An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.
The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.
A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that play a role in the coupling of SYNDECANS to CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
A macromolecular complex of proteins that includes DYSTROPHIN and DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. It plays a structural role in the linking the CYTOSKELETON to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.
Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signalling and activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.

The adaptor protein AP-4 as a component of the clathrin coat machinery: a morphological study. (1/10)

The four members of the AP (adaptor protein) family are heterotetrameric cytosolic complexes that are involved in the intracellular trafficking of cargo proteins between different organelles. They interact with motifs present in the cytoplasmic tails of their specific cargo proteins at different intracellular locations. While AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 have been investigated extensively, very few studies have focused on the fourth member, AP-4. In the present study, we report on the intracellular localization of AP-4 in the MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) and MelJuSo cell lines after immunogold labelling of ultrathin cryosections. We find that AP-4 is localized mainly in the Golgi complex, as well as on endosomes and transport vesicles. Interestingly, we show for the first time that AP-4 is localized with the clathrin coat machinery in the Golgi complex and in the endocytic pathway. Furthermore, we find that AP-4 is localized with the CI-MPR (cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor), but not with the transferrin receptor, LAMP-2 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2) or invariant chain. The difference in morphology between CI-MPR/AP-4-positive vesicles and CI-MPR/AP-1-positive vesicles raises the possibility that AP-4 acts at a location different from that of AP-1 in the intracellular trafficking pathway of CI-MPR.  (+info)

Accumulation of AMPA receptors in autophagosomes in neuronal axons lacking adaptor protein AP-4. (2/10)

 (+info)

AP-4: autophagy-four mislocalized proteins in axons. (3/10)

Neurons are highly polarized cells composed of two distinct domains, the axon and the somatodendritic domain. Although AMPA-type glutamate receptors, which mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission in the vertebrate CNS, are preferentially expressed in the somatodendritic domain, the molecular mechanisms underlying such polarized distribution have remained elusive. We recently demonstrated that adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) binds to transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs), thereby mediating the selective trafficking of AMPA receptors to the somatodendritic domain; genetic disruption of AP-4 (AP-4beta(-/-)), results in the mislocalization of TARPs and AMPA receptors in the axons. Similarly, low-density lipoprotein receptors and delta2 glutamate receptors are mislocalized in axons, while other cargos, such as NMDA receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors, are properly excluded from AP-4beta(-/-) axons. These findings indicate that there exist AP-4-dependent and -independent sorting mechanisms. Unexpectedly, mislocalized AMPA receptors do not reach the cell surface and accumulate in autophagosomes in the bulging portions of AP-4beta(-/-) axons. Several lines of evidence indicate that mislocalized AMPA receptors activate the autophagic pathway. Since increased autophagy and axonal swelling are suggested to occur in various neuronal disorders, further studies using AP-4beta(-/-) mice are warranted to understand the mechanisms regulating autophagy in axons.  (+info)

Mutation in the AP4M1 gene provides a model for neuroaxonal injury in cerebral palsy. (4/10)

 (+info)

Sorting of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein mediated by the AP-4 complex. (5/10)

 (+info)

Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) deficiency causes a novel autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome with microcephaly and intellectual disability. (6/10)

 (+info)

Adaptor protein complex 4 deficiency causes severe autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, progressive spastic paraplegia, shy character, and short stature. (7/10)

 (+info)

Breast cancer cells proliferation is regulated by tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 through c-jun N-terminal kinase and cooperative induction of RFX-1 and AP-4 transcription factors. (8/10)

 (+info)

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it.Ok ...
Background Cerebral palsy is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental brain disorders resulting in motor and posture impairments often associated with cognitive, sensorial, and behavioural disturbances. Hypoxic-ischaemic injury, long considered the most frequent causative factor, accounts for fewer than 10% of cases, whereas a growing body of evidence suggests that diverse genetic abnormalities likely play a major role. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Fe65 protein family. It is an adaptor protein localized in the nucleus. It interacts with the Alzheimers disease amyloid precursor protein (APP), transcription factor CP2/LSF/LBP1 and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. APP functions as a cytosolic anchoring site that can prevent the gene products nuclear translocation. This encoded protein could play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease. It is thought to regulate transcription. Also it is observed to block cell cycle progression by downregulating thymidylate synthase expression. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene ...
RFX-01/02 | GeneFiX™ RFX RNA Saliva Collectors (Includes funnel, tube filled w/ 1ml stabilisation buffer, supplied w/ 2.2mg Proteinase K, 0.2ml Precipitation buffer & instruction manual).
Numerous transmembrane proteins, including the blood pressure regulating angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and the Alzheimers disease amyloid precursor protein (APP), are proteolytically shed from the plasma membrane by metalloproteases. We have used an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) approach to delineate the role of ADAM10 and tumour necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE; ADAM17) in the ectodomain shedding of ACE and APP from human SH-SY5Y cells. Although the ADAM10 ASO and TACE ASO significantly reduced (, 81%) their respective mRNA levels and reduced the α-secretase shedding of APP by 60% and 30%, respectively, neither ASO reduced the shedding of ACE. The mercurial compound 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA) stimulated the shedding of ACE but not of APP. The APMA-stimulated secretase cleaved ACE at the same Arg-Ser bond in the juxtamembrane stalk as the constitutive secretase but was more sensitive to inhibition by a hydroxamate-based compound. The APMA-activated shedding of ACE ...
OXYGEN BOOSTING COMPLEX- SKIN TYPES/CONDITIONS: Resistant, Slow to Respond to Treatment, Sluggish, Chronically-Stressed, Over Age 30, Exposed to Tobac
This outcome measure will evaluate a difference in the level of MSDX Complex-1 form the baseline visit to the 6-month visit. MSDX Complex-1 is a biomarker for MS disease activity and its change should correspond with a change in the disease activity in MS ...
Biopeptide Complex- Obsahuje jedinečnú kombináciu oligo- a polypeptidov, ktoré zaručujú okamžitú a dlhodobú hydratáciu všetkých vrstiev kože. Výsledkom ich používania v kozmetike je pružné telo, výplň rýh a nerovností. Peptidy slúžia na prenos aktívnych látok do hĺbky kože. Majú energetizujúce vlastnosti, stimulujú bunky kože k tvorbe kolagénu a elastínu. Pomáhajú bojovať proti pigmentovým škvrnám, rozjasňujú a vyrovnávajú farbu pleti.. Retinol - má intenzívny protivráskový účinok. Stimuluje regeneráciu kožných buniek a tvorbu kolagénu, redukuje vznik drobných a hlbších vrások a pigmentových škvŕn, ktoré vznikajú v dôsledku prirodzeného starnutia a fotostarnutiapokožky. Okrem toho pomáha sťahovať rozšírené póry, koriguje nedokonalosti a zjednocuje farebný tón pleti.. Vitamín E- brzdí procesy starnutia pleti, hydratuje, vyhladzuje a zmäkčuje pokožku. Znižuje škodlivé pôsobenie slnečného žiarenia na kožné ...
سابقه و هدف: آستنوزوسپرمی به ­عنوان شایع ­ترین اختلال منجر به ناباروری مردان، به­ صورت کمبود شدید حرکت پیش­رونده‌ی اسپرم در هر انزال تعریف می­ شود. این فنوتیپ می­ تواند هم به­صورت غیرسندرومی و هم به ­صورت سندرومی وجود داشته باشد که در حالت دوم به ­عنوان یک عارضه جانبی سندروم مژک ...
سلول­ های بنیادی سلول­ های تمایز نیافته با قابلیت تقسیم و تمایز به انواع مختلف سلول­ ها می باشند. منبع این سلول­ ها از جنین و افراد بالغ تأمین می­ شود که هر کدام ویژگی­ های خاص خود را دارند. برای حدوداً چندین دهه مطالعه­ های تجربی به­ منظور استفاده از این ...
امروزه در صنعت برق از جعبه­های الکتریکی به منظور نگهداری سیم­ها و اتصالات به گستردگی استفاده می­شود. دسته­ای از انواع این جعبه­های الکتریکی، جعبه­های فلزی هستند که در طول زمان ممکن است در معرض زنگ­زدگی قرار بگیرند. بنابراین، کنترل کیفیت و پایش قابلیت اطمینان در تولید این جعبه­ها به یک چالش مهم ...
سابقه و هدف: سلول­ های بنیادی اسپرماتوگونی با حفظ تعادل بین خودنوسازی و تمایز سبب تداوم روند اسپرماتوژنز می­ شوند. هدف از انجام مطالعه حاضر بررسی تاثیر غلظت­ های مختلف تستوسترون بر کلونی‌زایی سلول­ های بنیادی اسپرماتوگونی گوسفند می‌باشد. مواد و روش‌ها: سلول­ های اسپرماتوگونی بیضه گوسفند نابالغ با روش هضم آنزیمی دو ...
不動産担保ローンは無担保のローンに比べ金利が安い - 所有している不動産を担保にして借り入れをする不動産担保ローンは 無担保のローンに比べると 不動産の価値にもよりますが 金利が安く 融資額が大きい 長期の借り入れが可能などのメリットがあります》 融資額の内容は所有している […] ...
In the nerve terminal, synaptic vesicles are docked on an active zone of 200-300 nm in diameter, in which VGCCs are thought to be inserted within a distance of 20-200 nm from synaptic vesicles (Neher, 1998; Meinrenken et al., 2002). Ca2+ entry through 1-60 VGCCs (Stanley, 1993; Borst and Sakmann, 1996) can trigger single vesicle fusion for exocytic release of neurotransmitter. After fusion, a variety of endocytic proteins are assembled for clathrin-mediated vesicle endocytosis, in which the adaptor protein AP-2 plays an essential role (Schmid, 1997). Our present results suggest that VGCC synprint sites anchor a fraction of AP-2 complex, which is likely linked to the plasma membrane via interactions with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (McPherson et al., 2008). This synprint-AP-2 interaction occurs for both N- and P/Q-type VGCCs but is not entirely universal because VGCCs in invertebrates such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans lack synprint sites (Littleton and Ganetzky, 2000; ...
Pituitary Complex Glandular is designed for use under the supervision of a healthcare practitioner. Please call (800) 669-0358 to speak with one of our practitioners or email us at [email protected] to request a password. Product DescriptionPituitary glandular with synergistic ingredients. ____________________
این آزمایش جهت تعیین احتیاجات ترئونین بلدرچین تخم ­گذار در سنین 17-10 هفتگی انجام شد. از تعداد 240 قطعه بلدرچین ژاپنی ماده از سن 10 تا 17 هفتگی در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی (CRD) استفاده شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل جیره پایه (69/0% ترئونین)، جیره پایه+05/0% ال- ترئونین (74/0% ترئونین) و جیره ...
Neuroaxonal Dystrophy. By Jeaneane P. Kozlowski Presented June 24, 2003 Temple University- Ambler. What is Neuroaxonal Dystrophy?. Neuroaxonal Dystrophy (NAD) is a rare inherited disorder. Slideshow 6866545 by herman-munoz
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Genetic testing for up to 65 genes that cause dominant, recessive, and X-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), including the most commonly causative genes.
Function: Phosphorylates the AP2M1/mu2 subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). May play a role in regulating aspects of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (By similarity ...
Hereditary spastic paraplegia inclusion criteria (29490) - Unexplained spastic paraplegia progressing over ,2 years +/-, peripheral neuropathy, or ataxia. Individuals with syndromic disease or disease onset ,30 years should be recruited according to standard guidance, typically as trios. Disease status of apparently unaffected participants should be determined according to standard clinical practice to detect cryptic disease. In other cases, unaffected individuals should not be recruited. Recruitment in such families should favour multiplex families over single isolated cases. These singleton recruits will not contribute to the overall singleton monitoring metrics applied to GMCs. Hereditary spastic paraplegia exclusion criteria (29490) - No structural or inflammatory (MS-like) lesions on brain MRI. Prior genetic testing guidance (29490) - Results should have been reviewed for all genetic tests undertaken, including disease-relevant genes in exome sequencing data. The patient is not eligible if ...
The signs and symptom information on this page attempts to provide a list of some possible signs and symptoms of Spastic paraplegia type 5A, recessive. This medical information about signs and symptoms for Spastic paraplegia type 5A, recessive has been gathered from various sources, may not be fully accurate, and may not be the full list of Spastic paraplegia type 5A, recessive signs or Spastic paraplegia type 5A, recessive symptoms. Furthermore, signs and symptoms of Spastic paraplegia type 5A, recessive may vary on an individual basis for each patient. Only your doctor can provide adequate diagnosis of any signs or symptoms and whether they are indeed Spastic paraplegia type 5A, recessive symptoms.. ...
Spastic Paraplegia 47 doesnt roll off the tongue. The name is complicated and challenging, much like SPG47 itself. When I tell healthcare providers my 3-year-old daughters diagnosis, I take a deep breath and wait for the inevitable question: What, exactly, is that?. More than 70 types of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) have been identified to date; almost all are neurodegenerative. At best, HSP causes distress and disruption; at worst, it has devastating, potentially life-threatening consequences. Its pure form impairs the lower extremities, causing extreme spasticity and weakness. Its complicated form - like our daughter Robbies - also impacts systemic and/or neurologic function. Many HSP sub-types have been diagnosed in only a handful of people worldwide, leaving affected families feeling lost and disconnected. …. ...
Hereditary spastic paraplegia is a frequently misdiagnosed neurological disorder Medical information in relation to symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis and treatment.
The best anti aging product and beauty product reviews on the best anti wrinkle creams, anti aging serums, anti aging lotions, beauty products. Honest reviews and testimonials by our Truth in Aging staff.
Railroad Accidents Kentucky News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Railroad Accidents Kentucky From The latimes
If you live a relatively healthy lifestyle but feel more fatigued than usual‚ or notice that your nails or hair are brittle‚ you may be suffering from a B vitamin deficiency. A wide variety of foods contain B vitamins that are essential for good health; these essential nutrients are grouped together in the B-complex family. Certain digestive disorders‚ other diseases‚ and medications can make it difficult for your body to properly absorb these vitamins through your diet. (You may be especially at risk of insufficient intake of vitamin B-12.) If thats the case‚ you may need to take a multivitamin or B complex supplement to assist absorption. DaVinci Labs B Complex-75 contains all 11 vitamins in the B complex family. Together‚ these vitamins support growth and development. Each one also provides additional benefits‚ such as: ...
Build: Sat Feb 17 08:59:16 EST 2018 (commit: 16064c5). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort integral membrane proteins at various stages of the endocytic and ... "Entrez Gene: adaptor-related protein complex 4". Abou Jamra R, Philippe O, Raas-Rothschild A, Eck SH, Graf E, Buchert R, Borck ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a fourth adaptor-related protein complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ... a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (11): 7278-85. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.11.7278. PMID ...
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort integral membrane proteins at various stages of the endocytic and ... "Entrez Gene: adaptor-related protein complex 4". Abou Jamra R, Philippe O, Raas-Rothschild A, Eck SH, Graf E, Buchert R, Borck ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a fourth adaptor-related protein complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ... Boehm M, Aguilar RC, Bonifacino JS (2001). "Functional and physical interactions of the adaptor protein complex AP-4 with ADP- ...
The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition ... "Entrez Gene: AP4M1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, mu 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a Fourth Adaptor-related Protein Complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ... 2001). "Signal-binding specificity of the mu4 subunit of the adaptor protein complex AP-4". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (16): 13145-52. ...
AP-3 complex subunit delta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3D1 gene. AP3D1 is a subunit of the AP3 adaptor- ... "Entrez Gene: AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit". Martinez-Arca S, Rudge R, Vacca M, Raposo G, Camonis J ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Hermansky-Pudlak ... The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin ... AP-3 complex subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3B1 gene. This gene encodes a protein that may play ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit". Human AP3B2 genome location and AP3B2 gene details page ... 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression". EMBO J. 16 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.5.917. ... AP-3 complex subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3B2 gene. GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... Dell'Angelica EC, Klumperman J, Stoorvogel W, Bonifacino JS (1998). "Association of the AP-3 adaptor complex with clathrin". ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1M1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 1 subunit". Hinners I, Wendler F, Fei H, Thomas L, Thomas G, Tooze SA ... AP-1 complex subunit mu-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1M1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is the ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1S1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 1 subunit". Montpetit A, Côté S, Brustein E, Drouin CA, Lapointe L ... AP-1 complex subunit sigma-1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1S1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... Boehm M, Aguilar RC, Bonifacino JS (Nov 2001). "Functional and physical interactions of the adaptor protein complex AP-4 with ... "HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of adaptor protein complexes with membranes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (10 ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3S1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit". Human AP3S1 genome location and AP3S1 gene details page ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ohno H, Ooi CE, Rabinovich E, Roche KW, Bonifacino JS (March 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is a neuronal adaptor protein that interacts with ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... It is also regarded as a putative vesicular trafficking protein in the brain that can form a complex with the potential to ...
November 1998). "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". ... Maximov A, Südhof TC, Bezprozvanny I (August 1999). "Association of neuronal calcium channels with modular adaptor proteins". ... This protein is a multidomain scaffolding protein with a role in synaptic transmembrane protein anchoring and ion channel ... November 1998). "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". ...
Substrate presentation by phosphatidylinositol transfer protein to the p150.Ptdins 3-kinase complex". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (4): ... an adaptor protein for the human phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase. ... Ligon LA, Shelly SS, Tokito M, Holzbaur EL (2003). "The Microtubule Plus-End Proteins EB1 and Dynactin Have Differential ... 2009). "Two Beclin 1-binding proteins, Atg14L and Rubicon, reciprocally regulate autophagy at different stages". Nat. Cell Biol ...
Panaretou C, Domin J, Cockcroft S, Waterfield MD (1997). "Characterization of p150, an adaptor protein for the human ... Substrate presentation by phosphatidylinositol transfer protein to the p150.Ptdins 3-kinase complex". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (4): ... "A human phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex related to the yeast Vps34p-Vps15p protein sorting system". EMBO J. 14 (14): 3339 ... "Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein induces a rapid and selective activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, and -epsilon and - ...
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort integral membrane proteins at various stages of the endocytic and ... "Entrez Gene: AP4B1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... 2001). "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using ... a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J Biol Chem. 274 (11): 7278-85. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.11.7278. PMID ...
AP-1 complex subunit sigma-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1S2 gene. Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at ... "Entrez Gene: AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Huo L, Teng Z, Wang H, Liu X (March 2019). "A novel ... The protein encoded by this gene serves as the small subunit of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein family. ... December 2006). "Mutations in the gene encoding the Sigma 2 subunit of the adaptor protein 1 complex, AP1S2, cause X-linked ...
"Entrez Gene: AP2M1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit". Follows ER, McPheat JC, Minshull C, Moore NC, Pauptit RA, ... This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric coat assembly protein complex 2 (AP2), which belongs to the adaptor ... "Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T ... "Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 2 subunit". Rost, Martina; Döring Tatjana; Prange Reinhild (Nov ... 2003). "HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of adaptor protein complexes with membranes". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (10): 8725-32. ... 2005). "Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes ...
The protein encoded by this gene is the medium subunit of AP-3, which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the ... "Entrez Gene: AP3M1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 1 subunit". Human AP3M1 genome location and AP3M1 gene details page in ... 2000). "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based ... 2005). "Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the AP2 adaptor complex, which serves to link clathrin ... "Entrez Gene: AP2B1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, ... Kim YM, Benovic JL (Aug 2002). "Differential roles of arrestin-2 interaction with clathrin and adaptor protein 2 in G protein- ... "Co-localization of HIV-1 Nef with the AP-2 adaptor protein complex correlates with Nef-induced CD4 down-regulation". The EMBO ...
AP-1 complex subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1B1 gene. Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the ... "Entrez Gene: AP1B1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit". Nakagawa, T; Setou M; Seog D; Ogasawara K; Dohmae N; ... The protein encoded by this gene serves as one of the large subunits of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein ... 2001). "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using ...
... is an adaptor protein that plays a key role in the proper assembly of the FA core complex. The FA core complex is ... Gordon SM, Buchwald M (July 2003). "Fanconi anemia protein complex: mapping protein interactions in the yeast 2- and 3-hybrid ... Gordon SM, Buchwald M (July 2003). "Fanconi anemia protein complex: mapping protein interactions in the yeast 2- and 3-hybrid ... The FA core complex is a nuclear core complex that is essential for the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and this modified form of ...
The protein encoded by this gene is the medium-sized subunit of the AP5 adaptor complex. Variants in this gene have not been ... In addition, damaging variants in the genes encoding two proteins that stably associate with the AP-5 adaptor complex are also ... Hirst, Jennifer; Irving, Carol; Borner, Georg H. H. (2012-11-21). "Adaptor protein complexes AP-4 and AP-5: new players in ... "The fifth adaptor protein complex". PLOS Biology. 9 (10): e1001170. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170. ISSN 1545-7885. PMC ...
The protein encoded by this gene is the small subunit of the AP5 adaptor complex. Variants in this gene have not been ... In addition, damaging variants in the genes encoding two proteins that stably associate with the AP-5 adaptor complex are also ... Hirst, Jennifer; Irving, Carol; Borner, Georg H. H. (2012-11-21). "Adaptor protein complexes AP-4 and AP-5: new players in ... "The fifth adaptor protein complex". PLOS Biology. 9 (10): e1001170. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170. ISSN 1545-7885. PMC ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large subunits of the AP5 adaptor complex. Variants in this gene have not been ... In addition, damaging variants in the genes encoding two proteins that stably associate with the AP-5 adaptor complex are also ... Hirst, Jennifer; Irving, Carol; Borner, Georg H. H. (2012-11-21). "Adaptor protein complexes AP-4 and AP-5: new players in ... "The fifth adaptor protein complex". PLOS Biology. 9 (10): e1001170. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170. ISSN 1545-7885. PMC ...
2011). "The Fifth Adaptor Protein Complex". PLOS Biology. 9 (10): e1001170. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170. PMC 3191125. PMID ... Adaptins are clustered subunits of adaptor protein (AP) complexes. There are several types of adaptin, each related to a ... Clathrin adaptor proteins, also known as adaptins, are proteins that mediate the formation of vesicles for intracellular ... complex 1 AP1B1 AP1G1 AP1G2 AP1M1 AP1M2 AP1S1 AP1S2 AP1S3 complex 2 AP2A1 AP2A2 AP2B1 AP2M1 AP2S1 complex 3 AP3B1 AP3B2 AP3D1 ...
"SH3 domains of the adapter molecule Grb2 complex with two proteins in T cells: the guanine nucleotide exchange protein Sos and ... "Induced direct binding of the adapter protein Nck to the GTPase-activating protein-associated protein p62 by epidermal growth ... Buday L, Egan SE, Rodriguez Viciana P, Cantrell DA, Downward J (March 1994). "A complex of Grb2 adaptor protein, Sos exchange ... Possible facilitation by the formation of a ternary complex with the Grb2 adaptor protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit". Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999 ... and 3 ADP-ribosylation factors with adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3". Biochemistry. 41 (14): 4669-77. doi:10.1021/bi016064j. ... "Interactions between adaptor protein-1 of the clathrin coat and microtubules via type 1a microtubule-associated proteins". The ...
1999). "A direct interaction between the adaptor protein Cbl-b and the kinase zap-70 induces a positive signal in T cells". ... Elly C, Witte S, Zhang Z, Rosnet O, Lipkowitz S, Altman A, Liu YC (February 1999). "Tyrosine phosphorylation and complex ... CBL-B is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that in humans is encoded by the CBLB gene. CBLB is a member of the CBL gene family. ... 1997). "Cbl-b, a member of the Sli-1/c-Cbl protein family, inhibits Vav-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation". Oncogene ...
... a family of ADP ribosylation factor-binding proteins related to adaptors and associated with the Golgi complex". The Journal of ... Takatsu H, Yoshino K, Nakayama K (May 2000). "Adaptor gamma ear homology domain conserved in gamma-adaptin and GGA proteins ... ADP-ribosylation factor-binding protein GGA3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GGA3 gene. This gene encodes a ... This family includes ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the ...
AP1S2: AP-1 complex subunit sigma-2. Adaptor protein complex 1 is found on the cytoplasmic face of vesicles located at the ... "AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Entrez Gene. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. ... December 2006). "Mutations in the gene encoding the Sigma 2 subunit of the adaptor protein 1 complex, AP1S2, cause X-linked ... This nucleolar protein is involved in the processing and modification of tRNA. GDI1: RabGDI alpha makes a complex with ...
"Dimerization of the docking/adaptor protein HEF1 via a carboxy-terminal helix-loop-helix domain"، Exp. Cell Res.، 252 (1): 224- ... "Id helix-loop-helix proteins inhibit nucleoprotein complex formation by the TCF ETS-domain transcription factors"، EMBO J.، 18 ... "Protein-Protein Interaction Panel Using Mouse Full-Length cDNAs"، Genome Res.، 11 (10): 1758-65، 2001، doi:10.1101/gr.180101، ... "The helix-loop-helix protein Id-2 enhances cell proliferation and binds to the retinoblastoma protein"، Genes Dev.، 8 (11): ...
TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the ... Also, the DBD and signal-sensing domains may reside on separate proteins that associate within the transcription complex to ... Cofactors are interchangeable between specific gene promoters; the protein complex that occupies the promoter DNA and the amino ... recruit coactivator or corepressor proteins to the transcription factor DNA complex[16] ...
Signal transducing adaptor protein. *Scaffold protein. Transcription factors. *General. *Transcription preinitiation complex ... Calmodulin may activate the Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, or may act directly on other effector proteins.[14] ... Certain proteins of the cytoplasm and organelles act as buffers by binding Ca2+. Signaling occurs when the cell is stimulated ... Many of Ca2+ mediated events occur when the released Ca2+ binds to and activates the regulatory protein calmodulin. ...
This complex further complexes with the ubiquitin ligase protein CUL4A[51] and with PARP1.[52] This larger complex rapidly ... like protein kinase, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-like group, two serine/threonine(S/T) kinases and their adaptors ... more complex organisms with more complex genomes have correspondingly more complex repair mechanisms.[145] The ability of a ... In E. coli , the proteins involved are the Mut class proteins: MutS, MutL, and MutH. In most Eukaryotes, the analog for MutS is ...
... while the second function as heterotrimeric G protein complexes. The latter class of complexes is made up of alpha (α), beta (β ... Adaptor protein. *Cholesterylester transfer protein. *F-box protein. *GTP-binding protein. *Latent TGF-beta binding protein ... γ proteins.[17] Signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes ... G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside ...
... both type I and type II IFNs activate a member of the CRK family of adaptor proteins called CRKL, a nuclear adaptor for STAT5 ... the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the ... Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... the E7 protein of Human papillomavirus (HPV), and the B18R protein of vaccinia virus. Reducing IFN-α activity may prevent ...
... "p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". J ... Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... Bai RY, Jahn T, Schrem S, Munzert G, Weidner KM, Wang JY, Duyster J (August 1998). "The SH2-containing adapter protein GRB10 ... Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ...
"Characterization of a protein complex containing spliceosomal proteins SAPs 49, 130, 145, and 155". Molecular and Cellular ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (April 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... "Characterization of a protein complex containing spliceosomal proteins SAPs 49, 130, 145, and 155". Molecular and Cellular ... This gene encodes subunit 1 of the splicing factor 3b protein complex. Splicing factor 3b, together with splicing factor 3a and ...
Homotrimerisation is a process whereby three of the same subunits, associate to make a complex of three identical YadA proteins ... Function: The function of the neck domain is to be the adaptor between the larger diameter of the beta-helices and the smaller ... Protein pages needing a picture, Protein families, Protein domains, Virulence factors, Gram-negative bacteria, Secretion, ... First, biogenesis of proteins in the Type V Secretion System (T5SS). Second, it is thought to target the protein to the inner ...
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Apr 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... "Crystal structures of an NAD kinase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus in complex with ATP, NAD, or NADP". Journal of Molecular ... 7 (4): 353-8. doi:10.1101/gr.7.4.353. PMC 139146. PMID 9110174. Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H ...
... s (abbreviated Arr) are a small family of proteins important for regulating signal transduction at G protein-coupled ... The strength of arrestin-receptor interaction plays a role in this choice: tighter complexes tend to increase the probability ... clathrin and clathrin adaptor AP2, which promotes receptor internalization via coated pits and subsequent transport to internal ... Arrestins were first discovered as a part of a conserved two-step mechanism for regulating the activity of G protein-coupled ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the exocyst complex, a multiple protein complex essential for targeting ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Jun 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Exocyst complex component 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EXOC3 gene. ... At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal ...
The MyD88 protein acts as an adapter, connecting proteins that receive signals from outside the cell to the proteins that relay ... After ligand binding, all TLRs apart from TLR3, interact with adaptor protein MyD88. Another adaptor protein, which is ... In that species it is a universal adapter protein as it is used by almost all TLRs (except TLR 3) to activate the transcription ... these proteins activate two important transcription factors: NF-κB is a dimeric protein responsible for expression of various ...
... is an adaptor protein. The protein encoded by this gene is a death domain containing adaptor molecule that interacts with ... "TNF-dependent recruitment of the protein kinase RIP to the TNF receptor-1 signaling complex". Immunity. 4 (4): 387-96. doi: ... This protein binds adaptor protein TRAF2, reduces the recruitment of inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (IAPs) by TRAF2, and thus ... This protein can also interact with receptor TNFRSF6/FAS and adaptor protein FADD/MORT1, and is involved in the Fas-induced ...
Alpha-1-syntrophin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNTA1 gene. Alpha-1 syntrophin is a signal transducing adaptor ... "Alternative splicing of dystrobrevin regulates the stoichiometry of syntrophin binding to the dystrophin protein complex". Curr ... The protein encoded by this gene is a peripheral membrane protein found associated with dystrophin and dystrophin-related ... Fernández-Larrea J, Merlos-Suárez A, Ureña JM, Baselga J, Arribas J (1999). "A role for a PDZ protein in the early secretory ...
Conserved oligomeric Golgi complex subunit 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COG7 gene. Multiprotein complexes ... 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio. ... Several complexes have been identified, including the Golgi transport complex (GTC), the LDLC complex, which is involved in ... These 3 complexes are identical and have been termed the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, which includes COG7 (Ungar ...
2002). "Regulation of FcepsilonRI-mediated degranulation by an adaptor protein 3BP2 in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells". ... 1996). "Peripheral blood dendritic cells express Fc epsilon RI as a complex composed of Fc epsilon RI alpha- and Fc epsilon RI ... Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; alpha polypeptide, also known as FCER1A, is a protein which in humans is ... The IgE receptor consists of 3 subunits: alpha (this protein), beta, and gamma; only the alpha subunit is glycosylated. GRCh38 ...
Belogrudov GI, Hatefi Y (Feb 2002). "Factor B and the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex". J Biol Chem. 277 (8): 6097-103. doi: ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Jun 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Oster G, Wang H (2003). "Rotary protein motors". Trends Cell Biol. 13 (3): 114-21. doi:10.1016/S0962-8924(03)00004-7. PMID ... ATP5S: ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex subunit s (factor B) Kinosita K, Yasuda R, Noji H (2003). "F1- ...
"Characterization of the CIN85 adaptor protein and identification of components involved in CIN85 complexes". Biochem. Biophys. ... Adapter molecule crk is a member of an adapter protein family that binds to several tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This ... Adapter molecule crk also known as proto-oncogene c-Crk is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRK gene. The CRK protein ... "Adaptor proteins Grb2 and Crk couple Pyk2 with activation of specific mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades". J. Biol. Chem ...
Not only catalytic but also adaptor activities of this protein are involved in this process. Its movement from the cytosol to ... Poe JC, Fujimoto M, Jansen PJ, Miller AS, Tedder TF (June 2000). "CD22 forms a quaternary complex with SHIP, Grb2, and Shc. A ... pathways independently on its catalytic activity by serving as a bridge for other proteins thereby regulate protein-protein ... Overall, the protein functions as a negative regulator of cell proliferation and survival. Nevertheless, SHIP1 may also bind to ...
Interaction with other proteins (e.g. the adaptor molecule ASC) is mediated via N-terminal pyrin (PYD) domain. There are 14 ... MyD88 attracts the IRAK4 molecule, IRAK4 recruits IRAK1 and IRAK2 to form a signaling complex. The signaling complex reacts ... which binds more limited number and variety of ligands and works in a complex with NAIP protein. Other NLRs such as IPAF and ... which are associated with intracellular kinases via adaptor proteins (see non-RD kinases below), plant PRRs are composed of an ...
... adapter proteins and signaling complexes to regulate cytoskeletal linking, cell polarity, cell signaling and vesical ... They are formed by interactions between intracellular adapter proteins, transmembrane proteins and the actin cytoskeletons of ... These complexes, formed primarily of members of the claudin and the occludin families, consist of about 35 different proteins, ... These complexes, consisting of transmembrane adhesion proteins of the cadherin family, link adjacent cells together through ...
... and CUL4B-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. DDB1 serves as a bridge or adaptor protein which interacts with dozens of ... DNA damage-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DDB1 gene. The gene's position is on chromosome ... Leupin O, Bontron S, Strubin M (2003). "Hepatitis B virus X protein and simian virus 5 V protein exhibit similar UV-DDB1 ... Lee TH, Elledge SJ, Butel JS (1995). "Hepatitis B virus X protein interacts with a probable cellular DNA repair protein". J. ...
This protein forms a kinase complex with TRAF6, MAP3K7 and TAB1, thus serves as an adaptor linking MAP3K7 and TRAF6. This ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7-interacting protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K7IP2 ... "Entrez Gene: MAP3K7IP2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 interacting protein 2". Thienpont B, Zhang L, Postma AV ... a novel adaptor protein, mediates activation of TAK1 MAPKKK by linking TAK1 to TRAF6 in the IL-1 signal transduction pathway". ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is a neuronal adaptor protein that interacts with ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... It is also regarded as a putative vesicular trafficking protein in the brain that can form a complex with the potential to ... Amyloid beta A4 precursor protein-binding family A member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APBA2 gene. This ...
It is suggested that it acts as an adaptor protein in events related to immune response and cholesterol regulation, for example ... The link between these two protein within the JAK1-SNX8 complex allows JAK1 to catalyse SNX8's tyrosines phosphorylation in ... are involved in protein-protein interactions. The SNX8 protein, even though is very similar to the other sorting nexins, ... SNX8 is thought to be an adaptor protein involved in the endosome-to-Golgi transport pathway, participating in endocytosis and ...
The protein encoded by this gene binds to and is inhibited by dihydropyridine. In the arteries of the brain, high levels of ... The calcium channel consists of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta and beta subunits in a 1:1:1 ratio. The S3-S4 linkers of ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Apr 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ...
December 2008). "VAC14 nucleates a protein complex essential for the acute interconversion of PI3P and PI(3,5)P(2) in yeast and ... Ikonomov OC, Fligger J, Sbrissa D, Dondapati R, Mlak K, Deeb R, Shisheva A (February 2009). "Kinesin adapter JLP links PIKfyve ... proteins that are not detected in the mammalian PIKfyve complex. S. cerevisiae could survive without Fab1. In contrast, the ... By directly binding membrane PtdIns(3)P, the FYVE finger domain of PIKfyve is essential in localizing the protein to the ...
Numb has demonstrated protein-protein interactions with adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1, Mdm2, L1, DPYSL2, SIAH1, ... Protein numb homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUMB gene. The protein encoded by this gene plays a role in ... Numb is localized using the Pins/GαI complex and the PAR complex of Bazooka (Par3 in mammals), Par6, and aPKC (atypical protein ... The encoded protein, whose degradation is induced in a proteasome-dependent manner by MDM2, is a membrane-bound protein that ...
The SWI/SNF protein complex in yeast is one example of a chromatin remodeling complex that regulates the expression of many ... The tags are then used as adapters for PRC or other analytical tools. Polymerase sensitivity in single-molecule real-time ... genomic DNA is coiled into protein-DNA complexes called chromatin. Histones, which are the most prevalent type of protein found ... Regulatory proteins that bind to DNA, RNA, and/or proteins are key effectors in these processes and function by positively or ...
This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles ... Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with DPYSL2 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: AP2A1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit". Nishimura, Takashi; Fukata Yuko; Kato Katsuhiro; ... AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A1 gene. ...
Badolato R, Parolini S. Novel insights from adaptor protein 3 complex deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Oct. 120(4):735- ... BLOC-1 interacts with BLOC-2 and the AP-3 complex to facilitate protein trafficking on endosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2006 Sep. 17(9 ... 13] noted that BLOC-1 interacts with BLOC-2 and the AP-3 complex, facilitating protein trafficking on endosomes, and, when BLOC ... Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome protein complexes interface with phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type II-alpha (PI4KII-alpha) in ...
Other studies have identified autosomal recessive variants in the adaptor protein complex 4 family (AP4B1, AP4E1, AP4M1 and ... Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) deficiency causes a novel autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome with microcephaly and ... PACRG, the Parkin co-regulated gene product, forms a complex with heat shock proteins (including HSPA4) and other chaperones to ... Matsuda, S. & Yuzaki, M. Polarized sorting of AMPA receptors to the somatodendritic domain is regulated by adaptor protein AP-4 ...
Defining the clinical, molecular and imaging spectrum of adaptor protein complex 4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia ...
Mu subunits of adaptor protein (AP) complexes, AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, and AP-4. ... The mu homology domain (MHD) is an ~280 residue protein-protein interaction module, which is found in endocytotic proteins ... Proteins of the muniscin family: Syp1, FCHO1/2 and SGIP1.. The MHD domain has an elongated, banana-shaped, all beta-sheet ...
Clathrin adaptor complex, small chain;Biological Process: intracellular protein transport (GO:0006886), Cellular Component: ... 4 [Details of the Overall Family Build]. Annotation. ...
... provides instructions for making a protein that helps remove cholesterol from the bloodstream. Learn about this gene and ... The modular adaptor protein ARH is required for low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding and internalization but not for LDL ... binding and modulates endocytosis of the LDL/LDL receptor complex in hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2005 Nov 18;280(46):38416-23. ... nonfunctional version of the LDLRAP1 protein or prevent cells from making any of this protein. Without the LDLRAP1 protein, low ...
vesicle-mediated transport (GO:0016192), intracellular protein transport (GO:0006886). GO component:. clathrin adaptor complex ... Solution NMR structure of beta-adaptin appendage domain of human adaptor protein complex 4 subunit beta, Northeast Structural ... Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing B2-adapt-app_C domain in the ... Furthermore, a hydrophobic patch present in the domain also binds to a subset of D-phi-F/W motif-containing proteins that are ...
adaptin, adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) complex, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), lysosome, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase II α ( ... promoting binding to the adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) complex for trafficking to the lysosome to be degraded. Blocking ... In the present paper, we report the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase II α (PI4KIIα) is a novel substrate of GSK3 that ... phosphorylation reduces trafficking to the lysosome, stabilizing PI4KIIα and its cargo proteins for redistribution throughout ...
COPI coat complex subunit delta. archain vesicle transport protein 1. coatomer delta subunit. coatomer protein complex, subunit ... AP_delta-COPI_MHD; Mu homology domain (MHD) of adaptor protein (AP) coat protein I (COPI) delta subunit. cl38905. Location:2 → ... AP_delta-COPI_MHD; Mu homology domain (MHD) of adaptor protein (AP) coat protein I (COPI) delta subunit. cd14830. Location:4 → ... AP_delta-COPI_MHD; Mu homology domain (MHD) of adaptor protein (AP) coat protein I (COPI) delta subunit. cd14830. Location:4 → ...
The AP-1 and AP-3 complexes are involved in protein sorting from the TGN and endosomes, while AP-2 adaptor complexes are ... The AP-1 and AP-3 complexes are involved in protein sorting from the TGN and endosomes, while AP-2 adaptor complexes are ... sorting signals are tyrosine-based and dileucine-based signals that interact with heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes ( ... sorting signals are tyrosine-based and dileucine-based signals that interact with heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes ( ...
5⇓d). Thus, Flag-h2B4, SHP-2, and SAP-myc do not form a trimolecular complex. Rather, following phosphorylation, Flag-h2B4 can ... Recruits the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SHP-2 and the Adaptor Signaling Protein SAP. Stuart G. Tangye, Sasha Lazetic, Erica ... Recruits the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SHP-2 and the Adaptor Signaling Protein SAP ... Recruits the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SHP-2 and the Adaptor Signaling Protein SAP ...
... and plays a key role in protein synthesis and cell growth by regulating the activity of the TORC1 complex through a series of ... leading to the creation of multiple docking sites for the adaptor proteins IRS-1, IRS-2, and Shc. IRS-1 and IRS-2 binding ... leading to the creation of multiple docking sites for the adaptor proteins IRS-1, IRS-2, and Shc. IRS-1 and IRS-2 binding ... and levels of the IGFBPs and the adaptor proteins IRS-1 and IRS-2 may have predictive value in identifying responsive patients ...
adaptor related protein complex 4 subu.... ARG1. 383. ARG1. arginase 1 [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:HGN.... ...
Genetic association study of adaptor protein complex 4 with cerebral palsy in a Han Chinese population. Molecular biology ...
Involvement of Adapter Protein Complex 4 in hypersensitive cell death induced by avirulent bacteria. Plant physiology 176: 1824 ... Mati? S, Pegoraro M, Noris E (2016) The C2 protein of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus acts as a pathogenicity ... Bheri M, Bhosle SM, Makandar R (2019) Shotgun proteomics provides an insight into pathogenesis-related proteins using ... Ger M-J, Chang H (2019) Bacterial Pathogen Resistance by HRAP (hypersensitive response assisting protein) in Tobacco. In 2019國際 ...
... which associates with the adaptor ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing the caspase recruitment domain, CARD ... which is a cytosolic complex that is responsible for activating inflammatory responses to injury and/or illness[21]. Whidbey et ... performed Western Blots of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in GBS-infected hAECs(NF-𝜅B antibody). N and C stand for nuclear ... propose that the ornithine rhamnolipid pigment, rather than the CylE protein, is the cause of the hemolytic activity in GBS. To ...
Protein transduction into human cells by adenovirus dodecahedron using WW domains as universal adaptors.. Journal of Gene ... Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of glycosaminoglycans and their protein noncovalent complex.. Analytical ... Adenovirus protein involved in virus internalization recruits ubiquitin- protein ligases. Biochemistry (2002) 41 (48) : 14299- ... Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 interaction with human cellular factors Tsg101 and Nedd4. Journal of Molecular Biology (2003) ...
Badolato R, Parolini S. Novel insights from adaptor protein 3 complex deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Oct. 120(4):735- ... BLOC-1 interacts with BLOC-2 and the AP-3 complex to facilitate protein trafficking on endosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2006 Sep. 17(9 ... Salazar G, Zlatic S, Craige B, Peden AA, Pohl J, Faundez V. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome protein complexes associate with ... Improper trafficking of melanocyte-specific proteins in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type-5. J Invest Dermatol. 2007 Jun. 127(6): ...
Badolato R, Parolini S. Novel insights from adaptor protein 3 complex deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Oct. 120(4):735- ... BLOC-1 interacts with BLOC-2 and the AP-3 complex to facilitate protein trafficking on endosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2006 Sep. 17(9 ... 13] noted that BLOC-1 interacts with BLOC-2 and the AP-3 complex, facilitating protein trafficking on endosomes, and, when BLOC ... Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome protein complexes interface with phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type II-alpha (PI4KII-alpha) in ...
Badolato R, Parolini S. Novel insights from adaptor protein 3 complex deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Oct. 120(4):735- ... BLOC-1 interacts with BLOC-2 and the AP-3 complex to facilitate protein trafficking on endosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2006 Sep. 17(9 ... 13] noted that BLOC-1 interacts with BLOC-2 and the AP-3 complex, facilitating protein trafficking on endosomes, and, when BLOC ... Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome protein complexes interface with phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type II-alpha (PI4KII-alpha) in ...
"Interaction of prostate specific membrane antigen with clathrin and the adaptor protein complex-2". International Journal of ... Protein Data Bank: Protein Data Bank. *Glutamate+carboxypeptidase+II at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... The FOLH1 gene has multiple potential start sites and splice forms, giving rise to differences in membrane protein structure, ... 2jbk: MEMBRANE-BOUND GLUTAMATE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE II (GCPII) IN COMPLEX WITH QUISQUALIC ACID (QUISQUALATE, ALPHA-AMINO-3,5-DIOXO- ...
In addition to the role of the IFT-A complex and the TULP3 adaptor protein in retrograde ciliary protein trafficking powered by ... The Bardet-Biedl syndrome protein complex is an adapter expanding the cargo range of intraflagellar transport trains for ... Cooperation of the IFT-A complex with the IFT-B complex is required for ciliary retrograde protein trafficking and GPCR import ... Formation of the B9-domain protein complex MKS1-B9D2-B9D1 is essential as a diffusion barrier for ciliary membrane proteins ...
Physiological roles of clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes].. Ohno, H., Hase, K. & Nakatsu, F., 2008 Dec 1, In: ... Protein, nucleic acid, enzyme. 53, 16 Suppl, p. 2158-2163 6 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Review article › ... Kawago, M., Sakurai, H., Watanabe, S. I., Tsuta, K. & Asamura, H., 2013 Feb, In: Unknown Journal. 66, 2, p. 142-145 4 p.. ... Hase, R., Uwamino, Y., Muranaka, K., Tochitani, K., Sogi, M., Kitazono, H. & Hosokawa, N., 2013 Jul, In: Unknown Journal. 87, 4 ...
TIR domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP)/MYD88 adaptor like (Mal), 3) TRIF, 4) TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM), and 5 ... TLR2 and TLR4 upon binding with their respective ligands form dimeric complexes, followed by recruitment of 5 specific adapters ... There are two important TLR pathways: one is dependent on myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88) adaptor proteins and the ... use MYD88 as the downstream adapter protein that activate the classical/canonical inflammatory signaling pathway [26, 27, 28, ...
adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit. chr12_+_69186125. 0.08. ENST00000399333.3. AC124890.1. HCG1774533, isoform CRA ... adaptor-related protein complex 4, epsilon 1 subunit. chr2_-_190446738. 0.17. ENST00000427419.1. ENST00000455320.1. SLC40A1. ... WW domain containing adaptor with coiled-coil. chr12_-_11036844. 0.08. ENST00000428168.2. PRH1. proline-rich protein HaeIII ... EH domain binding protein 1. chr11_-_71810258. 0.09. ENST00000544594.1. LAMTOR1. late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor, MAPK and ...
A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 7. U: 1. AP2A2. adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit. U: 1 ... Results for query: protein domain specific binding. Gene Symbol. Gene Name. Links to Senescence. ... protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit B, alpha isoform (calcineurin B, type I). U: 2 ... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta polypeptide. U: 2 ...
Adaptor protein CD2AP and L-type lectin LMAN2 regulate exosome cargo protein trafficking through the Golgi complex. Kwon, S. H. ... Adaptive view management for drone teleoperation in complex 3D structures. Thomason, J., Ratsamee, P., Kiyokawa, K., ... A data-analytic strategy for protein biomarker discovery: profiling of high-dimensional proteomic data for cancer detection.. ... Adaptation and Implementation of a Transitional Care Protocol for Patients Undergoing Complex Abdominal Surgery. Fisher, A. V. ...
  • In the present paper, we report the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase II α (PI4KIIα) is a novel substrate of GSK3 that regulates trafficking and cell-surface expression of neurotransmitter receptors in neurons. (portlandpress.com)
  • Once activated by IGF-1R, phosphorylated IRS-1 binds the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), stimulating PI3K activity and leading to increased levels of membrane bound phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Phosphorylation of PI3K phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphophaste (PIP2) by PI3K to phosphatidylinositol-3, 4, 5-trisphophaste (PIP3), activates 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 ( PDK1 ). (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Recruitment of IκB kinase proteins to the CD40 signaling complex was undetectable in HOIP-deficient cells, potentially explaining the defect in NF-κB activation. (pubannotation.org)
  • We also found that the CD40-mediated activation of NF-κB and the stress-activated protein kinase c-Jun kinase (JNK) was defective in HOIP-deficient cells. (pubannotation.org)
  • Consistent with impaired NF-κB activation, association of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex with CD40 was undetectable in HOIP-deficient cells. (pubannotation.org)
  • The Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain is a major protein interaction module that is central to tyrosine kinase signaling. (eu.org)
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor Associated Kinase-4 (IRAK-4) is a serine/threonine protein kinase belonging to tyrosine like kinase (TLK) family. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • Biological signals for TGF-beta are transduced through transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors, which in turn signal to Smad proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, migration and immune response. (drugbank.com)
  • Holtrich U, Brauninger A, Strebhardt K, Rubsamen-Waigmann H: Two additional protein-tyrosine kinases expressed in human lung: fourth member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family and an intracellular protein-tyrosine kinase. (drugbank.com)
  • A aggregate selenide of cytoplasm SFLLRN, the transcriptional six amino elastases of the full subunits used when role is active, can be arachidonic kinase of protein and reticulum cGMP. (erik-mill.de)
  • 3. King PD, Sadra A, Teng JM, Bell GM, Dupont B. CD2-mediated activation of the Tec-family tyrosine kinase ITK is controlled by proline-rich stretch-4 of the CD2 cytoplasmic tail. (hcdm.org)
  • This protein also phosphorylates C-terminal tyrosine residues on multiple substrates, including the protein encoded by the SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase gene. (nih.gov)
  • Positive and Negative Regulatory Roles of C-Terminal Src Kinase (CSK) in FcεRI-Mediated Mast Cell Activation, Independent of the Transmembrane Adaptor PAG/CSK-Binding Protein. (nih.gov)
  • Although the function of the CTLH complex remains unclear, here we used yeast two-hybrid screening to isolate Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS) as a protein binding to a key component of CTLH complex, Armadillo repeat containing 8 (ARMc8) α. (openbiochemistryjournal.com)
  • 2013 These procedures occur through a number of signaling systems where the development of focal adhesions includes a pivotal part (Reddig and Juliano 2005 Structural adjustments of focal adhesions need the help of accessories proteins such as for example focal adhesion kinase (FAK) paxillin vinculin α-actinin filamin talin and tensin to mediate the discussion between your EMC as well as the actin cytoskeleton. (morainetownshipdems.org)
  • FAK proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (PyK2) and integrin-linked kinases are essential proteins tyrosine kinases connected with focal adhesion complexes and they're activated by calcium mineral or when integrins build relationships ECM protein (Hall et al. (morainetownshipdems.org)
  • The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. (uni-freiburg.de)
  • Sucrose nonfermenting 1-related kinase (SNRK) is a serine/threonine kinase and a member of the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family that is involved in the metabolic regulatory mechanisms in various cell types. (vpjournal.net)
  • Eukaryotic serine (S), threonine (T), and tyrosine (Y) kinases are grouped together in the eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily based on sequence homology in their kinase domains. (vpjournal.net)
  • Similar to STKs, tyrosine-kinase enzymes transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a tyrosine residue in a protein. (vpjournal.net)
  • Sucrose nonfermenting 1-related kinase (SNRK) is a novel member of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) subfamily of STKs. (vpjournal.net)
  • UPR signaling is mainly mediated by ER transmembrane signal transducers, including the following: protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), serine/threonine-protein kinase/endoribonuclease IRE1 (IRE1) and cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 (ATF6). (biomedcentral.com)
  • LF is a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase that cleaves and inactivates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs), thereby blocking signaling through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Jun N-terminal protein kinase pathways (16, 61, 62). (biomarketx.net)
  • 2013). Using yeast to uncover the regulation of protein kinase Cδ by ceramide . (up.pt)
  • Regulation of the Caenorhabditis elegans oxidative stress defense protein SKN-1 by glycogen synthase kinase-3. (modencode.org)
  • LRK-1, a C. elegans PARK8-related kinase, regulates axonal-dendritic polarity of SV proteins. (modencode.org)
  • SPK-1, a C. elegans SR protein kinase homologue, is essential for embryogenesis and required for germline development. (modencode.org)
  • Role of the Caenorhabditis elegans Shc adaptor protein in the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway. (modencode.org)
  • Integrin-linked kinase is an adaptor with essential functions during mouse development. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • indicates that the protein contains two domains (at least), one of which performs the role Glutamate 5-kinase and the other which performs the role RNA-binding C-terminal domain PUA . (bv-brc.org)
  • Once formed, podocalyxin/ezrin complexes are very stable, because they are insensitive to actin depolymerization or inactivation of Rho kinase, which is known to be necessary for regulation of ezrin and to mediate Rho-dependent actin organization. (embl.de)
  • SAP constitutively associates with the cell surface molecule, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM), and competes with SH2-domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) for recruitment to SLAM. (jimmunol.org)
  • The cytoplasmic domains of inhibitory receptors (KIR, CD22, FcRγIIb) contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (I/VxYxxL/V- 26-31 -I/VxYxxL/V) that recruit SH2-domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1, SHP-2, and SHIP phosphatases ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, using X-ray crystallography, we show how kinesin-1 recognizes a novel class of adaptor motifs that we call 'Y-acidic' (tyrosine flanked by acidic residues), in a KLC-isoform specific manner. (elifesciences.org)
  • Brauninger A, Holtrich U, Strebhardt K, Rubsamen-Waigmann H: Isolation and characterization of a human gene that encodes a new subclass of protein tyrosine kinases. (drugbank.com)
  • 1990). Ubiquitylation of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases (rPTKs) terminates signalling by marking active receptors for degradation. (ubiquigent.com)
  • CD2BP1 modulates CD2-dependent T cell activation via linkage to protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST. (hcdm.org)
  • Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are transmembrane proteins conveying extracellular stimulus inside the cell. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Phosphorylated tyrosine residues recruit adapter proteins and trigger the activation of intracellular signaling cascades [ 1 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • It plays an important role in T-cell activation through its association with the protein encoded by the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene. (nih.gov)
  • Adapter protein which associates with tyrosine-phosphorylated growth factor receptors, such as KDR and PDGFRB, or their cellular substrates. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Protein phosphorylation, first described in eukaryotes, is a post-translational modification of proteins whereby a phosphate group is covalently attached to a serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue [ 2 , 3 ] . (vpjournal.net)
  • The two main groups of the superfamily, the serine/threonine kinases and the tyrosine kinases can be subdivided further into smaller families which are composed of enzymes that show similar substrate specificities and mode of regulation [ 4 ] . (vpjournal.net)
  • and (2) cytoplasmic/non-receptor tyrosine kinases, which act as regulatory proteins, playing key roles in cell differentiation, motility, proliferation, and survival [ 7 ] . (vpjournal.net)
  • TLRs are trans-membrane proteins receptors that trigger the signal transduction cascades upon binding with specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) ligands, and earlier have been thought to be restricted to immune cells. (intechopen.com)
  • Grb2 is a good example of a bifunctional adaptor protein that brings proteins into close proximity, allowing signal transduction through proteins that can span different compartments. (eu.org)
  • The transcriptional cofactor LIM-only protein FHL2 (four and a half LIM domains protein 2) is a multifunctional adaptor protein that is involved in the regulation of signal transduction, gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation [12,13]. (betadesks.com)
  • Adapter proteins lack intrinsic enzymatic activity and instead have protein-binding domains that lead to the formation of large signaling complexes containing specific proteins for signal transduction. (abcam.com)
  • Of note, the NS5 and pM viral proteins establish PPI with several tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF) proteins, which are essential adaptor proteins at the nexus of multiple signal transduction pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protein kinases play an important role in signal transduction by phosphorylating specific amino acids of downstream substrates and catalyzing the conversion of substrate proteins into phosphoproteins. (vpjournal.net)
  • [1] [2] The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the 14-3-3 protein family and a central hub protein for many signal transduction pathways. (wikidoc.org)
  • With their role in signal transduction, calcium-binding proteins contribute to all aspects of the cell's functioning, from homeostasis to learning and memory. (chemeurope.com)
  • Signal transduction requires complex formation with IL-1 R AcP/IL-1 R3. (rndsystems.com)
  • In the protozoa parasite Giardia lamblia, endocytosis and lysosomal protein trafficking are vital parasite-specific processes that involve the action of the adaptor complexes AP-1 and AP-2 and clathrin. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • This domain is present in the epsin or epsin-related (epsinR) adaptor proteins, which are implicated in endocytosis and Golgi-to-endosome protein trafficking, respectively, in other eukaryotic cells. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • We found that GlENTHp (for G. lamblia ENTH protein) localized in the cytosol, strongly interacted with PI3,4,5P3, was associated with the alpha subunit of AP-2, clathrin and ubiquitin and was involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • They are found in a large variety of accessory proteins involved in endocytosis and vesicular trafficking (specific adaptors like beta-arrestin and more general adaptor proteins like AP complexes). (eu.org)
  • Myosin VI and its cargo adaptors - linking endocytosis and autophagy. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The main functions of the TBCs are to remove excess spermatid cytoplasm and acrosomal contents, internalize and recycle junctional complexes by endocytosis prior to spermiation. (scirp.org)
  • To bridge this gap localization of various proteins, involved at various steps of endocytosis studied in other systems, was demonstrated in TBCs using testicular fragmented material or sections by immunoblotting and immunofluroscence. (scirp.org)
  • At TBCs, endocytosis process is linked to actin regulation thereby hinting that various actin regulated proteins may have dual role to form link between the two pathways. (scirp.org)
  • The TPLATE adaptor complex drives clathrin-mediated endocytosis in plants. (ist.ac.at)
  • Beta-arrestin acts as a clathrin adaptor in endocytosis of the beta2-adrenergic receptor. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Furthermore, a hydrophobic patch present in the domain also binds to a subset of D-phi-F/W motif-containing proteins that are bound by the alpha-adaptin appendage domain (epsin, AP180, eps15). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • For the majority of experimentally solved SH2:peptide ligand complex structures, the bound pTyr peptide forms an extended conformation and binds perpendicularly to the central β strands of the SH2 domain. (eu.org)
  • Among the lipid-binding proteins of this machinery, we previously identified the four-phosphate adaptor protein FAPP2, the pleckstrin homology domain of which binds phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and the small GTPase ARF1. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The KPNB1 protein is engaged in nuclear protein import, either by coupling itself with an adapter protein (e.g., importin-alpha subunit which binds to nuclear localization signals (NLS) in cargo substrates), or by functioning autonomously as a nuclear transport receptor (acts as NLS receptor, docking of the importin/substrate complex to the nuclear pore complex). (prospecbio.com)
  • When TNF-α binds to TNFR1, it recruits a protein called TNFR-associated death domain (TRADD) through its death domain (DD). (glpbio.cn)
  • Lastly, a protein-protein interaction assay with the RNA polymerase (RNAP) shows that CAETHG_0459 directly binds to the RNAP. (biorxiv.org)
  • [12] Since 14-3-3ζ is predominantly found in the cytoplasm and binds many nuclear proteins, it likely prevents nuclear import by blocking the nuclear localization signal of target proteins. (wikidoc.org)
  • In non-stressed cells, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), a central regulator of ER stress, binds and inactivates PERK, IRE1 and ATF6. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sidekick functionally interacts with both proteins and directly binds to Polychaetoid. (csic.es)
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-14 RUN domain protein binds to the kinesin-1 and UNC-16 complex and regulates synaptic vesicle localization. (modencode.org)
  • [2] [3] Dystrophin binds to actin of the cytoskeleton , and also to proteins in the extracellular matrix . (wikimili.com)
  • Muscular dystrophy, the result of mutations in the genes that encode for dystrophin and the associated proteins that binds to it can arise in various forms. (wikimili.com)
  • We also sought to identify the role of cytoplasmic protein kinases and transcription factors downstream of the RANKL-RANK signaling pathway and of IL-1 in osteoclast formation. (hindawi.com)
  • CD40 engagement results in the formation of a receptor-associated complex that mediates activation of NF-κB, stress-activated protein kinases, and other signaling molecules. (pubannotation.org)
  • CD40 engagement leads to the activation of various signaling molecules, including stress-activated protein kinases and the transcription factor NF-κB, which upregulate the expression of cytokines and other factors that promote immune responses. (pubannotation.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is involved in multiple pathways, including the regulation of Src family kinases. (nih.gov)
  • Mammals express at least four distinctly regulated groups of MAPKs, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK)-1/2, Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 proteins (p38alpha/beta/gamma/delta) and ERK5, that are activated by specific MAPKKs: MEK1/2 for ERK1/2, MKK3/6 for the p38, MKK4/7 (JNKK1/2) for the JNKs, and MEK5 for ERK5. (uni-freiburg.de)
  • During embryonic development and cellular differentiation, protein kinases play a vital role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. (vpjournal.net)
  • Protein kinases constitute an exceptionally large family that has been estimated to include more than 1000 mammalian proteins. (vpjournal.net)
  • The sequence similarity of protein kinases in their catalytic domains indicates that they have evolved from a common precursor protein [ 1 ] . (vpjournal.net)
  • Serine/threonine kinases (STKs) transfer phosphate group from Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the OH (hydroxyl) group on the side chain of a serine or threonine amino acid residue in a protein, producing ADP and a phosphoprotein. (vpjournal.net)
  • In particular, 14-3-3ζ is a key player in regulating cell survival and interacts with many apoptotic proteins, including Raf kinases , BAX , BAD , NOXA , and caspase-2 . (wikidoc.org)
  • [9] [10] Other proteins such as coactivators , chromatin remodelers , histone acetyltransferases , histone deacetylases , kinases , and methylases are also essential to gene regulation, but lack DNA-binding domains, and therefore are not TFs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex is part of the protein coat on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles which links clathrin to receptors in vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The LDLRAP1 protein appears to play a critical role in moving these receptors, together with their attached LDLs, from the cell surface to the interior of the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Without the LDLRAP1 protein, low-density lipoprotein receptors are unable to remove LDLs from the bloodstream effectively. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The IGF-1R signaling axis is comprised of two receptors (IGF-1R and IGF-2R), the ligands IGF-1 and IGF-2, and a system of at least six binding proteins and attendant proteases that modulate ligand availability ( Fig. 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • β-Arrestins are adaptors that regulate the signaling and trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (nih.gov)
  • Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is a sensitive and versatile method for real-time monitoring of protein-protein interactions and protein kinesis within live cells, such as the recruitment of β-arrestins to activated receptors at the plasma membrane (PM) and the trafficking of GPCR/β-arrestin complexes to endosomes. (nih.gov)
  • Each of these receptors is the gatekeeper of complex signaling machineries that translate extracellular stimuli into cellular responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • TRAIL induces apoptosis through two death-domain-containing receptors, TRAIL-R1 (also called death receptor (DR) 4) [3] and TRAIL-R2 (or DR5) [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. (gale.com)
  • IRAK-4 is one of the important signalling components downstream of IL-1/Toll family of receptors (IL-1R, IL-18R, IL-33R, Toll-like receptors). (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • Internalization of activated receptors regulates signaling, and endocytic adaptor proteins are well-characterized in clathrin-mediated uptake. (rupress.org)
  • OVERVIEW OF THE NLRP3 INFLAMMASOME COMPLEX NLRs are innate cytosolic receptors that recognize diverse PAMPs and DAMPs. (docksci.com)
  • Regulated protein trafficking controls the equipment of the plasma membrane with receptors and ion channels and thereby attenuates or enhances neuronal function. (prelekara.sk)
  • Instead, it forms a tripartite complex consisting of a dimeric ligand, two ligand-binding co-receptors (either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha 1 (GFRɑ1) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor alpha-like (GFRAL) and two molecules of RET. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • The roles of bile acids and their receptors, such as the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5, on the development of NASH are not fully clear. (jbc.org)
  • The underlying hypothesis of this proposal is that neurotransmitter receptors may interact via targeting signals with adaptor proteins mediating recruitment to specialized cargo vesicles or, alternatively, with scaffolding proteins, which may cause compartmentalized retention and/or stabilization. (elsevier.com)
  • The human Hrs and STAM proteins comprise the ESCRT-0 complex, which sorts ubiquitinated cell surface receptors to lysosomes for degradation. (rcsb.org)
  • Upregulation of inhibitory receptors, such as lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), may limit the antitumor activity of therapeutic antibodies targeting the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) pathway. (researchgate.net)
  • Secreted by the acidophil cells of the anterior pituitary, circulating GH shoots to the liver where it can bind GH receptors to stimulate the expression of IGF-I and its cohort IGFBP3 (IGF binding protein 3, there are six in total), a protein that carries IGF-I and magnifies its effects. (bodybuilding.com)
  • The endosome-associated cargo adaptor sorting nexin-27 (SNX27) is linked to various neuropathologies through sorting of integral proteins to the synaptic surface, most notably AMPA receptors. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • 2008 ) reported that Atg9 molecules self-associate independently of other known autophagy proteins in both nutrient-rich and starvation conditions. (tcdb.org)
  • These results suggest that the phenotype of XLP may result from perturbed signaling not only through SLAM, but also other cell surface molecules that utilize SAP as a signaling adaptor protein. (jimmunol.org)
  • Granule cargo includes pigment proteins, signaling molecules, and enzymes. (preventiongenetics.com)
  • These proteins function in part as adaptor molecules, binding to the cytoplasmic tail of CD40 and recruiting other proteins to the receptor-associated complex. (pubannotation.org)
  • My early work showed that neural cell adhesion molecules are the first proteins accumulating at nascent synaptic contacts between developing neurons and that these proteins stabilize the contacts and induce their transformation into mature synapses by capturing synaptic precursor organelles (Sytnyk et al. (edu.au)
  • Currently our main objective is to understand the role of this myosin and its cargo adaptor molecules in autophagy, a critical lysosomal degradation pathway. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In this process, the tRNA molecules work as adapters that proofread the code and, upon a successful match, add the correct amino acids, i.e. the building blocks that make up proteins. (helsinki.fi)
  • Membranes of adjacent cells form intercellular junctional complexes to mechanically anchor neighbour cells (anchoring junctions), to seal the paracellular space and to prevent diffusion of integral proteins within the plasma membrane (tight junctions) and to allow cell-to-cell diffusion of small ions and molecules (gap junctions). (elsevier.com)
  • These different types of specialised plasma membrane microdomains, sharing common adaptor molecules, particularly zonula occludens proteins, frequently present intermingled relationships where the different proteins co-assemble into macromolecular complexes and their expressions are co-ordinately regulated. (elsevier.com)
  • the approval compounds for 2019nCoV therapy can be inhibiting the class II major histocompatibility complex molecules expression and antigen presentation and even immune suppressions of the pro-inflammatory cytokines profile. (romj.org)
  • Maturation is associated with reduced phagocytic and endocytic capacity, increased cytokine secretion, changes in cell surface markers, including increased membrane expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules, and increased T-cell stimulatory function (6, 7). (biomarketx.net)
  • DNA bases, RNA bases, modified bases, proteins, and small molecules can all be detected and identified in this way. (idtdna.com)
  • In response to autophagy induction, the amount of most Atg proteins remained unchanged at the PAS, whereas an enhanced recruitment of Atg8 and 9 at this site was observed. (tcdb.org)
  • The impaired function of specific organelles indicates that the causative genes encode protein complexes that regulate vesicle trafficking in the endolysosomal system including AP-3, BLOC-1, BLOC-2, and BLOC-3. (medscape.com)
  • The light chains (KLCs) of the heterotetrameric microtubule motor kinesin-1, that bind to cargo adaptor proteins and regulate its activity, have a capacity to recognize short peptides via their tetratricopeptide repeat domains (KLC TPR ). (elifesciences.org)
  • [4] Furthermore, 14-3-3ζ may regulate glucose receptor trafficking in response to insulin levels through its interaction with IRS1 . (wikidoc.org)
  • AP-1/sigma 1A and AP-1/sigma 1B adaptor-proteins differentially regulate neuronal early endosome maturation via the Rab5/Vps34-pathway. (mpg.de)
  • My previous research has focused on how post-translational modifications regulate organelle function and protein trafficking in healthy and diseased states. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Among the multiple TRAFs that associate with CD40, TRAF3 can function as a negative regulator of signaling, while TRAF2 and TRAF6 promote the activation of downstream signaling pathways [4]. (pubannotation.org)
  • As an example, we present models of branching pathways from the adaptor protein Lat, which influence production of the phospholipid PIP 3 at the plasma membrane and the soluble second messenger IP 3 . (frontiersin.org)
  • Clathrin is the main component of the coat that decorates the cytosolic face of carrier vesicles mediating protein and lipid transport in the endocytic and late secretory pathways. (eu.org)
  • Four pathways affect treated identified, of which PARs 1,3 and 4 are circumstances for alternatingwith. (erik-mill.de)
  • The chemical reactions and pathways involving any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein group consists of a lipid or lipids. (princeton.edu)
  • Unbiased transcriptomic analysis revealed a deregulation of genes that cluster in pathways involved in nonsense-mediated decay, protein homeostasis, and mitochondrial functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Retromer is formed by the vacuolar protein-sorting (VPS) proteins VPS26, VPS29 and VPS35, and in concert with sorting nexins, it selectively mediates endosomal cargo sorting into recycling and retrieval pathways 7 . (nature.com)
  • According to our data, several viral proteins (pM, M, NS2A, NS4A, 2K and NS5) target multiple tick protein modules implicated in critical biological pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • as a complete effect many intracellular signaling pathways are activated and many focal adhesion complexes are formed. (morainetownshipdems.org)
  • This is achieved by specialized tRNA modification enzymes acting alone or as part of complex pathways. (helsinki.fi)
  • However, once a cell with an aberrant tRNA modification profile encounters any form of stress, severe problems in translation, protein homeostasis, stress response pathways etc. start to emerge. (helsinki.fi)
  • Carcinogenesis is a parahomeostatic series of mechanistic pathways that operates in terms of adaptor systems and as dysfunction adaptation to dysregulatory lesions within cellular pathways. (biomedres.us)
  • Many layers of complexity characterize single and multiple rounds of ubiquitylation in a manner that allows for crosstalk to ubiquitin like modulators such as NEDDylation and SUMOlylation of various protein substrates.Cullin Ring Ligases in particular are implicated in such crosstalk in a manner that implicates promiscuous interactivities of whole protein substrate pathways leading to carcinogenesis. (biomedres.us)
  • Calcium-binding proteins are proteins that participate in calcium cell signalling pathways by binding to Ca 2+ . (chemeurope.com)
  • ATP synthase mitochondrial F1 complex as. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Msp1 in yeast) removes mislocalized membrane proteins, as well as stuck import substrates from the mitochondrial outer membrane, facilitating their re-insertion into their cognate organelles and maintaining mitochondria's protein import capacity. (elifesciences.org)
  • This study reports the cryo-EM structure of human ATAD1 (Msp1 in yeast), a AAA protein responsible for the extraction of mistargeted tail-anchored (TA) proteins from the mitochondrial outer membrane. (elifesciences.org)
  • Additionally, dynein is essential for many other cellular processes, including mitochondrial movement, endosomal and lysosomal trafficking, transporting mis-folded proteins bound for degradation, nuclear positioning, and mitosis 1-3 (Fig. 2). (cytoskeleton.com)
  • The neurotoxin MPP + (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion) disrupts mitochondrial function leading to oxidative stress and neuronal death. (aging-us.com)
  • In neurons, the disruption of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex results in reactive oxidative species (ROS) production and oxidative stress. (aging-us.com)
  • Inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, including 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), rotenone, are currently being utilized for animal and cellular models of degenerative neuronal disease models [ 1 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA) uncoupling in skeletal muscle and mitochondrial uncoupling via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown/beige adipose tissue are two mechanisms implicated in energy expenditure. (jbc.org)
  • The sequencing of the human mitochondrial genome 40 years ago was a turning point in mitochondrial research, postulating a putative specialized mechanism for the synthesis of the mitochondrial transmembrane proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • Spatial orchestration of mitochondrial translation and OXPHOS complex assembly. (mpg.de)
  • Mitochondrial SIRT4-type proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals interact with pyruvate carboxylase and other acetylated biotin-dependent carboxylases. (mpg.de)
  • Effects of amyloid-β on protein SUMOylation and levels of mitochondrial proteins in primary cortical neurons. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The bioavailability of both ligands is also modulated by the IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), which are bound to ligand in circulation and thus prevent degradation and thereby increase the half-life of circulating ligand. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We propose that Cdt2 incorporation into the Pcu4¿Ddb1¿CSN complex prompts Spd1 targeting and subsequent degradation and that Cdt2 is a WD40 repeat adaptor protein for Cullin-4-based ubiquitin ligase. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Under resting conditions, Nrf2 targeted for degradation through ubiquitination by binding Keap1, an adaptor protein for the Cul3 ubiquitin ligase complex [ 5 , 6 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • These studies reveal a mechanism for gastric tumorigenesis whereby defects in adaptor proteins for Smads, such as ELF, can undergo degradation by PRAJA, through the ubiquitin-mediated pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • HBx is thought to achieve these functions by hijacking Cullin-RING ubiquitin E3 ligase 4 (CRL4) to target the SMC5/6 complex, a restriction factor for extrachromosomal viral DNA degradation. (fudan.edu.cn)
  • The enzymes of the ubiquitylation pathway play a pivotal role in a number of cellular processes including the regulated and targeted proteasome-dependent degradation of substrate proteins. (ubiquigent.com)
  • Inactivation of the CCC-associated WASH complex causes LDLR mislocalization, increased lysosomal degradation of LDLR and impaired LDL uptake. (nature.com)
  • During his PhD research, he studied the role of the proteasome system and autophagy in the degradation and proteolityc processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). (biochem2.com)
  • IKK integrates different signals ranging from stress bacterial endotoxin or cytokine activation such as TNFα and interleukin 1β (IL-1β)22 23 Stimulus-dependent activation of IKK a multi-protein complex composed of IKKα IKKβ and a catalytic subunit NEMO prospects to degradation of IκB inhibitors and launch of NF-κB into the nucleus8. (ranscombehouseglynde.com)
  • Ubiquilin4, a member of the UbL-UBA protein family, serves as an adaptor in the degradation of specific substrates via the proteasomal pathway and exerts anti-tumor potential in gastric cancer by p53dependent and p53independent regulation of p21 [1]. (biomedres.us)
  • Ubiquilin4 regulates the degradation of many proteins implicated and may induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via ERK activation and upregulation of cyclin D1 [5]. (biomedres.us)
  • 184. Apitz J, Nishimura K, Wolf A, Hedtke B, van Wijk KJ, Grimm B (2016) Posttranslational control of ALA synthesis includes GluTR degradation by Clp protease and stabilization by GluTR-binding protein. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Cytoplasmic dynein 1 (hereafter referred to as dynein) is a 1.6 MDa multi-protein complex that serves as the primary ATP-hydrolyzing motor responsible for retrograde axonal transport along microtubules (MTs) in eukaryotic cells (Fig. 1A). (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Domains of cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (A) and dynactin p150 Glued (B). (A) Dynein domains include the positions of mouse and human mutations as well as the buttress (light blue), stalk + MT binding domains (MTBD) (green), 6 AAA ATPase domains (blue), and intra-dynein complex binding domains (turquoise). (cytoskeleton.com)
  • We previously showed that the TRAF family member TRAF2 mediates recruitment of HOIL-1L-interacting protein (HOIP) to the cytoplasmic domain of CD40, suggesting that HOIP has a role in the CD40 signaling pathway. (pubannotation.org)
  • The cytoplasmic domain of CD40 does not appear to have intrinsic enzymatic activity, but is able to mediate signaling through the recruitment of several intracellular proteins. (pubannotation.org)
  • One such protein is the cell-surface receptor Fas, which, upon ligand binding, trimerizes and recruits the adaptor protein FADD through the cytoplasmic death domain of Fas. (gale.com)
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans JIP3 protein UNC-16 functions as an adaptor to link kinesin-1 with cytoplasmic dynein. (modencode.org)
  • In higher eukaryotes, cytoplasmic dynein is involved in silencing the SAC by removing the checkpoint proteins Mad2 and the Rod-Zw10-Zwilch complex (RZZ) from aligned kinetochores (Howell, B.J., B.F. McEwen, J.C. Canman, D.B. Hoffman, E.M. Farrar, C.L. Rieder, and E.D. Salmon. (silverchair.com)
  • Dystrophin is a rod-shaped cytoplasmic protein, and a vital part of a protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton of a muscle fiber to the surrounding extracellular matrix through the cell membrane. (wikimili.com)
  • Blocking phosphorylation reduces trafficking to the lysosome, stabilizing PI4KIIα and its cargo proteins for redistribution throughout the cell. (portlandpress.com)
  • Importantly, a reduction in PI4KIIα expression or phosphorylation increases α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor expression at the surface of hippocampal neurons. (portlandpress.com)
  • Then, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC2) fully activates AKT through phosphorylation on Ser473 (Poloz and Stambolic 2015). (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • The phosphorylation can be reversed by protein phosphatases. (vpjournal.net)
  • Protein phosphorylation is one of the common forms of cellular regulation during various cellular processes including metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival, and death. (vpjournal.net)
  • Multisite EGFR phosphorylation is regulated by adaptor protein abundances and dimer lifetimes. (bionetgen.org)
  • Since ERM proteins can exist in dormant or active conformations corresponding to their phosphorylation state, we propose that the partitioning of ERM proteins between subcellular compartments may depend on their activation status. (embl.de)
  • AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPS-2 is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the beta-3A subunit of the heterotetrameric AP3 complex ( AP3BA ), which assists in the vesicle formation from the trans-Golgi network or late endosome. (medscape.com)
  • The LDLRAP1 gene (also known as ARH ) provides instructions for making a protein that helps remove cholesterol from the bloodstream. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The HPS6 gene (ruby-eye protein) has recently been cloned and linked to Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with HPS2 have variants in the AP3B1 gene that encodes the ß chain of the adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex. (preventiongenetics.com)
  • Here we describe auditory/vestibular mutants isolated from forward genetic screens in zebrafish with lesions in the adaptor protein 1 beta subunit 1 ( ap1b1) gene. (zfin.org)
  • In this work, we have identified a single gene in Giardia encoding a protein containing an ENTH domain that defines monomeric adaptor proteins of the epsin family. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Similarly, the CD40 and IL-4 driven production of germline transcripts from the immunoglobulin epsilon heavy chain locus, an event that precedes immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and isotype switching, was defective in the absence of HOIP. (pubannotation.org)
  • Results Generation of HOIP-deficient B cells via targeted disruption of Rnf31, the gene encoding HOIP In our previous study, we demonstrated that HOIP is recruited to the CD40 signaling complex in two mouse B cell lines [6]. (pubannotation.org)
  • The ninaA gene required for visual transduction in Drosophila encodes a homologue of cyclosporin A-binding protein. (prelekara.sk)
  • ATPase: catalytic family and complex with Structure and gene environments. (erik-mill.de)
  • In dimerization types, Gq is IL-18 for energy gene-internal and network in term to combination but inhibits then second for digital protein processivity. (erik-mill.de)
  • Active research areas include: (1) mechanisms and biology of caspase-1 activating inflammasome complexes, (2) nucleic acid sensors, with a particular focus on cytosolic DNA recognition systems and (3) role of long non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) in the regulation of inflammatory gene expression. (umassmed.edu)
  • An R-loop formed between an antisense lncRNA and a cognate coding gene assembles an RNP complex including an epigenetic reader (GADD45A ) and writer (TET DNA demethylase). (imb.de)
  • Finally, TAB1 was shown to be MTR10, a gene encoding nuclear transport receptor/adaptor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Different gene families such as caspases, inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 family, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor gene superfamily, or p53 gene are involved and/or collaborate in the process of apoptosis. (glpbio.cn)
  • Furthermore, GWAS revealed that there were the different frequencies of gene variations related to complex forms of dyslipidemia diseases. (chinagene.cn)
  • Gene expression profiles of SC-derived microglia and BMDM further revealed that Trem2 deficiency resulted in impaired upregulation of phagocytosis associated genes Lpl and Cd36 in microglia, but a more complex pattern in BMDM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 14-3-3 protein zeta/delta ( 14-3-3ζ ) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the YWHAZ gene on chromosome 8. (wikidoc.org)
  • [9] The YWHAZ gene encodes two transcript variants which differ in the 5' UTR but produce the same protein. (wikidoc.org)
  • The 14-3-3 protein zeta/delta (14-3-3ζ) is a protein (in humans encoded by the YWHAZ gene on chromosome 8) with an important apoptotic constituents. (wikidoc.org)
  • Patterns of enrichment based on gene annotations from the GO and KEGG databases indicated that various structural and functional protein families were uniquely employed in either stage and that during primordial growth, cellular metabolism is highly up-regulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We observed increased gene expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 in PBMCs, and increased protein levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β in PD patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Novel roles of Caenorhabditis elegans heterochromatin protein HP1 and linker histone in the regulation of innate immune gene expression. (mpg.de)
  • The immediate contribution that cell routine progression makes towards the establishment of silencing is not determined however in an insightful research it had been found that preventing the transcription from the cohesin gene resulted in silencing of previously in the cell routine which expression of the uncleavable Scc1 proteins decreased the capability to create silencing (Lau 2002). (health-media.net)
  • This is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which encodes the protein dystrophin. (wikimili.com)
  • 4. Sehgal D, Mage RG, Schiaffella E. VH mutant rabbits lacking the V H 1a2 gene develop a2 + B cells in the appendix by gene conversion-like alteration of a rearranged V H 4 gene. (southernbiotech.com)
  • 9. Gaiser T, Berroa-Garcia L, Kemmerling R, Dutta A, Ried T, Heselmeyer-Haddad K. Automated analysis of protein expression and gene amplification within the same cells of paraffin-embedded tumour tissue. (southernbiotech.com)
  • We see that vinculin and α-actinin boost their discussion with F-actin although it remodels during capacitation which during capacitation focal adhesion complexes are organized. (morainetownshipdems.org)
  • This actin-severing proteins affiliates with phosphatidylinositol-4 bisphosphate (PIP2) (Finkelstein et al. (morainetownshipdems.org)
  • It is more developed Darapladib that integrins mediate relationships between your actin cytoskeleton and ECM protein which imply powerful remodeling of the cytoskeleton influencing mobile success: adhesion of cells towards the ECM promotes cell success while their detachment can stimulate apoptosis (Paoli et al. (morainetownshipdems.org)
  • Biederer T, Sudhof TC (2001) CASK and protein 4.1 support F-actin nucleation on neurexins. (yale.edu)
  • The transmembrane protein Sidekick is highly enriched at these junctions and connects to the actin cytoskeleton through Canoe and Polychaetoid. (csic.es)
  • Tubulobulbar Complexes (TBCs) are actin-rich structures formed between Sertoli-cells and spermatids at the time of sperm release. (scirp.org)
  • Impartial genetic screens have got resulted in the id of CAMs, adaptor proteins, actin cytoskeletal regulators, and vesicle Chetomin trafficking proteins with jobs in myoblast fusion (Desk 1). (iswa2013.org)
  • Furthermore, decreased moesin is the second F-actin bundling protein, besides drebrin, that is manifold reduced in fetal DS brain. (embl.de)
  • By immunocytochemistry, it was shown that podocalyxin and the actin binding protein ezrin are co-expressed in podocytes and co-localize along the apical plasma membrane, where they form a co-immunoprecipitable complex. (embl.de)
  • Moreover, its sedimentation is dependent on polymerized actin and is mediated by complex formation with ezrin. (embl.de)
  • These data indicate that in podocytes, podocalyxin is complexed with ezrin, which mediates its link to the actin cytoskeleton. (embl.de)
  • Atg9 is the only characterized transmembrane protein that is absolutely required for Cvt vesicle formation, and it is proposed to carry membrane from peripheral donor sites to the phagophore assembly site where the vesicle forms. (tcdb.org)
  • It has similarities to heat shock proteins and clathrin-associated proteins, and may be involved in vesicle structure or trafficking. (nih.gov)
  • acrosomal vesicle protein 1 [Source:HG. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Becher A, Drenckhahn A, Pahner I, Margittai M, Jahn R, Ahnert-Hilger G (1999) The synaptophysin-synaptobrevin complex: a hallmark of synaptic vesicle maturation. (yale.edu)
  • Betz A, Thakur P, Junge HJ, Ashery U, Rhee JS, Scheuss V, Rosenmund C, Rettig J, Brose N (2001) Functional interaction of the active zone proteins Munc13-1 and RIM1 in synaptic vesicle priming. (yale.edu)
  • Butz S, Okamoto M, Südhof TC (1998) A tripartite protein complex with the potential to couple synaptic vesicle exocytosis to cell adhesion in brain. (yale.edu)
  • UNC-16, a JNK-signaling scaffold protein, regulates vesicle transport in C. elegans. (modencode.org)
  • To gain insight into the cellular and molecular defects in ap1b1 mutants, we examined the localization of basolateral membrane proteins in hair cells. (zfin.org)
  • molecular protein appears possible reactions more mammalian. (evakoch.com)
  • At the molecular level, kinesin-1 is a tetramer consisting of two ATP-dependent motor-bearing heavy chains (KHCs) and two light chains (KLCs) that in mammalian cells are encoded by three (Kif5A-C) and four (KLC1-4) closely related genes, respectively, with distinct cell and tissue expression profiles. (elifesciences.org)
  • This need is driven in part by emerging data that reveal complex dynamical behaviors that arise from molecular interactions ( 4 , 5 ), as well as by a growing appreciation of network features, such as crosstalk ( 6 ), which may only be apparent when one considers the interplay of multiple interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The molecular machinery responsible for the generation of transport carriers moving from the Golgi complex to the plasma membrane relies on a tight interplay between proteins and lipids. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Molecular mechanisms regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation Eun-Kyeong Jo1,2, Jin Kyung Kim1,2, Dong-Min Shin1,2 and Chihiro Sasakawa3,4 Inflammasomes are multi-protein signaling complexes that trigger the activation of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of interleukin-1b. (docksci.com)
  • The main goal of this thesis was to gain detailed molecular insights into the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of these protein quality control networks in the ecologically, medically and industrially important phylum of low GC, Gram-positive bacteria. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Molecular Medicine, 2 (4). (cshl.edu)
  • This study provides novel insights into the molecular mechanism causing hypercholesterolaemia, and highlights the importance of CCC and WASH complexes in cholesterol homeostasis. (nature.com)
  • At the molecular scale, vector competence is governed in part by binary interactions established between viral and cellular proteins within infected tick cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While further investigation will be needed to elucidate the role of each tick protein in the replication cycle of tick-borne flaviviruses, our study provides a foundation for understanding the vector competence of I. ricinus at the molecular level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I aim to understand how myosin motor proteins - such as myosin VI and myosin 1C - function in intracellular transport processes, cell signalling and membrane dynamics, and how defects in these molecular machines are linked to human diseases. (cam.ac.uk)
  • CUT&Tag, which is short for Cleavage Under Targets and Tagmentation, is a molecular biology method that researchers use to investigate interactions between proteins and DNA and to identify DNA binding sites for their protein of interest. (activemotif.com)
  • Inflammasomes are high in molecular weight, multimeric, and self-organizing protein complexes of the innate immune system which do not only play a significant role in inflammatory response activation and the release of IL-1 β and IL-18 but also function like a finely tuned alarm in cellular apoptosis regulation by triggering and enhancing systems in response to stress and/or cellular infections. (hindawi.com)
  • TLRs 3 and 4 recognized 2019nCoV spike protein through immune and molecular signals that leading to immune stimulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and even the immune fever. (romj.org)
  • Moreover, macrophages and dendritic cells can be activated by the K. pneumoniae pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) outer membrane protein A (OmpA) through TLR2 11 . (ersjournals.com)
  • A new paper published in Science today (19 February 2021) by an international team of researchers reports an insight into the molecular mechanism of membrane-tethered protein synthesis in mitochondria. (eurekalert.org)
  • Together, the data offer a molecular insight into how proteins are synthesized in human mitochondria," adds Alexey Amunts. (eurekalert.org)
  • In molecular biology , a transcription factor ( TF ) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor ) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA , by binding to a specific DNA sequence . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dynamics of operability of the ubiquitin proteasomal system exhibit exquisite specificity for protein molecular targeting and hence are ideally constituted in the face of a broad range of protein substrates through posttranslational modification of numerous protein moieties. (biomedres.us)
  • The inflammasome is a multiprotein complex assembled in response to Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) and Risk Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs). (healthyconnectionsinc.com)
  • 2017). Molecular mechanism of dynein recruitment to kinetochores by the Rod-Zw10-Zwilch complex and Spindly . (up.pt)
  • The highly homologous ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) proteins, molecular cross-linkers which connect the cell membrane with the underlying cytoskeleton, have molecular weights of 81, 80 and 78 kDa respectively. (embl.de)
  • We present data which shows significant variation in the molecular weight and presence of multiple forms of ERM proteins in different cell lines, such that specific antibodies to each protein are essential for unambiguous detection. (embl.de)
  • Elegant studies have suggested that IRS-1 recruitment is primarily required for mitogenic signaling, whereas IRS-2, in contrast, plays a key role in cellular motility responses ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • One of these adaptor proteins, huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1), induces cellular transformation and is overexpressed in some prostate cancers. (rupress.org)
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural 5A protein (NS5A) contains a highly conserved C-terminal polyproline motif with the consensus sequence Pro-X-X-Pro-X-Arg that is able to interact with the Src-homology 3 (SH3) domains of a variety of cellular proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NS5A is a 448 amino acid phosphoprotein that interacts with a plethora of cellular proteins and has been reported to have multiple effects on cell physiology, for review see [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We, and others, have shown that these motifs (termed PP2.1 and PP2.2) bind to the Src homology 3 (SH3) domains of a range of cellular proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another fun problem in considering one cell eating another is that the phagocyte essentially doubles its cellular contents (including protein, cholesterol, nucleotides etc. (virginia.edu)
  • Following activation of the intrinsic pathway by cellular stress, pro‑apoptotic BCL‑2 homology 3 (BH3)‑only proteins inhibit the anti‑apoptotic proteins Bcl‑2, Bcl-xl, Bcl‑W and MCL1. (glpbio.cn)
  • The properties of both A20 fragments, generated upon co-expression with a constitutively active MALT1 protein, were further studied by sub-cellular fractionation and fluorescence microscopy. (pdgf-receptor.com)
  • For instance, 14-3-3ζ controls cellular senescence by complexing with BIS to chaperone protein folding of STAT3 and activate the signaling pathway. (wikidoc.org)
  • The multilayered complexities of such changes attest for redistribution of protein intermediates within various cellular subcompartments as signified by endosomal and nuclear systems of cooperative interchange. (biomedres.us)
  • 171. Gläßer C, Haberer G, Finkemeier I, Pfannschmidt T, Kleine T, Leister D, Dietz KJ, Häusler RE, Grimm B, Mayer KFX (2014) Meta-Analysis of Retrograde Signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana Reveals a Core Module of Genes Embedded in Complex Cellular Signaling Networks Mol. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Claudin-4 undergoes age-dependent change in cellular localization on pig jejunal villous epithelial cells, independent of bacterial colonization. (southernbiotech.com)
  • PARP-2 is a nuclear protein, which regulates a variety of cellular functions that are mainly controlled by protein-protein interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cellular distributions of the ERM proteins in MDCK epithelial cells: regulation by growth and cytoskeletal integrity. (embl.de)
  • SH2 domains are phosphotyrosine recognition domains, often mediating transient interactions with target proteins. (eu.org)
  • The library consists of executable rules for protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • In vivo the multimerisation of the clathrin heterohexamer (known as triskelion) and the clathrin-mediated vesicular trafficking are regulated through a complex network of interactions involving clathrin and a number of accessory proteins. (eu.org)
  • This organisation is believed to ensure a complex, ajustable network of "weak" cooperative interactions, with the affinity between members defined by the number of motifs they possess. (eu.org)
  • Cell penetrating peptides to dissect host-pathogen protein-protein interactions in Theileria-transformed leukocytes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • To understand the role of intramolecular interactions in regulating its binding properties, we characterized the complex between the second PDZ domain PDZ2 and the C-terminal 242-358 fragment of NHERF1 using NMR and fluorescence methods. (cell.com)
  • CD2 and the nature of protein interactions mediating cell-cell recognition. (hcdm.org)
  • To investigate virus-vector protein-protein interactions (PPIs), the entire set of open reading frames for LIV and TBEV was screened against an I. ricinus cDNA library established from three embryonic tick cell lines using yeast two-hybrid methodology (Y2H). (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the ChIP assay is still the primary method to investigate protein-chromatin interactions, alternative strategies are being developed to overcome some of the limitations of ChIP assays. (activemotif.com)
  • In addition to these primary interactions, the target protein can also bind outside the groove via secondary interactions. (wikidoc.org)
  • Benfenati F, Onofri F, Giovedí S (1999) Protein-protein interactions and protein modules in the control of neurotransmitter release. (yale.edu)
  • basic transcription factor 3 like 4 [Sou. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Studies also indicated that DNA damage-binding protein 1 (DDB1), an adaptor protein within CRL4 complex, may stimulate HBV transcription via a mechanism that does not involve an interaction with HBx. (fudan.edu.cn)
  • Both IL-1 agonists signal through the IL-1R type 1 (IL-1R1) 4 ( 6 , 7 ) and initiate a number of downstream events, including nuclear translocation of NF-κB, a rel -related transcription factor that activates expression of many inflammatory and immune response genes ( 7 , 8 , 9 ). (aai.org)
  • CtsR displays a decreased DNA binding at higher temperatures, which leads to induction of transcription of the protein quality control systems under these conditions. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • RNA polymerase was shown to bind to the new promoter motif using a DNA-binding protein assay and proteomics enabled the discovery of four candidates to potentially function directly in control of transcription of the WLP and other key genes of C 1 fixation metabolism. (biorxiv.org)
  • We observed that the chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) stabilizes the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), resulting in IFNγ-induced expression of immunosuppressive indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (I. (researchgate.net)
  • These dynamics are in part due to NF-κB-dependent transcription of inhibitory kappa B protein family (primarily IκBα and IκB? (ranscombehouseglynde.com)
  • TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator ), or blocking (as a repressor ) the recruitment of RNA polymerase (the enzyme that performs the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA) to specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are approximately 2800 proteins in the human genome that contain DNA-binding domains, and 1600 of these are presumed to function as transcription factors, [3] though other studies indicate it to be a smaller number. (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] Therefore, approximately 10% of genes in the genome code for transcription factors, which makes this family the single largest family of human proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcription factor can either do this directly or recruit other proteins with this catalytic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • SUMOylation is covalently modified on lysine residues of a target protein and regulates transcription, cell cycle, DNA repair and innate immunity [7]. (biomedres.us)
  • We have designed, synthesized and tested small molecule IRAK-4 inhibitors based on hits originating from Aurigene' s compound library. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • This strategy provides direct evidence of co-enrichment without requiring complex single-molecule, single-cell, or magnetic bead-based approaches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A novel protein LZTFL1 regulates ciliary trafficking of the BBSome and Smoothened. (prelekara.sk)
  • The GTP- and Phospholipid-Binding Protein TTD14 Regulates Trafficking of the TRPL Ion Channel in Photoreceptor Cells. (prelekara.sk)
  • Here we identify that the CCC complex regulates the level of circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by mediating the endosomal trafficking of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). (nature.com)
  • [4] [5] For the most part,14-3-3ζ negatively regulates apoptosis by binding and sequestering BAD and BAX in the cytoplasm, effectively preventing activation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, as well as by preventing NOXA from inhibiting antiapoptotic MCL1 . (wikidoc.org)
  • Sorting nexin-27 regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through the synaptic adhesion protein LRFN2. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • To understand how these proteins effect anterograde spread between neurons, we analyzed the subcellular localization of viral proteins after infection of cultured rat sympathetic neurons with wild-type or mutant viruses. (rupress.org)
  • We conclude that the Us9 membrane protein controls axonal localization of diverse viral membrane proteins but not that of capsid or tegument proteins. (rupress.org)
  • LZTFL1 participates in immune synapse formation, ciliogenesis, and the localization of ciliary proteins, and knockout of LZTFL1 induces abnormal distribution of heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1) in the Lztfl1 -knockout mouse photoreceptor cells, suggesting that LZTFL1 is involved in intracellular transport. (prelekara.sk)
  • In the current study, we have attempted to study localization and distribution of various endocytic proteins which have not yet been studied at TBCs to the best of our knowledge. (scirp.org)
  • This complex recruits the adaptor protein MyD88, to initiate signaling in the NF kappa B pathway. (rndsystems.com)
  • To inhibit SFKs, CSK is recruited to the plasma membrane via binding to transmembrane proteins or adapter proteins located near the plasma membrane. (drugbank.com)
  • The LDLRAP1 protein interacts with a protein called a low-density lipoprotein receptor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Interacts with adapter protein complex 1 (AP-1) and AP-2, but not AP-3 and AP-4 (By similarity). (cansar.ai)
  • Interacts with isoform 4 of MINK1. (icr.ac.uk)
  • For example, the neuron-specific calexcitin has been found to have an excitatory effect on neurons, and interacts with proteins that control the firing state of neurons, such as the the voltage-dependent potassium channel . (chemeurope.com)
  • It has been shown that furanone 1 interacts with the QS expert regulator protein LuxR to prevent induction of the prospective genes and covalently modifies the DPD synthase, LuxS.12 With this light, it is evident that there is some covalent connection between the furanone and its target proteins, which is in accord with the observed activity reported herein. (bostonscienceandengineeringlectures.com)
  • In these bacteria the core protein quality control systems are under the transcriptional control of the global repressor CtsR. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • In addition to the transcriptional regulation of CtsR low GC, Gram-positive protein quality control systems are regulated post-transcriptionally. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Next, in vivo experiments showed that a TetR-family transcriptional regulator (CAETHG_0459) and the housekeeping sigma factor (σ A ) activate expression of a reporter protein (GFP) in-frame with the new promoter motif from a fusion vector in E. coli . (biorxiv.org)
  • Many studies have established the fact that establishment of Sir protein-dependent transcriptional silencing in yeast requires progression coming from the cell cycle. (health-media.net)
  • Adapters propagate cell signaling through recruitment and interaction of proteins. (abcam.com)
  • ARMc8α promoted the interaction of HRS with various ubiquitinated proteins through the ubiquitin-interacting motif. (openbiochemistryjournal.com)
  • These findings suggest that HRS mediates protein endosomal trafficking partly through its interaction with ARMc8α. (openbiochemistryjournal.com)
  • These diverse roles of myosin VI are mediated by its interaction with a wide range of distinct adaptor proteins that connect it to different cargoes. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The RNAcious laboratory studies the role of chemical tRNA modifications as modulators of translation, broadly exploring their impact on topics such as host-pathogen interaction, cancer formation and progression, and heterologous protein production. (helsinki.fi)
  • Here we show that human FAPP2 is a glucosylceramide-transfer protein that has a pivotal role in the synthesis of complex glycosphingolipids, key structural and signalling components of the plasma membrane. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Protein trafficking in neurons occurs throughout the lifetime of a cell and includes the internalization and redistribution of plasma membrane proteins. (prelekara.sk)
  • Defects in recycling of plasma membrane proteins can cause detrimental neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Down´s syndrome. (prelekara.sk)
  • Four such genes, HPS1, ADTB3A, HPS3, and HPS4, are associated with the 4 known subtypes of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 1 (HPS-1), Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS-2), Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 3 (HPS-3), and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 4 (HPS-4). (medscape.com)
  • Id-related genes encoding helix-loop-helix proteins are required for G1 progression and are repressed in senescent human fibroblasts"، J Biol Chem ، 269 (3): 2139-45، فبراير 1994، PMID 8294468 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though DNA was present in much higher quantities than protein in these preparations, it was hotly debated whether or not the DNA or histones carried the genes biologists were looking for. (ubc.ca)
  • Ciliopathies encompass a broad group of genetically and phenotypically diverse diseases, caused by mutations in almost 200 genes that contribute to cilia biogenesis and transport [ 1-4 ]. (iospress.com)
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans JNK signaling pathway activates expression of stress response genes by derepressing the Fos/HDAC repressor complex. (modencode.org)
  • Protein-encoding genes (pegs) that are functionally related (e.g., enzymes from a single pathway or subunits of a transport cassette) tend to cluster on the chromosome. (bv-brc.org)
  • When one simply looks at the genes as they occur on a chromosome, one notices these clusters of functionally-related pegs, and often they suggest clues to the functions of hypothetical proteins. (bv-brc.org)
  • Cullin-4 forms a scaffold for multiple ubiquitin ligases. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Inhibition of Raf-MEK pathway activation by IMP occurs through the inactivation of KSR, a scaffold/adapter protein that couples activated Raf to its substrate MEK1. (elsevier.com)
  • However, importin α functions as an adaptor that links classical NLS (cNLS)-containing proteins to importin β, which, in turn, docks the ternary complex at the nuclear-pore complex (NPC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The AP-2 complex is required for proper temporal and spatial dynamics of endocytic patches in fission yeast. (illumina.com)
  • Instead, it is stimulated by endocytic pioneer proteins called muniscins, which do not enter vesicles. (rcsb.org)
  • Various endocytic proteins are found to be associated with TBCs namely early endosomal antigen [EEA1], clathrin, dynamin-2, amphiphysin, Rab11 etc. (scirp.org)
  • Exploring these proteins at TBCs gives us supporting evidence of the occurrence of the endocytic pathway during spermiation. (scirp.org)
  • AKT signaling also impacts glucose metabolism through regulation of GSK-3β activity, and plays a key role in protein synthesis and cell growth by regulating the activity of the TORC1 complex through a series of intermediate signaling events ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Members of the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family, including TRAF1, TRAF2, TRAF3, and TRAF6, appear to be particularly important for the initiation and regulation of CD40 signaling [4]. (pubannotation.org)
  • The requirement for FAPP2 makes the whole glycosphingolipid synthetic pathway sensitive to regulation by phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and ARF1. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The regulation of the TGF-beta pathway through a PRAJA, a RING finger (RING-H2) protein, and ELF, a beta-Spectrin adaptor protein, both which were originally identified in endodermal stem/progenitor cells committed to foregut lineage, could play a pivotal role in gastric carcinogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • This regulation involves activation of initial component of ER stress, such as the formation of a IRE1a-TRAF2-IKK complex, and converges to NFKB-induced repression of Slc2a4 /GLUT4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chen Y, Aung K, Rolčík J, Walicki K, Friml J, Brandizzí F. Inter-regulation of the unfolded protein response and auxin signaling. (ist.ac.at)
  • Regulation of serotonin-2C receptor G-protein coupling by RNA editing. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Archain sequences are well conserved among eukaryotes and this protein may play a fundamental role in eukaryotic cell biology. (nih.gov)
  • The cell surface proteoglycans syndecan-1 and -4 bind overlapping but distinct sites in the laminin α3 LG45 domain. (ibs.fr)
  • due complexes by terminating to such T-cell cell complexes( Neme et al. (evakoch.com)
  • Recent advances have indicated that inflammasomes contribute the etiology of MS. Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes of the innate immune response involved in the processing of caspase-1, the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 as well as the cell death-mediated mechanism of pyroptosis and the activation of the adaptive immune response. (springer.com)
  • Trafficking of receptor/β-arrestin complexes can be assessed by BRET through tagging β-arrestins with the donor luciferase from Renilla reniformis (Rluc) and anchoring the acceptor green fluorescent protein from the same species (rGFP) in distinct cell compartments (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • HOIL-1L Interacting Protein (HOIP) Is Essential for CD40 Signaling HOIP Is Essential for CD40 Signaling Abstract CD40 is a cell surface receptor important in the activation of antigen-presenting cells during immune responses. (pubannotation.org)
  • Subsequently, this leads to calcium overload, lipid peroxidation, DNA/protein damage, and eventually neuronal cell death [ 1 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • Activated Nrf2 protein disassociates from Keap1 and translocates to cell nuclei. (aging-us.com)
  • Myriad multicomponent protein complexes and protein phosphoforms, for example, can potentially arise in cell signaling systems and this complexity poses a challenge for other modeling techniques ( 16 , 17 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The polyprotein is cleaved into 10 individual polypeptides by a combination of host-cell and viral proteases, the N-terminal one-third of the polyprotein produces the four structural proteins (Core, E1, E2 and p7), whereas the C-terminal two-thirds comprises the six non-structural proteins (NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A and NS5B). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The functions of the DNA can model added also to the Industrial Revolution, when compromised process of single IgGs and enzymatic depolarization nucleotide published to apparent protein and epithelial cell of Canadians. (erik-mill.de)
  • A novel adaptor protein orchestrates receptor patterning and cytoskeletal polarity in T-cell contacts. (hcdm.org)
  • Direct measurements of heterotypic adhesion between the cell surface proteins CD2 and CD48. (hcdm.org)
  • They protect the cell from irreversible protein aggregation. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Our data indicate that FHL2 silencing reduces osteosarcoma cell tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo, indicating that FHL2 is a potential target for therapeutical intervention in this type of cancer.Results FHL2 Expression is Expressed Above Normal in OsteosarcomaWe first analyzed by Western blot the expression of the FHL2 protein in a panel of human (U2OS, HOS, SaOS2, MG63) osteosarcoma cells with distinct genotypes compared to normal human osteoblasts (IHNC). (betadesks.com)
  • T24 bladder carcinoma cells.Cetuximabresistant tumors T24PR1?4 were surgically eliminated from sacrificed animals and digested into single-cell suspensions that had been implemented to make cell lines in the similar name in vitro and additional xenografts in vivo.Xenografts from the cetuximab-resistant cells persisted regardless of treatment with doses of cetuximab equivalent to 12 times the human dose of cetuximab promptly upon tumor formation. (pimsignaling.com)
  • Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane protein involved in mobile procedures such as for example cell-cell adhesion or cell-ECM relationships. (morainetownshipdems.org)
  • Proteins forming gap junction channels (connexins, particularly) and proteins fulfilling cell attachment or forming tight junction strands mutually influence expression and functions of one another. (elsevier.com)
  • Several biochemical changes such as protein modifications/degradations, DNA and chromatin deteriorations, and synthesis of cell surface markers form morphological process during apoptosis. (glpbio.cn)
  • We developed a method for coupling protein to its coding DNA on magnetic microbeads using emulsion PCR and cell-free protein synthesis in emulsion. (pdgf-receptor.com)
  • The pool of beads was then subjected to cell-free protein synthesis compartmentalized in another w/o emulsion, in which templates were coupled to their coding proteins. (pdgf-receptor.com)
  • Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)-targeted immunotherapy has shown promising results in a variety of malignant tumours. (researchgate.net)
  • Disturbed ER homeostasis results in unfolded and misfolded proteins, which can lead to cell dysfunction and death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These nano-factories consist of proteins cooperatively transporting ions and electrons to generate the chemical energy currency of our bodies which have to be constantly maintained, replaced and duplicated during cell division. (eurekalert.org)
  • Modeling cell line-specific recruitment of signaling proteins to the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. (bionetgen.org)
  • Differences in Ag affinity can lead changes in adapter proteins resulting in differential mast cell responses. (blogspot.com)
  • This complex can sense and modulate tension to promote normal cell rearrangements during developmental remodeling. (csic.es)
  • Here we show that Sidekick, an immunoglobulin family cell adhesion protein, is highly enriched at tricellular adherens junctions in Drosophila . (csic.es)
  • Journal of Cell Biology, 216 (4), 943 - 960. (up.pt)
  • The dystrophin-associated protein complex is important for cell structure and cell signalling . (wikimili.com)
  • tested nCATS using genomic DNA (gDNA) from 4 cell lines: the well-characterized GM12878 lymphoblast cell line and 3 breast cell lines (MCF-10A, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231) [2]. (idtdna.com)
  • These results agree with literature reports detailing a lack of activity of 1 1 against the QS of applications.4 A similar analysis of furanone 1 against a mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell collection (RAW 264.7) revealed that 1, at 50 M, resulted in only 16% cell viability, as compared to hexyl-DPD 5 which exhibited no toxic. (bostonscienceandengineeringlectures.com)
  • The MYO6 interactome reveals adaptor complexes coordinating early endosome and cytoskeletal dynamics. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The genetic defect in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is the Src homology 2 domain-containing protein SAP. (jimmunol.org)
  • FAPP2 also possesses a glycolipid-transfer-protein homology domain. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The TTD14 protein contains a region with weak homology to a PX-domain, which is also found in proteins that sort cargo in the endosome and enable protein recycling. (prelekara.sk)
  • we named this mammalian complex C-terminal to the Lissencephaly type-1-like homology (CTLH) complex. (openbiochemistryjournal.com)
  • Pleckstrin homology domains bind to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Petrelli A, Gilestro GF, Lanzardo S, Comoglio PM, Migone N, Giordano S (2002) The endophilin-CIN85-Cbl complex mediates ligand-dependent downregulation of c-Met. (ubiquigent.com)
  • The TEL patch of telomere protein TPP1 mediates telomerase recruitment and processivity. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Ap1b1 is a subunit of the adaptor complex AP-1, which has been implicated in the targeting of basolateral membrane proteins. (zfin.org)
  • At least three viral membrane proteins (gE, gI, and Us9) are necessary for the spread of infection from presynaptic to postsynaptic neurons (anterograde spread) in infected rodents. (rupress.org)
  • Surprisingly, capsid and tegument proteins but not viral membrane proteins were detected in axons. (rupress.org)
  • The spread of Us9 missense mutants in the rodent nervous system correlated with the amount of viral membrane proteins localized to axons. (rupress.org)
  • How ATAD1 tackles the energetic challenge to extract hydrophobic membrane proteins from the lipid bilayer and what structural features adapt ATAD1 for its particular function has remained a mystery. (elifesciences.org)
  • TA proteins are integral membrane proteins that are embedded in the membrane by a hydrophobic stretch at the extreme C-terminus. (elifesciences.org)
  • This is important for synthesis of membrane proteins, including respiratory chain proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • We have identified a series of novel bicyclic heterocycles as potent inhibitors of IRAK-4. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • Xencor is exploring bsAbs that act as dual checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-PD-1/CTLA-4 and CTLA-4/LAG-3. (genengnews.com)
  • 2015). Preventing farnesylation of the dynein adaptor Spindly contributes to the mitotic defects caused by farnesyltransferase inhibitors . (up.pt)
  • This motif is also present in SLAM ( 9 ) and may be involved in the recruitment of SHP-2, as well as the association between SLAM and SLAM-associated protein (SAP) ( 11 ), the defective protein in the inherited immunodeficiency XLP ( 11 , 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • DxxFxxLxxxR motif of LZTFL1 is essential for these bindings, suggesting LZTFL1 has roles in AP-1 and AP-2-mediated protein trafficking. (prelekara.sk)
  • Because of overlapping specificities amongst SH2 domains, it is unlikely to be clear which proteins bind to a new pTyr candidate SH2-binding motif. (eu.org)
  • Characterization of a mobile Stat6 activation motif in the human IL-4 receptor. (eu.org)
  • Beside the "classical" motif, some variants have been described for various types of adaptor proteins. (eu.org)
  • This variant clathrin box motif (also called the W box) is found in tandem arrangement with a "classical" clathrin box, ( LIG_Clathr_ClatBox_1 ) in a subgroup of cargo adaptor proteins enriched in nerve terminals: the amphiphysins. (eu.org)
  • Na + /H + exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF1) is a signaling adaptor protein comprising two PDZ domains and a C-terminal ezrin-binding (EB) motif. (cell.com)
  • Defects of two compositions shown in most EGFR-induced reactions, MST1 community of intracellular yeast megakaryocytes, and neurodegeneration of HOX proteins during mRNA are associated. (evakoch.com)
  • Using a mouse model expressing an ALS-linked human FUS mutation (R514G-FUS) that mimics endogenous expression patterns, we found that FUS proteins showed an age-dependent accumulation of FUS proteins despite the downregulation of mouse FUS mRNA by the R514G-FUS protein during aging. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, a recent study demonstrated that both TLR4 and TLR2 mRNA and protein are upregulated after stimulation of A549 cells (human lung epithelial cells) with K. pneumoniae 12 . (ersjournals.com)
  • CCR4-NOT complex-mediated mRNA deadenylation serves critical functions in multiple biological processes, yet how this activity is regulated is not fully understood. (researchgate.net)
  • The protein and mRNA expression levels of inflammasomes subtypes and components in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined using western blotting and RT-qPCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IL-1 RI, also known as the type 1 IL-1 receptor and CD121a, is a transmembrane protein in the Toll/IL-1 R (TIR) superfamily. (rndsystems.com)
  • GSK3 phosphorylates two distinct sites in the N-terminus of PI4KIIα (Ser 5 and Ser 47 ), promoting binding to the adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) complex for trafficking to the lysosome to be degraded. (portlandpress.com)
  • Binding specificities of Y-acidic motifs (present in JIP1 and in TorsinA) to KLC1 TPR are distinct from those utilized for the recognition of W-acidic motifs found in adaptors that are KLC- isoform non-selective. (elifesciences.org)
  • secretes three proteins that combine to form two distinct exotoxins, edema toxin (ET) and lethal toxin (LT) (13). (biomarketx.net)
  • The AP-3 complex plays a role during the budding of vesicles from the trans Golgi network and endosomal compartments and is essential for proper intracellular protein sorting and vesiculation (Simpson et al. (preventiongenetics.com)
  • The cyclophilin homolog ninaA is a tissue-specific integral membrane protein required for the proper synthesis of a subset of Drosophila rhodopsins. (prelekara.sk)
  • Am J Hum Genet, 2016 Aug 4. (nih.gov)
  • 2016. An Approach to Function Annotation for Proteins of Unknown Function (PUFs) in the Transcriptome of Indian Mulberry. . (ncbs.res.in)
  • The Fas signalling pathway was elucidated by means of analysis of its death-inducing signalling complex (DISC) [12], that is, by studying the endogenous (and not overexpressed) proteins that are recruited to activated Fas. (gale.com)
  • We have defined the signaling pathway downstream of BAI1 involving the proteins ELMO1, Dock180 and the small GTPase Rac. (virginia.edu)
  • The extrinsic apoptosis pathway is activated through the binding of a ligand to a death receptor, which in turn leads, with the help of the adapter proteins (FADD/TRADD), to recruitment, dimerization, and activation of caspase-8 (or 10). (glpbio.cn)
  • 182. Nishimura K, Apitz J, Friso G, Kim J, Ponnala L, Grimm B, van Wijk KJ (2015) A non-canonical pathway of substrate recognition and deliveryinvolving a binary adaptor system for the plastid Clp protease in Arabidopsis. (hu-berlin.de)
  • We found that Gadd45a/Ing1 double knockout mice (DKO) display premature ageing and phenocopy impaired energy homeostasis and lipodystrophy characteristic of Cebp (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein) mutants. (imb.de)
  • In concert with other cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1 initiates the innate host immune response, including induction of fever and synthesis of hepatic acute phase proteins (reviewed in Ref. 1 ). (aai.org)
  • Therefore, in the current study, the team used the high throughput cryo-EM data acquisition at the electron Bio-Imaging Centre (eBIC) at Diamond to obtain 30 times more data allowing the team to describe conformational changes during the process of protein synthesis and association with the membrane adaptor. (eurekalert.org)
  • Minimum-noise production of translation factor eIF4G maps to a mechanistically determined optimal rate control window for protein synthesis. (bionetgen.org)
  • 177. Lohscheider JN, Rojas-Stütz MC, Rothbart M, Andersson U, Funck D, Mendgen K, Grimm B, Adamska I (2015) Altered levels of LIL3 isoforms in Arabidopsis lead to disturbed pigment-protein assembly and chlorophyll synthesis, chlorotic phenotype and impaired photosynthetic performance. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Open in a separate 4-Aminoantipyrine window Plan 1 Synthesis of furanone 1. (bostonscienceandengineeringlectures.com)
  • Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia caused by mutations in a putative LDL receptor adaptor protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These proteins include repeat sequences. (tcdb.org)
  • alkaline architectural proteins that are sequences in the therapeutics ubiquitin are three elevated reactive levels to vary these cilia for the immunoglobulin complex. (evakoch.com)
  • 2019) 12:293-303 Abbreviations background blocks the sequencing of the whole sugarcane NR Non-redundant protein sequences in NCBI genome. (deepdyve.com)
  • Tn5 is an Mg 2+ -dependent enzyme so Mg 2+ is added to activate the reaction, which results in the chromatin being cut close to the protein binding site and simultaneous addition of the NGS adapter DNA sequences. (activemotif.com)
  • It is an intracellular protein. (nih.gov)
  • It means expressed subsequent bacteria small to 1980)The and later is IL18RAP to activate a download A New Heart and a New Soul: Ezekiel, the Exile and the Torah (JSOT Supplement) intracellular protein( Sims 2002, Sergi & Pentilla 2004, Alboni et al. (evakoch.com)
  • Proteins of the stonin family. (embl.de)
  • Proteins of the muniscin family: Syp1, FCHO1/2 and SGIP1. (embl.de)
  • Ligand can be liberated from this complex by a family of IGFBP proteases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40). (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • GTPase, IMAP family member 4 [Source:H. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • In this study, we showed evidence suggesting that GlENTHp might function as a monomeric adaptor protein supporting the findings of other group indicating that GlENTHp might be placed at the beginning of the ENTH family. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • IR phosphorylates and recruits adaptor proteins including the IRS family. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • The City of Greater Taree deoxygenase of Sydney shortens synthesized a oxygen for Australia's sub-family thymine genome special protein. (evakoch.com)
  • Known components of the CD40 signaling complex include members of the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family of proteins. (pubannotation.org)
  • 4. Montell C, Birnbaumer L, Flockerzi V. The TRP channels, a remarkably functional family. (prelekara.sk)
  • Protein disulfide isomerases are a family of proteins that catalyze the oxidation and isomerization of disulfide bonds in newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. (cell.com)
  • The family includes general enzymes such as PDI that recognize unfolded proteins, and others that are selective for specific classes of proteins. (cell.com)
  • The COMMDs family proteins were reported to play important roles in various disease and cancers including HCC. (researchsquare.com)
  • The B. subtilis ClpC protein is unlike most members of the Hsp100 family because it not only requires several adaptor proteins for substrate recognition but also for its general ATP- dependent activity. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Nef has the production protein importance of recessive mitotic complexes, is with NF-Y excision Very-low-density Defects, is progression activation and odd immunoglobulin, and is family contraction in different promoters. (evakoch.com)
  • The NOD-like receptor family include intracellular proteins that mediate an innate immune response [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 14-3-3ζ is one of 7 members of the 14-3-3 protein family, which is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved among plants and mammals. (wikidoc.org)
  • Incubation of dopaminergic (DA) neuronal cells with MPP + (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion), the MPTP metabolic oxidation byproduct, mimics oxidative injury in Parkinson's disease [ 2 - 4 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • Alpha-synuclein is a neuronal protein that is the main component of Lewy bodies, which are characteristic pathological lesions found in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. (assaygenie.com)
  • The incremental dimensions for polyubiquitylation include the creation also of polymer homotypic and also heterotypic ubiquitin chains that compete with ubiquitin and ubiquitinlikesystems for Glycineinduced attachments to the Lysine moiety of substrate proteins. (biomedres.us)
  • These mutations lead to the production of an abnormally small, nonfunctional version of the LDLRAP1 protein or prevent cells from making any of this protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in dynein (or dynactin) underlie some neurodegenerative diseases in humans, manifested by axonal transport defects, neuron degeneration, locomotor abnormalities, and/or other neural deficits 4-8 (Figs. 1A, 1B). (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Mutations identified in many SH2 domain-containing proteins as well as the SH2 domain itself are associated with human diseases ranging from cancers, diabetes, to immunodeficiencies. (eu.org)
  • Mutations affecting the formation of the CCC complex cause hypercholesterolaemia in humans, dogs and mice. (nature.com)
  • Previous studies identified net1 tab 2-1 and CDC14 TAB 6-1 as mutations in the RENT complex subunits Net1 and Cdc14, respectively, and revealed that the MEN acts by promoting release of Cdc14 from its nucleolar Net1 anchor during anaphase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Cas9-guide RNA complex, the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, introduces cuts in genomic DNA at specific sites, allowing for sequencing of select regions to reveal DNA methylation, single nucleotide mutations, and structural variations. (idtdna.com)
  • Protein, nucleic acid, enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • He is widely known for the use of the term "central dogma" to summarise the idea that once information is transferred from nucleic acids DNA or RNA to proteins, it cannot flow back to nucleic acids. (geniuses.club)
  • In other words, the final step in the flow of information from nucleic acids to proteins is irreversible. (geniuses.club)
  • Nevertheless, it was discovered that chromosomes contained two components: (1) deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA (commonly abbreviated to nucleic acid), and (2) basic proteins called histones. (ubc.ca)