An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.
The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.
A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Phosphoric acid esters of mannitol.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A homolog of ERGONOVINE containing one more CH2 group. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that play a role in the coupling of SYNDECANS to CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
A macromolecular complex of proteins that includes DYSTROPHIN and DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. It plays a structural role in the linking the CYTOSKELETON to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
An angiocentric and angiodestructive lymphoproliferative disorder primarily involving the lungs. It is caused by an Epstein-Barr virus-induced transformation of the B-cells, in a T-cell rich environment. Clinically and pathologically it resembles EXTRANODAL NK-T-CELL LYMPHOMA.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.
Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signalling and activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.

Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38. (1/155)

Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis.  (+info)

Inhibition of the receptor-binding function of clathrin adaptor protein AP-2 by dominant-negative mutant mu2 subunit and its effects on endocytosis. (2/155)

Although interactions between the mu2 subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2 and tyrosine-based internalization motifs have been implicated in the selective recruitment of cargo molecules into coated pits, the functional significance of this interaction for endocytosis of many types of membrane proteins remains unclear. To analyze the function of mu2-receptor interactions, we constructed an epitope-tagged mu2 that incorporates into AP-2 and is targeted to coated pits. Mutational analysis revealed that Asp176 and Trp421 of mu2 are involved in the interaction with internalization motifs of TGN38 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Inducible overexpression of mutant mu2, in which these two residues were changed to alanines, resulted in metabolic replacement of endogenous mu2 in AP-2 complexes and complete abrogation of AP-2 interaction with the tyrosine-based internalization motifs. As a consequence, endocytosis of the transferrin receptor was severely impaired. In contrast, internalization of the EGF receptor was not affected. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the dominant-interfering approach for functional analysis of the adaptor protein family, and indicate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis may proceed in both a mu2-dependent and -independent manner.  (+info)

Association of AP1 adaptor complexes with GLUT4 vesicles. (3/155)

Nycodenz gradients have been used to examine the in vitro effects of GTP-(gamma)-S on adaptor complex association with GLUT4 vesicles. On addition of GTP-(gamma)-S, GLUT4 fractionates as a heavier population of vesicles, which we suggest is due to a budding or coating reaction. Under these conditions there is an increase in co-sedimentation of GLUT4 with AP1, but not with AP3. Western blotting of proteins associated with isolated GLUT4 vesicles shows the presence of high levels of AP1 and some AP3 but very little AP2 adaptor complexes. Cell free, in vitro association of the AP1 complex with GLUT4 vesicles is increased approximately 4-fold by the addition of GTP-(gamma)-S and an ATP regenerating system. Following GTP-(gamma)-S treatment in vitro, ARF is also recruited to GLUT4 vesicles, and the temperature dependence of ARF recruitment closely parallels that of AP1. The recruitment of both AP1 and ARF are partially blocked by brefeldin A. These data demonstrate that the coating of GLUT4 vesicles can be studied in isolated cell-free fractions. Furthermore, at least two distinct adaptor complexes can associate with the GLUT4 vesicles and it is likely that these adaptors are involved in mediating distinct intracellular sorting events at the level of TGN and endosomes.  (+info)

The leucine-based sorting motifs in the cytoplasmic domain of the invariant chain are recognized by the clathrin adaptors AP1 and AP2 and their medium chains. (4/155)

Recognition of sorting signals within the cytoplasmic tail of membrane proteins by adaptor protein complexes is a crucial step in membrane protein sorting. The three known adaptor complexes, AP1, AP2, and AP3, have all been shown to recognize tyrosine- and leucine-based sorting signals, which are the most common sorting signals within membrane protein cytoplasmic tails. Although tyrosine-based signals are recognized by the micro-chains of adaptor complexes, the subunit recognizing leucine-based sorting signals is less clear. In this report we show by surface plasmon resonance that the two leucine-based sorting signals within the cytoplasmic tail of the invariant chain bind independently from each other to AP1 and AP2 but not to AP3. We also show that both motifs can be recognized by the micro-chains of AP1 and AP2. Moreover, by using monomeric as well as trimeric invariant chain constructs, we show that adaptor binding does not require trimerization of the invariant chain.  (+info)

Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting motif. (5/155)

HIV-1 Nef interacts with cellular adaptor protein (AP) complexes and their medium (mu) subunits. However, the role of the dileucine-based sorting motif within Nef in these interactions has been incompletely characterized. Here, yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that HIV-1 Nef interacted not only with the mu subunits of AP-1 and AP-2, but also with that of AP-3. The interactions with mu1 and mu3 were markedly stronger than the interaction with mu2. Leucine residues of the sorting motif were required for the interactions with mu3 and mu2 and contributed to the interaction with mu1. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that Nef, AP-1, and AP-3 (but not AP-2) were concentrated in a juxtanuclear region near the cell center, potentially facilitating interaction between Nef and the mu1 and mu3 subunits. However, leucine residues of the sorting motif were not required for this subcellular localization of Nef. These data suggest that the dileucine motif, required for optimal viral replication, functions through interactions with a variety of AP complexes, including AP-3, potentially by recruiting adaptor complexes to subcellular locations specified by additional determinants in the Nef protein.  (+info)

RLIP76, an effector of the GTPase Ral, interacts with the AP2 complex: involvement of the Ral pathway in receptor endocytosis. (6/155)

RLIP76 is a modular protein that was identified as a putative effector of Ral, a GTPase activated during Ras signaling. To explore further the contribution of the Ral-RLIP76 pathway to Ras signaling, we have looked for partners of RLIP76. Mu2, the medium chain of the AP2 complex is shown to interact with RLIP76. We show also that in vivo endogenous AP2 and RLIP76 form a complex and that this in vivo interaction is independent of cells being stimulated by a growth factor. Furthermore, RLIP76 differentiates AP2 from AP1 in vivo as RLIP76 differentiates mu2 from mu1 in vitro and in two hybrid assays. We show that activated Ral interferes with both tranferrin receptor endocytosis and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor endocytosis in HeLa cells. We propose a model where the Ral-RLIP76 pathway connects signal transduction and endocytosis through interaction on one hand between the Ras-Ral pathway and RLIP, on the other hand between RLIP and proteins belonging to the endocytotic machinery.  (+info)

Defective organellar membrane protein trafficking in Ap3b1-deficient cells. (7/155)

AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex involved in intracellular vesicle transport. Molecular analyses show that Ap3b1, which encodes the AP-3 (&bgr;)3A subunit, is altered in pearl mice. To provide genetic evidence that mutation of Ap3b1 is responsible for the pearl phenotype and to determine the null phenotype, the Ap3b1 gene was disrupted by homologous recombination. Mice homozygous for the resulting allele, Ap3b1(LN), or compound heterozygotes with pearl, displayed phenotypes similar to those of pearl mice, confirming that Ap3b1 is the causal gene for pearl. Moreover, pearl is likely to be a hypomorph as the Ap3b1(LN) homozygotes had a lighter coat color and accumulated fewer of the micro3 and (&dgr;)3 subunits of AP-3 than did pearl mice. Finally, immunofluorescence analysis of fibroblasts and melanocytes cultured from Ap3b1(LN) homozygotes revealed that the lysosomal membrane proteins Lamp I and Lamp II and the melanosomal membrane protein tyrosinase were mislocalized. In particular, the Lamp proteins were clustered on the cell surface. These findings strengthen the evidence for an alternate pathway via the plasma membrane for cargo normally transported to organelles by AP-3.  (+info)

Multiple C-terminal motifs of the 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor tail contribute to efficient binding of medium chains of AP-2 and AP-3. (8/155)

The interaction of adaptor protein (AP) complexes with signal structures in the cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins is required for intracellular sorting. Tyrosine- or dileucine-based motifs have been reported to bind to medium chain subunits (mu) of AP-1, AP-2, or AP-3. In the present study, we have examined the interaction of the entire 67-amino acid cytoplasmic domain of the 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR46-CT) containing tyrosine- as well as dileucine-based motifs with mu2 and mu3A chains using the yeast two-hybrid system. Both mu2 and mu3A bind specifically to the MPR46-CT. In contrast, mu3A fails to bind to the cytoplasmic domain of the 300-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Mutational analysis of the MPR46-CT revealed that the tyrosine-based motif and distal sequences rich in acidic amino acid residues are sufficient for effective binding to mu2. However, the dileucine motif was found to be one part of a consecutive complex C-terminal structure comprising tyrosine and dileucine motifs as well as clusters of acidic residues necessary for efficient binding of mu3A. Alanine substitution of 2 or 4 acidic amino acid residues of this cluster reduces the binding to mu3A much more than to mu2. The data suggest that the MPR46 is capable of interacting with different AP complexes using multiple partially overlapping sorting signals, which might depend on posttranslational modifications or subcellular localization of the receptor.  (+info)

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Getting bored with horse posts? Hope not, because heres another one. There is other stuff happening, just cant/wont talk about it as it involves work thoughts. Writer brain is locked in revisions and not much happening there. So horse or skiing, and horse it is tonight.. Mochas now recognizing the sound of the new car. Today she was in her old post by the door, watching for me to come in. Its always a bit of a thrill to walk in the door and spot the white of her blaze in the front of the stall, showing that shes looking for me. While the Sparkle mare and the Windy pony both liked me well enough, and Sparkle would watch the back door from the pasture, theyd just as happily greet my mom as they would me. Not so Mocha. While G. and his wife I. have a spot in her heart, I really dont have other competition.. The nice thing about having a broke horse is that if youre riding and someone asks for help, you can just step down, tell your horse whoa, and go off to lend a hand while the horse ...
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Hello, Im trying to learn Mocha and having a bit of problems how to translate some of my tests to the mocha world. For example - Im trying to convert this simple test: def test_get_feed_details_w_bad_url assert_incomplete_test get :feed_widget_details, :k =| e6efb203a1cdebcf5a7406175924fe9991979f68, :id =| artists(:first).id
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Its back to the dark and cool evening arena rides, with a steaming horse at the end of the session. Im not quite sure why Mochas sweating so much this winter, unlike the past two, except that her coat has come in very thick and heavy, almost felted.. So I did a trace clip. Id been assured that a trace clip (for the non-horsey-looks like a racing stripe) would help keep Mocha from sweating so badly. Well-yeah. She didnt sweat badly where I clipped. The remaining coat was as drenched as ever.. I guess that means a full body clip this year, as otherwise I spend a good hour getting her dry after an hours ride.. Otherwise, she worked pretty well. A bit overreved in the rollbacks; another horse was schooling them during our warmup and she got a bit excited (Im also working on perfecting the cue by taking my outside leg off as we stop, when shes in a strong mood like tonight thats all it takes). Mochas also getting excited about other stuff were doing, like two-track canter and ...
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- ᄂEτ Їτ Æᄂᄂ Θυτ! - - вę Ǟ slǞvę ƮΦ ყΦЦЯ DęsiЯęs! - ╔════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗ ╠═════════════════════════ Danger! Danger! Dang
Background Cerebral palsy is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental brain disorders resulting in motor and posture impairments often associated with cognitive, sensorial, and behavioural disturbances. Hypoxic-ischaemic injury, long considered the most frequent causative factor, accounts for fewer than 10% of cases, whereas a growing body of evidence suggests that diverse genetic abnormalities likely play a major role. ...
This intronless gene encodes a protein that may play a role in organelle biogenesis associated with melanosomes, platelet dense granules, and lysosomes. A similar protein in mouse is a component of a protein complex termed biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1), and is a model for Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. The encoded protein may play a role in intracellular vesicular trafficking. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
ID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/55330 Type: http://bio2vec.net/ontology/gene Label: BLOC1S4 Synonyms: BLOC1S4, BCAS4L, BLOS4, CNO, biogenesis of lysosomal organelles complex 1 subunit 4, biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 subunit 4, BLOC-1 subunit 4, biogenesis of lysosomal organelles complex-1, subunit 4, cappuccino, cappuccino homolog, protein cappuccino homolog Alternative IDs: 55330 API: GO SPARQL: GO ...
HPS1 (HPS1, biogenesis of lysosomal organelles complex 3 subunit 1), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
BLOC1S3 (biogenesis of lysosomal organelles complex 1 subunit 3), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
[ 191 The Fossil Record Study Guide Answers 94223 ] - Membrane Bound Organelles Complex Cell Wall Plants And,Darwin S Theory Of Evolution Worksheet Chapter 15 Darwin,7th Grade Life Science Assignments Amp Due Dates
Craige B, Salazar G, Faundez V. Phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II alpha contains an AP-3-sorting motif and a kinase domain that are both required for endosome traffic. Mol Biol Cell. 2008 Apr; 19(4):1415-26 ...
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These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain. These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above. ...
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As much as I admire her for being super supportive kay Duterte please naman, may mga bagay na dapat hayaan mo nalang na mismong actions ni Duterte ang makakapag sabi or the Filipino people could answer hindi yung you represented all the filipino. Hayaan mong kami ang magsabi wag na patulan remember you cannot please everybody kaya let Dutertes action para sa pagbabago ang makapagpatunay nun. Utang na loob Mocha ReplyDelete ...
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Complete information for HPS1 gene (Protein Coding), HPS1, Biogenesis Of Lysosomal Organelles Complex 3 Subunit 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for BLOC1S2 gene (Protein Coding), Biogenesis Of Lysosomal Organelles Complex 1 Subunit 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Previous work showed that UNC 101 and DPY 23 are adaptins orthologous to the mu1 and mu2 subunits of adaptor protein complex 1 and 2, and that they both can act as negative modulators of LET 23 Regorafenib chemical structure signalling. Similarly, SLI 1 is orthologous to CBL, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting LET 23 for degradation and SEM 5 is GRB2, an adaptor molecule that physically interact with EGFR. To address whether these genes could interact with cdt 2, we used loss of function alleles of dpy 23 AP2, unc 101 AP1, sli 1 CBL, and sem 5 GRB2 and performed cdt 2. We found that cdt 2 genetically interacts with dpy 23lf and unc 101lf, as cdt 2 RNAi induces a Muv phenotype in these back grounds. In contrast, no interaction was seen with sli 1lf or sem 5lf.. Since an absence of genetic interaction can sometimes suggest a physical interaction, we tested whether CDT 2 could physically interact with either SLI 1 or SEM 5. We produced in vitro labelled CDT 2 and puri fied SLI 1 and SEM 5 from ...
You may recall the press Starbucks got when it shut down every single store for a couple of hours one night back in February. Unfortunately, this extra training given to all employees so that they could all brew the perfect cup of joe was wasted time for the folks at MY Starbucks. Exhibit A: This mornings hazelnut latte contained zero hazelnut. Fortunately, we keep some syrup on hand for our own espresso machine, but seriously?! the little syrup box was clearly marked with an H. Exhibit B: when I was allergy-sleepy earlier in the week I stopped at the same Starbucks for an iced raspberry no whip mocha which arrived pinker than normal, which could be attributed to the fact that it had no mocha, making it in fact, a latte. I was able to overcome this obstacle by some leftover Hersheys syrup found in the back of the fridge at work, but I dare say I was endangering my own life by putting anything found in that cess pool near my mouth! Now, for $4 a pop, you would think they could at least include ...
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Ellas birth story, after three weeks of recovery, processing, and thanking God for this incredible gift of a daughter. Eight months prior to receiving the news that we were expecting our first child, our hearts were shattered. In February 2019, we had a miscarriage. And, just one month after that in March, we had another.…
Trust is not a passive state of mind. It is a vigorous act of the soul by which we choose to lay hold on the promises of God and cling to them despite the adversity that at times seeks to overwhelms us. - - -Jerry Bridges. ...
Review: Worked best for me when I used my electric percolator. I used one and one half tablespoons for 4 cups of coffee, and I used a fold-over coffe
"Entrez Gene: AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Martinez-Arca S ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Hermansky-Pudlak ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ooi CE, Bonifacino JS (Jun 1997). "Beta3A-adaptin, a subunit of the adaptor-like complex AP-3". The Journal ... "Nonsense mutations in ADTB3A cause complete deficiency of the beta3A subunit of adaptor complex-3 and severe Hermansky-Pudlak ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3S2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 2 subunit". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Dell'Angelica, ... 2003). "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Dev. Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression". EMBO J. 16 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.5.917. PMC 1169692. ... 2002). "Role of adaptor complex AP-3 in targeting wild-type and mutated CD63 to lysosomes". Mol. Biol. Cell. 13 (3): 1071-82. ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3S1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit". Human AP3S1 genome location and AP3S1 gene details page ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression". The EMBO Journal. 16 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.5.917. PMC ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit". Human AP3B2 genome location and AP3B2 gene details page ... an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression". EMBO J. 16 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.5.917. PMC 1169692. ... is a neuron-specific vesicle coat protein". Cell. 82 (5): 773-83. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90474-3. PMID 7671305. Darnell RB, ... Furneaux HM, Posner JB (Jun 1991). "Antiserum from a patient with cerebellar degeneration identifies a novel protein in ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3M1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 1 subunit". Human AP3M1 genome location and AP3M1 gene details page in ... 2000). "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based ... 2005). "Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes ... which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the Golgi region as well as more peripheral intracellular ...
"The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3". Journal of Cell Science. 118 (Pt ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGAP1 gene. ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 6 (3): 197-205 ...
The family routinely lies on the clathrin adaptor complex 3 beta-1 subunit proteins. The exact function of DUF 1682 is unclear ... The final protein is thought to be translated from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm of the cell. The protein is ... The portion of the protein which extends into the cytosol is predicted to be highly phosphorylated as the protein's ... cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), PAR b ZIP family and Sp4 Transcription Factor. NRF1 encodes a protein which ...
Nie Z, Fei J, Premont RT, Randazzo PA (2005). "The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes ... Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AGAP2 gene. ... Werden SJ, Barrett JW, Wang G, Stanford MM, McFadden G (2007). "M-T5, the ankyrin repeat, host range protein of myxoma virus, ... A nuclear gtpase that enhances PI3kinase activity and is regulated by protein 4.1N". Cell. 103 (6): 919-30. doi:10.1016/S0092- ...
... an adaptor protein for the human phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase. Substrate presentation by phosphatidylinositol ... Ligon LA, Shelly SS, Tokito M, Holzbaur EL (2003). "The Microtubule Plus-End Proteins EB1 and Dynactin Have Differential ... 2009). "Two Beclin 1-binding proteins, Atg14L and Rubicon, reciprocally regulate autophagy at different stages". Nat. Cell Biol ... transfer protein to the p150.Ptdins 3-kinase complex". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (4): 2477-85. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.4.2477. PMID ...
... "p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". ... Shi CS, Tuscano J, Kehrl JH (February 2000). "Adaptor proteins CRK and CRKL associate with the serine/threonine protein kinase ... "p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". ... "B cell antigen receptor signaling induces the formation of complexes containing the Crk adapter proteins". The Journal of ...
MYPT1 is another protein phosphatase subunit that forms complexes with OGT and is itself O-GlcNAcylated. MYPT1 appears to have ... KEAP1, an adaptor protein for the cullin 3-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, mediates the degradation of NRF2; oxidative ... regulating protein-protein interactions, altering protein structure or enzyme activity, changing protein subcellular ... Protein phosphatase 1 subunits PP1β and PP1γ have been shown to form functional complexes with OGT. A synthetic phosphopeptide ...
2003). "Protein kinase CK2 and protein kinase D are associated with the COP9 signalosome". EMBO J. 22 (6): 1302-12. doi:10.1093 ... a novel tetratrico peptide repeat-containing adaptor molecule". J. Cell Sci. 116 (Pt 3): 453-61. doi:10.1242/jcs.00243. PMID ... 1998). "The COP9 complex is conserved between plants and mammals and is related to the 26S proteasome regulatory complex". Curr ... Yuryev A, Wennogle LP (2003). "Novel raf kinase protein-protein interactions found by an exhaustive yeast two-hybrid analysis ...
2000). "A New Paxillin-binding Protein, PAG3/Papα/KIAA0400, Bearing an ADP-Ribosylation Factor GTPase-activating Protein ... "ADP-ribosylation factor is functionally and physically associated with the Golgi complex". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (3 ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... The gene products include 6 ARF proteins and 11 ARF-like proteins and constitute 1 family of the RAS superfamily. The ARF ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit". Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999 ... "Interactions between adaptor protein-1 of the clathrin coat and microtubules via type 1a microtubule-associated proteins". The ... "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three- ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1M1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 1 subunit". Hinners I, Wendler F, Fei H, Thomas L, Thomas G, Tooze SA ... AP-1 complex subunit mu-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1M1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is the ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
"BLOC-1 Complex Deficiency Alters the Targeting of Adaptor Protein Complex-3 Cargoes". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 17 (9): ... BLOC-1 or biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 is a ubiquitously expressed multisubunit protein complex in a ... The identified protein subunits of BLOC-1 include: pallidin muted (protein) dysbindin cappuccino (protein) Snapin BLOS1 BLOS2 ... lysosome-associate membrane proteins). Multiple studies recapitulate an association with the adaptor complex AP-3, a protein ...
"HIV-1 Nef protein binds to the cellular protein PACS-1 to downregulate class I major histocompatibility complexes". Nature Cell ... "PACS-1 binding to adaptors is required for acidic cluster motif-mediated protein traffic". The EMBO Journal. 20 (9): 2191-201. ... The PACS-1 protein has a putative role in the localization of trans-Golgi network (TGN) membrane proteins. Mouse and rat ... Phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 1, also known as PACS-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PACS1 gene. ...
Okkenhaug K, Rottapel R (August 1998). "Grb2 forms an inducible protein complex with CD28 through a Src homology 3 domain- ... a novel Grb-2-related adapter protein that interacts with the activated T cell costimulatory receptor CD28". J. Immunol. 164 ( ... Association of the TCR of a naive T cell with MHC:antigen complex without CD28:B7 interaction results in a T cell that is ... Schneider H, Cai YC, Prasad KV, Shoelson SE, Rudd CE (Apr 1995). "T cell antigen CD28 binds to the GRB-2/SOS complex, ...
It is suggested that it acts as an adaptor protein in events related to immune response and cholesterol regulation, for example ... The link between these two protein within the JAK1-SNX8 complex allows JAK1 to catalyse SNX8's tyrosines phosphorylation in ... are involved in protein-protein interactions. The SNX8 protein, even though is very similar to the other sorting nexins, ... SNX8 is thought to be an adaptor protein involved in the endosome-to-Golgi transport pathway, participating in endocytosis and ...
"Epidermal growth factor regulates p21ras through the formation of a complex of receptor, Grb2 adapter protein, and Sos ... and are often specific to a single protein or class of proteins with which they interact. Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase Guanine ... of nucleoside diphosphates for nucleoside triphosphates bound to other proteins. Many cellular proteins cleave (hydrolyze) ... These changes in turn affect the structural, enzymatic, or signalling properties of the protein. Nucleotide exchange factors ...
The Nck (non-catalytic region of tyrosine kinase adaptor protein 1) belongs to the adaptor family of proteins. The nck gene was ... Ku GM, Yablonski D, Manser E, Lim L, Weiss A (February 2001). "A PAK1-PIX-PKL complex is activated by the T-cell receptor ... "Induced direct binding of the adapter protein Nck to the GTPase-activating protein-associated protein p62 by epidermal growth ... "The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-interacting protein (WIP) binds to the adaptor protein Nck". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (33): ...
... "p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". ... PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2), also known as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by ... The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases that included PYK2, but lacks significant ... Lineage for Protein: Focal adhesion kinase 1 Q00944 "Entrez Gene: PTK2 PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2". Guan JL, Shalloway D ( ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the AP2 adaptor complex, which serves to link clathrin ... "Entrez Gene: AP2B1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, ... Kim YM, Benovic JL (Aug 2002). "Differential roles of arrestin-2 interaction with clathrin and adaptor protein 2 in G protein- ... "Co-localization of HIV-1 Nef with the AP-2 adaptor protein complex correlates with Nef-induced CD4 down-regulation". The EMBO ...
The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition ... "Entrez Gene: AP4M1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, mu 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... Dell'Angelica EC, Mullins C, Bonifacino JS (Apr 1999). "AP-4, a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J Biol ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a Fourth Adaptor-related Protein Complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ...
... likely via an unidentified adaptor protein) and promotes the assembly of a caspase-activating complex. This causes the ... The slit proteins have repulsive functions, as opposed to netrins, and are mediated by the transmembrane protein Robo. Axonal ... This theoretically results in 13 correctly sliced, putatively good proteins. The typical DCC protein has one signal peptide ... The protein product of DCC is a single transmembrane receptor also known as DCC, and it has the same interchangeable name. ...
"Entrez Gene: AP2S1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, sigma 1 subunit". Pearse BM, Smith CJ, Owen DJ (2000). "Clathrin coat ... "A novel spliced transcript of human CLAPS2 encoding a protein alternative to clathrin adaptor protein AP17". Gene. 220 (1-2): ... AP-2 complex subunit sigma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2S1 gene. One of two major clathrin-associated ... 1991). "AP17 and AP19, the mammalian small chains of the clathrin-associated protein complexes show homology to Yap17p, their ...
Panaretou C, Domin J, Cockcroft S, Waterfield MD (1997). "Characterization of p150, an adaptor protein for the human ... "Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein induces a rapid and selective activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, and -epsilon and - ... Substrate presentation by phosphatidylinositol transfer protein to the p150.Ptdins 3-kinase complex". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (4): ... 1998). "Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein activates phosphatidylinositol 3- and Akt/PKB kinases in CD4+ T lymphoblastoid Jurkat ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 2 subunit". Rost, Martina; Döring Tatjana; Prange Reinhild (Nov ... 2003). "HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of adaptor protein complexes with membranes". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (10): 8725-32. ... 2005). "Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes ...
In this context, JIP1/2 act as cargo adaptors, binding to a motor protein and a cargo protein simultaneously. In addition to ... Since the cargo-linkage mechanism of this complex is believed to be phosphporylation-dependent, phosphorylation by JNK kinase ... This protein is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase family. The MKK7 protein exists as six different ... Several mammalian scaffold proteins have been identified. These include the JNK-interacting protein (JIP) 1 and its closerly- ...
... "p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". J ... Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... Bai RY, Jahn T, Schrem S, Munzert G, Weidner KM, Wang JY, Duyster J (August 1998). "The SH2-containing adapter protein GRB10 ... Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ...
"Characterization of a protein complex containing spliceosomal proteins SAPs 49, 130, 145, and 155". Molecular and Cellular ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (April 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... "Characterization of a protein complex containing spliceosomal proteins SAPs 49, 130, 145, and 155". Molecular and Cellular ... This gene encodes subunit 1 of the splicing factor 3b protein complex. Splicing factor 3b, together with splicing factor 3a and ...
Homotrimerisation is a process whereby three of the same subunits, associate to make a complex of three identical YadA proteins ... Function: The function of the neck domain is to be the adaptor between the larger diameter of the beta-helices and the smaller ... First, biogenesis of proteins in the Type V Secretion System (T5SS). Second, it is thought to target the protein to the inner ... However, the outer membrane is a barrier for the secretion of proteins, and it requires energy to transport proteins across the ...
... s (abbreviated Arr) are a small family of proteins important for regulating signal transduction at G protein-coupled ... The strength of arrestin-receptor interaction plays a role in this choice: tighter complexes tend to increase the probability ... clathrin and clathrin adaptor AP2, which promotes receptor internalization via coated pits and subsequent transport to internal ... Arrestins were first discovered as a part of a conserved two-step mechanism for regulating the activity of G protein-coupled ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the exocyst complex, a multiple protein complex essential for targeting ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Jun 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal ... Though best characterized in yeast, the component proteins and functions of exocyst complex have been demonstrated to be highly ...
The MyD88 protein acts as an adapter, connecting proteins that receive signals from outside the cell to the proteins that relay ... "Dysregulation of LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4-MyD88 complex formation and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 activation in ... After ligand binding, all TLRs apart from TLR3, interact with adaptor protein MyD88. Another adaptor protein, which is ... In that species it is a universal adapter protein as it is used by almost all TLRs (except TLR 3) to activate the transcription ...
... is an adaptor protein. The protein encoded by this gene is a death domain containing adaptor molecule that interacts with ... "TNF-dependent recruitment of the protein kinase RIP to the TNF receptor-1 signaling complex". Immunity. 4 (4): 387-96. doi: ... This protein binds adaptor protein TRAF2, reduces the recruitment of inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (IAPs) by TRAF2, and thus ... This protein can also interact with receptor TNFRSF6/FAS and adaptor protein FADD/MORT1, and is involved in the Fas-induced ...
Alpha-1-syntrophin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNTA1 gene. Alpha-1 syntrophin is a signal transducing adaptor ... "Alternative splicing of dystrobrevin regulates the stoichiometry of syntrophin binding to the dystrophin protein complex". Curr ... The protein encoded by this gene is a peripheral membrane protein found associated with dystrophin and dystrophin-related ... Fernández-Larrea J, Merlos-Suárez A, Ureña JM, Baselga J, Arribas J (1999). "A role for a PDZ protein in the early secretory ...
Conserved oligomeric Golgi complex subunit 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COG7 gene. Multiprotein complexes ... 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio. ... Several complexes have been identified, including the Golgi transport complex (GTC), the LDLC complex, which is involved in ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ...
2002). "Regulation of FcepsilonRI-mediated degranulation by an adaptor protein 3BP2 in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells". ... 1996). "Peripheral blood dendritic cells express Fc epsilon RI as a complex composed of Fc epsilon RI alpha- and Fc epsilon RI ... Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; alpha polypeptide, also known as FCER1A, is a protein which in humans is ... this protein), beta, and gamma; only the alpha subunit is glycosylated. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000179639 - Ensembl, ...
Belogrudov GI, Hatefi Y (Feb 2002). "Factor B and the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex". J Biol Chem. 277 (8): 6097-103. doi: ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Jun 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Oster G, Wang H (2003). "Rotary protein motors". Trends Cell Biol. 13 (3): 114-21. doi:10.1016/S0962-8924(03)00004-7. PMID ... ATP5S: ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex subunit s (factor B) Kinosita K, Yasuda R, Noji H (2003). "F1- ...
ClpS is a bacterial adaptor protein that is responsible for recognizing protein substrates via their N-terminal residues and ... January 2013). "Structural insights into the inactive subunit of the apicoplast-localized caseinolytic protease complex of ... ClpS is as a specific adaptor protein for the ATP-dependent AAA+ protease ClpAP, and hence ClpS delivers N-degron substrates to ... The bacterial N-end rule is already well documented; it involves the Clp protease system which consists of the adaptor protein ...
"Characterization of the CIN85 adaptor protein and identification of components involved in CIN85 complexes". Biochem. Biophys. ... Adapter molecule crk is a member of an adapter protein family that binds to several tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This ... Adapter molecule crk also known as proto-oncogene c-Crk is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRK gene. The CRK protein ... "Adaptor proteins Grb2 and Crk couple Pyk2 with activation of specific mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades". J. Biol. Chem ...
Not only catalytic but also adaptor activities of this protein are involved in this process. Its movement from the cytosol to ... Poe JC, Fujimoto M, Jansen PJ, Miller AS, Tedder TF (June 2000). "CD22 forms a quaternary complex with SHIP, Grb2, and Shc. A ... pathways independently on its catalytic activity by serving as a bridge for other proteins thereby regulate protein-protein ... Overall, the protein functions as a negative regulator of cell proliferation and survival. Nevertheless, SHIP1 may also bind to ...
Interaction with other proteins (e.g. the adaptor molecule ASC) is mediated via N-terminal pyrin (PYD) domain. There are 14 ... MyD88 attracts the IRAK4 molecule, IRAK4 recruits IRAK1 and IRAK2 to form a signaling complex. The signaling complex reacts ... Among other proteins the most important are: the MHC Class II transactivator (CIITA), IPAF, BIRC1 etc. Some of these proteins ... which binds more limited number and variety of ligands and works in a complex with NAIP protein. Other NLRs such as IPAF and ...
KLHL3 serves as an adaptor protein that promotes the interaction between WNK1 and Cullin3, which is in a complex containing an ... The gene belongs to a group of four related protein kinases (WNK1, WNK2, WNK3, WNK4). Homologs of this protein have been found ... The WNK1 protein is composed of 2382 amino acids (molecular weight 230 kDa). The protein contains a kinase domain located ... WNK (lysine deficient protein kinase 1), also known as WNK1, is an enzyme that is encoded by the WNK1 gene. WNK1 is serine- ...
This gene encodes dystrobrevin beta, a component of the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DPC). The DPC consists of ... 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio. ... Albrecht DE, Froehner SC (2004). "DAMAGE, a novel alpha-dystrobrevin-associated MAGE protein in dystrophin complexes". J. Biol ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ...
... with the help of adaptor proteins such as caveolin 1 or SHC1, which target the ER complexes to the plasma membrane. Activation ... via the coregulatory proteins (CoReg) in the nucleus. Alternately, the estrogen or SERM complexes may occur through the ER ... The anti-ER (SP1) antibody targets the ER alpha protein (ERα) located in the nucleus of ER positive normal and neoplastic cells ... Complex biochemical reactions exhibited by the estrogen receptor are necessary for the mediation of cellular interactions in ...
... adapter proteins and signaling complexes to regulate cytoskeletal linking, cell polarity, cell signaling and vesical ... They are formed by interactions between intracellular adapter proteins, transmembrane proteins and the actin cytoskeletons of ... These complexes, formed primarily of members of the claudin and the occludin families, consist of about 35 different proteins, ... These complexes, consisting of transmembrane adhesion proteins of the cadherin family, link adjacent cells together through ...
... and CUL4B-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. DDB1 serves as a bridge or adaptor protein which interacts with dozens of ... DNA damage-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DDB1 gene. The gene's position is on chromosome ... Leupin O, Bontron S, Strubin M (2003). "Hepatitis B virus X protein and simian virus 5 V protein exhibit similar UV-DDB1 ... Lee TH, Elledge SJ, Butel JS (1995). "Hepatitis B virus X protein interacts with a probable cellular DNA repair protein". J. ...
This protein forms a kinase complex with TRAF6, MAP3K7 and TAB1, thus serves as an adaptor linking MAP3K7 and TRAF6. This ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7-interacting protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K7IP2 ... "Entrez Gene: MAP3K7IP2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 interacting protein 2". Thienpont B, Zhang L, Postma AV ... a novel adaptor protein, mediates activation of TAK1 MAPKKK by linking TAK1 to TRAF6 in the IL-1 signal transduction pathway". ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is a neuronal adaptor protein that interacts with ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... It is also regarded as a putative vesicular trafficking protein in the brain that can form a complex with the potential to ... Amyloid beta A4 precursor protein-binding family A member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APBA2 gene. ...
The protein encoded by this gene binds to and is inhibited by dihydropyridine. In the arteries of the brain, high levels of ... The calcium channel consists of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta and beta subunits in a 1:1:1 ratio. The S3-S4 linkers of ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Apr 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ...
December 2008). "VAC14 nucleates a protein complex essential for the acute interconversion of PI3P and PI(3,5)P(2) in yeast and ... Ikonomov OC, Fligger J, Sbrissa D, Dondapati R, Mlak K, Deeb R, Shisheva A (February 2009). "Kinesin adapter JLP links PIKfyve ... proteins that are not detected in the mammalian PIKfyve complex. S. cerevisiae could survive without Fab1. In contrast, the ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 6 (1): 63-70. ...
Numb has demonstrated protein-protein interactions with adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1, Mdm2, L1, DPYSL2, SIAH1, ... Protein numb homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUMB gene. The protein encoded by this gene plays a role in ... Numb is localized using the Pins/GαI complex and the PAR complex of Bazooka (Par3 in mammals), Par6, and aPKC (atypical protein ... The encoded protein, whose degradation is induced in a proteasome-dependent manner by MDM2, is a membrane-bound protein that ...
The SWI/SNF protein complex in yeast is one example of a chromatin remodeling complex that regulates the expression of many ... The tags are then used as adapters for PRC or other analytical tools. Polymerase sensitivity in single-molecule real-time ... genomic DNA is coiled into protein-DNA complexes called chromatin. Histones, which are the most prevalent type of protein found ... Regulatory proteins that bind to DNA, RNA, and/or proteins are key effectors in these processes and function by positively or ...
... either directly or through adaptor proteins. This gene encodes an alpha subunit of the heteromeric SEC61 complex, which also ... Protein transport protein Sec61 subunit alpha isoform 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SEC61A1 gene. The protein ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... 2000). "Stress-associated endoplasmic reticulum protein 1 (SERP1)/Ribosome-associated membrane protein 4 (RAMP4) stabilizes ...
... tail and a c-fos RNA coding determinant via a protein complex". Cell. 103 (1): 29-40. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00102-1. PMID ... 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio. ... Cold shock domain-containing protein E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSDE1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... binding protein mRNA forms a heteromeric ribonucleoprotein complex". Nucleic Acids Res. 33 (22): 7074-89. doi:10.1093/nar/ ...
adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:569 See related. Ensembl: ... adaptor related protein complex 3 mu 1 subunit. clathrin adaptor complex AP3, mu-3A subunit. mu-adaptin 3A. mu3A-adaptin. ... Adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3 are required by the HHV-7 Immunoevasin U21 for rerouting of class I MHC molecules to ... AP3M1 adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 26985, updated on 24-Nov-2020 ...
Compare adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 1 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used ... Your search returned 14 adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 1 ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. ... Watch Webinar: How To Get Speed and Depth in your Host Cell Protein (HCP) Analysis ...
Adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit sigma-1C, Adaptor-related protein complex 1 subunit sigma-1C, Clathrin assembly protein ... complex 1 sigma-1C small chain, Golgi adaptor HA1/AP1 adaptin sigma-1C subunit, ... ... wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary ... knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound ...
What is Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1? Meaning of Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 medical ... What does Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 mean? ... Looking for online definition of Adapter-related protein ... Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 explanation free. ... redirected from Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1) AP3B1. A gene on chromosome 5q14.1 that encodes a subunit of ...
Creative Biomart offer ap3s2 proteins for life sciences research. All the products are rigorously tested to meet the most ... AP3S2;adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 2 subunit;AP-3 complex subunit sigma-2;sigma3b;sigma-3B-adaptin;sigma-adaptin 3b ... Protein Function. AP3S2 has several biochemical functions, for example, protein transporter activity. Some of the functions are ... Interacting Protein. AP3S2 has direct interactions with proteins and molecules. Those interactions were detected by several ...
... and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon ... The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, ... White boxes represent UTRs (untranslated regions). Orange: protein coding regions. The black lines connecting boxes represent ...
adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit beta 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... Subunit of non-clathrin- and clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) that plays a role in protein sorting in the ... The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the ... The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin ...
Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Mu 1 Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs ... AP3M1 Gene(Protein Coding) Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Mu 1 Subunit. ... Protein attributes for AP3M1 Gene. Size:. 418 amino acids. Molecular mass:. 46939 Da. Quaternary structure:. *Adaptor protein ... AP3M1 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Mu 1 Subunit) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Chaperonin- ...
Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Subunit Delta 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, ... AP3D1 Gene (Protein Coding) Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Subunit Delta 1. ... Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3. (PMID: 9151686) Simpson F … Robinson MS (The Journal of cell ... The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the AP3 adaptor-like complex, which is not clathrin-associated, but is ...
This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles ... Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with DPYSL2 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: AP2A1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit". Nishimura, Takashi; Fukata Yuko; Kato Katsuhiro; ... AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A1 gene. ...
The recent finding that mutation of AP3B1, which encodes the beta subunit of adaptor protein complex 3 (AP3), is the cause of ... AP3 recognizes NE as a cargo protein, and their interaction implies that NE is a transmembrane protein. Computerized algorithms ...
603401 ADAPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN COMPLEX 3, BETA-1 SUBUNIT; AP3B1. 608233 HERMANSKY-PUDLAK SYNDROME 2; HPS2. ... Nonsense mutations in ADTB3A cause complete deficiency of the beta3A subunit of adaptor complex-3 and severe Hermansky-Pudlak ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Martinez-Arca S ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ...
... heat shock proteins, adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3), and the chaperone-containing TCP1 (CCT) complex as well as proteins ... Protein-protein interactions are one of the major mechanisms for controlling protein functions in various cellular processes. ... 1) Only proteins with unique peptide identification are selected. 2) Proteins with more coverage are selected over proteins ... adaptor protein complex 3; CCT, chaperone-containing TCP1; UBLCP1, ubiquitin-like domain-containing CTD phosphatase 1; CTD, ...
... which can be catalysed by a limited number of proteins and protein complexes. Among these, Arp2/3 complex and formins are the ... Arp2/3-complex activity is controlled through signalling-de … ... Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / physiology * Animals * ... which can be catalysed by a limited number of proteins and protein complexes. Among these, Arp2/3 complex and formins are the ... Protein complexes regulating Arp2/3-mediated actin assembly Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2006 Feb;18(1):4-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ceb. ...
adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit beta. adaptor related protein complex 2 beta 1 subunit. adaptor-related protein complex 2 ... AP-2 complex subunit beta. Names. adapter-related protein complex 2 beta subunit. adapter-related protein complex 2 subunit ... AP2B1 adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1 [Homo sapiens] AP2B1 adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1 [ ... clathrin assembly protein complex 2 beta large chain. clathrin-associated/assembly/adaptor protein, large, beta 1. plasma ...
anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1 Associated Regulatory Protein Antikörper * anti-Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 sigma ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, sigma 1 Subunit Antikörper * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, mu 1 Subunit ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, beta 1 Subunit Antikörper * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, alpha 2 Subunit ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, alpha 1 Subunit Antikörper * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, sigma 3 Subunit ...
anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1 Associated Regulatory Protein Antikörper * anti-Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 sigma ... adapter-related protein complex 1 sigma-1C subunit , adaptor protein complex AP-1 sigma-1C subunit , clathrin assembly protein ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, sigma 2 Subunit Antikörper * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, mu 2 Subunit ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, mu 1 Subunit Antikörper * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, gamma 1 Subunit ...
Early TCR αβ expression promotes maturation of T cells expressing FcεRIγ containing TCR/CD3 complexes. J. Immunol. 166: 6616- ... The Adaptor Molecule Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule-Associated Protein (SAP) Regulates IFN-γ and IL-4 Production in ... The Adaptor Molecule Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule-Associated Protein (SAP) Regulates IFN-γ and IL-4 Production in ... The Adaptor Molecule Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule-Associated Protein (SAP) Regulates IFN-γ and IL-4 Production in ...
... an adaptor-related complex which is not clathrin-associated. The complex is associated with the Golgi region as well as more ... In concert with the BLOC-1 complex, AP-3 is required to target cargos into vesicles assembled at cell bodies for delivery into ... Adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) is a heterotetramer composed of two large adaptins (delta-type subunit AP3D1 and beta-type ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF00928, Adap_comp_sub, 1 hit. PF01217, Clat_adaptor_s, 1 ...
... that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. The AP complexes mediate ... In concert with the BLOC-1 complex, AP-3 is required to target cargos into vesicles assembled at cell bodies for delivery into ... AP-3 appears to be involved in the sorting of a subset of transmembrane proteins targeted to lysosomes and lysosome-related ... Adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) is a heterotetramer composed of two large adaptins (delta-type subunit AP3D1 and beta-type ...
... adaptor protein complex; GST, glutathione S-transferase; LAMP, lysosome-associated membrane protein; LDL, low density ... Sorting from the TGN presumably involves interactions with the medium chain of the AP-1 adaptor complex (42), which binds some ... endosomal sorting signals is mediated by their interactions at the plasma membrane with the adaptor protein complex AP-2, a ... These proteins were expressed as GST fusion proteins and purified on glutathione agarose beads (Pharmacia Biotech, Piscataway, ...
adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 2 subunit. MGI:1929214 1 matching records from 1 references.. Summary by Age and Assay: ... Ap3m2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 2 subunit (Synonyms: 5830445E16Rik, AP-3B) ...
High levels of Panx2 mRNA and protein in the Central Nervous System (CNS) have been documented. Whereas Pannexin1 (Panx1) is ... High levels of Panx2 mRNA and protein in the Central Nervous System (CNS) have been documented. Whereas Pannexin1 (Panx1) is ... Here, we describe trafficking and subcellular localizations of exogenous Panx2 and Panx1 protein expression in MDCK, HeLa, and ... Here, we describe trafficking and subcellular localizations of exogenous Panx2 and Panx1 protein expression in MDCK, HeLa and ...
Interaction of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus matrix protein with cellular adaptor protein complex 3 plays a critical ... Here, we show that HRSV Matrix (M) protein interacts with the cellular adaptor protein complex 3 specifically via its medium ... Interaction of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus matrix protein with cellular adaptor protein complex 3 plays a critical ... Engaging Survivors of Human Trafficking: Complex Health Care Needs and Scarce Resources. Human trafficking, also known as ...
adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:567]. Human Orthologue:. AP3B2. Human Description:. ... adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:567]. Mouse Orthologue:. Ap3b2. Mouse Description:. ... adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit Gene [Source:MGI Symbol;Acc:MGI:1100869]. ...
Nakatsu, F. and Ohno, H. (2003). Adaptor protein complexes as the key regulators of protein sorting in the post-Golgi network. ... Clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes are main clathrin adaptors contributing to the formation of CCVs ( ... Barois, N. and Bakke, O. (2005). The adaptor protein AP-4 as a component of the clathrin coat machinery: a morphological study ... Ohno, H. (2006). Physiological roles of clathrin adaptor AP complexes: lessons from mutant animals. J. Biochem. 139, 943-948. ...
... adapter-related protein complex 3 sigma-1 subunit; clathrin-associated/assembly/adapter protein, small 3; clathrin-associated/ ... AP3S1 belongs to the adaptor complexes 3 (AP3) small subunit family which is not clathrin-associated. The complex is associated ... assembly/adaptor protein, small 3 (22kD); sigma-3A-adaptin; sigma-adaptin 3a; sigma3A-adaptin. ... CLAPS3, Sigma3A; AP-3 complex sigma-3A subunit; AP-3 complex subunit sigma-1; AP-3 complex subunit sigma-3A; ...
Subunit of non-clathrin- and clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 3 that plays a role in protein sorting in the late- ... Clathrin assembly protein complex 3 beta 2 large chain antibody. *Clathrin assembly protein complex 3 beta-2 large chain ... Neuron specific vesicle coat protein and cerebellar degeneration antigen antibody. *Neuron-specific vesicle coat protein beta- ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Cell lines and Lysates. Multiplex ...
origin of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2 and 3 and the F subcomplex of. > > the coatomer COPI would tend to be classified as ... Now an interesting thing you can do is to take a protein from one species and compare it to a similar protein from another ... Well, for starters, a system that is irreducibly complex. By irreducibly complex, I mean a single system composed of several ... Briefly, sequence analysis is involved with protein and DNA sequences. Now proteins, as you know, are composed of subunits ...
  • AP-3 appears to be involved in the sorting of a subset of transmembrane proteins targeted to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. (nih.gov)
  • The remaining C-terminal two-thirds dictate cargo selection by directly recognizing the Yxxϕ motif, one of the most common sorting signals present in the cytosolic domains of transmembrane proteins. (biologists.org)
  • The assembly proteins AP-1 and AP-2 can be recruited onto the TGN and the plasma membrane, respectively, where they interact with transmembrane proteins containing tyrosine-based motifs ( 57 , 67 ). (asm.org)
  • The Adaptor Protein 3 complex (AP-3) sorts transmembrane proteins to lysosomes and deficiency in AP-3 results in missorting of proteins from the lysosomal to plasma membrane. (bl.uk)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is the medium subunit of AP-3, which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the Golgi region as well as more peripheral intracellular structures. (nih.gov)
  • AP-3 facilitates the budding of vesicles from the Golgi membrane, and it may directly function in protein sorting to the endosomal/lysosomal system. (nih.gov)
  • AP3 plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes, as well as in biogenesis of melanosomes, platelet dense granules and lysosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Subunit of non-clathrin- and clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. (nih.gov)
  • The complex is associated with the Golgi region as well as more peripheral structures. (genecards.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the AP3 adaptor-like complex, which is not clathrin-associated, but is associated with the golgi region, as well as more peripheral structures. (genecards.org)
  • The AP-3 complex facilitates the budding of vesicles from the golgi membrane, and may be directly involved in trafficking to lysosomes. (genecards.org)
  • Component of the coat surrounding the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex. (abcam.com)
  • Adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is the most recently discovered and least well-characterized member of the family of heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes that mediate sorting of transmembrane cargo in post-Golgi compartments. (rcsb.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that APP and AP-4 engage in a distinct type of signal-adaptor interaction that mediates transport of APP from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes, thereby reducing amyloidogenic processing of the protein. (rcsb.org)
  • COPI vesicles transport proteins retrograde between golgi compartments, and from cis-golgi to ER clathrin vesicles transport proteins from plasma membrane and trans-golgi to endosomes (ex. (brainscape.com)
  • We are calling this complex AP-3, a name that has also been used for the neuronalspecific phosphoprotein AP180, but we feel that it is amore appropriate designation for an adaptor-related heterotetramer.Immunofluorescence using anti-delta antibodies reveals that the AP-3 complex isassociated with the Golgi region of the cell as well as with more peripheralstructures. (embl.de)
  • These proteins direct cargoes to and from the Golgi, the endosome, the lysosome and the plasma membrane. (bl.uk)
  • In the course of HCV protein production, there is disruption of the Golgi apparatus, loss of spatial organization of the ER, appearance of some "virus-like" structures and swelling of mitochondria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the majority of Beclin and PtdIns 3‐kinase localize to the trans ‐Golgi network (TGN). (embopress.org)
  • In mammalian cells, soluble lysosomal hydrolases are sorted away from secretory proteins at the trans ‐Golgi network (TGN) ( Hille‐Rehfeld, 1995 ). (embopress.org)
  • AP3S1 belongs to the adaptor complexes 3 (AP3) small subunit family which is not clathrin-associated. (fishersci.com)
  • Belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunit family. (abcam.com)
  • AP3S2 is a 22-kDa protein that belongs to the adaptor complexes small subunit family. (ptglab.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Chaperonin-mediated protein folding and Metabolism of proteins . (genecards.org)
  • A common theme for these molecules, which is well established for WAVEs but is only just beginning to emerge for WASPs, is that they act as coincident detectors of a variety of signalling pathways through the formation of large multi-molecular complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Differences in the signaling pathways regulating the ontogeny of NKT cells vs conventional T cells first became apparent with the recognition that fyn −/− mice had extremely low numbers of NKT cells, whereas conventional T cells were largely unaffected ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The evolutionary origin of the Krebs citric acid cycle has been for a long time a model case in the understanding of the origin and evolution of metabolic pathways: How can the emergence of such a complex pathway be explained? (talkorigins.org)
  • In this study, we aimed to identify and characterize NMDA receptor signaling proteins that link NMDA receptor activation to downstream signaling pathways that lead to trafficking of AMPA receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Vpu appears to act through interactions with the recycling pathways in the cell, rather than directly interacting with Gag (3). (indigo.ca)
  • Adaptor protein (AP) complexes are cytosolic heterotetramers that mediate the sorting of membrane proteins in the secretory and endocytic pathways. (ptglab.com)
  • The main trafficking pathways involve the Adaptor Protein complexes (AP) AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3, Clathrin and Clathrin Associated Sorting Proteins (CLASPS). (bl.uk)
  • Lipoprotein receptors are one class of proteins that use these pathways and are endocytosed by AP-2 and Disabled family proteins. (bl.uk)
  • Finally, I demonstrate that dab-1 mutations are synthetic lethal in combination with loss-of-function mutations affecting the AP-1 and AP-3 complexes, suggesting that the reduced fluid and membrane uptake exhibited by dab-1 mutants sensitises them to defects in other trafficking pathways. (bl.uk)
  • This event subsequently triggers a complex signaling cascade that includes activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and results in the characteristic functional responses associated with RON and c-Met ( 9 , 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • PI 3‐kinase is involved in several signal transduction pathways which regulate many diverse physiological functions, including adhesion, actin rearrangement, cell growth and cell survival by producing the signaling molecules phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3,4,5‐triphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 ] and PtdIns(3,4)P 2 ( Toker and Cantley, 1997 ). (embopress.org)
  • The assembly of AP-3 adaptor complex-containing clathrin-coated vesicles on synthetic liposomes. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 5q14.1 that encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric AP3 complex, a protein complex composed of two large subunits (delta and beta), a medium subunit (mu), and a small subunit (sigma). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This gene encodes a protein that may play a role in organelle biogenesis associated with melanosomes, platelet dense granules, and lysosomes. (nih.gov)
  • AP3M1 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Mu 1 Subunit) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include binding and protein transporter activity . (genecards.org)
  • AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP-3 complex subunit delta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3D1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the assembly protein complex 2, which serves to link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that forced expression of the NF-κB target gene, Bcl-x L , or inhibitory NF-κB kinase β, a catalytic subunit of the IκB kinase complex essential for NF-κB activation, fails to restore NKT cell development in sap −/− mice, suggesting that SAP mediates NKT cell development independently of NF-κB. (jimmunol.org)
  • AFG3 ATPase family gene 3-like 2 (S. c. (broadinstitute.org)
  • HPS-2 is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the beta-3A subunit of the heterotetrameric AP3 complex ( ADTB3A ), which resides on chromosome 5. (medscape.com)
  • Thedelta subunit is closely related to the protein product of the Drosophila garnet gene, which when mutated results in reduced pigmentation of the eyes and othertissues. (embl.de)
  • A chromatin regulatory complex displays two modes of action in regulating the gene expression of a subclade of a transcription factor family during early endosperm development in Arabidopsis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression and protein localization of Grb10 gene in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from different follicle sizes. (scielo.br)
  • Previous studies demonstrated that gene A55R encodes a protein that is nonessential for VACV replication yet affects viral virulence in vivo . (asm.org)
  • Using vaccinia virus (VACV), the smallpox vaccine, we report that the VACV BBK protein A55 dysregulates NF-κB signaling by disrupting the p65-importin interaction, thus preventing NF-κB translocation and blocking NF-κB-dependent gene transcription. (asm.org)
  • Background: Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1) and MSK2 are serine/threonine kinases that promote immediate early gene transcription in stress- or mitogen-induced cells (1-4,7, 8) and LPS-stimulated macrophages (9). (cellsignal.com)
  • Activation of MSK2 in HeLa cells or MEFs results in rapid phosphorylation of histone H3, HMG-14, CREB and ATF1 and acetylation of histone H3 associated with immediate early gene transcription (3,4,6,7). (cellsignal.com)
  • Mutations in the AP3B1 gene, which encodes the adaptor protein complex 3 β1 subunit, result in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 2, a rare genetic disorder that leads to neutropenia and a mild bleeding diathesis. (haematologica.org)
  • AP3S2 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 3 Sigma 2 Subunit) is a Protein Coding gene. (creativebiomart.net)
  • OCA2, the product of the gene defective in oculocutaneous albinism type 2, is a melanosomal membrane protein with restricted expression pattern and a potential role in the trafficking of other proteins to melanosomes. (wiley.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of an ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein family involved in membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton dymics. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This gene functions as a direct regulator of the adaptor-related protein complex 3 on endosomes. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This thesis describes two new patients with HPS2, both with homozygous mutations in the AP3B1 gene, which codes for the β3A subunit of the AP-3 complex. (bl.uk)
  • The kinase activity of AAK1, an α-appendage-binding protein, is activated by clathrin. (biologists.org)
  • Synaptic trafficking of AMPA receptors is triggered by activation of NMDA receptors and kinase cascades including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade ( Thomas and Huganir, 2004 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • calmodulin 3 (phosphorylase kinase, de. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Most well-characterized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including Xanthomonas resistance 21, flagellin sensitive 2, and elongation factor-Tu receptor, possess intrinsic protein kinase activity and regulate downstream signaling through phosphorylation events. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also discuss the role of phosphorylation in regulating mitogen-associated protein kinase cascades and transcription factors in plant immune signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Augmented AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity inhibits cell migration, possibly contributing to the clinical benefits of chemical AMPK activators in preventing atherosclerosis, vascular remodelling and cancer metastasis. (nih.gov)
  • HSP27 is phosphorylated at Ser15, Ser78, and Ser82 by MAPKAPK-2 as a result of the activation of the p38 MAP kinase pathway (2,3). (cellsignal.com)
  • The effect of compound I in HT-29 xenografts is consistent with the expression of the activating b-Raf V600E mutation, which activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway downstream of RON. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ligand stimulation of growth factor receptors with intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity initiates the assembly of multienzyme signalling complexes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Among the proteins involved in complex formation is phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, a heterodimeric enzyme composed of 85 kDa and 110 kDa subunits, which binds to receptor (and non-receptor) phosphotyrosine residues through the two SH2 domains in the p85 subunit. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Possible clues to the function of PI 3-kinase derived from this and other observations are presented. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In this model, we observed that HCV proteins control cellular translation through eIF-2α-S51 phosphorylation, with involvement of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we showed that Beclin was co‐immunoprecipitated with phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3‐kinase, which is also required for autophagy, suggesting that Beclin is a component of the PtdIns 3‐kinase complex. (embopress.org)
  • Quantitative analyses using a cross‐linker showed that all Beclin forms a complex with PtdIns 3‐kinase, whereas ∼50% of PtdIns 3‐kinase remains free from Beclin. (embopress.org)
  • Some PtdIns 3‐kinase is also distributed in the late endosome. (embopress.org)
  • These results suggest that Beclin and PtdIns 3‐kinase control autophagy as a complex at the TGN. (embopress.org)
  • We refer to the mammalian homolog of Vps34p as PtdIns 3‐kinase hereafter. (embopress.org)
  • Davidson, 1995 ), suggesting that PtdIns 3‐kinase is involved in lysosomal protein transport. (embopress.org)
  • Transport of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin by the UNC-76/Kinesin-1 complex requires phosphorylation of UNC-76 by the UNC-51/ATG1 kinase, a prerequisite for UNC-76 to bind synaptotagmin ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Indeed, phosphorylation-regulated interactions between cargo, adaptors, and kinesins have also been observed for other transport complexes such as the kinesin light chain/JIP1 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein 1) complex ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Downregulation of genes encoding for subunits of adaptor complex-3 in cervical carcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • The human CD1 family consists of five nonpolymorphic non-MHC-encoded genes (CD1a, -b, -c, -d, and -e) (the protein product of CD1e has not been identified yet) that have a unique tissue distribution. (jimmunol.org)
  • The impaired function of specific organelles indicates that the causative genes encode proteins operative in the formation of lysosomes and vesicles. (medscape.com)
  • Four such genes, HPS1, ADTB3A, HPS3, and HPS4, are associated with the 4 known subtypes of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 1 (HPS-1), Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS-2), Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 3 (HPS-3), and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 4 (HPS-4). (medscape.com)
  • The ubiquitous protein complexes AP-3, BLOC-1, and BLOC-2, which contain as subunits the products of genes defective in various types of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, have been likewise implicated in trafficking to melanosomes. (wiley.com)
  • Quantification of total melanin content in dorsal hair from female mice carrying the Oca2 p-un allele and/or mutant alleles in genes encoding subunits of BLOC-1, BLOC-2 and AP-3. (wiley.com)
  • The recent finding that mutation of AP3B1, which encodes the beta subunit of adaptor protein complex 3 (AP3), is the cause of canine CN suggests a model for the molecular basis of hereditary neutropenias, involving the mistrafficking of NE: AP3 recognizes NE as a cargo protein, and their interaction implies that NE is a transmembrane protein. (nih.gov)
  • Data indicate that AP-3 facilitates PAR1 interaction with ALIX. (nih.gov)
  • MS in combination with affinity purification in particular has evolved as a powerful tool for deciphering protein interaction networks at the proteome level ( 1 - 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Recent studies of CD4 + T cells demonstrated that Fyn could be recruited to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors through an interaction with the adapter molecule SLAM-associated protein (SAP) ( 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Vajjhala, P. R., Mirams, R. E. & Hill, J. M. Multiple binding sites on the pyrin domain of ASC protein allow self-association and interaction with NLRP3 protein. (nature.com)
  • Herein, we report the interaction of an YKFFE sequence from the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the mu4 subunit of AP-4. (rcsb.org)
  • The authors have recently described an interaction between Gag and the delta subunit of the AP-3 adaptor protein complex (1). (indigo.ca)
  • Our hypothesis is that the AP-3 interaction is responsible for the trafficking of Gag to the multivesicular body (MVB) and that this event is part of a normal productive particle assembly pathway. (indigo.ca)
  • Intrinsically disordered proteins can adopt multiple conformations, thereby enabling interaction with a wide variety of partners. (plantphysiol.org)
  • They often serve as hubs in protein interaction networks. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Here, we explored the protein interaction spectrum of HDC1 using a quantitative bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in tobacco ( Nicotiana benthamiana ) epidermal cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Disruption of the interaction, using a specific piece of the AP-3 subunit, eliminated Gag trafficking to the multivesicular body and diminished HIV particle formation in cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • We have hopes of identifying compounds that inhibit this Gag-AP-3 interaction and that may lead to new efforts to treat HIV infection," Spearman said. (innovations-report.com)
  • Such drugs should be very specific, he said, since it should be possible to block Gag s interaction with AP-3 without disrupting AP-3 function in the cell. (innovations-report.com)
  • Independent of its redox state and endogenous cytokine-inducing ability, HMGB1 can form highly immunostimulatory complexes by interaction with certain proinflammatory mediators. (springer.com)
  • We recently initiated an effort to systematically identify interaction partners of established presynaptic proteins using an automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen. (pnas.org)
  • The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules. (nih.gov)
  • The flavocytochrome consists of two proteins, gp91 phox (the beta subunit) and p22 phox (the alpha subunit), and is inactive until cytosolic proteins associate with it. (els.net)
  • These cytosolic proteins are p40 phox , p47 phox and p67 phox and the small GTP‐binding proteins, rac1 or rac2. (els.net)
  • The complex of these cytosolic proteins then translocates to the membrane, where they attach to the flavocytochrome and activate it. (els.net)
  • cytosolic portions of integral membrane proteins interact with the vesicle coat to. (brainscape.com)
  • On receptor activation, two tyrosine residues at the COOH terminus become phosphorylated and form a multifunctional docking site for SH2 domain-containing adaptor proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Deletion of any of the intracellular adaptor molecules used by TLR2 (myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88), TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP)) or TLR4 (MyD88, TIRAP, TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM)) had similar effects on HMGB1 complex activation compared with noncomplexed LPS or Pam 3 CSK 4 . (springer.com)
  • Less pronounced severity of immunodeficiency can be due to a novel 2 bp-deletion (c.3222_3223delTG) in the final exon of AP3B1, causing a frameshift and thus a prolonged altered HPS2 protein. (medscape.com)
  • There are 1193 AP3B1_C domains in 1191 proteins in SMART's nrdb database. (embl.de)
  • Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing AP3B1_C domain. (embl.de)
  • The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with AP3B1_C domain is also avaliable . (embl.de)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing AP3B1_C domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
  • AP-3 complex is composed of two large adaptins (AP3D1 and AP3B1 or AP3B2), a medium adaptin (AP3M1 or AP3M2) and a small adaptin (APS1 or AP3S2). (ptglab.com)
  • Estimation of total melanin content in dorsal hair samples from C57BL/6J mice and congenic mutants defective in OCA2 ( Oca2 p-un ), the pallidin subunit of BLOC-1 ( Pldn pa ), the HPS3 subunit of BLOC-2 ( Hps3 coa ) or the β3A subunit of AP-3 ( Ap3b1 pe ). (wiley.com)
  • Adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3 are required by the HHV-7 Immunoevasin U21 for rerouting of class I MHC molecules to the lysosomal compartment. (nih.gov)
  • Altered trafficking of lysosomal proteins in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome due to mutations in the beta 3A subunit of the AP-3 adaptor. (nih.gov)
  • The AP-3 adaptor complex mediates sorting of yeast and mammalian PQ-loop-family basic amino acid transporters to the vacuolar/lysosomal membrane. (abcam.com)
  • Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) is an inherited disease which results in decreased pigmentation (oculocutaneous albinism), bleeding problems due to a platelet abnormality (platelet storage pool defect), and storage of an abnormal fat-protein compound (lysosomal accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To study lysosomal biogenesis, an L. major mutant deficient in the subunit of the adaptor protein 3 (AP3 ) complex was generated. (strath.ac.uk)
  • In order to determine differences between HPS2 and wild type CTL, the localisation of a range of lysosomal, cytolytic, transmembrane, inhibitory and activation marker proteins is examined. (bl.uk)
  • Here, we show that the v-SNARE VAMP7 mediates fusion of melanosomes with tubular transport carriers that also carry the cargo protein TYRP1 and that require BLOC-1 for their formation. (rupress.org)
  • Our data suggest that VAMP7 mediates fusion of BLOC-1-dependent transport carriers with melanosomes, illuminate SNARE recycling from melanosomes as a critical BLOC-3-dependent step, and likely explain the distinct hypopigmentation phenotypes associated with BLOC-1 and BLOC-3 deficiency in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome variants. (rupress.org)
  • Exogenous expression of phosphomimetic S177D-Pdlim5 inhibits cell migration and attenuates lamellipodia formation.Notably, S177D-Pdlim5, but not WT-Pdlim5, attenuates the association with Rac1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors at the cell periphery.Taken together, our findings indicate that phosphorylation of Pdlim5 on Ser177 by AMPK mediates inhibition of cell migration by suppressing the Rac1-Arp2/3 signalling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, our findings indicate that phosphorylation of Pdlim5 on Ser177 by AMPK mediates inhibition of cell migration by suppressing the Rac1-Arp2/3 signalling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • AP-2α binds to phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5) P 2 ] and/or phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5) P 3 ] lipids enriched in the plasma membrane. (biologists.org)
  • The medium subunit (μ2) of AP2 binds to cargo proteins and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate on the cell surface. (rupress.org)
  • vesicle SNARE proteins in protein coat accessible in uncoated vesicle (when pinched off) binds to t-SNARE in target memb. (brainscape.com)
  • Nrf2 binds DNA as a heterodimer with one of several small Maf proteins and is a potent activator of ARE-dependent transcription. (asm.org)
  • It binds to Adaptor Protein (AP)-2 complex and regulates dendrite pruning in a cell-autonomous manner. (nus.edu.sg)
  • High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein that binds and bends DNA and facilitates transcription. (springer.com)
  • A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef acts as an internalization signal for CD4 downregulation and binds the AP-1 clathrin adaptor. (nature.com)
  • Huizing M, Scher CD, Strovel E, Fitzpatrick DL, Hartnell LM, Anikster Y, Gahl WA , Nonsense mutations in ADTB3A cause complete deficiency of the beta3A subunit of adaptor complex-3 and severe Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2. (coriell.org)
  • Ras family small G-proteins play major roles in these signaling cascades by activating phosphorylation events that amplify the signal within the cell. (jneurosci.org)
  • AP3S2 has direct interactions with proteins and molecules. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We selected proteins and molecules interacted with AP3S2 here. (creativebiomart.net)
  • CD1b and -c molecules have been found to present mycobacterial cell wall-derived Ags to T cells ( 3 ), and CD1a has been implicated in the presentation of bacterial Ags ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Some of these molecules such as VWF and the granule membrane protein, P-selectin, which is also found in association with dense granules, are synthesized primarily by the platelet precursor cell, the megakaryocyte. (wiley.com)
  • The inflammasomes are regulated by pyrin domain- or CARD (caspase activation and recruitment domain)-only proteins, which sequester the signalling molecules. (nature.com)
  • Eukaryote cells are exposed to both intrinsic and extrinsic sources of reactive oxygen species and other chemically reactive molecules that can damage biological macromolecules, including DNA, proteins, and lipids ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • Elucidating HMGB1 receptor usage in processes where HMGB1 acts alone or in complex with other molecules is essential for the understanding of basic HMGB1 biology and for designing HMGB1-targeted therapies. (springer.com)
  • Interestingly, several groups have recently demonstrated that preparations of HMGB1, which do not induce cytokine synthesis, may form complexes with exogenous or endogenous proinflammatory molecules to strongly enhance their cytokine-inducing ability. (springer.com)
  • AP3D1 is a subunit of the AP3 adaptor-like complex, which is not associated with clathrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP1S3 silencing disrupted the endosomal translocation of the innate pattern-recognition receptor TLR-3 (Toll-like receptor 3 (zeige TLR3 Antikörper )) and resulted in a marked inhibition of downstream signaling. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Clathrin adaptor AP2 regulates thrombin receptor constitutive internalization and endothelial cell resensitization. (nih.gov)
  • We have identified a novel NMDA receptor interacting signaling protein, AGAP3. (jneurosci.org)
  • AGAP3 contains multiple signaling domains, a GTPase-like domain, a pleckstrin homology domain, and an ArfGAP domain, and exists as a component of the NMDA receptor complex. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, AGAP3 is an essential signaling component of the NMDA receptor complex that links NMDA receptor activation to AMPA receptor trafficking. (jneurosci.org)
  • To understand the link between NMDA receptor activation and signaling events that lead to LTP, this study aims to identify novel NMDA receptor interacting proteins that regulate small G-protein signaling and AMPA receptor trafficking. (jneurosci.org)
  • To identify novel NMDA receptor interacting proteins that mediate NMDA receptor signaling and AMPA receptor trafficking, we have identified AGAP3 (also MRIP-1, CENTG3, and GGAP3). (jneurosci.org)
  • On the other hand, fibrinogen is the type example of a second class of α-granule proteins that are synthesized by other cells and internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis [ 8,9 ]. (wiley.com)
  • This overproduction was mediated by immune complexes and involved synergistic signaling between the B cell receptor and Toll-like receptors and T cell help. (jci.org)
  • I show that DAB-1 is essential for the uptake of yolk protein by developing oocytes, and for the localisation of the yolk receptor RME-2. (bl.uk)
  • The activity of the HMGB1-TLR ligand complexes relied on engagement of the same receptor as for the noncomplexed TLR ligand, since HMGB1-LPS complexes used TLR4 and HMGB1-Pam 3 CSK 4 complexes used TLR2. (springer.com)
  • This is mediated by binding of proteins with src homology 2 (SH2) domains to receptor autophosphorylation sites. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • PDF] The Shc-related adaptor protein, Sck, forms a complex with the vascular-endothelial-growth-factor receptor KDR in transfected cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mutations in one of the large subunits of AP-3 have been associated with the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by defective lysosome-related organelles. (nih.gov)
  • Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 5 (HPS-5) results from a deficiency of the HPS-5 protein, a component of BLOC-2. (medscape.com)
  • Defective AP-3-dependent VAMP8 trafficking impairs Weibel-Palade body exocytosis in Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome type 2 blood outgrowth endothelial cells. (haematologica.org)
  • CTL from AP-3 deficient patients, who suffer from Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Type 2 (HPS2), show reduced killing of target cells. (bl.uk)
  • In this work, we developed a new method, MAP (mixing after purification)-SILAC (stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture), to quantitatively investigate the interactions of protein complexes by mass spectrometry. (mcponline.org)
  • Protein-protein interactions are one of the major mechanisms for controlling protein functions in various cellular processes. (mcponline.org)
  • To fully understand these functions, global mapping of protein-protein interactions has become a major goal in current proteomics research. (mcponline.org)
  • Although conventional affinity purification can preserve stable interactions under native conditions, we have shown recently that affinity purification coupled with in vivo cross-linking can extend identification of interacting proteins by capturing weak affinity or transient interactors ( 7 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Identification of specific protein interactions has been successfully achieved by quantitative MS using stable isotope labeling such as the stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) 1 strategy, which allows effective discrimination against purification backgrounds ( 7 - 11 ). (mcponline.org)
  • CARD9 in the C‐type lectin pathway, indicating the relevant interactions of the CARD9 protein and the consequences of its deficiency. (els.net)
  • Biochemical and X-ray crystallographic analyses reveal that the properties of the APP sequence and the location of the binding site on mu4 are distinct from those of other signal-adaptor interactions. (rcsb.org)
  • Interactions of viral protein U (Vpu) with cellular factors. (indigo.ca)
  • Imaging of HIV/host protein interactions. (indigo.ca)
  • Vpr and its interactions with cellular proteins. (indigo.ca)
  • Truncation of HDC1 to the ancestral core sequence narrowed the spectrum of interactions and of phenotypic outputs but maintained binding to a H3-binding protein and to H1. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Considerable experimental evidence indicates that transcriptional activators bound to enhancer and promoter proximal sequences stimulate transcription through interactions between their activation domains and components of the initiation complex assembled at the associated promoter ( 33 , 36 , 39 , 42 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • These interactions have been postulated to stimulate the assembly of initiation complexes at promoters or to affect the activities of general transcription factors in the assembled initiation complex so as to increase the rate of initiation by polymerase II (Pol II). (asm.org)
  • We have tested for genetic interactions between mutant alleles causing deficiency in OCA2 (pink-eyed dilution unstable), AP-3 (pearl), BLOC-1 (pallid), and BLOC-2 (cocoa) in C57BL/6J mice. (wiley.com)
  • AP3S1 antibody is predicted to not cross-react with other AP3 protein family members. (genetex.com)
  • The complex is part of the protein coat on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles which links clathrin to receptors in vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptor protein-3 (AP3) is a heterotetrameric vesicle-coat protein complex. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The dramatic appearance of this bristle border, which we now know is composed of clathrin and associated coat proteins, reflects the fact that both A. aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes are anautogenous - adult females must feed before egg production ( Raikhel and Dhadialla, 1992 ). (biologists.org)
  • assembly of vesicle coat proteins (ex. (brainscape.com)
  • how does the vesicle coat select the right cargo proteins? (brainscape.com)
  • HPS-2 disease results from mutations in the b3A subunit of a coat protein, adaptor complex-3, responsible for intracellular vesicle formation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The encoded protein is found on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles in the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Clathrin is recruited to endocytic sites on the plasma membrane by the AP2 adaptor complex. (rupress.org)
  • After synaptic vesicle fusion, vesicle proteins are retrieved from the plasma membrane and recycled into new synaptic vesicles to sustain neuronal transmission. (rupress.org)
  • They are thought to perform their sorting function by directly interacting with the medium chains of the assembly or adapter proteins AP-1 and AP-2-two heterotetrameric protein complexes associated, respectively, with the TGN or the plasma membrane ( 55 )-and AP-3, a new adapter-related protein complex of unknown function ( 16 , 68 ). (asm.org)
  • Gag is a myristoylated precursor protein that is translated in the cytoplasm and then traffics to the plasma membrane or to endosomal vesicles for assembly. (indigo.ca)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is an essential cell physiological process that dynamically controls the composition of the plasma membrane and thereby regulates a plethora of functions ranging from nutrient uptake and cell signaling to the formation of morphogen gradients and synaptic transmission ( 1 - 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we report a transport complex linking syntaxin 1a (Stx) and Munc18, two proteins functioning in synaptic vesicle exocytosis at the presynaptic plasma membrane, to the motor protein Kinesin-1 via the kinesin adaptor FEZ1. (pnas.org)
  • Transport of syntaxin 1a (Stx), an essential component of the exocytotic release apparatus residing in the presynaptic plasma membrane, is clearly distinct from synaptic vesicle precursors and appears to involve a complex between Kinesin-1 and the Stx-binding protein syntabulin ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Title: The AP-2 adaptor beta2 appendage scaffolds alternate cargo endocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • These cells exhibit a critical dependence on the signaling adapter molecule, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP), for their ontogeny, an aspect not seen in conventional αβ T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • This result implies that the enhancing effects of HMGB1-partner molecule complexes are not regulated by the induction of additional signaling cascades. (springer.com)
  • Autosomal-Recessive Mutations in AP3B2 , Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 3 Beta 2 Subunit , Cause an Early-Onset Epileptic Encephalopathy with Optic Atrophy. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • To regulate small G-protein-mediated signaling cascades, GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) and GTP exchange factors (GEFs) are necessary to inactivate and activate these signaling cascades, respectively. (jneurosci.org)
  • The recycling carriers also harbor the VAMP7-binding scaffold protein VARP and the tissue-restricted Rab GTPase RAB38. (rupress.org)
  • GTPase switch proteins control. (brainscape.com)
  • Key steps in regulating actin dynamics are the de novo nucleation and elongation of actin filaments, which can be catalysed by a limited number of proteins and protein complexes. (nih.gov)
  • capping protein (actin filament) muscl. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Here, we have shown that DCs require the actin capping activity of the signaling adaptor Eps8 to polarize and to form elongated migratory protrusions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, we have identified Eps8 as a unique actin capping protein specifically required for DC migration. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Within this context, regulators of actin dynamics, including actin bundlers and capping proteins, are expected to play a critical role by controlling the architecture and dynamics of the actin meshwork that propels nonadhesive DC migration. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 3 more authors) (1997) High rates of actin filament turnover in budding yeast and roles for actin in establishment and maintenance of cell polarity revealed using the actin inhibitor latrunculin-A. Journal of Cell Biology, 137 (2). (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • AMPK was mixed with a fixed amount of F-actin in the presence or absence of α-actinin and GST-Pdlim5, incubated for 1 h at 24 °C and then centrifuged at 150,000 g for 1.5 h at 24 °C, to pellet the F-actin polymer and associated proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Next, we performed an F-actin-binding assay, in which F-actin and its binding proteins are found in the pellet fraction, to determine whether Pdlim5 promotes the recruitment of AMPK onto actin filaments. (nih.gov)
  • The pannexins (Panx1, Panx2, and Panx3) are unique entities in the "connexin-like" family of proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • These organelles have characteristic molecular composition, ultrastructure and sensitivity to stimuli [ 3-5 ]. (wiley.com)
  • In this Review, we discuss the complex regulatory mechanisms that facilitate a balanced but effective inflammasome-mediated immune response, and we highlight the similarities to another molecular signalling platform - the apoptosome - that monitors cellular health. (nature.com)
  • Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Most Apg proteins have related proteins in mammalian cells, suggesting that the molecular mechanism of autophagy is conserved in eukaryotes. (embopress.org)
  • These units are delivered to the nascent synapse via molecular motor proteins of the kinesin superfamily (reviewed in Ref. 1). (pnas.org)
  • A tool for stoichiometric co-expression of effector and target proteins to study intracellular protein trafficking processes has been provided by the so called 2A peptide technology. (diva-portal.org)
  • Biochemical studies in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) and in animal systems have provided evidence for large multiprotein complexes linking a corepressor and a HDA with several histone-binding proteins and a range of associated proteins of mostly unknown function ( Yang and Seto, 2008 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • The p110 catalytic domain has a region of homology with vps34p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a protein involved in protein sorting to the yeast vacuole. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with DPYSL2 and NUMB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activators that stimulate DA-complex assembly also interact directly with TFIIA, as observed by coimmunoprecipitation and affinity column chromatography with recombinant proteins ( 24 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • As determined by confocal microscopy, HCV proteins expressed from VT7-HCV7.9 localize largely in a globular-like distribution pattern in the cytoplasm, with some proteins co-localizing with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antibodies raisedagainst recombinant delta and sigma3 show that they are the other two subunits ofthe adaptor-like complex. (embl.de)
  • As an original manufacturer for its entire catalog of antibodies and proteins, we are here to support you. (ptglab.com)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • AP-3 is an "adaptor protein complex," a group of four proteins known to sort cargo proteins to specific compartments in the cell. (innovations-report.com)
  • The AP-2 complex is a heterotetramer consisting of two large adaptins (alpha or beta), a medium adaptin (mu), and a small adaptin (sigma). (wikipedia.org)
  • DellAngelica, Ooi, Bonifacino: Beta3A-adaptin, a subunit of the adaptor-like complex AP-3. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex composed of two large subunits (delta and beta3), a medium subunit (mu3), and a small subunit (sigma 3). (nih.gov)
  • several PI 3‐kinases exist in mammalian cells, and can be divided into three classes ( Domin and Waterfield, 1997 ). (embopress.org)
  • The class III PI 3‐kinases are made up of Vps34p and its mammalian homologs. (embopress.org)
  • We conclude that FEZ1 operates as a kinesin adaptor for the transport of Stx, with cargo loading and unloading being regulated by protein kinases. (pnas.org)
  • They identified several known and novel interacting proteins and selected one, the delta subunit of AP-3, for further evaluation. (innovations-report.com)
  • Through a series of experiments, the group demonstrated that the AP-3 delta subunit interacts with Gag to direct it to the multivesicular body. (innovations-report.com)
  • Signalling by pattern recognition or cytokine receptors primes the cell and induces NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing 3) and pro-IL-1β expression, whereas signalling by type I interferons and activated T cells reduces inflammasome activation. (nature.com)
  • No accumulation of fibrinogen in late endosomes or lysosomes was detected by co-staining with LAMP2, a late endosome/lysosome membrane protein. (wiley.com)
  • erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.9. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The reduction in cytokine production correlated with the near absence of GATA-3 and T-bet, key transcription factors regulating cytokine expression and maturation of NKT cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Endosomal trafficking of proteins like CD63 to Weibel-Palade bodies during maturation is dependent on the adaptor protein complex 3 complex. (haematologica.org)
  • In this study we have investigated the role of adaptor protein complex 3-dependent mechanisms in trafficking of proteins during Weibel-Palade body maturation in endothelial cells. (haematologica.org)
  • Our data show that defects in adaptor protein complex 3 dependent maturation of Weibel-Palade bodies impairs exocytosis by affecting the recruitment of VAMP8. (haematologica.org)
  • The N-terminal domain of the μ subunits shows a certain degree of sequence similarity with the σ subunits ( Boehm and Bonifacino, 2001 ), consistent with the notion that it also stabilizes the complex. (biologists.org)
  • Title: Proteomic analysis identifies dysfunction in cellular transport, energy, and protein metabolism in different brain regions of atypical frontotemporal lobar degeneration. (nih.gov)
  • revealed an essential role of PtdIns(3)P in vesicle‐mediated transport. (embopress.org)
  • CME is initiated by the adaptor-mediated assembly of metastable clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) that dynamically exchange their components with soluble endocytic proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • The use of endocytic proteins in bacterial infection is conserved, and the proteins used are similar to those used in cell-cell adhesion. (nature.com)
  • Figure 2: The conserved use of endocytic proteins by Listeria monocytogenes and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli . (nature.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen AP1S3 Proteine (3) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Dual immunofluorescence imaging with protein markers for specific vesicle compartments showed that Panx2 vesicles are early endosomal in origin. (frontiersin.org)