Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Adaptor Protein Complex 1: A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.Adaptor Protein Complex 2: An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.Adaptor Protein Complex 4: An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.Adaptor Protein Complex Subunits: The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.Adaptor Protein Complex delta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits: A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport: A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesClathrin: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.Human Characteristics: The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins: A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.GRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Adaptor Protein Complex sigma Subunits: A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.trans-Golgi Network: A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.Clathrin-Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.PhosphoproteinsCoated Pits, Cell-Membrane: Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.GRB10 Adaptor Protein: A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.Gene Products, nef: Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk: Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.CRADD Signaling Adaptor Protein: A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.GRB7 Adaptor Protein: A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl: Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Son of Sevenless Proteins: A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Mice, Inbred C57BLCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.LIM Domain Proteins: A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Protein Interaction Maps: Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein: A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Cullin Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Syntenins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that play a role in the coupling of SYNDECANS to CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Dystrophin-Associated Protein Complex: A macromolecular complex of proteins that includes DYSTROPHIN and DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. It plays a structural role in the linking the CYTOSKELETON to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src): Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.PDZ Domains: Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.Arrestins: Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport: A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6: A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signalling and activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Coat Protein Complex I: A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Clathrin Heavy Chains: The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Endopeptidase Clp: An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn: Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.

Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38. (1/155)

Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis.  (+info)

Inhibition of the receptor-binding function of clathrin adaptor protein AP-2 by dominant-negative mutant mu2 subunit and its effects on endocytosis. (2/155)

Although interactions between the mu2 subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2 and tyrosine-based internalization motifs have been implicated in the selective recruitment of cargo molecules into coated pits, the functional significance of this interaction for endocytosis of many types of membrane proteins remains unclear. To analyze the function of mu2-receptor interactions, we constructed an epitope-tagged mu2 that incorporates into AP-2 and is targeted to coated pits. Mutational analysis revealed that Asp176 and Trp421 of mu2 are involved in the interaction with internalization motifs of TGN38 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Inducible overexpression of mutant mu2, in which these two residues were changed to alanines, resulted in metabolic replacement of endogenous mu2 in AP-2 complexes and complete abrogation of AP-2 interaction with the tyrosine-based internalization motifs. As a consequence, endocytosis of the transferrin receptor was severely impaired. In contrast, internalization of the EGF receptor was not affected. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the dominant-interfering approach for functional analysis of the adaptor protein family, and indicate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis may proceed in both a mu2-dependent and -independent manner.  (+info)

Association of AP1 adaptor complexes with GLUT4 vesicles. (3/155)

Nycodenz gradients have been used to examine the in vitro effects of GTP-(gamma)-S on adaptor complex association with GLUT4 vesicles. On addition of GTP-(gamma)-S, GLUT4 fractionates as a heavier population of vesicles, which we suggest is due to a budding or coating reaction. Under these conditions there is an increase in co-sedimentation of GLUT4 with AP1, but not with AP3. Western blotting of proteins associated with isolated GLUT4 vesicles shows the presence of high levels of AP1 and some AP3 but very little AP2 adaptor complexes. Cell free, in vitro association of the AP1 complex with GLUT4 vesicles is increased approximately 4-fold by the addition of GTP-(gamma)-S and an ATP regenerating system. Following GTP-(gamma)-S treatment in vitro, ARF is also recruited to GLUT4 vesicles, and the temperature dependence of ARF recruitment closely parallels that of AP1. The recruitment of both AP1 and ARF are partially blocked by brefeldin A. These data demonstrate that the coating of GLUT4 vesicles can be studied in isolated cell-free fractions. Furthermore, at least two distinct adaptor complexes can associate with the GLUT4 vesicles and it is likely that these adaptors are involved in mediating distinct intracellular sorting events at the level of TGN and endosomes.  (+info)

The leucine-based sorting motifs in the cytoplasmic domain of the invariant chain are recognized by the clathrin adaptors AP1 and AP2 and their medium chains. (4/155)

Recognition of sorting signals within the cytoplasmic tail of membrane proteins by adaptor protein complexes is a crucial step in membrane protein sorting. The three known adaptor complexes, AP1, AP2, and AP3, have all been shown to recognize tyrosine- and leucine-based sorting signals, which are the most common sorting signals within membrane protein cytoplasmic tails. Although tyrosine-based signals are recognized by the micro-chains of adaptor complexes, the subunit recognizing leucine-based sorting signals is less clear. In this report we show by surface plasmon resonance that the two leucine-based sorting signals within the cytoplasmic tail of the invariant chain bind independently from each other to AP1 and AP2 but not to AP3. We also show that both motifs can be recognized by the micro-chains of AP1 and AP2. Moreover, by using monomeric as well as trimeric invariant chain constructs, we show that adaptor binding does not require trimerization of the invariant chain.  (+info)

Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting motif. (5/155)

HIV-1 Nef interacts with cellular adaptor protein (AP) complexes and their medium (mu) subunits. However, the role of the dileucine-based sorting motif within Nef in these interactions has been incompletely characterized. Here, yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that HIV-1 Nef interacted not only with the mu subunits of AP-1 and AP-2, but also with that of AP-3. The interactions with mu1 and mu3 were markedly stronger than the interaction with mu2. Leucine residues of the sorting motif were required for the interactions with mu3 and mu2 and contributed to the interaction with mu1. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that Nef, AP-1, and AP-3 (but not AP-2) were concentrated in a juxtanuclear region near the cell center, potentially facilitating interaction between Nef and the mu1 and mu3 subunits. However, leucine residues of the sorting motif were not required for this subcellular localization of Nef. These data suggest that the dileucine motif, required for optimal viral replication, functions through interactions with a variety of AP complexes, including AP-3, potentially by recruiting adaptor complexes to subcellular locations specified by additional determinants in the Nef protein.  (+info)

RLIP76, an effector of the GTPase Ral, interacts with the AP2 complex: involvement of the Ral pathway in receptor endocytosis. (6/155)

RLIP76 is a modular protein that was identified as a putative effector of Ral, a GTPase activated during Ras signaling. To explore further the contribution of the Ral-RLIP76 pathway to Ras signaling, we have looked for partners of RLIP76. Mu2, the medium chain of the AP2 complex is shown to interact with RLIP76. We show also that in vivo endogenous AP2 and RLIP76 form a complex and that this in vivo interaction is independent of cells being stimulated by a growth factor. Furthermore, RLIP76 differentiates AP2 from AP1 in vivo as RLIP76 differentiates mu2 from mu1 in vitro and in two hybrid assays. We show that activated Ral interferes with both tranferrin receptor endocytosis and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor endocytosis in HeLa cells. We propose a model where the Ral-RLIP76 pathway connects signal transduction and endocytosis through interaction on one hand between the Ras-Ral pathway and RLIP, on the other hand between RLIP and proteins belonging to the endocytotic machinery.  (+info)

Defective organellar membrane protein trafficking in Ap3b1-deficient cells. (7/155)

AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex involved in intracellular vesicle transport. Molecular analyses show that Ap3b1, which encodes the AP-3 (&bgr;)3A subunit, is altered in pearl mice. To provide genetic evidence that mutation of Ap3b1 is responsible for the pearl phenotype and to determine the null phenotype, the Ap3b1 gene was disrupted by homologous recombination. Mice homozygous for the resulting allele, Ap3b1(LN), or compound heterozygotes with pearl, displayed phenotypes similar to those of pearl mice, confirming that Ap3b1 is the causal gene for pearl. Moreover, pearl is likely to be a hypomorph as the Ap3b1(LN) homozygotes had a lighter coat color and accumulated fewer of the micro3 and (&dgr;)3 subunits of AP-3 than did pearl mice. Finally, immunofluorescence analysis of fibroblasts and melanocytes cultured from Ap3b1(LN) homozygotes revealed that the lysosomal membrane proteins Lamp I and Lamp II and the melanosomal membrane protein tyrosinase were mislocalized. In particular, the Lamp proteins were clustered on the cell surface. These findings strengthen the evidence for an alternate pathway via the plasma membrane for cargo normally transported to organelles by AP-3.  (+info)

Multiple C-terminal motifs of the 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor tail contribute to efficient binding of medium chains of AP-2 and AP-3. (8/155)

The interaction of adaptor protein (AP) complexes with signal structures in the cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins is required for intracellular sorting. Tyrosine- or dileucine-based motifs have been reported to bind to medium chain subunits (mu) of AP-1, AP-2, or AP-3. In the present study, we have examined the interaction of the entire 67-amino acid cytoplasmic domain of the 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR46-CT) containing tyrosine- as well as dileucine-based motifs with mu2 and mu3A chains using the yeast two-hybrid system. Both mu2 and mu3A bind specifically to the MPR46-CT. In contrast, mu3A fails to bind to the cytoplasmic domain of the 300-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Mutational analysis of the MPR46-CT revealed that the tyrosine-based motif and distal sequences rich in acidic amino acid residues are sufficient for effective binding to mu2. However, the dileucine motif was found to be one part of a consecutive complex C-terminal structure comprising tyrosine and dileucine motifs as well as clusters of acidic residues necessary for efficient binding of mu3A. Alanine substitution of 2 or 4 acidic amino acid residues of this cluster reduces the binding to mu3A much more than to mu2. The data suggest that the MPR46 is capable of interacting with different AP complexes using multiple partially overlapping sorting signals, which might depend on posttranslational modifications or subcellular localization of the receptor.  (+info)

Hello, Im trying to learn Mocha and having a bit of problems how to translate some of my tests to the mocha world. For example - Im trying to convert this simple test: def test_get_feed_details_w_bad_url assert_incomplete_test get :feed_widget_details, :k =| e6efb203a1cdebcf5a7406175924fe9991979f68, :id =| artists(:first).id
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Comprehensive nutrition resource for The Human Bean Iced Mexican Mocha Non-Fat Milk 20Oz. Learn about the number of calories and nutritional and diet information for The Human Bean Iced Mexican Mocha Non-Fat Milk 20Oz. This is part of our comprehensive database of 40,000 foods including foods from hundreds of popular restaurants and thousands of brands.
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Highland Black Mocha Stout is a American Stout style beer brewed by Highland Brewing in Asheville, NC. 3.86 average with 1084 ratings, reviews and opinions.
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There are 397 calories in 1 container (16 fl.oz) of Lollicup Toffee Mocha with Whole Milk. Youd need to walk 104 minutes to burn 397 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
There are 170 calories in 1 cup (8 fl.oz) of Caffe Mocha, No-Fat milk. Youd need to walk 44 minutes to burn 170 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
The Top Diet Doctor Mocha Pudding & Shake is robust and delicious. Add it to your morning cup of coffee or with water and enjoy it hot or cold. It can be ma
An aerial attack on nearby buildings, including a military warehouse, have partially burnt and destroyed an MSF hospital in Mocha, southwestern Yemen, leaving the hospital inoperative and people without medical care.
As much as I admire her for being super supportive kay Duterte please naman, may mga bagay na dapat hayaan mo nalang na mismong actions ni Duterte ang makakapag sabi or the Filipino people could answer hindi yung you represented all the filipino. Hayaan mong kami ang magsabi wag na patulan remember you cannot please everybody kaya let Dutertes action para sa pagbabago ang makapagpatunay nun. Utang na loob Mocha ReplyDelete ...
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Complete information for HPS1 gene (Protein Coding), HPS1, Biogenesis Of Lysosomal Organelles Complex 3 Subunit 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for BLOC1S2 gene (Protein Coding), Biogenesis Of Lysosomal Organelles Complex 1 Subunit 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Previous work showed that UNC 101 and DPY 23 are adaptins orthologous to the mu1 and mu2 subunits of adaptor protein complex 1 and 2, and that they both can act as negative modulators of LET 23 Regorafenib chemical structure signalling. Similarly, SLI 1 is orthologous to CBL, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting LET 23 for degradation and SEM 5 is GRB2, an adaptor molecule that physically interact with EGFR. To address whether these genes could interact with cdt 2, we used loss of function alleles of dpy 23 AP2, unc 101 AP1, sli 1 CBL, and sem 5 GRB2 and performed cdt 2. We found that cdt 2 genetically interacts with dpy 23lf and unc 101lf, as cdt 2 RNAi induces a Muv phenotype in these back grounds. In contrast, no interaction was seen with sli 1lf or sem 5lf.. Since an absence of genetic interaction can sometimes suggest a physical interaction, we tested whether CDT 2 could physically interact with either SLI 1 or SEM 5. We produced in vitro labelled CDT 2 and puri fied SLI 1 and SEM 5 from ...
You may recall the press Starbucks got when it shut down every single store for a couple of hours one night back in February. Unfortunately, this extra training given to all employees so that they could all brew the perfect cup of joe was wasted time for the folks at MY Starbucks. Exhibit A: This mornings hazelnut latte contained zero hazelnut. Fortunately, we keep some syrup on hand for our own espresso machine, but seriously?! the little syrup box was clearly marked with an H. Exhibit B: when I was allergy-sleepy earlier in the week I stopped at the same Starbucks for an iced raspberry no whip mocha which arrived pinker than normal, which could be attributed to the fact that it had no mocha, making it in fact, a latte. I was able to overcome this obstacle by some leftover Hersheys syrup found in the back of the fridge at work, but I dare say I was endangering my own life by putting anything found in that cess pool near my mouth! Now, for $4 a pop, you would think they could at least include ...
Review: Worked best for me when I used my electric percolator. I used one and one half tablespoons for 4 cups of coffee, and I used a fold-over coffe
Ellas birth story, after three weeks of recovery, processing, and thanking God for this incredible gift of a daughter. Eight months prior to receiving the news that we were expecting our first child, our hearts were shattered. In February 2019, we had a miscarriage. And, just one month after that in March, we had another.…
When I was old enough to be a teen mom, they made me go outside. A man in a truck said I was a "public nuisance" so they took me to the place where lost kitties live and they give you operations so I wouldnt be a mom. Pretty soon a man adopted me because I was cute. But only a few months later...he kicked me out. He said he had allergies but he got angry when I peed over the top of the litter box. Why didnt he just clean it and get me a higher one? I learned to hide where no one would hurt me. I didnt want anyone to pick me up because they might throw me again. I learned to hunt on counters or cupboards for food if I didnt see anything in my bowl. I didnt need much to eat because I hid all day and slept. And I moped. I was still very young but I felt very old ...
Whether used in a Mocha Latte or as a dusting on a Cappuccino, Cailler Le Chocolat powder is an ideal match for the Nespresso Grands Crus. Order it now.
Starbucks Iced Latte. Starbucks Iced Latte which was promoted together with Starbucks Dark Berry Mocha Frappuccino in Singapore is a refreshing drink. Its good as a thirst-quenching drink and its an enjoyable drink. Whats more, one can add Irish cream to it, making it even a more wonderful drink.. Retailing at SGD $6.30 at all Starbucks Singapore.. ...
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
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The heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex AP2 is one of the best-studied components of the endocytic machinery. The AP2 complex consists of four different subunits, α, β2, σ2, and μ2, which assemble into a core domain with two appendages (Fig. 2; Collins et al., 2002; Jackson et al., 2010). AP2 has multiple binding partners, including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), clathrin, several endocytic accessory proteins, and two signaling motifs present on some cargo receptors (see Traub, 2009 for a detailed review). The AP2 complex has classically been considered to be the master initiator of clathrin-mediated endocytosis through its role in recruiting clathrin molecules to the membrane. However, several lines of evidence question this idea.. If the AP2 complex has an essential role in initiation then its presence would be required for the formation of endocytic sites. However, in yeast the endocytosis of mating pheromone α-factor is unaffected in strains lacking functional AP2 ...
Shop Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 4 protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 4 protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Definition of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome の最新の知見2. Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome 関連蛋白質群 : 膜輸送とメラノソーム生合成に関して Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome : new insights into membrane trafficking and biogenesis of melanosome ...
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, with symptoms such as albinism, prolonged bleeding and cell storage problems.
Comprehensive nutrition resource for Peets Coffee & Tea Medium Iced Caffee Mocha with Whip 16oz., 8 Tbsp. Whip - Fat Free. Learn about the number of calories and nutritional and diet information for Peets Coffee & Tea Medium Iced Caffee Mocha with Whip 16oz., 8 Tbsp. Whip - Fat Free. This is part of our comprehensive database of 40,000 foods including foods from hundreds of popular restaurants and thousands of brands.
New Nescafe Mocha canned drink We have seen the new Nescafe canned drink - Original, Black Roast and Latte. Now, we have Mocha, the repackaging is
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
Reaktivität: Rind (Kuh), Hund, Meerschweinchen and more. 50 verschiedene HPS3 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
A volunteer writes: One word: Mochalicious!! This gorgeous little puppy girl was left at a police precinct by a homeless person and has quickly won the hearts of staff and volunteers. Shes gorgeous in her shiny coat, has a wonderful smile and tail wag, may be housetrained (she went as soon as we were out the door) and is all puppy energy and friendship. She pulls on the leash a bit but thats all about her enthusiasm for exploring and discovering new things, she loves to give hugs and kisses, and her eyes sparkle with the excitement of making new friends of both the two legged and four legged kind. In group she engages in typical puppy play with another playful female. Mocha is looking for a fun and active home where playtime and love time are equal. Shes a fun, friendly adorable puppy on the cusp of being a rockstar adult; shouldnt there be some mochalicious in your life? Meet her today.. 05/26/2016 BEHAVIOR EVALUATION - AVERAGE ...
K&H Manufacturing K&H Pet Products Thermo-Kitty Bed Deluxe Hooded Small Mocha Leopard 16" 4 watts Overview, Features, and Description. Keep your favourite cat snug and warm at its normal body temperature with the K&H Pet Products Leopard Thermo-Kitty Bed. Its Dual Thermostat and 4 watts heating unit is concealed in the Premium Polyfill pillow base.When unused, the bed's surface will maintain a temperature of 10 to 15 degrees above the ambient air temperature..
Buy ON (Optimum Nutrition) Essential Amino Energy, 0.66 lb Mocha Cappuccino Online in India at HealthKart.com. Shop branded Amino Acids / BCAAs products online @ best prices in India. Free shipping & COD available.
See pricing info, deals and product reviews for Raynor Eurotech Dakota 2 Vinyl/Mesh Guest Chair, Cirque Mocha at Quill.com. Order online today and get fast, free shipping for your business.
Good morning, readers! I have a fun manicure for Day 2 of Patterns on Patterns Week with The Digit-al Dozen! Instead of trying to come up with a random pattern combo, I looked in my closet at my Vera Bradley purse collection and found a great example of patterns on patterns! Ive recreated this floral on floral design called Mocha Rouge and I love how it turned out!. ...
Go ahead and indulge. This yummy coffee-scented bronzer from Winky Lux in shade Mocha, is deep and buildable, doubling as a contour powder.
NESCAFÉ Coffee Protein Smoothie, Mocha - Discover our unique variety of coffees, carefully crafted for every taste and occasion imaginable.
Grenade Carb Killa Bar White Chocolate Mocha has been made using a specially selected baking process for exceptional taste and texture, resulting in a softer, crunchier high protein low carb bar. Each bar is deliciously triple layered, and packed with crunchy crispies all coated in real white chocolate.
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Supporters of the HPS Network took on the challenge of an escape room at The Great Escape Zone in Bensalem, PA to benefit the HPS Network. The event was org(...)
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from hps1 HPS1, biogenesis of lysosomal organelles complex 3 subunit 1 available at GenScript, starting from $99.00.
Roberts, T M, F M Pavalko, and S Ward. "Membrane and cytoplasmic proteins are transported in the same organelle complex during nematode spermatogenesis.." The Journal of Cell Biology 102.5 (1986): 1787-1796. Web. 19 Feb. 2018. ...
A soft silky texturetured mineral pressed semi pearl blush that glides on effortlessly to give that hint of color to the cheekbone It is a highly pigmented formula with a beautiful selection of colors from neutrals to brights for all skin hues
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Transcript So one of the final tricks you can use for free pour latte art, is, for a drink that requires a garnish, like Mocha, if you have Mocha powder, you
French for Yule Log, Buche de Noel is a traditional rolled sponge cake served on Christmas. Ours is distinguished by a rich coffee-flavored cream filling.
My piggy mocha and chestnut dont get along at all either I couldnt bear to get rid of either one of them I just separated the 2 that got along so well (mocha and nutmeg) and kept chestnut away from them. They get along no problem during floor time though even when theres food around, maybe it was just the living spaces. My pigs are so picky, well chestnut is and would much rather have her space to herself ...
You need to press the img button first and then copy in your url. Or just write the image beginning and end tags yourself (thats what I do ...
he quality of the crimp hijabs is perfect I must say, the colours as well are so soft. They look and feel very expensive and would last forever. The length is also just perfect, not too long not too short. If you are looking for good crimp everyday hijabs, Hidden Pearls is the best option. As for the jerseys, if you are looking for a scarf that lasts forever I would highly recommend the premium ones, they feel so nice and you wont find any difficulty in shaping them. I am in love with the mocha and dark grey ones. ...
한국 최고의 가격 Pure Protein Plus Bars, 모카 브라우니 - 6 - 2.11 oz Bars 부터 eVitamins.com. 알다 Plus Bars, Mocha Brownie 리뷰, 부작용, 쿠폰 및 eVitamins에서 더. 한국에 빠르고 신뢰할 수있는 운송. Plus Bars 다른 제품으로 Pure Protein 당신의 건강 요구에.
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
AP-3 complex subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3B1 gene. This gene encodes a protein that may play a role in organelle biogenesis associated with melanosomes, platelet dense granules, and lysosomes. The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin. Mutations in this gene are associated with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2. AP3B1 has been shown to interact with AP3S2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000132842 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000021686 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". DellAngelica EC, Ooi CE, Bonifacino JS (Jun 1997). "Beta3A-adaptin, a subunit of the adaptor-like complex AP-3". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (24): 15078-84. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.24.15078. PMID 9182526. Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transgenic analysis of the BmBLOS2 gene that governs the translucency of the larval integument of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. AU - Fujii, T.. AU - Daimon, T.. AU - Uchino, K.. AU - Banno, Y.. AU - Katsuma, S.. AU - Sezutsu, H.. AU - Tamura, T.. AU - Shimada, T.. PY - 2010/10/1. Y1 - 2010/10/1. N2 - The larval integument of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is opaque because urate granules accumulate in the epidermis. Although the biosynthetic pathway of uric acid is well studied, little is known about how uric acid accumulates as urate granules in epidermal cells. In the distinct oily (od) mutant silkworm, the larval integument is translucent because of the inability to construct urate granules. Recently, we have found that the od mutant has a genomic deletion in the B. mori homologue of the human biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex1, subunit 2 (BLOS2) gene (BmBLOS2). Here, we performed a molecular and functional characterization of BmBLOS2. Northern blot analysis showed ...
Lisa Gruson, MD; Thomas Berk, BA New York University School of Medicine Abstract Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of lysosomal storage characterized by the triad of occulocutaneous albinism, bleeding diathesis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Sarcoidosis is a disease characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas, most commonly affecting the lungs. The pathophysiology, histological findings, […]. Continue Reading. ...
Attendees at the 26th Annual HPS Network Conference, held in Uniondale NY in March, created a video to wish the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NH(...)
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There are 100 calories in a 1/2 cup serving of Hood Fat Free Frozen Yogurt - Mocha Fudge. Get full nutrition facts for other Hood products and all your other favorite brands.
Gevalia Mocha is a union of the rich taste of Gevalia expresso and syrup with the fine flavor of dark chocolate. Experience this delectable blend for a memorable, not-too-sweet beverage thats a perfect any time of day. Authentic variety. With Tassimo, each cup is freshly brewed to celebrate its true character, down to our real milk-based latte and cappuccino, to give you the taste you love. Choose from a variety of familiar and international brands for your perfect cup of coffee, cappuccino, latte, espresso, crema, tea, hot chocolate ...
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Function: Phosphorylates the AP2M1/mu2 subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). May play a role in regulating aspects of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (By similarity ...
The Galaxy Note 3 S View Cover is designed to provide the best of both worlds, the fashion and privacy of a flip cover with the convenience of a screen window, allowing view-through access to alerts, status and other important information.
Iced Mocha is described by NYX as a frosty deep bronze. This colour makes a great lid colour. To build up and intensify the colour, I will sometimes use this under my Inglot Eyeshadow in #402 (swatch here). I often use this pencil alone, however, when Im short on time or feeling a bit lazy. When drawn over the lid and blended with a finger or brush, Iced Mocha provide a beautiful bronze wash of colour. The point on this pencil also makes it great for applying colour and product to the lower lash line; its as easy as just drawing it on. ...
What is Greens World Inc Delicious Greens 8000? Greens World Inc Delicious Greens 8000 is an easy mixing[comma] great tasting and energizing phyto-nutrient powder mix loaded with certified organic[comma] whole foods and plant extracts. Key Benefits Can help boost energy levels Promotes general health Supports detoxific
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Lingzhi coffee is a type of gourmet coffee, a blend that is one of a kind not only because of its great taste but because of its numerous health benefits.
Dear Starbucks and McDonalds - Why do you insist on derailing our efforts to consume less during the holidays with these alluring drinks?...
As you can see, its been a beautiful week. Just one of those weeks where things start to fall into place and you can see it all coming together. A week where smiles are sprouting around every corner. I am a firm believe that you are responsible for the energy that you bring into a space... I also think that negative energy is toxic and contagious. This week, we rid our lives of so much negative energy that that positive influx was absolutely palpable. It touched every corner of our world and it was beautiful ...
The journal focuses on neuroimmunology and neuroinflammation, and the coverage extends to other basic and clinical studies related to neuroscience including molecular biology, psychology, pathology, physiology, endocrinology, pharmacology, oncology, etc.
Hey, so you have made it here, to my website, yay, I hope that you found what you were looking for! I tell you what, yes, you can send me an email, for sure, I would love that, but if you would like to discuss something B I G like your wedding - how about, after a quick email, we meet up in the real world the one that serves mochas and have a really good chin wag - get into the nitty gritty and stat planning!
Breakfast smoothies have become part of my staples. Theyre quick and easy to make in a blender and dont need a lot of ingredients. Plus, theyre deliciously yummy and satisfying. So I thought Id share three of the ones I do most, depending on what I feel like having in the morning. The mocha and…. The post Three Yummy Breakfast Smoothies appeared first on Isas.. ...
|p style=color:#777777;text-align:justify;|Capsules Yrgacheffe -Inense, Floral & Cirus 100% Arabica mocha |/p| |p style=color:#777777;text-align:justify;|An exclusive mmocha grown on the Southern Ethiopian highlands at an altitude of some 2400 meters
Discover Peets signature and unique coffee blends like the Major Dickasons, Arabia Mocha Java, and French Roast blend. We roast by hand to make every cup uncompromised.
Hey guys! Im a quokka (rhymes with mocha). Though I may seem impossibly adorable, I am a real, naturally occurring phenomenon: a house-cat-sized...
Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease consisting of oculocutaneous albinism, a platelet storage pool defect and, in some patients, lysosomal accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin. Other manifestations include pulmonary fibrosis (often fatal in the fourth or fifth decade), chronic granulomatous colitis and, rarely, renal involvement or cardiomyopathy. There exist 8 different genes known to cause HPS, but only HPS-2 has a basic defect that is known. HPS-2 disease results from mutations in the b3A subunit of a coat protein, adaptor complex-3, responsible for intracellular vesicle formation. One severe subtype of the disorder, HPS-1, is common in northwest Puerto Rico, and another milder subtype, HPS-3, is seen in central Puerto Rico. HPS-4 disease displays no founder population, and its severity resembles that of HPS-1. HPS-5 and HPS-6 resemble HPS-3 in severity. HPS-7 and HPS-8 are recently described and have not been fully characterized. In this protocol, we will ...
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Recycling endosomes consist of a tubular network that emerges from vacuolar sorting endosomes and diverts cargoes toward the cell surface, the Golgi or lysosome-related organelles. How recycling tubules are formed remains unknown. We show that recycling endosome biogenesis requires the protein complex BLOC-1. Mutations in BLOC-1 subunits underlie an inherited disorder characterized by albinism, the Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome, and are associated with schizophrenia risk. We show here that BLOC-1 coordinates the kinesin KIF13A-dependent pulling of endosomal tubules along microtubules to the Annexin A2/actin-dependent stabilization and detachment of recycling tubules. These components cooperate to extend, stabilize and form tubular endosomal carriers that function in cargo recycling and in the biogenesis of pigment granules in melanocytic cells. By shaping recycling endosomal tubules, our data reveal that dysfunction of the BLOC-1-KIF13A-Annexin A2 molecular network underlies the pathophysiology of ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit". Martinez-Arca S, Rudge R, Vacca M, Raposo G, Camonis J ... "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". The Journal of Cell Biology. 137 (4): 835-45. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Hermansky-Pudlak ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... a subunit of the adaptor-like complex AP-3". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (24): 15078-84. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.24. ... "Nonsense mutations in ADTB3A cause complete deficiency of the beta3A subunit of adaptor complex-3 and severe Hermansky-Pudlak ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3S2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 2 subunit". Dell'Angelica, E C; Ooi C E; Bonifacino J S (Jun 1997 ... 2003). "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Dev. Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression". EMBO J. 16 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.5.917. PMC 1169692 . ... 2002). "Role of adaptor complex AP-3 in targeting wild-type and mutated CD63 to lysosomes". Mol. Biol. Cell. 13 (3): 1071-82. ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3S1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit". Human AP3S1 genome location and AP3S1 gene details page ... 2003). "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Dev. Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". J. ... an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression". EMBO J. 16 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.5.917. PMC 1169692 . ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit". Human AP3B2 genome location and AP3B2 gene details page ... an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression". EMBO J. 16 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.5.917. PMC 1169692 . ... is a neuron-specific vesicle coat protein". Cell. 82 (5): 773-83. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90474-3. PMID 7671305. Darnell RB, ... Furneaux HM, Posner JB (Jun 1991). "Antiserum from a patient with cerebellar degeneration identifies a novel protein in ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3M1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 1 subunit". Human AP3M1 genome location and AP3M1 gene details page in ... 2000). "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based ... 2005). "Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes ... which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the Golgi region as well as more peripheral intracellular ...
"The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3". Journal of Cell Science. 118 (Pt ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGAP1 gene. ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 6 (3): 197-205 ...
The family routinely lies on the clathrin adaptor complex 3 beta-1 subunit proteins. The exact function of DUF 1682 is unclear ... The final protein is thought to be translated from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm of the cell. The protein is ... "Protein One". Transcription Factors. Retrieved 29 March 2014. "Protein Spotlight, The PAR b ZIP Family". Retrieved March 28, ... The portion of the protein which extends into the cytosol is predicted to be highly phosphorylated as the protein's ...
Nie Z, Fei J, Premont RT, Randazzo PA (2005). "The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes ... Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AGAP2 gene. ... Werden SJ, Barrett JW, Wang G, Stanford MM, McFadden G (2007). "M-T5, the ankyrin repeat, host range protein of myxoma virus, ... A nuclear gtpase that enhances PI3kinase activity and is regulated by protein 4.1N". Cell. 103 (6): 919-30. doi:10.1016/S0092- ...
The formation of the multi-protein complex inflammasome is achieved through the binding of intracellular bacterial, viral or ... Biochemical and mass spectroscopic analysis revealed that this pyroptosome is largely composed of dimers of the adaptor protein ... The interaction between NLRP3 and caspase-1 is via the adaptor protein ASC. ASC contains a caspase activation and recruitment ... Of note, Caspase-1 deficient mice develop normally, arguing that inhibition of this protein would produce beneficial rather ...
Gordon SM, Buchwald M (Jul 2003). "Fanconi anemia protein complex: mapping protein interactions in the yeast 2- and 3-hybrid ... "The Fanconi anemia gene product FANCF is a flexible adaptor protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (38): 39421-30. ... Fanconi anemia group C protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FANCC gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... A nuclear complex containing FANCC protein (as well as FANCA, FANCF and FANCG) is essential for the activation of the FANCD2 ...
... "p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". ... Shi CS, Tuscano J, Kehrl JH (February 2000). "Adaptor proteins CRK and CRKL associate with the serine/threonine protein kinase ... "p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". ... "B cell antigen receptor signaling induces the formation of complexes containing the Crk adapter proteins". The Journal of ...
... an adaptor protein for the human phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase. Substrate presentation by phosphatidylinositol ... Ligon LA, Shelly SS, Tokito M, Holzbaur EL (2003). "The Microtubule Plus-End Proteins EB1 and Dynactin Have Differential ... 2009). "Two Beclin 1-binding proteins, Atg14L and Rubicon, reciprocally regulate autophagy at different stages". Nat. Cell Biol ... transfer protein to the p150.Ptdins 3-kinase complex". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (4): 2477-85. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.4.2477. PMID ...
The protein encoded by this gene functions as an adaptor subunit in a complex with an active PtdIns(3)P 3-phosphatase. ... Myotubularin related protein 12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTMR12 gene. Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase- ... Myotubularin related protein 12". Retrieved 2017-05-19. Nandurkar HH, Layton M, Laporte J, Selan C, Corcoran L, Caldwell KK, ... 3-PAP". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (15): 8660-5. doi:10.1073/pnas.1033097100. PMC 166368 . PMID 12847286. Rose JE, Behm ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1M1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 1 subunit". Hinners I, Wendler F, Fei H, Thomas L, Thomas G, Tooze SA ... AP-1 complex subunit mu-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1M1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is the ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
Ellis JH, Ashman C, Burden MN, Kilpatrick KE, Morse MA, Hamblin PA (June 2000). "GRID: a novel Grb-2-related adapter protein ... Okkenhaug K, Rottapel R (August 1998). "Grb2 forms an inducible protein complex with CD28 through a Src homology 3 domain- ... Association of the TCR of a naive T cell with MHC:antigen complex without CD28:B7 interaction results in a T cell that is ... Schneider H, Cai YC, Prasad KV, Shoelson SE, Rudd CE (Apr 1995). "T cell antigen CD28 binds to the GRB-2/SOS complex, ...
2000). "A New Paxillin-binding Protein, PAG3/Papα/KIAA0400, Bearing an ADP-Ribosylation Factor GTPase-activating Protein ... "ADP-ribosylation factor is functionally and physically associated with the Golgi complex". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (3 ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... The gene products include 6 ARF proteins and 11 ARF-like proteins and constitute 1 family of the RAS superfamily. The ARF ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit". Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999 ... "Interactions between adaptor protein-1 of the clathrin coat and microtubules via type 1a microtubule-associated proteins". The ... "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three- ...
2003). "Protein kinase CK2 and protein kinase D are associated with the COP9 signalosome". EMBO J. 22 (6): 1302-12. doi:10.1093 ... a novel tetratrico peptide repeat-containing adaptor molecule". J. Cell Sci. 116 (Pt 3): 453-61. doi:10.1242/jcs.00243. PMID ... 1998). "The COP9 complex is conserved between plants and mammals and is related to the 26S proteasome regulatory complex". Curr ... Yuryev A, Wennogle LP (2003). "Novel raf kinase protein-protein interactions found by an exhaustive yeast two-hybrid analysis ...
"HIV-1 Nef protein binds to the cellular protein PACS-1 to downregulate class I major histocompatibility complexes". Nature Cell ... "PACS-1 binding to adaptors is required for acidic cluster motif-mediated protein traffic". The EMBO Journal. 20 (9): 2191-201. ... The PACS-1 protein has a putative role in the localization of trans-Golgi network (TGN) membrane proteins. Mouse and rat ... Phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 1 also known as PACS-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PACS1 gene. ...
The Nck (non-catalytic region of tyrosine kinase adaptor protein 1) belongs to the adaptor family of proteins. The nck gene was ... Ku GM, Yablonski D, Manser E, Lim L, Weiss A (February 2001). "A PAK1-PIX-PKL complex is activated by the T-cell receptor ... "Induced direct binding of the adapter protein Nck to the GTPase-activating protein-associated protein p62 by epidermal growth ... "The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-interacting protein (WIP) binds to the adaptor protein Nck". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (33): ...
"Epidermal growth factor regulates p21ras through the formation of a complex of receptor, Grb2 adapter protein, and Sos ... and are often specific to a single protein or class of proteins with which they interact. Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase Guanine ... of nucleoside diphosphates for nucleoside triphosphates bound to other proteins. Many cellular proteins cleave (hydrolyze) ... These changes in turn affect the structural, enzymatic, or signalling properties of the protein. Nucleotide exchange factors ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the AP2 adaptor complex, which serves to link clathrin ... "Entrez Gene: AP2B1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, ... Kim YM, Benovic JL (Aug 2002). "Differential roles of arrestin-2 interaction with clathrin and adaptor protein 2 in G protein- ... "Co-localization of HIV-1 Nef with the AP-2 adaptor protein complex correlates with Nef-induced CD4 down-regulation". The EMBO ...
The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition ... "Entrez Gene: AP4M1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, mu 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... Dell'Angelica EC, Mullins C, Bonifacino JS (Apr 1999). "AP-4, a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J Biol ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a Fourth Adaptor-related Protein Complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ...
... likely via an unidentified adaptor protein) and promotes the assembly of a caspase-activating complex. This causes the ... The slit proteins have repulsive functions, as opposed to netrins, and are mediated by the transmembrane protein Robo. Axonal ... This theoretically results in 13 correctly sliced, putatively good proteins. The typical DCC protein has one signal peptide ... The protein product of DCC is a single transmembrane receptor also known as DCC, and it has the same interchangeable name. ...
Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... The ribosomes, membranes and Golgi complexes can be separated by another technique called density gradient centrifugation. ... The rotors may come with different adapters to hold various sizes of test tubes, bottles, or microtiter plates. ... By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ...
The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3. J. Cell Sci. 118:3555-3566. ... Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1. Dev. Cell. 5:513-521. ... direct specific interactions of the ArfGAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 with the adapter protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3, respectively, ... coat protein complex; GAP, GTPase-activating protein; NRK, normal rat kidney. ...
Compare adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 1 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used ... Your search returned 14 adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 1 ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. ... Watch Webinar: How To Get Speed and Depth in your Host Cell Protein (HCP) Analysis ...
Adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit sigma-1C, Adaptor-related protein complex 1 subunit sigma-1C, Clathrin assembly protein ... complex 1 sigma-1C small chain, Golgi adaptor HA1/AP1 adaptin sigma-1C subunit, ... ... wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary ... knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound ...
What is Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1? Meaning of Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 medical ... What does Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 mean? ... Looking for online definition of Adapter-related protein ... Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 explanation free. ... redirected from Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1) AP3B1. A gene on chromosome 5q14.1 that encodes a subunit of ...
Creative Biomart offer ap3s2 proteins for life sciences research. All the products are rigorously tested to meet the most ... AP3S2;adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 2 subunit;AP-3 complex subunit sigma-2;sigma3b;sigma-3B-adaptin;sigma-adaptin 3b ... Protein Function. AP3S2 has several biochemical functions, for example, protein transporter activity. Some of the functions are ... Interacting Protein. AP3S2 has direct interactions with proteins and molecules. Those interactions were detected by several ...
... and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon ... The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, ... White boxes represent UTRs (untranslated regions). Orange: protein coding regions. The black lines connecting boxes represent ...
adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit beta 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... Subunit of non-clathrin- and clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) that plays a role in protein sorting in the ... The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the ... The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin ...
Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Mu 1 Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs ... AP3M1 Gene(Protein Coding) Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Mu 1 Subunit. ... Protein attributes for AP3M1 Gene. Size:. 418 amino acids. Molecular mass:. 46939 Da. Quaternary structure:. *Adaptor protein ... AP3M1 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Mu 1 Subunit) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Chaperonin- ...
Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Subunit Mu 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs ... AP3M2 Gene (Protein Coding) Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Subunit Mu 2. ... Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Subunit Mu 2 2 3 5 * Clathrin Assembly Protein Assembly Protein Complex 3 Mu-2 Medium Chain 3 ... AP3M2 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Subunit Mu 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AP3M2 include Farber ...
CLA20 is a reported synonym of the human protein adaptor related protein complex 4 subunit sigma 1, encoded by the gene AP4S1 ... The full protein is reported to be 144 amino acid residues in length. It is listed to be a member of the Adaptor complexes ... Rabbit anti-human adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 2 subunit polyclonal Antibody ...
603401 ADAPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN COMPLEX 3, BETA-1 SUBUNIT; AP3B1. 608233 HERMANSKY-PUDLAK SYNDROME 2; HPS2. ... Nonsense mutations in ADTB3A cause complete deficiency of the beta3A subunit of adaptor complex-3 and severe Hermansky-Pudlak ...
anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1 Associated Regulatory Protein Antikörper * anti-Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 sigma ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, sigma 1 Subunit Antikörper * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, mu 1 Subunit ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, beta 1 Subunit Antikörper * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, alpha 2 Subunit ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, alpha 1 Subunit Antikörper * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, sigma 3 Subunit ...
anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1 Associated Regulatory Protein Antikörper * anti-Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 sigma ... adapter-related protein complex 1 sigma-1C subunit , adaptor protein complex AP-1 sigma-1C subunit , clathrin assembly protein ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, sigma 2 Subunit Antikörper * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, mu 2 Subunit ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, mu 1 Subunit Antikörper * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, gamma 1 Subunit ...
This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles ... Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with DPYSL2 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: AP2A1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit". Nishimura, Takashi; Fukata Yuko; Kato Katsuhiro; ... AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A1 gene. ...
... that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. The AP complexes mediate ... In concert with the BLOC-1 complex, AP-3 is required to target cargos into vesicles assembled at cell bodies for delivery into ... AP-3 appears to be involved in the sorting of a subset of transmembrane proteins targeted to lysosomes and lysosome-related ... Adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) is a heterotetramer composed of two large adaptins (delta-type subunit AP3D1 and beta-type ...
adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 2 subunit. MGI:1929214 1 matching records from 1 references.. Summary by Age and Assay: ... Ap3m2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 2 subunit (Synonyms: 5830445E16Rik, AP-3B) ...
... proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 3 Pseudogene 5 * AL445305.1 5 External Ids for ENSG00000213036 Gene. *Ensembl: ENSG00000213036 ... Protein Products. * Search Origene for Purified Proteins, MassSpec and Protein Over-expression Lysates for ENSG00000213036 ... Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA ...
Interaction of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus matrix protein with cellular adaptor protein complex 3 plays a critical ... Here, we show that HRSV Matrix (M) protein interacts with the cellular adaptor protein complex 3 specifically via its medium ... Interaction of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus matrix protein with cellular adaptor protein complex 3 plays a critical ... Engaging Survivors of Human Trafficking: Complex Health Care Needs and Scarce Resources. Human trafficking, also known as ...
adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:567]. Human Orthologue:. AP3B2. Human Description:. ... adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:567]. Mouse Orthologue:. Ap3b2. Mouse Description:. ... adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit Gene [Source:MGI Symbol;Acc:MGI:1100869]. ...
... adapter-related protein complex 3 sigma-1 subunit; clathrin-associated/assembly/adapter protein, small 3; clathrin-associated/ ... AP3S1 belongs to the adaptor complexes 3 (AP3) small subunit family which is not clathrin-associated. The complex is associated ... assembly/adaptor protein, small 3 (22kD); sigma-3A-adaptin; sigma-adaptin 3a; sigma3A-adaptin. ... CLAPS3, Sigma3A; AP-3 complex sigma-3A subunit; AP-3 complex subunit sigma-1; AP-3 complex subunit sigma-3A; ...
origin of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2 and 3 and the F subcomplex of. > > the coatomer COPI would tend to be classified as ... Now an interesting thing you can do is to take a protein from one species and compare it to a similar protein from another ... Well, for starters, a system that is irreducibly complex. By irreducibly complex, I mean a single system composed of several ... Briefly, sequence analysis is involved with protein and DNA sequences. Now proteins, as you know, are composed of subunits ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit". Martinez-Arca S, Rudge R, Vacca M, Raposo G, Camonis J ... "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". The Journal of Cell Biology. 137 (4): 835-45. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Hermansky-Pudlak ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... a subunit of the adaptor-like complex AP-3". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (24): 15078-84. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.24. ... "Nonsense mutations in ADTB3A cause complete deficiency of the beta3A subunit of adaptor complex-3 and severe Hermansky-Pudlak ...
... heat shock proteins, adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3), and the chaperone-containing TCP1 (CCT) complex as well as proteins ... Protein-protein interactions are one of the major mechanisms for controlling protein functions in various cellular processes. ... 1) Only proteins with unique peptide identification are selected. 2) Proteins with more coverage are selected over proteins ... adaptor protein complex 3; CCT, chaperone-containing TCP1; UBLCP1, ubiquitin-like domain-containing CTD phosphatase 1; CTD, ...
Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3. J. Cell Biol. 137:835-845. ... AP-4, a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors. J. Biol. Chem. 274:7278-7285. ... Clathrin is linked to cargo and membranes by the clathrin adaptor complex (Keen, 1987). Four different adaptor omplexes have ... These adaptor protein complexes localize to different membranes in the cell and coordinate cargo selection and vesicle ...
  • The AP-3 complex may be directly involved in trafficking to lysosomes or alternatively it may be involved in another pathway, but that mis-sorting in that pathway may indirectly lead to defects in pigment granules (PMID:10024875). (embl.de)
  • The recycling carriers also harbor the VAMP7-binding scaffold protein VARP and the tissue-restricted Rab GTPase RAB38. (rupress.org)
  • p130Cas/BCAR1 is a scaffold protein characterized by several structural domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the ability of p130Cas/BCAR1 scaffold protein to convey and integrate different type of signals and subsequently to regulate key cellular functions such as adhesion, migration, invasion, proliferation and survival, the existence of a strong correlation between deregulated p130Cas/BCAR1 expression and cancer was inferred. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal domain contains two microtubule-interacting and transport (MIT) domains and acts as a scaffold which links ULK1, ATG13, and FIFP200 together to form a complex that is essential to initiate autophagy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Huizing M, Scher CD, Strovel E, Fitzpatrick DL, Hartnell LM, Anikster Y, Gahl WA , Nonsense mutations in ADTB3A cause complete deficiency of the beta3A subunit of adaptor complex-3 and severe Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2. (coriell.org)
  • Autosomal-Recessive Mutations in AP3B2 , Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 3 Beta 2 Subunit , Cause an Early-Onset Epileptic Encephalopathy with Optic Atrophy. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (uniprot.org)
  • WASp is a product of the WASp, and mutations in the WASp can lead to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (an X-linked disease that mainly affects males with symptoms that include thrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, and small-sized platelets) in these patients the protein is usually significantly reduced or absent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in PXN as well as abnormal expression of paxillin protein has been implicated in the progression of various cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations occur mainly in exons 2, 3, 5 and 10. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing of exons 2, 3, 5, and 10 of this gene detects an estimated 97% of all known mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumour growth can occur by a combination of factors, including a mutation in a cell cycle gene which removes the restraints on cell growth, combined with mutations in apoptopic proteins such as Caspases that would respond by inducing cell death in abnormally growing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD117 is a proto-oncogene, meaning that overexpression or mutations of this protein can lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, p97 mutant proteins carrying single point mutations found in patients with IBMPFD (inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia) (see below) have 2-3fold increase in ATPase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • capping protein (actin filament) muscl. (broadinstitute.org)
  • AMPK was mixed with a fixed amount of F-actin in the presence or absence of α-actinin and GST-Pdlim5, incubated for 1 h at 24 °C and then centrifuged at 150,000 g for 1.5 h at 24 °C, to pellet the F-actin polymer and associated proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Next, we performed an F-actin-binding assay, in which F-actin and its binding proteins are found in the pellet fraction, to determine whether Pdlim5 promotes the recruitment of AMPK onto actin filaments. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we have shown that DCs require the actin capping activity of the signaling adaptor Eps8 to polarize and to form elongated migratory protrusions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, we have identified Eps8 as a unique actin capping protein specifically required for DC migration. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Within this context, regulators of actin dynamics, including actin bundlers and capping proteins, are expected to play a critical role by controlling the architecture and dynamics of the actin meshwork that propels nonadhesive DC migration. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nck1 is involved with cellular remodeling via the WASp/Arp2/3 complex to coordinate actin cytoskeletal remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cordon-bleu protein (Cobl) is an actin nucleator protein, which seems to have a pivotal role in morphogenetic processes of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cobl in humans is composed of three WH2 domains located at the C-terminus (the first WH2 domain, WH2.1, lies between 1109 and 1129, WH2.2 between 1149 and 1169 and WH2.3 between 1237 and 1257), that are responsible for forming an "actin nucleus" composed of 3 actin monomers from which an actin filament can be further elongated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact already low nanomolar concentrations of Cobl can generate unbranched filaments with similar characterists as WASp-Arp2/3-complex-mediated actin nucleation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cobl, Spire and Leiomodin form a group of such proteins because of the presence of the WH2 domain, which bind G-actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cordon-bleu protein, uses two WH2 motifs (blue segment) for the recruitment of ATP-actin monomers (dark orange) to form a linear actin dimer (Fig. 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated Arp2/3 nucleates new F-actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins, directly or indirectly, associate with the small GTPase CDC42, known to regulate formation of actin filaments, and the cytoskeletal organising complex, Arp2/3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cooperative binding of CDC42 and PIP2 relieve the autoinhibition of N-WASp, causing Arp2/3 to carry out actin polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown to associate with an actin nucleation core Arp2/3 complex while enhancing actin polymerization in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical studies in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) and in animal systems have provided evidence for large multiprotein complexes linking a corepressor and a HDA with several histone-binding proteins and a range of associated proteins of mostly unknown function ( Yang and Seto, 2008 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • WH2 proteins occur in eukaryotes from yeast to mammals, in insect viruses, and in some bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 15, also known as Gal11,Spt13 in yeast and PCQAP, ARC105, or TIG-1 in humans is a protein encoded by the MED15 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • MED15 is a general transcriptional cofactor of the mediator complex involved in RNA polymerase II dependent transcription, originally called Gal11 and Spt13 and found in yeast as an essential factor for Gal4 dependent transactivation by T.Fukasawa and F.Winston labs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This translocase has similarity to yeast mitochondrial proteins that are involved in the import of metabolite transporters from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial inner membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a 59kDa protein originally identified in a yeast-two hybrid screen with integrin β1 as the bait protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • M-T5, the ankyrin repeat, host range protein of myxoma virus, activates Akt and can be functionally replaced by cellular PIKE-A". J. Virol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, two functionally redundant phosphotyrosine-binding domain adaptors, Disabled 2 and the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein (ARH) manage the internalization of the FxNPxY sorting signal. (biologists.org)
  • Many DNA-binding transcriptional activator proteins enhance the initiation rate of RNA polymerase II-mediated gene transcription by interacting functionally with the general transcription machinery bound at the basal promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The seemingly scrambled ssTnI and cTnI gene pair is actually functionally related as they co-express and form troponin complex in the embryonic heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP3S2 has several biochemical functions, for example, protein transporter activity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Biochemical and mass spectroscopic analysis revealed that this pyroptosome is largely composed of dimers of the adaptor protein ASC (apoptosis-associated speck protein containing a CARD or Caspase activation and recruitment domain). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic and biochemical evidence has implicated the Keap1 protein as the major upstream regulator of Nrf2. (asm.org)
  • DNA interstrand crosslinks are highly deleterious damages that are repaired by homologous recombination involving coordination of FA proteins and breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1), but the exact biochemical roles of these proteins is currently unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this process, protein purification is carried out after mixing the cell lysates from two types of cells that have been differentially labeled. (mcponline.org)
  • Collectively, these data suggest that by promoting GATA-3 and T-bet expression, SAP exerts control over NKT cell development and mature NKT cell cytokine production. (jimmunol.org)
  • The final protein is thought to be translated from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no glycosylation of the protein as it is not predicted to extend into the extracellular portion of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this observation, S177D-Pdlim5 suppresses Rac1 activity at the cell periphery and displaces the Arp2/3 complex from the leading edge. (nih.gov)
  • MUDENG is cleaved by caspase-3 during TRAIL-induced cell death. (nih.gov)
  • Adaptor protein-3: A key player in RBL-2H3 mast cell mediator release. (ptglab.com)
  • The biogenesis of melanosomes is a multistage process that requires the function of cell-type-specific and ubiquitously expressed proteins. (wiley.com)
  • CD28 (Cluster of Differentiation 28) is one of the proteins expressed on T cells that provide co-stimulatory signals required for T cell activation and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • FAK is a protein of 125 kD recruited as a participant in focal adhesion dynamics between cells, and has a role in motility and cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • These sites of slow or paused translation are demonstrated by an increase in ribosome density and these pauses can link specific proteins with their roles within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic cell signal transducer is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HCST gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B-cell linker protein is encoded by the BLNK gene and is an adaptor protein also known as SLP-65, BASH, and BCA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B-cell linker protein is essential for normal B-cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, it was discovered that T cell-derived interleukin 3 was the component present in the conditioned media that was required for mast cell differentiation and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • An acute phase response is present during attacks, with high C-reactive protein levels, an elevated white blood cell count and other markers of inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, over-activation of some caspases such as caspase-3 can lead to excessive programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her laboratory uses many techniques including immunolocalisation at the light and electron microscope levels, sub cellular fractionation, protein purification, proteomics, flow cytometry, live cell imaging, and X-ray crystallography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even if a cell has the proper energy for protein synthesis, if it does not have the amino acid building blocks for proteins, no protein synthesis will occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is localized exclusively in the cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • RPTOR also has a positive role in maintaining cell size and mTOR protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because mTORC1 inhibits autophagy and stimulates cell growth, it can cause damaged proteins and cell structures to accumulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD28 also contains two proline-rich motifs that are able to bind SH3-containing proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The LD motifs are predicted to form amphipathic alpha helices, with each leucine residue positioned on one face of the alpha helix to form a hydrophobic protein-binding interface. (wikipedia.org)
  • GAB2 is a large multi-site docking protein (LMD) of about 100kD that has a folded N-terminal domain attached to an extended, disordered C-terminal tail rich in short linear motifs. (wikipedia.org)