Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Adaptor Protein Complex 1: A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.Adaptor Protein Complex 2: An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.Adaptor Protein Complex 4: An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.Adaptor Protein Complex Subunits: The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.Adaptor Protein Complex delta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits: A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport: A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesClathrin: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.Human Characteristics: The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins: A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.GRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Adaptor Protein Complex sigma Subunits: A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.trans-Golgi Network: A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.Clathrin-Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.PhosphoproteinsCoated Pits, Cell-Membrane: Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.GRB10 Adaptor Protein: A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.Gene Products, nef: Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk: Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.CRADD Signaling Adaptor Protein: A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.GRB7 Adaptor Protein: A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl: Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Son of Sevenless Proteins: A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Mice, Inbred C57BLCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.LIM Domain Proteins: A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Protein Interaction Maps: Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein: A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Cullin Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Syntenins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that play a role in the coupling of SYNDECANS to CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Dystrophin-Associated Protein Complex: A macromolecular complex of proteins that includes DYSTROPHIN and DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. It plays a structural role in the linking the CYTOSKELETON to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src): Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.PDZ Domains: Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.Arrestins: Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport: A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6: A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signalling and activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Coat Protein Complex I: A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Clathrin Heavy Chains: The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Endopeptidase Clp: An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn: Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.

The adaptor protein AP-4 as a component of the clathrin coat machinery: a morphological study. (1/10)

The four members of the AP (adaptor protein) family are heterotetrameric cytosolic complexes that are involved in the intracellular trafficking of cargo proteins between different organelles. They interact with motifs present in the cytoplasmic tails of their specific cargo proteins at different intracellular locations. While AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 have been investigated extensively, very few studies have focused on the fourth member, AP-4. In the present study, we report on the intracellular localization of AP-4 in the MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) and MelJuSo cell lines after immunogold labelling of ultrathin cryosections. We find that AP-4 is localized mainly in the Golgi complex, as well as on endosomes and transport vesicles. Interestingly, we show for the first time that AP-4 is localized with the clathrin coat machinery in the Golgi complex and in the endocytic pathway. Furthermore, we find that AP-4 is localized with the CI-MPR (cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor), but not with the transferrin receptor, LAMP-2 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2) or invariant chain. The difference in morphology between CI-MPR/AP-4-positive vesicles and CI-MPR/AP-1-positive vesicles raises the possibility that AP-4 acts at a location different from that of AP-1 in the intracellular trafficking pathway of CI-MPR.  (+info)

Accumulation of AMPA receptors in autophagosomes in neuronal axons lacking adaptor protein AP-4. (2/10)

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AP-4: autophagy-four mislocalized proteins in axons. (3/10)

Neurons are highly polarized cells composed of two distinct domains, the axon and the somatodendritic domain. Although AMPA-type glutamate receptors, which mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission in the vertebrate CNS, are preferentially expressed in the somatodendritic domain, the molecular mechanisms underlying such polarized distribution have remained elusive. We recently demonstrated that adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) binds to transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs), thereby mediating the selective trafficking of AMPA receptors to the somatodendritic domain; genetic disruption of AP-4 (AP-4beta(-/-)), results in the mislocalization of TARPs and AMPA receptors in the axons. Similarly, low-density lipoprotein receptors and delta2 glutamate receptors are mislocalized in axons, while other cargos, such as NMDA receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors, are properly excluded from AP-4beta(-/-) axons. These findings indicate that there exist AP-4-dependent and -independent sorting mechanisms. Unexpectedly, mislocalized AMPA receptors do not reach the cell surface and accumulate in autophagosomes in the bulging portions of AP-4beta(-/-) axons. Several lines of evidence indicate that mislocalized AMPA receptors activate the autophagic pathway. Since increased autophagy and axonal swelling are suggested to occur in various neuronal disorders, further studies using AP-4beta(-/-) mice are warranted to understand the mechanisms regulating autophagy in axons.  (+info)

Mutation in the AP4M1 gene provides a model for neuroaxonal injury in cerebral palsy. (4/10)

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Sorting of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein mediated by the AP-4 complex. (5/10)

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Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) deficiency causes a novel autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome with microcephaly and intellectual disability. (6/10)

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Adaptor protein complex 4 deficiency causes severe autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, progressive spastic paraplegia, shy character, and short stature. (7/10)

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Breast cancer cells proliferation is regulated by tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 through c-jun N-terminal kinase and cooperative induction of RFX-1 and AP-4 transcription factors. (8/10)

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Background Cerebral palsy is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental brain disorders resulting in motor and posture impairments often associated with cognitive, sensorial, and behavioural disturbances. Hypoxic-ischaemic injury, long considered the most frequent causative factor, accounts for fewer than 10% of cases, whereas a growing body of evidence suggests that diverse genetic abnormalities likely play a major role. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Fe65 protein family. It is an adaptor protein localized in the nucleus. It interacts with the Alzheimers disease amyloid precursor protein (APP), transcription factor CP2/LSF/LBP1 and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. APP functions as a cytosolic anchoring site that can prevent the gene products nuclear translocation. This encoded protein could play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease. It is thought to regulate transcription. Also it is observed to block cell cycle progression by downregulating thymidylate synthase expression. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene ...
Numerous transmembrane proteins, including the blood pressure regulating angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and the Alzheimers disease amyloid precursor protein (APP), are proteolytically shed from the plasma membrane by metalloproteases. We have used an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) approach to delineate the role of ADAM10 and tumour necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE; ADAM17) in the ectodomain shedding of ACE and APP from human SH-SY5Y cells. Although the ADAM10 ASO and TACE ASO significantly reduced (, 81%) their respective mRNA levels and reduced the α-secretase shedding of APP by 60% and 30%, respectively, neither ASO reduced the shedding of ACE. The mercurial compound 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA) stimulated the shedding of ACE but not of APP. The APMA-stimulated secretase cleaved ACE at the same Arg-Ser bond in the juxtamembrane stalk as the constitutive secretase but was more sensitive to inhibition by a hydroxamate-based compound. The APMA-activated shedding of ACE ...
This outcome measure will evaluate a difference in the level of MSDX Complex-1 form the baseline visit to the 6-month visit. MSDX Complex-1 is a biomarker for MS disease activity and its change should correspond with a change in the disease activity in MS ...
Biopeptide Complex- Obsahuje jedinečnú kombináciu oligo- a polypeptidov, ktoré zaručujú okamžitú a dlhodobú hydratáciu všetkých vrstiev kože. Výsledkom ich používania v kozmetike je pružné telo, výplň rýh a nerovností. Peptidy slúžia na prenos aktívnych látok do hĺbky kože. Majú energetizujúce vlastnosti, stimulujú bunky kože k tvorbe kolagénu a elastínu. Pomáhajú bojovať proti pigmentovým škvrnám, rozjasňujú a vyrovnávajú farbu pleti.. Retinol - má intenzívny protivráskový účinok. Stimuluje regeneráciu kožných buniek a tvorbu kolagénu, redukuje vznik drobných a hlbších vrások a pigmentových škvŕn, ktoré vznikajú v dôsledku prirodzeného starnutia a fotostarnutiapokožky. Okrem toho pomáha sťahovať rozšírené póry, koriguje nedokonalosti a zjednocuje farebný tón pleti.. Vitamín E- brzdí procesy starnutia pleti, hydratuje, vyhladzuje a zmäkčuje pokožku. Znižuje škodlivé pôsobenie slnečného žiarenia na kožné ...
سابقه و هدف: آستنوزوسپرمی به ­عنوان شایع ­ترین اختلال منجر به ناباروری مردان، به­ صورت کمبود شدید حرکت پیش­رونده‌ی اسپرم در هر انزال تعریف می­ شود. این فنوتیپ می­ تواند هم به­صورت غیرسندرومی و هم به ­صورت سندرومی وجود داشته باشد که در حالت دوم به ­عنوان یک عارضه جانبی سندروم مژک ...
سلول­ های بنیادی سلول­ های تمایز نیافته با قابلیت تقسیم و تمایز به انواع مختلف سلول­ ها می باشند. منبع این سلول­ ها از جنین و افراد بالغ تأمین می­ شود که هر کدام ویژگی­ های خاص خود را دارند. برای حدوداً چندین دهه مطالعه­ های تجربی به­ منظور استفاده از این ...
不動産担保ローンは無担保のローンに比べ金利が安い - 所有している不動産を担保にして借り入れをする不動産担保ローンは 無担保のローンに比べると 不動産の価値にもよりますが 金利が安く 融資額が大きい 長期の借り入れが可能などのメリットがあります》 融資額の内容は所有している […] ...
In the nerve terminal, synaptic vesicles are docked on an active zone of 200-300 nm in diameter, in which VGCCs are thought to be inserted within a distance of 20-200 nm from synaptic vesicles (Neher, 1998; Meinrenken et al., 2002). Ca2+ entry through 1-60 VGCCs (Stanley, 1993; Borst and Sakmann, 1996) can trigger single vesicle fusion for exocytic release of neurotransmitter. After fusion, a variety of endocytic proteins are assembled for clathrin-mediated vesicle endocytosis, in which the adaptor protein AP-2 plays an essential role (Schmid, 1997). Our present results suggest that VGCC synprint sites anchor a fraction of AP-2 complex, which is likely linked to the plasma membrane via interactions with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (McPherson et al., 2008). This synprint-AP-2 interaction occurs for both N- and P/Q-type VGCCs but is not entirely universal because VGCCs in invertebrates such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans lack synprint sites (Littleton and Ganetzky, 2000; ...
Pituitary Complex Glandular is designed for use under the supervision of a healthcare practitioner. Please call (800) 669-0358 to speak with one of our practitioners or email us at [email protected] to request a password. Product DescriptionPituitary glandular with synergistic ingredients. ____________________
Neuroaxonal Dystrophy. By Jeaneane P. Kozlowski Presented June 24, 2003 Temple University- Ambler. What is Neuroaxonal Dystrophy?. Neuroaxonal Dystrophy (NAD) is a rare inherited disorder. Slideshow 6866545 by herman-munoz
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Genetic testing for up to 65 genes that cause dominant, recessive, and X-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), including the most commonly causative genes.
Function: Phosphorylates the AP2M1/mu2 subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). May play a role in regulating aspects of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (By similarity ...
Spastic Paraplegia 47 doesnt roll off the tongue. The name is complicated and challenging, much like SPG47 itself. When I tell healthcare providers my 3-year-old daughters diagnosis, I take a deep breath and wait for the inevitable question: What, exactly, is that?. More than 70 types of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) have been identified to date; almost all are neurodegenerative. At best, HSP causes distress and disruption; at worst, it has devastating, potentially life-threatening consequences. Its "pure" form impairs the lower extremities, causing extreme spasticity and weakness. Its "complicated" form - like our daughter Robbies - also impacts systemic and/or neurologic function. Many HSP sub-types have been diagnosed in only a handful of people worldwide, leaving affected families feeling lost and disconnected. …. ...
Hereditary spastic paraplegia is a frequently misdiagnosed neurological disorder Medical information in relation to symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis and treatment.
The best anti aging product and beauty product reviews on the best anti wrinkle creams, anti aging serums, anti aging lotions, beauty products. Honest reviews and testimonials by our Truth in Aging staff.
Railroad Accidents Kentucky News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Railroad Accidents Kentucky From The latimes
Build: Sat Feb 17 08:59:16 EST 2018 (commit: 16064c5). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort integral membrane proteins at various stages of the endocytic and ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a fourth adaptor-related protein complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ... adaptor-related protein complex 4". Abou Jamra R, Philippe O, Raas-Rothschild A, Eck SH, Graf E, Buchert R, Borck G, Ekici A, ... a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (11): 7278-85. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.11.7278. PMID ...
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort integral membrane proteins at various stages of the endocytic and ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a fourth adaptor-related protein complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ... Boehm M, Aguilar RC, Bonifacino JS (2001). "Functional and physical interactions of the adaptor protein complex AP-4 with ADP- ... adaptor-related protein complex 4". Abou Jamra R, Philippe O, Raas-Rothschild A, Eck SH, Graf E, Buchert R, Borck G, Ekici A, ...
The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition ... "Entrez Gene: AP4M1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, mu 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a Fourth Adaptor-related Protein Complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ... 2001). "Signal-binding specificity of the mu4 subunit of the adaptor protein complex AP-4". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (16): 13145-52. ...
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort integral membrane proteins at various stages of the endocytic and ... "Entrez Gene: AP4B1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a fourth adaptor-related protein complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ... 2001). "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using ...
AP-3 complex subunit delta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3D1 gene. AP3D1 is a subunit of the AP3 adaptor- ... "Entrez Gene: AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit". Martinez-Arca S, Rudge R, Vacca M, Raposo G, Camonis J ... "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". The Journal of Cell Biology. 137 (4): 835-45. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is a neuronal adaptor protein that interacts with ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... It is also regarded as a putative vesicular trafficking protein in the brain that can form a complex with the potential to ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Hermansky-Pudlak ... The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin ... AP-3 complex subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3B1 gene. This gene encodes a protein that may play ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ...
"Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Maximov A, Südhof TC, Bezprozvanny I (1999). "Association of neuronal calcium channels with modular adaptor proteins". J. Biol ... This protein is a multidomain scaffolding protein with a role in synaptic transmembrane protein anchoring and ion channel ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit". Human AP3B2 genome location and AP3B2 gene details page ... 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression". EMBO J. 16 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.5.917. ... AP-3 complex subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3B2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Dell'Angelica EC, Klumperman J, Stoorvogel W, Bonifacino JS (1998). "Association of the AP-3 adaptor complex with clathrin". ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1M1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 1 subunit". Hinners I, Wendler F, Fei H, Thomas L, Thomas G, Tooze SA ... AP-1 complex subunit mu-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1M1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is the ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1S1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 1 subunit". Montpetit A, Côté S, Brustein E, Drouin CA, Lapointe L ... AP-1 complex subunit sigma-1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1S1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... Boehm M, Aguilar RC, Bonifacino JS (Nov 2001). "Functional and physical interactions of the adaptor protein complex AP-4 with ... "HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of adaptor protein complexes with membranes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (10 ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3S1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit". Human AP3S1 genome location and AP3S1 gene details page ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ohno H, Ooi CE, Rabinovich E, Roche KW, Bonifacino JS (Apr 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex with ... 2003). "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Dev. Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". J. ...
AP-1 complex subunit sigma-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1S2 gene. Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at ... "Entrez Gene: AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Human AP1S2 genome location and AP1S2 gene details page ... The protein encoded by this gene serves as the small subunit of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein family. ... "Mutations in the gene encoding the Sigma 2 subunit of the adaptor protein 1 complex, AP1S2, cause X-linked mental retardation ...
Substrate presentation by phosphatidylinositol transfer protein to the p150.Ptdins 3-kinase complex". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (4): ... an adaptor protein for the human phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase. ... Ligon LA, Shelly SS, Tokito M, Holzbaur EL (2003). "The Microtubule Plus-End Proteins EB1 and Dynactin Have Differential ... 2009). "Two Beclin 1-binding proteins, Atg14L and Rubicon, reciprocally regulate autophagy at different stages". Nat. Cell Biol ...
Panaretou C, Domin J, Cockcroft S, Waterfield MD (1997). "Characterization of p150, an adaptor protein for the human ... Substrate presentation by phosphatidylinositol transfer protein to the p150.Ptdins 3-kinase complex". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (4): ... "A human phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex related to the yeast Vps34p-Vps15p protein sorting system". EMBO J. 14 (14): 3339 ... "Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein induces a rapid and selective activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, and -epsilon and - ...
"Entrez Gene: AP2M1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit". Follows ER, McPheat JC, Minshull C, Moore NC, Pauptit RA, ... This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric coat assembly protein complex 2 (AP2), which belongs to the adaptor ... "Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T ... "Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T ...
AP1S2: AP-1 complex subunit sigma-2. Adaptor protein complex 1 is found on the cytoplasmic face of vesicles located at the ... "Entrez Gene: AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Piccini M, Vitelli F, Bruttini M, Pober BR, Jonsson JJ ... "Mutations in the Gene Encoding the Sigma 2 Subunit of the Adaptor Protein 1 Complex, AP1S2, Cause X-Linked Mental Retardation ... This nucleolar protein is involved in the processing and modification of tRNA. GDI1: RabGDI alpha makes a complex with ...
"SH3 domains of the adapter molecule Grb2 complex with two proteins in T cells: the guanine nucleotide exchange protein Sos and ... "Induced direct binding of the adapter protein Nck to the GTPase-activating protein-associated protein p62 by epidermal growth ... Buday L, Egan SE, Rodriguez Viciana P, Cantrell DA, Downward J (Mar 1994). "A complex of Grb2 adaptor protein, Sos exchange ... Possible facilitation by the formation of a ternary complex with the Grb2 adaptor protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
... is an adaptor protein that plays a key role in the proper assembly of the FA core complex. The FA core complex is ... Gordon SM, Buchwald M (July 2003). "Fanconi anemia protein complex: mapping protein interactions in the yeast 2- and 3-hybrid ... Gordon SM, Buchwald M (July 2003). "Fanconi anemia protein complex: mapping protein interactions in the yeast 2- and 3-hybrid ... The FA core complex is a nuclear core complex that is essential for the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and this modified form of ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit". Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999 ... and 3 ADP-ribosylation factors with adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3". Biochemistry. 41 (14): 4669-77. doi:10.1021/bi016064j. ... "Interactions between adaptor protein-1 of the clathrin coat and microtubules via type 1a microtubule-associated proteins". The ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the AP2 adaptor complex, which serves to link clathrin ... "Entrez Gene: AP2B1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, ... Kim YM, Benovic JL (Aug 2002). "Differential roles of arrestin-2 interaction with clathrin and adaptor protein 2 in G protein- ... "Co-localization of HIV-1 Nef with the AP-2 adaptor protein complex correlates with Nef-induced CD4 down-regulation". The EMBO ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 2 subunit". Rost, Martina; Döring Tatjana; Prange Reinhild (Nov ... 2003). "HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of adaptor protein complexes with membranes". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (10): 8725-32. ... 2005). "Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes ...
The protein encoded by this gene is the medium subunit of AP-3, which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the ... "Entrez Gene: AP3M1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 1 subunit". Human AP3M1 genome location and AP3M1 gene details page in ... 2000). "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based ... 2005). "Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes ...
AP-1 complex subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1B1 gene. Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the ... "Entrez Gene: AP1B1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit". Nakagawa, T; Setou M; Seog D; Ogasawara K; Dohmae N; ... The protein encoded by this gene serves as one of the large subunits of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein ... 2001). "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using ...
2011) The Fifth Adaptor Protein Complex. PLoS Biol 9(10): e1001170. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170. ... Adaptins are clustered subunits of adaptor protein (AP) complexes.. There are several types of adaptin, each related to a ... Clathrin adaptor proteins, also known as adaptins, are proteins that mediate the formation of vesicles for intracellular ... complex 1 AP1B1 AP1G1 AP1G2 AP1M1 AP1M2 AP1S1 AP1S2 AP1S3 complex 2 AP2A1 AP2A2 AP2B1 AP2M1 AP2S1 complex 3 AP3B1 AP3B2 AP3D1 ...
Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... The ribosomes, membranes and Golgi complexes can be separated by another technique called density gradient centrifugation. ... The rotors may come with different adapters to hold various sizes of test tubes, bottles, or microtiter plates. ... By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ...
The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3. J. Cell Sci. 118:3555-3566. ... Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1. Dev. Cell. 5:513-521. ... direct specific interactions of the ArfGAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 with the adapter protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3, respectively, ... coat protein complex; GAP, GTPase-activating protein; NRK, normal rat kidney. ...
... adaptor related protein complex 4 sigma 1 subunit), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... transporter activity clathrin-coated pit protein transporter activity protein transport endosome lumen trans-Golgi network ... transporter activity clathrin-coated pit protein transporter activity protein transport endosome lumen trans-Golgi network ... Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure. UniProt/SwissProt. Q9Y587 [function] [subcellular_location] [family_and_domains] [ ...
... in complex with a sorting peptide from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) ... Crystal structure of adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4) mu4 subunit C-terminal domain, ... Crystal structure of adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4) mu4 subunit C-terminal domain, in complex with a sorting peptide from the ... Adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is the most recently discovered and least well-characterized member of the family of heterotetrameric ...
OMIM: ADAPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN COMPLEX 4, EPSILON-1 SUBUNIT; AP4E1, 613744*Gene Ontology: Ap4e1 *Mouse Phenome DB: Ap4e1 *UCSC: ... adaptor-related protein complex AP-4, epsilon 1. Synonyms: 2310033A20Rik. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, ... Vega: OTTMUSG16016 (Ap4e1, "adaptor-related protein complex AP-4, epsilon 1")*CCDS: 17696.1, 38231* ... IGTC (4)*MGI (11)*Find related genes using Gene Cloud*. KOMP Phenotyping ...
Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) deficiency causes a novel autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome with microcephaly and ... Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) deficiency causes a novel autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome with microcephaly and ... one of the four subunits of the adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4), identified by chromosomal microarray analysis. ... Conclusion These findings, along with previous reports of human and mouse mutations in other members of the complex, indicate ...
GGAs: a family of ADP ribosylation factor-binding proteins related to adaptors and associated with the Golgi complex. J Cell ... STAM Adaptor Proteins Interact with COPII Complexes and Function in ER-to-Golgi Trafficking. ... Rismanchi, N., Puertollano, R. and Blackstone, C. (2009), STAM Adaptor Proteins Interact with COPII Complexes and Function in ... The Vps27p Hse1p complex binds ubiquitin and mediates endosomal protein sorting. Nat Cell Biol 2002;4:534-539. *PubMed, ...
This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles ... Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with DPYSL2 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: AP2A1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit". Nishimura, Takashi; Fukata Yuko; Kato Katsuhiro; ... AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A1 gene. ...
adapter-related protein complex 1 subunit gamma-1. adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit gamma-1. adaptor-related protein ... Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [Mus musculus] Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [Mus ... adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunitprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:101919 See related. Ensembl: ... Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ] Gene ID: 11765, updated on 31-Jan-2019 ...
adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit beta. adaptor related protein complex 2 beta 1 subunit. adaptor-related protein complex 2 ... AP-2 complex subunit beta. Names. adapter-related protein complex 2 beta subunit. adapter-related protein complex 2 subunit ... AP2B1 adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1 [Homo sapiens] AP2B1 adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1 [ ... clathrin assembly protein complex 2 beta large chain. clathrin-associated/assembly/adaptor protein, large, beta 1. plasma ...
adaptor related protein complex 4 subunit beta 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in ... This gene encodes a subunit of a heterotetrameric adapter-like complex 4 that is involved in targeting proteins from the trans- ... It is also involved in protein sorting to the basolateral membrane in epithelial cells and the proper asymmetric localization ...
The encoded protein is a large subunit of adaptor protein complex-4, which is associated with both clathrin- and nonclathrin- ... These proteins are components of the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes, which play important roles in the secretory ... adaptor related protein complex 4 epsilon 1 subunit. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in ...
Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 Mu 1 Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs ... AP4M1 Gene(Protein Coding) Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 Mu 1 Subunit. ... Protein attributes for AP4M1 Gene. Size:. 453 amino acids. Molecular mass:. 49977 Da. Quaternary structure:. *Adaptor protein ... The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition ...
adapter-related protein complex 5 mu subunit. adapter-related protein complex 5 subunit mu-1. adaptor related protein complex 5 ... AP5M1 adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit mu 1 [Homo sapiens] AP5M1 adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit mu 1 [Homo ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. AP-5 complex subunit mu-1. Names. AP-5 complex ... adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit mu 1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:20192 See related. Ensembl: ...
adaptor protein complex AP-1 mu-2 subunit. adaptor related protein complex 1 mu 2 subunit. clathrin assembly protein complex 1 ... AP1M2 adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 2 [Homo sapiens] AP1M2 adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 2 [Homo ... Clat_adaptor_s; Clathrin adaptor complex small chain. cl10970. Location:154 → 423. AP_MHD_Cterm; C-terminal domain of adaptor ... Clat_adaptor_s; Clathrin adaptor complex small chain. cl10970. Location:154 → 421. AP_MHD_Cterm; C-terminal domain of adaptor ...
Genetic association study of adaptor protein complex 4 with cerebral palsy in a Han Chinese population.. Wang H1, Xu Y, Chen M ... Adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4) plays a key role in vesicle formation, trafficking, and sorting processes that are critical ... AP-4 consists of four subunits encoded by the AP4E1, AP4B1, AP4M1, and AP4S1 genes. A number of studies have pointed to the ... We postulated, therefore, that variations in AP-4 genes might influence an indivuals susceptibility to CP. In the present ...
COPI, coat protein complex I; AP, adaptor protein; PI4 kinase, phosphatidylinositol-4-kinae; OSBP, oxysterol binding protein; ... Bonifacino, J. S. (2014). Adaptor proteins involved in polarized sorting. J. Cell Biol. 204, 7-17. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201310021 ... De Matteis, M. A., and Godi, A. (2004). Protein-lipid interactions in membrane trafficking at the Golgi complex. Biochim. ... The Arf proteins are part of a larger family that also includes the Arf-like (Arl) proteins, whose diverse functions include ...
... plasma membrane adaptor AP-2 50kDA protein , adaptor protein complex AP-2, mu1 , adaptor-related protein complex AP-2, mu1 , ... adapter-related protein complex 2 mu subunit , adaptin-mu2 , adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu , clathrin adaptor complex ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1 Associated Regulatory Protein Antibodies * anti-Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 sigma ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, beta 1 Subunit Antibodies * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, alpha 2 Subunit ...
Most of the adaptor proteins are heterotetramers. In the AP complexes, there are two large proteins (∼100 kD) and two smaller ... Vesicular transport adaptor proteins are proteins involved in forming complexes that function in the trafficking of molecules ... but not closely related to the AP/TSET complexes. The individual proteins of the COPII complex are called SEC proteins, because ... Epsin and AP180 in the ANTH domain are other adaptor proteins that have been reviewed. An important transport complex, COPII, ...
Adaptor Protein Complex 4. An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and ... Protein Array Analysis. Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid ... in protein-protein interaction network to identify candidate disease-causing proteins. Protein-protein in... ... one of the important tasks is to identify protein complexes and functional modules from high-throughput protein-protein ...
Adaptor Protein Complex 1. A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS- ... Adaptor Protein Complex 4. An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and ... A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are ...
Golgi SNAP receptor complex member 2 (GOSR2) by miR-27a, jagged 1 (JAG1) by miR-21-5p; SH2B adapter protein 3 (SH2B3) by miR- ... SH2B adapter protein 3; TBX3, T-box 3; and TBX5, T-Box 5; n=3-9. *P,0.05 vs scrambled anti-miR. ... Several proteins, including adrenomedullin (Adm) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), are known substrates of Furin in the endothelium.18 ... We compiled a list of protein-coding genes that included (1) 29 genes found to be associated with hypertension in human genome- ...
adaptor-related protein complex AP-4, mu 1. MGI:1337063 2 matching records from 2 references.. Summary by Age and Assay: ...
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort integral membrane proteins at various stages of the endocytic and ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a fourth adaptor-related protein complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ... adaptor-related protein complex 4". Abou Jamra R, Philippe O, Raas-Rothschild A, Eck SH, Graf E, Buchert R, Borck G, Ekici A, ... a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (11): 7278-85. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.11.7278. PMID ...
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort integral membrane proteins at various stages of the endocytic and ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a fourth adaptor-related protein complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ... Boehm M, Aguilar RC, Bonifacino JS (2001). "Functional and physical interactions of the adaptor protein complex AP-4 with ADP- ... adaptor-related protein complex 4". Abou Jamra R, Philippe O, Raas-Rothschild A, Eck SH, Graf E, Buchert R, Borck G, Ekici A, ...
Adaptor protein (AP) complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. AP complexes connect cargo proteins and ... Touz MC, Kulakova L, Nash TE (July 2004). "Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi- ... The two major types of clathrin adaptor complexes are the heterotetrameric vesicular transport adaptor proteins (AP1-5), and ... Clathrin adaptor proteins, also known as adaptins, are vesicular transport adaptor proteins associated with clathrin. These ...
  • AP-5 is associated with 2 proteins, SPG11 and SPG15, which have some structural similarity to clathrin, and may form the coat around the AP-5 complex, but the ultrastructure of that coat is not known. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coat of AP-4 is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another almost universal feature of coat assembly is that the adaptors are recruited first, and they then recruit the coats. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dramatic appearance of this bristle border, which we now know is composed of clathrin and associated coat proteins, reflects the fact that both A. aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes are anautogenous - adult females must feed before egg production ( Raikhel and Dhadialla, 1992 ). (biologists.org)
  • We suggest that ArfGAP2 and ArfGAP3 are coat protein-dependent ArfGAPs, whereas ArfGAP1 has a more general function. (rupress.org)
  • She eventually succeeded in purifying components of the coat that were not clathrin and are now known as adaptor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • CBL-B is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that in humans is encoded by the CBLB gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study shows that Chk1 abundance is regulated by the Cul4A/DDB1 ubiquitin ligase during an unperturbed cell division cycle, in response to replicative stress and on heat shock protein 90 inhibition, and that deregulation of the Chk1/Cul4A/DDB1 pathway perturbs the ionizing radiation-induced G 2 checkpoint. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we show that damaged DNA-binding protein 1 (DDB1), a triple β propeller adapter protein, targets the Cul4 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to Chk1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ubiquitin (Ub) can be conjugated to target proteins in either monomeric or polymeric forms. (cellsignal.com)
  • Cullins are a family of hydrophobic proteins that act as scaffolds for ubiquitin ligases (E3). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The RING protein appears to function as a docking site for ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structure of the Cul1-Rbx1-Skp1-F boxSkp2 SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structure of the Cand1-Cul1-Roc1 complex reveals regulatory mechanisms for the assembly of the multisubunit cullin-dependent ubiquitin ligases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ubiquitination is the process of chemically attaching ubiquitin monomers to a protein, thereby targeting it for degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cellular protein levels of IRS-1 are regulated by the Cullin7 E3 ubiquitin ligase, which targets IRS-1 for ubiquitin mediated degradation by the proteasome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/c) is an ubiquitin E3-ligase complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • They combine with RING proteins to form Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) that are highly diverse and play a role in myriad cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the exception of ANAPC2, each member of the cullin family is modified by Nedd8 and several cullins function in Ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, a process in which the 26S proteasome recognises and subsequently degrades a target protein tagged with K48-linked poly-ubiquitin chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nedd8/Rub1 is a small ubiquitin-like protein, which was originally found to be conjugated to Cdc53, a cullin component of the SCF (Skp1-Cdc53/CUL1-F-box protein) E3 Ub ligase complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast), and Nedd8 modification has now emerged as a regulatory pathway of fundamental importance for cell cycle control and for embryogenesis in metazoans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL) located on chromosome 9. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity of ABL1 protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain, and deletion of the SH3 domain turns ABL1 into an oncogene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD117 is a proto-oncogene, meaning that overexpression or mutations of this protein can lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expressed protein contains two conserved domains, a C-peptide (or aristaless domain) and the prd-like class homeobox domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acid chalcogen analogues as tools in peptide and protein research. (mpg.de)
  • EpoR is a 52kDa peptide with a single carbohydrate chain resulting in a n approximately 56-57 kDa protein found on the surface of EPO responding cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arf and many Arl proteins are modified by addition of a hydrophobic myristoyl group to the amino-terminal amphipathic helix. (frontiersin.org)
  • The encoded protein has 926 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 105,123 Daltons. (wikipedia.org)
  • FADD is a 23 kDa protein, made up of 280 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • RIPK1 protein is composed of 671 amino acids, and has a molecular weight of about 76 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human protein is very similar to the one that is found in mice (they are 92% identical at amino acid level, this enabling the scientists to study its structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are other CAM proteins like Ng-CAM (found in chicken) which has lower similarities to the human one (they are 40% identical at the amino acid level). (wikipedia.org)
  • Each kelch repeat is a sequence of 44-55 amino acids in length, usually occurring in clusters of 4 - 7 repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein sequence of cdh1 consists of 566 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 62.8 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumour growth can occur by a combination of factors, including a mutation in a cell cycle gene which removes the restraints on cell growth, combined with mutations in apoptopic proteins such as Caspases that would respond by inducing cell death in abnormally growing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the L1 protein are the cause of three neurological syndromes known by the acronym CRASH (corpus callosum hypoplasia, retardation, aphasia, spastic paraplegia and hydrocephalus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations leading to changes in the binding sites of either protein are associated with basal cell carcinomas. (wikipedia.org)