Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Adaptor Protein Complex 1: A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.Adaptor Protein Complex 2: An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.Adaptor Protein Complex 4: An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.Adaptor Protein Complex Subunits: The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.Adaptor Protein Complex delta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits: A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport: A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesClathrin: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.Human Characteristics: The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins: A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.GRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Adaptor Protein Complex sigma Subunits: A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.trans-Golgi Network: A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.Clathrin-Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.PhosphoproteinsMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Coated Pits, Cell-Membrane: Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.GRB10 Adaptor Protein: A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Gene Products, nef: Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.

AP-4, a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors. (1/230)

Here we report the identification and characterization of AP-4, a novel protein complex related to the heterotetrameric AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 adaptors that mediate protein sorting in the endocytic and late secretory pathways. The key to the identification of this complex was the cloning and sequencing of two widely expressed, mammalian cDNAs encoding new homologs of the adaptor beta and sigma subunits named beta4 and sigma4, respectively. An antibody to beta4 recognized in human cells an approximately 83-kDa polypeptide that exists in both soluble and membrane-associated forms. Gel filtration, sedimentation velocity, and immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that beta4 is a component of a multisubunit complex (AP-4) that also contains the sigma4 polypeptide and two additional adaptor subunit homologs named mu4 (mu-ARP2) and epsilon. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that AP-4 is associated with the trans-Golgi network or an adjacent structure and that this association is sensitive to the drug brefeldin A. We propose that, like the related AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 complexes, AP-4 plays a role in signal-mediated trafficking of integral membrane proteins in mammalian cells.  (+info)

High-affinity binding of the AP-1 adaptor complex to trans-golgi network membranes devoid of mannose 6-phosphate receptors. (2/230)

The GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) initiates clathrin-coat assembly at the trans-Goli network (TGN) by generating high-affinity membrane-binding sites for the AP-1 adaptor complex. Both transmembrane proteins, which are sorted into the assembling coated bud, and novel docking proteins have been suggested to be partners with GTP-bound ARF in generating the AP-1-docking sites. The best characterized, and probably the major transmembrane molecules sorted into the clathrin-coated vesicles that form on the TGN, are the mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs). Here, we have examined the role of the MPRs in the AP-1 recruitment process by comparing fibroblasts derived from embryos of either normal or MPR-negative animals. Despite major alterations to the lysosome compartment in the MPR-deficient cells, the steady-state distribution of AP-1 at the TGN is comparable to that of normal cells. Golgi-enriched membranes prepared from the receptor-negative cells also display an apparently normal capacity to recruit AP-1 in vitro in the presence of ARF and either GTP or GTPgammaS. The AP-1 adaptor is recruited specifically onto the TGN and not onto the numerous abnormal membrane elements that accumulate within the MPR-negative fibroblasts. AP-1 bound to TGN membranes from either normal or MPR-negative fibroblasts is fully resistant to chemical extraction with 1 M Tris-HCl, pH 7, indicating that the adaptor binds to both membrane types with high affinity. The only difference we do note between the Golgi prepared from the MPR-deficient cells and the normal cells is that AP-1 recruited onto the receptor-lacking membranes in the presence of ARF1.GTP is consistently more resistant to extraction with Tris. Because sensitivity to Tris extraction correlates well with nucleotide hydrolysis, this finding might suggest a possible link between MPR sorting and ARF GAP regulation. We conclude that the MPRs are not essential determinants in the initial steps of AP-1 binding to the TGN but, instead, they may play a regulatory role in clathrin-coated vesicle formation by affecting ARF.GTP hydrolysis.  (+info)

Cluster of differentiation antigen 4 (CD4) endocytosis and adaptor complex binding require activation of the CD4 endocytosis signal by serine phosphorylation. (3/230)

Cluster of differentiation antigen 4 (CD4), the T lymphocyte antigen receptor component and human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor, is down-modulated when cells are activated by antigen or phorbol esters. During down-modulation CD4 dissociates from p56(lck), undergoes endocytosis through clathrin-coated pits, and is then sorted in early endosomes to late endocytic organelles where it is degraded. Previous studies have suggested that phosphorylation and a dileucine sequence are required for down-modulation. Using transfected HeLa cells, in which CD4 endocytosis can be studied in the absence of p56(lck), we show that the dileucine sequence in the cytoplasmic domain is essential for clathrin-mediated CD4 endocytosis. However, this sequence is only functional as an endocytosis signal when neighboring serine residues are phosphorylated. Phosphoserine is required for rapid endocytosis because CD4 molecules in which the cytoplasmic domain serine residues are substituted with glutamic acid residues are not internalized efficiently. Using surface plasmon resonance, we show that CD4 peptides containing the dileucine sequence bind weakly to clathrin adaptor protein complexes 2 and 1. The affinity of this interaction is increased 350- to 700-fold when the peptides also contain phosphoserine residues.  (+info)

The beta2-adrenergic receptor/betaarrestin complex recruits the clathrin adaptor AP-2 during endocytosis. (4/230)

betaarrestins mediate the desensitization of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) and many other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Additionally, betaarrestins initiate the endocytosis of these receptors via clathrin coated-pits and interact directly with clathrin. Consequently, it has been proposed that betaarrestins serve as clathrin adaptors for the GPCR family by linking these receptors to clathrin lattices. AP-2, the heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor protein, has been demonstrated to mediate the internalization of many types of plasma membrane proteins other than GPCRs. AP-2 interacts with the clathrin heavy chain and cytoplasmic domains of receptors such as those for epidermal growth factor and transferrin. In the present study we demonstrate the formation of an agonist-induced multimeric complex containing a GPCR, betaarrestin 2, and the beta2-adaptin subunit of AP-2. beta2-Adaptin binds betaarrestin 2 in a yeast two-hybrid assay and coimmunoprecipitates with betaarrestins and beta2AR in an agonist-dependent manner in HEK-293 cells. Moreover, beta2-adaptin translocates from the cytosol to the plasma membrane in response to the beta2AR agonist isoproterenol and colocalizes with beta2AR in clathrin-coated pits. Finally, expression of betaarrestin 2 minigene constructs containing the beta2-adaptin interacting region inhibits beta2AR endocytosis. These findings point to a role for AP-2 in GPCR endocytosis, and they suggest that AP-2 functions as a clathrin adaptor for the endocytosis of diverse classes of membrane receptors.  (+info)

Inhibition of clathrin-coated pit assembly by an Eps15 mutant. (5/230)

Recent data have shown that Eps15, a newly identified component of clathrin-coated pits constitutively associated with the AP-2 complex, is required for receptor-mediated endocytosis. However, its precise function remains unknown. Interestingly, Eps15 contains three EH (Eps15-Homology) domains also found in proteins required for the internalization step of endocytosis in yeast. Results presented here show that EH domains are required for correct coated pit targeting of Eps15. Furthermore, when cells expressed an Eps15 mutant lacking EH domains, the plasma membrane punctate distribution of both AP-2 and clathrin was lost, implying the absence of coated pits. This was further confirmed by the fact that dynamin, a GTPase found in coated pits, was homogeneously redistributed on the plasma membrane and that endocytosis of transferrin, a specific marker of clathrin-dependent endocytosis, was strongly inhibited. Altogether, these results strongly suggest a role for Eps15 in coated pit assembly and more precisely a role for Eps15 in the docking of AP-2 onto the plasma membrane. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that a GFP fusion protein encoding the ear domain of (alpha)-adaptin, the AP-2 binding site for Eps15, was efficiently targeted to plasma membrane coated pits.  (+info)

ADP-ribosylation factor 1 dependent clathrin-coat assembly on synthetic liposomes. (6/230)

The assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles on Golgi membranes is initiated by the GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor (ARF), which generates high-affinity membrane-binding sites for the heterotetrameric AP-1 adaptor complex. Once bound, the AP-1 recruits clathrin triskelia, which polymerize to form the coat. We have found that ARF.GTP also recruits AP-1 and clathrin onto protein-free liposomes. The efficiency of this process is modulated by the composition of the liposomes, with phosphatidylserine being the most stimulatory phospholipid. There is also a requirement for cytosolic factor(s) other than ARF. Thin-section electron microscopy shows the presence of clathrin-coated buds and vesicles that resemble those formed in vivo. These results indicate that AP-1-containing clathrin-coated vesicles can form in the absence of integral membrane proteins. Thus, ARF.GTP, appropriate lipids, and cytosolic factor(s) are the minimal components necessary for AP-1 clathrin-coat assembly.  (+info)

Inhibition of the receptor-binding function of clathrin adaptor protein AP-2 by dominant-negative mutant mu2 subunit and its effects on endocytosis. (7/230)

Although interactions between the mu2 subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2 and tyrosine-based internalization motifs have been implicated in the selective recruitment of cargo molecules into coated pits, the functional significance of this interaction for endocytosis of many types of membrane proteins remains unclear. To analyze the function of mu2-receptor interactions, we constructed an epitope-tagged mu2 that incorporates into AP-2 and is targeted to coated pits. Mutational analysis revealed that Asp176 and Trp421 of mu2 are involved in the interaction with internalization motifs of TGN38 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Inducible overexpression of mutant mu2, in which these two residues were changed to alanines, resulted in metabolic replacement of endogenous mu2 in AP-2 complexes and complete abrogation of AP-2 interaction with the tyrosine-based internalization motifs. As a consequence, endocytosis of the transferrin receptor was severely impaired. In contrast, internalization of the EGF receptor was not affected. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the dominant-interfering approach for functional analysis of the adaptor protein family, and indicate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis may proceed in both a mu2-dependent and -independent manner.  (+info)

Splice variants of intersectin are components of the endocytic machinery in neurons and nonneuronal cells. (8/230)

We recently identified and cloned intersectin, a protein containing two Eps15 homology (EH) domains and five Src homology 3 (SH3) domains. Using a newly developed intersectin antibody, we demonstrate that endogenous COS-7 cell intersectin localizes to clathrin-coated pits, and transfection studies suggest that the EH domains may direct this localization. Through alternative splicing in a stop codon, a long form of intersectin is generated with a C-terminal extension containing Dbl homology (DH), pleckstrin homology (PH), and C2 domains. Western blots reveal that the long form of intersectin is expressed specifically in neurons, whereas the short isoform is expressed at lower levels in glia and other nonneuronal cells. Immunofluorescence analysis of cultured hippocampal neurons reveals that intersectin is found at the plasma membrane where it is co-localized with clathrin. Ibp2, a protein identified based on its interactions with the EH domains of intersectin, binds to clathrin through the N terminus of the heavy chain, suggesting a mechanism for the localization of intersectin at clathrin-coated pits. Ibp2 also binds to the clathrin adaptor AP2, and antibodies against intersectin co-immunoprecipitate clathrin, AP2, and dynamin from brain extracts. These data suggest that the long and short forms of intersectin are components of the endocytic machinery in neurons and nonneuronal cells.  (+info)

*Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles ... "Entrez Gene: AP2A1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit". Nishimura, Takashi; Fukata Yuko; Kato Katsuhiro; ... Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with DPYSL2 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A1 gene. ...

*AP2A2

"Entrez Gene: AP2A2 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit". Chen H, Fre S, Slepnev VI, Capua MR, Takei K, Butler MH ... AP-2 complex subunit alpha-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A2 gene. AP2A2 has been shown to interact with ... Robinson MS (Mar 1989). "Cloning of cDNAs encoding two related 100-kD coated vesicle proteins (alpha-adaptins)". The Journal of ... the cytoplasmic domains of human and simian retroviral transmembrane proteins with components of the clathrin adaptor complexes ...

*EPN2

This gene encodes a protein which interacts with clathrin and adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit. The protein ... 1998). "Intersectin, a novel adaptor protein with two Eps15 homology and five Src homology 3 domains". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (47 ... 1997). "Binding specificity and in vivo targets of the EH domain, a novel protein-protein interaction module". Genes Dev. 11 ( ... "The epsins define a family of proteins that interact with components of the clathrin coat and contain a new protein module". J ...

*Sec61 alpha 1

... either directly or through adaptor proteins. This gene encodes an alpha subunit of the heteromeric SEC61 complex, which also ... Protein transport protein Sec61 subunit alpha isoform 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SEC61A1 gene. The protein ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... 2000). "Stress-associated endoplasmic reticulum protein 1 (SERP1)/Ribosome-associated membrane protein 4 (RAMP4) stabilizes ...

*CCDC47

The family routinely lies on the clathrin adaptor complex 3 beta-1 subunit proteins. The exact function of DUF 1682 is unclear ... The C-terminal portion of the protein is highly charged and its secondary structure is predicted to be that of an alpha helix ... The final protein is thought to be translated from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm of the cell. The protein is ... "Protein One". Transcription Factors. Retrieved 29 March 2014. "Protein Spotlight, The PAR b ZIP Family". Retrieved March 28, ...

*AP2M1

"Entrez Gene: AP2M1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit". Follows ER, McPheat JC, Minshull C, Moore NC, Pauptit RA, ... adaptor-receptor recognition and binding of alpha-adaptin subunits to the plasma membrane contribute to recruitment of adaptor ... AP-2 complex subunit mu is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2M1 gene. This gene encodes a subunit of the ... heterotetrameric coat assembly protein complex 2 (AP2), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. The ...

*Focal adhesion

... and some of the adapter proteins, such as talin, paxillin and tensin. Many of these focal complexes fail to mature and are ... Integrins are heterodimers which are formed from one beta and one alpha subunit. These subunits are present in different forms ... bind to and associate with this integrin-adapter protein-cytoskeleton complex, and this forms the basis of a focal adhesion. ... However, some focal complexes mature into larger and stable focal adhesions, and recruit many more proteins such as zyxin. ...

*Clathrin adaptor protein

AP complexes are heterotetramers composed of two large subunits (adaptins), a medium subunit (mu) and a small subunit (sigma). ... For example, in AP1 these subunits are gamma-1-adaptin, beta-1-adaptin, mu-1 and sigma-1, while in AP2 they are alpha-adaptin, ... Adaptor protein (AP) complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. AP complexes connect cargo proteins and ... Touz MC, Kulakova L, Nash TE (July 2004). "Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi- ...

*List of A1 genes, proteins or receptors

... proteins or receptors named A1 or Alpha-1 : Actin, alpha 1 Actinin, alpha 1 Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 Aldehyde ... alpha 1 Proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha 1 Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 Protein tyrosine phosphatase, ... alpha 1 Gap junction protein, alpha 1 GDNF family receptor alpha 1 Glutathione S-transferase A1 Glycine receptor, alpha 1 Heat ... alpha 1 Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP alpha 1 Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 Myosin ...

*Vesicular transport adaptor protein

The other large protein has different designations in the different complexes. In AP-1 it is named γ (gamma), AP-2 has α (alpha ... The two smaller proteins are a medium subunit named μ (mu ∼50 kD) and a small subunit σ (sigma ∼20 kD), and named 1 through 5 ... Most of the adaptor proteins are heterotetramers. In the AP complexes, there are two large proteins (∼100 kD) and two smaller ... Vesicular transport adaptor proteins are proteins involved in forming complexes that function in the trafficking of molecules ...

*B2-adapt-app C

AP (adaptor protein) complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. AP complexes connect cargo proteins and ... in AP1 these subunits are gamma-1-adaptin, beta-1-adaptin, mu-1 and sigma-1, while in AP2 they are alpha-adaptin, beta-2- ... The two major types of clathrin adaptor complexes are the heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes, and the monomeric ... Touz MC, Kulakova L, Nash TE (July 2004). "Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi- ...

*TRA (gene)

T-cell receptor alpha locus is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRA gene, also known as TCRA or [email protected] It contributes ... "The implications of subunit interactions for the structure of the T cell receptor-CD3 complex". Eur. J. Immunol. 20 (2): 299- ... 2001). "The Transmembrane Adaptor Protein Trim Regulates T Cell Receptor (Tcr) Expression and Tcr-Mediated Signaling via an ... 2001). "Importance of the T cell receptor alpha-chain transmembrane distal region for assembly with cognate subunits". Mol. ...

*AP1G2

The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This ... The adaptin family of proteins is composed of four classes of molecules named alpha, beta-, beta prime- and gamma- adaptins. ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 2 subunit". Rost, Martina; Döring Tatjana; Prange Reinhild (Nov ... AP-1 complex subunit gamma-like 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1G2 gene. Adaptins are important components ...

*AP1G1

The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two ... The adaptin family of proteins is composed of four classes of molecules named alpha, beta-, beta prime- and gamma- adaptins. ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit". Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999 ... "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three- ...

*Chromatin remodeling

... hADA3 may act as an adaptor protein linking transcription factors with other HAT complexes. In the absence of hADA3, TP53 ... several more subunits of the human SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex have been found mutated in a wide range of neoplasms. ... factor implicated in the tumorigenesis and progression of breast cancer via its binding to the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). ... ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes. Specific protein complexes, known as histone-modifying complexes catalyze ...

*X-linked intellectual disability

AP1S2: AP-1 complex subunit sigma-2. Adaptor protein complex 1 is found on the cytoplasmic face of vesicles located at the ... GDI1: RabGDI alpha makes a complex with geranylgeranylated small GTP-binding proteins of the Rab family and keeps them in the ... "Entrez Gene: AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Piccini M, Vitelli F, Bruttini M, Pober BR, Jonsson JJ ... "Mutations in the Gene Encoding the Sigma 2 Subunit of the Adaptor Protein 1 Complex, AP1S2, Cause X-Linked Mental Retardation ...

*Chromosome 20 (human)

Glucocorticoid modulatory element-binding protein 2 GNAS1: Gs alpha subunit (membrane G-protein) GSS: glutathione synthetase ... encoding protein Kizuna centrosomal protein Kua-UEV: LIME1: encoding protein Lck-interacting transmembrane adapter 1 LZTS3: ... encoding enzyme Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex chaperone CBP3 homolog VAPB: VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein ... encoding protein Transmembrane prostate androgen-induced protein TTPAL: encoding protein Tocopherol (alpha) transfer protein- ...

*AP3B2

"Entrez Gene: AP3B2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit". Human AP3B2 genome location and AP3B2 gene details page ... Dubois T, Zemlickova E, Howell S, Aitken A (2003). "Centaurin-alpha 1 associates in vitro and in vivo with nucleolin". Biochem ... AP-3 complex subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3B2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression". EMBO J. 16 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.5.917. ...

*Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor

This leads to association with a Shc adaptor protein. Then Shc interacts with GRB2/SoS complex which results in activation of ... Nakagawa Y, Kosugi H, Miyajima A, Arai K, Yokota T (Apr 1994). "Structure of the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the human ... Association of the α and β subunits results in receptor activation. Upon dimerisation of the α and β subunits the β subunit ... and GM-CSF alpha and beta receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and protein in human ovarian tissue". Biology of Reproduction. 53 ...

*Interleukin 31

In contrast to IL-31RA, which binds SHP-2, the OSMR interacts with the adaptor protein Shc via the phosphorylated tyrosines on ... IL-31 signals via a receptor complex that is composed of IL-31 receptor A (IL31RA) and oncostatin M receptor (OSMR) subunits. ... The receptor for IL-31 is a heterodimer of the interleukin 31 receptor alpha (IL-31RA) and OSMR. IL-31RA was originally ... These receptor subunits are expressed in activated monocytes and in unstimulated epithelial cells. IL-31RA binds IL-31 through ...

*EPN1

... is an endocytic accessory protein that interacts with EPS15 (MIM 600051), the alpha subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP2 ( ... 2000). "Regulation of complex formation of POB1/epsin/adaptor protein complex 2 by mitotic phosphorylation". J. Biol. Chem. 275 ... Timsit YE, Miller SL, Mohney RP, O'Bryan JP (2005). "The U-box ligase carboxyl-terminus of Hsc 70-interacting protein ... Epsin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPN1 gene. ... as well as with other accessory proteins for the endocytosis of ...

*CUL4A

The DDB1 adaptor protein was initially characterized as the large subunit of a heterodimeric complex (UV-DDB) that was found to ... CUL4A protein is 759 amino acids long and forms an extended, rigid structure primarily consisting of alpha-helices. At the N- ... DDB2 is a DCAF protein and is both a ubiquitination substrate of the CRL4 complex and also serves as an E3 ligase protein for ... The smaller subunit of this Damaged DNA Binding protein complex is known as DDB2 and is able to directly bind DNA lesions ...

*Alpha solenoid

... s feature prominently in the proteins making up the nuclear pore complex (NPC); alpha solenoid and beta propeller ... and its adaptor protein importin alpha is an alpha solenoid formed from Armadillo repeats. Transporters of other molecules, ... For example, regulatory subunit A (also known as PR65) of protein phosphatase 2A is a HEAT-repeat alpha solenoid whose ... "alpha alpha superhelix". The CATH database uses the term "alpha horseshoe" for these proteins, and uses "alpha solenoid" for a ...

*COPI

... consists of seven subunits which compose the heteroheptameric protein complex. The primary function of adaptors is the ... is made ARF binds to the cytosolic side of the cis-Golgi membrane and inserts the myristoylated N-terminal amphipathic alpha- ... COPI is a coatomer, a protein complex that coats vesicles transporting proteins from the cis end of the Golgi complex back to ... The order in which adaptor proteins associate with cargo, or adaptor proteins associate with ARFs is unclear, however, in order ...

*USF2

"Regulation of the nuclear gene that encodes the alpha-subunit of the mitochondrial F0F1-ATP synthase complex. Activation by ... "Novel consensus DNA-binding sequence for BRCA1 protein complexes". Molecular Carcinogenesis. 38 (2): 85-96. doi:10.1002/mc. ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Apr 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Breen GA, Jordan EM (Aug 1999). "Transcriptional activation of the F(1)F(0) ATP synthase alpha-subunit initiator element by ...

*Trimeric autotransporter adhesin

Homotrimerisation is a process whereby three of the same subunits, associate to make a complex of three identical YadA proteins ... "The structure of alpha-helical coiled coils". Adv Protein Chem. Advances in Protein Chemistry. 70: 37-78. doi:10.1016/S0065- ... Function: The function of the neck domain is to be the adaptor between the larger diameter of the beta-helices and the smaller ... First, biogenesis of proteins in the Type V Secretion System (T5SS). Second, it is thought to target the protein to the inner ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Arsenic atom in PDB 1r4x: Crystal Structure Analys of the Gamma-Copi Appendage Domain
VMware Tools for linux exists in 2 forms: the official VMware Tools and Open-VM-Tools. VMware Tools is based on a stable snapshot of Open-VM-Tools. Open-VM-Tools contains more experimental code and features. The official VMware Tools are not available for Archlinux. Originally, VMware Tools provided the best drivers for network and storage, combined with the functionality for other features such as time synchronization. However, for quite a while now the drivers for the network adapter en scsi adapter are part of the linux kernel, and VMware Tools is only needed for extra features and support for the "old" vmxnet adapter. ...
With the release of OS X 10.8.2, Apple disabled USB 2.0 drivers over Thunderbolt. Because many SD-to-SxS adapters use the ExpressCard USB interface, and Qio and Qio E3 support USB-based adapters through the ExpressCard (SxS) slots USB interfaces, the adapters are not recognized under 10.8.2+. Sonnets USB 2.0 Over Thunderbolt Patch for Qio/Qio E3 removes the limitation and allows your adapter to be recognized ...
A word of caution on the DKL mount, many of the DKL to M42 or DKL to K mount adapters are priced in the $35 to $50 range many of them are poorly made with all sorts of failing issues after few usage. I ran through three DKL to M42 adapters to get one good one out of three. They all work initially and after a few mount, they lose the tight mounting or fail to lock the DKL lens into place. ...
A three-piece anastomotic coupling device for end-to-end anastomosis of tubular members consisting of two open bore cylindrical adaptors and an open bore cylindrical connector. Each end of a tubular member is passed through the axial bore of an adaptor and everted over the end thereof. The adaptors are then inserted into opposite ends of the connector until the everted ends of the vessel abut under light compression. Integral locking means are provided to secure the adaptors and tubular members of the connector piece.
The structure of the appendage domain of β2 adaptin is similar to that of α‐adaptin in that it has two subdomains with similar topology, but with a difference of ∼46° in the orientation between the two subdomains. Like the α‐appendage, the β2‐appendage domain binds AP180, epsin and eps15, and therefore is likely to be involved in recruiting proteins involved in controlling CCV formation to sites of coated pit formation in vivo. The two proteins possess a partly conserved binding site of high hydrophobic potential on the C‐terminal platform domain, suggesting that they bind similar motifs i.e. DΦF/W. The binding site residues are also conserved in β1‐adaptin from the adaptor AP1, so this homologue would be predicted to bind the same ligands as β2. Indeed, a GSTβ1 appendage construct does bind to eps15, and weakly to clathrin and epsin (data not shown). Although the α and β2 appendages share some of the same ligands, they bind to them with different relative affinities: the ...
Complete information for NACAP5 gene (Pseudogene), Nascent Polypeptide Associated Complex Alpha Subunit Pseudogene 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
These Stereotaxic Instruments are developed under the guidance of neuroscience experts. The basic U-frame used in this design provides easy access to all-directional operation on the animal and it is mounted directly to the base plate. Various adaptors are available for use with rat, mouse, guinea pig etc.. Because of the large variety in models and accessories the full catalog can be Downloaded here!. ...
Looking for online definition of adaptor complex sigma3B in the Medical Dictionary? adaptor complex sigma3B explanation free. What is adaptor complex sigma3B? Meaning of adaptor complex sigma3B medical term. What does adaptor complex sigma3B mean?
One of our major objectives was to address whether AP-1 is needed for anterograde TGN to EE trafficking of A(F→A)-ALP. It was shown previously that the loss of function of the AP-1 β-subunit Apl2p did not delay the trafficking of A(F→A)-ALP to the PVC and, in fact, accelerated it slightly (Ha et al., 2003). Because it was possible that in apl2 mutants A(F→A)-ALP could reach the PVC by alternative routes, we assessed trafficking in gga1,2Δ apl2-ts and gga1,2Δ apl2-ts end3-ts strains. In both cases, trafficking was markedly accelerated relative to a wild-type strain. A(F→A)-ALP appeared to reach the PVC by the normal TGN→EE→PVC route because a S13A mutation previously shown to prevent EE to PVC transport of A(F→A)-ALP (Johnston et al., 2005) was shown to also block trafficking in the gga1,2Δ apl2-ts strain. Furthermore, secretory pathway function of the gga1,2Δ apl2-ts strain appeared normal, ruling out any large-scale autophagic transport of TGN membranes to the vacuole that ...
You can expect to find around four sockets in an average room in a house. Although this is enough for most purposes, an increase in the use of computers, games consoles and other appliances has led to the number of sockets being needed in an average room to increase to eight. Extension leads and adaptors often provide a quick and easy solution but, in reality, these leads and adaptors are often misused, and can present a very real danger. In extreme cases they can overheat, which can cause a fire ...
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fiber optical adapter are the key to admixture cilia into a chestnut infrastructure, accurate it attainable to alluvion a belted acclimation to cilia while extending the advantageous action of complete infrastructure. In this article, we about board abutting acclimation for cilia media converter, as cilia optical adapter may arise in a great acclimation of types, the methods for abutting may depend on the specific condition.Since there are abounding altered types of cilia connectors accept been developed, we will allocution about cilia optic adapter in adequately accepted terms ...
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Component of the adaptor complexes which link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration. Ap47 is a subunit of the plasma membrane adaptor (By similarity). In concert with the BLOC-1 complex, AP-3 is required to target cargos into vesicles assembled at cell bodies for delivery into neurites and nerve terminals.
Tor2 is an activator of the Rom2/Rho1 pathway that regulates α-factor internalization. Since the recruitment of endocytic proteins such as actin binding proteins and the amphiphysins precedes the internalization of α-factor, I hypothesized that loss of Tor function leads to an alteration in the dynamics of the endocytic proteins. I report here that endocytic proteins, Abp1 and Rvs167, are less recruited to endocytic sites not only in tor2 but also tor1 mutants. Furthermore, I found that the endocytic proteins Rvs167 and Sjl2 are completely mistargeted to the cytoplasm in tor1∆tor2ts double mutant cells. I also demonstrate here that the efficiency of endocytic internalization or scission in all tor mutants was drastically decreased. In agreement with the Sjl2 mislocalization, I found that in tor1∆tor2ts double mutant cells, as well as other tor mutant cells, the overall PIP2 level was dramatically increased. Finally, the cell wall chitin content in tor2ts and tor1∆tor2ts mutant cells was also
The endocytic pathway is essential for cell homeostasis and numerous small GTPase Rab have been involved in its control. The endocytic trafficking step controlled by Rab4b has not been elucidated although recent data suggested it could be important for glucose homeostasis, synaptic homeostasis, or adaptative immunity. Here we show that Rab4b is required for early endosome sorting of transferrin receptors (TfR) to the recycling endosomes and we identified the AP1γ subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-1 as a Rab4b effector and key component of the machinery of early endosomes sorting. We show that internalized transferrin (Tf) does not reach Vamp3/Rab11 recycling endosomes in absence of Rab4b while it is rapidly recycled back to the plasma membrane. On the contrary, Rab4b overexpression leads to the accumulation of internalized Tf within AP-1 and clathrin-coated vesicles. These vesicles are poor in early and recycling endocytic markers except TfR and require AP1γ for their formation. Furthermore, ...
There are 4 different subunits (as illustrated in the model above based on the crystal structure) and thus they are sometimes called polymeric or hetrotetrameric adaptors. The trunk domain binds to membranes and to cargo via the mu and beta subunits. The appendage domains (sometimes called Ears) bind to accessory proteins. Structures of a number of appendage domains have been solved and binding motifs and partners characterised (see appendages). The hinge domains bind to clathrin terminal domains. AP1, AP3 and AP4 adaptors have similar subunit compositions and bind to different cargo and accessory proteins (see Adaptor table 1). ...
EpsinR is a clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) enriched 70-kD protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, clathrin, and the gamma appendage domain of the adaptor protein complex 1 (AP1). In cells, its distribution overlaps with the perinuclear pool of clathrin and AP1 adaptors. Overexpression disrupts the CCV-dependent trafficking of cathepsin D from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes and the incorporation of mannose-6-phosphate receptors into CCVs. These biochemical and cell biological data point to a role for epsinR in AP1/clathrin budding events in the cell, just as epsin1 is involved in the budding of AP2 CCVs. Furthermore, we show that two gamma appendage domains can simultaneously bind to epsinR with affinities of 0.7 and 45 microM, respectively. Thus, potentially, two AP1 complexes can bind to one epsinR. This high affinity binding allowed us to identify a consensus binding motif of the form DFxDF, which we also find in gamma-synergin and use to predict that an uncharacterized EF-hand
Looking for online definition of Golgi adaptor HA1/AP1 adaptin sigma-1C subunit in the Medical Dictionary? Golgi adaptor HA1/AP1 adaptin sigma-1C subunit explanation free. What is Golgi adaptor HA1/AP1 adaptin sigma-1C subunit? Meaning of Golgi adaptor HA1/AP1 adaptin sigma-1C subunit medical term. What does Golgi adaptor HA1/AP1 adaptin sigma-1C subunit mean?
Characterization of clathrin-coated vesicles isolated from MPR-deficient fibroblasts. The material contained in fractions 8 to 10 of the density gradients sho
A baby hamster kidney (BHK) cell has a surface area of 3,400 micrometres². Assume that the endocyte clathrin-coated pits account for 2% of this area and that the surface area of a single coated pit is the same of that of a 100nm diameter clathrin coated vesicle that will be formed from it. If the cell surface has 100,000 transferrin receptors, around 70% are localised within coated pits: work out how many coated pits there are ...
Looking for coated pit? Find out information about coated pit. A cell surface depression that is coated with clathrin on its cytoplasmic surface and functions in receptor-mediated endocytosis Explanation of coated pit
At the time of writing, the latest Intel driver version is 15.1.1 and it is unusable for packet capturing. TamoSoft notified Intel about this bug on November 1, 2011. Intel acknowledged the bug, but refused to fix it. If your driver version is affected, please download and install version 13.5.0.0 (these are original, signed Intel installation files):. Intel Wi-Fi Drivers for Windows 7 and 8 (32-bit). Intel Wi-Fi Drivers for Windows 7 and 8 (64-bit). Intel Wi-Fi Drivers for Windows Vista (32-bit). Intel Wi-Fi Drivers for Windows Vista (64-bit). Intel 1000, 3945, 4965, 5100, 5150, 5300, 5350, 6200, 6250, 6300, 6350 adapters are NOT supported on Windows 10.. ...
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Caribherp contains information on amphibians and reptiles of the Caribbean Islands (West Indies). It serves as a checklist of what occurs in the region as well as a quick identification guide to the species. Approximately 2000 images and maps, and selected frog calls (sounds), are presented along with an integrated open-access journal, Caribbean Herpetology. The journal accepts color images and video and currently publishes brief communications on individual species-later volumes will include full research articles. The species accounts can be sorted in many ways. About 750 species are recognized from the region and covered here.
Component of the adaptor complexes which link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles (By similarity). Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration (By similarity). AP50 is a subunit of the plasma membrane adaptor (By similarity). Essential wnt/egl-20 signaling protein that functions in wnt/egl-20-producing cells (PubMed:18160346, PubMed:18160347). Required for the AP-2 complex-mediated endocytosis of membrane proteins including wntless homolog mig-14 in egl-20-producing cells (PubMed:18160346, PubMed:18160347). During development, regulates the migration of HSN neurons and the left and right Q neuroblasts (QL and QR, respectively) and their descendants, possibly through hox gene and wnt/egl-20 gene target mab-5, and plays a role in establishing ALM and PLM neuronal cell polarity (PubMed:18160346). Required for the asymmetric divisions of V5 cells (PubMed:18160346).
During clathrin-mediated endocytosis, it has been thought that the sensing and binding of the clathrin adaptor protein AP2 to cargo and lipids leads to the recruitment of clathrin, nucleating the formation of a clathrin-coated pit. Henne et al. have now found that this process of AP2 binding may not in fact represent either the first or the nucleation event of endocytosis. Instead, ubiquitous proteins called FCHo1/2 (F-BAR proteins) bind to the plasma membrane and define the sites of endocytosis independently of AP2. The F-BAR protein can generate very low curvatures and, at higher concentrations, generates higher curvatures like those required at the neck of budding vesicles. The C terminus of the protein has a μ-homology domain (with homology to the μ domain of the AP2 complex) that interacts with Eps15 and intersectin and via these proteins recruits AP2, which further recruits clathrin. Thus, a curvature-inducing protein can act to nucleate clathrin-coated pit assembly during ...
Formation of clathrin-coated vesicles, important in endocytosis, relies on accessory proteins assembled by adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2). Here, mass spectrometry and crystallization identifies proteins recruited by AP2s β-appendage for this purpose.
Theres also focus issues with lens adapters as you have 3 potential places for de-focus: the front lens, the back focus on the adapter, and the stock lens. When youre running and gunning, this can really slow things down. If I can have it my way, Im going to burden my brain with as few hardware related thoughts as possible so I can focus on making effective creative decisions. I think Lens Adapters are a great solution but can also be a lot of headaches (and back aches!). Because the Pro35 bypasses the stocks lens and has such precise controls, I found it to be a lot more comfortable to operate and with less things to worry my brain about. With the Zacuto plate, shoulder pad, and handles, the rig effortlessly went from studio mode to handheld as fast as we could get it off the sticks. That was awesome. Definitely the biggest issue with this setup is the crop factor. Without a real relay lens, your 18mm is more like a 35 or a 40. Thats wide but not really wide enough in a tight space or if ...
Our study provides evidence for a new role of Src in the phosphorylation of the clathrin adaptor complex AP-2 (via the phosphorylation of the β-subunit, i.e. β2-adaptin). We identify Y737 in the ear domain of β2-adaptin as an important Src target. We show that this residue represents a regulatory site for controlling the dissociation of β-arrestin from AP-2 in clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Our results not only extend the pleiotropic function of Src in GPCR internalization, but also highlight the importance of receptor-dependent signaling in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of AT1R.. β-arrestins are multifunctional adaptors involved in the endocytosis and signaling of many GPCRs (Claing et al., 2002; Lefkowitz, 1998). They have been shown to target receptors to CCPs through binding to clathrin and the β-subunit of AP-2 (Goodman, Jr et al., 1996; Laporte et al., 1999), and to act as signal transducers by recruiting different kinases to GPCRs (Luttrell and Luttrell, 2004). We have previously ...
Component of the adaptor complexes which link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration. AP50 is a subunit of the plasma membrane adaptor. The complex binds polyphosphoinositide-containing lipids. [-] ...
In vitro studies showed the minimal requirements for association of AP-1 to liposomal membranes to be activated ARF1, phosphoinositides, and either sorting signals or unknown cytosolic factors. We have used a liposome floatation assay to identify cytosolic proteins collaborating with AP-1 at the membrane. Separation of proteins from bovine brain cytosol with several chromatographic methods yielded an active fraction containing amphiphysin 1, amphiphysin 2, and endophilin A1. All three proteins are expressed in brain and known to be involved in AP-2/clathrin coat formation. They consist of an N-terminal N-BAR (Bin, amphiphysin, Rvs) domain for dimerization and membrane binding and a C-terminal SH3 (Src homology 3) domain for interaction with dynamin and synaptojanin. Amphiphysin 1 and 2 in addition contain a middle domain with binding sites for adaptors and clathrin. It was proposed that amphiphysins and endophilin are targeted to membranes with high curvature, such as the neck of a forming ...
In the nerve terminal, synaptic vesicles are docked on an active zone of 200-300 nm in diameter, in which VGCCs are thought to be inserted within a distance of 20-200 nm from synaptic vesicles (Neher, 1998; Meinrenken et al., 2002). Ca2+ entry through 1-60 VGCCs (Stanley, 1993; Borst and Sakmann, 1996) can trigger single vesicle fusion for exocytic release of neurotransmitter. After fusion, a variety of endocytic proteins are assembled for clathrin-mediated vesicle endocytosis, in which the adaptor protein AP-2 plays an essential role (Schmid, 1997). Our present results suggest that VGCC synprint sites anchor a fraction of AP-2 complex, which is likely linked to the plasma membrane via interactions with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (McPherson et al., 2008). This synprint-AP-2 interaction occurs for both N- and P/Q-type VGCCs but is not entirely universal because VGCCs in invertebrates such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans lack synprint sites (Littleton and Ganetzky, 2000; ...
Katya Heldwein, PhD, Principal Investigator. Katya received her PhD from Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, OR where she studied ligand recognition by bacterial transcription regulators using x-ray crystallography in the laboratory of Richard Brennan. She then did her postdoctoral work at Harvard Medical School in the laboratory of Stephen Harrison where she initially worked on clathrin adaptor complexes and later delved into herpesvirus cell entry. She opened her own laboratory at Tufts University School of Medicine in the Fall of 2006.. ...
Coated pit: …of the membrane called a coated pit, which is lined by a special protein known as clathrin. As the coated pit invaginates, it is pinched off in the cytoplasm to form a coated vesicle. The coated vesicle fuses with cytoplasmic endosomes (membrane-enclosed vesicles) and then with cell organelles called lysosomes,…
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AP2A2 (adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)AP2A2 (adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)

adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit. Synonyms: 2410074K14Rik, Adtab, alpha-adaptin C, alpha-C adaptin, L25. Gene ... OMIM: ADAPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN COMPLEX 2, ALPHA-2 SUBUNIT; AP2A2*Gene Ontology: Ap2a2 *Mouse Phenome DB: Ap2a2 *UCSC: Chr.7: ...
more infohttps://www.komp.org/geneinfo.php?geneid=23440

Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, mu 1 Subunit (AP2M1) ELISA KitsAdaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, mu 1 Subunit (AP2M1) ELISA Kits

Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, alpha 2 Subunit ELISA Kits * Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, alpha 1 Subunit ELISA Kits ... adapter-related protein complex 2 mu subunit , adaptin-mu2 , adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu , clathrin adaptor complex ... adaptor related protein complex 2 mu 1 subunit (AP2M1) Elisa Kit * adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit, a (ap2m1a) ... adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit (Ap2m1) Elisa Kit * adaptor related protein complex 2 mu 1 subunit L homeolog ( ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/egfr-signaling-pathway-pathway-26/ap2m1-elisa-kit-1886/

The central proline rich region of POB1/REPS2 plays a regulatory role in epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis by...The central proline rich region of POB1/REPS2 plays a regulatory role in epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis by...

Regulation of complex formation of POB1/epsin/adaptor protein complex 2 by mitotic phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2000, 275 (24 ... alpha}1-subunit phosphorylation signal into binding and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase during endocytosis. J Biol Chem ... Ward RJ, Milligan G: A key serine for the GTPase-activating protein function of regulator of G protein signaling proteins is ... The proteins recognized by the EH domain of POB1 are: Epsin [5], Nf-kB [9] and Eps15 [28, 4]. The proteins interacting with the ...
more infohttps://bmcbiochem.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2091-9-21

AP2A2 Gene - GeneCards | AP2A2 Protein | AP2A2 AntibodyAP2A2 Gene - GeneCards | AP2A2 Protein | AP2A2 Antibody

Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 2 Alpha 2 Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). Adaptor protein complexes function in protein transport via transport ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). Adaptor protein complexes function in protein transport via transport ... AP2A2 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 2 Alpha 2 Subunit) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Metabolism ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=AP2A2

AP2A1 Gene - GeneCards | AP2A1 Protein | AP2A1 AntibodyAP2A1 Gene - GeneCards | AP2A1 Protein | AP2A1 Antibody

Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 2 Subunit Alpha 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). Adaptor protein complexes function in protein transport via transport ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). Adaptor protein complexes function in protein transport via transport ... AP2A1 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 2 Subunit Alpha 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Glutamate ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=AP2A1

Notch Signaling | www.antibodies-online.comNotch Signaling | www.antibodies-online.com

This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. The AP ... alpha or beta), a medium adaptin (mu), and a small adaptin (sigma). The complex is part of the protein coat on the cytoplasmic ... This gene encodes and ADAM family member that cleaves many proteins including TNF-alpha and E-cadherin. [provided by RefSeq, ... FBXW7 Proteins NEDD4 (Neural Precursor Cell Expressed, Developmentally Down-Regulated 4, E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase): NEDD4 ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/notch-signaling-pathway-14/

Notch Signalweg | www.antikoerper-online.deNotch Signalweg | www.antikoerper-online.de

This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. The AP ... alpha or beta), a medium adaptin (mu), and a small adaptin (sigma). The complex is part of the protein coat on the cytoplasmic ... This gene encodes and ADAM family member that cleaves many proteins including TNF-alpha and E-cadherin. [provided by RefSeq, ... The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/notch-signalweg-pathway-14/

Gene InfoGene Info

adaptor protein complex AP-2, alpha 1 subunit. Protein Similarities Based on Shared Motif Content. ... CC] protein complex *[CC] secretory granule *[MF] protein C-terminus binding *[MF] protein binding *[MF] protein transporter ... CC] clathrin adaptor complex *[CC] coated pit *[CC] membrane *[CC] membrane coat *[CC] plasma membrane *[ ... BP] intracellular protein transport *[BP] protein transport *[BP] transport *[BP] vesicle-mediated transport *[CC] apical ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GeneInfo?ORG=Mm&CID=6877&LLNO=11771

Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of the Retinoschisin-Deficient Retina in Early Postnatal Mouse Development | IOVS | ARVO...Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of the Retinoschisin-Deficient Retina in Early Postnatal Mouse Development | IOVS | ARVO...

Interferon, alpha-inducible protein. Immune response. −1.9. Mm.253090. Ap2a2 Adaptor protein complex AP-2, alpha 2 subunit. ... Interferon, alpha-inducible protein. Immune response. −1.9. Mm.253090. Ap2a2 Adaptor protein complex AP-2, alpha 2 subunit. ... TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein. Immune response. 2.3c. Mm.38498. Krt1-15 Keratin complex 1, acidic, gene 15. ... TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein. Immune response. 2.3c. Mm.38498. Krt1-15 Keratin complex 1, acidic, gene 15. ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2125414

KIAA1107 - AP2-interacting clathrin-endocytosis protein - Homo sapiens (Human) - KIAA1107 gene & proteinKIAA1107 - AP2-interacting clathrin-endocytosis protein - Homo sapiens (Human) - KIAA1107 gene & protein

Subunit structurei. Interacts (via N-terminus) with adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunits alpha (AP2A1) and beta (AP2B1).1 ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ... with other proteins or protein complexes.,p>,a href=/help/interaction_section target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Interactioni. ,p> ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9UPP5

Characterization of  clathrin-coated vesicles isolated  | Open-iCharacterization of clathrin-coated vesicles isolated | Open-i

Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits. *Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits. *Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport ... Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits. *Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits. *Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport ... When analyzed by SDS-PAGE followed by protein staining, the dense fractions exhibited the typical protein profile of purified ... When analyzed by SDS-PAGE followed by protein staining, the dense fractions exhibited the typical protein profile of purified ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2139777_JCB.laborgne6&req=4

Paired pulse ratio  at the preformed synapse  (circles) | Open-iPaired pulse ratio at the preformed synapse (circles) | Open-i

Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits. *Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport. *Animals. *Axons/secretion ... synaptic vesicles involved in neurotransmitter release along the axon contain a complement of proteins for vesicle docking and ... synaptic vesicles involved in neurotransmitter release along the axon contain a complement of proteins for vesicle docking and ... synaptic vesicles involved in neurotransmitter release along the axon contain a complement of proteins for vesicle docking and ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2132923_JCB9811027.f12&req=4

GO Gene ListGO Gene List

... alpha 2 subunit. NM_001242837. NM_012305. Gene Info. AP2M1. Adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit. NM_004068. NM_ ... ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9). NM_005175. NM_001002027. Gene Info. ... ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9). NM_001002031. NM_005176. Gene Info. ... ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C3 (subunit 9). NM_001190329. NM_001002258. NM_001689. Gene ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GoGeneQuery?PAGE=1&ORG=Hs&GOID=0008289

Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 - WikipediaAdaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 - Wikipedia

This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles ... "Entrez Gene: AP2A1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit". Nishimura, Takashi; Fukata Yuko; Kato Katsuhiro; ... Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with DPYSL2 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A1 gene. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptor-related_protein_complex_2,_alpha_1

ELM - Browse/Search classesELM - Browse/Search classes

... responsible for the binding of accessory endocytic proteins to the appendage of the alpha-subunit of adaptor protein complex AP ... Tyrosine-based sorting signal responsible for the interaction with mu subunit of AP (Adaptor Protein) complex. Y..[LMVIF] 15. 1 ... DPF/W motif binds alpha and beta subunits of AP2 adaptor complex.. DP[FW] 54. 2. ... A binding site for IRF-3 protein present in various innate adaptor proteins and the viral protein NSP1to trigger the innate ...
more infohttp://elm.eu.org/elms

Merging microarray data from separate breast cancer studies provides a robust prognostic test | BMC Bioinformatics | Full TextMerging microarray data from separate breast cancer studies provides a robust prognostic test | BMC Bioinformatics | Full Text

adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit. 41, 63. 202324_s_at ... and protein) expression data is generated and made publicly available, modeling the interactions among genes (and gene products ... assessment of the expression of thousands of genes in a single experiment could allow better understanding of the complex and ...
more infohttps://bmcbioinformatics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2105-9-125

AP2B1 adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBIAP2B1 adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI

011522753.1 AP-2 complex subunit beta isoform X2. Conserved Domains (4) summary. smart00809. Location:717 → 811. Alpha_ ... adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit beta. adaptor related protein complex 2 beta 1 subunit. adaptor-related protein complex 2 ... AP-2 complex subunit beta. Names. adapter-related protein complex 2 beta subunit. adapter-related protein complex 2 subunit ... AP2B1 adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1 [Homo sapiens] AP2B1 adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1 [ ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/163

Gene Report for G00001918 - Genes2Cognition Neuroscience Research ProgrammeGene Report for G00001918 - Genes2Cognition Neuroscience Research Programme

adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit. Orthologue. G00000669 (Mus musculus). *Databases (7) ... This region is sufficient to confer Dab2 binding to the alpha-adaptin subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein, AP-2. ... but not mu2-subunit, of the AP-2 complex. Indeed, an appendage domain of alpha-adaptin was identified as a protein interacting ... The AP-1 adaptor complex is associated with the TGN, where it links selected membrane proteins to the clathrin lattice, ...
more infohttp://www.genes2cognition.org/db/Gene/G00001918

Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBIAp1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBI

Alpha_adaptinC2; Adaptin C-terminal domain. sd00044. Location:142 → 163. HEAT; HEAT repeat [structural motif]. pfam01602. ... AP-1 complex subunit gamma-1. Names. adapter-related protein complex 1 subunit gamma-1. adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit ... Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [Mus musculus] Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [Mus ... adaptor-related protein complex 1 subunit gamma-1. clathrin assembly protein complex 1 gamma-1 large chain. gamma-adaptin. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/?term=11765

Microarray Analysis of Differential Gene Expression Profile in Peripheral Blood Cells of Patients with Human Essential...Microarray Analysis of Differential Gene Expression Profile in Peripheral Blood Cells of Patients with Human Essential...

adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit. 1.679690033. 2.941687252. 107.3708967. 234989_at. NCRNA00084. non-protein ... major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 /// major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 2. -1.61069578 ... fucosidase, alpha-L- 1, tissue. 1.755214914. 2.545112036. 107.3708967. 205594_at. ZNF652. zinc finger protein 652. 1.8699841. ... Interestingly, "Major histocompatibility complex class II receptor activity (MHC), Immune response and MHC class II protein ...
more infohttp://www.medsci.org/v08p0168.htm

AP2A2 - WikipediaAP2A2 - Wikipedia

"Entrez Gene: AP2A2 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit". Chen H, Fre S, Slepnev VI, Capua MR, Takei K, Butler MH ... AP-2 complex subunit alpha-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A2 gene. AP2A2 has been shown to interact with ... Robinson MS (Mar 1989). "Cloning of cDNAs encoding two related 100-kD coated vesicle proteins (alpha-adaptins)". The Journal of ... the cytoplasmic domains of human and simian retroviral transmembrane proteins with components of the clathrin adaptor complexes ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AP2A2

IMP: Integrative Multi-species PredictionIMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction

adaptor protein complex AP-2, alpha 2 subunit. (Aliases: Adtab,2410074K14Rik,C78001,AF006990,L25,AW146353) ... transmembrane receptor protein serine threonine kinase signaling pathway. GO:0007178. 194. 0.015. ... adenylate cyclase modulating g protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. GO:0007188. 54. 0.013. ...
more infohttp://imp.princeton.edu/predictions/gene/mouse-context-global/70862/

IMP: Integrative Multi-species PredictionIMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction

gap junction protein, alpha 1. 0.153. Ap2a1. adaptor protein complex AP-2, alpha 1 subunit. 0.150. ... adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 2. 0.395. ... establishment of protein localization to membrane. The directed movement of a protein to a specific location in a membrane. ... The network for establishment of protein localization to membrane in your query organism is displayed on the left, if ...
more infohttp://imp.princeton.edu/predictions/process_ortho/mouse-context-global/8388/

t(11;14)(p15;q22) AP2A2/NID2t(11;14)(p15;q22) AP2A2/NID2

RP11-51L17 contains the AP2A2 (adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit) gene and RP11-963I11 the NID2 (Nidogen 2) ... Protein. The protein has 939 amino acids. It is a component of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) (Ohno, 2006). AP-2 is ... Arkadia complexes with clathrin adaptor AP2 and regulates EGF signalling.. Mizutani A, Saitoh M, Imamura T, Miyazawa K, ... Protein. The NID2 gene encodes a 1375 amino acids protein that is a member of the nidogen family of basement membranes that ...
more infohttp://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Anomalies/t1114p15q22ID1677.html

Adaptin evolution in kinetoplastids and emergence of the variant surface glycoprotein coat in African trypanosomatids. - Oxford...Adaptin evolution in kinetoplastids and emergence of the variant surface glycoprotein coat in African trypanosomatids. - Oxford...

We find multiple secondary losses of AP complexes, but that loss of AP2 is restricted to T. brucei and closest relatives. ... Here we identify the AP complex gene cohorts of all available kinetoplastid genomes and a new Trypanosoma grayi genome. ... While the precise molecular basis for an extreme CME flux is unknown, genes encoding the AP2 complex, central to CME in most ... Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits, Antigenic Variation, Evolution, Molecular, Genome, Protozoan, HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins ...
more infohttps://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/384746
  • Simultaneous assessment of the expression of thousands of genes in a single experiment could allow better understanding of the complex and heterogeneous molecular properties of breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The levels of C - reactive protein were higher in hypertensive patients than normotensives and inflammation-related genes were increased as well. (medsci.org)
  • Essential hypertension has been recognized as a complex, multifactorial, polygenic trait which involves multiple modulating genes and environmental factors. (medsci.org)
  • While the precise molecular basis for an extreme CME flux is unknown, genes encoding the AP2 complex, central to CME in most organisms, are absent from T. brucei, suggesting a mechanistic divergence in trypanosome CME. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The adrenergic receptor kinase 1 ( ADRBK 1), thromboxane A2 receptor ( TBXA 2 R ) and vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGFA ) regulatory (r) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the potential stimulating protein-1 (SP1) and Kruppel-like factor-4 (KLF4) transcriptional factor binding sites (TFBS) within these genes are in linkage disequilibrium (LD). (scirp.org)
  • Four of the verified genes (solute carrier family 9 isoform 3 regulator 1 (Slc9a3r1), sorbitol dehydrogenase 1, a kinase anchor protein, and glutathione S-transferase alpha 4) were induced. (springer.com)
  • Two genes (proteasome subunit, beta type 10 and adaptor-related protein complex AP-4 sigma 1) were suppressed. (springer.com)
  • We also identified eight growth factors and growth factor receptor genes that are significantly altered by each of the HDIs, including Frizzled related proteins 1 and 4, which modulate the Wnt signaling pathway. (springer.com)
  • Title: Proteomic analysis identifies dysfunction in cellular transport, energy, and protein metabolism in different brain regions of atypical frontotemporal lobar degeneration. (nih.gov)
  • The highly-conserved Notch signaling pathway is unique, as both the Notch receptor and most of its respective ligands (canonically the DSL or Delta/Serrate/lag-2 family members) are transmembrane proteins attached to the cell surface. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Gannon, A.M., Turner, E.C., Reid, H.M. and Kinsella, B.T. (2009) Regulated Expression of the Alpha Isoform of the Human Thromboxane A2 Receptor during Megakaryocyte Differentiation: A Coordinated Role for WT1, Egr1, and Sp1. (scirp.org)
  • Knockdown of Rbp1 caused a similar microcephaly phenotype as the depletion of Nosip and synergy experiments indicated that both proteins act in the same signalling pathway. (xenbase.org)
  • p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • A critical function of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein is the downregulation of CD4 from the surfaces of infected cells. (genes2cognition.org)
  • section specifies the position(s) and type(s) of zinc fingers within the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • This degron overlaps a PCNA interaction protein (PIP) box and is recognised by the CRL4 Cdt2 ubiquitin ligase in a PCNA- and chromatin-dependent manner. (eu.org)
  • This degron, occurring in non-Vertebrates, overlaps a PCNA interaction protein (PIP) box and is recognised by the CRL4 Cdt2 ubiquitin ligase in a PCNA- and chromatin-dependent manner. (eu.org)
  • This short C-terminal motif is present in co-activators, the Doc1/APC10 subunit and some substrates of the APC/C and mediates direct binding to TPR-containing APC/C core subunits. (eu.org)
  • This encoded protein is a calcium-dependent serine endoprotease that can efficiently cleave precursor proteins at their paired basic amino acid processing sites. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The members of this family are proprotein convertases that process latent precursor proteins into their biologically active products. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • This cooperativity explains how Nef is able to efficiently downregulate CD4 despite weak binary interactions between components of the tripartite complex. (genes2cognition.org)