
... Dr. S. Parasuraman M.Pharm., Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, ... Drug addiction and drug abuse * 1. Drug addiction and drug abuse Dr. S. Parasuraman M.Pharm., Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Faculty ... 2. Drug addiction and drug abuse • Drug addiction and drug abuse, chronic or habitual use of any chemical substance to alter ... 5. Drug use terms and descriptions • Hard drug (lead to severe physical addiction): - Drug that is generally considered to be ...
AIDS first appeared among intravenous drug users in Europe in 1984, three years after the first cases were seen among ... AIDS and drug addiction is a topic of great and growing concern. ... Drug Addiction Treatment in Italy in the 80s Fear of Treatment ... AIDS and drug addiction is a topic of great and growing concern. AIDS first appeared among intravenous drug users in Europe in ... AIDS HIV Methadon antibody cocaine drug drug abuse epidemiology hepatitis infection intervention opioid prevention research ...
Addiction to prescribed medicines could be as big a problem in the UK as addiction to illegal drugs like heroin. So say a group ... But a recent analysis of figures from a UK drug addiction charity called the Bridge Project suggests there are around a quarter ... Doctors at the meeting said addiction clinics focus on helping people abusing illegal drugs or alcohol - so people stuck on ... head of addiction charity DrugWise, said at a meeting of the All Party Parliamentary Group for Prescribed Drug Dependence last ...
PRWEB) December 15, 2004 -- Guilt is a major component in the life cycle of alcohol and other drug addiction. Most addicts are ... The Holiday Season can be a difficult time for someone dealing with a drug or alcohol addiction, but it can also be a time ... Guilt is a major component in the life cycle of alcohol and other drug addiction. Most addicts are basically good people before ... To get help for a loved one battling the dwindling spiral of drug or alcohol addiction, contact Narconon Arrowhead today. Log ...
Signs and symptoms of addiction to painkillers and other medications. Treatments for addiction to prescription medications. ... In-depth information on prescription drug abuse and addiction. ... in prescription drug addiction. * Prescription Drug Addiction ... In-depth information on prescription drug abuse and addiction. Signs and symptoms of addiction to painkillers and other ... National Institute on Drug Abuse, Prescription Drugs: Abuse and Addiction, August 2005 ...
What happens in the brain of a compulsive drug user? Neurobiologists at UNIGE have discovered that the brain circuit connecting ... Drugs of abuse: Identifying the addiction circuit What happens in the brain of compulsive drug users? UNIGE researchers have ... Negative effects are powerless against addiction. As a model of addiction, the researchers implanted mice with an optic fibre, ... Addiction is an disease that develops in stages: it starts with the initial exposure to a substance followed by a phase where ...
Many people who suffer from addiction - be it addiction to alcohol, drugs, or food - experience their first relief when they ... Many people who suffer from addiction - be it addiction to alcohol, drugs, or food - experience their first relief when they ... Re: be it addiction to alcohol, drugs, or food Thanks a lot, Anglika!!. You are always very generous to respond kindly!. Your ... be it addiction to alcohol, drugs, or food I came across a unidentifiable sentence, and it drives me crazy!. The sentence is as ...
Learn more about what defines an addiction and which drugs people get addicted to. ... Prescription Drug Abuse Prescription Drug Abuse - Prescription Drug Abuse * Prescription Drug Addiction ... Mayo Clinic: "Prescription drug abuse.". National Institute on Drug Abuse: "Misuse of Prescription Drugs," "Drug Facts: ... Is There Treatment for Prescription Drug Addiction?. Treatment for opioid addiction includes medications that can help people ...
Can theatrical roles played on a stage inform the work of drug addiction counselors? A new program is testing the theory, with ... The evening was part of the Addiction Performance Project, created by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. ... "Yet, for many providers, discussing drug abuse with their patients is beyond their comfort zone, "she noted. "NIDAs Addiction ... Drug Addiction: Performances and Public Health. Apr 29, 2011, 3:14 PM ...
... stimulation technique called transcranial magnetic stimulation to reduce the brains response to drug cues in chronic drug ... Drug addiction: Is brain stimulation the answer?. Written by Ana Sandoiu on May 18, 2018 - Fact checked by. Jasmin Collier ... For example, we now know that the brains reward-processing circuits are thrown off balance in drug addiction, as the brain ... While the exact causes of drug addiction are unknown and researchers do not yet fully understand what causes someone to become ...
Health Information on Drug Use and Addiction: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Drug Use and Addiction: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Consumo de drogas y la adicción: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - ...
Essentially, though, drugs give us a desired effect producing a feeling of euphoria that makes us feel better - at least ... ... If you have decided to beat drugs addiction that you do really want to stop using drugs. Beating addiction once and for all is ... If you have decided to beat drugs addiction that you do really want to stop using drugs. Beating addiction once and for all is ... Drug detox is the most important part of becoming free from addiction, and it should be handled with great care. Otherwise, it ...
A new study shows that college students who consume a lot of energy drinks are more likely to become addicted to certain drugs ... A new study shows that college students who consume a lot of energy drinks are more likely to become addicted to certain drugs ... Arria said researchers arent yet sure how energy drinks might lead to addictions, but she noted the high caffeine levels in ... She said its possible the caffeine or other ingredients in energy drinks might in essence mimic the effects of certain drugs. ...
Archive Drug, Alcohol and Addiction Books Drug, Alcohol and Addiction Theses Conference on Drug, Alcohol and Addiction How to ... American Journal of Drug, Alcohol and Addiction is worlds most read journal Rank #1 in the area of Drug, Alcohol and Addiction ... Australia Journal of Drug, Alcohol and Addiction, Austria Journal of Drug, Alcohol and Addiction and Azerbaijan Journal of Drug ... Ethiopia Journal of Drug, Alcohol and Addiction, Fiji Journal of Drug, Alcohol and Addiction, Finland Journal of Drug, Alcohol ...
... addiction treatment and more. From drug facts to addiction signs, we cover everything you need to know. ... Drug Abuse. Meth 2.0: Volatile Drug Takes Even Deadlier Form. By Dawn Hurley Nov 12 2019. Many prognosticators fear that Meth ... Addiction Treatment. What Role Should Primary Care Play in Addiction Treatment?. By Dawn Hurley Oct 2 2019. Its important to ... Signs of Addiction. The Disease Model of Addiction: History and Perspectives. By Dawn Hurley Oct 1 2019. Anyone wanting to have ...
Drug addiction over a longer term could actually start from the relatively innocuous drugs meant for pain relief, a new study ... Drug Detox. Drug detoxification (or drug detox) is a process that helps drug addicts to give up drugs with less or no ... Drug toxicity is an adverse reaction of the body towards a drug that results as a side effect of a drug, reaction to a drug or ... Drug addiction over a longer term could actually start from the relatively innocuous drugs meant for pain relief, a new study ...
Hypnosis - Drug Addiction. This involves placing someone in a trance or deeply relaxed state so that they will be more open ... Guide to Drug Addiction. Drug Addiction. *Drug Addiction Guide. *About Drug Addiction ... How does this relate to addiction? The aim of this treatment is to encourage the addict to regain control over their life. At ... The aim is to change their way of thinking or dealing with things as well as gain a greater understanding of their addiction. ...
Smoking - Drug Addiction. Smoking is a popular activity for many people who continue to enjoy it even though they are well ... Guide to Drug Addiction. Drug Addiction. *Drug Addiction Guide. *About Drug Addiction ... Learn more about this in our young people and addictions section. Smoking is also popular with adults, some of whom started ... The main reason for this is nicotine addiction. Tobacco contains nicotine - a stimulant which affects both the mind and the ...
  • In principle, what we have aimed for many years is to find interventions that would lead to complete abstinence," said Dr. Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse . (cnn.com)
  • The evening was part of the Addiction Performance Project , created by the National Institute on Drug Abuse . (rwjf.org)
  • Every year, the abuse of illegal drugs and alcohol contributes to the death of more than 100,000 people in the U.S., according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. (livescience.com)
  • Every day, more than 130 people in the United States die from an opioid overdose, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (orchidrecoverycenter.com)
  • Dr. Nora Volkow , the director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, says that the way a brain becomes addicted to a drug is related to how a drug increases levels of the naturally-occurring neurotransmitter dopamine, which modulates the brain's ability to perceive reward reinforcement. (bigthink.com)
  • The scientific study was conducted with the support of the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Peter McManus Charitable Trust. (medindia.net)
  • Wang's research is being funded by a five-year, $3.7 million grant from the National Institutes of Health's National Institute on Drug Abuse ( NIDA ). (opposingviews.com)
  • The study appears in the August 13 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience and was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the therapeutic setting, you would be educated on how to deal with cravings and how to know your weaknesses when it comes to drug. (hubpages.com)
  • Would you take a drug to prevent meth relapses, or stop alcohol cravings? (aac.org)
  • While it is difficult to predict exactly what withdrawal symptoms will manifest until someone is in withdrawal, this process is often uncomfortable, sometimes painful, and can feature drug cravings (i.e., the body is signaling that it wants the drugs to which it has grown accustomed). (michaelshouse.com)
  • Some patients want to gradually move into abstinence, weaning themselves off drugs over time. (cnn.com)
  • During times of crisis, it's important to remember that just as the body became dependent on the drug, it will eventually adapt to abstinence. (michaelshouse.com)
  • Special chapters on topics not found in most other books, such as pharmacology of drug-drug interactions, abstinence, and prevention, are included. (springer.com)