An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.
The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.
A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that play a role in the coupling of SYNDECANS to CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
A macromolecular complex of proteins that includes DYSTROPHIN and DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. It plays a structural role in the linking the CYTOSKELETON to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.
Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signalling and activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.

The adaptor protein AP-4 as a component of the clathrin coat machinery: a morphological study. (1/10)

The four members of the AP (adaptor protein) family are heterotetrameric cytosolic complexes that are involved in the intracellular trafficking of cargo proteins between different organelles. They interact with motifs present in the cytoplasmic tails of their specific cargo proteins at different intracellular locations. While AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 have been investigated extensively, very few studies have focused on the fourth member, AP-4. In the present study, we report on the intracellular localization of AP-4 in the MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) and MelJuSo cell lines after immunogold labelling of ultrathin cryosections. We find that AP-4 is localized mainly in the Golgi complex, as well as on endosomes and transport vesicles. Interestingly, we show for the first time that AP-4 is localized with the clathrin coat machinery in the Golgi complex and in the endocytic pathway. Furthermore, we find that AP-4 is localized with the CI-MPR (cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor), but not with the transferrin receptor, LAMP-2 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2) or invariant chain. The difference in morphology between CI-MPR/AP-4-positive vesicles and CI-MPR/AP-1-positive vesicles raises the possibility that AP-4 acts at a location different from that of AP-1 in the intracellular trafficking pathway of CI-MPR.  (+info)

Accumulation of AMPA receptors in autophagosomes in neuronal axons lacking adaptor protein AP-4. (2/10)

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AP-4: autophagy-four mislocalized proteins in axons. (3/10)

Neurons are highly polarized cells composed of two distinct domains, the axon and the somatodendritic domain. Although AMPA-type glutamate receptors, which mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission in the vertebrate CNS, are preferentially expressed in the somatodendritic domain, the molecular mechanisms underlying such polarized distribution have remained elusive. We recently demonstrated that adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) binds to transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs), thereby mediating the selective trafficking of AMPA receptors to the somatodendritic domain; genetic disruption of AP-4 (AP-4beta(-/-)), results in the mislocalization of TARPs and AMPA receptors in the axons. Similarly, low-density lipoprotein receptors and delta2 glutamate receptors are mislocalized in axons, while other cargos, such as NMDA receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors, are properly excluded from AP-4beta(-/-) axons. These findings indicate that there exist AP-4-dependent and -independent sorting mechanisms. Unexpectedly, mislocalized AMPA receptors do not reach the cell surface and accumulate in autophagosomes in the bulging portions of AP-4beta(-/-) axons. Several lines of evidence indicate that mislocalized AMPA receptors activate the autophagic pathway. Since increased autophagy and axonal swelling are suggested to occur in various neuronal disorders, further studies using AP-4beta(-/-) mice are warranted to understand the mechanisms regulating autophagy in axons.  (+info)

Mutation in the AP4M1 gene provides a model for neuroaxonal injury in cerebral palsy. (4/10)

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Sorting of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein mediated by the AP-4 complex. (5/10)

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Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) deficiency causes a novel autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome with microcephaly and intellectual disability. (6/10)

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Adaptor protein complex 4 deficiency causes severe autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, progressive spastic paraplegia, shy character, and short stature. (7/10)

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Breast cancer cells proliferation is regulated by tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 through c-jun N-terminal kinase and cooperative induction of RFX-1 and AP-4 transcription factors. (8/10)

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Background Cerebral palsy is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental brain disorders resulting in motor and posture impairments often associated with cognitive, sensorial, and behavioural disturbances. Hypoxic-ischaemic injury, long considered the most frequent causative factor, accounts for fewer than 10% of cases, whereas a growing body of evidence suggests that diverse genetic abnormalities likely play a major role. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Fe65 protein family. It is an adaptor protein localized in the nucleus. It interacts with the Alzheimers disease amyloid precursor protein (APP), transcription factor CP2/LSF/LBP1 and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. APP functions as a cytosolic anchoring site that can prevent the gene products nuclear translocation. This encoded protein could play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease. It is thought to regulate transcription. Also it is observed to block cell cycle progression by downregulating thymidylate synthase expression. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene ...
RFX-01/02 | GeneFiX™ RFX RNA Saliva Collectors (Includes funnel, tube filled w/ 1ml stabilisation buffer, supplied w/ 2.2mg Proteinase K, 0.2ml Precipitation buffer & instruction manual).
Numerous transmembrane proteins, including the blood pressure regulating angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and the Alzheimers disease amyloid precursor protein (APP), are proteolytically shed from the plasma membrane by metalloproteases. We have used an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) approach to delineate the role of ADAM10 and tumour necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE; ADAM17) in the ectodomain shedding of ACE and APP from human SH-SY5Y cells. Although the ADAM10 ASO and TACE ASO significantly reduced (, 81%) their respective mRNA levels and reduced the α-secretase shedding of APP by 60% and 30%, respectively, neither ASO reduced the shedding of ACE. The mercurial compound 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA) stimulated the shedding of ACE but not of APP. The APMA-stimulated secretase cleaved ACE at the same Arg-Ser bond in the juxtamembrane stalk as the constitutive secretase but was more sensitive to inhibition by a hydroxamate-based compound. The APMA-activated shedding of ACE ...
OXYGEN BOOSTING COMPLEX- SKIN TYPES/CONDITIONS: Resistant, Slow to Respond to Treatment, Sluggish, Chronically-Stressed, Over Age 30, Exposed to Tobac
This outcome measure will evaluate a difference in the level of MSDX Complex-1 form the baseline visit to the 6-month visit. MSDX Complex-1 is a biomarker for MS disease activity and its change should correspond with a change in the disease activity in MS ...
Biopeptide Complex- Obsahuje jedinečnú kombináciu oligo- a polypeptidov, ktoré zaručujú okamžitú a dlhodobú hydratáciu všetkých vrstiev kože. Výsledkom ich používania v kozmetike je pružné telo, výplň rýh a nerovností. Peptidy slúžia na prenos aktívnych látok do hĺbky kože. Majú energetizujúce vlastnosti, stimulujú bunky kože k tvorbe kolagénu a elastínu. Pomáhajú bojovať proti pigmentovým škvrnám, rozjasňujú a vyrovnávajú farbu pleti.. Retinol - má intenzívny protivráskový účinok. Stimuluje regeneráciu kožných buniek a tvorbu kolagénu, redukuje vznik drobných a hlbších vrások a pigmentových škvŕn, ktoré vznikajú v dôsledku prirodzeného starnutia a fotostarnutiapokožky. Okrem toho pomáha sťahovať rozšírené póry, koriguje nedokonalosti a zjednocuje farebný tón pleti.. Vitamín E- brzdí procesy starnutia pleti, hydratuje, vyhladzuje a zmäkčuje pokožku. Znižuje škodlivé pôsobenie slnečného žiarenia na kožné ...
سابقه و هدف: آستنوزوسپرمی به ­عنوان شایع ­ترین اختلال منجر به ناباروری مردان، به­ صورت کمبود شدید حرکت پیش­رونده‌ی اسپرم در هر انزال تعریف می­ شود. این فنوتیپ می­ تواند هم به­صورت غیرسندرومی و هم به ­صورت سندرومی وجود داشته باشد که در حالت دوم به ­عنوان یک عارضه جانبی سندروم مژک ...
سلول­ های بنیادی سلول­ های تمایز نیافته با قابلیت تقسیم و تمایز به انواع مختلف سلول­ ها می باشند. منبع این سلول­ ها از جنین و افراد بالغ تأمین می­ شود که هر کدام ویژگی­ های خاص خود را دارند. برای حدوداً چندین دهه مطالعه­ های تجربی به­ منظور استفاده از این ...
سابقه و هدف: سلول­ های بنیادی اسپرماتوگونی با حفظ تعادل بین خودنوسازی و تمایز سبب تداوم روند اسپرماتوژنز می­ شوند. هدف از انجام مطالعه حاضر بررسی تاثیر غلظت­ های مختلف تستوسترون بر کلونی‌زایی سلول­ های بنیادی اسپرماتوگونی گوسفند می‌باشد. مواد و روش‌ها: سلول­ های اسپرماتوگونی بیضه گوسفند نابالغ با روش هضم آنزیمی دو ...
不動産担保ローンは無担保のローンに比べ金利が安い - 所有している不動産を担保にして借り入れをする不動産担保ローンは 無担保のローンに比べると 不動産の価値にもよりますが 金利が安く 融資額が大きい 長期の借り入れが可能などのメリットがあります》 融資額の内容は所有している […] ...
In the nerve terminal, synaptic vesicles are docked on an active zone of 200-300 nm in diameter, in which VGCCs are thought to be inserted within a distance of 20-200 nm from synaptic vesicles (Neher, 1998; Meinrenken et al., 2002). Ca2+ entry through 1-60 VGCCs (Stanley, 1993; Borst and Sakmann, 1996) can trigger single vesicle fusion for exocytic release of neurotransmitter. After fusion, a variety of endocytic proteins are assembled for clathrin-mediated vesicle endocytosis, in which the adaptor protein AP-2 plays an essential role (Schmid, 1997). Our present results suggest that VGCC synprint sites anchor a fraction of AP-2 complex, which is likely linked to the plasma membrane via interactions with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (McPherson et al., 2008). This synprint-AP-2 interaction occurs for both N- and P/Q-type VGCCs but is not entirely universal because VGCCs in invertebrates such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans lack synprint sites (Littleton and Ganetzky, 2000; ...
Pituitary Complex Glandular is designed for use under the supervision of a healthcare practitioner. Please call (800) 669-0358 to speak with one of our practitioners or email us at [email protected] to request a password. Product DescriptionPituitary glandular with synergistic ingredients. ____________________
این آزمایش جهت تعیین احتیاجات ترئونین بلدرچین تخم ­گذار در سنین 17-10 هفتگی انجام شد. از تعداد 240 قطعه بلدرچین ژاپنی ماده از سن 10 تا 17 هفتگی در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی (CRD) استفاده شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل جیره پایه (69/0% ترئونین)، جیره پایه+05/0% ال- ترئونین (74/0% ترئونین) و جیره ...
Neuroaxonal Dystrophy. By Jeaneane P. Kozlowski Presented June 24, 2003 Temple University- Ambler. What is Neuroaxonal Dystrophy?. Neuroaxonal Dystrophy (NAD) is a rare inherited disorder. Slideshow 6866545 by herman-munoz
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Genetic testing for up to 65 genes that cause dominant, recessive, and X-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), including the most commonly causative genes.
Function: Phosphorylates the AP2M1/mu2 subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). May play a role in regulating aspects of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (By similarity ...
Hereditary spastic paraplegia inclusion criteria (29490) - Unexplained spastic paraplegia progressing over ,2 years +/-, peripheral neuropathy, or ataxia. Individuals with syndromic disease or disease onset ,30 years should be recruited according to standard guidance, typically as trios. Disease status of apparently unaffected participants should be determined according to standard clinical practice to detect cryptic disease. In other cases, unaffected individuals should not be recruited. Recruitment in such families should favour multiplex families over single isolated cases. These singleton recruits will not contribute to the overall singleton monitoring metrics applied to GMCs. Hereditary spastic paraplegia exclusion criteria (29490) - No structural or inflammatory (MS-like) lesions on brain MRI. Prior genetic testing guidance (29490) - Results should have been reviewed for all genetic tests undertaken, including disease-relevant genes in exome sequencing data. The patient is not eligible if ...
The signs and symptom information on this page attempts to provide a list of some possible signs and symptoms of Spastic paraplegia type 5A, recessive. This medical information about signs and symptoms for Spastic paraplegia type 5A, recessive has been gathered from various sources, may not be fully accurate, and may not be the full list of Spastic paraplegia type 5A, recessive signs or Spastic paraplegia type 5A, recessive symptoms. Furthermore, signs and symptoms of Spastic paraplegia type 5A, recessive may vary on an individual basis for each patient. Only your doctor can provide adequate diagnosis of any signs or symptoms and whether they are indeed Spastic paraplegia type 5A, recessive symptoms.. ...
Spastic Paraplegia 47 doesnt roll off the tongue. The name is complicated and challenging, much like SPG47 itself. When I tell healthcare providers my 3-year-old daughters diagnosis, I take a deep breath and wait for the inevitable question: What, exactly, is that?. More than 70 types of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) have been identified to date; almost all are neurodegenerative. At best, HSP causes distress and disruption; at worst, it has devastating, potentially life-threatening consequences. Its pure form impairs the lower extremities, causing extreme spasticity and weakness. Its complicated form - like our daughter Robbies - also impacts systemic and/or neurologic function. Many HSP sub-types have been diagnosed in only a handful of people worldwide, leaving affected families feeling lost and disconnected. …. ...
Hereditary spastic paraplegia is a frequently misdiagnosed neurological disorder Medical information in relation to symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis and treatment.
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Railroad Accidents Kentucky News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Railroad Accidents Kentucky From The latimes
If you live a relatively healthy lifestyle but feel more fatigued than usual‚ or notice that your nails or hair are brittle‚ you may be suffering from a B vitamin deficiency. A wide variety of foods contain B vitamins that are essential for good health; these essential nutrients are grouped together in the B-complex family. Certain digestive disorders‚ other diseases‚ and medications can make it difficult for your body to properly absorb these vitamins through your diet. (You may be especially at risk of insufficient intake of vitamin B-12.) If thats the case‚ you may need to take a multivitamin or B complex supplement to assist absorption. DaVinci Labs B Complex-75 contains all 11 vitamins in the B complex family. Together‚ these vitamins support growth and development. Each one also provides additional benefits‚ such as: ...
Build: Sat Feb 17 08:59:16 EST 2018 (commit: 16064c5). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort integral membrane proteins at various stages of the endocytic and ... "Entrez Gene: adaptor-related protein complex 4". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Abou Jamra R, Philippe O, Raas- ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a fourth adaptor-related protein complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ... a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (11): 7278-85. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.11.7278. PMID ...
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort integral membrane proteins at various stages of the endocytic and ... "Entrez Gene: adaptor-related protein complex 4". Abou Jamra R, Philippe O, Raas-Rothschild A, Eck SH, Graf E, Buchert R, Borck ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a fourth adaptor-related protein complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ... Boehm M, Aguilar RC, Bonifacino JS (2001). "Functional and physical interactions of the adaptor protein complex AP-4 with ADP- ...
The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition ... "Entrez Gene: AP4M1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, mu 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a Fourth Adaptor-related Protein Complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ... 2001). "Signal-binding specificity of the mu4 subunit of the adaptor protein complex AP-4". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (16): 13145-52. ...
AP-3 complex subunit delta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3D1 gene. AP3D1 is a subunit of the AP3 adaptor- ... "Entrez Gene: AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Martinez-Arca S ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is a neuronal adaptor protein that interacts with ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... It is also regarded as a putative vesicular trafficking protein in the brain that can form a complex with the potential to ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Hermansky-Pudlak ... The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin ... AP-3 complex subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3B1 gene. This gene encodes a protein that may play ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ...
"Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Maximov A, Südhof TC, Bezprozvanny I (1999). "Association of neuronal calcium channels with modular adaptor proteins". J. Biol ... This protein is a multidomain scaffolding protein with a role in synaptic transmembrane protein anchoring and ion channel ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit". Human AP3B2 genome location and AP3B2 gene details page ... 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression". EMBO J. 16 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.5.917. ... AP-3 complex subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3B2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Dell'Angelica EC, Klumperman J, Stoorvogel W, Bonifacino JS (1998). "Association of the AP-3 adaptor complex with clathrin". ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1M1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 1 subunit". Hinners I, Wendler F, Fei H, Thomas L, Thomas G, Tooze SA ... AP-1 complex subunit mu-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1M1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is the ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1S1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 1 subunit". Montpetit A, Côté S, Brustein E, Drouin CA, Lapointe L ... AP-1 complex subunit sigma-1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1S1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... Boehm M, Aguilar RC, Bonifacino JS (Nov 2001). "Functional and physical interactions of the adaptor protein complex AP-4 with ... "HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of adaptor protein complexes with membranes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (10 ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3S1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit". Human AP3S1 genome location and AP3S1 gene details page ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ohno H, Ooi CE, Rabinovich E, Roche KW, Bonifacino JS (March 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ...
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort integral membrane proteins at various stages of the endocytic and ... "Entrez Gene: AP4B1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... 2001). "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using ... a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J Biol Chem. 274 (11): 7278-85. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.11.7278. PMID ...
Substrate presentation by phosphatidylinositol transfer protein to the p150.Ptdins 3-kinase complex". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (4): ... an adaptor protein for the human phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase. ... Ligon LA, Shelly SS, Tokito M, Holzbaur EL (2003). "The Microtubule Plus-End Proteins EB1 and Dynactin Have Differential ... 2009). "Two Beclin 1-binding proteins, Atg14L and Rubicon, reciprocally regulate autophagy at different stages". Nat. Cell Biol ...
Panaretou C, Domin J, Cockcroft S, Waterfield MD (1997). "Characterization of p150, an adaptor protein for the human ... Substrate presentation by phosphatidylinositol transfer protein to the p150.Ptdins 3-kinase complex". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (4): ... "A human phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex related to the yeast Vps34p-Vps15p protein sorting system". EMBO J. 14 (14): 3339 ... "Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein induces a rapid and selective activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, and -epsilon and - ...
"Entrez Gene: AP2M1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit". Follows ER, McPheat JC, Minshull C, Moore NC, Pauptit RA, ... This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric coat assembly protein complex 2 (AP2), which belongs to the adaptor ... "Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T ... "Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T ...
AP-1 complex subunit sigma-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1S2 gene. Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at ... "Entrez Gene: AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Huo L, Teng Z, Wang H, Liu X (March 2019). "A novel ... The protein encoded by this gene serves as the small subunit of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein family. ... December 2006). "Mutations in the gene encoding the Sigma 2 subunit of the adaptor protein 1 complex, AP1S2, cause X-linked ...
AP1S2: AP-1 complex subunit sigma-2. Adaptor protein complex 1 is found on the cytoplasmic face of vesicles located at the ... "Entrez Gene: AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Piccini M, Vitelli F, Bruttini M, Pober BR, Jonsson JJ ... "Mutations in the Gene Encoding the Sigma 2 Subunit of the Adaptor Protein 1 Complex, AP1S2, Cause X-Linked Mental Retardation ... This nucleolar protein is involved in the processing and modification of tRNA. GDI1: RabGDI alpha makes a complex with ...
... is an adaptor protein that plays a key role in the proper assembly of the FA core complex. The FA core complex is ... Gordon SM, Buchwald M (July 2003). "Fanconi anemia protein complex: mapping protein interactions in the yeast 2- and 3-hybrid ... Gordon SM, Buchwald M (July 2003). "Fanconi anemia protein complex: mapping protein interactions in the yeast 2- and 3-hybrid ... The FA core complex is a nuclear core complex that is essential for the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and this modified form of ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit". Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999 ... and 3 ADP-ribosylation factors with adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3". Biochemistry. 41 (14): 4669-77. doi:10.1021/bi016064j. ... "Interactions between adaptor protein-1 of the clathrin coat and microtubules via type 1a microtubule-associated proteins". The ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the AP2 adaptor complex, which serves to link clathrin ... "Entrez Gene: AP2B1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, ... Kim YM, Benovic JL (Aug 2002). "Differential roles of arrestin-2 interaction with clathrin and adaptor protein 2 in G protein- ... "Co-localization of HIV-1 Nef with the AP-2 adaptor protein complex correlates with Nef-induced CD4 down-regulation". The EMBO ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 2 subunit". Rost, Martina; Döring Tatjana; Prange Reinhild (Nov ... 2003). "HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of adaptor protein complexes with membranes". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (10): 8725-32. ... 2005). "Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes ...
The protein encoded by this gene is the medium subunit of AP-3, which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the ... "Entrez Gene: AP3M1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 1 subunit". Human AP3M1 genome location and AP3M1 gene details page in ... 2000). "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based ... 2005). "Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes ...
AP-1 complex subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1B1 gene. Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the ... "Entrez Gene: AP1B1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit". Nakagawa, T; Setou M; Seog D; Ogasawara K; Dohmae N; ... The protein encoded by this gene serves as one of the large subunits of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein ... 2001). "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using ...
"SH3 domains of the adapter molecule Grb2 complex with two proteins in T cells: the guanine nucleotide exchange protein Sos and ... "Induced direct binding of the adapter protein Nck to the GTPase-activating protein-associated protein p62 by epidermal growth ... Buday L, Egan SE, Rodriguez Viciana P, Cantrell DA, Downward J (March 1994). "A complex of Grb2 adaptor protein, Sos exchange ... Possible facilitation by the formation of a ternary complex with the Grb2 adaptor protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
2011). "The Fifth Adaptor Protein Complex". PLOS Biology. 9 (10): e1001170. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170. PMC 3191125. PMID ... Adaptins are clustered subunits of adaptor protein (AP) complexes. There are several types of adaptin, each related to a ... Clathrin adaptor proteins, also known as adaptins, are proteins that mediate the formation of vesicles for intracellular ... complex 1 AP1B1 AP1G1 AP1G2 AP1M1 AP1M2 AP1S1 AP1S2 AP1S3 complex 2 AP2A1 AP2A2 AP2B1 AP2M1 AP2S1 complex 3 AP3B1 AP3B2 AP3D1 ...
1999). "A direct interaction between the adaptor protein Cbl-b and the kinase zap-70 induces a positive signal in T cells". ... Elly C, Witte S, Zhang Z, Rosnet O, Lipkowitz S, Altman A, Liu YC (February 1999). "Tyrosine phosphorylation and complex ... CBL-B is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that in humans is encoded by the CBLB gene. CBLB is a member of the CBL gene family. ... 1997). "Cbl-b, a member of the Sli-1/c-Cbl protein family, inhibits Vav-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation". Oncogene ...
... a family of ADP ribosylation factor-binding proteins related to adaptors and associated with the Golgi complex". The Journal of ... Takatsu H, Yoshino K, Nakayama K (May 2000). "Adaptor gamma ear homology domain conserved in gamma-adaptin and GGA proteins ... ADP-ribosylation factor-binding protein GGA3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GGA3 gene. This gene encodes a ... This family includes ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the ...
In this context, JIP1/2 act as cargo adaptors, binding to a motor protein and a cargo protein simultaneously. In addition to ... Since the cargo-linkage mechanism of this complex is believed to be phosphporylation-dependent, phosphorylation by JNK kinase ... This protein is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase family. The MKK7 protein exists as six different ... Several mammalian scaffold proteins have been identified. These include the JNK-interacting protein (JIP) 1 and its closerly- ...
In tumour cells containing the L265P MyD88 mutant, protein-signalling complexes spontaneously assemble, activating IRAK-4's ... Preformed complexes of the adaptor molecule Tollip and IRAK-1 are also recruited to the receptor complex, allowing IRAK-1 to ... and the IRAK-1-TRAF6 complex dissociates from the IL-1R complex. The IRAK-1-TRAF6 complex interacts with a pre-existing complex ... The DD is a protein interaction motif that important for interacting with other signaling molecules such as the adaptor protein ...
Okkenhaug K, Rottapel R (August 1998). "Grb2 forms an inducible protein complex with CD28 through a Src homology 3 domain- ... a novel Grb-2-related adapter protein that interacts with the activated T cell costimulatory receptor CD28". J. Immunol. 164 ( ... Association of the TCR of a naive T cell with MHC:antigen complex without CD28:B7 interaction results in a T cell that is ... Schneider H, Cai YC, Prasad KV, Shoelson SE, Rudd CE (Apr 1995). "T cell antigen CD28 binds to the GRB-2/SOS complex, ...
... adaptor related protein complex 4 sigma 1 subunit), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... transporter activity clathrin-coated pit protein transporter activity protein transport endosome lumen trans-Golgi network ... transporter activity clathrin-coated pit protein transporter activity protein transport endosome lumen trans-Golgi network ... Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure. UniProt/SwissProt. Q9Y587 [function] [subcellular_location] [family_and_domains] [ ...
... in complex with a sorting peptide from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) ... Crystal structure of adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4) mu4 subunit C-terminal domain, ... Crystal structure of adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4) mu4 subunit C-terminal domain, in complex with a sorting peptide from the ... Adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is the most recently discovered and least well-characterized member of the family of heterotetrameric ...
Adaptor protein complex 4 deficiency causes severe autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, progressive spastic paraplegia ... we identified one mutation in each of three genes encoding adaptor protein complex 4 (AP4) subunits: a nonsense mutation in ... Adaptor protein complexes (AP1-4) are ubiquitously expressed, evolutionarily conserved heterotetrameric complexes that mediate ... Rami Abou Jamra 1 , Orianne Philippe 2 , Annick Raas-Rothschild 3 , Sebastian H Eck 4 , Elisabeth Graf 4 , Rebecca Buchert 5 , ...
adaptor related protein complex 4 subunit beta 1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:572 See related. Ensembl: ... AP4B1 adaptor related protein complex 4 subunit beta 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 10717, updated on 22-Aug-2020 ... adaptor related protein complex 4 beta 1 subunit. beta 4 subunit of AP-4. beta4-adaptin. spastic paraplegia 47. ... AP4B1 adaptor related protein complex 4 subunit beta 1 [Homo sapiens] AP4B1 adaptor related protein complex 4 subunit beta 1 [ ...
OMIM: ADAPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN COMPLEX 4, EPSILON-1 SUBUNIT; AP4E1, 613744*Gene Ontology: Ap4e1 *Mouse Phenome DB: Ap4e1 *UCSC: ... adaptor-related protein complex AP-4, epsilon 1. Synonyms: 2310033A20Rik. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, ... Vega: OTTMUSG16016 (Ap4e1, "adaptor-related protein complex AP-4, epsilon 1")*CCDS: 17696.1, 38231* ... IGTC (4)*MGI (11)*Find related genes using Gene Cloud*. KOMP Phenotyping ...
Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) deficiency causes a novel autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome with microcephaly and ... Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) deficiency causes a novel autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome with microcephaly and ... one of the four subunits of the adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4), identified by chromosomal microarray analysis. ... Conclusion These findings, along with previous reports of human and mouse mutations in other members of the complex, indicate ...
GGAs: a family of ADP ribosylation factor-binding proteins related to adaptors and associated with the Golgi complex. J Cell ... STAM Adaptor Proteins Interact with COPII Complexes and Function in ER-to-Golgi Trafficking. ... Rismanchi, N., Puertollano, R. and Blackstone, C. (2009), STAM Adaptor Proteins Interact with COPII Complexes and Function in ... The Vps27p Hse1p complex binds ubiquitin and mediates endosomal protein sorting. Nat Cell Biol 2002;4:534-539. *PubMed, ...
This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles ... Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with DPYSL2 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: AP2A1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit". Nishimura, Takashi; Fukata Yuko; Kato Katsuhiro; ... AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A1 gene. ...
adapter-related protein complex 1 subunit gamma-1. adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit gamma-1. adaptor-related protein ... Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [Mus musculus] Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [Mus ... adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunitprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:101919 See related. Ensembl: ... Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ] Gene ID: 11765, updated on 31-Jan-2019 ...
adaptor related protein complex 4 subunit beta 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in ... This gene encodes a subunit of a heterotetrameric adapter-like complex 4 that is involved in targeting proteins from the trans- ... It is also involved in protein sorting to the basolateral membrane in epithelial cells and the proper asymmetric localization ...
The encoded protein is a large subunit of adaptor protein complex-4, which is associated with both clathrin- and nonclathrin- ... These proteins are components of the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes, which play important roles in the secretory ... adaptor related protein complex 4 epsilon 1 subunit. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in ...
Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 Mu 1 Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs ... AP4M1 Gene(Protein Coding) Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 Mu 1 Subunit. ... Protein attributes for AP4M1 Gene. Size:. 453 amino acids. Molecular mass:. 49977 Da. Quaternary structure:. *Adaptor protein ... The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition ...
Genetic association study of adaptor protein complex 4 with cerebral palsy in a Han Chinese population.. Wang H1, Xu Y, Chen M ... Adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4) plays a key role in vesicle formation, trafficking, and sorting processes that are critical ... AP-4 consists of four subunits encoded by the AP4E1, AP4B1, AP4M1, and AP4S1 genes. A number of studies have pointed to the ... We postulated, therefore, that variations in AP-4 genes might influence an indivuals susceptibility to CP. In the present ...
... plasma membrane adaptor AP-2 50kDA protein , adaptor protein complex AP-2, mu1 , adaptor-related protein complex AP-2, mu1 , ... adapter-related protein complex 2 mu subunit , adaptin-mu2 , adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu , clathrin adaptor complex ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1 Associated Regulatory Protein Antibodies * anti-Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 sigma ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, beta 1 Subunit Antibodies * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, alpha 2 Subunit ...
COPI, coat protein complex I; AP, adaptor protein; PI4 kinase, phosphatidylinositol-4-kinae; OSBP, oxysterol binding protein; ... Bonifacino, J. S. (2014). Adaptor proteins involved in polarized sorting. J. Cell Biol. 204, 7-17. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201310021 ... De Matteis, M. A., and Godi, A. (2004). Protein-lipid interactions in membrane trafficking at the Golgi complex. Biochim. ... The Arf proteins are part of a larger family that also includes the Arf-like (Arl) proteins, whose diverse functions include ...
... is the most recently discovered and least well-characterized member of the family of heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) ... complexes that mediate sorting of transmembrane cargo in post-Golgi compartments. Herein, we report the interaction of an YKFFE ... Adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is the most recently discovered and least well-characterized member of the family of heterotetrameric ... adaptor protein (AP) complexes that mediate sorting of transmembrane cargo in post-Golgi compartments. Herein, we report the ...
Adaptor Protein Complex 4. An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and ... Protein Array Analysis. Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid ... in protein-protein interaction network to identify candidate disease-causing proteins. Protein-protein in... ... one of the important tasks is to identify protein complexes and functional modules from high-throughput protein-protein ...
Adaptor Protein Complex 1. A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS- ... Adaptor Protein Complex 4. An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and ... A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are ...
A complex relationship between TRAF3 and non-canonical NF-κB2 activation in B lymphocytes. Front. Immunol. 4, 477 (2013).. ... The adaptor protein TRAF3 inhibits interleukin-6 receptor signaling in B cells to limit plasma cell development ... The adaptor protein TRAF3 inhibits interleukin-6 receptor signaling in B cells to limit plasma cell development ... Noting that mutations in the gene encoding the adaptor protein TRAF3 are associated with some cases of multiple myeloma, Lin et ...
Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in vesicle formation and cargo selection. They control the ... It is also involved in protein sorting to the basolateral membrane in epithelial cells and the proper asymmetric localization ... and may be involved in the targeting of proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosomal-lysosomal system. ... AP-4 is involved in the recognition and binding of tyrosine-based sorting signals found in the cytoplasmic part of cargos, but ...
Objective Immune cell adaptor protein SKAP1 couples the antigen-receptor (TCR/CD3) with the activation of LFA-1 adhesion in T- ... by a combination of protein-tyrosine kinases and adaptor proteins which mediate the formation of multi-protein complexes [1, 2 ... Immune cell adaptor protein SKAP1 couples the antigen-receptor (TCR/CD3) with the activation of LFA-1 adhesion in T-cells. ... Signal transduction mediated by the T cell antigen receptor: the role of adapter proteins. Annu Rev Immunol. 2002;20:371-94. ...
Golgi SNAP receptor complex member 2 (GOSR2) by miR-27a, jagged 1 (JAG1) by miR-21-5p; SH2B adapter protein 3 (SH2B3) by miR- ... SH2B adapter protein 3; TBX3, T-box 3; and TBX5, T-Box 5; n=3-9. *P,0.05 vs scrambled anti-miR. ... Several proteins, including adrenomedullin (Adm) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), are known substrates of Furin in the endothelium.18 ... We compiled a list of protein-coding genes that included (1) 29 genes found to be associated with hypertension in human genome- ...
In molecular biology, the adaptor complexes medium subunit domain is a protein domain found at the C-terminus of the mu subunit ... "Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T ... from various clathrin adaptor protein complexes (AP1, AP2, AP3, AP4 and AP5) and muniscins. The C-terminal domain has an ... The mu subunit regulates the coupling of clathrin lattices with particular membrane proteins by self-phosphorylation via a ...
adaptor-related protein complex AP-4, mu 1. MGI:1337063 2 matching records from 2 references.. Summary by Age and Assay: ...
Forms a complex with RAB11FIP2 that is recruited to the phagosomes to promote the activation of the actin-regulatory GTPases ... Involved in IL-18 signaling and is proposed to function as a sorting adapter for MYD88 in IL-18 signaling during adaptive ... Functions as sorting adapter in different signaling pathways to facilitate downstream signaling leading to type I interferon ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ...
Badolato R, Parolini S. Novel insights from adaptor protein 3 complex deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Oct. 120(4):735- ... BLOC-1 interacts with BLOC-2 and the AP-3 complex to facilitate protein trafficking on endosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2006 Sep. 17(9 ... 12] noted that BLOC-1 interacts with BLOC-2 and the AP-3 complex, facilitating protein trafficking on endosomes, and, when BLOC ... Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome protein complexes interface with phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type II-alpha (PI4KII-alpha) in ...
Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 1 Subunit Gamma 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, ... The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This ... AP1G2 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 1 Subunit Gamma 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AP1G2 include Long ... AP1G2 Gene(Protein Coding) Adaptor Related Protein Complex 1 Subunit Gamma 2. ...
2001) Trafficking of yellow-fluorescent-protein-tagged mu1 subunit of clathrin adaptor AP-1 complex in living cells. Traffic 2 ... 2013) Arabidopsis μ-adaptin subunit AP1M of adaptor protein complex 1 mediates late secretory and vacuolar traffic and is ... 2004) Loss of Apm1, the micro1 subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor-protein-1 complex, causes distinct phenotypes and ... 2010) SPL28 encodes a clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1, medium subunit micro 1 (AP1M1) and is responsible for ...
A new poster from the Robinson lab summarises what is known about the five adaptor protein complexes and discuss how this helps ... Cell Science at a Glance - Adaptor protein complexes and disease at a glance. ...
A new poster from the Robinson lab summarises what is known about the five adaptor protein complexes and discuss how this helps ... Cell Science at a Glance - Adaptor protein complexes and disease at a glance. ... The INCENPs are two polypeptides of 135 × 10(3) and 150 × 10(3) Mr that enter mitosis as tightly bound chromosomal proteins, ... Together, these results suggest that the INCENPs may represent a new class of chromosomal passenger proteins that are carried ...
  • Methods and results This report describes an autosomal recessive form of spastic tetraplegic cerebral palsy with profound intellectual disability, microcephaly, epilepsy and white matter loss in a consanguineous family resulting from a homozygous deletion involving AP4E1 , one of the four subunits of the adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4), identified by chromosomal microarray analysis. (bmj.com)
  • The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. (genecards.org)
  • AP-4 consists of four subunits encoded by the AP4E1, AP4B1, AP4M1, and AP4S1 genes. (cdc.gov)
  • Our results indicate that the 16 variants studied in the genes of the four subunits of AP-4 have no detectable effects on the overall susceptibility to CP, but AP4B1 appears to be a susceptibility gene for CP + HIE in the Han Chinese population. (cdc.gov)
  • Protein complexes are assemblies of subunits that have co-evolved to execute one or many coordinated functions in the cellular environment. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 3q28 that encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric coat assembly protein complex 2 (AP2), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, the absence of adaptor subunits could not be compensated for by increased p110γ abundance. (sciencemag.org)
  • The GP precursor is post-translationally cleaved by the pro-protein convertase furin within the Golgi compartment of virus-producer cells, yielding two disulfide-linked subunits, GP1 and GP2 [ 13 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The Cullins assemble a large number of distinct ubiquitin ligases by binding to ROC1, a RING protein, and to several distinct targeting subunits that recruit substrates for ubiquitination ( 28 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • PP2A often functions as a standard trimeric complex with a catalytic (C) subunit (encoded by two genes in mammals) associated with one of many regulatory (or B) subunits via one of two adaptor (A) molecules ( 4 , 5 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The regulatory and adaptor subunits are thought to confer substrate specificity to the complex ( 5 ). (mcponline.org)
  • and 9 ), but whether these proteins represent bona fide regulatory subunits or phosphatase substrates and how these binding proteins may affect PP4 activity are unclear. (mcponline.org)
  • The ubiquitous protein complexes AP-3, BLOC-1, and BLOC-2, which contain as subunits the products of genes defective in various types of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, have been likewise implicated in trafficking to melanosomes. (wiley.com)
  • It may also play a role in regulating the intracellular trafficking and function of CTLA-4 protein. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the experiments reported here we have used confocal microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy to provide a detailed picture of the intracellular location of these proteins during mitosis. (biologists.org)
  • at least 215 X-linked MR (XLMR) conditions have been described, and mutations have been identified in 83 different genes, encoding proteins with a variety of function, such as chromatin remodeling, synaptic function, and intracellular trafficking. (nih.gov)
  • A unique feature of integrins that explains their critical role in cell adhesion is their ability to physically couple the extracellular ECM network to the intracellular cytoskeletal network [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Inside-out signaling refers to intracellular signaling pathways that regulate protein interactions at the cytoplasmic tails, which control integrin conformation and thereby affinity. (hindawi.com)
  • It is well established in both worms and flies (where the protein is called Trio) that this protein is an intracellular signal transduction molecule with nucleotide exchange factor activity (e.g. (biologists.org)
  • However, it is a well-documented, intracellular muscle protein (e.g. (biologists.org)
  • HPS-2 disease results from mutations in the b3A subunit of a coat protein, adaptor complex-3, responsible for intracellular vesicle formation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Our results show that in muscle cells adiponectin is able to activate AMPK via two distinct mechanisms as follows: a major pathway (the APPL1/LKB1-dependent pathway) that promotes the cytosolic localization of LKB1 and a minor pathway (the phospholipase C/Ca2+/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-dependent pathway) that stimulates Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Ubiquitination, the addition of ubiquitin moieties to proteins, is a multistep process that regulates the intracellular stability, localization, and function of numerous proteins ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Parameters such as intracellular location (which likely affects the proximity of the kinase and particular substrates), the ability to assemble signaling complexes, and interactions with other domains of the kinase are likely to influence substrate selection and play a role in SH2 domain function. (asm.org)
  • Deletion of any of the intracellular adaptor molecules used by TLR2 (myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88), TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP)) or TLR4 (MyD88, TIRAP, TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM)) had similar effects on HMGB1 complex activation compared with noncomplexed LPS or Pam 3 CSK 4 . (springer.com)
  • A number of studies have pointed to the involvement of AP-4-mediated vesicular trafficking pathways in the etiology of cerebral palsy (CP), the most notable of which are the causative mutations that have recently been identified in each of the AP-4 genes in different CP families. (cdc.gov)
  • We postulated, therefore, that variations in AP-4 genes might influence an indivual's susceptibility to CP. (cdc.gov)
  • The individual proteins of the COPII complex are called SEC proteins, because they are encoded by genes identified in secretory mutants of yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • SubtiWiki in 2018: from genes and proteins to functional network annotation of the model organism Bacillus subtilis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • RESULTS- Due to linkage disequilibrium, we were unable to distinguish between rs2476601/Trp 620 ( P = 2.11 ×10 −87 ) and rs6679677 ( P = 3.21 ×10 −87 ), an intergenic SNP between the genes putative homeodomain transcription factor 1 and round spermatid basic protein 1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • With the recent capability to scan hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome in thousands of samples, the identification of complex disease genes and regions has greatly been enhanced ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The impaired function of specific organelles indicates that the causative genes encode proteins operative in the formation of lysosomes and vesicles. (medscape.com)
  • Four such genes, HPS1, ADTB3A, HPS3, and HPS4, are associated with the 4 known subtypes of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 1 (HPS-1), Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS-2), Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 3 (HPS-3), and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 4 (HPS-4). (medscape.com)
  • Four of the verified genes (solute carrier family 9 isoform 3 regulator 1 (Slc9a3r1), sorbitol dehydrogenase 1, a kinase anchor protein, and glutathione S-transferase alpha 4) were induced. (springer.com)
  • Two genes (proteasome subunit, beta type 10 and adaptor-related protein complex AP-4 sigma 1) were suppressed. (springer.com)
  • We also identified eight growth factors and growth factor receptor genes that are significantly altered by each of the HDIs, including Frizzled related proteins 1 and 4, which modulate the Wnt signaling pathway. (springer.com)
  • We have previously reported PF-5274857 on a patient with a long history of inflammatory disease resulting from excessive IL-1β production who was found to be a heterozygous carrier of two common polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins of the NALP3 inflammasome (Q705K) and (C10X) (Gen Lender: NM 001184900) [25]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Disruption of the genes encoding either VEGF or any of the receptors of the VEGF family, results in embryonic lethality because of failure of blood vessel development [4]. (thermofisher.com)
  • Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These cells exhibit a critical dependence on the signaling adapter molecule, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP), for their ontogeny, an aspect not seen in conventional αβ T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent studies of CD4 + T cells demonstrated that Fyn could be recruited to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors through an interaction with the adapter molecule SLAM-associated protein (SAP) ( 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 3BP2 has been implicated as a positive regulatory adapter molecule coupled to immunoreceptors on T cells ( 6 ), B cells ( 12 ), NK cells ( 17 ), and basophils ( 35 ) in overexpression studies. (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate that the endogenous 3BP2 protein binds to the cytoplasmic tail of the B-cell costimulatory molecule CD19 and that 3BP2 deficiency leads to defects in Syk phosphorylation and calcium flux. (asm.org)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) is a membrane bound lipid molecule with capabilities to affect a wide array of signaling pathways to regulate very different cellular processes. (springer.com)
  • T cell receptor (TCR)-interacting molecule (TRIM) is a recently identified transmembrane adaptor protein, which is exclusively expressed in T cells. (rupress.org)
  • For the v-Abl protein, the Shc adapter molecule is one such substrate ( 31 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • This result implies that the enhancing effects of HMGB1-partner molecule complexes are not regulated by the induction of additional signaling cascades. (springer.com)
  • This gene encodes a subunit of a heterotetrameric adapter-like complex 4 that is involved in targeting proteins from the trans-Golgi network to the endosomal-lysosomal system. (nih.gov)
  • AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the adaptor complexes large subunit protein family. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric AP-4 complex. (genecards.org)
  • AP4M1 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 Mu 1 Subunit) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Noting that mutations in the gene encoding the adaptor protein TRAF3 are associated with some cases of multiple myeloma, Lin et al . (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that forced expression of the NF-κB target gene, Bcl-x L , or inhibitory NF-κB kinase β, a catalytic subunit of the IκB kinase complex essential for NF-κB activation, fails to restore NKT cell development in sap −/− mice, suggesting that SAP mediates NKT cell development independently of NF-κB. (jimmunol.org)
  • HPS-2 is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the beta-3A subunit of the heterotetrameric AP3 complex ( ADTB3A ), which resides on chromosome 5. (medscape.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated in hematopoietic progenitors isolated from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients in the chronic phase. (genecards.org)
  • DOK2 (Docking Protein 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include obsolete signal transducer activity, downstream of receptor and transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase adaptor activity . (genecards.org)
  • Complex formation initiates a signaling cascade that leads to changes in gene expression and cell division. (rupress.org)
  • HOTTIP RNA binds the adaptor protein WDR5 directly and targets WDR5/MLL complexes across HOXA, driving histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation and gene transcription. (stanford.edu)
  • CLA20 is a reported synonym of the human protein 'adaptor related protein complex 4 subunit sigma 1', encoded by the gene AP4S1. (biocompare.com)
  • Inner nuclear membrane (INM) protein composition regulates nuclear function, affecting processes such as gene expression, chromosome organization, nuclear shape, and stability. (genetics.org)
  • AP3S2 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Sigma 2 Subunit) is a Protein Coding gene. (creativebiomart.net)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include protein transporter activity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Spastic Paraplegia 51, also known as spastic paraplegia 51, autosomal recessive , is related to spastic paraplegia 51, autosomal recessive and hereditary spastic paraplegia 51 , and has symptoms including seizures An important gene associated with Spastic Paraplegia 51 is AP4E1 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 Subunit Epsilon 1). (malacards.org)
  • OCA2, the product of the gene defective in oculocutaneous albinism type 2, is a melanosomal membrane protein with restricted expression pattern and a potential role in the trafficking of other proteins to melanosomes. (wiley.com)
  • This encoded protein binds p120 (RasGAP) from CML cells. (genecards.org)
  • We show that 3BP2 binds via its SH2 domain to the CD19 signaling complex and is required for optimum Syk phosphorylation and calcium flux. (asm.org)
  • The medium subunit (μ2) of AP2 binds to cargo proteins and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate on the cell surface. (rupress.org)
  • Following membrane fusion, the α-SNAP cytoplasmic adapter protein binds to the SNARE complex. (cellsignal.com)
  • For Cul1, the C-terminal cullin-homology domain binds the RING protein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Under periods of replicative stress, the ATRIP/ATR module binds to single-stranded DNA and, together with Rad17 and the 9-1-1 complex, activates Chk1 in a Claspin-dependent manner ( 18 - 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hotair binds to both Polycomb repressive complex 2, which methylates histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27), and Lsd1 complex, which demethylates histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4) in vivo. (stanford.edu)
  • In this report we used two AP-2 complex-specific inhibitors: a dominant negative mutant of Eps15 (Eps15DIII) that binds to the α subunit of AP-2 complex and a small interference RNA that is specific for the μ2 subunit of AP-2 complex. (jimmunol.org)
  • Crystal structures of complexes between the EGFR kinase domain and a fragment of MIG6 show that a approximately 25-residue epitope (segment 1) from MIG6 binds to the distal surface of the C lobe of the kinase domain. (proteopedia.org)
  • Recently we found that a non-canonical YXXØ-signal on the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) binds to a distinct region of the ?4 subunit of the AP-4 complex. (jove.com)
  • High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein that binds and bends DNA and facilitates transcription. (springer.com)
  • Herein, we report the interaction of an YKFFE sequence from the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the mu4 subunit of AP-4. (rcsb.org)
  • Disruption of the APP-AP-4 interaction decreases localization of APP to endosomes and enhances gamma-secretase-catalyzed cleavage of APP to the pathogenic amyloid-beta peptide. (rcsb.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that APP and AP-4 engage in a distinct type of signal-adaptor interaction that mediates transport of APP from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes, thereby reducing amyloidogenic processing of the protein. (rcsb.org)
  • Functional transcriptomic annotation and protein-protein interaction network analysis identify NEK2, BIRC5, and TOP2A as potential targets in obese patients with luminal A breast cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In this work, we intended to describe molecular alterations at a transcriptomic and protein-protein interaction (PPI) level between obese and non-obese patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Integrating genetic and protein-protein interaction networks maps a functional wiring diagram of a cell. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Systematic experimental approaches have led to construction of comprehensive genetic and protein-protein interaction networks for the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A Network Hierarchy-Based Method for Functional Module Detection in Protein-Protein Interaction Networks. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In the post-genomic era, one of the important tasks is to identify protein complexes and functional modules from high-throughput protein-protein interaction data, so that we can systematically analyze. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This chapter is based on exploiting the network-based representations of proteins, metagraphs, in protein-protein interaction network to identify candidate disease-causing proteins. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. (bioportfolio.com)
  • During the cell cycle, the ClpXP protease, the substrate CtrA, and many other proteins are localized to the stalked pole dependent on a polar interaction hub composed of PopZ protein oligomers. (asm.org)
  • However, we found that rs2476601/Trp 620 has a higher relative risk in type 1 diabetic case subjects carrying lower risk HLA class II genotypes than in those carrying higher risk ones ( P = 1.36 × 10 −4 in a test of interaction). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Membrane fusion requires interaction among SNARE1 proteins associated with both donor and acceptor membranes (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • Interestingly, a non-canonical tyrosine-based motif, which contains two tyrosine residues, Tyr-6 and Tyr-8, present in the NH2-terminal cytoplasmic tail, was essential for endocytosis through interaction with an Deltaa-adaptin, but not mu2-subunit, of the AP-2 complex. (genes2cognition.org)
  • A membrane proximal conserved GYxxØ motif mediates endocytosis through interaction with the clathrin adaptor AP-2. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Among its various binding partners, APPL1 was reported to associate with the nuclear co-repressor complex NuRD (nucleosome remodelling and deacetylase), containing both nucleosome remodelling and HDAC (histone deacetylase) activities, but the biochemical basis or functional relevance of this interaction remained unknown. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Available data indicate that Nef connects CD4 to an AP complex in the absence of CD4 phosphorylation ( 4 ) and that the Nef-AP interaction requires the dileucine sorting motif located in the C-terminal portion of the Nef protein ( 13 , 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The Beclin 1-Vps34 protein-protein interaction network is critical for autophagy regulation and is therefore essential to cellular integrity. (hep.com.cn)
  • The interaction of Rubicon with the UVRAG-containing Beclin 1-Vps34 complex blocks the fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes. (hep.com.cn)
  • The synaptic protein interaction (synprint) site of the voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel (VGCC) α1 subunit can interact with proteins involved in exocytosis, and it is therefore thought to be essential for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. (jneurosci.org)
  • Residues within the SH2 domain that contact residues C terminal to the phosphotyrosine on the target protein are one way in which specificity of substrate interaction may be controlled ( 26 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Currently, about 100 specialized protein-interaction modules have been identified that recognize a plethora of chemical signals. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is the archetypal protein-interaction module. (sciencemag.org)
  • Network modeling, which combined phosphoproteomic results with literature-curated protein-protein interaction data, was used to suggest roles for some of the previously unidentified Her2 signaling proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Proteomic measurements were combined with literature-curated protein-protein interaction (PPI) data to suggest roles for some of the previously unidentified Her2 signaling proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Independent of its redox state and endogenous cytokine-inducing ability, HMGB1 can form highly immunostimulatory complexes by interaction with certain proinflammatory mediators. (springer.com)
  • TRAF3 inhibited IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)-mediated signaling by facilitating the association of PTPN22 (a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase) with the kinase Janus-activated kinase 1 (Jak1), which in turn blocked phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we show that p110γ needs p84 to relay signals from GPCRs to formation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 ], phosphorylation of Akt, migration of cells, and synergistic adenosine-enforced degranulation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Therefore, it has been proposed that the phosphorylation of another protein, an as yet unknown EGF receptor substrate, is required for the efficient recruitment of EGF receptors into coated pits ( Lamaze and Schmid, 1995 ). (rupress.org)
  • EGF receptor activation leads to the phosphorylation of various proteins. (rupress.org)
  • NuMA is phosphorylated at numerous sites, with phosphorylation at Ser395 occurring in an ATM/ATR-dependent manner in response to DNA damage (3,4).Phosphorylation at Thr2055 by CDK1 is required for spindle pole association of NuMA at the onset of mitosis. (cellsignal.com)
  • After binding of an external ligand (e.g., antigen), ITAMs become phosphorylated by protein tyrosine kinases of the src family such as Lck, Fyn, and Lyn, and this initial phosphorylation event then allows propagation of the signal from the cell surface into the cytoplasmic compartment ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • In addition to regulating DNA replication and mitotic entry, Chk1 has also been shown to stabilize stalled replication forks when DNA replication is impeded, to regulate transcription through phosphorylation of histone H3, and to regulate DNA repair by phosphorylating the Fanconi anemia protein FANCE ( 8 , 10 - 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • hamartin) and TSC2 (tuberin) complex is inactivated by Akt-dependent phosphorylation. (asnjournals.org)
  • Galisteo ML, Dikic I, Batzer AG, Langdon WY, Schlessinger J. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the c-cbl proto-oncogene protein product and association with epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor upon EGF stimulation. (proteopedia.org)
  • Reversible protein phosphorylation is a highly conserved, essential regulatory mechanism involved in a host of cellular processes. (mcponline.org)
  • Temperature-dependent transformation was accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of Shc, a protein that interacts with the v-Abl SH2 and links the protein to Ras, and decreased induction of c-Myc expression. (asm.org)
  • Activation of PI3K results in accumulation of PIP3 (Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) via PIP2 (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate) degradation, which in turn mediates membrane targeting and phosphorylation of Akt (v-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog)/PKB (Protein Kinase-B) by binding to its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, Akt enters Akt signaling and regulates endothelial cell survival. (thermofisher.com)
  • VEGF stimulates SHC phosphorylation and promotes formation of SHC-GRB2 complexes. (thermofisher.com)
  • Most SH2 domain-containing proteins are recruited to sites of tyrosine phosphorylation to aid in the construction of molecular machines ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Of these proteins, 198 showed a significant increase in tyrosine phosphorylation in Her2-overexpressing cells, and 81 showed a significant decrease in phosphorylation. (pnas.org)
  • By these methods, 113 tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins involved in EGF and platelet-derived growth factor signaling in mesenchymal stem cells and 78 EGF-induced phosphorylation events in a breast cell line have been quantified ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • We identified multiple previously unrecognized Her2 signaling proteins and observed activation loop phosphorylation in the kinase domain of Her2. (pnas.org)
  • They control the vesicular transport of proteins in different trafficking pathways (PubMed:10066790, PubMed:10436028). (nih.gov)
  • These proteins are components of the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes, which play important roles in the secretory and endocytic pathways by mediating vesicle formation and sorting of integral membrane proteins. (nih.gov)
  • They control the vesicular transport of proteins in different trafficking pathways (PubMed:10436028, PubMed:11139587, PubMed:10066790, PubMed:11802162, PubMed:20230749). (genecards.org)
  • Differences in the signaling pathways regulating the ontogeny of NKT cells vs conventional T cells first became apparent with the recognition that fyn −/− mice had extremely low numbers of NKT cells, whereas conventional T cells were largely unaffected ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • During this process, PI3Kγ is activated by ligands of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in particular adenosine receptors, through autocrine and paracrine pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • Multifunctional adaptor protein APPL1 [adaptor protein containing PH (pleckstrin homology) domain, PTB (phosphotyrosine binding) domain and leucine zipper motif] belongs to a growing group of endocytic proteins which actively participate in various stages of signalling pathways. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Adiponectin activates AMP-activated protein kinase in muscle cells via APPL1/LKB1-dependent and phospholipase C/Ca2+/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-dependent pathways. (genes2cognition.org)
  • mTOR phosphorylates both ribosomal protein S6 kinases (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding proteins (4E-BP1) via independent pathways, resulting in activation of p70S6K1 and inactivation of 4E-BP1. (asnjournals.org)
  • Using a split-GFP complementation system to detect INM access, we examined the distribution of all C-terminally tagged Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteins in wild-type cells and in mutants affecting protein quality control pathways, such as INM-associated degradation (INMAD), ER-associated degradation, and vacuolar proteolysis. (genetics.org)
  • This recruits the Grb2 adaptor protein and effector proteins such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or phospholipase-Cγ (PLC-γ) to initiate downstream signaling pathways that contribute to oncogenesis and cancer cell proliferation ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Detailed biochemical, proteomic, and modeling studies of the EGFR signaling pathways have demonstrated a highly complex signaling network, and Her2 is likely also to use a similarly complex network to mediate cell proliferation and transformation ( 4 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • MS-based quantitative proteomics is a valuable tool for characterizing signaling pathways and generally utilizes stable isotopes to label cellular proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) is an adaptor protein that inhibits signaling by CD40 and by the receptor for B cell-activating factor (BAFF) and negatively regulates homeostatic B cell survival. (sciencemag.org)
  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) is an adaptor protein that mediates signaling downstream of TNF receptor superfamily members ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • TRAF3 also participates in signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as well as through the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, TRAF3 plays a role in mediating interleukin-17 (IL-17) receptor (IL-17R) and IL-2R signaling ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Immune cell adaptor protein SKAP1 couples the antigen-receptor (TCR/CD3) with the activation of LFA-1 adhesion in T-cells. (springer.com)
  • PDF] The Shc-related adaptor protein, Sck, forms a complex with the vascular-endothelial-growth-factor receptor KDR in transfected cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In mast cells, the p84:p110γ complex synergizes with immunoglobulin E (IgE)- and antigen-clustered FcɛRI receptor signaling and is required to achieve maximal degranulation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we show that this substitution is sufficient to couple basolateral plasma membrane proteins, such as a low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), to the AP-1B complex and to clathrin. (rupress.org)
  • The immunomodulatory adapter proteins DAP12 and Fc receptor gamma-chain (FcRgamma) regulate development of functional osteoclasts through the Syk tyrosine kinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Multiple receptors of the immune system use a common signaling paradigm whereby phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) within receptor-associated adapter proteins recruit the Syk tyrosine kinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The phosphorylated receptor recruits adapter proteins like GRB2 which in turn activates complex downstream signaling cascades. (abcam.com)
  • Also directly phosphorylates other proteins like RGS16, activating its GTPase activity and probably coupling the EGF receptor signaling to the G protein-coupled receptor signaling. (abcam.com)
  • Habib AA, Chatterjee S, Park SK, Ratan RR, Lefebvre S, Vartanian T. The epidermal growth factor receptor engages receptor interacting protein and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B)-inducing kinase to activate NF-kappa B. Identification of a novel receptor-tyrosine kinase signalosome. (proteopedia.org)
  • A major route from the receptors to Ras activation involves direct association of the adaptor protein GRB2 to the receptor and subsequent stimulation of the guanine-nucleotide exchange protein SOS. (thermofisher.com)
  • These noncatalytic organizing proteins contain a domain that selectively recognizes the activated receptor (an SH2 domain in the case of receptor tyrosine kinases), linked to domains such as SH3, that engage specific downstream targets, typically by binding to proline-rich sequences. (sciencemag.org)
  • HMGB1 induces proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 signaling in a redox-dependent fashion. (springer.com)
  • The activity of the HMGB1-TLR ligand complexes relied on engagement of the same receptor as for the noncomplexed TLR ligand, since HMGB1-LPS complexes used TLR4 and HMGB1-Pam 3 CSK 4 complexes used TLR2. (springer.com)
  • Elucidating HMGB1 receptor usage in processes where HMGB1 acts alone or in complex with other molecules is essential for the understanding of basic HMGB1 biology and for designing HMGB1-targeted therapies. (springer.com)
  • Adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is the most recently discovered and least well-characterized member of the family of heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes that mediate sorting of transmembrane cargo in post-Golgi compartments. (rcsb.org)
  • Adaptor protein complexes (AP1-4) are ubiquitously expressed, evolutionarily conserved heterotetrameric complexes that mediate different types of vesicle formation and the selection of cargo molecules for inclusion into these vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • Complex signaling networks between the chloroplast and the nucleus mediate the emergence of the seedling into the light and the establishment of photosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), a hexameric ATPase, then associates with the α-SNAP/SNARE complex to mediate SNARE disassembly during membrane fusion (3,4). (cellsignal.com)
  • Different poly-Ub linkages mediate different functions of the target protein ranging from alterations in protein function to degradation (2). (cellsignal.com)
  • Moelleken, J. 2006-10-14 00:00:00 COPI-coated vesicles are protein and liquid carriers that mediate transport within the early secretory pathway. (deepdyve.com)
  • It is listed to be a member of the Adaptor complexes small subunit family. (biocompare.com)
  • Biochemical and X-ray crystallographic analyses reveal that the properties of the APP sequence and the location of the binding site on mu4 are distinct from those of other signal-adaptor interactions. (rcsb.org)
  • multiple interactions between PIPKI gamma- p90 and AP-2 lead to spatiotemporally controlled PI(4,5)P(2) synthesis during clathrin -mediated synaptic vesicle endocytosis. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • V1H can function as an adaptor for interactions between Nef and AP-2 (zeige GTF3A ELISA Kits ). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Background: Several protein-protein interactions are essential to membrane fusion during endocytosis. (cellsignal.com)
  • This cooperativity explains how Nef is able to efficiently downregulate CD4 despite weak binary interactions between components of the tripartite complex. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Functional characterization of the interactions between endosomal adaptor protein APPL1 and the NuRD co-repressor complex. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Although the tyrosine kinase activity of the v-Abl protein is absolutely required for transformation, the SH2 domain, a region involved in phosphotyrosine-dependent interactions ( 11 , 48 ), also plays an important role in the process. (asm.org)
  • However, analyses of interactions between Src SH2 domain mutants and peptides deviating from its consensus pYEEI peptide binding sequence have suggested that specificity reflects more complex interactions ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • The complex is part of the protein coat on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles which links clathrin to receptors in vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP-4 is involved in the recognition and binding of tyrosine-based sorting signals found in the cytoplasmic part of cargos, but may also recognize other types of sorting signal. (nih.gov)
  • Within AP-4, the mu-type subunit AP4M1 is directly involved in the recognition and binding of tyrosine-based sorting signals found in the cytoplasmic part of cargos (PubMed:10436028, PubMed:11139587, PubMed:26544806, PubMed:20230749). (genecards.org)
  • A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This involves connections at the very short integrin cytoplasmic tails with a complex of cytoskeletal adapter proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • Indeed, an appendage domain of alpha-adaptin was identified as a protein interacting with the cytoplasmic tail of HM1.24. (genes2cognition.org)
  • For the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV), sorting of the viral envelope proteins (Env) to assembly sites is directed by trafficking signals located in the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane protein gp41 (TM). (genes2cognition.org)
  • The Atg14L-containing Beclin 1-Vps34 complex marks the sites at which the phagophores/isolation membranes form to enclose the cytoplasmic contents to be degraded. (hep.com.cn)
  • 3BP2 forms complexes with a number of signaling proteins, such as Zap-70, LAT, phospholipase C γ1 (PLC-γ1), Grb2, Cbl, and Fyn in Jurkat cells ( 6 ) and Vav1, Vav2, PLC-γ, and Syk in Daudi B cells ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Shc can complex with Grb2 and the G-protein exchange factor, mSos, facilitating the activation of Ras ( 14 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • Multivalent modular proteins such as Grb2 (SH3-SH2-SH3) and Nck (SH3-SH3-SH3-SH2) exemplify this strategy ( Fig. 1A ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Like EGFR, Her2 recruits and activates multiple signaling proteins, including phospholipase C γ1 (PLCγ1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Shc-Grb2-SOS, RasGAP, and Stat (signal transducer and activator of transcription) 5 ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Rather, our data point to a model where PopZ normally restrains ClpXP proteolysis by promoting the inactivation of the CpdR adaptor, perhaps through the activity and localization of the CckA kinase. (asm.org)
  • Akiyama C, Shinozaki-Narikawa N, Kitazawa T, Hamakubo T, Kodama T, Shibasaki Y (2005) Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase gamma is associated with cell-cell junction in A431 epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • Bazenet CE, Ruano AR, Brockman JL, Anderson RA (1990) The human erythrocyte contains two forms of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase which are differentially active toward membranes. (springer.com)
  • Boronenkov IV, Anderson RA (1995) The sequence of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase defines a novel family of lipid kinases. (springer.com)
  • The Chk1 protein kinase preserves genome integrity in normal proliferating cells and in cells experiencing replicative and genotoxic stress. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chk1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that functions to maintain genome integrity in normal cycling cells and in cells exposed to replicative and genotoxic stress ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Drugs that block Chk1 kinase activity or enhance its proteolysis by interfering with binding to heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) are currently being tested as anticancer agents ( 14 - 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activates at least 4 major downstream signaling cascades including the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK, PI3 kinase-AKT, PLCgamma-PKC and STATs modules. (abcam.com)
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. (abcam.com)
  • Tyr protein kinase family. (abcam.com)
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain. (abcam.com)
  • The binding of the adaptor protein APPL1 to adiponectin receptors is necessary for adiponectin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle, yet the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Adiponectin also activates another AMPK upstream kinase Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase by activating phospholipase C and subsequently inducing Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, which plays a minor role in AMPK activation. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV) encodes the v-Abl protein tyrosine kinase and induces transformation of immortalized fibroblast lines and pre-B cells. (asm.org)
  • Temperature-sensitive mutations affecting the kinase domain of the protein have demonstrated that the kinase activity is absolutely required for transformation. (asm.org)
  • Expression of the protein tyrosine kinase encoded by the v- abl oncogene of Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV) induces transformation of pre-B cells and immortalized fibroblast lines in vitro and causes pre-B-cell lymphoma in mice ( 37 ). (asm.org)
  • Phosphorylated PLC-Gamma catalyzes the hydrolysis of PIP2 to generate IP3 (Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate) and DAG (Diacylglycerol), which are known to stimulate the release of Ca 2+ (Calcium) from internal stores and activate PKC (Protein Kinase-C), respectively. (thermofisher.com)
  • ERK (Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase)1/2 cascade that is critical for growth stimulation, downstream of most protein tyrosine kinase receptors including activation of the transcription factor, c-Fos [4]. (thermofisher.com)
  • Importantly, several previously uncharacterized Her2 signaling proteins were identified, including Axl tyrosine kinase, the adaptor protein Fyb, and the calcium-binding protein Pdcd-6/Alg-2. (pnas.org)
  • We identify dynamin and the EAP -binding alpha-adaptin appendage domain of the AP2 adaptor as switches in a regulated, multistep maturation process and provide direct evidence for a molecular checkpoint in clathrin mediated endocytosis. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • In contrast to other glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, HM1.24 was internalized from lipid rafts on the cell surface by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (genes2cognition.org)
  • A conserved dileucine motif mediates clathrin and AP-2-dependent endocytosis of the HIV-1 envelope protein. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The prevailing view is that AP-2 mediates endocytosis from the plasma membrane, whereas AP-1, AP-3, and AP-4 participate in the protein sorting from the trans-Golgi network and/or endosomes to lysosomes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Adaptor protein 180 (AP180) and its homolog, clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia protein (CALM), are closely related proteins that play important roles in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (rcsb.org)
  • Here we report that the synprint site can also directly bind the μ subunit of AP-2, an adaptor protein for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, in competition with the synaptotagmin 1 (Syt 1) C2B domain. (jneurosci.org)
  • PIP 2 directly associates with effector proteins via unique phosphoinositide binding domains, altering their localization and/or enzymatic activity. (springer.com)
  • Activation of Ras stimulates multiple downstream effector proteins, including c-Myc ( 21-23 ), another protein that is critical for Abl-mediated transformation ( 38 ). (asm.org)
  • In contrast to PP2A, the supramolecular architecture and subunit composition of PP4 multiprotein complexes remains largely unknown. (mcponline.org)
  • This requires a delicate balance between two apparently opposing processes: the diffusion of information through the cytoplasm and nucleus, and the processing of information by immobilized multiprotein complexes. (sciencemag.org)
  • This large family of heterodimeric transmembrane receptors recognizes a plethora of extracellular ligands, including transmembrane receptors on other cells and ECM proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • The TOM complex consists of the receptors Tom20, Tom22, and Tom70, and the channel-forming protein Tom40 (1). (cellsignal.com)
  • These receptors lack any intrinsic enzymatic activity and their signal transduction relies on associations with TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) adaptor proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Combinations with other immunomodulatory mAb that block T-cell checkpoint blockade receptors such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 are also promising. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, it should be noted that many molecular players are acting in a structured and concerted fashion at the synapse including receptors, signaling adaptors, cytoskeletal components, and the distribution of lipids in the interacting plasma membranes ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bonifacino J, Traub L (2003) Signals for sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes. (springer.com)
  • Four AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-4) contain a medium-sized subunit (?1-?4) that recognizes YXXØ-sequences (Ø is a bulky hydrophobic residue), which are sorting signals in transmembrane proteins. (jove.com)
  • There are three classes of mammalian Arf proteins, Class I (Arfs1-3), Class II (Arfs 4-5), and Class III (Arf6), the division being largely based on sequence homology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interrogation of Mammalian Protein Complex Structure, Function, and Membership Using Genome-Scale Fitness Screens. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Functional annotation of mammalian protein complexes is crit. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To gain a better understanding of the composition, function, and regulation of PP4, we systematically analyzed mammalian and yeast PP4C-interacting proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. (jove.com)
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • The encoded protein is a large subunit of adaptor protein complex-4, which is associated with both clathrin- and nonclathrin-coated vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • Huizing M, Scher CD, Strovel E, Fitzpatrick DL, Hartnell LM, Anikster Y, Gahl WA , Nonsense mutations in ADTB3A cause complete deficiency of the beta3A subunit of adaptor complex-3 and severe Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2. (coriell.org)
  • AP-4 forms a non clathrin-associated coat on vesicles departing the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and may be involved in the targeting of proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosomal-lysosomal system. (nih.gov)
  • This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition and sorting of cargo proteins with tyrosine-based motifs from the trans-golgi network to the endosomal-lysosomal system. (genecards.org)
  • GGAs (Golgi-localising, Gamma-adaptin ear domain homology, ARF-binding proteins) are a group of related proteins (three in humans) that act as monomeric clathrin adaptor proteins in various important membrane vesicle traffickings, but are not similar to any of the AP complexes and will not be discussed in detail in this article. (wikipedia.org)
  • An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We show that RAB39B, a novel RAB GTPase of unknown function, is a neuronal-specific protein that is localized to the Golgi compartment. (nih.gov)
  • Tagged AP-1A and AP-1B complexes were found in the perinuclear region close to the Golgi complex and recycling endosomes, often in clathrin-coated buds and vesicles. (rupress.org)
  • Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be sorted in post-Golgi compartments. (jove.com)
  • Finally, in contrast to overexpression of the D190A mutant, and acting in a dominant-negative manner, overexpression of ?4 with either a F255A or a R283D substitution at the non-canonical site halted APP transport at the Golgi apparatus. (jove.com)
  • It is unclear whether both PI3Kγ complexes specifically modulate responses such as chemotaxis and degranulation. (sciencemag.org)
  • DOK2 may modulate the cellular proliferation induced by IL-4, as well as IL-2 and IL-3. (genecards.org)
  • However, PIP 2 can also directly regulate a vast array of proteins and is emerging as a crucial messenger with the potential to distinctly modulate biological processes critical for both normal and pathogenic cell physiology. (springer.com)
  • Collectively, our data identify TRIM as a novel integral component of the TCR complex and suggest that one function of TRIM might be to modulate the strength of signals transduced through the TCR through regulation of TCR expression on the cell surface. (rupress.org)
  • 3BP2 is a pleckstrin homology domain- and Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing adapter protein that is mutated in the rare human bone disorder cherubism and which has also been implicated in immunoreceptor signaling. (asm.org)
  • 3BP2 is a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain- and Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing adapter protein of unknown function that was originally cloned in a screen to identify c-Abl SH3 binding proteins ( 4 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • Homodimer formation of immune adaptor protein SKAP1 (SKAP-55) are mediated by residues A17 to L21 in the SKAP1 N-terminal region. (springer.com)
  • The full protein is reported to be 144 amino acid residues in length. (biocompare.com)
  • replacing Arg βB5, located at the base of the pocket, with a Lys or other residues drastically affects the ability of activated c-Abl proteins and Bcr/Abl proteins to transform immortalized fibroblast lines ( 1 , 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Expression of the epithelial cell-specific heterotetrameric adaptor complex AP-1B is required for the polarized distribution of many membrane proteins to the basolateral surface of LLC-PK1 kidney cells. (rupress.org)
  • The ClpXP adaptor CpdR is required for this enhanced degradation of CtrA and other adaptor-dependent substrates, but adaptor-independent substrate degradation is not affected upon loss of PopZ. (asm.org)
  • Fruitless efforts to find putative substrates for ubiquitination by DCDC led us to explore the possibility that this complex has an ubiquitination-independent function. (asm.org)
  • The C terminus of cullins, which is essential for the catalytic activity of CRLs, directly interacts with the E2 ligase and RBX1/ROC1, a small RING domain catalytic protein that facilitates the attachment of ubiquitin moieties onto substrates ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • The flexible backbone of cullins undergoes conformational changes to bring RBX1 and the E2 ligase in close proximity to the substrates, which are recruited by the adaptor protein bound to the N terminus ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • It is also involved in protein sorting to the basolateral membrane in epithelial cells and the proper asymmetric localization of somatodendritic proteins in neurons. (nih.gov)
  • This study offers evidence that supports an alternative model to explain how localization might influence protein degradation. (asm.org)
  • Using a delocalized in vivo system created by the deletion of a polar organizing protein, PopZ, we show that activation of the ClpXP protease is independent of its polar localization. (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate that μ2 is partially required for synaptic localization of clathrin and for the stability of the AP2 complex. (rupress.org)
  • Our results demonstrate a nonredundant function for the p101 and p84 PI3Kγ adaptor proteins and show that distinct pools of PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 at the plasma membrane can elicit specific cell responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • BMCC1 (zeige PRUNE2 ELISA Kits ) is an AP-2 (zeige GTF3A ELISA Kits ) associated endosomal protein in prostate cancer cells. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Dual immunofluorescence imaging with protein markers for specific vesicle compartments showed that Panx2 vesicles are early endosomal in origin. (frontiersin.org)
  • Endosomal adaptor proteins APPL1 and APPL2 are novel activators of beta-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Results indicate that AP-2 is not essential for clathrin -coated vesicle formation at the plasma membrane, but that it is one of several endocytic adaptors required for the uptake of certain cargo proteins. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The epsin family of endocytic adaptors promotes fibrosarcoma migration and invasion. (purdue.edu)
  • Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in vesicle formation and cargo selection. (nih.gov)
  • AP-5 is associated with 2 proteins, SPG11 and SPG15, which have some structural similarity to clathrin, and may form the coat around the AP-5 complex, but the ultrastructure of that coat is not known. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coat of AP-4 is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • An almost universal feature of coat assembly is the recruitment of the various adaptor complexes to the "donor" membrane by the protein Arf1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another almost universal feature of coat assembly is that the adaptors are recruited first, and they then recruit the coats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptor proteins (APs) play key roles in this process by recruiting coat proteins and selecting cargos for different vesicle carriers. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Adaptor protein-3 (AP3) is a heterotetrameric vesicle-coat protein complex. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • These complexes concentrate the correct cargo molecules in vesicles that bud or extrude off of one organelle and travel to another location, where the cargo is delivered. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are examples of the much larger set of cargo adaptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cargo sorting is essential for plant survival and therefore necessitates complex molecular machinery. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Clathrin is linked to cargo and membranes by the clathrin adaptor complex ( Keen, 1987 ). (rupress.org)
  • In this Topical Review, we present their main protein components and discuss current models for cargo sorting. (deepdyve.com)
  • Adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4) plays a key role in vesicle formation, trafficking, and sorting processes that are critical for brain development and function. (cdc.gov)
  • The AP-2 complex is a heterotetramer consisting of two large adaptins (alpha or beta), a medium adaptin (mu), and a small adaptin (sigma). (wikipedia.org)
  • GST-fused proteins were purified with the Cell Lytic B protocol (Sigma #B7435). (springer.com)
  • The two smaller proteins are a medium subunit named μ (mu ∼50 kD) and a small subunit σ (sigma ∼20 kD), and named 1 through 5 corresponding to the 5 AP complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • although both p84:p110γ and p101:p110γ complexes initially deposited PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 at the plasma membrane, p101:p110γ-derived PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 was rapidly endocytosed to motile, microtubule-associated vesicles. (sciencemag.org)
  • After synaptic vesicle fusion, vesicle proteins are retrieved from the plasma membrane and recycled into new synaptic vesicles to sustain neuronal transmission. (rupress.org)
  • Shaping Giant Membrane Vesicles in 3D-Printed Protein Hydrogel Cages. (mpg.de)
  • These AP complexes are essential components of the clathrin-coated vesicles. (jimmunol.org)
  • High levels of Panx2 mRNA and protein in the Central Nervous System (CNS) have been documented. (frontiersin.org)
  • Architecture and roles of periplasmic adaptor proteins in tripartite efflux assemblies. (prolekare.cz)
  • In a broader sense, these results contribute to an emerging theme of endocytic proteins playing alternative roles in the cell nucleus. (genes2cognition.org)
  • In Caulobacter crescentus , timely degradation of several proteins by the ClpXP protease is critical for proper cell cycle progression. (asm.org)
  • In the ER, misfolded or damaged proteins are targeted for degradation by the ER-associated degradation pathway (ERAD) as part of the cell's surveillance system, to prevent the formation of nonfunctional complexes or aggregates of defective protein ( Zattas and Hochstrasser 2015 ). (genetics.org)
  • Arf and many Arl proteins are modified by addition of a hydrophobic myristoyl group to the amino-terminal amphipathic helix. (frontiersin.org)
  • a conserved heretofore unrecognized YXXPhi motif (Phi is a bulky hydrophobic residue) within the core protein . (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Cullins are a family of hydrophobic proteins that act as scaffolds for ubiquitin ligases (E3). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Intrinsic and 8-anilinonaphathalene-1-sulphonic acid (ANS) fluorescence studies indicated that thermal denaturation of the enzyme was accompanied by exposure of the hydrophobic cluster on the protein surface. (ias.ac.in)
  • We also present evidence that the diacidic motif on Nef and the basic patch on alpha-adaptin are both required for the cooperative assembly of a CD4-Nef-AP-2 complex. (genes2cognition.org)
  • This motif is found in other proteins predicted to have domains of similar structure (for example, Huntingtin interacting protein 1). (rcsb.org)
  • Consistent with the idea that signals requiring an intact SH2 domain pass through Ras and lead to c-Myc ( 52 ), transformation of RAT-1 cells by Bcr/Abl proteins containing an altered FLVRES motif is complemented by expression of c-Myc ( 1 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • It is a heterodimer of a catalytic p110γ subunit and an adaptor protein, either p101 or the p101 homolog p84 (p87 PIKAP ). (sciencemag.org)
  • mTOR is made up of two distinct complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. (asnjournals.org)
  • The DCDC resembles established CRLs, in which the substrate specificity adaptor protein DDB1/DIM-8 (DNA-damage-binding protein 1) serves as a bridge between CUL4 and the DCAF (DDB1 and CUL4-associated factor) DIM-9. (asm.org)
  • The catalytic core of CRLs consists of a RING protein and a cullin family member. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Within the much larger PPP class, a common catalytic domain (of 280 aa) is highly conserved, whereas the N and C termini are more divergent and further separate the PPP proteins into subfamilies. (mcponline.org)
  • Cullins form the scaffold of CRLs by bridging substrate adaptor proteins that interact with their N termini and catalytic proteins that interact with their C termini ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Signaling proteins typically have a modular organization, being composed of domains with binding or catalytic functions, interspersed with regions that serve as docking or substrate sites for other molecules. (sciencemag.org)
  • Combined with previous observations, these results support the hypothesis that AP4-complex-mediated trafficking plays a crucial role in brain development and functioning and demonstrate the existence of a clinically recognizable syndrome due to deficiency of the AP4 complex. (nih.gov)
  • An AP4B1 frameshift mutation in siblings with intellectual disability and spastic tetraplegia further delineates the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • AP4B1-associated HSP and other AP-4-deficiency syndromes should be suspected in infants and children with hypotonia progressing to spastic paraplegia, delayed motor and speech development, and suggestive findings on brain imaging particularly thinning of the posterior aspect of the corpus callosum. (nih.gov)
  • Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 5 (HPS-5) results from a deficiency of the HPS-5 protein, a component of BLOC-2. (medscape.com)
  • Adaptor protein complex 4 deficiency: a paradigm of childhood-onset hereditary spastic paraplegia caused by defective protein trafficking. (mpg.de)
  • The expression of recombinant GST-proteins was induced in Escherichia coli BL21 cells at 37 °C for 2 h by the addition of 1 mM IPTG. (springer.com)
  • Living cells are made up of individual parts, i.e. the genome, the proteins, the RNA and lipid molecules as well as the metabolites and ions. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Although sap −/− tetramer-reactive cells proliferated in response to TCR activation, they did not produce appreciable levels of IL-4 or IFN-γ. (jimmunol.org)
  • Ectopic expression of GATA-3 partially restored IL-4 production by the NKT cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Upon activation, NKT cells rapidly secrete large quantities of IFN-γ and IL-4, thereby helping to shape the innate and adaptive immune responses upon encounter with pathogens, as well as during autoimmune diseases. (jimmunol.org)
  • Differentiated, p110γ null cells also lost adaptor proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • C) Immunoblot analysis performed on 30 μg of total protein extracted from HeLa cells transfected with pFLAG-RAB39B constructs containing the wild-type RAB39B cDNA (WT), family X (D-23) mutated cDNA, or MRX72 cDNA. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we describe trafficking and subcellular localizations of exogenous Panx2 and Panx1 protein expression in MDCK, HeLa, and HEK 293T cells as well as endogenous Panx1 and Panx2 patterns in the CNS. (frontiersin.org)
  • Functional relevance of these alterations was examined in vitro by exposing murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to ethanol (EtOH) and HIV trans-activator of transcription (Tat) protein. (mdpi.com)
  • In the case of the TCR, the ligand binding site is constructed from the polymorphic α- and β chains, which form a disulfide-linked heterodimer that interacts with peptide/MHC complexes presented on the surface of antigen presenting cells ( 2 )( 3 )( 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • HM1.24/Bst2/CD317 is a protein highly expressed in multiple myeloma cells and has unique topology with two membrane anchor domains, an NH2-terminal transmembrane domain and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol attached to the COOH terminus. (genes2cognition.org)
  • A critical function of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein is the downregulation of CD4 from the surfaces of infected cells. (genes2cognition.org)
  • An integral membrane protein, CD4 is expressed primarily on the surface of Th cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. (jimmunol.org)
  • In T cells the protein functions as a coreceptor of TCR, participating in T cell activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • In T cells expressing HIV Nef, CD4 is also down-regulated ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Fibronectin attachment protein from bacillus Calmette-Guerin as targeting agent for bladder tumor cells. (purdue.edu)
  • The mechanisms of action depend on a complex interplay of CTL, T-helper cells, regulatory T cells, dendritic cells, and vascular endothelium in tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Together, these results suggest that the INCENPs may represent a new class of 'chromosomal passenger' proteins that are carried to the spindle equator by the chromosomes and subsequently perform a cytoskeletal role following their release from the chromosomes at the metaphase:anaphase transition. (biologists.org)

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