Adaptor Protein Complex Subunits: The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Adaptor Protein Complex 1: A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.Adaptor Protein Complex 2: An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.Adaptor Protein Complex 4: An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.Adaptor Protein Complex delta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits: A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport: A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesClathrin: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Human Characteristics: The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins: A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Citrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)CaliforniaAcademies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.National Human Genome Research Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research into the mapping of the human genome and other organism genomes. The National Center for Human Genome Research was established in 1989 and re-named the National Human Genome Research Institute in 1997.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Hermanski-Pudlak Syndrome: Syndrome characterized by the triad of oculocutaneous albinism (ALBINISM, OCULOCUTANEOUS); PLATELET STORAGE POOL DEFICIENCY; and lysosomal accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Chemistry, Analytic: The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: Receptors that bind and internalize the granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor. Their MW is believed to be 84 kD. The most mature myelomonocytic cells, specifically human neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils, express the highest number of affinity receptors for this growth factor.Receptors, Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: Receptors that bind and internalize GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR. Their MW is believed to be 150 kD. These receptors are found mainly on a subset of myelomonocytic cells.Colony-Stimulating Factors: Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Receptors, Interleukin-3: High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.

Adaptor protein complexes as the key regulators of protein sorting in the post-Golgi network. (1/7)

Adaptor protein (AP) complexes are cytosolic heterotetramers that mediate the sorting of membrane proteins in the secretory and endocytic pathways. AP complexes are involved in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) by recruiting the scaffold protein, clathrin. AP complexes also play a pivotal role in the cargo selection by recognizing the sorting signals within the cytoplasmic tail of integral membrane proteins. Six distinct AP complexes have been identified. AP-2 mediates endocytosis from the plasma membrane, while AP-1, AP-3 and AP-4 play a role in the endosomal/lysosomal sorting pathways. Moreover, tissue-specific sorting events such as the basolateral sorting in polarized epithelial cells and the biogenesis of specialized organelles including melanosomes and synaptic vesicles are also regulated by members of AP complexes. The application of a variety of methodologies have gradually revealed the physiological role of AP complexes.  (+info)

Crystal structure of the clathrin adaptor protein 1 core. (2/7)

The heterotetrameric adaptor proteins (AP complexes) link the outer lattice of clathrin-coated vesicles with membrane-anchored cargo molecules. We report the crystal structure of the core of the AP-1 complex, which functions in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Packing of complexes in the crystal generates an exceptionally long (1,135-A) unit-cell axis, but the 6-fold noncrystallographic redundancy yields an excellent map at 4-A resolution. The AP-1 core comprises N-terminal fragments of the two large chains, beta1 and gamma, and the intact medium and small chains, micro1 and sigma1. Its molecular architecture closely resembles that of the core of AP-2, the plasma-membrane-specific adaptor, for which a structure has been determined. Both structures represent an "inactive" conformation with respect to binding of cargo with a tyrosine-based sorting signal. TGN localization of AP-1 depends on the small GTPase, Arf1, and the phosphoinositide, PI-4-P. We show that directed mutations of residues at a particular corner of the gamma chain prevent recruitment to the TGN in cells and diminish PI-4-P-dependent, but not Arf1-dependent, liposome binding in vitro.  (+info)

The ubiquitously expressed Csk adaptor protein Cbp is dispensable for embryogenesis and T-cell development and function. (3/7)

Regulation of Src family kinase (SFK) activity is indispensable for a functional immune system and embryogenesis. The activity of SFKs is inhibited by the presence of the carboxy-terminal Src kinase (Csk) at the cell membrane. Thus, recruitment of cytosolic Csk to the membrane-associated SFKs is crucial for its regulatory function. Previous studies utilizing in vitro and transgenic models suggested that the Csk-binding protein (Cbp), also known as phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid microdomains (PAG), is the membrane adaptor for Csk. However, loss-of-function genetic evidence to support this notion was lacking. Herein, we demonstrate that the targeted disruption of the cbp gene in mice has no effect on embryogenesis, thymic development, or T-cell functions in vivo. Moreover, recruitment of Csk to the specialized membrane compartment of "lipid rafts" is not impaired by Cbp deficiency. Our results indicate that Cbp is dispensable for the recruitment of Csk to the membrane and that another Csk adaptor, yet to be discovered, compensates for the loss of Cbp.  (+info)

Tetanus toxin is internalized by a sequential clathrin-dependent mechanism initiated within lipid microdomains and independent of epsin1. (4/7)

Ligand-receptor complexes are internalized by a variety of endocytic mechanisms. Some are initiated within clathrin-coated membranes, whereas others involve lipid microdomains of the plasma membrane. In neurons, where alternative targeting to short- or long-range trafficking routes underpins the differential processing of synaptic vesicle components and neurotrophin receptors, the mechanism giving access to the axonal retrograde pathway remains unknown. To investigate this sorting process, we examined the internalization of a tetanus neurotoxin fragment (TeNT HC), which shares axonal carriers with neurotrophins and their receptors. Previous studies have shown that the TeNT HC receptor, which comprises polysialogangliosides, resides in lipid microdomains. We demonstrate that TeNT HC internalization also relies on a specialized clathrin-mediated pathway, which is independent of synaptic vesicle recycling. Moreover, unlike transferrin uptake, this AP-2-dependent process is independent of epsin1. These findings identify a pathway for TeNT, beginning with the binding to a lipid raft component (GD1b) and followed by dissociation from GD1b as the toxin internalizes via a clathrin-mediated mechanism using a specific subset of adaptor proteins.  (+info)

Long double-stranded RNA produces specific gene downregulation in Giardia lamblia. (5/7)

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The fifth adaptor protein complex. (6/7)

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Trans-Golgi network morphology and sorting is regulated by prolyl-oligopeptidase-like protein PREPL and the AP-1 complex subunit mu1A. (7/7)

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After obtaining my Diploma in Computer Engineering from the Polytechnic School at University of Patras I continued my Master studies with specialization in Bioinformatics at National and Kapodistrian University. During the last year of my masters degree I spent half of my research term at INRIA Sophia--Antipolis, as an intern in the Algorithms Biology Structure (ABS) team where I dealt with Cryo--Electron Microscopy maps segmentation to detect the individual protein complexs subunits by heavily relying on computational geometry methods. Afterwards, I joined Dr. Julio Saez-Rodriguezs group at the European Bioinformatics Institute, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL-EBI) as an intern where my main project was the analysis of microarray gene expression profiles of primary tumours and cell lines from colorectal cancer using consensus-based unsupervised clustering and association to drug response. Currently, I conduct my PhD research at Dr. Julio Saez-Rodriguezs group at the Joint ...
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Several lines of evidence suggest that cancer progression is associated with up-regulation or reactivation of telomerase and the underlying mechanism remains an active area of research. The heterotrimeric MRN complex, consisting of Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1, which is required for the repair of double-strand breaks, plays a key role in telomere length maintenance. In this study, we show significant differences in the levels of expression of MRN complex subunits among various cancer cells and somatic cells. Notably, siRNA-mediated depletion of any of the subunits of MRN complex led to complete ablation of other subunits of the complex. Treatment of leukemia and prostate cancer cells with etoposide lead to increased expression of MRN complex subunits, with concomitant decrease in the levels of telomerase activity, compared to breast cancer cells. These studies raise the possibility of developing anti-cancer drugs targeting MRN complex subunits to sensitize a subset of cancer cells to radio- and/or ...
The Director General has received a communication dated 18 October 2012 from the Resident Representative of Sweden to the Agency, regarding a press statement issued by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority concerning the incident at the Ringhals and Forsmark nuclear power plants, which took place on 9 October 2012.... ...
Assembly of primary cilia relies on vesicular trafficking towards the cilium base and intraflagellar transport (IFT) between the base and distal tip of the cilium. Recent studies have identified several key regulators of these processes, including Rab GTPases such as Rab8 and Rab11, the Rab8 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rabin8, and the transport protein particle (TRAPP) components TRAPPC3, -C9, and -C10, which physically interact with each other and function together with Bardet Biedl syndrome (BBS) proteins in ciliary membrane biogenesis. However, despite recent advances, the exact molecular mechanisms by which these proteins interact and target to the basal body to promote ciliogenesis are not fully understood. We surveyed the human proteome for novel ASPM, SPD-2, Hydin (ASH) domain-containing proteins. We identified the TRAPP complex subunits TRAPPC8, -9, -10, -11, and -13 as novel ASH domain-containing proteins. In addition to a C-terminal ASH domain region, we predict that the N-terminus of
Function: Phosphorylates the AP2M1/mu2 subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). May play a role in regulating aspects of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (By similarity ...
Adaptins are clustered subunits of adaptor protein (AP) complexes.. There are several types of adaptin, each related to a ... 2011) The Fifth Adaptor Protein Complex. PLoS Biol 9(10): e1001170. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170. ... "Bivalent Motif-Ear Interactions Mediate the Association of the Accessory Protein Tepsin with the AP-4 Adaptor Complex". ncbi. ... Clathrin adaptor proteins, also known as adaptins, are proteins that mediate the formation of vesicles for intracellular ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit". Human AP3B2 genome location and AP3B2 gene details page ... AP-3 complex subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3B2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression". EMBO J. 16 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.5.917. ... Dell'Angelica EC, Klumperman J, Stoorvogel W, Bonifacino JS (1998). "Association of the AP-3 adaptor complex with clathrin". ...
The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition ... "Entrez Gene: AP4M1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, mu 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... AP-4 complex subunit mu-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP4M1 gene. This gene encodes a subunit of the ... 2001). "Signal-binding specificity of the mu4 subunit of the adaptor protein complex AP-4". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (16): 13145-52. ...
AP-4 complex subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP4B1 gene. The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP ... "Entrez Gene: AP4B1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... 2001). "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a fourth adaptor-related protein complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3S1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit". Human AP3S1 genome location and AP3S1 gene details page ... "Interaction of insulin receptor substrate-1 with the sigma3A subunit of the adaptor protein complex-3 in cultured adipocytes". ... AP-3 complex subunit sigma-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3S1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ohno H, Ooi CE, Rabinovich E, Roche KW, Bonifacino JS (Apr 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex with ...
"Entrez Gene: AP2A2 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit". Chen H, Fre S, Slepnev VI, Capua MR, Takei K, Butler MH ... AP-2 complex subunit alpha-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A2 gene. AP2A2 has been shown to interact with ... the cytoplasmic domains of human and simian retroviral transmembrane proteins with components of the clathrin adaptor complexes ... "Interaction of Shc with adaptor protein adaptins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (9): 5265-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.9. ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Hermansky-Pudlak ... AP-3 complex subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3B1 gene. This gene encodes a protein that may play ... The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ...
AP-1 complex subunit sigma-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1S2 gene. Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at ... "Entrez Gene: AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Human AP1S2 genome location and AP1S2 gene details page ... The protein encoded by this gene serves as the small subunit of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein family. ... "Mutations in the gene encoding the Sigma 2 subunit of the adaptor protein 1 complex, AP1S2, cause X-linked mental retardation ...
This leads to association with a Shc adaptor protein. Then Shc interacts with GRB2/SoS complex which results in activation of ... Association of the α and β subunits results in receptor activation. Upon dimerisation of the α and β subunits the β subunit ... Nakagawa Y, Kosugi H, Miyajima A, Arai K, Yokota T (Apr 1994). "Structure of the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the human ... Hayashida K, Kitamura T, Gorman DM, Arai K, Yokota T, Miyajima A (Dec 1990). "Molecular cloning of a second subunit of the ...
... -S associates with two adaptor proteins: DAP10 and DAP12. DAP10 recruits the p85 subunit of PI3K and a complex of Grb2 and ... adaptor protein and transduces the signal after the ligand binding by recruiting the p85 subunit of PI3K and Grb2-Vav1 complex ... DAP12 bears ITAM motif and activates protein tyrosine kinases Syk and Zap70 signalling. NKG2D ligands are induced-self proteins ... In mice, proteins from orthologous RAET1/ULBP family fall into three subfamiles: Rae-1, H60, and MULT-1. NKG2D is a major ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3S2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 2 subunit". Dell'Angelica, E C; Ooi C E; Bonifacino J S (Jun 1997 ... AP-3 complex subunit sigma-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3S2 gene. AP3S2 has been shown to interact with ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ooi CE, Bonifacino JS (1997). "Beta3A-adaptin, a subunit of the adaptor-like complex AP-3". J. Biol. Chem. ... 2003). "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Dev. Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1M1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 1 subunit". Hinners I, Wendler F, Fei H, Thomas L, Thomas G, Tooze SA ... AP-1 complex subunit mu-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1M1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is the ... Page LJ, Robinson MS (Nov 1995). "Targeting signals and subunit interactions in coated vesicle adaptor complexes". The Journal ... Page LJ, Robinson MS (Nov 1995). "Targeting signals and subunit interactions in coated vesicle adaptor complexes". The Journal ...
"Entrez Gene: AP2B1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, ... AP-2 complex subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2B1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is one of ... Kim YM, Benovic JL (Aug 2002). "Differential roles of arrestin-2 interaction with clathrin and adaptor protein 2 in G protein- ... "Co-localization of HIV-1 Nef with the AP-2 adaptor protein complex correlates with Nef-induced CD4 down-regulation". The EMBO ...
"Entrez Gene: AP2M1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit". Follows ER, McPheat JC, Minshull C, Moore NC, Pauptit RA, ... AP-2 complex subunit mu is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2M1 gene. This gene encodes a subunit of the ... heterotetrameric coat assembly protein complex 2 (AP2), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. The ... "Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T ...
AP-1 complex subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1B1 gene. Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the ... "Entrez Gene: AP1B1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit". Nakagawa, T; Setou M; Seog D; Ogasawara K; Dohmae N; ... The protein encoded by this gene serves as one of the large subunits of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein ... 2001). "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 2 subunit". Rost, Martina; Döring Tatjana; Prange Reinhild (Nov ... AP-1 complex subunit gamma-like 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1G2 gene. Adaptins are important components ... Adaptins, together with medium and small subunits, form a heterotetrameric complex called an adaptor, whose role is to promote ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1S1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 1 subunit". Montpetit A, Côté S, Brustein E, Drouin CA, Lapointe L ... AP-1 complex subunit sigma-1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1S1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... Boehm M, Aguilar RC, Bonifacino JS (Nov 2001). "Functional and physical interactions of the adaptor protein complex AP-4 with ... Page LJ, Robinson MS (Nov 1995). "Targeting signals and subunit interactions in coated vesicle adaptor complexes". The Journal ...
The protein encoded by this gene is the medium subunit of AP-3, which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the ... "Entrez Gene: AP3M1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 1 subunit". Human AP3M1 genome location and AP3M1 gene details page in ... 2000). "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based ... AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex composed of two large subunits (delta and beta3), a medium subunit (mu3), and a ...
AP1S2: AP-1 complex subunit sigma-2. Adaptor protein complex 1 is found on the cytoplasmic face of vesicles located at the ... "Entrez Gene: AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Piccini M, Vitelli F, Bruttini M, Pober BR, Jonsson JJ ... "Mutations in the Gene Encoding the Sigma 2 Subunit of the Adaptor Protein 1 Complex, AP1S2, Cause X-Linked Mental Retardation ... This nucleolar protein is involved in the processing and modification of tRNA. GDI1: RabGDI alpha makes a complex with ...
AP-3 complex subunit delta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3D1 gene. AP3D1 is a subunit of the AP3 adaptor- ... "Entrez Gene: AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit". Martinez-Arca S, Rudge R, Vacca M, Raposo G, Camonis J ... "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting ... "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". The Journal of Cell Biology. 137 (4): 835-45. doi:10.1083/jcb. ...
The family routinely lies on the clathrin adaptor complex 3 beta-1 subunit proteins. The exact function of DUF 1682 is unclear ... The final protein is thought to be translated from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm of the cell. The protein is ... "Protein One". Transcription Factors. Retrieved 29 March 2014. "Protein Spotlight, The PAR b ZIP Family". Retrieved March 28, ... The portion of the protein which extends into the cytosol is predicted to be highly phosphorylated as the protein's ...
This phosphorylation generates binding sites for adaptor proteins with a BRCT domain. These adaptor proteins then recruit ... A complex of the three proteins MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1 (XRS2 in yeast), called the MRN complex in humans, recruits ATM to double ... DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). Characteristic for ATM are five ... It mediates protein-protein interaction for example with the histone acetyltransferase TIP60 (HIV-1 Tat interacting protein 60 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit". Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999 ... "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three- ... AP-1 complex subunit gamma-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1G1 gene. Adaptins are important components of ...
... hADA3 may act as an adaptor protein linking transcription factors with other HAT complexes. In the absence of hADA3, TP53 ... several more subunits of the human SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex have been found mutated in a wide range of neoplasms. ... ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes. Specific protein complexes, known as histone-modifying complexes catalyze ... These protein complexes have a common ATPase domain and energy from the hydrolysis of ATP allows these remodeling complexes to ...
This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the gamma subunit of AP1 clathrin-adaptor complex. The AP1 complex is located ... This encoded protein may act to connect the AP1 complex to other proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that ... Synergin gamma also known as AP1 subunit gamma-binding protein 1 (AP1GBP1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SYNRG ... "Entrez Gene: AP1GBP1 AP1 gamma subunit binding protein 1". Nogi T, Shiba Y, Kawasaki M, Shiba T, Matsugaki N, Igarashi N, ...
Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... The ribosomes, membranes and Golgi complexes can be separated by another technique called density gradient centrifugation. ... The rotors may come with different adapters to hold various sizes of test tubes, bottles, or microtiter plates. ... showed that under different conditions the large homogeneous particles could be broken down into discrete subunits.[11] The ...
adapter-related protein complex 5 mu subunit. adapter-related protein complex 5 subunit mu-1. adaptor related protein complex 5 ... AP5M1 adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit mu 1 [Homo sapiens] AP5M1 adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit mu 1 [Homo ... AP-5 complex subunit mu-1. Names. AP-5 complex subunit mu. MHD domain-containing death-inducing protein. MU-2/AP1M2 domain ... adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit mu 1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:20192 See related. Ensembl: ...
adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit beta. adaptor related protein complex 2 beta 1 subunit. adaptor-related protein complex 2 ... AP-2 complex subunit beta. Names. adapter-related protein complex 2 beta subunit. adapter-related protein complex 2 subunit ... AP2B1 adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1 [Homo sapiens] AP2B1 adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1 [ ... adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:563 See related. Ensembl: ...
adaptor protein complex AP-1 mu-2 subunit. adaptor related protein complex 1 mu 2 subunit. clathrin assembly protein complex 1 ... AP1M2 adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 2 [Homo sapiens] AP1M2 adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 2 [Homo ... clathrin-associated adaptor medium chain mu2. golgi adaptor AP-1 47 kDa protein. golgi adaptor HA1/AP1 adaptin mu-2 subunit. mu ... adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 2provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:558 See related. Ensembl: ...
AP-1 complex subunit gamma-1. Names. adapter-related protein complex 1 subunit gamma-1. adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit ... Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [Mus musculus] Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [Mus ... adaptor-related protein complex 1 subunit gamma-1. clathrin assembly protein complex 1 gamma-1 large chain. gamma-adaptin. ... adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunitprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:101919 See related. Ensembl: ...
Compare adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 1 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used ... Your search returned 14 adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 1 ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. ... Watch Webinar: How To Get Speed and Depth in your Host Cell Protein (HCP) Analysis ...
... adaptor related protein complex 4 sigma 1 subunit), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... AP4S1 (adaptor related protein complex 4 sigma 1 subunit). Identity. Alias_names. adaptor-related protein complex 4, sigma 1 ... transporter activity clathrin-coated pit protein transporter activity protein transport endosome lumen trans-Golgi network ... transporter activity clathrin-coated pit protein transporter activity protein transport endosome lumen trans-Golgi network ...
Compare adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit gamma 2 ELISA Kits from MyBioSource.com from leading suppliers on Biocompare ... adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit gamma 2 ELISA Kits from MyBioSource.com. Clear ... adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit gamma 2 ELISA Kits from MyBioSource.com. ... adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit gamma 2 ELISA Kits from MyBioSource.com. ...
... adapter-related protein complex 2 mu subunit , adaptin-mu2 , adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu , clathrin adaptor complex ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, beta 1 Subunit Antibodies * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, alpha 2 Subunit ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, alpha 1 Subunit Antibodies * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, sigma 3 Subunit ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, sigma 2 Subunit Antibodies * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, mu 2 Subunit ...
... mu4 subunit C-terminal domain, in complex with a sorting peptide from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) ... Crystal structure of adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4) mu4 subunit C-terminal domain, in complex with a sorting peptide from the ... Sorting of the Alzheimers disease amyloid precursor protein mediated by the AP-4 complex.. Burgos, P.V., Mardones, G.A., Rojas ... Adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is the most recently discovered and least well-characterized member of the family of heterotetrameric ...
... adapter-related protein complex 2 mu subunit , adaptin-mu2 , adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu , clathrin adaptor complex ... adaptor related protein complex 2 mu 1 subunit (AP2M1) Elisa Kit * adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit, a (ap2m1a) ... adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit (Ap2m1) Elisa Kit * adaptor related protein complex 2 mu 1 subunit L homeolog ( ... Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, beta 1 Subunit ELISA Kits * Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1 Associated Regulatory Protein ...
Adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu explanation free. What is Adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu? Meaning of Adaptor ... protein complex AP-2 subunit mu medical term. What does Adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu mean? ... Looking for online definition of Adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu in the Medical Dictionary? ... Adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu , definition of Adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu by Medical dictionary https:// ...
What is Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1? Meaning of Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 medical ... What does Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 mean? ... Looking for online definition of Adapter-related protein ... complex 3 subunit beta-1 in the Medical Dictionary? Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 explanation free. ... Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 , definition of Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 by Medical ...
adaptor-related protein complex 2, sigma 1 subunit. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, and PMID associations ... OMIM: HYPOCALCIURIC HYPERCALCEMIA, FAMILIAL, TYPE III; HHC3, ADAPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN COMPLEX 2, SIGMA-1 SUBUNIT; AP2S1*Gene ...
OMIM: ADAPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN COMPLEX 2, ALPHA-2 SUBUNIT; AP2A2*Gene Ontology: Ap2a2 *Mouse Phenome DB: Ap2a2 *UCSC: Chr.7: ... adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit. Synonyms: 2410074K14Rik, Adtab, alpha-adaptin C, alpha-C adaptin, L25. Gene ...
... "adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit")*CCDS: 30514, 30514.1, 72465, 72466*OMIM: ADAPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN COMPLEX 1 ... adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit. Synonyms: 1500012A13Rik, EST1. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO ... SIGMA-2 SUBUNIT; AP1S2, MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED 59; MRX59*Gene Ontology: Ap1s2 *Mouse Phenome DB: Ap1s2 *UCSC: Chr.X: ...
... "adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit")*CCDS: 25161, 25161.1, 25162, 25162.1*OMIM: ADAPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN COMPLEX ... adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit. Synonyms: 1300012O03Rik. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM ... 2, BETA-1 SUBUNIT; AP2B1*Gene Ontology: Ap2b1 *Mouse Phenome DB: Ap2b1 *UCSC: Chr.11:83,302,697-83,405,035(+)*IMPC: Ap2b1 ...
Creative Biomart offer ap3s2 proteins for life sciences research. All the products are rigorously tested to meet the most ... AP3S2;adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 2 subunit;AP-3 complex subunit sigma-2;sigma3b;sigma-3B-adaptin;sigma-adaptin 3b ... adaptor complex sigma3B;AP-3 complex subunit sigma-3B;clathrin-associated/assembly/adaptor protein, small 4, 22-kD;AP3S3; ... Protein Function. AP3S2 has several biochemical functions, for example, protein transporter activity. Some of the functions are ...
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... and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon ... The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, ... White boxes represent UTRs (untranslated regions). Orange: protein coding regions. The black lines connecting boxes represent ... Previous Names: "adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit" HgncId : HGNC:568 Omim: 607246 ...
adaptor related protein complex 4 subunit beta 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in ... This gene encodes a subunit of a heterotetrameric adapter-like complex 4 that is involved in targeting proteins from the trans- ... It is also involved in protein sorting to the basolateral membrane in epithelial cells and the proper asymmetric localization ...
adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit zeta 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... As part of AP-5, a probable fifth adaptor protein complex it may be involved in endosomal transport. According to PubMed: ... The encoded protein was found in a complex with other proteins that have a role in HR-DSBR. Knockdown of this gene reduced ... OMIM: ADAPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN COMPLEX 5, ZETA-1 SUBUNIT. *OMIM: SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA 48, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE ...
The encoded protein is a large subunit of adaptor protein complex-4, which is associated with both clathrin- and nonclathrin- ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in ... This gene encodes a member of the adaptor complexes large subunit protein family. These proteins are components of the ... adaptor related protein complex 4 epsilon 1 subunit. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ...
Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 Mu 1 Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in ... The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition ...
Subunit of non-clathrin- and clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) that plays a role in protein sorting in the ... adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit beta 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin ... The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the ...
Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 2 Alpha 2 Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). Adaptor protein complexes function in protein transport via transport ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). Adaptor protein complexes function in protein transport via transport ... The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the AP-2 adaptor protein complex, which is involved in linking lipid and ...
  • Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs. (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS- Due to linkage disequilibrium, we were unable to distinguish between rs2476601/Trp 620 ( P = 2.11 ×10 −87 ) and rs6679677 ( P = 3.21 ×10 −87 ), an intergenic SNP between the genes putative homeodomain transcription factor 1 and round spermatid basic protein 1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • With the recent capability to scan hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome in thousands of samples, the identification of complex disease genes and regions has greatly been enhanced ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 7821821 ). In embryonic stem cells, the elongin BC complex is recruited by EPOP to Polycomb group (PcG) target genes in order generate genomic region that display both active and repressive chromatin properties, an important feature of pluripotent stem cells (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • Simultaneous assessment of the expression of thousands of genes in a single experiment could allow better understanding of the complex and heterogeneous molecular properties of breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ribosomal proteins are encoded by ribosomal genes or rDNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 52 genes that encode the ribosomal proteins, and they can be found in 20 operons within prokaryotic DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • There, the 18S, 5.8S, and 25S subunits of the rRNA are cotranscribed from ribosomal genes as a polycistronic transcript by RNA polymerase I, and is called 35S pre-RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The levels of C - reactive protein were higher in hypertensive patients than normotensives and inflammation-related genes were increased as well. (medsci.org)
  • Essential hypertension has been recognized as a complex, multifactorial, polygenic trait which involves multiple modulating genes and environmental factors. (medsci.org)
  • There are multiple isoforms of each subunit, which are encoded by specific genes that are distributed across several chromosomes. (wikibooks.org)
  • The human genome contains eight cullin genes CUL1, part of SCF complex CUL2, part of ECS complex (Elongin C - CUL2 - SOCS-box) CUL3, part of CUL3-BTB complex CUL4A CUL4B CUL5 CUL7 CUL9, also known as PARC There is also a more distant member called ANAPC2 (or APC2), part of the Anaphase-promoting complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene belongs to a group of vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since these initial discoveries in 1994 and 1995, a host of Importin genes, such as IPO4 and IPO7, have been found that facilitate the import of slightly different cargo proteins, due to their differing structure and locality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The individual proteins of the COPII complex are called SEC proteins, because they are encoded by genes identified in secretory mutants of yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription or translation of genes, and post-translational and conformational changes in proteins, as well as changes in their location. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact size of the GPCR superfamily is unknown, but nearly 800 different human genes (or ~ 4% of the entire protein-coding genome) have been predicted to code for them from genome sequence analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • This complex translocates to the nucleus and activates the transcription of interferons alpha and beta, as well as other interferon-induced genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, other proteins which involved in the same pathway with AP3S2 were listed below. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Knockdown of Rbp1 caused a similar microcephaly phenotype as the depletion of Nosip and synergy experiments indicated that both proteins act in the same signalling pathway. (xenbase.org)
  • These knobs are the first pre-ribosomal particles in the small (40S) ribosomal subunit pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the death pathway, the caspase-8 zymogen is cleaved into subunits that assemble to form the mature, highly active caspase heterotetramer whereas for the activation pathway, the zymogen appears to remain intact perhaps to limit its proteolytic function but enhance its capability as an adapter protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her working hypothesis is that for each trafficking pathway, there are a number of different adaptors, each of which is recruited independently onto the appropriate membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once activated through formation of an inflammasome complex, it initiates a proinflammatory response through the cleavage and thus activation of the two inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 18 (IL-18) as well as pyroptosis, a programmed lytic cell death pathway, through cleavage of Gasdermin D. The two inflammatory cytokines activated by Caspase-1 are excreted from the cell to further induce the inflammatory response in neighboring cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNγ suppresses osteoclast formation by rapidly degrading the RANK adaptor protein TRAF6 in the RANK-RANKL signaling pathway, which otherwise stimulates the production of NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein and STAM thus are thought to exhibit compensatory effects on the signaling pathway downstream of JAK kinases upon cytokine stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calnexin is a chaperone, characterized by assisting protein folding and quality control, ensuring that only properly folded and assembled proteins proceed further along the secretory pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DDB1 adaptor protein was initially characterized as the large subunit of a heterodimeric complex (UV-DDB) that was found to recognize damaged DNA and participate in a form of repair known as nucleotide excision repair (NER). (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary function of importin is to mediate the translocation of proteins with nuclear localization signals into the nucleus, through nuclear pore complexes (NPC), in a process known as the nuclear protein import cycle. (wikipedia.org)