A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A protein involved in transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS and through early Golgi compartments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
ATPases that are members of the AAA protein superfamily (ATPase family Associated with various cellular Activities). The NSFs functions, acting in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEINS (i.e. SNAPs, which have no relation to SNAP 25), are to dissociate SNARE complexes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
SNARE binding proteins that facilitate the ATP hydrolysis-driven dissociation of the SNARE complex. They are required for the binding of N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE PROTEIN (NSF) to the SNARE complex which also stimulates the ATPASE activity of NSF. They are unrelated structurally to SNAP-25 PROTEIN.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the C-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the C-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the N-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the N-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.12.1 and EC 3.4.21.13.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (1/2017)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Altered trafficking of lysosomal proteins in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome due to mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the AP-3 adaptor. (2/2017)

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetic disorder characterized by defective lysosome-related organelles. Here, we report the identification of two HPS patients with mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the heterotetrameric AP-3 complex. The patients' fibroblasts exhibit drastically reduced levels of AP-3 due to enhanced degradation of mutant beta 3A. The AP-3 deficiency results in increased surface expression of the lysosomal membrane proteins CD63, lamp-1, and lamp-2, but not of nonlysosomal proteins. These differential effects are consistent with the preferential interaction of the AP-3 mu 3A subunit with tyrosine-based signals involved in lysosomal targeting. Our results suggest that AP-3 functions in protein sorting to lysosomes and provide an example of a human disease in which altered trafficking of integral membrane proteins is due to mutations in a component of the sorting machinery.  (+info)

Phosphotyrosine binding domains of Shc and insulin receptor substrate 1 recognize the NPXpY motif in a thermodynamically distinct manner. (3/2017)

Phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains of the adaptor protein Shc and insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) interact with a distinct set of activated and tyrosine-phosphorylated cytokine and growth factor receptors and play important roles in mediating mitogenic signal transduction. By using the technique of isothermal titration calorimetry, we have studied the thermodynamics of binding of the Shc and IRS-1 PTB domains to tyrosine-phosphorylated NPXY-containing peptides derived from known receptor binding sites. The results showed that relative contributions of enthalpy and entropy to the free energy of binding are dependent on specific phosphopeptides. Binding of the Shc PTB domain to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides from TrkA, epidermal growth factor, ErbB3, and insulin receptors is achieved via an overall entropy-driven reaction. On the other hand, recognition of the phosphopeptides of insulin and interleukin-4 receptors by the IRS-1 PTB domain is predominantly an enthalpy-driven process. Mutagenesis and amino acid substitution experiments showed that in addition to the tyrosine-phosphorylated NPXY motif, the PTB domains of Shc and IRS-1 prefer a large hydrophobic residue at pY-5 and a small hydrophobic residue at pY-1, respectively (where pY is phosphotyrosine). These results agree with the calculated solvent accessibility of these two key peptide residues in the PTB domain/peptide structures and support the notion that the PTB domains of Shc and IRS-1 employ functionally distinct mechanisms to recognize tyrosine-phosphorylated receptors.  (+info)

Identification of a novel domain shared by putative components of the endocytic and cytoskeletal machinery. (4/2017)

We have identified a approximately 140 amino acid domain that is shared by a variety of proteins in budding and fission yeast, nematode, rat, mouse, frog, oat, and man. Typically, this domain is located within 20 residues of the N-terminus of the various proteins. The percent identity among the domains in the 12 proteins ranges from 42 to 93%, with 16 absolutely conserved residues: N-x(11-13)-V-x2-A-T-x(34-36)-R-x(7-8)-W-R-x3-K-x12-G-x-E-x15 -L-x11-12-D-x-G-R-x11-D-x7-R. Even though these proteins share little beyond their segment of homology, data are emerging that several of the proteins are involved in endocytosis and or regulation of cytoskeletal organization. We have named this protein segment the ENTH domain, for Epsin N-terminal Homology domain, and hypothesize that it is a candidate for binding specific ligands and/or enzymatic activity in the cell.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38. (5/2017)

Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis.  (+info)

The EH and SH3 domain Ese proteins regulate endocytosis by linking to dynamin and Eps15. (6/2017)

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a multistep process which requires interaction between a number of conserved proteins. We have cloned two mammalian genes which code for a number of endocytic adaptor proteins. Two of these proteins, termed Ese1 and Ese2, contain two N-terminal EH domains, a central coiled-coil domain and five C-terminal SH3 domains. Ese1 is constitutively associated with Eps15 proteins to form a complex with at least 14 protein-protein interaction surfaces. Yeast two-hybrid assays have revealed that Ese1 EH and SH3 domains bind epsin family proteins and dynamin, respectively. Overexpression of Ese1 is sufficient to block clathrin-mediated endocytosis in cultured cells, presumably through disruption of higher order protein complexes, which are assembled on the endogenous Ese1-Eps15 scaffold. The Ese1-Eps15 scaffold therefore links dynamin, epsin and other endocytic pathway components.  (+info)

AP-4, a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors. (7/2017)

Here we report the identification and characterization of AP-4, a novel protein complex related to the heterotetrameric AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 adaptors that mediate protein sorting in the endocytic and late secretory pathways. The key to the identification of this complex was the cloning and sequencing of two widely expressed, mammalian cDNAs encoding new homologs of the adaptor beta and sigma subunits named beta4 and sigma4, respectively. An antibody to beta4 recognized in human cells an approximately 83-kDa polypeptide that exists in both soluble and membrane-associated forms. Gel filtration, sedimentation velocity, and immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that beta4 is a component of a multisubunit complex (AP-4) that also contains the sigma4 polypeptide and two additional adaptor subunit homologs named mu4 (mu-ARP2) and epsilon. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that AP-4 is associated with the trans-Golgi network or an adjacent structure and that this association is sensitive to the drug brefeldin A. We propose that, like the related AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 complexes, AP-4 plays a role in signal-mediated trafficking of integral membrane proteins in mammalian cells.  (+info)

High-affinity binding of the AP-1 adaptor complex to trans-golgi network membranes devoid of mannose 6-phosphate receptors. (8/2017)

The GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) initiates clathrin-coat assembly at the trans-Goli network (TGN) by generating high-affinity membrane-binding sites for the AP-1 adaptor complex. Both transmembrane proteins, which are sorted into the assembling coated bud, and novel docking proteins have been suggested to be partners with GTP-bound ARF in generating the AP-1-docking sites. The best characterized, and probably the major transmembrane molecules sorted into the clathrin-coated vesicles that form on the TGN, are the mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs). Here, we have examined the role of the MPRs in the AP-1 recruitment process by comparing fibroblasts derived from embryos of either normal or MPR-negative animals. Despite major alterations to the lysosome compartment in the MPR-deficient cells, the steady-state distribution of AP-1 at the TGN is comparable to that of normal cells. Golgi-enriched membranes prepared from the receptor-negative cells also display an apparently normal capacity to recruit AP-1 in vitro in the presence of ARF and either GTP or GTPgammaS. The AP-1 adaptor is recruited specifically onto the TGN and not onto the numerous abnormal membrane elements that accumulate within the MPR-negative fibroblasts. AP-1 bound to TGN membranes from either normal or MPR-negative fibroblasts is fully resistant to chemical extraction with 1 M Tris-HCl, pH 7, indicating that the adaptor binds to both membrane types with high affinity. The only difference we do note between the Golgi prepared from the MPR-deficient cells and the normal cells is that AP-1 recruited onto the receptor-lacking membranes in the presence of ARF1.GTP is consistently more resistant to extraction with Tris. Because sensitivity to Tris extraction correlates well with nucleotide hydrolysis, this finding might suggest a possible link between MPR sorting and ARF GAP regulation. We conclude that the MPRs are not essential determinants in the initial steps of AP-1 binding to the TGN but, instead, they may play a regulatory role in clathrin-coated vesicle formation by affecting ARF.GTP hydrolysis.  (+info)

In the present study, we have explored the function of the C-terminal sequences of complexins, relatively large sequences that account for nearly half of the complexin protein but nevertheless have remained functionally incompletely characterized. Because complexin-1 and complexin-2, and complexin-3 and complexin-4 form homologous pairs, we tested the effect of deleting or mutating the C-terminal sequences of complexin-1 and complexin-3, asking among others whether complexin-1 and complexin-3 perform similar functions in synaptic exocytosis and whether the functional differences between these complexins localize to their C-terminal regions. We made the following principal observations.. (1) Deletion of the complexin-1 C-terminal sequence revealed that it is essential for both its priming and clamping function but not for its synaptotagmin-activating function, thereby dissociating the two positive functions (synaptotagmin-activating and priming) of complexin.. (2) Complexin-1 and complexin-3 ...
In response to ligand binding to the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2) receptor complex, two major signaling pathways are activated that involve different adaptor proteins. One pathway depends on myeloid differentiation marker 88 (MyD88), which elicits proinflammatory responses, whereas the other depends on Toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-β (TRIF), which elicits type I interferon production. Here, we showed that the TLR4 agonist and vaccine adjuvant CRX-547, a member of the aminoalkyl glucosaminide 4-phosphate (AGP) class of synthetic lipid A mimetics, displayed TRIF-selective signaling in human cells, which was dependent on a minor structural modification to the carboxyl bioisostere corresponding to the 1-phosphate group on most lipid A types. CRX-547 stimulated little or no activation of MyD88-dependent signaling molecules or cytokines, whereas its ability to activate the TRIF-dependent pathway was similar to that of a ...
Functions as sorting adapter in LPS-TLR4 signaling to regulate the MYD88-independent pathway during the innate immune response to LPS. Physically bridges TLR4 and TICAM1 and functionally transmits LPS-TRL4 signal to TICAM1; signaling is proposed to occur in early endosomes after endocytosis of TLR4. May also be involved in IL1-triggered NF-kappa-B activation, functioning upstream of IRAK1, IRAK2, TRAF6, and IKBKB; however, reports are controversial. Involved in IL-18 signaling and is proposed to function as a sorting adaptor for MYD88 in IL-18 signaling during adaptive immune response.
TLR signaling is mediated by the recruitment of distinct combinations of adaptor molecules to the cytoplasmic TIR domain of each TLR. Distribution and localization of the adaptor molecules are important factors controlling TLR-mediated signaling. TIRAP/Mal was found to be associated with the plasma membrane via a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate-binding domain and facilitates MyD88 delivery to activated TLR4 (22). Also, myristoylation of TICAM-2/TRAM targets it to the plasma membrane and the Golgi apparatus, where it colocalizes with TLR4 (23). Thus, the role of these adaptor proteins other than TICAM-1 has been clearly demonstrated; TIRAP/Mal and TICAM-2/TRAM mainly function as bridges between TLR4 and the signaling adaptors, whereas MyD88 restricts its localization by TIRAP to assemble signal molecules around the TLR4 complex (9, 10, 24, 25). In this study we demonstrated that TICAM-1/TRIF delivers a signal in a unique fashion distinct from that of MyD88.. This is the first study to ...
Shop WW domain-containing adapter protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and WW domain-containing adapter protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
The ENTH domain is about half the size of an ANTH domain, but is also alpha-helical and in fact some of the helices superimpose very nicely (see below). The ENTH domain also binds to PtdInsPhosphates but using completely different residues. We have shown that the binding of PtdIns(4,5)P2 to epsin1 ENTH domain causes the folding of an additional N-terminal helix that can insert into the membrane and drive positive membrane curvature. ...
The following pictures illustrate how the lipids must move apart to accommodate the insertion of helix zero. The first picture shows 2 different views of the ENTH domain with a space filled PtdIns(4,5)P2 docked in the structure. In the bottom picture a membrane (to scale) is added such that the PtdIns(4,5)P2 is inserted and consequently helix zero is buried. One can image a space filled helix zero an d the number of lipids that would have to be displaced to accommodate epsin docking on the membrane ...
VHS domains are found at the N-termini of select proteins involved inintracellular membrane trafficking. We have determined the crystalstructure of the VHS domain of the human Tom1 (target of myb 1) protein to1.5 A resolution. The domain consists of eight helices arranged in asuperhelix. The surface of the domain has two main features: (1) a basicpatch on one side due to several conserved positively charged residues onhelix 3 and (2) a negatively charged ridge on the opposite side, formed byresidues on helix 2. We compare our structure to the recently obtainedstructure of tandem VHS-FYVE domains from Hrs [Mao, Y., Nickitenko, A.,Duan, X., Lloyd, T. E., Wu, M. N., Bellen, H., and Quiocho, F. A. (2000)Cell 100, 447-456]. Key features of the interaction surface between theFYVE and VHS domains of Hrs, involving helices 2 and 4 of the VHS domain,are conserved in the VHS domain of Tom1, even though Tom1 does not have aFYVE domain. We also compare the structures of the VHS domains of Tom1 andHrs to the ...
Interferon regulatory aspect (IRF)-3 may have a crucial function in viral and bacterial innate immune system replies by regulating the creation of type We interferon (IFN). cells. This inhibition was because of its suppression from the transcriptional activation TC-E 5001 of IRF-3, as proven by inhibition of IRF-3 PRD (III-I) luciferase activity along with the phosphorylation design of IRF-3 within the immunoblotting test. Furthermore, TQ targeted the autophosphorylation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), an upstream essential enzyme in charge of IRF-3 activation. Used together, these results claim that TQ can downregulate IRF-3 activation via inhibition of TBK1, which would eventually decrease the creation of type I IFN. TQ also governed IRF-3, among the inflammatory transcription elements, offering a novel understanding into its anti-inflammatory actions. (TRIF). Upon arousal by LPS, TLR-4 recruits the adaptor proteins TRIF, which in turn recruits tumor necrosis TC-E 5001 aspect ...
Build: Sat Nov 17 23:53:08 EST 2018 (commit: a759bb7). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
VMware Tools for linux exists in 2 forms: the official VMware Tools and Open-VM-Tools. VMware Tools is based on a stable snapshot of Open-VM-Tools. Open-VM-Tools contains more experimental code and features. The official VMware Tools are not available for Archlinux. Originally, VMware Tools provided the best drivers for network and storage, combined with the functionality for other features such as time synchronization. However, for quite a while now the drivers for the network adapter en scsi adapter are part of the linux kernel, and VMware Tools is only needed for extra features and support for the old vmxnet adapter. ...
Epsin 1兔多克隆抗体(ab82688)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
TRIF兔多克隆抗体(ab62583)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
TLR4 recruits TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM, also known as TICAM2) as a sorting adaptor to facilitate the interaction between TLR4 and TRIF and then initiate TRIF-dependent IRF3 activation. However, the mechanisms by which TRAM links downstream molecules are not fully elucidated. In this study, we show that TRAM undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation upon TLR4 activation and that is required for TLR4-induced IRF3 activation. Protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 4 (PTPN4), a protein tyrosine phosphatase, inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent cytoplasm translocation of TRAM, resulting in the disturbance of TRAM-TRIF interaction. Consequently, PTPN4 specifically inhibits TRIF-dependent IRF3 activation and IFN-β production in TLR4 pathway. Therefore, our results provide new insight into the TLR4 pathway and identify PTPN4 as a specific inhibitor of TRIF-dependent TLR4 pathway. Targeting PTPN4 would be beneficial for the development of new strategy to control TLR4-associated ...
There are several reports of ultrastructural and protein changes affecting synapses in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia. Altered cytoarchitecture has also been described in this region in schizophrenia as well as in mood disorders. In this paper we review the literature and present a new study investigating synaptic abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (area 24) in the Stanley Foundation brain series. We used Western blotting to assess four synaptic proteins: synaptophysin, growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), complexin I and complexin II, which inform about somewhat different aspects of the synaptic circuitry. Synaptophysin, complexin II and GAP-43 were reduced in bipolar disorder. The decreases correlated with the duration of illness and tended to be greater in subjects without a family history. Complexin II was also reduced in major depression. Complexin I and the housekeeping protein beta-actin did not differ between groups. None of the proteins changed significantly in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic analysis of the subunit organization and function of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex. T2 - Studies of COG5- and COG7-deficient mammalian cells. AU - Oka, Toshihiko. AU - Vasile, Eliza. AU - Penman, Marsha. AU - Novina, Carl D.. AU - Dykxhoorn, Derek M.. AU - Ungar, Daniel. AU - Hughson, Frederick M.. AU - Krieger, Monty. PY - 2005/9/23. Y1 - 2005/9/23. N2 - The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is an eight-subunit (Cog1-8) peripheral Golgi protein involved in Golgi-associated membrane trafficking and glycoconjugate synthesis. We have analyzed the structure and function of COG using Cog1 or Cog2 null Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants, fibroblasts from a patient with Cog7-deficient congenital disorders of glycosylation, and stable Cog5-deficient HeLa cells generated by RNA interference. Although the dilation of some Golgi cisternae in Cog5-deficient cells resembled that observed in Cog1- or Cog2-deficient cells, their global glycosylation defects (less ...
The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi complex can be an evolutionarily conserved multisubunit tethering complex (MTC) thats crucial for intracellular membrane trafficking and Golgi homeostasis. inhabitants. Preliminary analysis uncovered that 8 times after transfection with specific COG-subunit-specific CRISPR constructs a subpopulation of cells (around 5% of the full total population) appeared which have high GNL binding in comparison to control cells (data not really shown). Through the 5% GNL positive inhabitants observed by movement cytometry, presumed COG KO cells had been one cell sorted right into a 96 well dish. Each plate yielded ~10C15 individual colonies. Around the secondary GNL binding test several colonies exhibited diminished GNL staining (~3 for each plate) and these clones were always still positive for the targeted subunit and served as an internal control. We preserved at least 2C5 Cog unfavorable clones for each subunit KO as assessed by high GNL binding (assessed by IF, Physique ...
The vesicle-mediated membrane transport is a multi-step process, consisting of vesicle formation (budding), targeting, tethering and membrane fusion (Bonifacino and Glick, 2004; Jahn and Scheller, 2006). Cargo proteins are concentrated at a specialized region on the donor membrane and packed into a nascent vesicle generated by the assembly of coat proteins such as clathrin into a cage-like lattice around the budding vesicle. Adaptor protein complexes (AP) are required to recruit cargo into coated vesicles thus playing an essential role in cargo selectivity of the transport vesicle in traffic between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes (Owen et al., 2004). Gga proteins are monomeric clathrin adaptor proteins mediating TGN to the endosome transport (Nakayama and Wakatsuki, 2003). Apart from the AP complexes and the monomeric GGA adaptors, the list is expanding to new sets of adaptors, which are specific to only a particular type of cargo or to one family of cargo (Bonifacino and Rojas, ...
The liver responds to inflammation by down-regulating key hepatic genes involved in regulation of metabolic processes in the liver. This leads to disruption of drug metabolism and clearance and can cause drugs to become potentially ineffective or even toxic. To understand the mechanism of alteration of hepatic drug metabolism in inflammation, we are focusing on elucidating inflammation-induced signaling pathways in the liver. Cross-talk between the signaling components and DME gene regulators contribute to the down-regulation of these genes. We find that the LTA-mediated regulation of hepatic DME genes and serum cytokines involves the LTA receptor TLR2 as expected. However, the first adaptor protein, TIRAP, mediates the effects of LTA on DME genes in vivo and in isolated primary hepatocytes but not on cytokine expression in the liver.. In the liver, cytokines released from Kupffer cells bind to their respective receptors on hepatocytes to initiate signaling events, leading to down-regulation of ...
Background: Epsins are a family of ubiquitin-binding endocytic clathrin adaptors. We recently published that endothelial epsins function as critical regulators of tumor angiogenesis by controlling VEGF signaling (JCI, 2012; ATVB, 2013). Our goal is to define the novel role of epsins in macrophages in regulating atherogenesis.. Methods and Results: We engineered mice with specific deletion of epsins in myeloid cells (MΦ-DKO). Strikingly, MΦ-DKO mice on ApoE-/- background fed western diet significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation and foam cell accumulation. In macrophages, epsin deficiency did not alter LDL scavenger receptors, CD36, Lox1 or SRB1, or reverse cholesterol transport proteins, ABCA1 or ABCG1, but did significantly reduce Lucifer Yellow pinocytosis, indicating a major defect in lipid uptake. Epsin deficiency did decrease total and surface protein levels of LRP-1, a protein with anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic properties. Oil Red O staining of isolated ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Enlarged early endosomes in the neurons of young Down syndrome (DS) and pre-Alzheimers disease (AD) brains suggest that a disturbance in endocytosis is one of the earliest hallmarks of AD pathogenesis in both conditions. We identified a chromosome 21 gene, Intersectin-1 (ITSN1) that is up-regulated in DS brains and has a putative function in endocytosis and vesicle trafficking. To elucidate the function of ITSN1 and assess its contribution to endocytic defects associated with DS and AD, we generated Itsn1 null mice. In knockout mice we found alterations in a number of parameters associated with endocyic and vesicle trafficking events. We found a reduced number of exocytosis events in chromaffin cells and a slowing of endocytosis in neurons. Endosome size was increased in neurons and NGF levels were reduced in the septal region of the brain. Our data is the first indication that Itsn1 has a role in endocytosis in an in vivo mammalian model, and that a disruption in Itsn1 expression causes a ...
Genetic variations in the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) family have been linked to Alzheimers disease (AD). Here we demonstrate deposition of fragments from the Vps10p protein sortilin at senile plaques (SPs) in aged and AD human cerebrum. Sortilin changes were characterized in postmortem brains with antibodies against the extracellular and intracellular C-terminal domains. The two antibodies exhibited identical labeling in normal human cerebrum, occurring in the somata and dendrites of cortical and hippocampal neurons. The C-terminal antibody also marked extracellular lesions in some aged and all AD cases, appearing as isolated fibrils, mini-plaques, dense-packing or circular mature-looking plaques. Sortilin and β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition were correlated overtly in a region/lamina- and case-dependent manner as analyzed in the temporal lobe structures, with co-localized immunofluorescence at individual SPs. However, sortilin deposition rarely occurred around the pia, vascular wall or
In collaboration with Dr. Kerstin Reim, MPI Göttingen, Germany) Complexin (Cplx) 1, 2, 3 and 4 are a family of small, soluble proteins that bind to the assembled exocytotic core complex, and are involved in the regulated release of neurotransmitter at chemical synapses in the central nervous system. In the mouse genome the four proteins are encoded by different genes: Cplx 1 and 2 are - like Cplx 3 and 4 - highly homologous to each other, whereas Cplx 1 and 2 show only a very limited homology to Cplx 3 and 4. In contrast to Cplx 1 and 2, Cplx 3 and 4 contain a CAAX box motif, which leads to farnesylation. It has been shown that this farnesylation motif causes membrane targeting of Cplx 3 and 4. Whereas Cplxs 1, 2 and 3 are distributed in the retina and brain, Cplx 4 is restricted to the retina. With immunocytochemistry and high resolution light microscopy, I examine the cellular, synaptic and developmental expression of all four Cplx isoforms in the mouse retina. Using a variety of different ...
Export GlyConnect protein list related to glycosylation_site_structure with id 20300004000001644 Q9UP83 # id : 2030 Conserved oligomeric Golgi complex subunit 5 Homo sapiens ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Complete information for CPLX2 gene (Protein Coding), Complexin 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for CPLX3 gene (Protein Coding), Complexin 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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BACKGROUND: Shb, a ubiquitously expressed Src homology 2 domain-containing adaptor protein has previously been implicated in the signaling of various tyrosine kinase receptors including the TCR. Shb associates with SLP76 ...
SORCS3 (sortilin related VPS10 domain containing receptor 3), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
References for Abcams Recombinant Human CPLX1 protein (ab79148). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
A three-piece anastomotic coupling device for end-to-end anastomosis of tubular members consisting of two open bore cylindrical adaptors and an open bore cylindrical connector. Each end of a tubular member is passed through the axial bore of an adaptor and everted over the end thereof. The adaptors are then inserted into opposite ends of the connector until the everted ends of the vessel abut under light compression. Integral locking means are provided to secure the adaptors and tubular members of the connector piece.
With the release of OS X 10.8.2, Apple disabled USB 2.0 drivers over Thunderbolt. Because many SD-to-SxS adapters use the ExpressCard USB interface, and Qio and Qio E3 support USB-based adapters through the ExpressCard (SxS) slots USB interfaces, the adapters are not recognized under 10.8.2+. Sonnets USB 2.0 Over Thunderbolt Patch for Qio/Qio E3 removes the limitation and allows your adapter to be recognized ...
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Most difficulties in working with Micro-Manager arise from configuring the system and from problems/issues with specific devices. In both of these cases you are interacting mainly with device adapters. These device adapters have been written by several different authors, all behave slightly differently, and interact with specific hardware that has its own peculiarities. On these pages we will maintain as much information as possible about Micro-Manager device adapters. This will help you configure and understand your Micro-Manager system. We hope that the authors of the device adapters will maintain this information, but please feel free to update the information here with your own experiences. The information here will refer to the most recent Micro-Manager release. ...
Flow adapters can significantly improve FLEX-COLUMN® performance by protecting the gel bed from disruption during sample loading and by eliminating any...
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GoPro™-adapter for ski poles. For mounting the original GoPro™ support on the grip. Compatible with these models: 6366872, 6366870, 6362707, 636685...
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Das Paket enthält die folgenden Tests:Pyruvatkinase-Defizienz (PK), Glykogenspeicherkrankheit Typ IV (GSD4) und die Fellfarbe Amber.
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The adaptor proteins investigated work in vesicular transport in eukaryotes, particularly in cargo-selection and coat-protein ... The study found that F. alba had all five adaptor protein complexes present in its genome, whereas the kingdom Fungi only ... in 2014 traced the evolution of the five adaptor protein (AP) complexed in fungi, but also provided some insight onto Fonticula ... contained a complete set of all five adaptor protein complexes. An amoeboid trophic phase alternating with an aggregating ...
AP2 adaptor complex Vesicular transport adaptor protein Umasankar PK, Ma L, Thieman JR, Jha A, Doray B, Watkins SC, Traub LM ( ... The μ homology domain of muniscins has been reported to have evolved from part of an ancient cargo adaptor protein complex ... The muniscin protein family was initially defined in 2009 as proteins having 2 homologous domains that are involved in clathrin ... The muniscins are early arriving proteins involved in CME. FCHO proteins are required for CME, but do not appear to be required ...
... tied to kinesin-dependent vesicular transport. In this context, JIP1/2 act as cargo adaptors, binding to a motor protein and a ... This protein is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase family. The MKK7 protein exists as six different ... In addition to their "normal" cargoes (C-termini of transmembrane proteins), they also transport MAP2K and MAP3K enzymes, ... Several mammalian scaffold proteins have been identified. These include the JNK-interacting protein (JIP) 1 and its closerly- ...
... a mammalian master molecule in vesicular transport and protein sorting, suppresses the degradation of ESCRT proteins signal ... Signal transducing adapter molecule 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAM gene. This gene was identified by the ... The encoded protein contains an SH3 domain and the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). This protein ... Mizuno E, Kawahata K, Kato M, Kitamura N, Komada M (September 2003). "STAM proteins bind ubiquitinated proteins on the early ...
... may refer to: Signal transducing adaptor protein Vesicular transport adaptor protein Clathrin adaptor protein, ... also known as adaptin This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Adaptor protein. If an internal link ...
... such as the EHD protein family Rab proteins SNAREs Vesicular transport adaptor proteins e.g. Sorting nexins Synaptotagmin TRAPP ... Membrane transport protein Wikipedia:MeSH D12.776#MeSH D12.776.543.990 --- vesicular transport proteins Vesicular+Transport+ ... A vesicular transport protein, or vesicular transporter, is a membrane protein that regulates or facilitates the movement of ... COP 1 (Cytosolic coat protein complex ) : retrograde transport; Golgi ----> Endoplasmic reticulum COP 2 (Cytosolic coat protein ...
Clathrin adaptor proteins, also known as adaptins, are vesicular transport adaptor proteins associated with clathrin. These ... The two major types of clathrin adaptor complexes are the heterotetrameric vesicular transport adaptor proteins (AP1-5), and ... Touz MC, Kulakova L, Nash TE (July 2004). "Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi- ... adaptors. Adaptins are distantly related to the other main type of vesicular transport proteins, the coatomer subunits, sharing ...
Vesicular transport adaptor proteins are proteins involved in forming complexes that function in the trafficking of molecules ... Epsin and AP180 in the ANTH domain are other adaptor proteins that have been reviewed. An important transport complex, COPII, ... Most of the adaptor proteins are heterotetramers. In the AP complexes, there are two large proteins (∼100 kD) and two smaller ... in the cargo proteins that interact with the adaptor proteins can be very short. For example, one well-known example is the ...
... adaptor proteins.2C vesicular transport "Role of Signal Transducing Adaptor Protein (STAP) Family in Chronic Myelogenous ... phosphoinositide-3-kinase adaptor protein 1 SH2B1 - SH2B adaptor protein 1 SH2B2 - SH2B adaptor protein 2 SH2B3 - SH2B adaptor ... NCK adaptor protein 1 NCK2 - NCK adaptor protein 2 NOS1AP - nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal) adaptor protein PIK3AP1 - ... GRB2-associated binding protein 2 GRAP - GRB2-related adaptor protein GRAP2 - GRB2-related adaptor protein 2 GRB2 - Growth ...
"Protrudin serves as an adaptor molecule that connects KIF5 and its cargoes in vesicular transport during process formation". ... Zinc finger, FYVE domain containing 27 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZFYVE27 gene. This gene encodes a protein ... The encoded protein appears to promote Neurite formation. A mutation in this gene has been reported to be associated with ... of neurite extension by protrudin requires its interaction with vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein". The ...
2001). "Novel adapter protein AP162 connects a sialyl-Le(x)-positive mucin with an apoptotic signal transduction pathway". ... PLEKHM1 may have critical function in vesicular transport in osteoclasts. Mutations in the PLEKHM1 gene are associated with ... 2007). "Involvement of PLEKHM1 in osteoclastic vesicular transport and osteopetrosis in incisors absent rats and humans". J. ... 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi: ...
RIAM (Rap1-GTP-interacting adapter molecule) is a broadly expressed adaptor protein that contains an RA (Ras association)-like ... PKD-dependent regulation of vesicular transport requires PKD kinase activity, while PKD-dependent regulation of TCR signaling ... These proteins are divided into families depending on their protein structure, and the most well studied is the Ras superfamily ... Rap1 (Ras-proximate-1 or Ras-related protein 1) is a small GTPase, which are small cytosolic proteins that act like cellular ...
... vesicular transport, apoptosis, membrane dynamics and receptor signaling. This protein family is of great clinical importance ... protein-protein interactions, vesicle trafficking, membrane dynamics, receptor signaling, apoptosis, adaptor/regulatory modules ... "neurobeachin-like protein 1 [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-24. "Pfam: Family: ... NBEAL1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NBEAL1 gene. It is found on chromosome 2q33.2 of Homo sapiens. Through the ...
Additionally, reticulons may be used to shape coated protein vesicles by interacting with a component of the adaptor protein ... In one example, it was shown that increasing expression of RTN3 keeps transport of proteins from retrograding from the Golgi ... Reticulons have been found to interact with proteins that are involved with vesicular formation and morphogenesis of the ER. ... The family of vertebrate proteins are called reticulons, and all other located eukaryotes are called reticulon-like proteins. ...
These findings suggest that the SCAMPs may function at the same site during vesicular transport rather than in separate ... Secretory carrier-associated membrane protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCAMP1 gene. This gene product ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (April 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Liu L, Guo Z, Tieu Q, Castle A, Castle D (December 2002). "Role of secretory carrier membrane protein SCAMP2 in granule ...
... which is involved in vesicular transport. These 3 complexes are identical and have been termed the conserved oligomeric Golgi ( ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio. ... 2003). "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and ...
... complementary distribution and proposed function as vesicular adapter proteins in early stages of secretion". Neuron. 18 (3): ... Implication in dynein-dependent vesicle transport". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30065-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30065. PMID ... Double C2-like domain-containing protein alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DOC2A gene. There are at least two ... "Protein unc-13 homolog A". UniProt. Sakaguchi G, Orita S, Maeda M, Igarashi H, Takai Y (December 1995). "Molecular cloning of ...
... , like most other Rab11FIP proteins, interacts with Rab11 by serving as an adaptor protein. This leads to downstream ... Rab11FIP5 aids in this sorting process by binding to kinesin II and forming a protein complex to regulate vesicular trafficking ... This process involves the transport of cargo proteins, like endocytosed receptors, to endosome recycling complexes and ... Rab11 family-interacting protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB11FIP5 gene. RAB11FIP5 has been shown to ...
The active form, ARF*GTP, binds to vesicle coat proteins and adaptors, including coat protein I (COPI) and various ... Activators of cholera toxin and critical components of intracellular vesicular transport processes". The Journal of Biological ... ARF requires assistance from other proteins in order to switch between binding to GTP and GDP. GTPase activating proteins (GAPs ... Arp and Sar proteins: A family of GTP-binding proteins with a structural device for 'front-back' communication". EMBO Reports. ...
Vesicular transport adaptor protein)-1(adaptor protein 1、AP-1)、AP-3及AP-4蛋白復合物的網格蛋白囊泡可參與貨物分子在反面Golgi與內體、溶酶體及質膜間的轉運[6][7]。含AP-2蛋白 ... 運輸囊泡(Transport vesicles)在真核生物中,通過在不同細胞器及細胞表面進行轉運發揮它的作用。目前已知的運輸囊泡有網格蛋白囊泡、外被體蛋白(英语:Coat protein)Ⅰ(coat protein、COPI(英语:COPI)囊泡)和 ... Assembly of COPI
... complementary distribution and proposed function as vesicular adapter proteins in early stages of secretion". Neuron. 18 (3): ... Implication in dynein-dependent vesicle transport". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30065-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30065. PMID ... Double C2-like domain-containing protein beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DOC2B gene. There are at least two ... protein isoforms of the Double C2 protein, namely alpha (DOC2A) and beta (DOC2B), which contain two C2-like domains. DOC2A and ...
Transferring to the GSL synthesis site is done with the help of a transport protein known as four phosphate adaptor protein 2 ( ... C1P also has known roles in vesicular trafficking, cell survival, phagocytosis ("cell eating") and macrophage degranulation. ... 2007). "Regulation of secretory transport by protein kinase D-mediated phosphorylation of the ceramide transfer protein". J. ... Sph is also known to interact with protein targets such as the protein kinase H homologue (PKH) and the yeast protein kinase ( ...
The following step of transporting the pIgR across the cell (through tubulo-vesicular compartments to apical recycling endosome ... pIgR belongs to the family of type I transmembrane proteins. The extracellular portion of the protein contains 6 domains: 5 ... TLR4, like the majority of TLRs, transduce the signal though MyD88 adaptor and execute the function via NF-kB, which stimulates ... The process of transporting polymeric immunoglobulins from the basolateral to apical side, known as transcytosis, is composed ...
The ARF1 protein is localized to the Golgi apparatus and has a central role in intra-Golgi transport. Multiple alternatively ... a family of ADP ribosylation factor-binding proteins related to adaptors and associated with the Golgi complex". J. Cell Biol. ... nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and play a role in vesicular ... including 6 ARF proteins and 11 ARF-like proteins, constitute a family of the RAS superfamily. The ARF proteins are categorized ...
... and other cytolytic effector proteins. Once these proteins are delivered to the target cell, they induce its apoptosis. The ... Finetti, Francesca; Baldari, Cosima T. (2013-01-01). "Compartmentalization of signaling by vesicular trafficking: a shared ... "Intraflagellar transport is required for polarized recycling of the TCR/CD3 complex to the immune synapse". Nature Cell Biology ... of CD43 from the immunological synapse is mediated by phosphorylation-regulated relocation of the cytoskeletal adaptor moesin ...
"Divergent retroviral late-budding domains recruit vacuolar protein sorting factors by using alternative adaptor proteins". Proc ... These proteins are components of ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III), a complex involved in ... Some CHMPs have both nuclear and cytoplasmic/vesicular distributions, and one such CHMP, CHMP1A, is required for both MVB ... Charged multivesicular body protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHMP5 gene. CHMP5 belongs to the chromatin- ...
Transport of insoluble protein contributes to the fast movement while the slow transport is transporting up to 40% - 50% ... LIS1 encodes an adaptor protein Lis1 that is responsible for stabilization of neurotubule during neuronal migration by ... The process repeats itself as cycles so that kinesins move along the neurotubules together with the organelles and vesicular ... soluble protein. The speed of transport depends on the types of cargo to be transported. Neurotrophins, a family of proteins ...
ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) play an important role in intracellular vesicular trafficking. The protein encoded by this gene ... uncouples brefeldin A-induced adaptor protein-1 coat dissociation and membrane tubulation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... is involved in the activation of ARFs by accelerating replacement of bound GDP with GTP and is involved in Golgi transport. It ... Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARFGEF2 gene. ...
Hausser A, Storz P, Märtens S, Link G, Toker A, Pfizenmaier K (September 2005). "Protein kinase D regulates vesicular transport ... with small GTP binding proteins Arf1 and Rab11, or a Golgi adaptor protein ACBD3. PI4KB can be phosphorylated by the protein ... The N-terminal region contains a physiologically important binding site for a Golgi adaptor protein ACBD3, but is likely ... which promotes the interaction with 14-3-3 proteins and stabilization of the protein in its active conformation. In cytoplasm ...
"Divergent retroviral late-budding domains recruit vacuolar protein sorting factors by using alternative adaptor proteins". Proc ... The encoded protein is one of the three subunits of the ESCRT-I complex (endosomal complexes required for transport) involved ... Tanzi GO, Piefer AJ, Bates P (2003). "Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Utilizes Host Vesicular Protein Sorting Machinery during ... Vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 28 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VPS28 gene. This gene ...
Membrane protein: vesicular transport proteins (TC 1F). Synaptic vesicle. SNARE. Q-SNARE. *SNAP25 ... Adaptor molecules are responsible for self-assembly and recruitment. Two examples of adaptor proteins are AP180[3] and epsin.[4 ... Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to build small vesicles in order to transport molecules within cells. The endocytosis ... In a cell, a triskelion floating in the cytoplasm binds to an adaptor protein, linking one of its feet to the membrane at a ...
Inherited disorders of trafficking / vesicular transport proteins. Vesicle formation. Lysosome/Melanosome:. *HPS1-HPS7 * ... adaptor protein disease *BIN1-linked centronuclear myopathy. *cytoskeleton disease *Nemaline myopathy. *Zaspopathy ... Several different proteins can be affected, and the specific protein that is absent or defective identifies the specific type ... Among the proteins affected in LGMD are α, β, γ and δ sarcoglycans. The sarcoglycanopathies could be possibly amenable to gene ...
proteins. *cell adhesions. *Membrane transport *ion channels. *vesicular transport. *solute carrier. *ABC transporters ... Template:DNA and protein biosynthesis navs(edit talk links history)- Genetics ({{Protein biosynthesis navs}}, R) ...
Membrane protein: vesicular transport proteins (TC 1F). Synaptic vesicle. SNARE. Q-SNARE. *SNAP25 ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... It is stabilized by proteins within the active zone and bound to the presynaptic membrane by SNARE proteins. These vesicles are ... In the periactive zone, scaffolding proteins such as intersectin 1 recruit proteins that mediate endocytosis such as dynamin, ...
Membrane protein: vesicular transport proteins (TC 1F). Synaptic vesicle. SNARE. Q-SNARE. *SNAP25 ... The cargo ligand and receptor will then recruit adaptor proteins and clathrin triskelions to the outside membrane of the cell ... "GPCR-G Protein-β-Arrestin Super-Complex Mediates Sustained G Protein Signaling". Cell. 166 (4): 907-919. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... A mature pit will be cleaved from the plasma membrane through the use of membrane binding and fission proteins such as dynamin ...
Inherited disorders of trafficking / vesicular transport proteins. Vesicle formation. Lysosome/Melanosome:. *HPS1-HPS7 * ... Signal transducing adaptor proteins. *EDARADD *EDARADD Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. *SH3BP2 *Cherubism. *LDB3 *Zaspopathy ... The mutation can appear in GJB1 coding for connexin 32, a gap junction protein expressed in Schwann cells. Because this protein ... Some mutations affect the gene MFN2, on chromosome 1, which codes for a mitochondrial protein. Mutated MFN2 causes the ...
RIAM (Rap1-GTP-interacting adapter molecule) is a broadly expressed adaptor protein that contains an RA (Ras association)-like ... PKD-dependent regulation of vesicular transport requires PKD kinase activity, while PKD-dependent regulation of TCR signaling ... These proteins are divided into families depending on their protein structure, and the most well studied is the Ras superfamily ... Rap1 (Ras-proximate-1 or Ras-related protein 1) is a small GTPase, which are small cytosolic proteins that act like cellular ...
Regulation of β2-adrenergic receptor dephosphorylation by vesicular acidification". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1): 5-8. PMID 8995214. ... Laporte SA, Oakley RH, Holt JA, Barak LS, Caron MG (2000). "The interaction of β-arrestin with the AP-2 adaptor is required for ... najčešće da bi katalizovali svoje sopstveno savijanje i transport do ćelijske površine. Dokazi su najdostupniji za familiju A ... doi:10.1093/protein/7.2.195. *↑ Kolakowski LF Jr (1994). "GCRDb: a G-protein-coupled receptor database". Receptors Channels 2 ( ...
Membrane protein: vesicular transport proteins (TC 1F). Synaptic vesicle. SNARE. Q-SNARE. *SNAP25 ... Cell signaling: carrier proteins: signal transducing adaptor proteins. JAK-STAT. *see JAK-STAT signaling pathway ... In molecular biology caveolins are a family of integral membrane proteins that are the principal components of caveolae ... The caveolin gene family has three members in vertebrates: CAV1, CAV2, and CAV3, coding for the proteins caveolin-1, caveolin-2 ...
囊泡運輸(英语:Template:Vesicular transport protein disorders). *成孔毒素 ... 受體蛋白(英语:Template:Signal transducing adaptor proteins). *GTP-binding(英语:Template:GTP-binding protein regulators) ... belowstyle = background:transparent; padding:0; , below = {{Bone and cartilage navs}}{{Joint navs}}{{Protein defects by ...
Membrane protein: vesicular transport proteins (TC 1F). Synaptic vesicle. SNARE. Q-SNARE. *SNAP25 ... clathrin-adaptors and various binding proteins.[18]. The SNX-BAR dimer enters the nucleation complex via direct binding or ... The cargo carrier is transported to the TGN by motor proteins such as dynein. Tethering of the cargo carrier to the recipient ... Retromer is a complex of proteins that has been shown to be important in recycling transmembrane receptors from endosomes to ...
See also vesicular transport protein disorders. This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Apr 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... protein transport. • vesicle fusion. • Golgi ribbon formation. • vesicle-mediated transport. • intracellular protein transport ... regulation of protein localization. • vesicle docking. • retrograde transport, endosome to Golgi. • Golgi vesicle transport. • ...
See also vesicular transport protein disorders. This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. ... transport vesicle membrane. • membrane. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • presynapse. • plasma membrane. • synapse. • cell. Biological ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... RefSeq (protein). NP_001153800. NP_001153801. NP_115674. NP_001153800.1. NP_001153801.1. ...
Transporters, or membrane transport proteins, pump neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft back into axon terminals (the ... VMAT2 is the CNS vesicular transporter for not only the biogenic amines DA, NE, EPI, 5-HT, and HIS, but likely also for the ... A neuron transports its information by way of a nerve impulse called an action potential. When an action potential arrives at ... a presynaptic G protein-coupled receptor, and binding to a site on VMAT2, a type of monoamine transporter located on synaptic ...
... is thought to be an adaptor protein involved in the endosome-to-Golgi transport pathway, participating in endocytosis and ... Although the endosomal compartment is composed of vesicular and tubular structures, it has been demonstrated that sorting ... are involved in protein-protein interactions. The SNX8 protein, even though is very similar to the other sorting nexins, ... The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is constutively transported from the ER after its synthesis to the plasma membrane via the ...
By directly binding membrane PtdIns(3)P, the FYVE finger domain of PIKfyve is essential in localizing the protein to the ... Ikonomov OC, Fligger J, Sbrissa D, Dondapati R, Mlak K, Deeb R, Shisheva A (February 2009). "Kinesin adapter JLP links PIKfyve ... Thus, via PtdIns(3,5)P2 production, PIKfyve participates in several aspects of vesicular dynamics, thereby affecting a number ... February 2008). "A selective PIKfyve inhibitor blocks PtdIns(3,5)P(2) production and disrupts endomembrane transport and ...
"Lead exposure during synaptogenesis alters vesicular proteins and impairs vesicular release: potential role of NMDA receptor- ... adaptor, and scaffolding proteins. The glycine-binding modules of the GluN1 and GluN3 subunits and the glutamate-binding module ... This information is then transported to the nucleus. Phosphorylation of Jacob does not take place with extrasynaptic NMDA ... which contain residues that can be directly modified by a series of protein kinases and protein phosphatases, as well as ...
... transport, and degradation. The gene for DAT, known as DAT1, is located on chromosome 5p15. The protein encoding region of the ... "The multiple LIM domain-containing adaptor protein Hic-5 synaptically colocalizes and interacts with the dopamine transporter ... where they act to collapse the vesicular pH gradient. Ledonne A, Berretta N, Davoli A, Rizzo GR, Bernardi G, Mercuri NB (July ... Apart from these innate protein-protein interactions, recent studies demonstrated that viral proteins such as HIV-1 Tat protein ...
... is carried out by clathrin assisted by a set of cytoplasmic proteins, which includes dynamin and adaptors such as adaptin. ... They have a characteristic tubulo-vesicular structure (vesicles up to 1 µm in diameter with connected tubules of approx. 50 nm ... Clathrin coats are involved in two crucial transport steps: (i) receptor-mediated and fluid-phase endocytosis from the plasma ... This large protein assists in the formation of a coated pit on the inner surface of the plasma membrane of the cell. This pit ...
Sakakibara A, Hattori S (2000). "Chat, a Cas/HEF1-associated adaptor protein that integrates multiple signaling pathways". J. ... As with most nerve terminal proteins, ChAT is produced in the body of the neuron and is transported to the nerve terminal, ... "Functional identification of a vesicular acetylcholine transporter and its expression from a "cholinergic" gene locus". J. Biol ... The protein encoded by this gene synthesizes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine acts at two classes of receptors ...
The second group of plague proteins are used for a vesicular trafficking, barrier regulation and gene transcription, because ... So tight junction plays a key role in maintenance of osmotic balance and trans-cellular transport of tissue specific molecules ... "Endothelial adhesion molecule ESAM binds directly to the multidomain adaptor MAGI-1 and recruits it to cell contacts". ... Some of TJ proteins act as a scaffolds, that connect integral proteins with the actin in a cytoskeleton. Others have an ability ...
Vesicular transport adaptor proteins are proteins involved in forming complexes that function in the trafficking of molecules ... Epsin and AP180 in the ANTH domain are other adaptor proteins that have been reviewed. An important transport complex, COPII, ... Most of the adaptor proteins are heterotetramers. In the AP complexes, there are two large proteins (∼100 kD) and two smaller ... in the cargo proteins that interact with the adaptor proteins can be very short. For example, one well-known example is the ...
... these proteins are therefore predicted to be inactive and have been termed pseudokinases. Here, we describe exciting work ... Forty-eight human proteins have a kinase-like domain that lacks at least one of the conserved catalytic residues; ... Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport * Proto-Oncogene Proteins * STRAD protein, human * STK11 protein, human ... Forty-eight human proteins have a kinase-like domain that lacks at least one of the conserved catalytic residues; these ...
In this study, we demonstrate that STAM proteins also localize prominently to early … ... and they form complexes with a number of endocytic proteins, including Hrs and Eps15. ... Signal-transducing adaptor molecules (STAMs) are involved in growth factor and cytokine signaling as well as receptor ... Vesicular Transport Proteins / genetics * Vesicular Transport Proteins / metabolism Substances * Adaptor Proteins, Signal ...
Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor Attachment protein Receptors (SNAREs) participate in the specificity of membrane ... 0/Adaptor Protein Complex 2; 0/Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport; 0/Macromolecular Substances; 0/Protozoan Proteins; 0/R- ... Adaptor Protein Complex 2 / metabolism. Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport / metabolism*. Animals. Cell Membrane / ... Protein Transport / physiology. Protozoan Proteins / metabolism. R-SNARE Proteins / metabolism*. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / ...
0 (Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport); 0 (MPYS protein, human); 0 (Membrane Proteins); 0 (Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 ... 0 (ERG protein, human); 0 (FOXA1 protein, human); 0 (HOXB13 protein, human); 0 (Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha); 0 ( ... 0 (ERG protein, human); 0 (Proto-Oncogene Proteins); 0 (Transcriptional Regulator ERG); EC 2.7.10.1 (Protein-Tyrosine Kinases ... 0 (DLL4 protein, human); 0 (ERG protein, human); 0 (Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins); 0 (Transcriptional ...
0/ATG14 protein, human; 0/Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport; 0/Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0/BECN1 protein, human; 0/ ... Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport / chemistry*. Amino Acid Motifs. Amino Acid Sequence. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / ... Membrane Proteins; 0/Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0/UVRAG protein, human; EC 2.7.1.137/Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases ... Protein expression and purification The CC domain of rat Beclin 1 (residues 174-266) was cloned as a His6-tagged protein in a ...
Clathrin adaptor proteins, also known as adaptins, are vesicular transport adaptor proteins associated with clathrin. These ... The two major types of clathrin adaptor complexes are the heterotetrameric vesicular transport adaptor proteins (AP1-5), and ... Touz MC, Kulakova L, Nash TE (July 2004). "Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi- ... adaptors. Adaptins are distantly related to the other main type of vesicular transport proteins, the coatomer subunits, sharing ...
Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport. 2. 2014. 309. 0.140. Why? Fatty Liver. 1. 2020. 729. 0.140. Why? ...
Membrane Proteins [D12.776.543]. *Vesicular Transport Proteins [D12.776.543.990]. *Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport [ ... "Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ... Alzheimer disease susceptibility loci: evidence for a protein network under natural selection. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Apr 06; 90( ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins" by people in Harvard ...
They control the vesicular transport of proteins in different trafficking pathways (PubMed:10066790, PubMed:10436028). AP-4 ... Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in vesicle formation and cargo selection. ... It is also involved in protein sorting to the basolateral membrane in epithelial cells and the proper asymmetric localization ... and may be involved in the targeting of proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosomal-lysosomal system. ...
They control the vesicular transport of proteins in different trafficking pathways (PubMed:10066790, PubMed:10436028). AP-4 ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in ... adaptor related protein complex 4 subunit beta 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... This gene encodes a subunit of a heterotetrameric adapter-like complex 4 that is involved in targeting proteins from the trans- ...
ADP-Ribosylation Factors/immunology/*metabolism, Adaptor Proteins; Vesicular Transport/immunology/*metabolism, Amino Acid ... Protein Binding/physiology, Protein Structure; Tertiary/physiology, Protein Transport/drug effects/immunology, Receptors; ... Stabilin-1 localizes to endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in human macrophages and interacts with GGA adaptors.. ... Motifs/immunology, Antigens; CD/immunology, Brefeldin A/pharmacology, Carrier Proteins/immunology/metabolism, Cell Adhesion ...
Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics/physiology. *Animals. *Cytoprotection/genetics/immunology. *Female. *Liver ... and TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein inducing IFNbeta (TRIF) are regarded as the key signaling adaptor proteins for TLRs. ... and TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein inducing IFNbeta (TRIF) are regarded as the key signaling adaptor proteins for TLRs. ...
Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/deficiency/immunology. *Animals. *Cells, Cultured. *Immunity, Innate. *Macrophages/ ... the only known adapter protein for TLR3.We then focused on TLR4, the other Toll-like receptor that signals through TRIF.The ... the only known adapter protein for TLR3.We then focused on TLR4, the other Toll-like receptor that signals through TRIF.The ... the only known adapter protein for TLR3. Unexpectedly, bioluminescence imaging showed that mice lacking TRIF are more ...
They control the vesicular transport of proteins in different trafficking pathways (PubMed:10066790, PubMed:10436028). AP-4 ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in ... The encoded protein is a large subunit of adaptor protein complex-4, which is associated with both clathrin- and nonclathrin- ... These proteins are components of the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes, which play important roles in the secretory ...
... separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport and cell junction proteins as ... adaptor protein complex AP-1 mu-2 subunit. adaptor related protein complex 1 mu 2 subunit. clathrin assembly protein complex 1 ... clathrin-associated adaptor medium chain mu2. golgi adaptor AP-1 47 kDa protein. golgi adaptor HA1/AP1 adaptin mu-2 subunit. mu ... AP1M2 adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 2 [Homo sapiens] AP1M2 adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 2 [Homo ...
Pearse BMF, Robinson MS (1990) Clathrin, adaptors, and sorting. Annu Rev Cell Biol 6: 151-171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... β-COP, a Coat Protein of Nonclathrin-Coated Vesicles of the Golgi Complex, is Involved in Transport of Vesicular Stomatitis ... 1993) β-COP, a Coat Protein of Nonclathrin-Coated Vesicles of the Golgi Complex, is Involved in Transport of Vesicular ... Coat Protein Golgi Complex Coated Vesicle Vesicular Structure Membrane Traffic These keywords were added by machine and not by ...
1986) Oligomerization is essential for transport of vesicular stomatitis viral glycoprotein to the cell surface. Cell 46:929- ... adaptor protein. CSLM. confocal laser scanning microscope. G. vesicular stomatitis virus G protein. HC. heavy chain. LC. light ... These regions contain a number of proteins, including the adaptor proteins (APs)1 and the heavy and light chains of clathrin ... The adaptor proteins have been shown to bind to the clathrin coat of the coated vesicle (Pearse and Crowther, 1987). To check ...
... a mammalian master molecule in vesicular transport and protein sorting, suppresses the degradation of ESCRT proteins signal ... is targeted to endosomes independently of signal-transducing adaptor molecule (STAM) and the complex formation with STAM ... BASP1; Brain acid soluble protein 1 (BASP1 protein). pfam07223. Location:525 → 769. DUF1421; Protein of unknown function ( ... BASP1; Brain acid soluble protein 1 (BASP1 protein). pfam07223. Location:525 → 743. DUF1421; Protein of unknown function ( ...
... and movement of transmembrane proteins between different membranes in a cell is performed by the cells vesicular transport ... The resolution of the structure of the AP2 clatherin adapter complex in an open, liganded form (Jackson et al.) follows on from ... provided molecular details of the alternating access model of transport used by secondary active membrane transport proteins to ... Askarieh et al. report the structure of a key protein responsible for forming the large assemblies involved in the formation of ...
Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 Mu 1 Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs ... They control the vesicular transport of proteins in different trafficking pathways (PubMed:10436028, PubMed:11139587, PubMed: ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in ...
2013) Recruitment of the Mint3 adaptor is necessary for export of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) from the Golgi complex. J ... retention of TRAF3 at the ER-to-Golgi vesicular transport system blunted the ability of TRAF3 to interact with MAVS upon viral ... Munc18-1-interacting protein 3 (Mint3), also known as amyloid-β A4 precursor protein-binding family A member 3 (APBA3), is a ... 2006) SHP-2 phosphatase negatively regulates the TRIF adaptor protein-dependent type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine ...
Differential regulation of clathrin and its adaptor proteins during membrane recruitment for endocytosis. Wang, C., Hu, T., Yan ... Using the split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid system to test protein-protein interactions of transmembrane proteins. Bashline, L ... Cellulose synthase interactive protein 1 (CSI1) links microtubules and cellulose synthase complexes. Li, S., Lei, L., ... The TWD40-2 protein and the AP2 complex cooperate in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of cellulose synthase to regulate ...
Two examples of [[Adaptor proteins, vesicular transport,adaptor protein]]s are [[AP180]],ref name="urlClathrin and its ... Vesicular transport proteins}} [[Category:Proteins]] [[Category:Cell biology]] [[Category:Peripheral membrane proteins]] ... In a cell, a triskelion floating in the cytoplasm binds to an adaptor protein, linking one of its feet to the membrane at a ... Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to build small vesicles in order to transport molecules within cells. The [[endocytosis ...
Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/chemistry. *Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics*. *Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular ... Ap1b1 is a subunit of the adaptor complex AP-1, which has been implicated in the targeting of basolateral membrane proteins. In ... we describe auditory/vestibular mutants isolated from forward genetic screens in zebrafish with lesions in the adaptor protein ... we examined the localization of basolateral membrane proteins in hair cells. We observed that the Na+/K+-ATPase pump (NKA) was ...
Thus, BPAG1n4 has been defined as the first protein orchestrating all three transport components: vesicular cargos, molecular ... The identification of the endosomal membrane receptor protein, retrolinkin, may open a new field for defining vesicle adaptors ... How do axonal transport systems coordinate and exchange cargoes for transport? How do pathogenic factors exert their effects on ... the impaired retrograde transport in cultured DRG neurons (dorsal root ganglia) recapitulates the transport phenotype observed ...
... introduce thermotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic effects through nonapoptotic cell death and generation of heat shock protein ... Vesicular transport then occurs to carry tyrosinase and its related proteins (TRPs) from trans-Golgi network to melanosomal ... In this process a number of transporters, such as small GTP-binding protein, adaptor proteins, and PI3-kinase, play important ... to which tyrosinase was transported from the trans-Golgi network by vesicular transport [26]. ...
... the primary sorting site of newly synthesized proteins, and mediates vesicular transport to the basolateral plasma membrane. ... Functional interactions between tyrosine-based sorting signals and adaptor proteins depend on multiple factors, such as the ... 1994) Two rat homologs of clathrin-associated adaptor proteins. Gene 146:279-283. ... The interaction between cytoplasmic coat proteins and specific signals in the cytoplasmic domains of integral membrane proteins ...
... tied to kinesin-dependent vesicular transport. In this context, JIP1/2 act as cargo adaptors, binding to a motor protein and a ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase - Protein kinase A - Protein kinase G - Protein kinase C (Protein kinase Mζ) - Rhodopsin - Beta ... Scaffold proteins. File:MKK7 scaffold.jpg Scaffold protein: A tradiational model showing how a scaffold protein is envisioned ... This protein is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase family. The MKK7 protein exists as six different ...
Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 1 Subunit Sigma 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, ... one of the AP complexes involved in claathrin-mediated vesicular transport from the Golgi or endosomes. Disruption of the ... Protein attributes for AP1S3 Gene. Size:. 154 amino acids. Molecular mass:. 18280 Da. Quaternary structure:. *Adaptor protein ... The encoded protein is a component of adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1), one of the AP complexes involved in claathrin-mediated ...
  • GGAs (Golgi-localising, Gamma-adaptin ear domain homology, ARF-binding proteins) are a group of related proteins (three in humans) that act as monomeric clathrin adaptor proteins in various important membrane vesicle traffickings, but are not similar to any of the AP complexes and will not be discussed in detail in this article. (wikipedia.org)
  • An almost universal feature of coat assembly is the recruitment of the various adaptor complexes to the "donor" membrane by the protein Arf1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exception is COPI, in which the 7 proteins are recruited to the membrane as a heptamer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under both scenarios, vesicular stomatitis virus G protein-green fluorescent protein trafficking to the plasma membrane is markedly inhibited, and recovery of Golgi morphology after Brefeldin A treatment is substantially impaired in STAM-depleted cells. (nih.gov)
  • Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor Attachment protein Receptors (SNAREs) participate in the specificity of membrane fusions in the cell. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP2 adaptor complex associates with the plasma membrane and is responsible for endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also involved in protein sorting to the basolateral membrane in epithelial cells and the proper asymmetric localization of somatodendritic proteins in neurons. (uniprot.org)
  • These proteins are components of the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes, which play important roles in the secretory and endocytic pathways by mediating vesicle formation and sorting of integral membrane proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Cytosolic and membrane-associated proteins involved in the recruitment of AP-1 adaptors onto the trans-Golgi network. (nih.gov)
  • It receives material from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and endosomes, transports cargo through its subcompartments and delivers it to the plasma membrane and endosomes. (springer.com)
  • Vesicular carriers are believed to mediate the vectorial transport of this material from one membrane bounded subcompartment to the next. (springer.com)
  • until now, however, the evidence for this mechanism of membrane transport is less convincing than for vesicular transport. (springer.com)
  • Kreis TE (1992) Regulation of vesicular and tubular membrane traffic of the Golgi complex by coat proteins. (springer.com)
  • Schekman R (1985) Protein localization and membrane traffic in yeast. (springer.com)
  • The structures of membrane-associated proteins also figure prominently among the highlights. (esrf.fr)
  • The elucidation of the structure of the hydantoin transporter in its 'inward open' form completes the set for this transporter and has provided molecular details of the alternating access model of transport used by secondary active membrane transport proteins to harness electrochemical gradients to help effect the movement of small molecules or ions across membranes (Shimamura et al. ). (esrf.fr)
  • Ap1b1 is a subunit of the adaptor complex AP-1, which has been implicated in the targeting of basolateral membrane proteins. (zfin.org)
  • To gain insight into the cellular and molecular defects in ap1b1 mutants, we examined the localization of basolateral membrane proteins in hair cells. (zfin.org)
  • L1 is preferentially transported to axons and inserted in the growth cone membrane. (jneurosci.org)
  • The resulting sequence of Y RS L E conforms to a tyrosine-based consensus motif (YxxL) for sorting of integral membrane proteins into specific cellular compartments. (jneurosci.org)
  • have shown that NgCAM, a chick homolog of L1, is transported directly to the axonal growth cone of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and inserted exclusively in the growth cone membrane. (jneurosci.org)
  • In resorbing OCs, polarized vesicular trafficking pathways also result in formation of the ruffled membrane, the resorbing organelle, and in transcytosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Calcium sensor that plays a key role in processes such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi vesicular transport, endosomal biogenesis or membrane repair (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA), a type II transmembrane protein, is directly transported to the apical plasma membrane in polarized MDCK cells. (asm.org)
  • Polarized epithelial cells possess two distinct domains of the plasma membrane, the apical and the basolateral, separated by tight junctions which prevent lateral diffusion and commingling of the proteins and lipids of these domains of the plasma membrane. (asm.org)
  • the lipids and proteins are sorted and directed by separate pathways from the trans -Golgi network (TGN) to the specific plasma membrane ( 26 , 32 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), soluble NSF attachment proteins, and soluble NSF attachment protein membrane receptors, as well as Rab proteins, have been shown to be involved in the vesicular transport from the TGN to basolateral membranes ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • For apical membrane proteins, which are anchored by a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety and lack the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail, the GPI anchor is responsible for directing the protein to the apical membrane by associating with the detergent-insoluble lipids in the TGN. (asm.org)
  • However, levels of EHD1 and EHD2, two membrane tubulating proteins with a role in endocytic recycling, were elevated in epsin 3 knock-out stomachs, pointing to a functional interplay of epsin 3 with EHD proteins in the endocytic pathway of parietal cells. (thebiogrid.org)
  • We suggest that epsin 3 cooperates with other bilayer binding proteins with curvature sensing/generating properties in the specialized traffic and membrane remodeling processes typical of gastric parietal cells. (thebiogrid.org)
  • In this study, we show that under conditions of cell stress, the steady-state localization of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) shifts from internal stores (chitosomes) to the plasma membrane (PM). This redistribution occurs rapidly and requires the activators of the cell wall stress response signaling pathway, the G protein Rho1p, and the protein kinase Pkc1p, but not the cell integrity response mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. (pnas.org)
  • Cell wall stress is initially perceived through the actions of cell surface membrane proteins (Wsc1-4p and Mid2p) ( 2 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Because the system has no cell membrane, the investigators can directly apply various proteins or chemicals and assess the effects on transport in both directions. (alzforum.org)
  • Transferrin receptors (TFRC, grey ovals) cycle between the plasma membrane (PM) and the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC) using vesicular carrier (black circles). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The golgin family gives identity and structure to the Golgi apparatus and is part of a complex protein network at the Golgi membrane. (jove.com)
  • Several components of the phosphoinositide cycle have been found to interact specifically and at physiological concentrations with the plasma membrane-associated clathrin assembly (adaptor) protein AP-2. (elsevier.com)
  • Beck, KA & Keen, JH 1991, ' Interaction of phosphoinositide cycle intermediates with the plasma membrane-associated clathrin assembly protein AP-2 ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 266, no. 7, pp. 4442-4447. (elsevier.com)
  • Coatomer consists of two subcomplexes: the membrane-targeting, ADP ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1):GTP-binding βγδζ-COP F-subcomplex, which is related to the adaptor protein (AP) clathrin adaptors, and the cargo-binding αβ'ϵ-COP B-subcomplex. (princeton.edu)
  • The AP (adaptor protein) complexes are heterotetrameric protein complexes that mediate intracellular membrane trafficking along endocytic and secretory transport pathways. (bioscirep.org)
  • They recognize and concentrate cargo proteins into vesicular carriers that mediate transport from a donor membrane to a target organellar membrane. (bioscirep.org)
  • They bind to sorting signals in the cytoplasmic tails of cargo proteins, recruit clathrin and other accessory proteins, and then concentrate the cargo proteins into vesicular carriers, which transport from the donor membrane to the target organelle membrane ( Figure 1 ). (bioscirep.org)
  • Core domains are responsible for the cargo protein binding and membrane localization. (bioscirep.org)
  • (A) Vesicle-dependent transport of the PIN1 protein to the basal membrane appears to be along actin tracks. (plantcell.org)
  • A high-affinity NPA binding protein has been found to interact with actin and may act as a bridge between these transport vesicles and the actin tracks and/or may serve to localize PIN1-containing IAA efflux complexes to the basal membrane. (plantcell.org)
  • (C) Treatment with BFA leads to a loss of PIN1 protein on the membrane and an accumulation of PIN1 protein at two undefined internal membrane structures. (plantcell.org)
  • Legionella pneumophila , the causative agent of a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease, intercepts material from host cell membrane transport pathways to create a specialized vacuolar compartment that supports bacterial replication. (asm.org)
  • Based on these findings, we propose a role for LidA in bridging the membrane of the Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV) with that of secretory transport vesicles surrounding the LCV. (asm.org)
  • Instead, the pathogen hijacks proteins and membrane organelles from the host cytosol to slowly transform its Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV) into a specialized membrane compartment with morphological features reminiscent of rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ( 23 , 44 , 47 ). (asm.org)
  • For that, L. pneumophila delivers over 300 effector proteins across the vacuolar membrane into the host cytosol, where they manipulate host signaling processes ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • In β-arrestin, this motif maintains the endocytosis-incompetent state by binding back on the folded core of the protein in a β strand conformation. (ttu.edu)
  • Here we examined SorLA's trafficking using full-length and chimeric receptors and find that its cytoplasmic tail mediates efficient Golgi body-endosome transport, as well as AP-2 complex-dependent endocytosis. (asm.org)
  • Vesicular transport adaptor proteins are proteins involved in forming complexes that function in the trafficking of molecules from one subcellular location to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the AP complexes, there are two large proteins (∼100 kD) and two smaller proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other large protein has different designations in the different complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two smaller proteins are a medium subunit named μ (mu ∼50 kD) and a small subunit σ (sigma ∼20 kD), and named 1 through 5 corresponding to the 5 AP complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parts of the AP complexes have evolved into parts of the GGA and stonin proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signal-transducing adaptor molecules (STAMs) are involved in growth factor and cytokine signaling as well as receptor degradation, and they form complexes with a number of endocytic proteins, including Hrs and Eps15. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated the possible role of Adaptor Protein (AP) complexes in sorting of the Dictyostelium discoideum v-SNARE VAMP7. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Clathrin coats contain both clathrin (acts as a scaffold) and adaptor complexes that link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two major types of clathrin adaptor complexes are the heterotetrameric vesicular transport adaptor proteins (AP1-5), and the monomeric GGA (Golgi-localising, Gamma-adaptin ear homology, ARF-binding proteins) adaptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptor protein (AP) complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP complexes connect cargo proteins and lipids to clathrin at vesicle budding sites, as well as binding accessory proteins that regulate coat assembly and disassembly (such as AP180, epsins and auxilin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in vesicle formation and cargo selection. (uniprot.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the adaptor complexes large subunit protein family. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric adaptor-related protein comlex 1 (AP-1), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. (nih.gov)
  • The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. (genecards.org)
  • The encoded protein is a component of adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1), one of the AP complexes involved in claathrin-mediated vesicular transport from the Golgi or endosomes. (genecards.org)
  • Acts as an adapter that bridges unrelated proteins or stabilizes weak protein-protein complexes in response to calcium: calcium-binding triggers exposure of apolar surface, promoting interaction with different sets of proteins thanks to 3 different hydrophobic pockets, leading to translocation to membranes (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • 27276012 ). Regulates ER-Golgi transport by promoting the association between PDCD6IP and TSG101, thereby bridging together the ESCRT-III and ESCRT-I complexes (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • However, protein complexes, the basic functional modules of a cell, have been so far mostly considered as static entities with well-defined structures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used measurements of protein abundance across 11 cell types and five temporal states to analyze the co-expression and the compositional variations of 182 well-characterized protein complexes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that although the abundance of protein complex members is generally co-regulated, a considerable fraction of all investigated protein complexes is subject to stoichiometric changes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compositional variation is most frequently seen in complexes involved in chromatin regulation and cellular transport, and often involves paralog switching as a mechanism for the regulation of complex stoichiometry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We demonstrate that compositional signatures of variable protein complexes have discriminative power beyond individual cell states and can distinguish cancer cells from healthy ones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our work demonstrates that many protein complexes contain variable members that cause distinct stoichometries and functionally fine-tune complexes spatiotemporally. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our work highlights the superior power of proteome profiles to study protein complexes and their variants across cell states. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, it has been shown that protein stoichiometry can vary across cell types and temporal states, however, the limited number of investigated complexes [ 10 - 12 ] or investigated states [ 5 ] prompted for a more global study to generalize these findings, show robustness, and derive mechanistic insights. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that in both settings more than 50 % of the 182 well-characterized protein complexes investigated here are subject to stoichiometric variations, and that there is a considerable overlap of complexes and complex members that are variable in space and time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Strikingly, variations occur most frequently in regulators of chromatin structure and intracellular transporters suggesting that multi-cellular organisms utilize stoichiometric fine-tuning of protein complexes not only to reshape their epigenetic landscape but also to modulate the distribution of molecules between compartments in a cell-type specific manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polarized epithelial cells coexpress two almost identical AP-1 clathrin adaptor complexes: the ubiquitously expressed AP-1A and the epithelial cell - specific AP-1B. (elsevier.com)
  • These include the design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity. (jove.com)
  • The AP (adaptor protein) complexes play a critical role in this process. (bioscirep.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 3q28 that encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric coat assembly protein complex 2 (AP2), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One especially interesting aspect of COPII is that it can form typical spherical vesicles and tubules to transport large molecules like collagen precursors, which cannot fit inside typical spherical vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are synthesized in the ribosomes, processed in the endoplasmic reticulum and transported from the Golgi apparatus to the trans-Golgi network, and from there via small carrier vesicles to their final destination compartment. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10436028 ). AP-4 forms a non clathrin-associated coat on vesicles departing the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and may be involved in the targeting of proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosomal-lysosomal system. (uniprot.org)
  • The encoded protein is a large subunit of adaptor protein complex-4, which is associated with both clathrin- and nonclathrin-coated vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • Duden R, Griffiths G, Frank R, Argos P, Kreis TE (1991) ß-COP, a 110kD protein associated with nonclathrin coated vesicles and cisternae of the Golgi complex shows homology to b-adaptin. (springer.com)
  • Scheel J, Kreis TE (1991) Motor protein independent binding of endocytic carrier vesicles to microtubules in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Serafini T, Orci L, Amherdt M, Brunner M, Kahn RA, Rothman JE (1991) ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) is a subunit of the coat of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles: a novel role for a GTP-binding protein. (springer.com)
  • Waters MG, Serafini T, Rothman JE (1991) "Coatomer": a cytosolic protein complex containing subunits of non-clathrin-coated Golgi transport vesicles. (springer.com)
  • Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to build small vesicles in order to transport molecules within cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • BPAG1 (Bullous Pemphigoid Antigen 1) null mouse is an interesting neurological mutant that features cytoskeletal disorganization and severely disrupted axonal transport with heavily accumulated vesicles and other membranous organelles in sensory neurons. (stanford.edu)
  • This raises the question as to how L1 is sorted into a specific population of transport vesicles destined for the axonal growth cone. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mechanisms of protein sorting, including the recognition events that occur at the TGN, leading to separate vesicle formation and eventual delivery and fusion of these vesicles to apical or basolateral membranes, are beginning to be elucidated. (asm.org)
  • Two papers published this week in PNAS examine the transport problem, one in the context of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a "dying back" of axons, and the other defining a new player in the docking of transport vesicles to motor proteins. (alzforum.org)
  • The role of retrolinkin in retrograde transport appears analogous to that discovered for the amyloid precursor protein in anterograde transport, where it was recently shown to link vesicles to the kinesin motor (see ARF related news story ). (alzforum.org)
  • They showed retrolinkin was a transmembrane protein localized in endosomal vesicles, and that it directly bound BPAG1n4 via a cytoplasmic domain. (alzforum.org)
  • Clathrin-associated sorting proteins (CLASPs) expand the repertoire of endocytic cargo sorted into clathrin-coated vesicles beyond the transmembrane proteins that bind physically to the AP-2 adaptor. (ttu.edu)
  • In the endocytic and secretory pathways, cargo proteins destined for transport to distinct locations are collectively assembled into vesicles and delivered to their target sites by vesicular trafficking. (bioscirep.org)
  • The receptor is mainly located in vesicles, suggesting a function in protein sorting and transport. (asm.org)
  • This gene encodes a subunit of a heterotetrameric adapter-like complex 4 that is involved in targeting proteins from the trans-Golgi network to the endosomal-lysosomal system. (nih.gov)
  • Adaptins are distantly related to the other main type of vesicular transport proteins, the coatomer subunits, sharing between 16% and 26% of their amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of a COPII vesicle at the endoplasmic reticulum and its transport to the Golgi body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Clathrin derived vesicle budding and Vesicle-mediated transport . (genecards.org)
  • After a series studies, we identified a novel vesicle protein, which we named as retrolinkin. (stanford.edu)
  • First author Gerardo Morfini worked with Rodolfo Llinas and colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine to demonstrate that MPP+ treatment significantly increased dynein-dependent retrograde vesicle transport (away from synapses) and slightly decreased kinesin-1 mediated anterograde transport (toward synapses). (alzforum.org)
  • We propose that PD and other neurodegenerative diseases exhibiting dying-back neuropathology represent a previously undescribed category of neurological diseases characterized by dysfunction of vesicle transport and associated with the loss of synaptic function," they write. (alzforum.org)
  • While the current work focuses on sensory neurons, the site of most BPAG1n4 expression, it may spur the hunt for other cell-specific vesicle adaptors or receptors that function critically in the health and well-being of other types of neurons. (alzforum.org)
  • These studies establish that auxilin and Hsc70 participate in synaptic vesicle recycling in neurons and that an interaction between these proteins is required for CCV uncoating. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • p115 serves as vesicle tethering factor and plays an important role at different steps of vesicular transport. (jove.com)
  • Myeloid differentiation primary-response gene 88 (MyD88) and TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein inducing IFNbeta (TRIF) are regarded as the key signaling adaptor proteins for TLRs. (nih.gov)
  • To further investigate Toll-like receptor signaling in vaccinia infection, we first focused on TRIF, the only known adapter protein for TLR3.We then focused on TLR4, the other Toll-like receptor that signals through TRIF.The mechanism of TLR4-mediated protection was not due to increased release of proinflammatory cytokines or changes in total numbers of immune cells recruited to the lung. (nih.gov)
  • To further investigate Toll-like receptor signaling in vaccinia infection, we first focused on TRIF, the only known adapter protein for TLR3. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we investigated the consequences of pharmacological inhibition of PI3K on Toll-IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-dependent signaling, which induces IFN-beta gene expression downstream of TLR3 and TLR4. (umassmed.edu)
  • Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-domain containing adaptor protein-inducing interferon beta (TRIF) is an important adaptor protein for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and can modulate the immune response via regulating cytokine secretion. (medscimonit.com)
  • Western blot was employed to determine the effect of TRIM56 on toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)/toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF) signaling pathway. (bvsalud.org)
  • We determined the effect of CKF methanolic extracts on LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6), and related protein expression levels of MyD88/TRIF signaling pathways in peritoneal macrophages (PMs). (bvsalud.org)
  • Instead, both caspase activation and IL-1β production require the alternative TLR4 adaptor TRIF. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The localisation and movement of transmembrane proteins between different membranes in a cell is performed by the cell's vesicular transport system. (esrf.fr)
  • In mechanistic studies, cholesterol loading of macrophage plasma membranes (cyclodextrin-cholesterol) or endosomal system (AcLDL+U18666A or Npc1 null mutation) activated Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, leading to sustained phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induction of p38 targets, including Ctsk, S100a8, Mmp8, and Mmp14. (umassmed.edu)
  • These studies suggest that free cholesterol enrichment of either plasma or endosomal membranes in macrophages leads to activation of signaling via various TLRs, prolonged p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and induction of Mmps, Ctsk, and S100a8, potentially contributing to plaque complications. (umassmed.edu)
  • and Tall, Alan R., "Free cholesterol accumulation in macrophage membranes activates Toll-like receptors and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces cathepsin K" (2009). (umassmed.edu)
  • Different cells may use different mechanisms and sorting machineries to transport proteins to the apical and basolateral plasma membranes. (asm.org)
  • In Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, the cells most widely used for studying apical and basolateral sorting, proteins and lipids are sorted and transported directly from the TGN to the apical or basolateral membranes ( 20 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Rho1p-GTP is recruited to membranes, activates Pkc1p ( 7 ), and initiates a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade that regulates a variety of cellular responses. (pnas.org)
  • Experiments in permanently or transiently AP-1 μ1-chain-deficient cells established that the AP-1 adaptor complex is essential to SorLA's transport between Golgi membranes and endosomes. (asm.org)
  • Auxin is transported from cell to cell with strict directionality by uptake and efflux carrier proteins (reviewed by Muday and DeLong, 2001 ). (plantcell.org)
  • ESCRT-0 protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is targeted to endosomes independently of signal-transducing adaptor molecule (STAM) and the complex formation with STAM promotes its endosomal dissociation. (nih.gov)
  • Template:Infobox gene Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 , also known as MAP kinase kinase 7 or MKK7 , is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K7 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • [1] This protein is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase family. (wikidoc.org)
  • Other mitogen activated protein kinase kinases also require the DVD region (in addition to various other non-canonical elements of their kinase domains, like the "MKK1/2-loop") to be able to discriminate against the various MAPKKK upstream. (wikidoc.org)
  • MKK7 play an important part in the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. (wikidoc.org)
  • [11] In collaboration with another mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MKK4 , MKK7 work as crucial transducers upstream of JNK signaling. (wikidoc.org)
  • Studies with Dectin-1, a PRR for fungi, have defined a novel innate signaling pathway involving Syk kinase and the adaptor CARD9, which is critical for inducing Th17 responses to fungal infection. (elsevier.com)
  • In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a range of insults, including heat stress, hypoosmotic shock, and physical damage, induce the activation of the yeast isozyme of the protein kinase C Pkc1p, which is essential for the maintenance of cell wall integrity ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Using specific enzyme inhibitors, they showed that the axonal effects depended on the activation of caspase 3 by the protein kinase Cδ isoform. (alzforum.org)
  • AP1 is responsible for the transport of lysosomal hydrolases between the trans-Golgi network, and endosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stabilin-1 localizes to endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in human macrophages and interacts with GGA adaptors. (diva-portal.org)
  • Subunit of clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1 that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. (genecards.org)
  • All together, these observations suggest that myosin 1b controls the traffic of protein cargo in multivesicular endosomes most probably through its ability to modulate with actin the morphology of these sorting endosomes. (biologists.org)
  • A DISLL sequence near the BACE C-terminus mediates binding of BACE to the VHS domains of Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF-binding (GGA) proteins, which are involved in the sorting of proteins to endosomes. (biologists.org)
  • Phosphorylation of the motif's serine residue regulates BACE recycling back to the cell surface from early endosomes and enhances the interaction of BACE with GGA proteins in isolated protein assays. (biologists.org)
  • Our results further implicate the GGA proteins in SorLA trafficking and provide evidence that SNX1 and Vps35, as parts of the retromer complex or possibly in a separate context, are engaged in retraction of the receptor from endosomes. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, it has been proposed that the phosphorylation of another protein, an as yet unknown EGF receptor substrate, is required for the efficient recruitment of EGF receptors into coated pits ( Lamaze and Schmid, 1995 ). (rupress.org)
  • For example, the class VI myosin, which binds adaptors proteins containing PDZ domains, such as Dab2 or GIPC, has been proposed to cluster receptors with PDZ-binding motifs in clathrin-coated regions ( Hasson, 2003 ). (biologists.org)
  • The invasion of host cells by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum requires specific protein-protein interactions between parasite and host receptors and an intracellular translocation machinery to power the process. (rupress.org)
  • SorLA/LR11 (250 kDa) is the largest and most composite member of the Vps10p-domain receptors, a family of type 1 proteins preferentially expressed in neuronal tissue. (asm.org)
  • In contrast to Sortilin, SorLA does not depend on the propeptide for normal processing and transport in the biosynthetic pathway, but in both receptors cleavage is a prerequisite for binding of ligands to the Vps10p-D ( 15 , 21 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition to known transport proteins, we identified 11 signaling proteins that included a striking signature set for the phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3)-target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Signal peptides play a role in directing proteins outside the cell. (esrf.fr)
  • For various basolateral proteins, different classes of short peptides present in the cytoplasmic tail of the protein have been identified. (asm.org)
  • These peptides are critical for and capable of targeting the protein to the basolateral surface. (asm.org)
  • Along with intracellular tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, senile plaques composed mainly of aggregated amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) are the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) ( Selkoe, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • The individual proteins of the COPII complex are called SEC proteins, because they are encoded by genes identified in secretory mutants of yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma subunit genes. (genecards.org)
  • Ultimately, Slt2p/Mpk1p regulates the activity of transcription factors and chromatin-binding proteins that modulate the transcription of many genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • The list of ALS-related genes is continuously growing, however, SOD1 , chromosome open reading frame 72 (C9orf72), TARDBP (transactive response DNA-binding protein) and FUS (fused in sarcoma) are the most well-studied, mainly because they account for the majority of both fALS and sALS cases ( Brown and Al-Chalabi, 2017 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Mutation analysis of three genes encoding novel LKB1-interacting proteins, BRG1, STRADalpha, and MO25alpha, in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We performed a mutation analysis of three genes encoding novel LKB1-interacting proteins, BRG1, STRADalpha, and MO25alpha, in 28 LKB1-negative PJS patients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Interestingly, the structure of monomeric HmoB resembles the dimeric structure of IsdG family proteins. (labome.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests that the FISH adapter protein binds to, and potentially regulates, ADAM12 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 12) to mediate a neurotoxic effect of Abeta. (ox.ac.uk)
  • SorLA binds several ligands, including neurotensin, platelet-derived growth factor-bb, and lipoprotein lipase, and via complex-formation with the amyloid precursor protein it downregulates generation of Alzheimer's disease-associated Aβ-peptide. (asm.org)
  • Among binding domains of p62, the ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain interacts with polyubiquitinated proteins and mediates their degradation via autophagic or proteasomal pathways [ 10 ], which are reportedly central to OC activities [ 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • AP-1 is localized to TGN and REs, and mediates bidirectional transport between them. (bioscirep.org)
  • Also, it has been shown that the AP-1 clatherin adapter complex is involved in basolateral transport ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • AP4M1 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 Mu 1 Subunit) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • AP1S3 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 1 Subunit Sigma 3) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • ESCRT-0 dysfunction compromises autophagic degradation of protein aggregates and facilitates ER stress-mediated neurodegeneration via apoptotic and necroptotic pathways. (nih.gov)
  • They control the vesicular transport of proteins in different trafficking pathways (PubMed:10436028, PubMed:11139587, PubMed:10066790, PubMed:11802162, PubMed:20230749). (genecards.org)
  • Subsequent autophosphorylation of intracellular c-fms domains leads to the recruitment and docking of PTB- (phosphotyrosine-binding) and SH2- (Src homology region 2) domain-containing effector proteins and activation of the signaling pathways that promote OC proliferation, survival, and motility. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast, in hepatocytes, proteins are sorted via the endocytic-transcytotic route, i.e., first, both apical and basolateral proteins are transported to the basolateral side, and subsequently, apical proteins are transported to the apical surface via transcytosis ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Epsin is a ubiquitin-binding endocytic adaptor, which is highly concentrated at clathrin-coated pits and coordinates acquisition of bilayer curvature with coat recruitment and cargo selection. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Internalised molecules are sorted from resident proteins and lipids along the endocytic pathway, through a complex series of regulated processes. (biologists.org)
  • Here we describe auditory/vestibular mutants isolated from forward genetic screens in zebrafish with lesions in the adaptor protein 1 beta subunit 1 ( ap1b1) gene. (zfin.org)
  • The mobilization of an intracellular reservoir of Chs3p presents a novel opportunity to investigate the genetic basis of regulated vesicular traffic. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we report that a zebrafish line with a mutation in the cargo adaptor protein Clint1 exhibits psoriasis-like phenotypes including epithelial hyperproliferation and leukocyte infiltration. (biologists.org)
  • Pseudo-phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated BACE mutants remained localized with GGA1 in the Golgi body, but the latter mutation diminished the two proteins' FRET signal. (biologists.org)
  • Mutation of a conserved HPD motif within the J domain of auxilin prevented binding to Hsc70 in vitro and injecting this mutant protein inhibited CCV uncoating in vivo, demonstrating that the interaction of auxilin with Hsc70 is critical for CCV uncoating. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Moreover, elevated Trak1 protein expression is associated with several types of cancers and variants in Trak1 are linked to childhood absence epilepsy in humans. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mu recognises tyrosine-based sorting signals within the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane cargo proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition and sorting of cargo proteins with tyrosine-based motifs from the trans-golgi network to the endosomal-lysosomal system. (genecards.org)
  • Trafficking of secreted cargo proteins to the site of cleavage has been observed in yeast, sea urchin embryos, and mammalian tissue culture cells ( Prekeris and Gould, 2008 ). (rupress.org)
  • In the open state, both [D/E]XXXL[L/I] and YXXØ-binding sites are exposed and ready to bind to corresponding cargo proteins (yellowish circles). (bioscirep.org)
  • Basolateral sorting of human poliovirus receptor alpha involves an interaction with the mu1B subunit of the clathrin adaptor complex in polarized epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • EGF receptor activation leads to the phosphorylation of various proteins. (rupress.org)
  • In this report, we have analyzed the sequences in the NA TMD involved in apical transport and raft association by making chimeric TMDs from NA and human transferring receptor (TR) TMDs and by mutating the NA TMD sequences. (asm.org)
  • First author Jia-Jia Liu and coworkers identify a protein they call retrolinkin as the receptor that tethers cargoes to the dynein adaptor protein BPAG1n4 in sensory neurons. (alzforum.org)
  • In addition, one variation, rs3851179, in the phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM) gene and one variation, rs6656401, in the complement component (3b/4b) receptor 1 (CR) gene were associated with AD. (umn.edu)
  • It is a mosaic protein and has also been designated LR11, due to distinct structural similarities to the classical members of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family ( 38 ). (asm.org)
  • Similar β-propeller domains and clusters of LA-repeats constitute characteristic structural elements in members of the LDL receptor family and account for the binding of a broad variety of ligands to classical family members such as LDL-related protein (LRP)/LR1 and megalin ( 14 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Accordingly, many of these ligands, including receptor-associated protein (RAP), platelet-derived growth factor-bb (PDGF-bb), lipoprotein lipase, apolipoprotein E, and elements of the plasminogen activator system, also bind to SorLA ( 10 , 15 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Findings find that Hrs is indispensable for the autophagic clearance of neurodegeneration-related proteins and for the survival of hippocampal neurons in mammals. (nih.gov)
  • Neurons possess extraordinary long axons which may require a more complex system to meet the unusual transport challenges that are far beyond those of nonneuronal cells. (stanford.edu)
  • Using dominant negative manner with ERM1 domain to disrupt the BPAG1n4-dynactin interaction, the impaired retrograde transport in cultured DRG neurons (dorsal root ganglia) recapitulates the transport phenotype observed in the BPAG1 null neurons. (stanford.edu)
  • This study is the first report demonstrating that leelamine is a lysosomotropic, intracellular cholesterol transport inhibitor with potential chemotherapeutic properties leading to inhibition of autophagic flux and induction of cholesterol accumulation in lysosomal/endosomal cell compartments. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most BACE protein in the cell is located within Golgi and endosomal compartments, where it localizes with βAPP. (biologists.org)
  • We found that BACE phosphorylation influences BACE-GGA interactions in cells using a new fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer-based assay of protein proximity, fluorescence lifetime imaging. (biologists.org)
  • Adaptins recognise and bind to clathrin through their hinge region (clathrin box), and recruit accessory proteins that modulate AP function through their C-terminal ear (appendage) domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elucidating the consequences of tissue-specific protein expression is a key challenge towards understanding how proteins modulate phenotypic variation during differentiation and conduct cell-type specific functions in various (patho-)physiological settings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This diverse family of proteins shares a catalytic domain of between 300 and 800 amino acids, which contain two short conserved cysteine and histidine catalytic motifs separated by long stretches of non-conserved intervening sequences. (springer.com)
  • Although USP9X is over 2,550 amino acids in size, very little is known about the protein structure. (springer.com)
  • A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers. (harvard.edu)
  • Furthermore, STAM proteins interact with coat protein II (COPII) proteins, probably at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites, and Sar1 activity is required to maintain the localization of STAMs at discrete sites. (nih.gov)
  • Model of Experiments That Have Examined the Mechanisms of the Control of PIN1 Protein Localization. (plantcell.org)
  • AP3 is responsible for protein trafficking to lysosomes and other related organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, expression of activated forms of Rho1p or Pkc1p, in the absence of cell stress, is sufficient to redistribute Chs3p to the PM. In cells deficient for both the clathrin adaptor complex 1 and Chs6p, where Chs3p is transported to the PM by an alternative bypass pathway, cell wall stress did not cause mobilization of Chs3p, suggesting that Rho1p/Pkc1p regulate Chs3p exit from the trans-Golgi network. (pnas.org)
  • Hinge and ear domains are important to the interaction with coat proteins and regulatory/accessory proteins. (bioscirep.org)
  • although the ability of PIN proteins to mediate IAA transport has not been demonstrated directly. (plantcell.org)
  • Taken together, our findings describe a novel function for the ENTH domain protein Clint1 in epidermal development and inflammation and suggest that its deficiency in zebrafish generates a phenotype that resembles the human condition psoriasis. (biologists.org)
  • Compared to what is known about the sorting signals and machineries for basolateral proteins, very little is known about the sorting signals or the machineries involved in apical transport. (asm.org)
  • Delivery of bacterial effector proteins into the host cell requires the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. (asm.org)
  • L. pneumophila mutants with a defective Dot/Icm system are unsuccessful in transforming their vacuole into a camouflaged replication compartment and are trafficked along the endolysosomal route for degradation, underscoring the importance of effector proteins for bacterial virulence ( 2 , 5 , 7 , 38 , 40 , 44 , 47 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • We will discuss some recent examples, which includes miRNA species that are specifically deregulated by Aβ, mitochondrial proteins that are targets of both Aβ and tau, and the nuclear splicing factor SFPQ that accumulates in the cytoplasm in a tau-dependent manner. (frontiersin.org)