Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport: A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.Cytokine Receptor gp130: A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.GRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Adaptor Protein Complex 2: An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Receptors, Interleukin-6: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Adaptor Protein Complex 1: A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.GRB10 Adaptor Protein: A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.PhosphoproteinsReceptors, Oncostatin M: Cell surface receptors with specificity for ONCOSTATIN M. Two subtypes of receptors have been identified and are defined by their subunit composition.Receptors, OSM-LIF: Cell surface receptors formed from the dimerization of LIF RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although originally described as receptors for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR these receptors also bind the closely-related protein ONCOSTATIN M and are referred to as both LIF receptors and type I oncostatin M receptors.Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor alpha Subunit: A receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the dual specificity receptor for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR and ONCOSTATIN M. The subunit is also a component of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR. Both membrane-bound and secreted isoforms of the receptor subunit exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. The secreted isoform is believed to act as an inhibitory receptor, while the membrane-bound form is a signaling receptor.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits: A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk: Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport: A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Adaptor Protein Complex 4: An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Clathrin: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.Adaptor Protein Complex Subunits: The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Adaptor Protein Complex delta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Janus Kinase 1: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.CRADD Signaling Adaptor Protein: A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.Oncostatin M: A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.GRB7 Adaptor Protein: A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.Adaptor Protein Complex sigma Subunits: A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.Clathrin-Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.Mice, Inbred C57BLHeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl: Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.Nerve Tissue ProteinsNuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins: A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Son of Sevenless Proteins: A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.trans-Golgi Network: A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein: A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Coated Pits, Cell-Membrane: Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src): Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.LIM Domain Proteins: A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6: A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signalling and activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Syntenins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that play a role in the coupling of SYNDECANS to CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Cullin Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Arrestins: Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.

Endocytosis: EH domains lend a hand. (1/12958)

A number of proteins that have been implicated in endocytosis feature a conserved protein-interaction module known as an EH domain. The three-dimensional structure of an EH domain has recently been solved, and is likely to presage significant advances in understanding molecular mechanisms of endocytosis.  (+info)

The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors. (2/12958)

BACKGROUND: The adaptor protein Gads is a Grb2-related protein originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the docking protein Shc. Gads protein expression is restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Gads contains a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, which has previously been shown to have a similar binding specificity to that of Grb2. Gads also possesses two SH3 domains, but these have a distinct binding specificity to those of Grb2, as Gads does not bind to known Grb2 SH3 domain targets. Here, we investigated whether Gads is involved in T-cell signaling. RESULTS: We found that Gads is highly expressed in T cells and that the SLP-76 adaptor protein is a major Gads-associated protein in vivo. The constitutive interaction between Gads and SLP-76 was mediated by the carboxy-terminal SH3 domain of Gads and a 20 amino-acid proline-rich region in SLP-76. Gads also coimmunoprecipitated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the linker for activated T cells (LAT) adaptor protein following cross-linking of the T-cell receptor; this interaction was mediated by the Gads SH2 domain. Overexpression of Gads and SLP-76 resulted in a synergistic augmentation of T-cell signaling, as measured by activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and this cooperation required a functional Gads SH2 domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Gads plays an important role in T-cell signaling via its association with SLP-76 and LAT. Gads may promote cross-talk between the LAT and SLP-76 signaling complexes, thereby coupling membrane-proximal events to downstream signaling pathways.  (+info)

Vac1p coordinates Rab and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in Vps45p-dependent vesicle docking/fusion at the endosome. (3/12958)

The vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates transport of vacuolar protein precursors from the late Golgi to the lysosome-like vacuole. Sorting of some vacuolar proteins occurs via a prevacuolar endosomal compartment and mutations in a subset of VPS genes (the class D VPS genes) interfere with the Golgi-to-endosome transport step. Several of the encoded proteins, including Pep12p/Vps6p (an endosomal target (t) SNARE) and Vps45p (a Sec1p homologue), bind each other directly [1]. Another of these proteins, Vac1p/Pep7p/Vps19p, associates with Pep12p and binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of the Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) [1] [2]. Here, we demonstrate that Vac1p genetically and physically interacts with the activated, GTP-bound form of Vps21p, a Rab GTPase that functions in Golgi-to-endosome transport, and with Vps45p. These results implicate Vac1p as an effector of Vps21p and as a novel Sec1p-family-binding protein. We suggest that Vac1p functions as a multivalent adaptor protein that ensures the high fidelity of vesicle docking and fusion by integrating both phosphoinositide (Vps34p) and GTPase (Vps21p) signals, which are essential for Pep12p- and Vps45p-dependent targeting of Golgi-derived vesicles to the prevacuolar endosome.  (+info)

Concomitant activation of pathways downstream of Grb2 and PI 3-kinase is required for MET-mediated metastasis. (4/12958)

The Met tyrosine kinase - the HGF receptor - induces cell transformation and metastasis when constitutively activated. Met signaling is mediated by phosphorylation of two carboxy-terminal tyrosines which act as docking sites for a number of SH2-containing molecules. These include Grb2 and p85 which couple the receptor, respectively, with Ras and PI 3-kinase. We previously showed that a Met mutant designed to obtain preferential coupling with Grb2 (Met2xGrb2) is permissive for motility, increases transformation, but - surprisingly - is impaired in causing invasion and metastasis. In this work we used Met mutants optimized for binding either p85 alone (Met2xPI3K) or p85 and Grb2 (MetPI3K/Grb2) to evaluate the relative importance of Ras and PI 3-kinase as downstream effectors of Met. Met2xPI3K was competent in eliciting motility, but not transformation, invasion, or metastasis. Conversely, MetP13K/Grb2 induced motility, transformation, invasion and metastasis as efficiently as wild type Met. Furthermore, the expression of constitutively active PI 3-kinase in cells transformed by the Met2xGrb2 mutant, fully rescued their ability to invade and metastasize. These data point to a central role for PI 3-kinase in Met-mediated invasiveness, and indicate that simultaneous activation of Ras and PI 3-kinase is required to unleash the Met metastatic potential.  (+info)

Tyrosine phosphorylation and complex formation of Cbl-b upon T cell receptor stimulation. (5/12958)

Cbl-b, a mammalian homolog of Cbl, consists of an N-terminal region (Cbl-b-N) highly homologous to oncogenic v-Cbl, a Ring finger, and a C-terminal region containing multiple proline-rich stretches and potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites. In the present study, we demonstrate that upon engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR), endogenous Cbl-b becomes rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated. In heterogeneous COS-1 cells, Cbl-b was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by both Syk- (Syk/Zap-70) and Src- (Fyn/Lck) family kinases, with Syk kinase inducing the most prominent effect. Syk associates and phosphorylates Cbl-b in Jurkat T cells. A Tyr-316 Cbl-binding site in Syk was required for the association with and for the maximal tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl-b. Mutation at a loss-of-function site (Gly-298) in Cbl-b-N disrupts its interaction with Syk. Cbl-b constitutively binds Grb2 and becomes associated with Crk-L upon TCR stimulation. The Grb2- and the Crk-L-binding regions were mapped to the C-terminus of Cbl-b. The Crk-L-binding sites were further determined to be Y655DVP and Y709KIP, with the latter being the primary binding site. Taken together, these results implicate that Cbl-b is involved in TCR-mediated intracellular signaling pathways.  (+info)

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (6/12958)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by Grb2 downregulation is correlated with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, cells. (7/12958)

Increased breast cancer growth has been associated with increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Upon activation, RTKs may transmit their oncogenic signals by binding to the growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb2), which in turn binds to SOS and activates the Ras/Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Grb2 is important for the transformation of fibroblasts by EGFR and ErbB2; however, whether Grb2 is also important for the proliferation of breast cancer cells expressing these RTKs is unclear. We have used liposomes to deliver nuclease-resistant antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) specific for the GRB2 mRNA to breast cancer cells. Grb2 protein downregulation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth; the degree of growth inhibition was dependent upon the activation and/or endogenous levels of the RTKs. Grb2 inhibition led to MAP kinase inactivation in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, breast cancer cells, suggesting that different pathways might be used by EGFR and ErbB2 to regulate breast cancer growth.  (+info)

Socs1 binds to multiple signalling proteins and suppresses steel factor-dependent proliferation. (8/12958)

We have identified Socs1 as a downstream component of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway. We show that the expression of Socs1 mRNA is rapidly increased in primary bone marrow-derived mast cells following exposure to Steel factor, and Socs1 inducibly binds to the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Previous studies have shown that Socs1 suppresses cytokine-mediated differentiation in M1 cells inhibiting Janus family kinases. In contrast, constitutive expression of Socs1 suppresses the mitogenic potential of Kit while maintaining Steel factor-dependent cell survival signals. Unlike Janus kinases, Socs1 does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the Kit tyrosine kinase. In order to define the mechanism by which Socs1-mediated suppression of Kit-dependent mitogenesis occurs, we demonstrate that Socs1 binds to the signalling proteins Grb-2 and the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors Vav. We show that Grb2 binds Socs1 via its SH3 domains to putative diproline determinants located in the N-terminus of Socs1, and Socs1 binds to the N-terminal regulatory region of Vav. These data suggest that Socs1 is an inducible switch which modulates proliferative signals in favour of cell survival signals and functions as an adaptor protein in receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways.  (+info)

Activation of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase activity is required for T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent lymphocyte activation (1). Adapter proteins serve as substrates for these kinases and as such may function to couple the TCR with downstream signaling events (2-6). SLP-76 is a hematopoietic cell-specific adapter protein that is phosphorylated rapidly on NH2-terminal tyrosine residues after TCR ligation (3), providing a binding site for the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of Vav (7). SLP-76 also contains a central proline-rich region that associates constitutively with the SH3 domains of Grb2 (8). In addition, SLP-76 has a COOH-terminal SH2 domain that inducibly associates with SLAP-130 (SLP-76-associated phosphoprotein of 130 kD) and an unidentified 62-kD tyrosine phosphoprotein (5, 8, 9). The ability of SLP-76 to augment TCR-dependent nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activation when transiently overexpressed in a T cell line is dependent on the presence of each of these domains, suggesting ...
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SLP76 (SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa) is a cytosolic adaptor protein which translocates to the plasma mambrane and is involved in multiple signaling pathways in T cells, mast cells, neutrophils and platelets; B cells express its analog SLP65/BLNK (B cell linker protein). SLP76 is phosphorylated by Syk-family and Tec-family tyrosine kinases and couples them to the phosphorylation and activation of PLC-gamma. Via Gads or Grb2, SLP76 also associates with LAT adaptor by involvement of SLP76 proline-rich region. The SH2 domain of SLP76 has been identified as the region involved in binding the serine/threonine kinase HPK1. HPK1 may act as both a positive and a negative regulator by promoting the Jnk-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and inhibiting the pathway leading to AP-1 activation ...
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Mammalian Nck1 and Nck2 are closely related adaptor proteins that possess three SH3 domains, followed by an SH2 domain, and are implicated in coupling phosphotyrosine signals to polypeptides that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. However, the in vivo functions of Nck1 and Nck2 have not been defined. We have mutated the murine Nck1 and Nck2 genes and incorporated β-galactosidase reporters into the mutant loci. In mouse embryos, the two Nck genes have broad and overlapping expression patterns. They are functionally redundant in the sense that mice deficient for either Nck1 or Nck2 are viable, whereas inactivation of both Nck1 and Nck2 results in profound defects in mesoderm-derived notochord and embryonic lethality at embryonic day 9.5. Fibroblast cell lines derived from Nck1−/− Nck2−/− embryos have defects in cell motility and in the organization of the lamellipodial actin network. These data suggest that the Nck SH2/SH3 adaptors have important functions in the development of mesodermal ...
The adaptor protein Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte phosphoprotein of 76 kDa (SLP-76) plays a crucial role in T cell activation by linking antigen receptor (T cell receptor, TCR) signals to downstream pathways ...
This gene encodes the substrate of breast tumor kinase, an Src-type non-receptor tyrosine kinase. The encoded protein possesses domains and several tyrosine phosphorylation sites characteristic of adaptor proteins that mediate the interactions linking proteins involved in signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
KARAP/DAP12/TYROBP: three names and a multiplicity of biological functions.: The signaling adaptor protein KARAP/DAP12/TYROBP (killer cell activating receptor-a
Article Stap-2 negatively regulates both canonical and noncanonical nf-b activation induced by epstein-barr virus-derived latent membrane protein 1. The signal-transducing adaptor protein 2 (STAP-2) is a recently identified adaptor protein that conta...
DAXX ; BING2 ; DAP6 ; Death domain-associated protein 6 ; Daxx ; hDaxx ; ETS1-associated protein 1 ; EAP1 ; Fas death domain-associated ...
The adhesion and degranulation adaptor protein (ADAP) was initially identified as a molecular adapter that couples T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation to the avidity of integrins governing T cell adhesion. TCR stimulation promotes the formation of a multi-protein complex containing CARMA1, MALT1, and BCL-10, which through the association of ADAP, ultimately activates the NF-kappaB family of transcription factors. More recent experiments have shown that ADAP controls optimal T cell proliferation, cytokine production, and expression of the Bcl-2 family member Bcl-x(L), suggesting that ADAP regulates T cell activation by promoting antigen-dependent T cell-antigen presenting cell (APC) activation. At least three isoforms of ADAP are known to exist ...
HCLS1 antibody [N1N3] (hematopoietic cell-specific Lyn substrate 1) for IP, WB. Anti-HCLS1 pAb (GTX114467) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Identification and characterization of the hematopoietic cell-specific enhancer-like element of the mouse hex gene.: Hex is one of the homeobox genes suggested
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Linker for activation of B cells (LAB, also called NTAL; a product of wbscr5 gene) is a newly identified transmembrane adaptor… Expand ...
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Most difficulties in working with Micro-Manager arise from configuring the system and from problems/issues with specific devices. In both of these cases you are interacting mainly with device adapters. These device adapters have been written by several different authors, all behave slightly differently, and interact with specific hardware that has its own peculiarities. On these pages we will maintain as much information as possible about Micro-Manager device adapters. This will help you configure and understand your Micro-Manager system. We hope that the authors of the device adapters will maintain this information, but please feel free to update the information here with your own experiences. The information here will refer to the most recent Micro-Manager release. ...
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Adaptor proteins are essential components of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling cascades regulating gene transcription and cytoskeletal reorganization. The molecular adaptor adhesion- and degranulation-promoting adaptor protein (ADAP), also known as Fyn binding protein (FYB) or Slp-76-associated protein of 130 kilodaltons (SLAP-130), interacts with a number of signaling intermediates including Slp-76, the Src family tyrosine kinase Fyn, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), and the actin-nucleating protein WASP. Recently ADAP was shown genetically to positively regulate T cell activation, TCR-induced integrin clustering, and T cell adhesion. The mechanism by which ADAP couples TCR stimulation to integrin clustering remains unclear; however, studies of ADAP, the exchange factor Vav1, and WASP suggest that TCR and integrin clustering may be controlled by distinct signaling pathways.. ...
N-Myristoylated ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b inhibitor prevents on glucocorticoid-induced atrophy in mouse skeletal muscleN-Myristoylated ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b inhibitor prevents on glucocorticoid-induced atrophy in mouse skeletal muscle ...
Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Mammalian cell membranes provide an interface between the intracellular and extracellular compartments. It is currently thought that cytoplasmic signaling adapter proteins play no functional role within the extracellular tumor environment. Here, by selecting combinatorial random peptide libraries in tumor-bearing mice, we uncovered a direct, specific, and functional interaction between CRKL, an adapter protein [with Src homology 2 (SH2)- and SH3-containing domains], and the plexin-semaphorin-integrin domain of beta(1) integrin in the extracellular milieu. Through assays in vitro, in cellulo, and in vivo, we show that this unconventional and as yet unrecognized protein-protein interaction between a regulatory integrin domain (rather than a ligand-binding one) and an intracellular adapter (acting outside of the cells) triggers an alternative integrin-mediated cascade for cell growth and survival. Based on these data, here we propose that a secreted form of the SH3/SH2 adaptor protein CRKL may act ...
The Tec-family protein tyrosine kinase IL-2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK) mediates T cell activation, as does the adaptor protein SLP-76 (SH2-domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kD), which forms a complex with ITK and other intracellular signaling enzymes. One of these enzymes is phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1), which mediates T cell receptor (TCR)-stimulated intracellular calcium mobilization leading to the activation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor of activated T cells. The Src-family tyrosine kinase Lck and the Syk-family tyrosine kinase ζ chain-associated protein kinase of 70 kD (ZAP-70), together with ITK, are necessary for the phosphorylation of PLC-γ1 in response to TCR stimulation. ITK is thought to phosphorylate a specific tyrosine residue of PLC-γ1 that is required for its activation. The mechanism of activation of ITK appears to involve the interaction between SLP-76 and ITK, which not only initiates ITK activity but is also important to maintain the kinase ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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J. Biotechnol. 126, 463-474 (2006). Maruoka M*, Suzuki J*, Kawata S, Yoshida K, Hirano N, Sato S, Goff SP, Takeya T, Tani K and Shishido T. *equal contribution Identification of B cell adaptor for PI3-kinase (BCAP) as an Abl interactor 1-regulated substrate of Abl kinase ...
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Orderly progression through the cell cycle is essential to maintain ploidy and stability of the genome. For the transition from G2 into mitosis, upstream checkpoint proteins signal the timing of mitotic entry. Among these are checkpoints to detect completion of DNA replication, the absence of genomic lesions, the doubling of cell mass, and the synthesis of macromolecules. Ultimately, these signals up- or downregulate the inhibitory Y15 phosphorylation of Cdc2, the universal switch for the transition from G2 into mitosis. Through controlling the kinases and phosphatases that phosphorylate and dephosphorylate Y15, these checkpoint-signaling pathways work together to ensure that mitosis is initiated only when it will result in two viable and identical daughters. Although most checkpoints halt cell cycle progression in response to an insult, osmotic stress and limited nutrition actually advance mitotic entry in S. pombe (Young and Fantes 1987; Shiozaki and Russell 1995). It is therefore likely that ...
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In this paper, Scheinfeld and colleagues from the DAdamio laboratory extended their work on the interaction between JIP-1 and APP. JIP is JNK-interacting protein-1, which several groups, including the DAdamio lab, last year showed to bind to the cytoplasmic tail of APP. Those labs showed that JIP-1 interacted with APP and that overexpression of JIP-1 altered APP processing and metabolism (principally dealing with APP phosphorylation and secretion and Aβ release).. An area of APP biology that has taken center stage recently is the potential role in nuclear signal transduction. This idea has been too inviting by analogy to Notch signaling ever since γ-secretase was shown to cleave both APP and Notch, the latter to generate the nuclear signaling-competent NICD fragment. Evidence has been building in the last two years that the APP cognate of NICD, coined AID or AICD, indeed has signaling properties. First shown in a reporter system by Cao and Sudhof, this observation was confirmed by the ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The apoptotic signal is transduced inside these cells by cytoplasmic adaptor proteins. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-Protein Interactions Between Large Proteins: Two-Hybrid Screening Using a ... adaptor protein that interacts with the death domain of TNF-alpha receptor 1 to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK ... MAP kinase-activating death domain protein is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MADD gene. Tumor necrosis factor alpha ...
Signal-transducing adaptor protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAP1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... A mouse ortholog, stem cell adaptor protein 1, shares 83% identity with its human counterpart. STAP1 has been shown to interact ... functions as a docking protein acting downstream of Tec tyrosine kinase in B cell antigen receptor signaling. The protein is ... an adaptor/docking protein, modulates STAT3 activation in acute-phase response through its YXXQ motif". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (13 ...
This receptor transduces signals that lead to the activation of NF-κB and MAPK8/JNK. Adaptor proteins TRAF2 and TRAF5 have been ... CD27-binding protein (SIVA), a proapoptotic protein, can bind to this receptor and is thought to play an important role in the ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This receptor is required for generation and long ... Yamamoto H, Kishimoto T, Minamoto S (Nov 1998). "NF-kappaB activation in CD27 signaling: involvement of TNF receptor-associated ...
Signal-transducing adaptor protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAP2 gene. This gene encodes the substrate ... 2007). "Signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 regulates integrin-mediated T cell adhesion through protein degradation of focal ... "Entrez Gene: STAP2 signal-transducing adaptor protein-2". Rosenzweig BL, Imamura T, Okadome T, et al. (1995). "Cloning and ... 2003). "Regulation of FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling by an adaptor protein STAP-2/BSK in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells ...
Signal transducing adapter molecule 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAM2 gene. The protein encoded by this ... "Entrez Gene: STAM2 signal transducing adaptor molecule (SH3 domain and ITAM motif) 2". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane- ... an adaptor protein involved in the downstream signaling of cytokine receptors, both of which contain a SH3 domain and the ... "Structural insight into modest binding of a non-PXXP ligand to the signal transducing adaptor molecule-2 Src homology 3 domain ...
Deafness-dystonia peptide Deafness-dystonia protein TIMM8A has been shown to interact with Signal transducing adaptor molecule ... "Interaction of the deafness-dystonia protein DDP/TIMM8a with the signal transduction adaptor molecule STAM1". Biochem. Biophys ... "Interaction of the deafness-dystonia protein DDP/TIMM8a with the signal transduction adaptor molecule STAM1". Biochem. Biophys ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. England. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
Reverse signaling between ephrin-B proteins and their Eph receptor tyrosine kinases have been found to initiate the retraction ... Ensuing binding of ephrin-B3 to the cytoplasmic adaptor protein, Grb4, leads to the recruitment and binding of Dock180 and p21 ... Ephrin-B3 is observed to transduce tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent reverse signals into hippocampal axons that trigger ... Forward signaling between ephrin-A and EphA, along the anterior-posterior axis, has been found to inhibit retinal axon branch ...
... s are commonly found in adaptor proteins that aid in the signal transduction of receptor tyrosine kinase pathways. ... conserved protein domain contained within the Src oncoprotein and in many other intracellular signal-transducing proteins. SH2 ... Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in a protein occurs during signal transduction and is carried out by tyrosine kinases. In ... Koytiger G; Kaushansky A; Gordus A; Rush J; Sorger PK; Macbeath G (January 2013). "Phosphotyrosine signaling proteins that ...
It is located in the cytoplasm and is an adaptor protein involved in transducing signals from receptor tyrosine kinases to ... Signal transducing adaptor protein Receptor tyrosine kinase Ras superfamily GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000158092 - ... The Nck (non-catalytic region of tyrosine kinase adaptor protein 1) belongs to the adaptor family of proteins. The nck gene was ... "Adaptor protein Nck1 interacts with p120 Ras GTPase-activating protein and regulates its activity". Cell. Signal. 23 (10): 1651 ...
2002). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in activated T cells abrogates TRAIL- ... Miyazaki, T; Reed J C (June 2001). "A GTP-binding adapter protein couples TRAIL receptors to apoptosis-inducing proteins". Nat ... and thus transduces cell death signal and induces cell apoptosis. Studies with FADD-deficient mice suggested that FADD, a death ... Miyazaki T, Reed JC (2001). "A GTP-binding adapter protein couples TRAIL receptors to apoptosis-inducing proteins". Nat. ...
... a death domain containing adaptor protein, is required for the apoptosis mediated by this protein. DR5 has been shown to ... and transduces apoptosis signal. Mice have a homologous gene, tnfrsf10b, that has been essential in the elucidation of the ... a new alternatively spliced receptor that transduces the cytotoxic signal from TRAIL". Current Biology. 7 (9): 693-6. doi: ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily, and contains an intracellular death domain. This ...
The protein encoded by this gene binds to the SH3 domain of the signal-transducing adaptor molecule, and plays a critical role ... One such signal-transducing adaptor molecule contains an SH3 domain that is required for induction of MYC and cell growth. ... STAM-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAMBP gene. Cytokine-mediated signal transduction in the ... Signal transducing adaptor molecule and GRAP2. GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000006906 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed ...
... a signal-transducing adaptor protein encoded by the STAP1 gene STAP2, a signal-transducing adaptor protein encoded by the STAP2 ... STAP, or stap, may refer to: List of people with the surname Stap Space-time adaptive processing, a signal processing technique ...
DAP10 functions as an adaptor protein and transduces the signal after the ligand binding by recruiting the p85 subunit of PI3K ... DAP12 bears ITAM motif and activates protein tyrosine kinases Syk and Zap70 signalling. NKG2D ligands are induced-self proteins ... By contrast, NKG2D-S associates with two adaptor proteins: DAP10 and DAP12. DAP10 recruits the p85 subunit of PI3K and a ... "Selective associations with signaling proteins determine stimulatory versus costimulatory activity of NKG2D". Nature Immunology ...
... adaptor proteins, signal transducing MeSH D12.644.360.024.264 --- caveolin 1 MeSH D12.644.360.024.272 --- caveolin 2 MeSH ... grb2 adaptor protein MeSH D12.644.360.024.298 --- grb7 adaptor protein MeSH D12.644.360.024.300 --- grb10 adaptor protein MeSH ... rap gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.644.360.525.475.100 --- rap1 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.644.360.525.500 --- ras proteins ... 14-3-3 proteins MeSH D12.644.360.024.318 --- proto-oncogene proteins c-crk MeSH D12.644.360.024.326 --- proto-oncogene proteins ...
Signal transducing adaptor proteins CDC24 Cdc25 PI3 kinase Phospholipase Ras GTPase-activating protein Vav proto-oncogene GRB2 ... The SH3 proteins interact with adaptor proteins and tyrosine kinases. Interacting with tyrosine kinases SH3 proteins usually ... SH3 domains are found in proteins of signaling pathways regulating the cytoskeleton, the Ras protein, and the Src kinase and ... In addition to that, the SH3 domain was responsible for controlling protein-protein interactions in the signal transduction ...
Signal transducing adapter molecule 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAM gene. This gene was identified by the ... has been found to bind and counteract the function of this protein. Signal transducing adaptor molecule has been shown to ... suppresses the degradation of ESCRT proteins signal transducing adaptor molecule 1 and 2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... signal transducing adaptor molecule, is associated with Janus kinases and involved in signaling for cell growth and c-myc ...
... or directly transducing the signal via adaptor proteins to the apoptotic mechanisms. An extrinsic pathway for initiation ... The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein. Some viruses ... apoptotic signals must cause regulatory proteins to initiate the apoptosis pathway. This step allows those signals to cause ...
Adapter pattern, a software design pattern used for computer programming Signal transducing adaptor protein, a type of protein ... Adapter may refer to: Adapter (device), used to match the physical or electrical characteristics of two different objects AC ... adapter, an electric power supply device Adapter (genetics), a small DNA molecule used in genetic engineering Adapter (rocketry ... a segment between rocket stages Adapter (computing), used to connect various hardware devices Adapter (piping), a short length ...
... may refer to: Signal transducing adaptor protein Vesicular transport adaptor protein Clathrin adaptor protein, ...
SLP-76 signal Transducing adaptor proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... is a gene that encodes a signal-transducing adaptor protein. No full structure for SLP-76 has been solved. The PDB file 1H3H ... "The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors ... "The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors ...
Signal transducing adaptor proteins are proteins that are accessory to main proteins in a signal transduction pathway. Adaptor ... phosphoinositide-3-kinase adaptor protein 1 SH2B1 - SH2B adaptor protein 1 SH2B2 - SH2B adaptor protein 2 SH2B3 - SH2B adaptor ... adaptor proteins.2C vesicular transport Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... GRB2-related adaptor protein GRAP2 - GRB2-related adaptor protein 2 LDLRAP1 - low-density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein ...
Janus kinase Phosphatase Signal transducing adaptor protein G protein-coupled receptor Orton RJ, Sturm OE, Vyshemirsky V, ... Protein microarray analysis can be used to detect subtle changes in protein activity in signaling pathways. The developmental ... "extracellular signal-regulated kinases" (ERKs) and "microtubule associated protein kinase" (MAPK). One of the first proteins ... phosphorylates ribosomal protein S6. Mitogen-activated protein kinases that phosphorylate ribosomal protein S6 were the first ...
The signal is transduced by cytoplasmatic kinases (such as IRAKs) and by other adaptors, such as tumor necrosis factor 6 (TRAF6 ... cytosolic adaptor proteins (such as MyD88 adaptor protein) and insect and nematode Toll. Each of these groups is involved ... When the receptor is activated TIR domain recruits downstream cytoplasmic signalization adaptor proteins (such as Myd88 adaptor ... May 2000). "IL-1 Signaling Cascade in Liver Cells and the Involvement of a Soluble Form of the IL-1 Receptor Accessory Protein ...
They can also transmit signals through adaptor molecules through their cytoplasmic domain which bind to signalling motifs. ... First, cell surface receptors can directly transduce signals by possessing both serine and threonine or simply serine in the ... Co-receptors are proteins that maintain a three-dimensional structure. The large extracellular domains make up approximately 76 ... Secondly, certain surface receptors lacking a cytoplasmic domain can transduce signals through ligand binding. Once the surface ...
Signal transducing adaptor protein. *I-kappa B protein. *Mucin-4. *Olfactory marker protein ... Small GTPases act as molecular switches in signaling pathways, which act to regulate functions of other proteins. They are ... GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. ... and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). ...
Relatively few cells in the transduced cell population, however, incorporated cDNA fragments that included genes specifying TAA ... O-Sullivan, IS, Chopra, A, Carr, J, Tae, SK & Cohen, EP 2008, Immunity to growth factor receptor-bound protein 10, a signal ... Immunity to growth factor receptor-bound protein 10, a signal transduction molecule, inhibits the growth of breast cancer in ... Immunity to growth factor receptor-bound protein 10, a signal transduction molecule, inhibits the growth of breast cancer in ...
Signal transducing adaptor proteins are proteins that are accessory to main proteins in a signal transduction pathway. Adaptor ... phosphoinositide-3-kinase adaptor protein 1 SH2B1 - SH2B adaptor protein 1 SH2B2 - SH2B adaptor protein 2 SH2B3 - SH2B adaptor ... adaptor proteins.2C vesicular transport Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... GRB2-related adaptor protein GRAP2 - GRB2-related adaptor protein 2 LDLRAP1 - low-density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein ...
Upon IL-2 and GM-CSL stimulation, it plays a role in signaling leading to DNA synthesis and MYC induction. May also play a role ... Involved in intracellular signal transduction mediated by cytokines and growth factors. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. O88811. Signal transducing adaptor molecule (SH3 domain and ITAM ... "Signal-transducing adaptor molecules STAM1 and STAM2 are required for T-cell development and survival.". Yamada M., Ishii N., ...
Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing ... A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, ... each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. ... Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins. Subscribe to New Research on Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins ...
G protein beta gamma subunits stimulate phosphorylation of Shc adapter protein.  Hawes, BE; Lefkowitz, Robert J; Touhara, K; ... Browsing by Subject "Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U ... Such motifs in other proteins are known to mediate protein-protein interactions ... ... One aspect of the function of the beta-arrestins is to serve as scaffold or adapter molecules coupling G-protein coupled ...
The protein is directly phosphorylated by Tec in vitro where it participates in a postive feedback loop, increasing Tec ... by this gene functions as a docking protein acting downstream of Tec tyrosine kinase in B cell antigen receptor signaling. ... docking protein BRDG1; stem cell adaptor protein 1; BCR downstream-signaling protein 1; signal-transducing adaptor protein- ... STAP1; signal transducing adaptor family member 1; signal-transducing adaptor protein 1; BCR downstream signaling 1; BRDG1; ...
General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. signal-transducing adaptor protein 2. Names. BRK ... STAP2 signal transducing adaptor family member 2 [Homo sapiens] STAP2 signal transducing adaptor family member 2 [Homo sapiens] ... mRNA and Protein(s) * XM_011528123.1 → XP_011526425.1 signal-transducing adaptor protein 2 isoform X1 ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_001013841.2 → NP_001013863.1 signal-transducing adaptor protein 2 isoform 2 ...
Signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 regulates stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha-induced chemotaxis in T cells.. ... Signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 modulates Fas-mediated T cell apoptosis by interacting with caspase-8.. ... The protein content of an adaptor protein, STAP-2 is controlled by E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl.. ... The encoded protein possesses domains and several tyrosine phosphorylation sites characteristic of adaptor proteins that ...
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics*. *Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology*. *Adaptor Proteins, Signal ... and all AmphiCOMMD proteins contain the conserved COMM domain with two NES (Nuclear Export Signal) motifs. Secondly, the ...
Protein kinase Ciota (PKCiota) drives transformed growth of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells through the Rho family ... Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / physiology* * Animals * Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / enzymology ... Protein kinase Ciota (PKCiota) drives transformed growth of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells through the Rho family ... Matrix metalloproteinase-10 is a critical effector of protein kinase Ciota-Par6alpha-mediated lung cancer Oncogene. 2008 Aug 14 ...
To identify and characterize new genes conferring anchorage independence, we transduced MCF10A human normal breast cells with a ... Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing * GAB2 protein, human * STAT3 Transcription Factor * STAT3 protein, human ... The GAB2 signaling scaffold promotes anchorage independence and drives a transcriptional response associated with metastatic ... To identify and characterize new genes conferring anchorage independence, we transduced MCF10A human normal breast cells with a ...
Signal-Transducing Adaptor Protein-2 Blocks B Cell Recovery Under Hematological Stress at Pre-B Stage Via TLR4 Signaling ... Signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 (STAP-2) was cloned as a c-fms/M-CSFR interacting protein in 2003, and the interaction ... Signal-Transducing Adaptor Protein-2 Blocks B Cell Recovery Under Hematological Stress at Pre-B Stage Via TLR4 Signaling. Blood ... The function as an adaptor protein in various cell types and signaling pathways, and its ubiquitous expression promoted us to ...
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing • Adenosine • Adolescent • Adult • Aedes • Aging • Algorithms • Alleles • Allosteric ... Protein Binding • Proteins • Proto-Oncogene Proteins • Pupa • Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid • Quantitative Trait Loci • ... Carrier Proteins • Case-Control Studies • Cautery • cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae • Cell Count • Cell ... Wheeler, DE; Nijhout, HF, A perspective for understanding the modes of juvenile hormone action as a lipid signaling system., ...
signal transducing adaptor molecule 2. VPS18. vacuolar protein sorting 18.. *Received September 9, 2013. ... IL-2 stimulation resulted in ∼2.7-fold increase in phosphorylation of signal transducing adaptor molecule 2 (STAM2) on Tyr374 ... B) Quantification of phosphotyrosine sites on canonical signaling proteins of the IL-2/15R signaling pathways. iTRAQ fold ... and protein translation, in addition to proteins known to be involved in signal transduction (Fig. 1C, Supplemental Table 1). ...
0/Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0/BCL10 protein, human; 0/Carrier Proteins ... Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing*. Adult. Aged. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Chromosomes, Human, ...
Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins. *PTEN. *Case-Control Studies. *Gene Expression Profiling. *HtrA1 ... Western blot further showed that PCDH10 restoration activate apoptotic signaling pathway via caspase signaling in both EEC cell ... Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression. Latest Publications. Found this page useful? ... Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (38). Clicking on the Gene or Topic will take you to a separate more detailed ...
... protein, a necessary component of DNA mismatch repair (MMR), in G2-M cell cycle checkpoint arrest after 6-thioguanine (6-TG) ... 0/Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0/Carrier Proteins; 0/MLH1 protein, human; 0/Mlh1 protein, mouse; 0/Neoplasm Proteins; ... Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Animals. Carrier Proteins. Cell Cycle / radiation effects*. Cell Survival. Cells, ... Nuclear Proteins. Thioguanine / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / physiology. ...
p53 Protein. *Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins. *Adenoma. *Chromosome 4. *Stomach Cancer. *CpG Islands ... What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?. Show (1). SFRP2 is involved in:. - Wnt signaling pathway KEGG. Data from ... Wnt receptor signaling pathway involved in somitogenesis - Wnt-activated receptor activity - Wnt-protein binding Data from Gene ... Secreted frizzled related protein 2 (SFRP2), APC1A in WNT signaling pathway and the DNA repair gene, O6-methylguanine-DNA ...
Ab163151 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam provides free… ... Signal transducing adaptor protein 2. *Signal-transducing adaptor protein 2. *Ssignal transducing adaptor family member 2 ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ... Substrate of protein kinase PTK6. May play a regulatory role in the acute-phase response in systemic inflammation and may ...
0 (Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing); 0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 (LIM Domain Proteins); 0 (LMNA protein, human); 0 (Lamin ... MET protein, human); EC 2.7.10.1 (Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met); EC 2.7.10.1 (Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases); EC 2.7.10.1 ... and NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-3 (SIRT3). Knockdown of any of these proteins was shown in previous studies to ... Furthermore, we showed that miR-761 putatively targeted three proteins, thyroid hormone receptor interactor 6 (TRIP6), lamin A/ ...
0 (Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing); 0 (Carrier Proteins); 0 (Cytoskeletal Proteins); 0 (Intracellular Signaling Peptides ... 0 (Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing); 0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Bone Density Conservation Agents); 0 (Proteins); 0 (SQSTM1 protein ... 0 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16); 0 (DNA, Viral); 0 (Oncogene Proteins, Viral). ... human); 0 (Sequestosome-1 Protein); 0 (urinary N-telopeptide of type I collagen, human); 9007-12-9 (Calcitonin); 9007-34-5 ( ...
Involved in IL-18 signaling and is proposed to function as a sorting adapter for MYD88 in IL-18 signaling during adaptive ... In TLR4 signaling, physically bridges TLR4 and TICAM1 and functionally transmits signal to TICAM1 in early endosomes after ... In TLR2 signaling, physically bridges TLR2 and MYD88 and is required for the TLR2-dependent movement of MYD88 to endosomes ... Functions as sorting adapter in different signaling pathways to facilitate downstream signaling leading to type I interferon ...
Proteins [D12.776]. *Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [D12.776.476]. *Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing [ ... "5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE. ... The nuclear membrane leukotriene synthetic complex is a signal integrator and transducer. Mol Biol Cell. 2012 Nov; 23(22):4456- ...
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing [D12.644.360.024]. *Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Peptides and Proteins [ ... Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing [D12.776.157.057]. *Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Peptides and Proteins [ ... Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing [D12.776.476.024]. *Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Peptides and Proteins [ ... Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins that bind directly or indirectly to the cytoplasmic portion of TUMOR NECROSIS ...
Adaptor Proteins; Signal Transducing, Animals, Antigens; Differentiation/genetics/*metabolism, Cytokines/genetics/immunology, ... signal adaptor protein MyD88. These mice have been shown to have markedly impaired Th1 immunity. ... MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signalling is not a requirement for fetal islet xenograft rejection in mice. Schmidt, Peter ... Hence, MyD88-dependent TLR signalling does not appear to be a crucial component of acute cellular xenograft rejection ...
  • Shown in A) are five nuclear proteins ( LIN-1 , SUR-2 , LIN-25 , EOR-1 , EOR-2 ) that are jointly important for vulval, excretory duct and P12 cell fates. (wormbook.org)
  • In theory, malignant cells that express protein antigens that either are unique to the tumor, vastly over-expressed by the tumor, or whose expression is at least restricted to a narrow range of self-tissues provides a potential immunologic handle whereby tumors may be specifically recognized and destroyed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The presence of killed bacteria in the adjuvant clearly enhances immunity against vaccine proteins, but whether this effect occurred primarily through an activation of unknown innate immune mechanisms, or through bystander activation of lymphocytes via strong bacterial antigens, is a subject for discussion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • However, despite this sequence specificity, the Tsg101 UEV domain presumably did not evolve to bind viral P(S/T)AP sequences, and it is therefore reasonable to speculate that the Tsg101 UEV domain may bind P(S/T)AP elements found in cellular proteins. (rupress.org)
  • However, breast tumors also rely on the ShcA PTB domain to bind numerous negative regulators that limit activation of secondary mitogenic signaling networks. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The domains are frequently found as repeats in a single protein sequence and will then often bind both mono- and di-phosphorylated substrates. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Antigen‐induced lymphocyte activation: the two‐signal paradigm. (els.net)
  • Later studies showed that activation of naïve T cells required not only a foreign antigenic signal supplied by the accessory (or antigen-presenting) cell, but also a second, or costimulatory signal supplied by antigen-presenting cell-expressed surface proteins designated, CD80 and CD86 (7) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • HLTF is a tumor suppressor gene - In cancer, two mechanisms of HLTF inactivation are reported: (i) hypermethylation of its promoter and (ii) expression of truncated protein forms that have lost domains involved in DNA repair. (inist.fr)
  • Conclusions: Alterations in the mismatch repair proteins MSH2 and MLH1 and the direct repair protein MGMT may result from tumor development and/or progression. (medscimonit.com)
  • TRAIL (APO2L) is a potent death protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Using an antiserum to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), a marker for cholinergic neurons, many unusually large VAChT-immunoreactive (-ir) nerve terminals, identified by colocalization with the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin, were demonstrated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of obese tub/tub mice. (strategian.com)
  • To date, analysis of the role of mammalian Nck proteins in neuronal development has been limited by the observation that mice homozygous for null alleles of either Nck1 or Nck2 alone appear normal, whereas mice lacking both Nck1 and Nck2 die at embryonic day 9.5 ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mice Lacking Nck Protein in the Developing Nervous System Exhibit Locomotor Defects. (pnas.org)
  • This monoclonal antibody is generated from mice immunized with purified recombinant protein encoding the catalytic domain of human Met. (novusbio.com)
  • Mice lacking NF-κB p50 and p52 proteins have been shown to be osteopetrotic. (wikipathways.org)
  • Apart from their role in osteoclast differentiation and function, RANKL-RANK signaling is also required for development of lymph node and lactating mammary glands in mice and in the establishment of thymic microenvironment. (wikipathways.org)
  • Although in vivo adiponectin overexpression reduced MKP1 protein levels, the stimulative effects of adiponectin on mitochondrial biogenesis vanished in skeletal muscle of PGC-1α knockout mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • beta-Arrestin1 modulates lymphoid enhancer factor transcriptional activity through interaction with phosphorylated dishevelled proteins. (duke.edu)
  • A key role in DNA repair was confirmed in vivo, in 2 different Hltf null mouse models and showed that Hltf loss compromises error-free DNA replication and modulates mutagenesis by regulating proteins involved in the G2/M phase transition of the cell cycle in mouse heart and brain. (inist.fr)
  • Regulation of FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling by an adaptor protein STAP-2/BSK in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 promotes generation of functional long-term memory CD8+ T cells by preventing terminal effector differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Our data define a PKCiota-Par6alpha-Rac1 signaling axis that drives anchorage-independent growth and invasion of NSCLC cells through induction of MMP-10 expression. (nih.gov)
  • To identify and characterize new genes conferring anchorage independence, we transduced MCF10A human normal breast cells with a retroviral cDNA expression library and selected them by growth in suspension. (nih.gov)
  • A transcriptional 'signature' of 205 genes was obtained from GAB2-transduced, anchorage-independent MCF10A cells, and found to contain two main functional modules, controlling proliferation and cell adhesion/migration/invasion, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • It has been reported that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) are targets of pathogen products and danger signals. (ashpublications.org)
  • Interestingly, an enhanced p53 protein induction response was observed in HCT116 3-6 (MLH1+) compared with HCT116 (MLH1-) cells after IR or 6-TG. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Retroviral vector-mediated expression of the E6 protein did not, however, affect the enhanced G2-M cell cycle arrest observed in HCT116 3-6 compared with MLH1-deficient HCT116 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • MLH1-mediated G2-M cell cycle delay (caused by either MMR proofreading of DNA lesions or by a direct function of the MLH1 protein in cell cycle arrest) may be important for DNA damage detection and repair prior to chromosome segregation to eliminate carcinogenic lesions (possibly brought on by misrepair) in daughter cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Altered signaling of TNFalpha-TNFR1 and SODD/BAG4 is responsible for radioresistance in human HT-R15 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, a preliminary awakening of APC by exogenous or endogenous alarm signals from distressed/injured cells is critical to recruit and drive an efficient T cell activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • How can it be that proteins, describable by the laws of physics, assemble themselves into cellular machines and structures, these into complete living cells, and the latter into whole organisms that require a whole new language for their description? (genomicglossaries.com)
  • These uterine NK cells secrete IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell-derived factor-1, and interferon gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) which help in tissue building, remodeling, and angiogenesis ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Multiple factors such as cell-intrinsic signals (transcription factors) and external signals (cytokines and growth factors) govern the development of NK cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Knockdown of endogenous A20 in Raji cells by expression of A20 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) vectors increases endogenous IRF7 activity and ubiquitination, as well as the protein level of LMP1, a target of IRF7. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • LMP1 is the only EBV protein that also has oncogenic potential in non-B cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Indeed, STAP-2 associated with LMP1 through its PH and SH2-like domains, and these proteins interacted with each other in EBV-positive human B cells. (environmental-expert.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS IR and its signal transducers recruited to genes coupled to elongating Pol II may play a role in maintaining productive mRNA synthesis of target genes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These studies suggest a possibility that impaired Pol II processivity along genes bearing aberrant levels of IR/signal transducers is a previously unrecognized facet of insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Following our previous finding that Xp95, the Xenopus orthologue of Alix, undergoes a phosphorylation-dependent gel mobility shift during progesteroneinduced oocyte meiotic maturation, we explored potential regulation of Xp95/Alix by protein phosphorylation in hormone-induced cell cycle re-entry or M-phase induction. (biochemj.org)
  • These results suggest that STAP-2 acts as an endogenous negative regulator of Epstein-Barr virus LMP1-mediated signaling through TRAF3 and TRADD. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that STAP-2 acts as an endogenous negative regulator of EBV LMP1-mediated signaling through TRAF3 and TRADD. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Adiponectin mRNA and blood protein levels are inversely associated with obesity ( 7 ), which is a common cause of insulin resistance in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)