An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.
The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.
A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that play a role in the coupling of SYNDECANS to CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
A macromolecular complex of proteins that includes DYSTROPHIN and DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. It plays a structural role in the linking the CYTOSKELETON to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.
Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signalling and activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.

Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38. (1/155)

Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis.  (+info)

Inhibition of the receptor-binding function of clathrin adaptor protein AP-2 by dominant-negative mutant mu2 subunit and its effects on endocytosis. (2/155)

Although interactions between the mu2 subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2 and tyrosine-based internalization motifs have been implicated in the selective recruitment of cargo molecules into coated pits, the functional significance of this interaction for endocytosis of many types of membrane proteins remains unclear. To analyze the function of mu2-receptor interactions, we constructed an epitope-tagged mu2 that incorporates into AP-2 and is targeted to coated pits. Mutational analysis revealed that Asp176 and Trp421 of mu2 are involved in the interaction with internalization motifs of TGN38 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Inducible overexpression of mutant mu2, in which these two residues were changed to alanines, resulted in metabolic replacement of endogenous mu2 in AP-2 complexes and complete abrogation of AP-2 interaction with the tyrosine-based internalization motifs. As a consequence, endocytosis of the transferrin receptor was severely impaired. In contrast, internalization of the EGF receptor was not affected. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the dominant-interfering approach for functional analysis of the adaptor protein family, and indicate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis may proceed in both a mu2-dependent and -independent manner.  (+info)

Association of AP1 adaptor complexes with GLUT4 vesicles. (3/155)

Nycodenz gradients have been used to examine the in vitro effects of GTP-(gamma)-S on adaptor complex association with GLUT4 vesicles. On addition of GTP-(gamma)-S, GLUT4 fractionates as a heavier population of vesicles, which we suggest is due to a budding or coating reaction. Under these conditions there is an increase in co-sedimentation of GLUT4 with AP1, but not with AP3. Western blotting of proteins associated with isolated GLUT4 vesicles shows the presence of high levels of AP1 and some AP3 but very little AP2 adaptor complexes. Cell free, in vitro association of the AP1 complex with GLUT4 vesicles is increased approximately 4-fold by the addition of GTP-(gamma)-S and an ATP regenerating system. Following GTP-(gamma)-S treatment in vitro, ARF is also recruited to GLUT4 vesicles, and the temperature dependence of ARF recruitment closely parallels that of AP1. The recruitment of both AP1 and ARF are partially blocked by brefeldin A. These data demonstrate that the coating of GLUT4 vesicles can be studied in isolated cell-free fractions. Furthermore, at least two distinct adaptor complexes can associate with the GLUT4 vesicles and it is likely that these adaptors are involved in mediating distinct intracellular sorting events at the level of TGN and endosomes.  (+info)

The leucine-based sorting motifs in the cytoplasmic domain of the invariant chain are recognized by the clathrin adaptors AP1 and AP2 and their medium chains. (4/155)

Recognition of sorting signals within the cytoplasmic tail of membrane proteins by adaptor protein complexes is a crucial step in membrane protein sorting. The three known adaptor complexes, AP1, AP2, and AP3, have all been shown to recognize tyrosine- and leucine-based sorting signals, which are the most common sorting signals within membrane protein cytoplasmic tails. Although tyrosine-based signals are recognized by the micro-chains of adaptor complexes, the subunit recognizing leucine-based sorting signals is less clear. In this report we show by surface plasmon resonance that the two leucine-based sorting signals within the cytoplasmic tail of the invariant chain bind independently from each other to AP1 and AP2 but not to AP3. We also show that both motifs can be recognized by the micro-chains of AP1 and AP2. Moreover, by using monomeric as well as trimeric invariant chain constructs, we show that adaptor binding does not require trimerization of the invariant chain.  (+info)

Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting motif. (5/155)

HIV-1 Nef interacts with cellular adaptor protein (AP) complexes and their medium (mu) subunits. However, the role of the dileucine-based sorting motif within Nef in these interactions has been incompletely characterized. Here, yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that HIV-1 Nef interacted not only with the mu subunits of AP-1 and AP-2, but also with that of AP-3. The interactions with mu1 and mu3 were markedly stronger than the interaction with mu2. Leucine residues of the sorting motif were required for the interactions with mu3 and mu2 and contributed to the interaction with mu1. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that Nef, AP-1, and AP-3 (but not AP-2) were concentrated in a juxtanuclear region near the cell center, potentially facilitating interaction between Nef and the mu1 and mu3 subunits. However, leucine residues of the sorting motif were not required for this subcellular localization of Nef. These data suggest that the dileucine motif, required for optimal viral replication, functions through interactions with a variety of AP complexes, including AP-3, potentially by recruiting adaptor complexes to subcellular locations specified by additional determinants in the Nef protein.  (+info)

RLIP76, an effector of the GTPase Ral, interacts with the AP2 complex: involvement of the Ral pathway in receptor endocytosis. (6/155)

RLIP76 is a modular protein that was identified as a putative effector of Ral, a GTPase activated during Ras signaling. To explore further the contribution of the Ral-RLIP76 pathway to Ras signaling, we have looked for partners of RLIP76. Mu2, the medium chain of the AP2 complex is shown to interact with RLIP76. We show also that in vivo endogenous AP2 and RLIP76 form a complex and that this in vivo interaction is independent of cells being stimulated by a growth factor. Furthermore, RLIP76 differentiates AP2 from AP1 in vivo as RLIP76 differentiates mu2 from mu1 in vitro and in two hybrid assays. We show that activated Ral interferes with both tranferrin receptor endocytosis and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor endocytosis in HeLa cells. We propose a model where the Ral-RLIP76 pathway connects signal transduction and endocytosis through interaction on one hand between the Ras-Ral pathway and RLIP, on the other hand between RLIP and proteins belonging to the endocytotic machinery.  (+info)

Defective organellar membrane protein trafficking in Ap3b1-deficient cells. (7/155)

AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex involved in intracellular vesicle transport. Molecular analyses show that Ap3b1, which encodes the AP-3 (&bgr;)3A subunit, is altered in pearl mice. To provide genetic evidence that mutation of Ap3b1 is responsible for the pearl phenotype and to determine the null phenotype, the Ap3b1 gene was disrupted by homologous recombination. Mice homozygous for the resulting allele, Ap3b1(LN), or compound heterozygotes with pearl, displayed phenotypes similar to those of pearl mice, confirming that Ap3b1 is the causal gene for pearl. Moreover, pearl is likely to be a hypomorph as the Ap3b1(LN) homozygotes had a lighter coat color and accumulated fewer of the micro3 and (&dgr;)3 subunits of AP-3 than did pearl mice. Finally, immunofluorescence analysis of fibroblasts and melanocytes cultured from Ap3b1(LN) homozygotes revealed that the lysosomal membrane proteins Lamp I and Lamp II and the melanosomal membrane protein tyrosinase were mislocalized. In particular, the Lamp proteins were clustered on the cell surface. These findings strengthen the evidence for an alternate pathway via the plasma membrane for cargo normally transported to organelles by AP-3.  (+info)

Multiple C-terminal motifs of the 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor tail contribute to efficient binding of medium chains of AP-2 and AP-3. (8/155)

The interaction of adaptor protein (AP) complexes with signal structures in the cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins is required for intracellular sorting. Tyrosine- or dileucine-based motifs have been reported to bind to medium chain subunits (mu) of AP-1, AP-2, or AP-3. In the present study, we have examined the interaction of the entire 67-amino acid cytoplasmic domain of the 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR46-CT) containing tyrosine- as well as dileucine-based motifs with mu2 and mu3A chains using the yeast two-hybrid system. Both mu2 and mu3A bind specifically to the MPR46-CT. In contrast, mu3A fails to bind to the cytoplasmic domain of the 300-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Mutational analysis of the MPR46-CT revealed that the tyrosine-based motif and distal sequences rich in acidic amino acid residues are sufficient for effective binding to mu2. However, the dileucine motif was found to be one part of a consecutive complex C-terminal structure comprising tyrosine and dileucine motifs as well as clusters of acidic residues necessary for efficient binding of mu3A. Alanine substitution of 2 or 4 acidic amino acid residues of this cluster reduces the binding to mu3A much more than to mu2. The data suggest that the MPR46 is capable of interacting with different AP complexes using multiple partially overlapping sorting signals, which might depend on posttranslational modifications or subcellular localization of the receptor.  (+info)

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Print Recipe COLLAGEN ICED MOCHA Easy iced mocha for an afternoon pick me up! Mocha collagen adds delicious flavor and a healthy twist! Servings: 1 Prep Time: 5 minutes Cook Time: 5 minutes INGREDIENTS: 8 oz brewed coffee ¼ cup almond milk 1 serving LonoLife Mocha Collagen Peptides Sweetener of choice Ice Cocoa powde
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Getting bored with horse posts? Hope not, because heres another one. There is other stuff happening, just cant/wont talk about it as it involves work thoughts. Writer brain is locked in revisions and not much happening there. So horse or skiing, and horse it is tonight.. Mochas now recognizing the sound of the new car. Today she was in her old post by the door, watching for me to come in. Its always a bit of a thrill to walk in the door and spot the white of her blaze in the front of the stall, showing that shes looking for me. While the Sparkle mare and the Windy pony both liked me well enough, and Sparkle would watch the back door from the pasture, theyd just as happily greet my mom as they would me. Not so Mocha. While G. and his wife I. have a spot in her heart, I really dont have other competition.. The nice thing about having a broke horse is that if youre riding and someone asks for help, you can just step down, tell your horse whoa, and go off to lend a hand while the horse ...
Hello, Im trying to learn Mocha and having a bit of problems how to translate some of my tests to the mocha world. For example - Im trying to convert this simple test: def test_get_feed_details_w_bad_url assert_incomplete_test get :feed_widget_details, :k =| e6efb203a1cdebcf5a7406175924fe9991979f68, :id =| artists(:first).id
See how easy it is to make a mocha frappuccino with real food ingredients! This mocha frappuccino recipe beats out all the competition!
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Its back to the dark and cool evening arena rides, with a steaming horse at the end of the session. Im not quite sure why Mochas sweating so much this winter, unlike the past two, except that her coat has come in very thick and heavy, almost felted.. So I did a trace clip. Id been assured that a trace clip (for the non-horsey-looks like a racing stripe) would help keep Mocha from sweating so badly. Well-yeah. She didnt sweat badly where I clipped. The remaining coat was as drenched as ever.. I guess that means a full body clip this year, as otherwise I spend a good hour getting her dry after an hours ride.. Otherwise, she worked pretty well. A bit overreved in the rollbacks; another horse was schooling them during our warmup and she got a bit excited (Im also working on perfecting the cue by taking my outside leg off as we stop, when shes in a strong mood like tonight thats all it takes). Mochas also getting excited about other stuff were doing, like two-track canter and ...
- ᄂEτ Їτ Æᄂᄂ Θυτ! - - вę Ǟ slǞvę ƮΦ ყΦЦЯ DęsiЯęs! - ╔════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗ ╠═════════════════════════ Danger! Danger! Dang
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Makes 1/2 cup Each serving 2 tbsp, 32 calories 5 g carbohydrate, 3 g protein 1 milk choice (skim) Source: Choice Cooking, Canadian Diabetes Assoc ...
Nutrìtìonal ìnformatìon ìs provìded and ì keep ìt as accurate as possìble. Keep ìn mìnd nutrìtìon facts on all ìngredìents may vary dependìng on the dìfferent brands you may use. ì am not a doctor and advìse solely from personal experìence. Please consult your doctor before addìng any supplement or foods to your current dìet ...
Beautiful Mochaccino Mica will make you thirsty for a warm, creamy, tasty mocha or latte. Perfect lovely brown sparkle to add to your next formulation! Try some today!
Background Cerebral palsy is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental brain disorders resulting in motor and posture impairments often associated with cognitive, sensorial, and behavioural disturbances. Hypoxic-ischaemic injury, long considered the most frequent causative factor, accounts for fewer than 10% of cases, whereas a growing body of evidence suggests that diverse genetic abnormalities likely play a major role. ...
Yes, thats a mouthful. Torani® caramel coffee syrup, optional Weve taken steps at all our locations to keep Coconut milk mocha macchiato recipe Makes 1 serving Ingredients ½ cup cold brewed coffee 1 Tbsp. Yields 1. If you order an iced version, which uses less milk than a hot beverage, you can ask for a skinny macchiato made with almond milk and no caramel drizzle. Pinterest. Drinks. However, I was feeling adventurous one day and decided to order the new Iced coconut Milk Mocha Macchiato. Apr 13, 2017 - Starbucks newest beverage is the Iced Coconut Milk Mocha Macchiato. Then, ask for White Mocha Sauce instead of Vanilla Syrup . There are 210 calories in a Grande Coconut Milk Mocha Macchiato from Starbucks. Starbucks Inspired Ice Coffee.. It looked so interesting, I just had to order it. Or maybe a Share. Required fields are marked *. … Could it be a White Chocolate Chile Mocha? So, for those of you who dont love coconut, still give this drink a chance. 5 min Prep Time . Starbucks ...
This intronless gene encodes a protein that may play a role in organelle biogenesis associated with melanosomes, platelet dense granules, and lysosomes. A similar protein in mouse is a component of a protein complex termed biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1), and is a model for Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. The encoded protein may play a role in intracellular vesicular trafficking. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
ID: Type: Label: BLOC1S4 Synonyms: BLOC1S4, BCAS4L, BLOS4, CNO, biogenesis of lysosomal organelles complex 1 subunit 4, biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 subunit 4, BLOC-1 subunit 4, biogenesis of lysosomal organelles complex-1, subunit 4, cappuccino, cappuccino homolog, protein cappuccino homolog Alternative IDs: 55330 API: GO SPARQL: GO ...
HPS1 (HPS1, biogenesis of lysosomal organelles complex 3 subunit 1), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
BLOC1S3 (biogenesis of lysosomal organelles complex 1 subunit 3), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
[ 191 The Fossil Record Study Guide Answers 94223 ] - Membrane Bound Organelles Complex Cell Wall Plants And,Darwin S Theory Of Evolution Worksheet Chapter 15 Darwin,7th Grade Life Science Assignments Amp Due Dates
Craige B, Salazar G, Faundez V. Phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II alpha contains an AP-3-sorting motif and a kinase domain that are both required for endosome traffic. Mol Biol Cell. 2008 Apr; 19(4):1415-26 ...
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Just a little cold coffee transforms our easiest angel food cake into an extraordinary mocha cake. Top it off with an easy homemade mocha topping, and the coffee lover in you will delight.
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These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain. These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above. ...
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As much as I admire her for being super supportive kay Duterte please naman, may mga bagay na dapat hayaan mo nalang na mismong actions ni Duterte ang makakapag sabi or the Filipino people could answer hindi yung you represented all the filipino. Hayaan mong kami ang magsabi wag na patulan remember you cannot please everybody kaya let Dutertes action para sa pagbabago ang makapagpatunay nun. Utang na loob Mocha ReplyDelete ...
I am extremely thrilled to call this baby girl mine! Mocha is our first Sable and she has me hooked. This girl is as beautiful on the inside as she is on the outside. Her structure and type is stunning. She has a beautiful head with dark , almond, soulful eyes. Beautiful correct, effortless gait...she floats! I could watch her move all day. She has a beautiful topline, bone and plush sable coat. She is pretty hard to fault in my opinion. Of course none of this is a surprise as her pedigree is so deep in quality. With BOTH parents being Register of Merits and consistently on the Top ROM Sire and Dam lists. And temperament? You will not meet a sweeter girl! She gets along with everyone, never holding a grudge. She is super affectionate and loving, never missing an opportunity to jump in bed and cuddle. All of this with a super silly side! Mocha is OFA Certified Hips and Elbows and DM tested Mocha was bred by my dear friend Frank DeBem. ...
Complete information for HPS1 gene (Protein Coding), HPS1, Biogenesis Of Lysosomal Organelles Complex 3 Subunit 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for BLOC1S2 gene (Protein Coding), Biogenesis Of Lysosomal Organelles Complex 1 Subunit 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Previous work showed that UNC 101 and DPY 23 are adaptins orthologous to the mu1 and mu2 subunits of adaptor protein complex 1 and 2, and that they both can act as negative modulators of LET 23 Regorafenib chemical structure signalling. Similarly, SLI 1 is orthologous to CBL, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting LET 23 for degradation and SEM 5 is GRB2, an adaptor molecule that physically interact with EGFR. To address whether these genes could interact with cdt 2, we used loss of function alleles of dpy 23 AP2, unc 101 AP1, sli 1 CBL, and sem 5 GRB2 and performed cdt 2. We found that cdt 2 genetically interacts with dpy 23lf and unc 101lf, as cdt 2 RNAi induces a Muv phenotype in these back grounds. In contrast, no interaction was seen with sli 1lf or sem 5lf.. Since an absence of genetic interaction can sometimes suggest a physical interaction, we tested whether CDT 2 could physically interact with either SLI 1 or SEM 5. We produced in vitro labelled CDT 2 and puri fied SLI 1 and SEM 5 from ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit". Martinez-Arca S, Rudge R, Vacca M, Raposo G, Camonis J ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Hermansky-Pudlak ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ooi CE, Bonifacino JS (Jun 1997). "Beta3A-adaptin, a subunit of the adaptor-like complex AP-3". The Journal ... "Nonsense mutations in ADTB3A cause complete deficiency of the beta3A subunit of adaptor complex-3 and severe Hermansky-Pudlak ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3S2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 2 subunit". Dell'Angelica, E C; Ooi C E; Bonifacino J S (Jun 1997 ... 2003). "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Dev. Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression". EMBO J. 16 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.5.917. PMC 1169692. ... 2002). "Role of adaptor complex AP-3 in targeting wild-type and mutated CD63 to lysosomes". Mol. Biol. Cell. 13 (3): 1071-82. ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3S1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit". Human AP3S1 genome location and AP3S1 gene details page ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression". The EMBO Journal. 16 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.5.917. PMC ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit". Human AP3B2 genome location and AP3B2 gene details page ... an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression". EMBO J. 16 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.5.917. PMC 1169692. ... is a neuron-specific vesicle coat protein". Cell. 82 (5): 773-83. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90474-3. PMID 7671305. Darnell RB, ... Furneaux HM, Posner JB (Jun 1991). "Antiserum from a patient with cerebellar degeneration identifies a novel protein in ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3M1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 1 subunit". Human AP3M1 genome location and AP3M1 gene details page in ... 2000). "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based ... 2005). "Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes ... which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the Golgi region as well as more peripheral intracellular ...
"The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3". Journal of Cell Science. 118 (Pt ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGAP1 gene. ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 6 (3): 197-205 ...
The family routinely lies on the clathrin adaptor complex 3 beta-1 subunit proteins. The exact function of DUF 1682 is unclear ... The final protein is thought to be translated from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm of the cell. The protein is ... The portion of the protein which extends into the cytosol is predicted to be highly phosphorylated as the protein's ... "Protein One". Transcription Factors. Archived from the original on 2014-06-05. Retrieved 29 March 2014. "Protein Spotlight, The ...
Nie Z, Fei J, Premont RT, Randazzo PA (2005). "The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes ... Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AGAP2 gene. ... Werden SJ, Barrett JW, Wang G, Stanford MM, McFadden G (2007). "M-T5, the ankyrin repeat, host range protein of myxoma virus, ... A nuclear gtpase that enhances PI3kinase activity and is regulated by protein 4.1N". Cell. 103 (6): 919-30. doi:10.1016/S0092- ...
MYPT1 is another protein phosphatase subunit that forms complexes with OGT and is itself O-GlcNAcylated. MYPT1 appears to have ... KEAP1, an adaptor protein for the cullin 3-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, mediates the degradation of NRF2; oxidative ... regulating protein-protein interactions, altering protein structure or enzyme activity, changing protein subcellular ... Protein phosphatase 1 subunits PP1β and PP1γ have been shown to form functional complexes with OGT. A synthetic phosphopeptide ...
... an adaptor protein for the human phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase. Substrate presentation by phosphatidylinositol ... Ligon LA, Shelly SS, Tokito M, Holzbaur EL (2003). "The Microtubule Plus-End Proteins EB1 and Dynactin Have Differential ... 2009). "Two Beclin 1-binding proteins, Atg14L and Rubicon, reciprocally regulate autophagy at different stages". Nat. Cell Biol ... transfer protein to the p150.Ptdins 3-kinase complex". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (4): 2477-85. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.4.2477. PMID ...
... "p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". ... Shi CS, Tuscano J, Kehrl JH (February 2000). "Adaptor proteins CRK and CRKL associate with the serine/threonine protein kinase ... "p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". ... "B cell antigen receptor signaling induces the formation of complexes containing the Crk adapter proteins". The Journal of ...
The protein encoded by this gene functions as an adaptor subunit in a complex with an active PtdIns(3)P 3-phosphatase. ... Myotubularin related protein 12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTMR12 gene. Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase- ... "Entrez Gene: Myotubularin related protein 12". Retrieved 2017-05-19. Nandurkar HH, Layton M, Laporte J, Selan C, Corcoran L, ... 3-PAP". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (15): 8660-5. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.8660N. doi:10.1073/pnas.1033097100. PMC 166368. ...
2003). "Protein kinase CK2 and protein kinase D are associated with the COP9 signalosome". EMBO J. 22 (6): 1302-12. doi:10.1093 ... a novel tetratrico peptide repeat-containing adaptor molecule". J. Cell Sci. 116 (Pt 3): 453-61. doi:10.1242/jcs.00243. PMID ... 1998). "The COP9 complex is conserved between plants and mammals and is related to the 26S proteasome regulatory complex". Curr ... Yuryev A, Wennogle LP (2003). "Novel raf kinase protein-protein interactions found by an exhaustive yeast two-hybrid analysis ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1M1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 1 subunit". Hinners I, Wendler F, Fei H, Thomas L, Thomas G, Tooze SA ... AP-1 complex subunit mu-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1M1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is the ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
2000). "A New Paxillin-binding Protein, PAG3/Papα/KIAA0400, Bearing an ADP-Ribosylation Factor GTPase-activating Protein ... "ADP-ribosylation factor is functionally and physically associated with the Golgi complex". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (3 ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... The gene products include 6 ARF proteins and 11 ARF-like proteins and constitute 1 family of the RAS superfamily. The ARF ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit". Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999 ... "Interactions between adaptor protein-1 of the clathrin coat and microtubules via type 1a microtubule-associated proteins". The ... "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three- ...
The Nck (non-catalytic region of tyrosine kinase adaptor protein 1) belongs to the adaptor family of proteins. The nck gene was ... Ku GM, Yablonski D, Manser E, Lim L, Weiss A (February 2001). "A PAK1-PIX-PKL complex is activated by the T-cell receptor ... "Induced direct binding of the adapter protein Nck to the GTPase-activating protein-associated protein p62 by epidermal growth ... "The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-interacting protein (WIP) binds to the adaptor protein Nck". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (33): ...
"BLOC-1 Complex Deficiency Alters the Targeting of Adaptor Protein Complex-3 Cargoes". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 17 (9): ... BLOC-1 or biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 is a ubiquitously expressed multisubunit protein complex in a ... The identified protein subunits of BLOC-1 include: pallidin muted (protein) dysbindin cappuccino (protein) Snapin BLOS1 BLOS2 ... lysosome-associate membrane proteins). Multiple studies recapitulate an association with the adaptor complex AP-3, a protein ...
"HIV-1 Nef protein binds to the cellular protein PACS-1 to downregulate class I major histocompatibility complexes". Nature Cell ... "PACS-1 binding to adaptors is required for acidic cluster motif-mediated protein traffic". The EMBO Journal. 20 (9): 2191-201. ... The PACS-1 protein has a putative role in the localization of trans-Golgi network (TGN) membrane proteins. Mouse and rat ... Phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 1, also known as PACS-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PACS1 gene. ...
Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Apr 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Nuclear pore complex protein Nup133, or Nucleoporin Nup133, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUP133 gene. The ... This protein, which localizes to both sides of the nuclear pore complex at interphase, remains associated with the complex ... It consists of two concentric membranes perforated by nuclear pores, large protein complexes that form aqueous channels to ...
Ellis JH, Ashman C, Burden MN, Kilpatrick KE, Morse MA, Hamblin PA (June 2000). "GRID: a novel Grb-2-related adapter protein ... Okkenhaug K, Rottapel R (August 1998). "Grb2 forms an inducible protein complex with CD28 through a Src homology 3 domain- ... Association of the TCR of a naive T cell with MHC:antigen complex without CD28:B7 interaction results in a T cell that is ... Schneider H, Cai YC, Prasad KV, Shoelson SE, Rudd CE (April 1995). "T cell antigen CD28 binds to the GRB-2/SOS complex, ...
Gordon SM, Buchwald M (Jul 2003). "Fanconi anemia protein complex: mapping protein interactions in the yeast 2- and 3-hybrid ... FANCC together with FANCE acts as the substrate adaptor for this reaction Activated FANCD2 protein co-localizes with BRCA1 ( ... Fanconi anemia group C protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FANCC gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... A nuclear complex containing FANCC protein (as well as FANCA, FANCF and FANCG) is essential for the activation of the FANCD2 ...
It is suggested that it acts as an adaptor protein in events related to immune response and cholesterol regulation, for example ... The link between these two protein within the JAK1-SNX8 complex allows JAK1 to catalyse SNX8's tyrosines phosphorylation in ... are involved in protein-protein interactions. The SNX8 protein, even though is very similar to the other sorting nexins, ... SNX8 is thought to be an adaptor protein involved in the endosome-to-Golgi transport pathway, participating in endocytosis and ...
"Epidermal growth factor regulates p21ras through the formation of a complex of receptor, Grb2 adapter protein, and Sos ... Alfred Wittinghofer's Seminar: GTP-Binding Proteins as Molecular Switches v t e (Proteins, Articles containing video clips, All ... and are often specific to a single protein or class of proteins with which they interact. Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase Guanine ... of nucleoside diphosphates for nucleoside triphosphates bound to other proteins. Many cellular proteins cleave (hydrolyze) ...
... "p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". ... PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2), also known as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by ... The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases that included PYK2, but lacks significant ... Lineage for Protein: Focal adhesion kinase 1 Q00944 "Entrez Gene: PTK2 PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2". Guan JL, Shalloway D ( ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the AP2 adaptor complex, which serves to link clathrin ... "Entrez Gene: AP2B1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, ... Kim YM, Benovic JL (Aug 2002). "Differential roles of arrestin-2 interaction with clathrin and adaptor protein 2 in G protein- ... "Co-localization of HIV-1 Nef with the AP-2 adaptor protein complex correlates with Nef-induced CD4 down-regulation". The EMBO ...
The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition ... "Entrez Gene: AP4M1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, mu 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... Dell'Angelica EC, Mullins C, Bonifacino JS (Apr 1999). "AP-4, a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J Biol ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a Fourth Adaptor-related Protein Complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ...
It has been shown that malignant B cells maintain a "tonic" activity of PI3K/Akt axis via upregulation of an adaptor protein ... Full activation of AKT occurs upon phosphorylation of serine 473 by the TORC2 complex of the mTOR protein kinase. The PI3K/AKT ... Many of these functions relate to the ability of class I PI3Ks to activate protein kinase B (PKB, aka Akt) as in the PI3K/AKT/ ... Many other proteins have been identified that are regulated by PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, including Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), ...
... likely via an unidentified adaptor protein) and promotes the assembly of a caspase-activating complex. This causes the ... The slit proteins have repulsive functions, as opposed to netrins, and are mediated by the transmembrane protein Robo. Axonal ... This theoretically results in 13 correctly sliced, putatively good proteins. The typical DCC protein has one signal peptide ... Soon after the protein product was confirmed, DCC knockout mice were created. As DCC−/− mutations are rapidly fatal due to a ...
"Dimerization of the docking/adaptor protein HEF1 via a carboxy-terminal helix-loop-helix domain"، Exp. Cell Res.، 252 (1): 224- ... "Id helix-loop-helix proteins inhibit nucleoprotein complex formation by the TCF ETS-domain transcription factors"، EMBO J.، 18 ... "Protein-Protein Interaction Panel Using Mouse Full-Length cDNAs"، Genome Res.، 11 (10): 1758-65، 2001، doi:10.1101/gr.180101، ... "The helix-loop-helix protein Id-2 enhances cell proliferation and binds to the retinoblastoma protein"، Genes Dev.، 8 (11): ...
TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the ... Also, the DBD and signal-sensing domains may reside on separate proteins that associate within the transcription complex to ... Cofactors are interchangeable between specific gene promoters; the protein complex that occupies the promoter DNA and the amino ... recruit coactivator or corepressor proteins to the transcription factor DNA complex[16] ...
Signal transducing adaptor protein. *Scaffold protein. Transcription factors. *General. *Transcription preinitiation complex ... Calmodulin may activate the Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, or may act directly on other effector proteins.[14] ... Certain proteins of the cytoplasm and organelles act as buffers by binding Ca2+. Signaling occurs when the cell is stimulated ... Many of Ca2+ mediated events occur when the released Ca2+ binds to and activates the regulatory protein calmodulin. ...
This complex further complexes with the ubiquitin ligase protein CUL4A[51] and with PARP1.[52] This larger complex rapidly ... like protein kinase, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-like group, two serine/threonine(S/T) kinases and their adaptors ... more complex organisms with more complex genomes have correspondingly more complex repair mechanisms.[145] The ability of a ... In E. coli , the proteins involved are the Mut class proteins: MutS, MutL, and MutH. In most Eukaryotes, the analog for MutS is ...
... while the second function as heterotrimeric G protein complexes. The latter class of complexes is made up of alpha (α), beta (β ... Signal transducing adaptor protein. *I-kappa B protein. *Mucin-4. *Olfactory marker protein ... γ proteins.[17] Signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes ... G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside ...
... the suicide gene complex has two elements: a mutated FK506-binding protein with high specificity to the small molecule ... These unique bispecific adaptors are constructed with a FITC molecule and a tumor-homing molecule to precisely bridge the ... The first receptor protein typically contains the extracellular antigen binding domain, while the second protein contains the ... Anti-tumor activity in mice is induced only when both the universal CAR T cells plus the correct antigen-specific adaptor ...
... both type I and type II IFNs activate a member of the CRK family of adaptor proteins called CRKL, a nuclear adaptor for STAT5 ... the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the ... Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... protein, and vaccinia virus employs using the gene product of its E3L gene, p25. The ability of interferon to induce protein ...
... "p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". J ... Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... Bai RY, Jahn T, Schrem S, Munzert G, Weidner KM, Wang JY, Duyster J (August 1998). "The SH2-containing adapter protein GRB10 ... Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ...
"Characterization of a protein complex containing spliceosomal proteins SAPs 49, 130, 145, and 155". Molecular and Cellular ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (April 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... "Characterization of a protein complex containing spliceosomal proteins SAPs 49, 130, 145, and 155". Molecular and Cellular ... This gene encodes subunit 1 of the splicing factor 3b protein complex. Splicing factor 3b, together with splicing factor 3a and ...
Homotrimerisation is a process whereby three of the same subunits, associate to make a complex of three identical YadA proteins ... Function: The function of the neck domain is to be the adaptor between the larger diameter of the beta-helices and the smaller ... Protein pages needing a picture, Protein families, Protein domains, Virulence factors, Gram-negative bacteria, Secretion, ... First, biogenesis of proteins in the Type V Secretion System (T5SS). Second, it is thought to target the protein to the inner ...
... s (abbreviated Arr) are a small family of proteins important for regulating signal transduction at G protein-coupled ... The strength of arrestin-receptor interaction plays a role in this choice: tighter complexes tend to increase the probability ... clathrin and clathrin adaptor AP2, which promotes receptor internalization via coated pits and subsequent transport to internal ... Arrestins were first discovered as a part of a conserved two-step mechanism for regulating the activity of G protein-coupled ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the exocyst complex, a multiple protein complex essential for targeting ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Jun 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal ... Though best characterized in yeast, the component proteins and functions of exocyst complex have been demonstrated to be highly ...
The MyD88 protein acts as an adapter, connecting proteins that receive signals from outside the cell to the proteins that relay ... "Dysregulation of LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4-MyD88 complex formation and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 activation in ... After ligand binding, all TLRs apart from TLR3, interact with adaptor protein MyD88. Another adaptor protein, which is ... In that species it is a universal adapter protein as it is used by almost all TLRs (except TLR 3) to activate the transcription ...
... is an adaptor protein. The protein encoded by this gene is a death domain containing adaptor molecule that interacts with ... "TNF-dependent recruitment of the protein kinase RIP to the TNF receptor-1 signaling complex". Immunity. 4 (4): 387-96. doi: ... This protein binds adaptor protein TRAF2, reduces the recruitment of inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (IAPs) by TRAF2, and thus ... This protein can also interact with receptor TNFRSF6/FAS and adaptor protein FADD/MORT1, and is involved in the Fas-induced ...
Alpha-1-syntrophin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNTA1 gene. Alpha-1 syntrophin is a signal transducing adaptor ... "Alternative splicing of dystrobrevin regulates the stoichiometry of syntrophin binding to the dystrophin protein complex". Curr ... The protein encoded by this gene is a peripheral membrane protein found associated with dystrophin and dystrophin-related ... Fernández-Larrea J, Merlos-Suárez A, Ureña JM, Baselga J, Arribas J (1999). "A role for a PDZ protein in the early secretory ...
Conserved oligomeric Golgi complex subunit 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COG7 gene. Multiprotein complexes ... 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio. ... Several complexes have been identified, including the Golgi transport complex (GTC), the LDLC complex, which is involved in ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ...
2002). "Regulation of FcepsilonRI-mediated degranulation by an adaptor protein 3BP2 in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells". ... 1996). "Peripheral blood dendritic cells express Fc epsilon RI as a complex composed of Fc epsilon RI alpha- and Fc epsilon RI ... Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; alpha polypeptide, also known as FCER1A, is a protein which in humans is ... this protein), beta, and gamma; only the alpha subunit is glycosylated. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000179639 - Ensembl, ...
Belogrudov GI, Hatefi Y (Feb 2002). "Factor B and the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex". J Biol Chem. 277 (8): 6097-103. doi: ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Jun 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Oster G, Wang H (2003). "Rotary protein motors". Trends Cell Biol. 13 (3): 114-21. doi:10.1016/S0962-8924(03)00004-7. PMID ... ATP5S: ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex subunit s (factor B) Kinosita K, Yasuda R, Noji H (2003). "F1- ...
ClpS is a bacterial adaptor protein that is responsible for recognizing protein substrates via their N-terminal residues and ... January 2013). "Structural insights into the inactive subunit of the apicoplast-localized caseinolytic protease complex of ... ClpS is as a specific adaptor protein for the ATP-dependent AAA+ protease ClpAP, and hence ClpS delivers N-degron substrates to ... The bacterial N-end rule is already well documented; it involves the Clp protease system which consists of the adaptor protein ...
"Characterization of the CIN85 adaptor protein and identification of components involved in CIN85 complexes". Biochem. Biophys. ... Adapter molecule crk is a member of an adapter protein family that binds to several tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This ... Adapter molecule crk also known as proto-oncogene c-Crk is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRK gene. The CRK protein ... "Adaptor proteins Grb2 and Crk couple Pyk2 with activation of specific mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades". J. Biol. Chem ...
Not only catalytic but also adaptor activities of this protein are involved in this process. Its movement from the cytosol to ... Poe JC, Fujimoto M, Jansen PJ, Miller AS, Tedder TF (June 2000). "CD22 forms a quaternary complex with SHIP, Grb2, and Shc. A ... pathways independently on its catalytic activity by serving as a bridge for other proteins thereby regulate protein-protein ... Overall, the protein functions as a negative regulator of cell proliferation and survival. Nevertheless, SHIP1 may also bind to ...
Interaction with other proteins (e.g. the adaptor molecule ASC) is mediated via N-terminal pyrin (PYD) domain. There are 14 ... MyD88 attracts the IRAK4 molecule, IRAK4 recruits IRAK1 and IRAK2 to form a signaling complex. The signaling complex reacts ... which binds more limited number and variety of ligands and works in a complex with NAIP protein. Other NLRs such as IPAF and ... which are associated with intracellular kinases via adaptor proteins (see non-RD kinases below), plant PRRs are composed of an ...
KLHL3 serves as an adaptor protein that promotes the interaction between WNK1 and Cullin3, which is in a complex containing an ... The WNK1 protein is composed of 2382 amino acids (molecular weight 230 kDa). The protein contains a kinase domain located ... The gene belongs to a group of four related protein kinases (WNK1, WNK2, WNK3, WNK4). Homologs of this protein have been found ... WNK (lysine deficient protein kinase 1), also known as WNK1, is an enzyme that is encoded by the WNK1 gene. WNK1 is serine- ...
... with the help of adaptor proteins such as caveolin 1 or SHC1, which target the ER complexes to the plasma membrane. Activation ... via the coregulatory proteins (CoReg) in the nucleus. Alternately, the estrogen or SERM complexes may occur through the ER ... The anti-ER (SP1) antibody targets the ER alpha protein (ERα) located in the nucleus of ER positive normal and neoplastic cells ... Complex biochemical reactions exhibited by the estrogen receptor are necessary for the mediation of cellular interactions in ...
... adapter proteins and signaling complexes to regulate cytoskeletal linking, cell polarity, cell signaling and vesical ... They are formed by interactions between intracellular adapter proteins, transmembrane proteins and the actin cytoskeletons of ... These complexes, formed primarily of members of the claudin and the occludin families, consist of about 35 different proteins, ... These complexes, consisting of transmembrane adhesion proteins of the cadherin family, link adjacent cells together through ...
... and CUL4B-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. DDB1 serves as a bridge or adaptor protein which interacts with dozens of ... DNA damage-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DDB1 gene. The gene's position is on chromosome ... Leupin O, Bontron S, Strubin M (2003). "Hepatitis B virus X protein and simian virus 5 V protein exhibit similar UV-DDB1 ... Lee TH, Elledge SJ, Butel JS (1995). "Hepatitis B virus X protein interacts with a probable cellular DNA repair protein". J. ...
This protein forms a kinase complex with TRAF6, MAP3K7 and TAB1, thus serves as an adaptor linking MAP3K7 and TRAF6. This ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7-interacting protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K7IP2 ... "Entrez Gene: MAP3K7IP2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 interacting protein 2". Thienpont B, Zhang L, Postma AV ... a novel adaptor protein, mediates activation of TAK1 MAPKKK by linking TAK1 to TRAF6 in the IL-1 signal transduction pathway". ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is a neuronal adaptor protein that interacts with ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... It is also regarded as a putative vesicular trafficking protein in the brain that can form a complex with the potential to ... Amyloid beta A4 precursor protein-binding family A member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APBA2 gene. This ...
Autosomal-Recessive Mutations in AP3B2, Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 3 Beta 2 Subunit, Cause an Early-Onset Epileptic ... Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 3 Beta 2 Subunit, Cause an Early-Onset Epileptic Encephalopathy with Optic Atrophy. Am J Hum ...
Badolato R, Parolini S. Novel insights from adaptor protein 3 complex deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Oct. 120(4):735- ... Salazar G, Zlatic S, Craige B, Peden AA, Pohl J, Faundez V. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome protein complexes associate with ... Improper trafficking of melanocyte-specific proteins in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type-5. J Invest Dermatol. 2007 Jun. 127(6): ... a member of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1). Nat Genet. 2003 Sep. 35(1):84-9. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles ... Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with DPYSL2 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: AP2A1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit". Nishimura, Takashi; Fukata Yuko; Kato Katsuhiro; ... AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A1 gene. ...
... are involved in sorting proteins and are able to recognize cargo and coat proteins during vesicle formation. AP-3 specifically ... Adaptor proteins (AP) are involved in sorting proteins and are able to recognize cargo and coat proteins during vesicle ... The ADAPTOR PROTEIN-3 complex mediates pollen tube growth by coordinating vacuolar targeting and organization (Plant Physiol) ... The authors further confirm mislocalization of a tonoplast localized protein (PAT10) and its subsequently associated proteins ( ...
Cu trafficking to intracellular accumulation sites may be a strategy for preventing protein mismetallation during Zn deficiency ... Adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex mediates the biogenesis of acidocalcisomes and is essential for growth and virulence of ... Corazza, A., Harvey, I. & Sadler, P.J. 1H, 13C-NMR and X-ray absorption studies of copper(I) glutathione complexes. Eur. J. ... Identification of novel proteins in isolated polyphosphate vacuoles in the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Plant J. ...
adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit beta 1. ISO. ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Mucopolysaccharidosis type 6. ClinVar ... Protein-Protein Interactions) PhenoMiner (Quatitative Phenotypes) Gene Annotator OLGA (Gene List Generator) RatMine GViewer ( ... secretory carrier membrane protein 1. ISO. ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Mucopolysaccharidosis type 6. ClinVar. PMID: ... protein:increased expression:intervertebral disk. RGD. PMID:23192728. RGD:10043113. NCBI chrNW_004955407:26,597,165... ...
Name: adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit. Synonyms: Naptb, beta3B ... Name: ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 4. Synonyms: A930005E13Rik, LOC381562, D930005K06Rik, 1810009A16Rik, ... Name: ATP/GTP binding protein 1. Synonyms: Nna1, 2900054O13Rik, 4930445M19Rik, 5730402G09Rik, 1700020N17Rik, 2310001G17Rik, ... Synonyms: Ppiase-X, NG7, DIR1, WISp39, WAF-1/CIP1 stabilizing protein 39 ...
PrEST Antigen AP3B1 antigen APrEST91029 for adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit ... Target Protein. adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit. Target Gene ... N-terminal His6ABP (ABP = Albumin Binding Protein derived from Streptococcal Protein G) ...
This domain lies at the C-terminus of the clathrin-adaptor protein complex-3 beta-1 subunit. The AP-3 complex is associated ... This domain lies at the C terminus of the clathrin-adaptor protein complex-3 beta-1 subunit. The AP-3 complex is associated ... We have recently shown that two proteins related to two of the adaptor subunitsof clathrincoated vesicles, p47 (mu3) and beta- ... Antibodies raisedagainst recombinant delta and sigma3 show that they are the other two subunits ofthe adaptor-like complex. We ...
Mu subunits of adaptor protein (AP) complexes, AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, and AP-4. ... The mu homology domain (MHD) is an ~280 residue protein-protein interaction module, which is found in endocytotic proteins ... Proteins of the muniscin family: Syp1, FCHO1/2 and SGIP1.. The MHD domain has an elongated, banana-shaped, all beta-sheet ...
adaptin, adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) complex, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), lysosome, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase II α ( ... complex for trafficking to the lysosome to be degraded. Blocking phosphorylation reduces trafficking to the lysosome, ... GSK3 phosphorylates two distinct sites in the N-terminus of PI4KIIα (Ser5 and Ser47), promoting binding to the adaptor protein ... stabilizing PI4KIIα and its cargo proteins for redistribution throughout the cell. Importantly, a reduction in PI4KIIα ...
Here, the authors show that components of the CCC-protein complex, CCDC22 and COMMD1, facilitate the endosomal sorting of LDLR ... Inactivation of the CCC-associated WASH complex causes LDLR mislocalization, increased lysosomal degradation of LDLR and ... complexes are both crucial for endosomal sorting of LDLR and for its function. We find that patients with X-linked intellectual ... Here we show that the COMMD/CCDC22/CCDC93 (CCC) and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) ...
... interacts with adaptor protein complex 3 (AP‐3) and regulates targeting of AP‐3 cargoes. J Neurochem 123:60-72. doi:10.1111/j. ... Neurons have evolved a number of unique protein-coding genes that regulate trafficking of protein complexes within small ... Immune complexes were precipitated for 2 h at 4°C using 20 μl protein A/G agarose beads (Santa Cruz Biotechnology). For NSG2-mC ... Norstrom EM, Zhang C, Tanzi R, Sisodia SS (2010) Identification of NEEP21 as a ss-amyloid precursor protein-interacting protein ...
... sorting signals are tyrosine-based and dileucine-based signals that interact with heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes ( ... sorting signals are tyrosine-based and dileucine-based signals that interact with heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes ( ... while AP-2 adaptor complexes are involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. β Adaptin subunits (β1, β2, β3, β4) lack sequence ... while AP-2 adaptor complexes are involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. β Adaptin subunits (β1, β2, β3, β4) lack sequence ...
... provides instructions for making a protein called the TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein. Learn about this gene and ... The TYROBP protein interacts with several other proteins on the surface of cells. For example, it forms a complex with the ... DAP12: an adapter protein with dual functionality. Immunol Rev. 2006 Dec;214:118-29. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2006.00466.x. ... provides instructions for making a protein called the TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein. This protein is found in a ...
Badolato R, Parolini S. Novel insights from adaptor protein 3 complex deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Oct. 120(4):735- ... Salazar G, Zlatic S, Craige B, Peden AA, Pohl J, Faundez V. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome protein complexes associate with ... Improper trafficking of melanocyte-specific proteins in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type-5. J Invest Dermatol. 2007 Jun. 127(6): ... a member of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1). Nat Genet. 2003 Sep. 35(1):84-9. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
Badolato R, Parolini S. Novel insights from adaptor protein 3 complex deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Oct. 120(4):735- ... Salazar G, Zlatic S, Craige B, Peden AA, Pohl J, Faundez V. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome protein complexes associate with ... Improper trafficking of melanocyte-specific proteins in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type-5. J Invest Dermatol. 2007 Jun. 127(6): ... a member of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1). Nat Genet. 2003 Sep. 35(1):84-9. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
Badolato R, Parolini S. Novel insights from adaptor protein 3 complex deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Oct. 120(4):735- ... Salazar G, Zlatic S, Craige B, Peden AA, Pohl J, Faundez V. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome protein complexes associate with ... Improper trafficking of melanocyte-specific proteins in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type-5. J Invest Dermatol. 2007 Jun. 127(6): ... a member of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1). Nat Genet. 2003 Sep. 35(1):84-9. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
adaptor related protein complex 3 s.... AQP9. 366. AQP9. aquaporin 9 [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc.... ...
OLIGO-PEPTIDE BINDING PROTEIN (OPPA) COMPLEXED WITH KIK ... Water molecules act as flexible adapters, matching the hydrogen ... PROTEIN (OLIGO-PEPTIDE BINDING PROTEIN). A. 517. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mutation(s): 0 Gene ... OLIGO-PEPTIDE BINDING PROTEIN (OPPA) COMPLEXED WITH KIK. *PDB DOI: 10.2210/pdb1B3G/pdb ... The Crystal Structures of the Oligopeptide-Binding Protein Oppa Complexed with Tripeptide and Tetrapeptide Ligands. Tame, J.R.H ...
It did, however, require the endocytic adaptor protein Numb and lysosomal activity. This study reveals a previously ... Notch post-translationally regulates β-catenin protein in stem and progenitor cells Nat Cell Biol. 2011 Aug 14;13(10):1244-51. ... Notch-dependent regulation of β-catenin protein did not require ligand-dependent membrane cleavage of Notch or the glycogen ... Immunoglobulin J Recombination Signal Sequence-Binding Protein / genetics * Immunoglobulin J Recombination Signal Sequence- ...
3 iCLIP Primer resolves the binding site to individual nucleotides and increases accuracy for binding sites located within ... Standard protocols often employ labeled adapters to visualize the protein-RNA complex. The method involves irreversible ... UV-Crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP) is a powerful technique for elucidating RNA-protein interactions. ... adapters, reverse transcription, and finally PCR amplification. Unfortunately, reverse-transcriptase cannot read through ...
Protein:. adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 2 subunit (HA1 47kDA subunit homolog 2; clathrin assembly protein assembly ... clathrin coat assembly protein AP47 homolog 2; clathrin-associated protein AP47 homolog 2; golgi adaptor AP-1 47 kDA protein ...
... these proteins have been considered to function as endosome-associated scaffolds for the assembly of protein complexes that ... Subunit composition, protein interactions, and structures of the mammalian brain sec6/8 complex and septin filaments ... This resulted in a list of 287 proteins (Table S3), of which the top two hits were Huntingtin (Htt) and sacsin, proteins that ... The presence of a predicted protein-protein interaction domain, termed the PX-associated B (PXB) domain, has led to the ...
Enter identifiers, names or keywords for contigs, proteins domains (InterPro, PFAM, SMART, PROSITE), gene families (TreeFam), ... adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit. •. •. •. •. •. Specific questions? Click here! Want to get involved with ...
... and a receptor containing a mutated putative adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) interaction motif, we demonstrate that ... In addition, another molecule of this inhibitor bound to CK2α1, but not to CK2α2, at the CK2ß protein-protein interface. ... in nitrate and proteins, respectively. The line ppck2-had accumulated amino-acids but lower levels of soluble proteins. ... Total protein deimination and histone H3 deimination were furthermore increased in PD brains, with a considerable increase at ...
adaptor related protein complex 3 .... APOL3. 80833. APOL3. apolipoprotein L3 [Source:HGNC Sym.... ... MCBRYAN_PUBERTAL_BREAST_3_4WK_DN MCBRYAN_PUBERTAL_BREAST_3_4WK_UP MCBRYAN_PUBERTAL_BREAST_4_5WK_DN MCBRYAN_PUBERTAL_BREAST_4_ ...
hypothetical protein LOC100148757. 0.010. ap1s3b. adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 3 subunit, b. 0.010. ...
The adaptor proteins (APs) comprise a family of five heterotetrameric complexes in mammals (Bonifacino, 2014; Robinson, 2015). ... Co-localization of HIV-1 Nef with the AP-2 adaptor protein complex correlates with Nef-induced CD4 down-regulation ... CD4 downregulation by the HIV-1 protein Nef reveals distinct roles for the γ1 and γ2 subunits of the AP-1 complex in protein ... Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes ...
Recombinant Protein with GST-tag at N-terminal, Abnova; For use in AP, Array, ELISA, WB-Re Shop Abnova™ Human ... This gene encodes a member of an adaptor protein family. Members of this family encode proteins containing a homeobox homology ... and are components of the Abi/WAVE complex which regulates Rac-dependent actin polymerization. The encoded protein inhibits ... Recombinant Proteins * Abnova™ Human ABI3 Partial ORF (NP_057512.1, 75 a.a. - 182 a.a.) Recombinant Protein with GST-tag at N- ...
  • Neuron-specific gene 2 (NSG2, neuronal vesicle trafficking-associated 2) belongs to the "neuron-specific gene" family of small, single-pass transmembrane proteins that localize to vesicular compartments within neuronal dendrites. (
  • The endo-lysosomal network serves an essential role in determining the fate of endocytosed transmembrane proteins and their associated proteins and lipids. (
  • The sequencing of the human mitochondrial genome 40 years ago was a turning point in mitochondrial research, postulating a putative specialized mechanism for the synthesis of the mitochondrial transmembrane proteins. (
  • Classical cadherins are single-pass transmembrane proteins with an extracellular domain that mediates calcium-dependent homotypic interactions. (
  • To inhibit SFKs, CSK is recruited to the plasma membrane via binding to transmembrane proteins or adapter proteins located near the plasma membrane. (
  • Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are transmembrane proteins conveying extracellular stimulus inside the cell. (
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is essential for normal development and function of the central nervous system. (
  • The TYROBP gene (also known as the DAP12 gene) provides instructions for making a protein called the TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein. (
  • Notch-dependent regulation of β-catenin protein did not require ligand-dependent membrane cleavage of Notch or the glycogen synthase kinase-3β-dependent activity of the β-catenin destruction complex. (
  • In the absence of a mitotic signal from outside the cell, β-catenin is sequestered in a complex with the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene product, a serine threonine glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3β) and an adapter protein axin (or a homologue conductin), enabling phosphorylation and degradation of free β-catenin by the ubiquitin-proteasome system [ 8 ]. (
  • Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase-derived membrane-anchored phosphatidylinositides, such as phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P), regulate diverse cellular processes. (
  • Once activated by IGF-1R, phosphorylated IRS-1 binds the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), stimulating PI3K activity and leading to increased levels of membrane bound phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP 3 ). (
  • TRIF pathway to TLR cycle occurs short complexes signaling to tyrosine of production 1 proteins( IFNs), Primary isoforms and kinase of nonlinearly sugar industry. (
  • 3. King PD, Sadra A, Teng JM, Bell GM, Dupont B. CD2-mediated activation of the Tec-family tyrosine kinase ITK is controlled by proline-rich stretch-4 of the CD2 cytoplasmic tail. (
  • A aggregate selenide of cytoplasm SFLLRN, the transcriptional six amino elastases of the full subunits used when role is active, can be arachidonic kinase of protein and reticulum cGMP. (
  • The p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase ( PI3K ), bound to phosphorylated IRS, activates the catalytic subunit p110 . (
  • Phosphorylation of PI3K phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphophaste (PIP2) by PI3K to phosphatidylinositol-3, 4, 5-trisphophaste (PIP3), activates 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 ( PDK1 ). (
  • The antibody reacts with Protein tyrosine kinase p72Syk (Syk family tyrosine-specificphospho-transferase). (
  • Direct downstream effectors phosphorylated by SYK include VAV1, PLCG1, PI-3-kinase, LCP2 and BLNK. (
  • Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, migration and immune response. (
  • Holtrich U, Brauninger A, Strebhardt K, Rubsamen-Waigmann H: Two additional protein-tyrosine kinases expressed in human lung: fourth member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family and an intracellular protein-tyrosine kinase. (
  • Integrin-linked kinase is an adaptor with essential functions during mouse development. (
  • In the present study we have searched the EST database and haveidentified, cloned, and sequenced a ubiquitously expressed homologue of beta-NAP,beta3A, as well as homologues of the alpha/gamma and sigma adaptor subunits,delta and sigma3, which are also ubiquitously expressed. (
  • Antibodies raisedagainst recombinant delta and sigma3 show that they are the other two subunits ofthe adaptor-like complex. (
  • This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric adaptor-related protein comlex 3 (AP-3), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. (
  • The adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit (AP2σ), encoded by AP2S1, forms a heterotetrameric complex, with AP2α, AP2β, and AP2μ subunits, that is pivotal for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and AP2σ loss-of-function mutations impair internalization of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein-coupled receptor, and cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type-3 (FHH3). (
  • BORC comprises eight subunits, some of which are shared with the BLOC-1 complex involved in the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles, and the others of which are products of previously uncharacterized open reading frames. (
  • Previous studies identified net1 tab 2-1 and CDC14 TAB 6-1 as mutations in the RENT complex subunits Net1 and Cdc14, respectively, and revealed that the MEN acts by promoting release of Cdc14 from its nucleolar Net1 anchor during anaphase. (
  • If your other family pressure shows effectively adjust macrophages for persons with subunits sites similar as identification, have to activate expression within the factor death that this is primarily cell-type with the cellular 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dichain terminal, activated by the Marrakech Treaty and the viral activity of Understanding. (
  • The ClpX is responsible for recognizing proteins bearing a specific degradation tag, unfolding and leading them into the catalytic core of the enzyme, where two ClpP subunits break down the peptides bonds. (
  • The interactions of DA receptors with other proteins including specific Gα subunits are critical in deciding the fate of downstream molecular events carried out by effector proteins. (
  • Importantly, a reduction in PI4KIIα expression or phosphorylation increases α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor expression at the surface of hippocampal neurons. (
  • Here we identify that the CCC complex regulates the level of circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by mediating the endosomal trafficking of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). (
  • G protein-coupled receptor 183 [Sou. (
  • G protein-coupled receptor 3 [Sourc. (
  • When a mitotic signal is delivered by the Wnt pathway, by association of the Wg/Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins and their membrane receptor frizzled, it leads to activation of the dishevelled (Dsh) protein, which is recruited to the cell membrane. (
  • TLRs receptors triggers immune response against various invading pathogens by recognizing receptor specific to PAMPs, which is highly conserved and derived from potential pathogenic microorganism such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • Receptor activator of nuclear factor- B ligand (RANKL) and its receptor RANK are components in a signaling pathway that is essential for osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • In contrast, the IGF-2R (also know as mannose 6-phosphate receptor) does not seem to be capable of mediating signaling, but is thought, rather, to regulate extracellular IGF-2 levels through receptor-mediated endocytosis followed by IGF-2 degradation in lysosomes ( 3 ). (
  • The most multiple play of Mtb to 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic cell makes associated by protein and ligases, both of which are their Extending reactions through a receptor of synthesis activities and, also, from NAD(P)H. p110 receptors are affecting a active prenylation make proximal( Koul et al. (
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Ephrin Type A Receptor 3 (EPHA3) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Ephrin Type A Receptor 3 (EPHA3) in samples from Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (
  • Activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initiate several pTyr-dependent signaling networks by creating the docking sites required for the assembly of protein complexes. (
  • One such protein is the cell-surface receptor Fas, which, upon ligand binding, trimerizes and recruits the adaptor protein FADD through the cytoplasmic death domain of Fas. (
  • TRAIL induces apoptosis through two death-domain-containing receptors, TRAIL-R1 (also called death receptor (DR) 4) [3] and TRAIL-R2 (or DR5) [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. (
  • At various time points after addition of the crosslinked ligand, the TRAIL-receptor DISC was immunoprecipitated and assayed for proteins known to be involved in Fas signalling. (
  • BJAB cells express TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 complementary DNA [14], and both TRAIL-receptor proteins were incorporated into the DISC, along with FADD and caspase-8, after 5 min of stimulation (Fig. 1). (
  • A novel adaptor protein orchestrates receptor patterning and cytoskeletal polarity in T-cell contacts. (
  • 3. Kato K, Koyanagi M, Okada H, Takanashi T, Wong YW, Williams AF, Okumura K, Yagita H. CD48 is a counter-receptor for mouse CD2 and is involved in T cell activation. (
  • TNF Receptor Associated Factor 3( TRAF3) stimulates a several fusion analogue involved by the step pathway cell LPLRs Business and responsible plants( TLRs). (
  • Of note, the NS5 and pM viral proteins establish PPI with several tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF) proteins, which are essential adaptor proteins at the nexus of multiple signal transduction pathways. (
  • The antibody MEM-57 reacts with an extracellular epitope on gamma-epsilon and delta-epsilon dimers of human CD3 complex, a part of a bigger multisubunit T cell receptor complex (CD3/TCR) expressed on peripheral blood T lymphocytes and mature thymocytes. (
  • Huang Y, Wange RL: T cell receptor signaling: beyond complex complexes. (
  • Assembles into signaling complexes with activated receptors at the plasma membrane via interaction between its SH2 domains and the receptor tyrosine-phosphorylated ITAM domains. (
  • The association with the receptor can also be indirect and mediated by adapter proteins containing ITAM or partial hemITAM domains. (
  • Finally, TAB1 was shown to be MTR10, a gene encoding nuclear transport receptor/adaptor. (
  • TLR signaling triggers a cascade of events in DCs that includes modified chemokine and cytokine production, altered chemokine receptor expression, and changes in signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (
  • Sorting nexin-27 regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through the synaptic adhesion protein LRFN2. (
  • In this mini-review we provide a synopsis of known protein-protein interactions of DA receptors and a perspective on the potential synergistic utility of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model eukaryote with a comparatively simpler nervous system to gain insight on the neuronal and behavioral consequences of the receptor interactions. (
  • Instead, it forms a tripartite complex consisting of a dimeric ligand, two ligand-binding co-receptors (either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha 1 (GFRɑ1) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor alpha-like (GFRAL) and two molecules of RET. (
  • Beta-arrestin acts as a clathrin adaptor in endocytosis of the beta2-adrenergic receptor. (
  • Regulation of serotonin-2C receptor G-protein coupling by RNA editing. (
  • Inactivation of the CCC-associated WASH complex causes LDLR mislocalization, increased lysosomal degradation of LDLR and impaired LDL uptake. (
  • Additionally, dynein is essential for many other cellular processes, including mitochondrial movement, endosomal and lysosomal trafficking, transporting mis-folded proteins bound for degradation, nuclear positioning, and mitosis 1-3 (Fig. 2). (
  • To appreciate the pathogenesis of lysosomal disorders fully, it is important to understand the dynamics of endosome-lysosome organelles, their capacity for the uptake and degradation of complex macromolecules, and how lysosomal biogenesis and hydrolysis are altered by substrate storage. (
  • The bioavailability of both ligands is also modulated by the IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), which are bound to ligand in circulation and thus prevent degradation and thereby increase the half-life of circulating ligand. (
  • The levels of dishevelled proteins are strictly regulated by multiple E3 ubiquitin ligases that target DVL1-3 for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. (
  • Under resting conditions, Nrf2 targeted for degradation through ubiquitination by binding Keap1, an adaptor protein for the Cul3 ubiquitin ligase complex [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • The first one showed that Drosophila LpR1 increases the immune response by modulating the uptake and degradation of Necrotic Serpin, a protein that controls the innate response to gram-negative infection in insects [ 14 ]. (
  • One strategy to inactivate a specific protein is to fuse it to a degron, a protein domain that targets its fusion partner for degradation. (
  • These adapter proteins target the degron together with its fusion partner to the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for degradation by the proteasome. (
  • GFP-based fluorescent proteins (FPs) are convenient degrons because they are often used to tag proteins and their degradation can be easily monitored by light microscopy. (
  • This fusion protein recruits FP-tagged proteins to the SKP1- CUL1-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, leading to its ubiquitylation and proteasome-mediated degradation in 2-3 hr. (
  • We found that zGrad-mediated protein degradation recapitulates genetic loss-of-function phenotypes and can uncover severe maternal and maternal-zygotic phenotypes. (
  • When we induced zGrad from a heat-shock-inducible promoter, we found temporal degradation of FP-tagged proteins with acute and reversible loss-of-protein function phenotypes. (
  • Lastly, we expressed zGrad from a tissue-specific promoter and found degradation of FP-tagged proteins exposing a phenotype similar to but less severe than the genetic loss-of-function phenotype. (
  • To establish a method to reduce the activity of proteins in zebrafish, we tested several degron-based protein degradation systems. (
  • The GW182/TNRC6 family of proteins are central scaffolds that link microRNA-associated Argonaute proteins to the cytoplasmic decay machinery for targeted mRNA degradation processes. (
  • By contrast, the majority of human miRNAs display only partial complementarity with mRNA targets requiring the association of a GW182/TNRC6 family member with one of four Ago proteins (termed Ago1-4) to trigger cytoplasmic mRNA degradation [ 5 - 7 ]. (
  • As deadenylation represses translation and can trigger irreversible mRNA degradation, the GW182/TNRC6 protein family are essential scaffolds that link miRISCs to the decay machinery. (
  • Mutations in the OBSL1 gene likely lead to reduced cullin-7 protein levels, preventing cullin-7 from bringing together the components of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and interfering with the process of tagging unneeded proteins for degradation. (
  • F-box proteins are components of SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes that target proteins for degradation in the proteasome. (
  • acting to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with a Disability( UNCRPD), involved in 2008, can promote a fatty Meiotic download SPRING 3 Для in change of carrying embryonic subtypes or ovals to disrupt phase to sequence to responses with degradation. (
  • 184. Apitz J, Nishimura K, Wolf A, Hedtke B, van Wijk KJ, Grimm B (2016) Posttranslational control of ALA synthesis includes GluTR degradation by Clp protease and stabilization by GluTR-binding protein. (
  • Proteolux is a light-controllable specific protein degradation system. (
  • The system contains several parts: the bacterial ClpXP protease from E. Coli and the specific recognition sequence (DAS-tag) for ClpX for the degradation part as the photoreceptor protein phytochrome B (PhyB) and the phytochrome interacting factor 6(PIF6) from A. thaliana for the light-dependent part of the system. (
  • Target proteins are fused to the PIF and tagged with the specific degradation sequence which, through light activation, brings the degradation sequence in proximity to ClpX and guides them to the catalytic core of the protease. (
  • Therefore a specific degradation of proteins containing the degradation sequence can be induced by a light signal. (
  • It recognizes specific degradation tags of target substrate proteins, unfolds them in an ATP-consuming hydrolysis reaction, and uses additional cycles of ATP hydrolysis to translocate the unfolded polypeptide into an interior chamber of ClpP, where proteolysis takes place. (
  • In E. coli, the adaptor SspB tethers ssrA-tagged substrates to the ClpXP protease, causing a modest increase in their rate of degradation. (
  • its Kd value is significantly higher than the one of wild type SsrA, thus degradation of DAS-tagged proteins is not significant within the range of physiological concentrations. (
  • The role of the adaptor-protein SspB has been assumed by Pif6 in our system, only light-induced activation can lead to binding and efficient degradation of DAS bearing constructs. (
  • The target protein will be fused to Pif6 and to the specific degradation tag. (
  • To avoid problems with the accessibility or an increased activity of the target protein we provide two different variants: the C-terminal degradation tags, with the target protein construct [PIF6-linker-Protein-DAS] and the N-terminally fused λO-tag resulting in the construct [λO-Protein-linker-PIF6]. (
  • The C-terminal fusion of PIF6 using the N-terminal degradation tag λO is consequently more promising to succeed, as the specific degradation sequence consists of very few amino acids (3 for the DAS-tag and 11 for the λO -tag) which do not perturb protein activity in most of the cases. (
  • Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are integral membrane proteins with a single C-terminal transmembrane segment (TMS). (
  • TLRs are trans-membrane proteins receptors that trigger the signal transduction cascades upon binding with specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) ligands, and earlier have been thought to be restricted to immune cells. (
  • Nuclear Pore Membrane Proteins Self-Assemble into Nanopores. (
  • This is important for synthesis of membrane proteins, including respiratory chain proteins. (
  • Water molecules act as flexible adapters, matching the hydrogen-bonding requirements of the protein and ligand and shielding charges on the buried ligand. (
  • Granule cargo includes pigment proteins, signaling molecules, and enzymes. (
  • 2008 ) reported that Atg9 molecules self-associate independently of other known autophagy proteins in both nutrient-rich and starvation conditions. (
  • By manipulating degrons with temperature, light, small molecules or another protein, protein-degron fusions can also be degraded in a controlled manner ( Natsume and Kanemaki, 2017 ). (
  • PTMs alter subcellular localization, stability, and activity of protein molecules. (
  • This complex tags damaged and excess proteins with molecules called ubiquitin. (
  • We propose that TrkA and p75 likely communicate through convergence of downstream signaling pathways and/or shared adaptor molecules, rather than through direct extracellular interactions. (
  • My early work showed that neural cell adhesion molecules are the first proteins accumulating at nascent synaptic contacts between developing neurons and that these proteins stabilize the contacts and induce their transformation into mature synapses by capturing synaptic precursor organelles (Sytnyk et al. (
  • clathrate c's inclusion complexes in which molecules of one type are trapped within cavities of another substance, such as within a crystalline lattice structure or large molecule. (
  • DNA bases, RNA bases, modified bases, proteins, and small molecules can all be detected and identified in this way. (
  • These studies suggest that a complex of factors, including growth factors, adhesion molecules, and prolidase contained in PRP, all evoke growth and collagen-promoting activities in human dermal fibroblasts. (
  • Keeping it together: Miro proteins regulate whole mitochondrial transport in association with MICOS complex. (
  • Mitochondrial Rho GTPase (Miro) proteins link mitochondria to kinesin and dynein motors, enabling the transport of mitochondria along microtubules. (
  • 2013). Interestingly, the yeast and the Drosophila homologues of Miro proteins are thought to be associated with the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS). (
  • The MICOS complex is involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial cristae and inner membrane (IMM) architecture. (
  • This structure is called mitochondrial intermembrane space bridging complex (MIB). (
  • 2018). In this preprint, the authors continue to investigate alternative roles of Miro proteins in mitochondrial biology combining biochemical, super-resolution and electron microscopy techniques. (
  • However, no significant changes in MICOS components, Sam50 protein, motor proteins or other mitochondrial proteins were observed. (
  • Indeed, Miro1 and Miro2 co-immunoprecipitate with core components of the MICOS complex, responsible for mitochondrial cristae organization, and with Sam50, an outer mitochondrial membrane that interacts with MICOS complex to bridge both membranes. (
  • Using super resolution microscopy techniques, Miro proteins were shown to localize to discrete domains along the mitochondrial network forming nanoclusters. (
  • The authors found that Mic19/CHCHD3 could still form clusters, but those were severely affected, with some mitochondrial areas devoid of them, indicating that Miro proteins are important for the distribution of MICOS clusters. (
  • It was previously established that Miro1 and Miro2 regulate mitochondrial transport along microtubules by interacting with TRAK adaptors. (
  • In neurons, the disruption of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex results in reactive oxidative species (ROS) production and oxidative stress. (
  • Inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, including 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), rotenone, are currently being utilized for animal and cellular models of degenerative neuronal disease models [ 1 ]. (
  • These results link mitochondrial PE metabolism to MICOS combining functions in protein and lipid homeostasis to preserve mitochondrial structure and function. (
  • 2013 These complexes shuttle phosphatidic acid (PA) imported from your ER across the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) to the inner membrane (IM) where it is enzymatically converted to cardiolipin (CL). (
  • However it remained unclear how Ups2-Mdm35 complexes affected the accumulation of mitochondrial PE as the activity of Psd1 and the synthesis of PC were not affected in (Fig. S1 A). His-tagged Ups2* and Mdm35 were coexpressed in is usually lethal in yeast cells lacking Phb1 a subunit of prohibitin membrane scaffolds (Osman et al. (
  • Lignin, mitochondrial family, and photorespiratory transporter classification as case studies in using co-expression, co-response, and protein locations to aid in identifying transport functions. (
  • Spatial orchestration of mitochondrial translation and OXPHOS complex assembly. (
  • Mitochondrial SIRT4-type proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals interact with pyruvate carboxylase and other acetylated biotin-dependent carboxylases. (
  • Among them, Spodoptera frugiperda is a major agricultural lepidopteran pest consisting of two host-plant strains having diverged 3 MA, based on mitochondrial markers. (
  • Effects of amyloid-β on protein SUMOylation and levels of mitochondrial proteins in primary cortical neurons. (
  • GPR40) promotes called by both classical and severe domain to inhibit mitochondrial binds while FFAR2( GPR43) and FFAR3( GPR41) are associated by nervous 3-methyladenine species( factors) with six or fewer expression differences. (
  • Further experiments revealed that Pex15 binds to another protein found in peroxisomes, called Pex3, which protects Pex15 from Msp1. (
  • The heat-shock protein Apg-2 binds to the tight junction protein ZO-1 and regulates transcriptional activity of ZONAB. (
  • Its Src homology 3 (SH3) domain is required for the regulation of proliferation and binds to the Y-box transcription factor ZO-1-associated nucleic acid binding protein (ZONAB). (
  • The sphingolipid protein of the Extracellular Initiatives of higher binds. (
  • Our results support a two-step association process in which the F-box protein binds first to the ASK adaptor, forming a unit which then associates with the catalytic core of the SCF complex. (
  • [2] [3] Dystrophin binds to actin of the cytoskeleton , and also to proteins in the extracellular matrix . (
  • Muscular dystrophy, the result of mutations in the genes that encode for dystrophin and the associated proteins that binds to it can arise in various forms. (
  • The adhesive properties of classical cadherins are driven by the recruitment of cytosolic catenin proteins to the cadherin tail: p120-catenin (CTNND1) binds to the juxta-membrane domain and β-catenin (CTNNB1) binds to the distal part of the tail. (
  • APC binds to beta catenin, forming a destruction complex, and beta catenin is unable to promote cell proliferation. (
  • The presence of a predicted protein-protein interaction domain, termed the PX-associated B (PXB) domain, has led to the proposal that they function as endosome-associated scaffolds. (
  • Up-regulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 3 (HCN3) by specific interaction with K+ channel tetramerization domain-containing protein 3 (KCTD3). (
  • But still some questions remained, such as the role of Miro1 and Miro2 in MICOS complex stabilization/association and their interaction with Sam50. (
  • However, loss of Miro proteins hampers the interaction between MICOS complex and TRAK proteins. (
  • This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 5 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database. (
  • Here, we mapped the interaction of DVL1-3 to a 'PGXPP' motif that is conserved in other known partners and substrates of KLHL12, including PLEXHA4, PEF1 and SEC31. (
  • Overall, these results define the molecular mechanisms determining DVL regulation by KLHL12 and establish the KLHL12 Kelch domain as a new protein interaction module for a novel proline-rich motif. (
  • The assembly of numerous carbohydrate processing enzymes into a macromolecular multiprotein structure results from the interaction of enzyme-borne dockerin modules with repeated cohesin modules present in noncatalytic scaffold proteins, termed scaffoldins. (
  • TNRC6A cNLS interaction with Impα is conserved between mouse and human proteins. (
  • This paper presents Protopia, a biological tool that offers a way of searching for proteins and their interactions in different Protein Interaction Web Databases, as a part of a multidisciplinary initiative of our institution for the integration of biological data . (
  • In fact, molecular interaction networks are widely studied to reveal the complex roles played by gene products and cellular environments in biological and pathological processes [ 4 - 6 ]. (
  • Multiple sources of information on protein to protein interaction exist. (
  • Further efforts are therefore essential to improve the quality of the protein-protein interaction databases to reach a level of confidence on crude networks, to save manual curation efforts and, consequently, to gain efficiency in inferring useful biological information from the interactome graphs. (
  • The attachment of a lipid molecule to proteins endows distinct properties, which affect their hydrophobicity, structural stability, localization, trafficking between membrane compartments, and influences its interaction with effectors. (
  • We investigated the heterodimerization of membrane-bound TrkA and p75, on intact mammalian cells, using a beta-gal protein-protein interaction system. (
  • Wakasugi and colleagues recently identified the heterodimeric UV-damaged DNA binding protein (UV-DDB) as an interaction partner of XPA which is able to detect a great variety of DNA lesions 308 . (
  • Betz A, Thakur P, Junge HJ, Ashery U, Rhee JS, Scheuss V, Rosenmund C, Rettig J, Brose N (2001) Functional interaction of the active zone proteins Munc13-1 and RIM1 in synaptic vesicle priming. (
  • All 3 proteases can cause synthesized by interaction forms but nationally undergo roles for a membrane of First cellular studies. (
  • Retromer is formed by the vacuolar protein-sorting (VPS) proteins VPS26, VPS29 and VPS35, and in concert with sorting nexins, it selectively mediates endosomal cargo sorting into recycling and retrieval pathways 7 . (
  • The chemical reactions and pathways involving any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein group consists of a lipid or lipids. (
  • Recent data have suggested that ASC functions as an adaptor protein linking various PAAD-family proteins to pathways involved in nuclear factor (NF)-κB and pro-Caspase-1 activation. (
  • Four pathways affect treated identified, of which PARs 1,3 and 4 are circumstances for alternatingwith. (
  • According to our data, several viral proteins (pM, M, NS2A, NS4A, 2K and NS5) target multiple tick protein modules implicated in critical biological pathways. (
  • Both pathways utilize a large number of signaling proteins and differ remarkably in the first fundamental step, the detection of DNA lesions (reviewed by Kusakabe et al . (
  • At TBCs, endocytosis process is linked to actin regulation thereby hinting that various actin regulated proteins may have dual role to form link between the two pathways. (
  • Mutations affecting the formation of the CCC complex cause hypercholesterolaemia in humans, dogs and mice. (
  • Mutations in other populations result in the production of an abnormally short, nonfunctional version of the protein or prevent the protein from reaching the cell surface. (
  • Likewise, animals modeling dynein dysfunction or mutations display motor and neural impairments similar to these human patients 3,9-11 (Fig. 1A). (
  • Domains of cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (A) and dynactin p150 Glued (B). (A) Dynein domains include the positions of mouse and human mutations as well as the buttress (light blue), stalk + MT binding domains (MTBD) (green), 6 AAA ATPase domains (blue), and intra-dynein complex binding domains (turquoise). (
  • N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-Induced Adaptor Protein 2 Sigma Subunit 1 (Ap2s1) Mutations Establish Ap2s1 Loss-of-Function Mice. (
  • 10,000 mice treated with the mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) for Ap2s1 mutations and identified 5 Ap2s1 variants, comprising 2 missense (Tyr20Asn and Ile123Asn) and 3 intronic base substitutions, one of which altered the invariant donor splice site dinucleotide gt to gc. (
  • At least 29 mutations in the OBSL1 gene have been identified in people with 3-M syndrome, a disorder that causes skeletal abnormalities including short stature (dwarfism) and unusual facial features. (
  • Most of these mutations substitute one protein building block (amino acid) for another amino acid in the OBSL1 protein or result in an OBSL1 protein that is abnormally short and nonfunctional. (
  • However, the specific relationship between OBSL1 gene mutations and the signs and symptoms of 3-M syndrome are unknown. (
  • Mutations in CUL7, OBSL1 and CCDC8 in 3-M syndrome lead to disordered growth factor signalling. (
  • This is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which encodes the protein dystrophin. (
  • ICD formation requires multiple adhesion, cytoskeletal and signaling proteins, and mutations in these proteins can cause cardiomyopathies ( Ehler, 2018 ). (
  • lipoproteins in cultural complex activities may anywhere compositionally undergo it lipid-linked to induce syndromes with type by these Mutations and in cellular Variations bind cells mediate it ubiquitin-conjugating to appear the acylated apartment of genes to Interactions with blindness. (
  • The Cas9-guide RNA complex, the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, introduces cuts in genomic DNA at specific sites, allowing for sequencing of select regions to reveal DNA methylation, single nucleotide mutations, and structural variations. (
  • Mutations in the AP1S2 gene (Xp22), coding for a subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex involved in intracellular protein trafficking and synaptic vesicle recycling, have been identified in seven families. (
  • CD2BP1 modulates CD2-dependent T cell activation via linkage to protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST. (
  • Brauninger A, Holtrich U, Strebhardt K, Rubsamen-Waigmann H: Isolation and characterization of a human gene that encodes a new subclass of protein tyrosine kinases. (
  • Phosphorylated tyrosine residues recruit adapter proteins and trigger the activation of intracellular signaling cascades [ 1 ] . (
  • The signaling adapter protein DAP12 regulates multinucleation during osteoclast development. (
  • Here, we show that membrane-bound Notch physically associates with unphosphorylated (active) β-catenin in stem and colon cancer cells and negatively regulates post-translational accumulation of active β-catenin protein. (
  • Members of this family encode proteins containing a homeobox homology domain, proline rich region and Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain, and are components of the Abi/WAVE complex which regulates Rac-dependent actin polymerization. (
  • A SPOPL/Cullin-3 ubiquitin ligase complex regulates endocytic trafficking by targeting EPS15 at endosomes. (
  • Together, the data indicate that a CUL3-SPOPL E3 ubiquitin ligase complex regulates endocytic trafficking and formation of multivesicular bodies by ubiquitinating and degrading EPS15 at endosomes. (
  • A novel protein LZTFL1 regulates ciliary trafficking of the BBSome and Smoothened. (
  • The tight junction adaptor protein ZO-1 regulates intracellular signaling and cell proliferation. (
  • This system also regulates the level of proteins involved in several critical cell activities such as the timing of cell division and growth. (
  • Here we report the identification of a multisubunit complex named BORC that regulates lysosome positioning. (
  • Arabidopsis Heterotrimeric G-protein Regulates Cell Wall Defense and Resistance to Necrotrophic Fungi. (
  • Importantly, CLIP analysis led to the discovery that SRSF3 cross-regulates the expression of other SR protein family members. (
  • Engagement of TLR3 or TLR4 on monocyte-derived DCs induces RGS16 and RGS20, markedly increases RGS1 expression, and potently down-regulates RGS18 and RGS14 without modifying other RGS proteins. (
  • Augustin I, Korte S, Rickmann M, Kretzschmar HA, Südhof TC, Herms JW, Brose N (2001) The cerebellum-specific Munc13 isoform Munc13-3 regulates cerebellar synaptic transmission and motor learning in mice. (
  • UV-Crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP) is a powerful technique for elucidating RNA-protein interactions. (
  • Synergistic interactions among transcription factors (TFs) and their cofactors collectively determine gene expression in complex biological systems. (
  • Interestingly, Miro proteins were not essential to maintain the core of the MICOS complex, but their loss could destabilize certain interactions between components of the MICOS complex. (
  • Coronins localise to sites of dynamic actin assembly, regulating filament organisation via interactions between actin and the Arp2/3 protein complex. (
  • KLHL12 was the first E3 ligase to be identified for DVL1-3, but the molecular mechanisms determining its substrate interactions have remained unknown. (
  • We further show that the interactions observed between TNRC6A and importin-α are conserved between mouse and human complexes. (
  • Plant miRNAs often display full base-pairing interactions with target sequences allowing direct cleavage of mRNAs by catalytically active Ago proteins [ 4 ]. (
  • Protein-protein interactions can be considered the basic skeleton for living organism self-organization and homeostasis. (
  • Thus, protein-protein interactions can be considered as the basic skeleton for living organism self-organization and homeostasis [ 3 ]. (
  • Consequently, understanding the structural data concerning network skeletons, as well as its one-to-one element interactions, is essential (though just beginning) for effective progress in the characterization of biological complex systems and in understanding the pathological consequences of alterations in the properties of a given node (protein). (
  • CD2 and the nature of protein interactions mediating cell-cell recognition. (
  • At the molecular scale, vector competence is governed in part by binary interactions established between viral and cellular proteins within infected tick cells. (
  • To investigate virus-vector protein-protein interactions (PPIs), the entire set of open reading frames for LIV and TBEV was screened against an I. ricinus cDNA library established from three embryonic tick cell lines using yeast two-hybrid methodology (Y2H). (
  • Benfenati F, Onofri F, Giovedí S (1999) Protein-protein interactions and protein modules in the control of neurotransmitter release. (
  • While the ChIP assay is still the primary method to investigate protein-chromatin interactions, alternative strategies are being developed to overcome some of the limitations of ChIP assays. (
  • CUT&Tag, which is short for Cleavage Under Targets and Tagmentation, is a molecular biology method that researchers use to investigate interactions between proteins and DNA and to identify DNA binding sites for their protein of interest. (
  • Adaptor proteins (AP) are involved in sorting proteins and are able to recognize cargo and coat proteins during vesicle formation. (
  • acrosomal vesicle protein 1 [Source. (
  • The impaired function of specific organelles indicates that the causative genes encode protein complexes that regulate vesicle trafficking in the endolysosomal system including AP-3, BLOC-1, BLOC-2, and BLOC-3. (
  • HPS-2 is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the beta-3A subunit of the heterotetrameric AP3 complex ( AP3BA ), which assists in the vesicle formation from the trans-Golgi network or late endosome. (
  • Atg9 is the only characterized transmembrane protein that is absolutely required for Cvt vesicle formation, and it is proposed to carry membrane from peripheral donor sites to the phagophore assembly site where the vesicle forms. (
  • This binding is thought to be responsible for vesicle docking and apparently precedes membrane fusion, According to the current concept, syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 are members of larger protein families, collectively designated as target-SNAP receptors (t-SNAREs), whose specific localization to subcellular membranes define where transport vesicles bind and fuse, Here we demonstrate that major pools of syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 recycle with SVs. (
  • Impartial genetic screens have got resulted in the id of CAMs, adaptor proteins, actin cytoskeletal regulators, and vesicle Chetomin trafficking proteins with jobs in myoblast fusion (Desk 1). (
  • Becher A, Drenckhahn A, Pahner I, Margittai M, Jahn R, Ahnert-Hilger G (1999) The synaptophysin-synaptobrevin complex: a hallmark of synaptic vesicle maturation. (
  • Butz S, Okamoto M, Südhof TC (1998) A tripartite protein complex with the potential to couple synaptic vesicle exocytosis to cell adhesion in brain. (
  • The TEL patch of telomere protein TPP1 mediates telomerase recruitment and processivity. (
  • Neurons have evolved a number of unique protein-coding genes that regulate trafficking of protein complexes within small organelles throughout dendrites and axons. (
  • Four such genes, HPS1, ADTB3A, HPS3, and HPS4, are associated with the 4 known subtypes of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 1 (HPS-1), Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS-2), Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 3 (HPS-3), and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 4 (HPS-4). (
  • The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) genes are frequently overexpressed in malignancies. (
  • Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. (
  • Gene expression profiles of SC-derived microglia and BMDM further revealed that Trem2 deficiency resulted in impaired upregulation of phagocytosis associated genes Lpl and Cd36 in microglia, but a more complex pattern in BMDM. (
  • Id-related genes encoding helix-loop-helix proteins are required for G1 progression and are repressed in senescent human fibroblasts"، J Biol Chem ، 269 (3): 2139-45، فبراير 1994، PMID 8294468 . (
  • While investigation of transcriptional regulation by transcription factors has led to a deep understanding of how DNA binding proteins direct RNA polymerases to genes, regulation of RNA processing by RNA-binding proteins is still enigmatic. (
  • It has been shown that furanone 1 interacts with the QS expert regulator protein LuxR to prevent induction of the prospective genes and covalently modifies the DPD synthase, LuxS.12 With this light, it is evident that there is some covalent connection between the furanone and its target proteins, which is in accord with the observed activity reported herein. (
  • Not only was it found that these chromosomes determined sex (XX = female, XY = male), but it was also shown that certain traits (and thus their genes) were transmitted only with the X chromosome [3] (see Figure 2). (
  • Even though DNA was present in much higher quantities than protein in these preparations, it was hotly debated whether or not the DNA or histones carried the genes biologists were looking for. (
  • While the nature and role of protein coding genes involved in adaptation to the host-plant begin to emerge, the putative role of non-coding genes has yet to be explored. (
  • 171. Gläßer C, Haberer G, Finkemeier I, Pfannschmidt T, Kleine T, Leister D, Dietz KJ, Häusler RE, Grimm B, Mayer KFX (2014) Meta-Analysis of Retrograde Signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana Reveals a Core Module of Genes Embedded in Complex Cellular Signaling Networks Mol. (
  • We wished to determine whether suitable culture conditions and differentiation could restore the RPE-appropriate expression of genes and proteins to ARPE-19, along with a functional and morphological phenotype resembling native RPE. (
  • The TPLATE Adaptor Complex Drives Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Plants. (
  • Extracellular macromolecules, pathogens and cell surface proteins rely on endocytosis to enter cells. (
  • Conversely, clathrin-independent endocytosis forming both nanometer [CLIC (clathrin-independent carriers)/GEEC (glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein enriched endocytic compartments), caveolae, FEME (fast endophilin-mediated endocytosis) and IL-2β (interleukin-2β) uptake] and micrometer carriers (macropinocytosis) are dependent on actin polymerization to power local membrane deformation and carrier budding. (
  • The main functions of the TBCs are to remove excess spermatid cytoplasm and acrosomal contents, internalize and recycle junctional complexes by endocytosis prior to spermiation. (
  • To bridge this gap localization of various proteins, involved at various steps of endocytosis studied in other systems, was demonstrated in TBCs using testicular fragmented material or sections by immunoblotting and immunofluroscence. (
  • This study provides novel insights into the molecular mechanism causing hypercholesterolaemia, and highlights the importance of CCC and WASH complexes in cholesterol homeostasis. (
  • Studies of the underlying mechanisms regulating asymmetric division of Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs) have contributed to the establishment of paradigms and identification of molecular components that control asymmetric division in more complex stem cell systems (Reviewed in Chia et al. (
  • These findings demonstrate that LpRs contribute to MB development and function, supporting the existence of a LpR-dependent signaling in Drosophila , and advance our understanding of the molecular factors functioning in neural systems to generate complex behaviors in this model. (
  • Lipophorins are the invertebrate's molecular entity equivalent to lipoproteins in vertebrates and bind LpRs through their protein component (apolipophorin) [ 12 ]. (
  • In this study I investigated the molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory function of the two adaptor proteins. (
  • Molecular mechanisms regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation Eun-Kyeong Jo1,2, Jin Kyung Kim1,2, Dong-Min Shin1,2 and Chihiro Sasakawa3,4 Inflammasomes are multi-protein signaling complexes that trigger the activation of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of interleukin-1b. (
  • The molecular characterization of antibody binding to a superantigen-like protein from a commensal microbe. (
  • A new paper published in Science today (19 February 2021) by an international team of researchers reports an insight into the molecular mechanism of membrane-tethered protein synthesis in mitochondria. (
  • Together, the data offer a molecular insight into how proteins are synthesized in human mitochondria," adds Alexey Amunts. (
  • While further investigation will be needed to elucidate the role of each tick protein in the replication cycle of tick-borne flaviviruses, our study provides a foundation for understanding the vector competence of I. ricinus at the molecular level. (
  • Among the latter, the ones that are also deregulated in response to host-plant are molecular candidates underlying a complex adaptive trait. (
  • Together, our results provide novel insight into the cardiomyocyte AJ and provide a proteomic atlas for defining the molecular complexes that regulate cardiomyocyte intercellular adhesion. (
  • However, the molecular composition of ICD junctional complexes remains poorly defined. (
  • The inflammasome is a multiprotein complex assembled in response to Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) and Risk Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs). (
  • It did, however, require the endocytic adaptor protein Numb and lysosomal activity. (
  • The AP-2 complex is required for proper temporal and spatial dynamics of endocytic patches in fission yeast. (
  • Adapter protein that provides a link between the endocytic membrane traffic and the actin assembly machinery. (
  • A variety of endocytic adaptors can recruit and activate the Cdc42/N-WASP or Rac1/WAVE complexes, which, in turn, engage the Arp2/3 complex, thereby mediating local actin polymerization at the membrane. (
  • Various endocytic proteins are found to be associated with TBCs namely early endosomal antigen [EEA1], clathrin, dynamin-2, amphiphysin, Rab11 etc. (
  • In the current study, we have attempted to study localization and distribution of various endocytic proteins which have not yet been studied at TBCs to the best of our knowledge. (
  • Exploring these proteins at TBCs gives us supporting evidence of the occurrence of the endocytic pathway during spermiation. (
  • We assessed differences in PAD isozyme detection (assessing all five PADs), in total protein deimination/citrullination and histone H3 deimination-which is an indicator of epigenetic changes and extracellular trap formation (ETosis), which can elicit immune responses and has involvement in pathogenic conditions. (
  • Dystrophin is a rod-shaped cytoplasmic protein, and a vital part of a protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton of a muscle fiber to the surrounding extracellular matrix through the cell membrane. (
  • Relaxin-3 download Rexx Programmer\'s 1( RXFP3) and Relaxin-3 ability 2( RXFP4) are determinant, signaling more pathway with extracellular protein species functional as the set neurons. (
  • We reveal that the N-terminal extension of SNX21 interacts with huntingtin (Htt) whereas the PXB domain appears to associate with septins, a family of cytoskeletal- and membrane-associated proteins. (
  • The primordial growth disorder 3-M syndrome connects ubiquitination to the cytoskeletal adaptor OBSL1. (
  • Suzuki and Emr 2018 identified the transmembrane autophagy protein Atg27 as a physiological cargo recycled from the vacuole. (
  • Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (3): 565-576. (
  • NSG2 belongs to a family of small neuronal endosomal proteins but its function has remained uncharacterized to date. (
  • The AP3 complex exists in a ubiquitous and a neuronal form. (
  • Subsequently, this leads to calcium overload, lipid peroxidation, DNA/protein damage, and eventually neuronal cell death [ 1 ]. (
  • Syntaxin 1 and synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kD (SNAP-25) are neuronal plasmalemma proteins that appear to be essential for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs). (
  • AP-1/sigma 1A and AP-1/sigma 1B adaptor-proteins differentially regulate neuronal early endosome maturation via the Rab5/Vps34-pathway. (
  • 2019) 12:293-303 Abbreviations background blocks the sequencing of the whole sugarcane NR Non-redundant protein sequences in NCBI genome. (
  • These proteins include repeat sequences. (
  • The amount from the coefficients, a complete correlation, is weighed against those acquired for the pairs of additional members from the same fold with shuffled sequences aswell as those for the pairs of additional protein with limited fold Rafoxanide similarity relating to FSSP. (
  • Although S-palmitoylation was discovered several decades ago, little is known on the mechanisms and participating players involved in both palmitoylation and de-palmitoylation processes and, more importantly, the recognition of protein sequences on substrate proteins for palmitoylation. (
  • Tn5 is an Mg 2+ -dependent enzyme so Mg 2+ is added to activate the reaction, which results in the chromatin being cut close to the protein binding site and simultaneous addition of the NGS adapter DNA sequences. (
  • The complex is part of the protein coat on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles which links clathrin to receptors in vesicles. (
  • The IGF-1R signaling axis is comprised of two receptors (IGF-1R and IGF-2R), the ligands IGF-1 and IGF-2, and a system of at least six binding proteins and attendant proteases that modulate ligand availability ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • In mammals, these proteins include two groups of membrane receptors, one of seven members including LDL-R, LRP-1, LRP-1B, LRP-2/megalin, LRP-8/ApoER2, VLDL-R, and MEGF7 and the second more distant group including SorLA/LR11 and the Wnt signaling receptors LRP-5 and LRP-6 [ 3 ]. (
  • Although nuclear roles for the GW182/TNRC6 proteins are unknown, recent reports have demonstrated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling activity that utilises the importin-α and importin-β transport receptors for nuclear translocation. (
  • OVERVIEW OF THE NLRP3 INFLAMMASOME COMPLEX NLRs are innate cytosolic receptors that recognize diverse PAMPs and DAMPs. (
  • Nerve growth factor engages two structurally distinct transmembrane receptors, TrkA and p75, which have been proposed to create a "high-affinity" NGF binding site through formation of a ternary TrkA/NGF/p75 complex. (
  • The endosome-associated cargo adaptor sorting nexin-27 (SNX27) is linked to various neuropathologies through sorting of integral proteins to the synaptic surface, most notably AMPA receptors. (
  • Dopamine receptors belong to a super-family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are characterized by seven trans-membrane domains. (
  • The TYROBP protein interacts with several other proteins on the surface of cells. (
  • Lastly, we show that Pex15 interacts with the peroxisomal membrane protein Pex3, which shields Pex15 from Msp1-dependent turnover. (
  • Interacts with adapter protein complex 1 (AP-1) and AP-2, but not AP-3 and AP-4 (By similarity). (
  • Moreover, MICOS complex interacts with Sam50 protein on the OMM, building a bridge between the OMM and the IMM. (
  • NS5A is a 448 amino acid phosphoprotein that interacts with a plethora of cellular proteins and has been reported to have multiple effects on cell physiology, for review see [ 2 ]. (
  • EID1 interacts specifically with several Arabidopsis Skp1-like (ASK) proteins and Cullin1 to form stable dimeric and trimeric complexes. (
  • Once activated, phosphorylated IGF-1R recruits and activates signaling adaptor proteins, including IRS-1, IRS-2, and Shc. (
  • IR phosphorylates and recruits adaptor proteins including the IRS family. (
  • In a final step, the TFIIH complex recruits the endonucleases XPF and XPG to incise the defective strand ( Figure 9 ). (
  • β-Catenin, in turn recruits αE-catenin (CTNNA1) to the cadherin-catenin complex. (
  • The method involves irreversible crosslinking of the RNA to protein, immunoprecipitation, ligation of 5′ and 3′ adapters, reverse transcription, and finally PCR amplification. (
  • After adapter ligation DNA was PCR amplified with NEBNext Multiplex Oligos for Illumina (Part# E7335S and E7500S) for 16 cycles (HA ChIP) or 15 cycles (WDR5 ChIP). (
  • The encoded protein inhibits ectopic metastasis of tumor cells as well as cell migration. (
  • While coexpression of ASC with certain PAAD-family proteins such as Pyrin and Cryopyrin increases NF-κB activity, ASC has an inhibitory influence on NF-κB activation by various proinflammatory stimuli, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin 1β, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (
  • These proteins can either be mono-palmitoylated or poly-palmitoylated, and the presence of palmitoylated proteins in tumor cells indicate a functional role in cancer. (
  • Cytoplasmic dynein 1 (hereafter referred to as dynein) is a 1.6 MDa multi-protein complex that serves as the primary ATP-hydrolyzing motor responsible for retrograde axonal transport along microtubules (MTs) in eukaryotic cells (Fig. 1A). (
  • We also sought to identify the role of cytoplasmic protein kinases and transcription factors downstream of the RANKL-RANK signaling pathway and of IL-1 in osteoclast formation. (
  • Part of Cul3-RING ubiquitin ligase complex. (
  • This system uses the plant F box transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1) protein to recruit proteins tagged with the small AID degron to the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex in an auxin-dependent manner ( Figure 1A ). (
  • Chaston JJ, Stewart AG, Christie M (2017) Structural characterisation of TNRC6A nuclear localisation signal in complex with importin-alpha. (
  • Three types have forex reserves of india 2017 used: (1) scintillation crystals (such as sodium iodide, calcium fluoride, bismuth germinate, or cadmium tungstate) combined with photo- multiplier tubes, (2) gas ionization detectors containing Xenon, and (3) scintillation crystals with integral photodiodes. (
  • Blocking phosphorylation reduces trafficking to the lysosome, stabilizing PI4KIIα and its cargo proteins for redistribution throughout the cell. (
  • This was evident from enhanced BCR-induced phosphorylation of PLC-[gamma]2 at a specific Btk phosphorylation site in the absence of Dok-3 or Grb2. (
  • transport DNA ATP-binding in Reactome especially is events of cyochrome adaptor case, 2-sulfate pane acids, and Type I phosphorylation Inhibition. (
  • We show that activated RTKs terminate downstream signaling via the direct phosphorylation of an evolutionarily conserved Tyr present in most SRC homology (SH) 3 domains, which are often part of key hub proteins for RTK-dependent signaling. (
  • We demonstrate that the direct EPHA4 RTK phosphorylation of adaptor protein NCK SH3s at these sites results in the collapse of signaling networks and abrogates their function. (
  • Then, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC2) fully activates AKT through phosphorylation on Ser473 (Poloz and Stambolic 2015). (
  • LZTFL1 participates in immune synapse formation, ciliogenesis, and the localization of ciliary proteins, and knockout of LZTFL1 induces abnormal distribution of heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1) in the Lztfl1 -knockout mouse photoreceptor cells, suggesting that LZTFL1 is involved in intracellular transport. (
  • Segregation of cell fate determinants to the daughter GMC is regulated by the reciprocal localization of four protein complexes: two complexes are localized to the apical cortex and two to the basal cortex (see Figure 1 ). (
  • We used this system to show that zGrad depletes FP-tagged proteins within 30 to 150 min depending on the subcellular localization and the nature of the tagged protein. (
  • Palmitoylation is a dynamic process where it influences protein distribution, localization, accumulation, secretion, stability, and function by altering the protein's membrane affinity. (
  • The main consequence of the use of the proximal promoter is that the resulting transcript lacks exons 1 to 3, which encode for a non-conserved N-terminal region and the first LA module [ 13 ]. (
  • 2014). As uncovered by system natural approaches, many focus on mRNAs of confirmed miRNA encode proteins with related features (Cora et al. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene functions as an adaptor subunit in a complex with an active PtdIns(3)P 3-phosphatase. (
  • Protein phosphatase 2C is responsible for VP-induced dephosphorylation of AQP2 serine 261. (
  • 2-LTR download SPRING factors showed to the hospital protein can impact expressed by ABCB11 without further phosphatase. (
  • This disruption of lysosomal function can involve either a specific lysosomal hydrolase deficiency, a defect in lysosomal protein processing, or impaired lysosomal biogenesis. (
  • Protein, nucleic acid, enzyme. (
  • Active research areas include: (1) mechanisms and biology of caspase-1 activating inflammasome complexes, (2) nucleic acid sensors, with a particular focus on cytosolic DNA recognition systems and (3) role of long non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) in the regulation of inflammatory gene expression. (
  • Nevertheless, it was discovered that chromosomes contained two components: (1) deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA (commonly abbreviated to nucleic acid), and (2) basic proteins called histones. (
  • Proteins domains with less than 90 residues aswell as the amalgamated collapse domains, i.e., comprising several polypeptide string or faraway elements of the same string sequentially, were eliminated. (
  • The fragment between residues 112 and 126 in human LAT is composed by a stretch of negatively charged amino acids, and this Aclidinium Bromide sequence is Aclidinium Bromide usually evolutionarily conserved in human, mouse, rat, gorilla, chimpanzee, cow, cat, and other species, supporting an important role for this fragment of LAT for its functions in intracellular signaling coupled to the TCR/CD3 complex (see Table ?Table1).1). (
  • S-palmitoylation is the major form of palmitoylation and involves the addition of fatty acyl group, usually palmitic acid, to cysteine residues of protein. (
  • Recombinant Protein with GST-tag at N-terminal 25μg Abnova™ Human ABI3 Partial ORF (NP_057512.1, 75 a.a. (
  • Using recombinant proteins as standards for quantitation, we found that syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 each comprise similar to 3% of the total protein in highly purified SVs. (
  • Approximately 30% of total plasma magnesium is protein-bound and approximately 70% is filterable through artificial membranes (15% complexed, 55% free Mg 2+ ions). (
  • Wnt signaling is critically dependent on dishevelled proteins (DVL1-3), which are required to assemble an intracellular Wnt signalosome at the plasma membrane. (
  • An impact of the two adaptor proteins on the activation of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels could be excluded by uncoupling the release of Ca2+ from the ER from Ca2+ influx across the membrane. (
  • The AP-3 complex plays a role during the budding of vesicles from the trans Golgi network and endosomal compartments and is essential for proper intracellular protein sorting and vesiculation (Simpson et al. (
  • We are calling this complex AP-3, a name that has also been used for the neuronalspecific phosphoprotein AP180, but we feel that it is amore appropriate designation for an adaptor-related heterotetramer.Immunofluorescence using anti-delta antibodies reveals that the AP-3 complex isassociated with the Golgi region of the cell as well as with more peripheralstructures. (
  • These general across the antigenic download Rexx Programmer\'s Reference and uptake to enzymatic antibodies on the shutting-off of the key beta, creates stages in the post-translated acid to mediate( or structurally spatial), releasing the complex of breaks to enhance in( or Systematically) of the hemogenic differences. (
  • patients without fibrosis (score 0) or with moderate fibrosis (scores 1 and 2) had titres of anti-MDA-HSA and anti-Ox-CL antibodies significantly lower than those with advanced fibrosis (scores 3 and 4). (
  • 2016;196(3):1081-90. (
  • Marrakesh Treaty will make into download SPRING 3 Для профессионалов on September 30, 2016. (
  • 2016 Mar;170(3):1817-30. (
  • which have been shown to have a number of critical protein trafficking functions primarily involved with neural development and synaptic plasticity. (
  • Cerebrospinal fluid synaptosomal-associated protein 25 is a key player in synaptic degeneration in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Proteins of the stonin family. (
  • Proteins of the muniscin family: Syp1, FCHO1/2 and SGIP1. (
  • Thus, NSG2 functions as an AMPAR-binding protein that is required for normal synapse formation and/or maintenance, and has unique functions compared with other NSG family members. (
  • Because of their morphologic and functional complexity, neurons have evolved specialized proteins like those of the neuron-specific gene family [neuron-specific gene (NSG)1-NSG3]. (
  • Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are a family of calcium-activated enzymes that, through post-translational deimination of arginine to citrulline, contribute to changes in protein function, including in pathological processes. (
  • This gene encodes a member of an adaptor protein family. (
  • Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a Caspase recruitment domain (ASC) belongs to a large family of proteins that contain a Pyrin, AIM, ASC, and death domain-like (PAAD) domain (also known as PYRIN, DAPIN, Pyk). (
  • Ligand can be liberated from this complex by a family of IGFBP proteases. (
  • The BTB-Kelch family protein KLHL12 is a substrate-specific adaptor for a Cullin-RING E3 ligase complex that contains Cullin3 and Rbx1. (
  • Recent studies of the tubby family protein, Tubby-like protein 3 (TULP3), have provided new insights into the cilia-localized mechanisms that determine cyst growth. (
  • Using structural classification of protein (SCOP) (21), we find the 64 proteins collapse family members, each including at least three remote control homologues in the prospective set. (
  • Other members of the Ups/PRELI family of lipid transfer proteins may at least partially substitute for the loss of Ups2 and preserve PS transport. (
  • ATPase: catalytic family and complex with Structure and gene environments. (
  • 3. To help expand concur that the noticed enrichment of 64Cu-NOTA-= 3) and spleen (3.8 0.3% ID/g at 15 min and 1.7 1.2% ID/g at 45 min, = 3), like the degrees of the control keeping track of to corroborate the quantification of Family pet images (Body S5). (
  • The SR proteins comprise a family of essential, structurally related RNA binding proteins. (
  • To understand the widespread functions of SR protein family members, the identification of endogenous RNA target sites is required. (
  • We further show that LDLR is an endosomal cargo of the CCC-associated WASH complex, and inactivation of this complex results also in LDLR mislocalization and impaired LDL uptake. (
  • Binding of the dynein complex to cargo and dynein's processivity is dependent upon dynein's omni-present binding protein dynactin 1-3 (Fig. 1B) and specific adaptor proteins such as presenilin, LIS1, NUDEL, MuMA, Miro, Milton, BimL, and BimEL 1-3 . (
  • In cargo, other remaining complex NRs two iron factors, TRAM( resting need codon or active) and TRIF. (
  • The Cellulose Synthases Are Cargo of the TPLATE Adaptor Complex. (
  • Comprising over 30 proteins in humans, SNXs are classified into sub-groups based on the presence of additional functional domains. (
  • Using tissue-specific and inducible promoters in combination with functional GFP-fusion proteins, we demonstrate that zGrad can inactivate transmembrane and cytosolic proteins globally, locally and temporally with different consequences. (
  • Functional Interplay Between Arabidopsis NADPH Oxidases and Heterotrimeric G Protein. (
  • These results indicate that the level and functional status of RGS proteins in DCs significantly impact their response to GPCR ligands such as chemokines. (
  • A functional SMAD2/3 binding site in the PEX11β promoter identifies a role for TGFβ in peroxisome proliferation in humans. (
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural 5A protein (NS5A) contains a highly conserved C-terminal polyproline motif with the consensus sequence Pro-X-X-Pro-X-Arg that is able to interact with the Src-homology 3 (SH3) domains of a variety of cellular proteins. (
  • We, and others, have shown that these motifs (termed PP2.1 and PP2.2) bind to the Src homology 3 (SH3) domains of a range of cellular proteins. (
  • The results showed that BPA nonlinearly upregulated the levels of IL-18, ASC, GSDMD and NLRP3 mRNAs and that of NLRP3, caspase-1, GSDMD and IL-1β proteins in IMR-32 and SK-N-SH cells. (
  • Additionally, Z-YVAD-FMK, ICI182.780 and EGCG significantly reversed the changes of the above mRNAs/proteins induced by BPA. (
  • miRNAs are loaded onto Argonaute (Ago) proteins to form the core of miRNA-induced silencing complexes (miRISCs), and exert their function through base complementarity, predominantly at 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • RPE-specific mRNAs and miRNAs were assessed with quantitative real-time (RT)-PCR, and proteins with western blotting. (
  • The ARPE-19 cells cultured for 4 months developed a phenotype characteristic of native RPE and expressed proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs characteristic of the RPE. (
  • SCOPe: Structural Classification of Proteins - extended. (
  • The polyprotein is cleaved into 10 individual polypeptides by a combination of host-cell and viral proteases, the N-terminal one-third of the polyprotein produces the four structural proteins (Core, E1, E2 and p7), whereas the C-terminal two-thirds comprises the six non-structural proteins (NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A and NS5B). (
  • However, apart from the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B), the precise details of the roles of each of the non-structural proteins in the process of RNA replication remain undefined. (
  • 2009 Although they lack sequence similarity with other classes of lipid transfer proteins the crystal structures of Ups1-Mdm35 and SLMO1-TRIAP1 complexes revealed striking structural similarities with phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins and suggested comparable transfer mechanisms (Miliara et al. (
  • Knowledge about transporters expressed at the BBB and structural requirements for substrate binding and translocation via the transporters have been used for development of transporter-mediated drug delivery systems targeting the brain via specific transporter proteins. (
  • Our strengths are in biochemistry, structural biology, protein engineering and cellular assays that will reveal the fundamental principles behind how effector cells of the immune system regulate human disease. (
  • Hundreds of proteins encoded by metazoan genomes have RNA-binding capacity conferred by specific protein structural domains, such as RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), KH domains and zinc fingers [ 1 ]. (
  • Apart from these three structural domains, there is a juxtamembrane domain that was initially thought to be just a mechanical linker between two parts of the protein. (
  • Approximately 70% of the buildings' structural components were pulverized in the fiery collapse of these towers, including six million cubic feet of masonry, five million square feet of painted surfaces, seven million square feet of flooring, 600,000 cubic feet of window glass, 200 elevators, and all other items present in a modern office complex. (
  • Msp1 is a conserved AAA ATPase in budding yeast localized to mitochondria where it prevents accumulation of mistargeted tail-anchored (TA) proteins, including the peroxisomal TA protein Pex15. (
  • Msp1 also resides on peroxisomes but it remains unknown how native TA proteins on mitochondria and peroxisomes evade Msp1 surveillance. (
  • Msp1 is a quality control protein that resides on the outer surfaces of two compartments within cells: mitochondria and peroxisomes. (
  • Previous work showed that when a protein called Pex15, which is normally found in peroxisomes, is mistakenly sent to mitochondria it is rapidly eliminated by Msp1. (
  • This unveils a new function of Miro proteins linking motor machineries with the inner membrane structure of mitochondria. (
  • Interestingly, loss of Miro proteins resulted in distally-transported mitochondria almost devoid of Mic19/CHCHD3 clusters. (
  • To address this, mitochondria have their own protein making machine called the mitoribosome. (
  • Using DT40 B cells that were rendered deficient for Grb2 or Dok-3 expression it could be shown that both proteins inhibit activation of the Ca2+ mobilizing enzyme PLC-[gamma]2 by Btk. (
  • The Cellulosome is an intricate macromolecular protein complex that centralizes the cellulolytic efforts of many anaerobic microorganisms through the promotion of enzyme synergy and protein stability. (
  • The assembly of one of Nature's most elaborate multienzyme complexes, the cellulosome, results from the binding of enzyme-borne dockerins to reiterated cohesin domains located in a non-catalytic primary scaffoldin. (
  • Cas9, or CRISPR associated protein 9, is an enzyme that cuts DNA. (
  • CUT&Tag assays take advantage of a Tn5 transposase that is fused with protein A to direct the enzyme to the antibody bound to its target on chromatin. (
  • The cells are then incubated with assembled transposomes, which consist of protein A fused to the Tn5 transposase enzyme that is conjugated to NGS adapters. (
  • In particular, some methods such as Chromatin Endogenous Cleavage (ChEC) and DamID are based on the tethering of nuclease or DNA modifying enzymes to a DNA-binding protein, where the enzyme digests or modifies DNA in the local vicinity of the binding site. (
  • The mRNA and protein expressions of IAPs, including cellular IAPs (cIAP1 and cIAP2) and X chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP), were increased in HCC tumors compared with normal liver tissue. (
  • On the other hand, GFRɑ1 can regulate RET signaling in a way that for a particular stimulus, signaling bias may exist [ 3 ] , and this may allow RET to orchestrate cellular processes more precisely. (
  • beta catenin is also a gene regulatory protein that promotes cellular proliferation. (
  • We named this system zGrad and show that zGrad efficiently degrades transmembrane, cytosolic and nuclear GFP-tagged proteins in zebrafish in an inducible and reversible manner. (
  • Recent advances have indicated that inflammasomes contribute the etiology of MS. Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes of the innate immune response involved in the processing of caspase-1, the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 as well as the cell death-mediated mechanism of pyroptosis and the activation of the adaptive immune response. (
  • for instance, chromosome number and gene location, intracellular location of the protein, and codes for locations in different Data Banks and ontologies. (
  • AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A1 gene. (
  • Proteins similar to Msp1 are also found in humans, and Weir et al. (
  • Use of a sub-genomic replicon system has demonstrated that five of these (NS3-NS5B) are necessary and sufficient to replicate an RNA molecule containing the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the viral genome. (
  • Gating Protein Transport in Solid State Nanopores by Single Molecule Recognition. (
  • Traditionally, clathrate compounds are polymeric and completely envelop the guest molecule, but in modern usage clathrates also include host-guest complexes and inclusion compounds. (
  • bacterium 3 enables frequently been Other for such % embryos as it is correspondingly used, though this enhances mostly the protease for authority. (
  • 182. Nishimura K, Apitz J, Friso G, Kim J, Ponnala L, Grimm B, van Wijk KJ (2015) A non-canonical pathway of substrate recognition and deliveryinvolving a binary adaptor system for the plastid Clp protease in Arabidopsis. (
  • The AP-2 complex is a heterotetramer consisting of two large adaptins (alpha or beta), a medium adaptin (mu), and a small adaptin (sigma). (
  • SFN( 14-3-3-sigma) eliminates presented by TP53( Hermeking et al. (
  • This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. (