Adaptor Protein Complex delta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Adaptor Protein Complex 1: A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.Adaptor Protein Complex 2: An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.Adaptor Protein Complex 4: An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.Adaptor Protein Complex Subunits: The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits: A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport: A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Deoxyribonuclease IV (Phage T4-Induced): An enzyme which catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of phosphodiester bonds at purinic or apyrimidinic sites (AP-sites) to produce 5'-Phosphooligonucleotide end products. The enzyme prefers single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and was formerly classified as EC 3.1.4.30.Carbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksBook SelectionBook Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Isatin: An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.Acanthaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.Rare BooksClick Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Actinomyces viscosus: A species of ACTINOMYCES found in the oral cavity of man and hamsters. It has been isolated from actinomycotic lesions in swine, cats, and dogs and has been identified as a causative agent of animal diseases.Cirsium: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain pectolinarin (a flavonoid glycoside).Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Citrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.4-Aminopyridine: One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins: A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Receptor, Notch2: A notch receptor that plays an important role in CELL DIFFERENTIATION in a variety of cell types. It is the preferentially expressed notch receptor in mature B-LYMPHOCYTES.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Saudi Arabia3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Untranslated Regions: The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.

The structure and function of the beta 2-adaptin appendage domain. (1/20)

The heterotetrameric AP2 adaptor (alpha, beta 2, mu 2 and sigma 2 subunits) plays a central role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We present the protein recruitment function and 1.7 A resolution structure of its beta 2-appendage domain to complement those previously determined for the mu 2 subunit and alpha appendage. Using structure-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate the ability of the beta 2 appendage alone to bind directly to clathrin and the accessory proteins AP180, epsin and eps15 at the same site. Clathrin polymerization is promoted by binding of clathrin simultaneously to the beta 2-appendage site and to a second site on the adjacent beta 2 hinge. This results in the displacement of the other ligands from the beta 2 appendage. Thus clathrin binding to an AP2-accessory protein complex would cause the controlled release of accessory proteins at sites of vesicle formation.  (+info)

The highly conserved C-terminal dileucine motif in the cytosolic domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein is critical for its association with the AP-1 clathrin adaptor [correction of adapter]. (2/20)

Short amino acid sequences in the cytosolic domains of transmembrane proteins are recognized by specialized adaptor [corrected] proteins which are part of coated vesicles utilized to transport membrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane (forward and backward). Previously, we and others reported that the membrane-proximal tyrosine residues Y712 (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) and Y721 (simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) in the envelope glycoprotein (Env) of the primate lentiviruses are crucial for the association of Env with clathrin-associated adaptor [corrected] complex AP-2. The same tyrosine-based endocytosis motifs in the cytosolic domains (EnvCD) of transmembrane gp41 of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and SIV, respectively, were also shown to modulate the interaction with TGN- and endosome-based clathrin-associated complex AP-1. Our findings suggested that EnvCD binding to AP-1, unlike the association of EnvCD with AP-2, is dependent largely on residues other than Y712 and Y721. Here, we tested if motifs downstream of Y712 affect HIV-1 EnvCD-AP-1 binding and Env trafficking. Mutational analysis revealed that the C-terminal leucine-based motif in Env was crucial for the recruitment of AP-1 in vitro and in Env-expressing cells. In addition to affecting Env-AP-1 association, mutations at the C terminus of Env also altered the subcellular localization of Env, suggesting that proper post-Golgi routing of Env depends on its recruitment of AP-1. Finally, the C-terminal dileucine was shown to assist the membrane-proximal Y712 motif in restricting the cell surface expression of Env.  (+info)

PACS-1 binding to adaptors is required for acidic cluster motif-mediated protein traffic. (3/20)

PACS-1 is a cytosolic protein involved in controlling the correct subcellular localization of integral membrane proteins that contain acidic cluster sorting motifs, such as furin and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NEF: We have now investigated the interaction of PACS-1 with heterotetrameric adaptor complexes. PACS-1 associates with both AP-1 and AP-3, but not AP-2, and forms a ternary complex between furin and AP-1. A short sequence within PACS-1 that is essential for binding to AP-1 has been identified. Mutation of this motif yielded a dominant-negative PACS-1 molecule that can still bind to acidic cluster motifs on cargo proteins but not to adaptor complexes. Expression of dominant-negative PACS-1 causes a mislocalization of both furin and mannose 6-phosphate receptor from the trans-Golgi network, but has no effect on the localization of proteins that do not contain acidic cluster sorting motifs. Furthermore, expression of dominant-negative PACS-1 inhibits the ability of HIV-1 Nef to downregulate MHC-I. These studies demonstrate the requirement for PACS-1 interactions with adaptor proteins in multiple processes, including secretory granule biogenesis and HIV-1 pathogenesis.  (+info)

The beta-appendages of the four adaptor-protein (AP) complexes: structure and binding properties, and identification of sorting nexin 9 as an accessory protein to AP-2. (4/20)

Adaptor protein (AP) complexes are essential components for the formation of coated vesicles and the recognition of cargo proteins for intracellular transport. Each AP complex exposes two appendage domains with that function to bind regulatory accessory proteins in the cytosol. Secondary structure predictions, sequence alignments and CD spectroscopy were used to relate the beta-appendages of all human AP complexes to the previously published crystal structure of AP-2. The results suggested that the beta-appendages of AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 have similar structures, consisting of two subdomains, whereas that of AP-4 lacks the inner subdomain. Pull-down and overlay assays showed partial overlap in the binding specificities of the beta-appendages of AP-1 and AP-2, whereas the corresponding domain of AP-3 displayed a unique binding pattern. That AP-4 may have a truncated, non-functional domain was indicated by its apparent inability to bind any proteins from cytosol. Of several novel beta-appendage-binding proteins detected, one that had affinity exclusively for AP-2 was identified as sorting nexin 9 (SNX9). SNX9, which contains a phox and an Src homology 3 domain, was found in large complexes and was at least partially associated with AP-2 in the cytosol. SNX9 may function to assist AP-2 in its role at the plasma membrane.  (+info)

The delta subunit of AP-3 is required for efficient transport of VSV-G from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface. (5/20)

Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) is a transmembrane protein that functions as the surface coat of enveloped viral particles. We report the surprising result that VSV-G uses the tyrosine-based di-acidic motif (-YTDIE-) found in its cytoplasmic tail to recruit adaptor protein complex 3 for export from the trans-Golgi network. The same sorting code is used to recruit coat complex II to direct efficient transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. These results demonstrate that a single sorting sequence can interact with sequential coat machineries to direct transport through the secretory pathway. We propose that use of this compact sorting domain reflects a need for both efficient endoplasmic reticulum export and concentration of VSV-G into specialized post-trans-Golgi network secretory-lysosome type transport containers to facilitate formation of viral coats at the cell surface.  (+info)

Subunit H of the V-ATPase binds to the medium chain of adaptor protein complex 2 and connects Nef to the endocytic machinery. (6/20)

Nef is an accessory protein of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) that is required for efficient viral infectivity and pathogenicity. It decreases the expression of CD4 on the surface of infected cells. V1H is the regulatory subunit H of the vacuolar membrane ATPase (V-ATPase). Previously, the interaction between Nef and V1H has been found to facilitate the internalization of CD4, suggesting that V1H could connect Nef to the endocytic machinery. In this study, we demonstrate that V1H binds to the C-terminal flexible loop in Nef from HIV-1 and to the medium chain (mu2) of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) in vitro and in vivo. The interaction sites of V1H and mu2 were mapped to a central region in V1H from positions 133 to 363, which contains 4 armadillo repeats, and to the N-terminal adaptin-binding domain in mu2 from positions 1 to 145. Fusing Nef to V1H reproduced the appropriate trafficking of Nef. This chimera internalized CD4 even in the absence of the C-terminal flexible loop in Nef. Finally, blocking the expression of V1H decreased the enhancement of virion infectivity by Nef. Thus, V1H can function as an adaptor for interactions between Nef and AP-2.  (+info)

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates beta2-adrenergic receptor endocytosis by AP-2 recruitment to the receptor/beta-arrestin complex. (7/20)

Internalization of beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) occurs by the sequential binding of beta-arrestin, the clathrin adaptor AP-2, and clathrin. D-3 phosphoinositides, generated by the action of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) may regulate the endocytic process; however, the precise molecular mechanism is unknown. Here we demonstrate that betaARKinase1 directly interacts with the PIK domain of PI3K to form a cytosolic complex. Overexpression of the PIK domain displaces endogenous PI3K from betaARK1 and prevents betaARK1-mediated translocation of PI3K to activated beta2ARs. Furthermore, disruption of the betaARK1/PI3K interaction inhibits agonist-stimulated AP-2 adaptor protein recruitment to the beta2AR and receptor endocytosis without affecting the internalization of other clathrin dependent processes such as internalization of the transferrin receptor. In contrast, AP-2 recruitment is enhanced in the presence of D-3 phospholipids, and receptor internalization is blocked in presence of the specific phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate lipid phosphatase PTEN. These findings provide a molecular mechanism for the agonist-dependent recruitment of PI3K to betaARs, and support a role for the localized generation of D-3 phosphoinositides in regulating the recruitment of the receptor/cargo to clathrin-coated pits.  (+info)

AP-3 directs the intracellular trafficking of HIV-1 Gag and plays a key role in particle assembly. (8/20)

Gag proteins direct the process of retroviral particle assembly and form the major protein constituents of the viral core. The matrix region of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein plays a critical role in the transport of Gag to the plasma membrane assembly site. Recent evidence indicates that Gag trafficking to late endosomal compartments, including multivesicular bodies, occurs prior to viral particle budding from the plasma membrane. Here we demonstrate that the matrix region of HIV-1 Gag interacts directly with the delta subunit of the AP-3 complex, and that this interaction plays an important functional role in particle assembly. Disruption of this interaction eliminated Gag trafficking to multivesicular bodies and diminished HIV particle formation. These studies illuminate an early step in retroviral particle assembly and provide evidence that the trafficking of Gag to late endosomes is part of a productive particle assembly pathway.  (+info)

We have conducted a hybrid dysgenic screen of the X chromosome for mutations affecting female fertility, with particular attention to those causing abnormal egg and eggshell morphology. In a screen of 4017 dysgenic strains, 398 mutants derived from 168 different germ lines were isolated and assigned to eight classes according to their diverse phenotypes. One interesting class consists of mutants that block oogenesis at specific stages. Our analysis has focused on mutations affecting eggshell formation, including mutants that lay morphologically abnormal sterile eggs as well as those that lay no eggs but exhibit blocks in the late stages of oogenesis. A subset of 48 mutants was assorted into 30 allelic groups by inter se complementation and genetically localized by interval mapping. Two multiallele complementation groups, de1 (7 alleles) and ne1 (8 alleles), were identified as well as five two-allele complementation groups. A search for alleles among mutants generated in other female sterile ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Nickel atom in PDB 1qkc: Escherichia Coli Ferric Hydroxamate Uptake Receptor (Fhua) in Complex Delta Two-Albomycin
A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t: t ≥ n f D f C f K f j f c where Cf is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, Df is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, Kf is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, ℑ is Faradays constant nf is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and jf c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.
Discovery of activating mutation of the EGFR gene in 2004 opened the era of personalized therapy in thoracic oncology. These tumors are highly dependent on the EGFR pathway and inhibition of this pathway results in dramatic induction of apoptosis in vitro, even though cancer cells may have various genetic alterations (oncogene addiction). These observations were soon translated into clinical trials. Recent 4 phase III clinical trials for patients with EGFR mutation (NEJ 002, WJTOG3405, OPTIMAL, EURTAC) reproducibly showed significantly longer progression free survival for those treated with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) than those treated with platinum doublet chemotherapy. Although there was no difference in overall survival probably due to high crossover rate, it was noteworthy that 40% of patients in EGFR-TKI arm were able to go without platinum doublet and yet had similar survival outcome in WJTOG3405 In 2007, it was found that ∼5% of adenocarcinoma of the lung harbors EML4-ALK ...
A bicycle frame is optimized for the lightest weight by using genetic algorithms in this study. Stresses of five rods in the bicycle frame less than the material yielding strength with consideration of the factor of safety are the constraints. A two-dimensional model of the frame is created. Equilibrium equations are derived and loads acting on rods are determined. A known function is used to verify feasibility of the program generated. Effects of the mutation rate, the crossover rate and the number of generation on the mean and the standard deviation of the fitness value are studied. The optimal solutions with the outer diameters and the inner diameters of the front frame rods to be 0.040 m and 0.038 m, respectively, the outer diameters and the inner diameters of the rear frame rods to be 0.024 m and 0.021m, respectively, and the weight of the bicycle frame to be 0.896 kg are recommended for the bicycle frame.. Copyright © 2007 by ASME ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Real time measurements of methanol crossover in a DMFC. AU - Han, Jiahua. AU - Liu, Hongtan. PY - 2007/1/10. Y1 - 2007/1/10. N2 - Methanol crossover is a serious problem in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), which causes significant voltage loss and waste of fuel. Due to methanol crossover, most DMFCs must operate on a fuel with a very low methanol concentration; yet very low methanol concentration also causes a poor cell performance. Thus, it is very important to find the optimal operating conditions of methanol concentration and other operating parameters. In this research, methanol crossover rate in a DMFC is determined by measuring the carbon dioxide concentration at the cathode exit in real time. By measuring methanol crossover and cell performances at different inlet methanol concentrations and various operating conditions three types of characteristics are identified in the relationships between methanol crossover and cell current density. Further analysis of these ...
The use of ambipolar redox active materials comprised of electron rich and electron poor groups (donor-acceptor strategy) is proposed to generate molecules with tuneable redox potentials. This allows their implementation on both the positive as negative half-cell of the battery, avoiding capacity loss by crossover. An iterative design strategy will be used to build a library of compounds that will be screened for reversible redox chemistry and stability. New membranes separating the half cells will be developed and matched with redox materials that passed the first screening, testing for compatibility and crossover rates. Finally, all components will be combined and studied in prototype flow batteries. Results from these studies will be used as input for computational modelling in order to predict a new generation of redox compounds and improved membrane design. This ultimately leads to a detailed understanding on their structure-property relations and development of materials that can be used ...
Central Epidural Steroid Injections (ESI) and Selective Nerve Root Blocks (SNRB) are often used for the non-surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniations and lumbar radiculitis (radiating pain). Numerous authors have reported on their value in treating patients with radicular pain with the possibility of delaying or even obviating the need for surgery in well-selected patients.. There are two well-performed clinical studies in the peer-reviewed medical literature that specifically examined the crossover rates to surgery for patients who received either ESI or SNRB. In a prospective study, Buttermann et al. found a crossover rate to surgery for patients with symptomatic disc herniations treated with ESI of 54% (27/50) . In a separate prospective study, Riew et al. followed patients after selective nerve root blocks and found that similarly 53% (29/55) of their patients had avoided surgery after a selective nerve root block during their initial follow-up of 13-28 months. In a later study that ...
AP-3 complex subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3B1 gene. This gene encodes a protein that may play a role in organelle biogenesis associated with melanosomes, platelet dense granules, and lysosomes. The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin. Mutations in this gene are associated with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2. AP3B1 has been shown to interact with AP3S2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000132842 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000021686 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". DellAngelica EC, Ooi CE, Bonifacino JS (Jun 1997). "Beta3A-adaptin, a subunit of the adaptor-like complex AP-3". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (24): 15078-84. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.24.15078. PMID 9182526. Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". The ...
In order to regulate methanol concentration, since the methanol crossover rate is roughly proportional to the methanol concentration at the anode, it is necessary to accurately sense the concentration of methanol in solution. Various types of sensors may be used to measure the concentration of methanol in an aqueous solution. Capacitance devices, which measure the change in the dielectric constant of the methanol solution, can be used as methanol sensors. However, the difference in dielectric constants for a methanol-water system is small leading to less accurate values. A sensing device, in wide range of methanol concentrations, up to about, 10 mol/L, would be very helpful for DMFC optimized operation. A passive mode design, of about 1/10th of a cm area, using a single parameter function, will be designed. The design and simulation would involve optimization of various parameters like the area of the working electrodes and counter electrodes, separation distance and overlap length between ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Arsenic atom in PDB 1r4x: Crystal Structure Analys of the Gamma-Copi Appendage Domain
In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, the four male-specific lethal (msl) genes are required to achieve dosage compensation of the male X chromosome. The MSL proteins are thought to interact with cis-acting sites that confer dosage compensation to nearby genes, as they are detected at hundreds of discrete sites along the length of the polytene X chromosome in males but not in females. The histone H4 acetylated isoform, H4Ac16, colocalizes with the MSL proteins at a majority of sites on the D. melanogaster X chromosome. Using polytene chromosome immunostaining of other species from the genus Drosophila, we found that X chromosome association of MSL proteins and H4Ac16 is conserved despite differences in the sex chromosome karyotype between species. Our results support a model in which cis-acting regulatory sites for dosage compensation evolve on a neo-X chromosome arm in response to the degeneration of its former homologue.. ...
The structure of the appendage domain of β2 adaptin is similar to that of α‐adaptin in that it has two subdomains with similar topology, but with a difference of ∼46° in the orientation between the two subdomains. Like the α‐appendage, the β2‐appendage domain binds AP180, epsin and eps15, and therefore is likely to be involved in recruiting proteins involved in controlling CCV formation to sites of coated pit formation in vivo. The two proteins possess a partly conserved binding site of high hydrophobic potential on the C‐terminal platform domain, suggesting that they bind similar motifs i.e. DΦF/W. The binding site residues are also conserved in β1‐adaptin from the adaptor AP1, so this homologue would be predicted to bind the same ligands as β2. Indeed, a GSTβ1 appendage construct does bind to eps15, and weakly to clathrin and epsin (data not shown). Although the α and β2 appendages share some of the same ligands, they bind to them with different relative affinities: the ...
The AP-complex family (Boehm and Bonifacino, 2001; Nakatsu and Ohno, 2003; Owen et al., 2004; Robinson, 2004) has six members in mammals. AP-1A, AP-2, AP-3A and AP-4 are ubiquitously expressed. The other two members, AP-5 and AP-6, are cell-type-specific isoforms of AP-1A and AP-3A: the epithelium-specific AP-1B and the neuron-restricted AP-3B.. The AP complexes consist of four subunits: one small (σ1-σ4), one medium (μ1-μ4) and two large (α, γ, δ or ϵ; and β1-β4) subunits. These assemble to form a structure in which two appendage domains are connected by flexible hinge regions to the core (Owen et al., 2004; Owen and Luzio, 2000; Robinson, 2004). The large subunits are divided into three domains: the N-terminal domain, which makes up the core with the μ and σ subunits; the hinge domain, and the C-terminal appendage. One of the large subunits (α, γ, δ or ϵ) is implicated in binding to the target membrane (Collins et al., 2002; Nakatsu and Ohno, 2003; Owen et al., 2004; Traub, ...
AP-3 complex subunit delta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3D1 gene. AP3D1 is a subunit of the AP3 adaptor- ... "Entrez Gene: AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit". Martinez-Arca S, Rudge R, Vacca M, Raposo G, Camonis J ... "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting ... "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". The Journal of Cell Biology. 137 (4): 835-45. doi:10.1083/jcb. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is the medium subunit of AP-3, which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the ... AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex composed of two large subunits (delta and beta3), a medium subunit (mu3), and a ... "Entrez Gene: AP3M1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 1 subunit". Human AP3M1 genome location and AP3M1 gene details page in ... 2000). "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based ...
... and a small subunit σ (sigma ∼20 kD), and named 1 through 5 corresponding to the 5 AP complexes. Components of COPI (cop one) a ... In AP-1 it is named γ (gamma), AP-2 has α (alpha), AP-3 has δ (delta), AP-4 has ε (epsilon) and AP-5 has ζ (zeta). The two ... Most of the adaptor proteins are heterotetramers. In the AP complexes, there are two large proteins (∼100 kD) and two smaller ... Vesicular transport adaptor proteins are proteins involved in forming complexes that function in the trafficking of molecules ...
Hanzal-Bayer M, Renault L, Roversi P, Wittinghofer A, Hillig RC (May 2002). "The complex of Arl2-GTP and PDE delta: from ... "Interaction of the Grb7 adapter protein with Rnd1, a new member of the Rho family". FEBS Letters. 467 (1): 91-6. doi:10.1016/ ... Nancy V, Callebaut I, El Marjou A, de Gunzburg J (Apr 2002). "The delta subunit of retinal rod cGMP phosphodiesterase regulates ... Hanzal-Bayer M, Renault L, Roversi P, Wittinghofer A, Hillig RC (May 2002). "The complex of Arl2-GTP and PDE delta: from ...
... adaptor protein complex beta subunits MeSH D12.776.543.990.150.500.300 -- adaptor protein complex delta subunits MeSH D12.776. ... adaptor protein complex gamma subunits MeSH D12.776.543.990.150.500.500 -- adaptor protein complex mu subunits MeSH D12.776. ... adaptor protein complex subunits MeSH D12.776.543.990.150.500.100 -- adaptor protein complex alpha subunits MeSH D12.776. ... adaptor protein complex 1 MeSH D12.776.543.990.150.200 -- adaptor protein complex 2 MeSH D12.776.543.990.150.300 -- adaptor ...
"The delta subunit of rod specific cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, PDE delta, interacts with the Arf-like protein Arl3 in a GTP ... Hanzal-Bayer M, Renault L, Roversi P, Wittinghofer A, Hillig RC (2002). "The complex of Arl2-GTP and PDE delta: from structure ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARL3 gene. ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3 ...
2001). "The Transmembrane Adaptor Protein Trim Regulates T Cell Receptor (Tcr) Expression and Tcr-Mediated Signaling via an ... San José E, Sahuquillo AG, Bragado R, Alarcón B (1998). "Assembly of the TCR/CD3 complex: CD3 epsilon/delta and CD3 epsilon/ ... "The implications of subunit interactions for the structure of the T cell receptor-CD3 complex". Eur. J. Immunol. 20 (2): 299- ... T-cell receptor alpha locus is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRA gene, also known as TCRA or [email protected] It contributes ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two ... Eiraku M, Hirata Y, Takeshima H, Hirano T, Kengaku M (Jul 2002). "Delta/notch-like epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit". Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999 ... "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three- ...
Bellovino D, Morimoto T, Tosetti F, Gaetani S (Jan 1996). "Retinol binding protein and transthyretin are secreted as a complex ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Apr 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... van Leeuwen JE, Kearse KP (Apr 1996). "Calnexin associates exclusively with individual CD3 delta and T cell antigen receptor ( ... Trombetta ES, Simons JF, Helenius A (Nov 1996). "Endoplasmic reticulum glucosidase II is composed of a catalytic subunit, ...
The primary single chain precursor protein is post-translationally cleaved to produce the alpha and beta subunits, which are ... The Notch pathway, through transcriptional activation of Delta ligand (see DLL3). MET mediates a complex program known as ... Furge KA, Zhang YW, Vande Woude GF (November 2000). "Met receptor tyrosine kinase: enhanced signaling through adapter proteins ... c-Met, also called tyrosine-protein kinase Met or hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a protein that in humans is ...
Ionizable residues in the transmembrane domain of each subunit form a polar network of interactions that hold the complex ... to bind to the ITAM and activated ZAP-70 phosphorylates tyrosines on the adaptor protein LAT, which then attracts PLC-γ. Other ... The intersection of these specific regions (V and J for the alpha or gamma chain; V, D, and J for the beta or delta chain) ... The TCR receptor complex is an octomeric complex of variable TCR receptor α and β chains with three dimeric signaling modules ...
G protein-coupled receptor 107 GRHPR: glyoxylate redasductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase HAUS6: HAUS augmin-like complex subunit ... delta-, dehydratase ALS4: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4 ANGPTL2: angiopoietin-related protein 2 ASS: argininosuccinate ... signaling threshold regulating transmembrane adapter 1 SLC25A25-AS1: encoding protein SLC25A25 antisense RNA 1 SPAG8 sperm- ... encoding protein Transmembrane protein 215 TMEM268: Transmembrane protein 268 TOR2A encoding protein Torsin-2A TSC1: tuberous ...
Translation initiation factor eIF-2B subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF2B2 gene. Eukaryotic ... "Characterization of the mammalian initiation factor eIF2B complex as a GDP dissociation stimulator protein". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... It consists of alpha (EIF2B1; MIM 606686), beta (EIF2B2), gamma (EIF2B3; MIM 606273), delta (EIF2B4; MIM 606687), and epsilon ( ...
Ras-GTP then activates the p110 subunit of PI3K. Other adaptor molecules such as insulin receptor substrate (IRS) can also ... mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). The regulation of Ser473 ... Transcription factor NF-κB, activated by Akt, regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARβ/δ) agonists and ... It then recruits the catalytic subunit p110 to form the fully active PI3K enzyme. Alternatively, adaptor molecule Grb2 binds to ...
This protein has also been shown to be a member of the NELF (negative elongation factor) protein complex that participates in ... WHSC2 encodes the NELF-A subunit of the NELF complex. WHSC2 has been shown to interact with RDBP. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Apr 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... "Stimulation of RNA polymerase II elongation by hepatitis delta antigen". Science. 293 (5527): 124-7. doi:10.1126/science. ...
... either directly or through adaptor proteins. This gene encodes an alpha subunit of the heteromeric SEC61 complex, which also ... 2001). "Newly synthesized human delta opioid receptors retained in the endoplasmic reticulum are retrotranslocated to the ... Protein transport protein Sec61 subunit alpha isoform 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SEC61A1 gene. The protein ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
"The SH2-containing adapter protein GRB10 interacts with BCR-ABL". Oncogene. 17 (8): 941-8. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202024. PMID ... "p210BCR/ABL induces formation of complexes containing focal adhesion proteins and the protooncogene product p120c-Cbl". Exp. ... Rommel C, Camps M, Ji H (2007). "PI3K delta and PI3K gamma: partners in crime in inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis and ... Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ...
Ionizable residues in the transmembrane domain of each subunit form a polar network of interactions that hold the complex ... to bind to the ITAM and activated ZAP-70 phosphorylates tyrosines on the adaptor protein LAT, which then attracts PLC-γ. Other ... Likewise, generation of the TCR gamma chain involves VJ recombination, whereas generation of the TCR delta chain occurs by VDJ ... The TCR complex[edit]. The TCR receptor complex is an octomeric complex of variable TCR receptor α and β chains with three ...
AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2. *BRK1: SCAR/WAVE actin nucleating complex subunit ... CACNA2D3: calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3. *CCR5: chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 ... TRAT1: T-cell receptor-associated transmembrane adapter 1. *USH3A: Usher syndrome 3A ... C3orf14-Chromosome 3 open reading frame 14: predicted DNA binding protein.. *C3orf23: encoding protein Uncharacterized protein ...
... encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 BRK1: SCAR/WAVE actin nucleating complex subunit BRPF1: bromodomain and PHD ... alpha 2/delta subunit 3 CCR5: chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 CGGBP1: CGG triplet repeat binding protein 1 CMTM7: CKLF like ... T-cell receptor-associated transmembrane adapter 1 USH3A: Usher syndrome 3A ZBED2: encoding protein Zinc finger BED-type ... also known as Glutamine-rich protein 1, RBM6: RNA-binding protein 6 RPP14: Ribonuclease P protein subunit p14 SCN5A: sodium ...
Leitges M, Gimborn K, Elis W, Kalesnikoff J, Hughes MR, Krystal G, Huber M (June 2002). "Protein kinase C-delta is a negative ... Poe JC, Fujimoto M, Jansen PJ, Miller AS, Tedder TF (June 2000). "CD22 forms a quaternary complex with SHIP, Grb2, and Shc. A ... Zhang S, Broxmeyer HE (January 1999). "p85 subunit of PI3 kinase does not bind to human Flt3 receptor, but associates with SHP2 ... Lemay S, Davidson D, Latour S, Veillette A (April 2000). "Dok-3, a novel adapter molecule involved in the negative regulation ...
These changes facilitate the recruitment of specific adapter proteins such as the insulin receptor substrate proteins (IRS) in ... "Differential effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on protein kinase C isoforms alpha and delta mediate inhibition of insulin ... Downstream post-translational events of either isoform result in the formation of a proteolytically cleaved α and β subunit, ... Strictly speaking the relationship between IR and ligand shows complex allosteric properties. This was indicated with the use ...
E1A adenovirus protein, and S-HDAg (hepatitis delta virus small delta antigen).[19] p300/CBP have also been observed to ... They usually function within a multisubunit complex in which the other subunits are necessary for them to modify histone ... transcriptional adaptor), TFIID (transcription factor II D), TFTC (TBP-free TAF-containing complex), and NuA3/NuA4 (nucleosomal ... Some of the proteins that associate with HATs in these complexes function by targeting the HAT complex to nucleosomes at ...
The calcium channel consists of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta and beta subunits in a 1:1:1 ratio. The S3-S4 linkers of ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Apr 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Cav1.2 is a subunit of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel. This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent ...
... and that the SH2 domain of p85 specifically recognized phosphotyrosines on growth factor receptors or adaptor proteins via the ... Specifically, they discovered that the catalytic subunit p110 dimerizes with the regulatory subunit p85, ... control mTOR signaling by acting as a GTPase-activating protein complex toward Rheb". Curr. Biol. 13 (15): 1259-68. doi:10.1016 ... The first drug targeting the PI-3-kinase pathway as a treatment for cancer - Idelalisib (PI3K Delta inhibitor) - was approved ...
Each molecule of the dynein motor is a complex protein assembly composed of many smaller polypeptide subunits. Cytoplasmic and ... another multisubunit protein that is essential for mitosis, and a cargo adaptor.[10] The tri-complex, which includes dynein, ... The dynactin complex is composed of more than 20 subunits,[17] of which p150(Glued) is the largest.[18] There is no definitive ... mediates the attachment of several cargo adaptors to the dynein motor.[11] The other tail subunits may also help facilitate ...
... and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon ... The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, ... White boxes represent UTRs (untranslated regions). Orange: protein coding regions. The black lines connecting boxes represent ... Previous Names: "adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit" HgncId : HGNC:568 Omim: 607246 ...
Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Subunit Delta 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, ... AP3D1 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Subunit Delta 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AP3D1 include ... AP3D1 Gene (Protein Coding) Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Subunit Delta 1. ... Protein Symbol:. O14617-AP3D1_HUMAN. Recommended name:. AP-3 complex subunit delta-1. Protein Accession:. O14617. Secondary ...
Adaptor related protein complex 3 delta 1 subunit. Protein classi. Protein class(es) of the gene product according to selected ... The cell lines in the Human Protein Atlas have been analyzed by RNA-seq to estimate the transcript abundance of each protein- ... In the Human Protein Atlas a NX value of 1.0 is defined as a threshhold for expression of the corresponding protein.. Read more ... Protein evidencei. Protein evidence scores are generated from several independent sources and are classified as evidence at i) ...
AP-3 complex subunit delta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3D1 gene. AP3D1 is a subunit of the AP3 adaptor- ... "Entrez Gene: AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit". Martinez-Arca S, Rudge R, Vacca M, Raposo G, Camonis J ... "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting ... "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". The Journal of Cell Biology. 137 (4): 835-45. doi:10.1083/jcb. ...
... the delta subunit of AP-3, for further evaluation. AP-3 is an "adaptor protein complex," a group of four proteins known to sort ... Through a series of experiments, the group demonstrated that the AP-3 delta subunit interacts with Gag to direct it to the ... Spearman s team has focused on a protein called "Gag," the major HIV structural protein. In recent years, Spearman said, it has ... In some cell types, Gag and the HIV viral envelope protein form particles in the multivesicular body; in other cell types, Gag ...
Buy the Paperback Book HIV Interactions with Host Cell Proteins by Paul Spearman at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + ... The authors have recently described an interaction between Gag and the delta subunit of the AP-3 adaptor protein complex (1). ... Title:HIV Interactions with Host Cell ProteinsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:214 pagesPublished:March 1, 2012Publisher:Springer ... HIV Interactions with Host Cell Proteins. EditorPaul Spearman. Paperback , March 1, 2012. ...
AP17,AP17-DELTA,CLAPS2. *Gene Description:. *adaptor-related protein complex 2, sigma 1 subunit ... clathrin assembly protein 2 small chain,clathrin-associated/assembly/adaptor protein, small 2 (17kD) ... One of two major clathrin-associated adaptor complexes, AP-2, is a heterotetramer which is associated with the plasma membrane ... This complex is composed of two large chains, a medium chain, and a small chain. This gene encodes the small chain of this ...
Protein Coding), Calcium Voltage-Gated Channel Auxiliary Subunit Gamma 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, ... Interacts with AP4M1 and GRIA1; associates GRIA1 with the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4) to target GRIA1 to the ... The L-type calcium channel is composed of five subunits: alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta and gamma. Acts as an auxiliary subunit ... Protein Symbol:. O60359-CCG3_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-3 subunit. Protein Accession:. ...
... and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon ... The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, ... Subunit Structure. AP-3 associates with the BLOC-1 complex (By similarity). Adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) is a ... Part of the AP-3 complex, an adaptor-related complex which is not clathrin-associated. The complex is associated with the Golgi ...
What is Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1? Meaning of Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 medical ... What does Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 mean? ... Looking for online definition of Adapter-related protein ... complex 3 subunit beta-1 in the Medical Dictionary? Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 explanation free. ... a protein complex composed of two large subunits (delta and beta), a medium subunit (mu), and a small subunit (sigma). AP3 ...
... and clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi ... The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the ... In concert with the BLOC-1 complex, AP-3 is required to target cargos into vesicles assembled at cell bodies for delivery into ... AP-3 appears to be involved in the sorting of a subset of transmembrane proteins targeted to lysosomes and lysosome-related ...
AP3D1 fusion protein Ag9390 Full name: adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit ... ADTD, AP 3 complex subunit delta, AP 3 complex subunit delta 1, AP3D1, Delta adaptin, hBLVR ... Adaptor protein (AP) complexes are cytosolic heterotetramers that mediate the sorting of membrane proteins in the secretory and ... AP3D1 is a subunit of the AP-3 complex which is composed of two large adaptins (AP3D1 and AP3B1 or AP3B2), a medium adaptin ( ...
What is clathrin adaptor complex AP3 mu-3A subunit? Meaning of clathrin adaptor complex AP3 mu-3A subunit medical term. What ... clathrin adaptor complex AP3 mu-3A subunit explanation free. ... does clathrin adaptor complex AP3 mu-3A subunit mean? ... Looking for online definition of clathrin adaptor complex AP3 mu-3A subunit in the Medical Dictionary? ... an adaptor-related protein complex composed of two large subunits (delta and beta), a medium subunit (mu), and a small subunit ...
Evaluation of the delta subunit of bovine adaptor protein complex 3 as a receptorfor bovine leukaemia virus. ... to a gene family of the delta subunit of the adaptor protein (AP)complex 3, AP-3. Therefore, bovine cDNAs (boAP3delta) that are ... Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing BLVR domain in the selected ... Complex between Vamp7 longin domain and fragment of delta-adaptin from AP3. ...
... delta 1 subunit (Ap3d1), F-box protein 38 (Fbxo38), and MON2 homolog (Mon2) were used that remain unaltered after neuronal ... ratio to the housekeeping gene β-actin except for the facial nerve injury experiment for which adaptor-related protein complex ... Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(−Delta Delta C(T)) method. Methods. 2001; ... Clinical and biochemical spectrum of D-bifunctional protein deficiency. Ann Neurol. 2006;59(1):92-104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Mouse Homolog of the Bovine Leukemia Virus Receptor Is Closely Related to the delta Subunit of Adaptor-Related Protein Complex ... The predicted 679-amino acid sequence encoded in these cDNAs is characteristic of an integral membrane protein in that multiple ... We have isolated human complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding a protein which, when expressed in normally uninfectable mouse ... A Putative Thiamine Transport Protein Is a Receptor for Feline Leukemia Virus Subgroup A. J. Virol., April 1, 2006; 80(7): 3378 ...
... adapter-related protein complex 2 sigma subunit; clathrin-associated/assembly/adaptor protein, small 2 (17kD); AP17; AP17-DELTA ... adaptor-related protein complex 2, sigma 1 subunit; CLAPS2; AP-2 complex subunit sigma; sigma2-adaptin; HA2 17 kDa subunit; ... clathrin assembly protein 2 small chain; adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit sigma; plasma membrane adaptor AP-2 17 kDa ... Products > Cancer Proteins > Signal Transduction Proteins > Protein Trafficking > Golgi Proteins Golgi Proteins MAPK3 PLIN2 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is the medium subunit of AP-3, which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the ... AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex composed of two large subunits (delta and beta3), a medium subunit (mu3), and a ... "Entrez Gene: AP3M1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 1 subunit". Human AP3M1 genome location and AP3M1 gene details page in ... 2000). "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based ...
Adaptor Protein Complex delta Subunits アダプター蛋白質複合体デルタサブユニット ... GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11 G蛋白質アルファサブユニットGq-G11 ... GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs G蛋白質-促進性Gs ... Hedgehog Proteins - Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport 小胞輸送 ... rab GTP-Binding Proteins rab G蛋白質 ... Protein-Tyrosine Kinases Protein
Adaptor Protein Complex delta Subunits / genetics* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... protein-DNA binding; PP, protein-protein binding; RB, regulation of binding; RE, reaction; T, transcription; TR, translocation ... Anti-citrullinated peptide/protein antibody (ACPA)-negative RA shares a large proportion of susceptibility loci with ACPA- ... The cardiac syndecan-4 interactome reveals a role for syndecan-4 in nuclear translocation of muscle LIM protein (MLP). ...
adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit. 0.019. Mospd2. motile sperm domain containing 2. 0.019. ... protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit B, alpha isoform (calcineurin B, type I). 0.012. ... establishment of protein localization to vacuole. GO:0072666. The directed movement of a protein to a specific location in a ... Highlight genes with functional analogs involved in "establishment of protein localization to vacuole" (in gray). Name. ...
ribosomal protein S26, like. 0.013. ap3d1. adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit. 0.013. ... adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 1. 0.031. ... BRF2, subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor, BRF1-like. 0.010. ... TAF3 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated facto. 0.038. ...
Adaptor protein c-Cbl, which is phosphorylated by Fyn, in complex with PIK3 reg class 1A and GRB2, resulting in the activation ... activating Protein kinase C delta (PKC-delta) via Diacylglycerol (DAG) [2], [42]. PKC-delta phosphorylates and activates STAT3 ... The role of IRS-1 is to provide docking sites for PIK3 reg class 1A that activates catalytic subunit (PIK3 cat class 1A) [40]. ... as a complex with STAT5A and binding of this complex to DNA, determining the milk protein gene transcription [3], [18]. ...
This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. The AP ... DLL3 (delta Like Protein 3): DLL3 Antikörper DLL3 ELISA Kits DLL3 Proteine ... DLL1 is a human homolog of the Notch Delta ligand and is a member of the delta/serrate/jagged family. It plays a role in ... The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded ...
It shows genes and PPIs with information about pathways, protein-protein interactions (PPIs), Gene Ontology (GO) annotations ... a web resource for human protein-protein interactions. ... adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit. delta/notch ... Protein-Protein Interactions. 20 interactors: AFTPH AP1AR AP1B1 AP1M2 AP1S1 AP1S2 ARF1 CLINT1 CLTC DNER KIF13A MAP1A RAB5A ... Nef-mediates down modulation of cell surface receptors by recruiting them to clathrin adapters ...
  • CACNG3 (Calcium Voltage-Gated Channel Auxiliary Subunit Gamma 3) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • In the present study we have searched the EST database and haveidentified, cloned, and sequenced a ubiquitously expressed homologue of beta-NAP,beta3A, as well as homologues of the alpha/gamma and sigma adaptor subunits,delta and sigma3, which are also ubiquitously expressed. (embl.de)
  • Previous studies showed that tyrosine-based signals bind to the mu1, mu2 and mu3 subunits, whereas dileucine-based signals bind to a combination (i.e., a hemicomplex) of two subunits, gamma-sigma1, alpha-sigma2 and delta-sigma3, from the corresponding AP complexes. (grantome.com)
  • We also demonstrated the occurrence of multiple AP-1 complexes resulting from combinatorial assembly of various gamma (i.e., gamma1 and gamma2) and sigma1 (i.e., sigma1A, sigma1B and sigma1C) subunit isoforms encoded by different genes. (grantome.com)
  • Association of methotrexate treatment with a decrease of double negative (CD4-CD8-) and gamma/delta T cell levels in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. (faintpower.ga)
  • The antibody MEM-57 reacts with gamma-epsilon and delta-epsilon dimers of human CD3 complex, a part of a bigger multisubunit T cell receptor complex (CD3/TCR) expressed on peripheral blood T lymphocytes and mature thymocytes. (exbio.cz)
  • it reacts strongly with gamma/delta T lymphocytes. (exbio.cz)
  • T cell activation through the antigen receptor (TCR) involves the cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 subunits CD3 gamma, CD3 delta, CD3 epsilon and CD3 zeta. (exbio.cz)
  • Dave VP, Cao Z, Browne C, Alarcon B, Fernandez-Miguel G, Lafaille J, de la Hera A, Tonegawa S, Kappes DJ: CD3 delta deficiency arrests development of the alpha beta but not the gamma delta T cell lineage. (exbio.cz)
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins, consisting of alpha, beta and gamma subunits, couple ligand-bound seven transmembrane domain receptors (GPCRs or G-protein coupled receptors) to the regulation of effector proteins and production of intracellular secondmessengers such as cAMP, cGMP, and Ca.sup.2+. (patentgenius.com)
  • T Cell Receptor-gamma Allele-specific Selection of V Gamma 1/V Delta 4 Cells in the Intestinal Epithelium Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). (jove.com)
  • inhibitors in ABCC9 can search described protein 10( CMD10: MIM:608569), a platelet associated by cellular quantity and autosomal Apical arrest, depending in phosphorylated gamma kinase and terminus( Bienengraeber et al. (erik-mill.de)
  • In humans, in 95% of T cells the TCR consists of an alpha (α) chain and a beta (β) chain (encoded by TRA and TRB , respectively), whereas in 5% of T cells the TCR consists of gamma and delta (γ/δ) chains (encoded by TRG and TRD , respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells expressing this receptor are referred to as α:β (or αβ) T cells, though a minority of T cells express an alternate receptor, formed by variable gamma (γ) and delta (δ) chains, referred as γδ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the AP3 adaptor-like complex, which is not clathrin-associated, but is associated with the golgi region, as well as more peripheral structures. (genecards.org)
  • The complex is associated with the Golgi region as well as more peripheral structures. (genecards.org)
  • AP3 plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes, as well as in biogenesis of melanosomes, platelet dense granules and lysosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Subunit of non-clathrin- and clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. (uniprot.org)
  • We are calling this complex AP-3, a name that has also been used for the neuronalspecific phosphoprotein AP180, but we feel that it is amore appropriate designation for an adaptor-related heterotetramer.Immunofluorescence using anti-delta antibodies reveals that the AP-3 complex isassociated with the Golgi region of the cell as well as with more peripheralstructures. (embl.de)
  • In previous work, we found that a complex named GARP is a critical component of the molecular machinery that mediates retrograde transport of various cargo proteins, including sorting receptors, processing endopeptidases, fusogenic proteins and bacterial and plant toxins, from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network in mammalian cells. (grantome.com)
  • We showed that the molecular function of this complex is to promote tethering and fusion of endosome-derived transport carriers to the trans-Golgi network. (grantome.com)
  • Interference with any of the GARP subunits blocks the delivery of many cargos to the trans-Golgi network, leading to global defects in lysosomal function, lipid traffic and autophagy. (grantome.com)
  • AP1S2 encodes an adaptin protein that constitutes part of the adaptor protein complex found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • ArfGAP1 is a prototype of GTPase-activating proteins for ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) and has been proposed to be involved in retrograde transport from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by regulating the uncoating of coat protein I (COPI)-coated vesicles. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Furthermore, in these cells proteins resident in or cycling through the cis-Golgi, including ERGIC-53, beta-COP, and GM130, accumulate in the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, and Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport is blocked. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Second, PI4KII also has an unforeseen function in late endosomes, where it is required for normal retromer dynamics and for formation of tubular endosomes that are likely to be involved in retrieving Snap24 and Lysosomal enzyme receptor protein (Lerp) from late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. (biologists.org)
  • For this download Exploring the Secrets of the Aurora (2007)(2nd ed.)(en)(288s) to contact, process has understood from the subunits into the Golgi vitamin, and B4GALT1 consists with LALBA( year) to be its energy amino( Brew and Hill 1975). (erik-mill.de)
  • Mutations in one of the large subunits of AP-3 have been associated with the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by defective lysosome-related organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the locked state, the cargo-binding sites of AP-1 are hindered by two large subunits (γ and β1). (bioscirep.org)
  • This family consists of several bovine specific leukaemia virus receptors which are thought to function as transmembrane proteins, although their exact function is unknown (PMID:12692298). (embl.de)
  • Ephrin including is abrogated to Rho download Fashion, costume, and culture: clothing, headwear, body decorations, and footwear receptors IP7 as Rac, Rho and Cdc42 that show 47S epithelia proteins to knockouts in the pol activation( Noren & Pasquale 2004, Groeger & Nobes 2007). (erik-mill.de)
  • In the nerve terminal, scaffolding proteins bound to CAM intracellular domains tether the neurotransmitter release machinery, whereas postsynaptic scaffolding proteins, also bound to CAMs, anchor glutamate receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • sub.q protein variants that functionally couple to sensory cell receptors such as taste GPCRs (TRs) and olfactory GPCRs (ORs) in an overly promiscuous manner. (patentgenius.com)
  • This invention relates to G.alpha.q protein variants and their use in the analysis and discovery of agonists and antagonsists of chemosensory receptors, such as G protein coupled receptors involved in sensing of tastants, olfactants, andpheromones. (patentgenius.com)
  • Agonist-bound sensory receptors catalyze theexchange of GTP for GDP on the surface of the G.alpha.a subunit to initiate intracellular responses to extracellular signals. (patentgenius.com)
  • His work has revealed key functional and structural information about T cell receptors (TCRs), the CD3 signaling subunits, and how, with other molecules, TCRs bind to peptide-loaded MHC. (dana-farber.org)
  • When the TCR engages with antigenic peptide and MHC (peptide/MHC), the T lymphocyte is activated through signal transduction, that is, a series of biochemical events mediated by associated enzymes, co-receptors, specialized adaptor molecules, and activated or released transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ArfGAP family of cytosolic proteins is characterized by a well-conserved catalytical zinc finger domain, whereas their noncatalytical domains differ between subgroups of the family ( Randazzo and Hirsch, 2004 ). (rupress.org)
  • Liprin-α1 belongs to the liprin family of cytosolic scaffold proteins that includes four liprin-α, two liprin-β members, and liprin-γ/kazrinE. (cancerindex.org)
  • Current work in our laboratory is aimed at elucidating the structure, regulation and physiological roles of coat proteins and vesicle tethering factors, and investigating human diseases that result from genetic defects (e.g. (grantome.com)
  • Until the complex thesis remains thus 15 homologs predominantly, the SLX4 Circulating regulation cleaves not intracellular. (evakoch.com)
  • Cryo-EM of mitotic checkpoint complex-bound APC/C reveals reciprocal and conformational regulation of ubiquitin ligation. (mpg.de)
  • Members of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family of serine-threonine protein kinases are implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes, including the cell cycle, circadian rhythms, and Wnt and Hedgehog signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes such as regulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosome, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcription regulation, insulin signaling and endothelial cells proliferation. (string-db.org)
  • Regulation of thymocyte trafficking by Tagap, a GAP domain protein linked to human autoimmunity. (dana-farber.org)
  • 14-3-3 proteins are a group of highly conserved proteins that are involved in many vital cellular processes such as metabolism, protein trafficking, signal transduction, apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. (sinobiological.com)
  • Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated regulation of 184 proteins after SAH, regulations that were in part prevented by U0126 treatment. (cyberleninka.org)
  • AAA+ ( A TPase a ssociated with a variety of cellular a ctivities) proteins control a multitude of essential cellular activities by converting the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis into a mechanical force to remodel bound substrates ( Hanson and Whiteheart, 2005 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • The PI(3,4,)P3 provokes the recruitment to cellular membranes of a variety of signalling proteins, containing PX domain, pleckstrin homology domains (PH domains), FYVE domains and other phosphoinositide-binding domains. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. (genes2cognition.org)
  • FAM83 proteins participate in various cellular processes and are characterized by an N-terminal "domain of unknown function" called DUF1669. (sciencemag.org)
  • Together, our data suggest that LRRK2 participates in a protein network regulating synaptic vesicle trafficking in the presynaptic bouton. (jneurosci.org)
  • The alpha and beta subunits are associated only in the presence of ligand. (bio-rad.com)
  • Saridakis V, Christendat D, Kimber M, Dharamsi A, Edwards A, Pai E. Insights into ligand binding and catalysis of a central step in NAD+ synthesis: structures of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum NMN adenylyltransferase complexes. (labome.org)
  • The Class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) complex is recruited to phosphotyrosines and catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate to generate phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP 3 ) that acts as a second messenger recruiting downstream signaling molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • Prolactin stimulation of mammary cells leads to the nuclear translocation of Tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 11 ( SHP-2 ) as a complex with STAT5A and binding of this complex to DNA, determining the milk protein gene transcription [ 3 ], [ 18 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 are clathrin-associated adaptor complexes that recognize two types of sorting signal referred to as tyrosine-based and dileucine-based. (grantome.com)
  • The AP-4 complex is distinct from the other AP complexes in that it does not recognize canonical tyrosine-based and dileucine-based signals. (grantome.com)
  • Biochemical and X-ray crystallographic analyses revealed that the properties of the APP sequence and the location of the binding site on mu4 are distinct from those of canonical tyrosine-based signals binding to the mu subunits of other AP complexes. (grantome.com)
  • Rasl and a putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor perform crucial steps in signaling by the sevenless protein tyrosine kinase. (springer.com)
  • Basler K, Hafen E. Control of photoreceptor cell fate by the sevenless protein requires a functional tyrosine kinase domain. (springer.com)
  • This association is mediated at least in part by a double tyrosine-based motif present in a single copy in the CD3 subunits. (exbio.cz)
  • ATP download, covalently signaling the complex liver of the tyrosine to its beta-propeller missense. (erik-mill.de)
  • Whether the download Exploring the Secrets of the Aurora (2007)(2nd ed.)(en)(288s) tyrosine is improve to the molecule to be genome cofactor in a type such to the NOTCH geranylgeranylation is to bring shown. (erik-mill.de)
  • Mice lacking multifunctional protein-2 (MFP2), a pivotal enzyme in peroxisomal β-oxidation, develop a fatal disorder characterized by motor problems similar to the milder form of MFP2 deficiency in humans. (springer.com)
  • The 70-kDa other enzyme residue( PMP70) and the accumulation protein( ALDP reductase TREX1) are half ATP damaging exercise( ABC) needs in the Many region. (erik-mill.de)
  • 6) The RNA polymerase is a multi-subunit enzyme that recognizes a consensus nucleotide sequence (promoter region) upstream of the transcription start site. (medicalbiochemist.com)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • This encoded protein is a calcium-dependent serine endoprotease that can efficiently cleave precursor proteins at their paired basic amino acid processing sites. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Acts as part of the canonical IKK complex in the conventional pathway of NF-kappa-B activation and phosphorylates inhibitors of NF-kappa-B on serine residues. (string-db.org)
  • We investigate the molecular mechanisms by which transmembrane proteins are sorted to different compartments of the endomembrane system such as endosomes, lysosomes and a group of cell-type-specific organelles known as lysosome-related organelles (e.g., melanosomes and platelet dense bodies). (grantome.com)
  • Oppositely oriented signals that are encoded by oppositely oriented Fj and Ds gradients produce the same polarity outcome in different tissues or compartments, and the tissue-specific activity of alternative Pk-Sple protein isoforms has been observed to rectify the interpretation of opposite upstream directional signals. (stanford.edu)
  • Upon IL-5 stimulation, the adaptor molecule Shc is rapidly phosphorylated and associates with the phosphorylated IL-5 receptor . (bio-rad.com)
  • The T-cell receptor , or TCR , is a molecule found on the surface of T cells , or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-5 receptor is composed of two polypeptide chains: alpha and beta subunits. (bio-rad.com)
  • 1. A nucleic acid encoding a mutated Gq protein identical to the polypeptide contained in SEQ ID NO:1 or 37 except for the substitution of an aspartic acid residue for theglycine residue at position 66. (patentgenius.com)
  • 6. A nucleic acid encoding a mutated Gq protein which is identical to the polypeptide contained in SEQ ID NO:1 except for the replacement of the last 5 amino acid residues with the 5 amino acid residues of the carboxy terminus of Golf ortransducin. (patentgenius.com)
  • Cadherins, NPRAP, GRIP, and GluR2 copurified in the fractionation of synaptosomes and the postsynaptic density, two fractions enriched in synaptic proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • The ability of PCNA to bind to MLH1 and MSH2 may reflect linkage between mismatch repair and replication and may be relevant to the roles of mismatch repair proteins in other DNA transactions (Umar, 1996). (sdbonline.org)
  • In the repressed state ClpC cannot interact with its partner peptidase and the shape of the assembly shields the sites where adapter proteins can bind. (elifesciences.org)