Adaptor Protein Complex 1
Adaptor Protein Complex 2
Adaptor Protein Complex 4
Adaptor Protein Complex Subunits
Adaptor Protein Complex delta Subunits
Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits
Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits
Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits
Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins
GRB2 Adaptor Protein
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins
Adaptor Protein Complex sigma Subunits
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Amino Acid Sequence
Coated Pits, Cell-Membrane
GRB10 Adaptor Protein
Gene Products, nef
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
src Homology Domains
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
CRADD Signaling Adaptor Protein
Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88
Two-Hybrid System Techniques
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Amino Acid Motifs
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
GRB7 Adaptor Protein
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
Crk-Associated Substrate Protein
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
Vesicular Transport Proteins
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
Son of Sevenless Proteins
RNA, Small Interfering
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Phospholipase C gamma
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Gene Expression Regulation
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Cell Cycle Proteins
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
LIM Domain Proteins
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Protein Interaction Maps
Toll-Like Receptor 4
Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Green Fluorescent Proteins
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Dystrophin-Associated Protein Complex
ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase
Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src)
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Protein Processing, Post-Translational
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Protein Structure, Quaternary
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.
Receptors, Cell Surface
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors
TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6
Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Coat Protein Complex I
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Toll-Like Receptor 2
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11
Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
MAP Kinase Signaling System
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38. (1/337)Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis. (+info)
Inhibition of the receptor-binding function of clathrin adaptor protein AP-2 by dominant-negative mutant mu2 subunit and its effects on endocytosis. (2/337)Although interactions between the mu2 subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2 and tyrosine-based internalization motifs have been implicated in the selective recruitment of cargo molecules into coated pits, the functional significance of this interaction for endocytosis of many types of membrane proteins remains unclear. To analyze the function of mu2-receptor interactions, we constructed an epitope-tagged mu2 that incorporates into AP-2 and is targeted to coated pits. Mutational analysis revealed that Asp176 and Trp421 of mu2 are involved in the interaction with internalization motifs of TGN38 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Inducible overexpression of mutant mu2, in which these two residues were changed to alanines, resulted in metabolic replacement of endogenous mu2 in AP-2 complexes and complete abrogation of AP-2 interaction with the tyrosine-based internalization motifs. As a consequence, endocytosis of the transferrin receptor was severely impaired. In contrast, internalization of the EGF receptor was not affected. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the dominant-interfering approach for functional analysis of the adaptor protein family, and indicate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis may proceed in both a mu2-dependent and -independent manner. (+info)
Splice variants of intersectin are components of the endocytic machinery in neurons and nonneuronal cells. (3/337)We recently identified and cloned intersectin, a protein containing two Eps15 homology (EH) domains and five Src homology 3 (SH3) domains. Using a newly developed intersectin antibody, we demonstrate that endogenous COS-7 cell intersectin localizes to clathrin-coated pits, and transfection studies suggest that the EH domains may direct this localization. Through alternative splicing in a stop codon, a long form of intersectin is generated with a C-terminal extension containing Dbl homology (DH), pleckstrin homology (PH), and C2 domains. Western blots reveal that the long form of intersectin is expressed specifically in neurons, whereas the short isoform is expressed at lower levels in glia and other nonneuronal cells. Immunofluorescence analysis of cultured hippocampal neurons reveals that intersectin is found at the plasma membrane where it is co-localized with clathrin. Ibp2, a protein identified based on its interactions with the EH domains of intersectin, binds to clathrin through the N terminus of the heavy chain, suggesting a mechanism for the localization of intersectin at clathrin-coated pits. Ibp2 also binds to the clathrin adaptor AP2, and antibodies against intersectin co-immunoprecipitate clathrin, AP2, and dynamin from brain extracts. These data suggest that the long and short forms of intersectin are components of the endocytic machinery in neurons and nonneuronal cells. (+info)
A structural explanation for the binding of multiple ligands by the alpha-adaptin appendage domain. (4/337)The alpha subunit of the endocytotic AP2 adaptor complex contains a 30 kDa "appendage" domain, which is joined to the rest of the protein via a flexible linker. The 1.9 A resolution crystal structure of this domain reveals a single binding site for its ligands, which include amphiphysin, Eps15, and epsin. This domain when overexpressed in COS7 fibroblasts is shown to inhibit transferrin uptake, whereas mutants in which interactions with its binding partners are abolished do not. DPF/W motifs present in appendage domain-binding partners are shown to play a crucial role in their interactions with the domain. A single site for binding multiple ligands would allow for temporal and spatial regulation in the recruitment of components of the endocytic machinery. (+info)
Dynamin-dependent endocytosis of ionotropic glutamate receptors. (5/337)Little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the number of ionotropic glutamate receptors present at excitatory synapses. Herein, we show that GluR1-containing alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPARs) are removed from the postsynaptic plasma membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons by rapid, ligand-induced endocytosis. Although endocytosis of AMPARs can be induced by high concentrations of AMPA without concomitant activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs), NMDAR activation is required for detectable endocytosis induced by synaptically released glutamate. Activated AMPARs colocalize with AP2, a marker of endocytic coated pits, and endocytosis of AMPARs is blocked by biochemical inhibition of clathrin-coated pit function or overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant form of dynamin. These results establish that ionotropic receptors are regulated by dynamin-dependent endocytosis and suggest an important role of endocytic membrane trafficking in the postsynaptic modulation of neurotransmission. (+info)
Association of AP1 adaptor complexes with GLUT4 vesicles. (6/337)Nycodenz gradients have been used to examine the in vitro effects of GTP-(gamma)-S on adaptor complex association with GLUT4 vesicles. On addition of GTP-(gamma)-S, GLUT4 fractionates as a heavier population of vesicles, which we suggest is due to a budding or coating reaction. Under these conditions there is an increase in co-sedimentation of GLUT4 with AP1, but not with AP3. Western blotting of proteins associated with isolated GLUT4 vesicles shows the presence of high levels of AP1 and some AP3 but very little AP2 adaptor complexes. Cell free, in vitro association of the AP1 complex with GLUT4 vesicles is increased approximately 4-fold by the addition of GTP-(gamma)-S and an ATP regenerating system. Following GTP-(gamma)-S treatment in vitro, ARF is also recruited to GLUT4 vesicles, and the temperature dependence of ARF recruitment closely parallels that of AP1. The recruitment of both AP1 and ARF are partially blocked by brefeldin A. These data demonstrate that the coating of GLUT4 vesicles can be studied in isolated cell-free fractions. Furthermore, at least two distinct adaptor complexes can associate with the GLUT4 vesicles and it is likely that these adaptors are involved in mediating distinct intracellular sorting events at the level of TGN and endosomes. (+info)
The leucine-based sorting motifs in the cytoplasmic domain of the invariant chain are recognized by the clathrin adaptors AP1 and AP2 and their medium chains. (7/337)Recognition of sorting signals within the cytoplasmic tail of membrane proteins by adaptor protein complexes is a crucial step in membrane protein sorting. The three known adaptor complexes, AP1, AP2, and AP3, have all been shown to recognize tyrosine- and leucine-based sorting signals, which are the most common sorting signals within membrane protein cytoplasmic tails. Although tyrosine-based signals are recognized by the micro-chains of adaptor complexes, the subunit recognizing leucine-based sorting signals is less clear. In this report we show by surface plasmon resonance that the two leucine-based sorting signals within the cytoplasmic tail of the invariant chain bind independently from each other to AP1 and AP2 but not to AP3. We also show that both motifs can be recognized by the micro-chains of AP1 and AP2. Moreover, by using monomeric as well as trimeric invariant chain constructs, we show that adaptor binding does not require trimerization of the invariant chain. (+info)
Internalization of proximal tubular type II Na-P(i) cotransporter by PTH: immunogold electron microscopy. (8/337)Physiological/pathophysiological alterations in proximal tubular P(i) reabsorption are associated with an altered brush-border membrane (BBM) expression of type II Na-P(i) cotransporter molecules. Reduction is achieved by an internalization and lysosomal degradation and an increase in P(i) reabsorption by new synthesis and BBM insertion of type II Na-P(i) cotransporters. In the present study, we investigated by immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy the routing of internalized rat type II Na-P(i) cotransporters (NaPi-2). In kidney of rats on a chronic low-P(i) diet, NaPi-2 is mainly localized in the BBM, in cisterns of the Golgi apparatus and sparsely also in large endocytotic vacuoles and lysosomes. Fifteen minutes after the injection of the 1-34 analog of parathyroid hormone (PTH), the amount of NaPi-2 was decreased in the BBM and increased in endocytotic vesicles. NaPi-2 molecules colocalized with horseradish peroxidase injected prior to the injection of PTH. Vesicles labeled for NaPi-2 were occasionally also labeled for clathrin or the adaptor protein AP2. We conclude that NaPi-2 molecules enter the subapical compartment from where NaPi-2-containing vesicles are segregated off and directed to the lysosomes. A clathrin-mediated pathway may contribute to the PTH-induced internalization of NaPi-2. (+info)
Clathrin-associated adaptor protein complexes | Journal of Cell Science
The AP-complex family (Boehm and Bonifacino, 2001; Nakatsu and Ohno, 2003; Owen et al., 2004; Robinson, 2004) has six members in mammals. AP-1A, AP-2, AP-3A and AP-4 are ubiquitously expressed. The other two members, AP-5 and AP-6, are cell-type-specific isoforms of AP-1A and AP-3A: the epithelium-specific AP-1B and the neuron-restricted AP-3B.. The AP complexes consist of four subunits: one small (σ1-σ4), one medium (μ1-μ4) and two large (α, γ, δ or ϵ; and β1-β4) subunits. These assemble to form a structure in which two appendage domains are connected by flexible hinge regions to the core (Owen et al., 2004; Owen and Luzio, 2000; Robinson, 2004). The large subunits are divided into three domains: the N-terminal domain, which makes up the core with the μ and σ subunits; the hinge domain, and the C-terminal appendage. One of the large subunits (α, γ, δ or ϵ) is implicated in binding to the target membrane (Collins et al., 2002; Nakatsu and Ohno, 2003; Owen et al., 2004; Traub, ...
6cm9 - Proteopedia, life in 3D
AP1S3_HUMAN] Subunit of clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1 that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules. Involved in TLR3 trafficking (PubMed:24791904). [AP1G1_MOUSE] Subunit of clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1 that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules. [BST2_HUMAN] IFN-induced antiviral host restriction factor which efficiently blocks the release of diverse mammalian enveloped viruses by directly tethering nascent virions to the membranes of infected cells. Acts as a direct physical tether, holding virions to the cell ...
Stonins--specialized adaptors for synaptic vesicle recycling and beyond?
Stonins are a small family of evolutionarily conserved clathrin adaptor complex AP-2mu-related factors that may act as cargo-specific sorting adaptors in endocytosis and perhaps beyond. Whereas little is known about the localization and function of stonin 1, recent work suggests that stonin 2 serves …
AP1M1 QuickView - Correlation Engine
The protein encoded by this gene is the medium chain of the trans-Golgi network clathrin-associated protein complex AP-1. The other components of this complex are beta-prime-adaptin, gamma-adaptin, and the small chain AP1S1. This complex is located at the…
AP1G1 - AP-1 complex subunit gamma-1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - AP1G1 gene & protein
Subunit of clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1 that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules.
We discovered that Sip1, an AP-1 accent protein, also serves as a binding spouse for Rho3, thus regulating its intracellular...
Current scientific tests which include ours, discovered a novel role of Rho3 in the Golgi/ endosomal trafficking, partly through bodily and/or purposeful conversation with the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) intricate and Cdc42 in fission yeast [9,10]. We also confirmed that the AP-1 complex mutant strains confirmed flaws in Golgi/ endosomal trafficking, secretion and vacuole fusion [eleven,twelve] and that Sip1, the AP-one accent recruits the AP-1 complicated to the Golgi/endosomes by figuring out the sip1-i4 mutant allele, which abolished the endosomal localization of the AP-1 complicated . Sip1 is a homolog of Laa1 in the budding yeast [fourteen] and p200 in increased eukaryotes [fifteen], the two of which belong to the rising family members of AP-1 interacting associates. To realize the molecular operate of the AP-one accessory protein and elucidate the pathways interacting with Sip1/AP-one-mediated trafficking, we screened for the multi-duplicate suppressor of the ...
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Inhibition of the interaction between tyrosine-based motifs and the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex by...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of the interaction between tyrosine-based motifs and the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex by specific tyrphostins. AU - Crump, CM. AU - Williams, JL. AU - Stephens, DJ. AU - Banting, G. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Article (Academic Journal). VL - 273. SP - 28073. EP - 28077. JO - Journal of Biological Chemistry. JF - Journal of Biological Chemistry. SN - 0021-9258. ER - ...
CDK5 inhibits the clathrin-dependent internalization of TRPV1 by phosphorylating the clathrin adaptor protein AP2μ2 | Science...
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Function: Phosphorylates the AP2M1/mu2 subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). May play a role in regulating aspects of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (By similarity ...
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The Toxoplasma Blog: Dual role of the Toxoplasma gondii clathrin adaptor AP1 in the sorting of rhoptry and microneme proteins...
Toxoplasma gondii possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes and rhoptries during parasite replication. These apical secretory organelles release their contents into host cells promoting parasite invasion and survival. Using a CreLox-based inducible knock-out strategy and the ddFKBP over-expression system, we unraveled novel functions of the clathrin adaptor complex TgAP1. First, our data indicate that AP1 in T. gondii likely functions as a conserved heterotetrameric complex composed of the four subunits γ, β, μ1, σ1 and interacts with known regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular budding such as the unique ENTH-domain containing protein, which we named Epsin-like protein (TgEpsL). Disruption of the μ1 subunit resulted in the mis-sorting of microneme proteins at the level of the Trans-Golgi-Network (TGN). Furthermore, we demonstrated that TgAP1 regulates rhoptry biogenesis by activating rhoptry protein exit from the TGN, but also ...
ARF6 stimulates clathrin/AP-2 recruitment to synaptic membranes by activating phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase type Iγ |...
In the present work, we have investigated mechanisms involved in the nucleotide-dependent regulation of clathrin-coated pit nucleation at the synapse. Our results implicate ARF6 in this process and demonstrate two effects of the GTP-bound form of this small GTPase; stimulation of the recruitment of clathrin/AP-2 to presynaptic membranes and binding plus activation of PIPKIγ. They also suggest that the two effects are related and that PI(4,5)P2 production by PIPKIγ stimulation represents the major mechanism through which ARF6 enhances clathrin/AP-2 recruitment. The action of GTP-ARF6 on clathrin/AP-2 recruitment mimics the effect of GTPγs, and its effects are antagonized by experimental manipulations that prevent either ARF activation (i.e., dominant-negative ARF6) or PI(4,5)P2 production and availability (i.e., kinase inhibition, PIPKIγ depletion, and PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis by synaptojanins inositol 5′-phosphatase domain). These results strongly indicate that enhanced clathrin coat ...
From uncertain beginnings: Initiation mechanisms of clathrin-mediated endocytosis | JCB
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex AP2 is one of the best-studied components of the endocytic machinery. The AP2 complex consists of four different subunits, α, β2, σ2, and μ2, which assemble into a core domain with two appendages (Fig. 2; Collins et al., 2002; Jackson et al., 2010). AP2 has multiple binding partners, including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), clathrin, several endocytic accessory proteins, and two signaling motifs present on some cargo receptors (see Traub, 2009 for a detailed review). The AP2 complex has classically been considered to be the master initiator of clathrin-mediated endocytosis through its role in recruiting clathrin molecules to the membrane. However, several lines of evidence question this idea.. If the AP2 complex has an essential role in initiation then its presence would be required for the formation of endocytic sites. However, in yeast the endocytosis of mating pheromone α-factor is unaffected in strains lacking functional AP2 ...
Endocytic motif defies consensus... | Journal of Cell Science
Proteins internalized at the cell surface by clathrin-mediated endocytosis contain specific sorting sequences that bind to the internalization machinery. The best characterized of these is the tyrosine-based YXXΦ motif (in which X is any residue and Φ is a bulky, hydrophobic residue). This binds to a specific region in the μ2 subunit of the AP2 clathrin adaptor protein, and structural studies have shown that the spacing between the Y and Φ residues is crucial. Ruth Murrell and co-workers now unveil a novel type of tyrosine-based endocytic motif (p. 3073). They have used site-directed mutagenesis and CD8-based chimeras to analyse endocytosis of P2X4 receptors, ATP-gated cation channels that rapidly cycle off the plasma membrane. These receptors possess consensus YXXΦ motifs, but surprisingly these are inaccessible to AP2 and not needed for endocytosis. Instead, the authors show, a downstream YXXGΦ motif is required. Determining the structure of a YXXGΦ-μ2 complex, they demonstrate that ...
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Nanoscale coupling of endocytic pit growth and stability | Science Advances
To obtain insights into the mechanism by which FCHo2 couples CCP growth and lifetime in CME, we analyzed the nanoscale localization of FCHo2 at CCPs. Dual-color SD-dSTORM (spectral demixing direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy) analysis of the distribution of endogenous FCHo2 within CCPs followed by quantitative averaging of ,250 images revealed a marked concentration of FCHo2 in ring-like structures (about 225 nm in diameter) at the outer rim of CCPs [consistent with (27)] while being largely absent from the CCP center (Fig. 3, D and E) that eventually gives rise to the dome as CCPs invaginate. Hence, FCHo2 selectively accumulates at the rim of CCPs, consistent with its early role in coupling CCP growth and dynamics.. Different models have been proposed regarding the early endocytic function of FCHo2. According to one model, FCHo2 nucleates CCPs by acting as a plasma membrane-associated recruitment hub for early-acting endocytic proteins bound to its μ-homology domain (20). This ...
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"Entrez Gene: AP1S1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 1 subunit". Montpetit A, Côté S, Brustein E, Drouin CA, Lapointe L ... AP-1 complex subunit sigma-1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1S1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... Boehm M, Aguilar RC, Bonifacino JS (Nov 2001). "Functional and physical interactions of the adaptor protein complex AP-4 with ... "HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of adaptor protein complexes with membranes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (10 ...
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Adaptor protein complex 1 is found on the cytoplasmic face of vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates both the ... "AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Entrez Gene. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. ... This nucleolar protein is involved in the processing and modification of tRNA. GDI1: RabGDI alpha makes a complex with ... All AFF proteins are localized in the nucleus and have a role as transcriptional activators with a positive action on RNA ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit". Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999 ... and 3 ADP-ribosylation factors with adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3". Biochemistry. 41 (14): 4669-77. doi:10.1021/bi016064j. ... "Interactions between adaptor protein-1 of the clathrin coat and microtubules via type 1a microtubule-associated proteins". The ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is a neuronal adaptor protein that interacts with ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... It is also regarded as a putative vesicular trafficking protein in the brain that can form a complex with the potential to ...
... adaptor protein (AP) complexes, and alternative adaptors. Her working hypothesis is that for each trafficking pathway, there ... "The Fifth Adaptor Protein Complex". PLOS Biology. 9 (10): e1001170. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170. PMC 3191125. PMID ... matching up machinery and cargo proteins; investigating how clathrin and adaptors are hijacked by the HIV-1-encoded protein Nef ... Robinson and her lab managed to find another AP complex, AP-3, which interacts with lysosomal membrane proteins such as LAMP1. ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3S2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 2 subunit". Dell'Angelica, E C; Ooi C E; Bonifacino J S (Jun 1997 ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ohno H, Ooi CE, Rabinovich E, Roche KW, Bonifacino JS (Apr 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex with ... 2003). "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Dev. Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... 2002). "Role of adaptor complex AP-3 in targeting wild-type and mutated CD63 to lysosomes". Mol. Biol. Cell. 13 (3): 1071-82. ...
November 1998). "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". ... Maximov A, Südhof TC, Bezprozvanny I (August 1999). "Association of neuronal calcium channels with modular adaptor proteins". ... This protein is a multidomain scaffolding protein with a role in synaptic transmembrane protein anchoring and ion channel ... November 1998). "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit". Human AP3B2 genome location and AP3B2 gene details page ... 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression". EMBO J. 16 (5): 917-28. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.5.917. ... Dell'Angelica EC, Klumperman J, Stoorvogel W, Bonifacino JS (1998). "Association of the AP-3 adaptor complex with clathrin". ... AP-3 complex subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3B2 gene. GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the AP2 adaptor complex, which serves to link clathrin ... "Entrez Gene: AP2B1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, ... He G, Gupta S, Yi M, Michaely P, Hobbs HH, Cohen JC (Nov 2002). "ARH is a modular adaptor protein that interacts with the LDL ... He G, Gupta S, Yi M, Michaely P, Hobbs HH, Cohen JC (Nov 2002). "ARH is a modular adaptor protein that interacts with the LDL ...
"Entrez Gene: AP2M1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit". Follows ER, McPheat JC, Minshull C, Moore NC, Pauptit RA, ... which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. The encoded protein is required for the activity of a vacuolar ... Diviani D, Lattion AL, Abuin L, Staub O, Cotecchia S (May 2003). "The adaptor complex 2 directly interacts with the alpha 1b- ... Zhang Y, Allison JP (Aug 1997). "Interaction of CTLA-4 with AP50, a clathrin-coated pit adaptor protein". Proceedings of the ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 2 subunit". Rost, Martina; Döring Tatjana; Prange Reinhild (Nov ... 2003). "HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of adaptor protein complexes with membranes". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (10): 8725-32. ... 2005). "Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes ...
"Entrez Gene: AP2A2 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit". Chen H, Fre S, Slepnev VI, Capua MR, Takei K, Butler MH ... the cytoplasmic domains of human and simian retroviral transmembrane proteins with components of the clathrin adaptor complexes ... "Interaction of Shc with adaptor protein adaptins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (9): 5265-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.9. ... "Interaction of Shc with adaptor protein adaptins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (9): 5265-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.9. ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Hermansky-Pudlak ... The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin ... AP-3 complex subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3B1 gene. This gene encodes a protein that may play ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ...
This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric adaptor-related protein complex 1 (AP-1), which belongs to the adaptor ... "Entrez Gene: AP1M2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 2 subunit". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot ... Fölsch H, Pypaert M, Schu P, Mellman I (Feb 2001). "Distribution and function of AP-1 clathrin adaptor complexes in polarized ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates ... "Entrez Gene: AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Huo L, Teng Z, Wang H, Liu X (March 2019). "A novel ... The protein encoded by this gene serves as the small subunit of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein family. ... March 2003). "HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of adaptor protein complexes with membranes". The Journal of Biological ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1M1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 1 subunit". Hinners I, Wendler F, Fei H, Thomas L, Thomas G, Tooze SA ... AP-1 complex subunit mu-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1M1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is the ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
The protein encoded by this gene is the medium-sized subunit of the AP5 adaptor complex. Variants in this gene have not been ... In addition, damaging variants in the genes encoding two proteins that stably associate with the AP-5 adaptor complex are also ... Hirst, Jennifer; Irving, Carol; Borner, Georg H. H. (2012-11-21). "Adaptor protein complexes AP-4 and AP-5: new players in ... "The fifth adaptor protein complex". PLOS Biology. 9 (10): e1001170. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170. ISSN 1545-7885. PMC ...
The protein encoded by this gene is the small subunit of the AP5 adaptor complex. Variants in this gene have not been ... In addition, damaging variants in the genes encoding two proteins that stably associate with the AP-5 adaptor complex are also ... Hirst, Jennifer; Irving, Carol; Borner, Georg H. H. (2012-11-21). "Adaptor protein complexes AP-4 and AP-5: new players in ... "The fifth adaptor protein complex". PLOS Biology. 9 (10): e1001170. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170. ISSN 1545-7885. PMC ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large subunits of the AP5 adaptor complex. Variants in this gene have not been ... In addition, damaging variants in the genes encoding two proteins that stably associate with the AP-5 adaptor complex are also ... Hirst, Jennifer; Irving, Carol; Borner, Georg H. H. (2012-11-21). "Adaptor protein complexes AP-4 and AP-5: new players in ... "The fifth adaptor protein complex". PLOS Biology. 9 (10): e1001170. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170. ISSN 1545-7885. PMC ...
AP-3 complex subunit delta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3D1 gene. AP3D1 is a subunit of the AP3 adaptor- ... "Entrez Gene: AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit". Martinez-Arca S, Rudge R, Vacca M, Raposo G, Camonis J ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... "Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3S1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit". Human AP3S1 genome location and AP3S1 gene details page ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ohno H, Ooi CE, Rabinovich E, Roche KW, Bonifacino JS (March 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Entrez Gene: APPL2 adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 2". "Salmonella ... Akt2 and FOXO1a Interact with FSHR in a Potential Signaling Complex". Mol Cell Endocrinol. 260-262: 93-9. doi:10.1016/j.mce. ... DCC-interacting protein 13-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APPL2 gene. Model organisms have been used in the ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ...
2000). "Regulation of complex formation of POB1/epsin/adaptor protein complex 2 by mitotic phosphorylation". J. Biol. Chem. 275 ... EPN1 is an endocytic accessory protein that interacts with EPS15 (MIM 600051), the alpha subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP2 ( ... Timsit YE, Miller SL, Mohney RP, O'Bryan JP (2005). "The U-box ligase carboxyl-terminus of Hsc 70-interacting protein ... Epsin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPN1 gene. ... as well as with other accessory proteins for the endocytosis of ...
2001). "Characterization of the CIN85 adaptor protein and identification of components involved in CIN85 complexes". Biochem. ... The B-cell linker protein is encoded by the BLNK gene and is an adaptor protein also known as SLP-65, BASH, and BCA. BLNK is ... Linker or adaptor proteins provide mechanisms by which receptors can amplify and regulate downstream effector proteins. The B- ... "Characterization of the CIN85 Adaptor Protein and Identification of Components Involved in CIN85 Complexes". Biochemical and ...
"Entrez Gene: AP2S1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, sigma 1 subunit". Pearse BM, Smith CJ, Owen DJ (2000). "Clathrin coat ... "A novel spliced transcript of human CLAPS2 encoding a protein alternative to clathrin adaptor protein AP17". Gene. 220 (1-2): ... One of two major clathrin-associated adaptor complexes, AP-2, is a heterotetramer which is associated with the plasma membrane ... 1991). "AP17 and AP19, the mammalian small chains of the clathrin-associated protein complexes show homology to Yap17p, their ...
... has been shown to interact with CRMP1, Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DPYSL2 gene. ... 2003). "p80 ROKalpha binding protein is a novel splice variant of CRMP-1 which associates with CRMP-2 and modulates RhoA- ... Gu Y, Ihara Y (2000). "Evidence that collapsin response mediator protein-2 is involved in the dynamics of microtubules". J. ...
Steven J. Burakoff
Journal of Immunology, 2006 PMID 17056525 HIV Nef-mediated CD4 down-regulation is adaptor protein complex 2 dependent. Jin YJ, ... protein oxidation and altered protein expression reveal targets of damage, stress response, and antioxidant responsiveness. ... cell age reduces effector activity but preserves proliferative capacity in a murine allogeneic major histocompatibility complex ...
Guo Y, Zanetti G, Schekman R (January 2013). "A novel GTP-binding protein-adaptor protein complex responsible for export of ... The protein encoded by the VANGL2 gene is a membrane protein involved in the regulation of planar cell polarity, especially in ... The encoded protein transmits directional signals to individual cells or groups of cells in epithelial sheets. This protein is ... "Entrez Gene: VANGL planar cell polarity protein 2". Retrieved 2018-07-05. Erdal E, Erdal C, Bulut G, Kunter I, Kir M, Atabey N ...
This gene encodes a protein which interacts with clathrin and adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit. The protein ... 1998). "Intersectin, a novel adaptor protein with two Eps15 homology and five Src homology 3 domains". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (47 ... 1997). "Binding specificity and in vivo targets of the EH domain, a novel protein-protein interaction module". Genes Dev. 11 ( ... "The epsins define a family of proteins that interact with components of the clathrin coat and contain a new protein module". J ...
The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition ... "Entrez Gene: AP4M1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, mu 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... Dell'Angelica EC, Mullins C, Bonifacino JS (Apr 1999). "AP-4, a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J Biol ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a Fourth Adaptor-related Protein Complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ...
ID2 - ويكيبيديا
"Dimerization of the docking/adaptor protein HEF1 via a carboxy-terminal helix-loop-helix domain"، Exp. Cell Res.، 252 (1): 224- ... "Id helix-loop-helix proteins inhibit nucleoprotein complex formation by the TCF ETS-domain transcription factors"، EMBO J.، 18 ... "Protein-Protein Interaction Panel Using Mouse Full-Length cDNAs"، Genome Res.، 11 (10): 1758-65، 2001، doi:10.1101/gr.180101، ... "A human Id-like helix-loop-helix protein expressed during early development"، Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.، 89 (4): 1512-6، ...
TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the ... Also, the DBD and signal-sensing domains may reside on separate proteins that associate within the transcription complex to ... Cofactors are interchangeable between specific gene promoters; the protein complex that occupies the promoter DNA and the amino ... recruit coactivator or corepressor proteins to the transcription factor DNA complex ...
Signal transducing adaptor protein. *Scaffold protein. Transcription factors. *General. *Transcription preinitiation complex ... Calmodulin may activate the Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, or may act directly on other effector proteins. ... Certain proteins of the cytoplasm and organelles act as buffers by binding Ca2+. Signaling occurs when the cell is stimulated ... Many of Ca2+ mediated events occur when the released Ca2+ binds to and activates the regulatory protein calmodulin. ...
This complex further complexes with the ubiquitin ligase protein CUL4A and with PARP1. This larger complex rapidly ... like protein kinase, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-like group, two serine/threonine(S/T) kinases and their adaptors ... more complex organisms with more complex genomes have correspondingly more complex repair mechanisms. The ability of a ... In E. coli , the proteins involved are the Mut class proteins: MutS, MutL, and MutH. In most Eukaryotes, the analog for MutS is ...
... while the second function as heterotrimeric G protein complexes. The latter class of complexes is made up of alpha (α), beta (β ... Signal transducing adaptor protein. *I-kappa B protein. *Mucin-4. *Olfactory marker protein ... γ proteins. Signaling. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes ... G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside ...
CAR T cell
... the suicide gene complex has two elements: a mutated FK506-binding protein with high specificity to the small molecule ... These unique bispecific adaptors are constructed with a FITC molecule and a tumor-homing molecule to precisely bridge the ... The first receptor protein typically contains the extracellular antigen binding domain, while the second protein contains the ... Anti-tumor activity in mice is induced only when both the universal CAR T cells plus the correct antigen-specific adaptor ...
... both type I and type II IFNs activate a member of the CRK family of adaptor proteins called CRKL, a nuclear adaptor for STAT5 ... a highly conserved multiprotein complex implicated in protein deneddylation, deubiquitination, and phosphorylation. RIG-G has ... Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... the E7 protein of Human papillomavirus (HPV), and the B18R protein of vaccinia virus. Reducing IFN-α activity may prevent ...
... "p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". J ... Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... Bai RY, Jahn T, Schrem S, Munzert G, Weidner KM, Wang JY, Duyster J (August 1998). "The SH2-containing adapter protein GRB10 ... Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ...
"Characterization of a protein complex containing spliceosomal proteins SAPs 49, 130, 145, and 155". Molecular and Cellular ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (April 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... "Characterization of a protein complex containing spliceosomal proteins SAPs 49, 130, 145, and 155". Molecular and Cellular ... This gene encodes subunit 1 of the splicing factor 3b protein complex. Splicing factor 3b, together with splicing factor 3a and ...
Trimeric autotransporter adhesin
Homotrimerisation is a process whereby three of the same subunits, associate to make a complex of three identical YadA proteins ... Function: The function of the neck domain is to be the adaptor between the larger diameter of the beta-helices and the smaller ... Protein pages needing a picture, Protein families, Protein domains, Virulence factors, Gram-negative bacteria, Secretion, ... First, biogenesis of proteins in the Type V Secretion System (T5SS). Second, it is thought to target the protein to the inner ...
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Apr 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... "Crystal structures of an NAD kinase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus in complex with ATP, NAD, or NADP". Journal of Molecular ... 83 (2): 339-53. doi:10.1124/mol.112.080218. PMC 3558814. PMID 23197646. Tedeschi PM, Lin H, Gounder M, Kerrigan JE, Abali EE, ...
... s (abbreviated Arr) are a small family of proteins important for regulating signal transduction at G protein-coupled ... The strength of arrestin-receptor interaction plays a role in this choice: tighter complexes tend to increase the probability ... clathrin and clathrin adaptor AP2, which promotes receptor internalization via coated pits and subsequent transport to internal ... Arrestins were first discovered as a part of a conserved two-step mechanism for regulating the activity of G protein-coupled ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the exocyst complex, a multiple protein complex essential for targeting ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Jun 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Exocyst complex component 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EXOC3 gene. ... At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal ...
"The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3". Journal of Cell Science. 118 (Pt ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGAP1 gene. ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 6 (3): 197-205 ...
The MyD88 protein acts as an adapter, connecting proteins that receive signals from outside the cell to the proteins that relay ... "Dysregulation of LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4-MyD88 complex formation and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 activation in ... After ligand binding, all TLRs apart from TLR3, interact with adaptor protein MyD88. Another adaptor protein, which is ... In that species it is a universal adapter protein as it is used by almost all TLRs (except TLR 3) to activate the transcription ...
... is an adaptor protein. The protein encoded by this gene is a death domain containing adaptor molecule that interacts with ... "TNF-dependent recruitment of the protein kinase RIP to the TNF receptor-1 signaling complex". Immunity. 4 (4): 387-96. doi: ... This protein binds adaptor protein TRAF2, reduces the recruitment of inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (IAPs) by TRAF2, and thus ... This protein can also interact with receptor TNFRSF6/FAS and adaptor protein FADD/MORT1, and is involved in the Fas-induced ...
Syntrophin, alpha 1
Alpha-1-syntrophin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNTA1 gene. Alpha-1 syntrophin is a signal transducing adaptor ... "Alternative splicing of dystrobrevin regulates the stoichiometry of syntrophin binding to the dystrophin protein complex". Curr ... The protein encoded by this gene is a peripheral membrane protein found associated with dystrophin and dystrophin-related ... Fernández-Larrea J, Merlos-Suárez A, Ureña JM, Baselga J, Arribas J (1999). "A role for a PDZ protein in the early secretory ...
2002). "Regulation of FcepsilonRI-mediated degranulation by an adaptor protein 3BP2 in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells". ... 1996). "Peripheral blood dendritic cells express Fc epsilon RI as a complex composed of Fc epsilon RI alpha- and Fc epsilon RI ... Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; alpha polypeptide, also known as FCER1A, is a protein which in humans is ... The IgE receptor consists of 3 subunits: alpha (this protein), beta, and gamma; only the alpha subunit is glycosylated. GRCh38 ...
ClpS is a bacterial adaptor protein that is responsible for recognizing protein substrates via their N-terminal residues and ... January 2013). "Structural insights into the inactive subunit of the apicoplast-localized caseinolytic protease complex of ... ClpS is as a specific adaptor protein for the ATP-dependent AAA+ protease ClpAP, and hence ClpS delivers N-degron substrates to ... The bacterial N-end rule is already well documented; it involves the Clp protease system which consists of the adaptor protein ...
Adapter molecule crk
"Characterization of the CIN85 adaptor protein and identification of components involved in CIN85 complexes". Biochem. Biophys. ... Adapter molecule crk is a member of an adapter protein family that binds to several tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This ... Adapter molecule crk also known as proto-oncogene c-Crk is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRK gene. The CRK protein ... "Adaptor proteins Grb2 and Crk couple Pyk2 with activation of specific mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades". J. Biol. Chem ...
Not only catalytic but also adaptor activities of this protein are involved in this process. Its movement from the cytosol to ... Poe JC, Fujimoto M, Jansen PJ, Miller AS, Tedder TF (June 2000). "CD22 forms a quaternary complex with SHIP, Grb2, and Shc. A ... pathways independently on its catalytic activity by serving as a bridge for other proteins thereby regulate protein-protein ... Overall, the protein functions as a negative regulator of cell proliferation and survival. Nevertheless, SHIP1 may also bind to ...
Pattern recognition receptor
Interaction with other proteins (e.g. the adaptor molecule ASC) is mediated via N-terminal pyrin (PYD) domain. There are 14 ... MyD88 attracts the IRAK4 molecule, IRAK4 recruits IRAK1 and IRAK2 to form a signaling complex. The signaling complex reacts ... which binds more limited number and variety of ligands and works in a complex with NAIP protein. Other NLRs such as IPAF and ... which are associated with intracellular kinases via adaptor proteins (see non-RD kinases below), plant PRRs are composed of an ...
KLHL3 serves as an adaptor protein that promotes the interaction between WNK1 and Cullin3, which is in a complex containing an ... The WNK1 protein is composed of 2382 amino acids (molecular weight 230 kDa). The protein contains a kinase domain located ... The gene belongs to a group of four related protein kinases (WNK1, WNK2, WNK3, WNK4). Homologs of this protein have been found ... WNK (lysine deficient protein kinase 1), also known as WNK1, is an enzyme that is encoded by the WNK1 gene. WNK1 is serine- ...
Estrogen receptor test
... with the help of adaptor proteins such as caveolin 1 or SHC1, which target the ER complexes to the plasma membrane. Activation ... via the coregulatory proteins (CoReg) in the nucleus. Alternately, the estrogen or SERM complexes may occur through the ER ... of the ER complex causes increased kinase activity in phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase ( ... The anti-ER (SP1) antibody targets the ER alpha protein (ERα) located in the nucleus of ER positive normal and neoplastic cells ...
... adapter proteins and signaling complexes to regulate cytoskeletal linking, cell polarity, cell signaling and vesical ... They are formed by interactions between intracellular adapter proteins, transmembrane proteins and the actin cytoskeletons of ... These complexes, formed primarily of members of the claudin and the occludin families, consist of about 35 different proteins, ... These complexes, consisting of transmembrane adhesion proteins of the cadherin family, link adjacent cells together through ...
... and CUL4B-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. DDB1 serves as a bridge or adaptor protein which interacts with dozens of ... DNA damage-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DDB1 gene. The gene's position is on chromosome ... Leupin O, Bontron S, Strubin M (2003). "Hepatitis B virus X protein and simian virus 5 V protein exhibit similar UV-DDB1 ... Lee TH, Elledge SJ, Butel JS (1995). "Hepatitis B virus X protein interacts with a probable cellular DNA repair protein". J. ...
This protein forms a kinase complex with TRAF6, MAP3K7 and TAB1, thus serves as an adaptor linking MAP3K7 and TRAF6. This ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7-interacting protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K7IP2 ... "Entrez Gene: MAP3K7IP2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 interacting protein 2". Thienpont B, Zhang L, Postma AV ... a novel adaptor protein, mediates activation of TAK1 MAPKKK by linking TAK1 to TRAF6 in the IL-1 signal transduction pathway". ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is a neuronal adaptor protein that interacts with ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... It is also regarded as a putative vesicular trafficking protein in the brain that can form a complex with the potential to ... Borg JP, Yang Y, De Taddéo-Borg M, Margolis B, Turner RS (1998). "The X11alpha protein slows cellular amyloid precursor protein ...
It is suggested that it acts as an adaptor protein in events related to immune response and cholesterol regulation, for example ... The link between these two protein within the JAK1-SNX8 complex allows JAK1 to catalyse SNX8's tyrosines phosphorylation in ... are involved in protein-protein interactions. The SNX8 protein, even though is very similar to the other sorting nexins, ... SNX8 is thought to be an adaptor protein involved in the endosome-to-Golgi transport pathway, participating in endocytosis and ...
The protein encoded by this gene binds to and is inhibited by dihydropyridine. In the arteries of the brain, high levels of ... The calcium channel consists of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta and beta subunits in a 1:1:1 ratio. The S3-S4 linkers of ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Apr 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ...
AP3B2 adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit beta 2 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
Adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3 complex) is a heterotrimeric protein complex involved in the formation of clathrin-coated ... Neuronal adaptin-like protein, beta-subunit. adaptor protein complex AP-3 subunit beta-2. adaptor related protein complex 3 ... adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit beta 2provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:567 See related. Ensembl: ... AP3B2 adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit beta 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 8120, updated on 6-Sep-2022 ...
Autosomal-Recessive Mutations in AP3B2, Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 3 Beta 2 Subunit, Cause an Early-Onset Epileptic...
Tissue expression of AP2B1 - Summary - The Human Protein Atlas
Adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1. Protein classi Assigned HPA protein class(es) for the encoded protein(s). ... Evidence at protein level. Protein expressioni A summary of the overall protein expression pattern across the analyzed normal ... RNA AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION SUMMARYi Below is an overview of RNA and protein expression data generated in the Human Protein ... Protein evidencei Evidence score for genes based on UniProt protein existence (UniProt evidence); a Human Protein Atlas ...
RCSB PDB - 1O3X: Crystal structure of human GGA1 GAT domain
These data reveal a molecular mechanism underlying membrane recruitment of adaptor proteins by ARF-GTP. ... In the complex with ARF1-GTP, a helix-loop-helix of the N-terminal part of GGA1-GAT interacts with the switches 1 and 2 of ARF1 ... ADP-ribosylation factor binding protein GGA1. A. 140. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: GGA1. ... Here we report the X-ray crystal structures of the human GGA1-GAT domain and the complex between ARF1-GTP and the N-terminal ...
Adaptor Protein Ruk<sub>1</sub> Forms Protein-Protein Complexes with Endonuclease Activity in HEK293...
Adaptor Protein Ruk1 Forms Protein-Protein Complexes with Endonuclease Activity in HEK293 Cells. / Kit, Yu Ya; Drel, V. R.; ... Adaptor Protein Ruk1 Forms Protein-Protein Complexes with Endonuclease Activity in HEK293 Cells. In: Biochemistry (Moscow). ... Adaptor Protein Ruk1 Forms Protein-Protein Complexes with Endonuclease Activity in HEK293 Cells. Biochemistry (Moscow). 2003 ... Adaptor Protein Ruk1 Forms Protein-Protein Complexes with Endonuclease Activity in HEK293 Cells. ...
Cells | Free Full-Text | Mitochondria and the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis
NLRP3 inflammasome (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3) is a multiprotein complex that activates ... Mitochondrial dysfunction produces inflammatory factors that activate the inflammasome complexes. ... Mitochondrial damage and activation of inflammasome complexes have a role in inducing and sustaining liver damage. ... ASC, adaptor apoptosis speck protein; DAMPS, damage-associated molecular patterns; GSDMD, gasdermin D; IL-1β, interleukin-1β; ...
Susan K. McConnell's Profile | Stanford Profiles
One of the isolated clones encodes the mu1 subunit of the adaptor complex AP-1 involved in clathrin-dependent protein sorting. ... Doublecortin interacts with mu subunits of clathrin adaptor complexes in the developing nervous system MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR ... Compensatory Actions of Ldb Adaptor Proteins During Corticospinal Motor Neuron Differentiation CEREBRAL CORTEX Leone, D. P., ... The synaptic vesicle proteins SV2A and SV2B (SV2 = synaptic vesicle protein 2) are two highly related proteins belonging to a ...
SMART: Pfam domain Adap comp sub
Mu subunits of adaptor protein (AP) complexes, AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, and AP-4. ... The mu homology domain (MHD) is an ~280 residue protein-protein interaction module, which is found in endocytotic proteins ... Proteins of the muniscin family: Syp1, FCHO1/2 and SGIP1.. The MHD domain has an elongated, banana-shaped, all beta-sheet ...
SCOPe 2.01: Domain d3gq1b : 3gq1 B
PDB Description: the structure of the caulobacter crescentus clps protease adaptor protein in complex with a wlfvqrdske ... PDB Compounds: (B:) ATP-dependent Clp protease adapter protein clpS. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d3gq1b_:. Sequence; same for ... Protein automated matches  (3 species). not a true protein. *. Species Caulobacter vibrioides [TaxId:155892]  ( ... Class d: Alpha and beta proteins (a+b)  (376 folds). *. Fold d.45: ClpS-like  (1 superfamily). beta-alpha(2)-beta ...
Cellular Caspases: New Targets for the Action of Pharmacological Agents | IntechOpen
Fas-associated DD-protein. ). The adaptor for the TNFR1 and DR3 receptors is TRADD (. TNFR1-associated DD-protein. ) (Figure 3 ... by special protein complexes: apoptosomes, PIDDosomes, DISC (. death-inducing signalling complexes. ) [7, 8]. Under certain ... Pro-apoptotic proteins released from the mitochondria regulate the protein composition and caspase-processing activity of the ... The adaptor associated with the death receptor interacts with caspases. The "ligand−receptor−adaptor−effector" interaction ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
... this study targeted the common adaptor protein, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and investigated the relative ... To determine the central pathway in mediating complex organic dust-induced airway inflammation, ... Proteins; Laboratory-animals; Analytical-processes; Pathology; Metabolism; Author Keywords: MyD88; lung; Toll-like receptor; IL ... and TLR4 only partly account for the innate response to these complex dust exposures. ...
The adapter protein CD2AP binds to p53 protein in the cytoplasm and can discriminate its polymorphic variants P72R<...
... protein presents a proline-rich region that is crucial for regulating apoptosis by connecting the p53 with a complex protein ... The adapter protein CD2AP binds to p53 protein in the cytoplasm and can discriminate its polymorphic variants P72R. Journal of ... The adapter protein CD2AP binds to p53 protein in the cytoplasm and can discriminate its polymorphic variants P72R. In: Journal ... The adapter protein CD2AP binds to p53 protein in the cytoplasm and can discriminate its polymorphic variants P72R. / Panni, ...
Recombinant Zebrafish AP2B1 AP2B1-10288Z - Creative BioMart
Recombinant Zebrafish AP2B1 full length or partial length protein was expressed. ... AP-5 complex subunit zeta-1; zeta5; adapter-related protein complex 5 zeta subunit ... ap2b1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit [ Danio rerio (zebrafish) ]. ... Recombinant Human AP2B1 Protein, MYC/DDK-tagged. +Inquiry. Ap2b1-1653M. Recombinant Mouse Ap2b1 Protein, Myc/DDK-tagged. + ...
CD4 downregulation by the HIV-1 protein Nef reveals distinct roles for the γ1 and γ2 subunits of the AP-1 complex in protein...
The adaptor proteins (APs) comprise a family of five heterotetrameric complexes in mammals (Bonifacino, 2014; Robinson, 2015). ... CD4 downregulation by the HIV-1 protein Nef reveals distinct roles for the γ1 and γ2 subunits of the AP-1 complex in protein ... Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes ... Conservation and diversification of dileucine signal recognition by adaptor protein (AP) complex variants ...
Rictor/mTORC2 deficiency enhances keratinocyte stress tolerance via mitohormesis. | Molecular Physiology & Biophysics |...
Rictor is an adaptor protein essential for mTORC2... ... The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) ... The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) regulates growth and metabolism of several tissues, but its functions in ... Rictor is an adaptor protein essential for mTORC2 activity. To explore the roles of mTORC2 in the epidermis, we have ... Rictor is an adaptor protein essential for mTORC2 activity. To explore the roles of mTORC2 in the epidermis, we have ...
β-TrCP (D12C8) Rabbit mAb | Cell Signaling Technology
F-box proteins act as substrate adaptors that target proteins containing a specific phosphorylated sequence element, referred ... to as a phosphodegron, to the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for ubiquitination (1,2). β-TrCP targets many important proteins ... is an F-box family protein characterized by the presence of the protein-protein mediating F-box domain first described in ... Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a recombinant protein specific to human β-TrCP protein. ...
Ap2s1 mutation causes hypercalcaemia in mice and impairs interaction between calciumsensing receptor and adaptor protein-2<...
... a heterotetrameric complex comprising AP2α, AP2β2, AP2μ2 and AP2σ2 subunits, is ubiquitously expressed and involved in ... N2 - Adaptor protein 2 (AP2), a heterotetrameric complex comprising AP2α, AP2β2, AP2μ2 and AP2σ2 subunits, is ubiquitously ... AB - Adaptor protein 2 (AP2), a heterotetrameric complex comprising AP2α, AP2β2, AP2μ2 and AP2σ2 subunits, is ubiquitously ... abstract = "Adaptor protein 2 (AP2), a heterotetrameric complex comprising AP2α, AP2β2, AP2μ2 and AP2σ2
Purified Mouse Anti-Adaptin β
... sorting signals are tyrosine-based and dileucine-based signals that interact with heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes ( ... sorting signals are tyrosine-based and dileucine-based signals that interact with heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes ( ... The AP-1 and AP-3 complexes are involved in protein sorting from the TGN and endosomes, while AP-2 adaptor complexes are ... The AP-1 and AP-3 complexes are involved in protein sorting from the TGN and endosomes, while AP-2 adaptor complexes are ...
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
... and a receptor containing a mutated putative adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) interaction motif, we demonstrate that ... In addition, another molecule of this inhibitor bound to CK2α1, but not to CK2α2, at the CK2ß protein-protein interface. ... in nitrate and proteins, respectively. The line ppck2-had accumulated amino-acids but lower levels of soluble proteins. ... Total protein deimination and histone H3 deimination were furthermore increased in PD brains, with a considerable increase at ...
Vesicle biogenesis potentiation | Journal of Cell Biology | Rockefeller University Press
Loss of the ubiquitously expressed AP-3A complex lea ... Mice lacking an adaptor protein suffer more seizures.The AP-3 ... adaptor protein exists in two forms, A and B. ... The AP-3 adaptor protein exists in two forms, A and B. Loss of ... Defective function of GABA-containing synaptic vesicles in mice lacking the AP-3B clathrin adaptor ... the ubiquitously expressed AP-3A complex leads to widespread problems in lysosome functions. Now, on page 293, Nakatsu et al. ...
Find Research outputs - Augusta University Research Profiles
Adaptor protein CD2AP and L-type lectin LMAN2 regulate exosome cargo protein trafficking through the Golgi complex. Kwon, S. H. ... Adaptive view management for drone teleoperation in complex 3D structures. Thomason, J., Ratsamee, P., Kiyokawa, K., ... A data-analytic strategy for protein biomarker discovery: profiling of high-dimensional proteomic data for cancer detection.. ... Adaptation and Implementation of a Transitional Care Protocol for Patients Undergoing Complex Abdominal Surgery. Fisher, A. V. ...
Pathways: SARS-CoV-2 Protein Interactome | www.anticorps-enligne.fr
Le SARS-CoV-2 est un bêta-coronavirus à ARN simple brin, enveloppé, à sens positif, appartenant à lordre des nidovirales. Au ... AP2M1 (Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, mu 1 Subunit): * AP2M1 Anticorps * AP2M1 Kits ELISA ... GNB1 (Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), beta Polypeptide 1): * GNB1 Anticorps ... ATP5L (ATP Synthase, H+ Transporting, Mitochondrial Fo Complex, Subunit G): * ATP5L Anticorps ...
GSE41867 NAIVE VS DAY15 LCMV EFFECTOR CD8 TCELL DN
Adaptor Protein Complex 2 - Preferred Concept UI. M0333169. Scope note. An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the ... Adaptor Protein Complex 2 Entry term(s). AP 2 Protein Complex AP-2 Adaptor (Clathrin-Coated Vesicles) AP-2 Protein Complex ... Clathrin Adaptor Protein Complex 2 Clathrin Assembly Protein Complex 2 HA 2 Adaptors HA-2 Adaptors Hydroxyapatite 2 Adaptors ... An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL ...
SMART: B2-adapt-app C domain annotation
vesicle-mediated transport (GO:0016192), intracellular protein transport (GO:0006886). GO component:. clathrin adaptor complex ... Solution NMR structure of beta-adaptin appendage domain of human adaptor protein complex 4 subunit beta, Northeast Structural ... Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing B2-adapt-app_C domain in the ... Furthermore, a hydrophobic patch present in the domain also binds to a subset of D-phi-F/W motif-containing proteins that are ...
Composition and structure of synaptic ectosomes exporting antigen receptor linked to functional CD40 ligand from helper T cells...
However, Epsin 1 protein, a well-known adaptor for AP2 and clathrin, but not known in the formation of intraluminal vesicles as ... Whilst Guy et al suggested a proteolytically cleaved form of TCR that is complexed with other proteins, our study suggests the ... However, Epsin 1 protein, a well-known adaptor for AP2 and clathrin, but not known in the formation of intraluminal vesicles as ... Quantitative mass spectrometry of SE revealed members of the core ESCRT machinery and adaptor proteins responsible for the ...
Intermittent fasting from dawn to sunset for four consecutive weeks induces anticancer serum proteome response and improves...
... and an anti-aging proteome response by upregulating H2B histone proteins 1 week after 4-week intermittent fasting. ... We found a significant fold increase in the levels of several tumor suppressor and DNA repair gene protein products (GP)s at ... from dawn to sunset for four weeks also induced an anti-diabetes proteome response by upregulating the key regulatory proteins ... There was an average 74-fold increase in adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit zeta 1 (AP5Z1) (log2 fold = 6.201, P = 0.005 ...
MultipleRoles Dadwal • Freund Group - Protein Biochemistry • Department of Biology, Chemistry, Pharmacy
Adapter proteins are molecules that lack enzymatic or transcriptional activity and are composed of protein-protein and protein- ... Signal 1 is induced after recognition of MHC/peptide complexes presented on antigen presenting cells (APCs) by the clonotypic ... Here, we review recent findings regarding three cytosolic adapter proteins, ADAP (Adhesion and Degranulation-promoting Adapter ... The Multiple Roles of the Cytosolic Adapter Proteins ADAP, SKAP1 and SKAP2 for TCR/CD3 -Mediated Signaling Events. Dadwal, ...
Figure - Viral Interference between Respiratory Viruses - Volume 28, Number 2-February 2022 - Emerging Infectious Diseases...
Downstream adaptor proteins, MyD88 for TLR4, TLR7, and TLR8; TRIF for TLR3 and TLR4, and MAVS (for MDA5 and RIG-I) are ... After translocation in the nucleus, phosphorylated STAT1 and STAT2 form a complex with IRF9 to induce expression of ISGs, such ... phosphorylated protein; PKR, protein kinase receptor; RNase L, latent endoribonuclease; RIG-I, retinoic acid‒inducible gene I; ... mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein; MDA5, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5; MyD88, myeloid differentiation ...
SubunitsSignal TransducingPeptidesBindsReceptorsMembraneSequencesMoleculesKinaseEffectorMutationsDownstreamInteractionsInhibitorHistoneCytoplasmicRecombinant ProteinsVirulence factorMoleculeAntigenEndocytosisInteractionDifferentiationPhosphorylationBeta subunitLigationTransmembrane proteinCIN85CofactorsTRIFRolesRecruitmentTLR42022Mechanistic target of rapamycin complexLysosomesMotifMultivesicular body proteinPathwaysMetabolismRegulatory proteinsIntracellular proteinIlluminaUbiquitinCysteineMeSHRegulateInteractsActivatesGene expression
- Adaptor protein 2 (AP2), a heterotetrameric complex comprising AP2α, AP2β2, AP2μ2 and AP2σ2 subunits, is ubiquitously expressed and involved in endocytosis and trafficking of membrane proteins, such as the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein coupled receptor that signals via Gα11. (birmingham.ac.uk)
- Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that the AP2S1 p.Arg15Leu mutation impaired protein-protein interactions between AP2σ2 and the other AP2 subunits, and also with the CaSR. (birmingham.ac.uk)
- This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric adaptor-related protein comlex 3 (AP-3), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. (antibodies-online.cn)
- After triggering of signal transducing receptors, adapter proteins organize the proper processing of membrane proximal and intracellular signals as well as the activation of downstream effector molecules. (fu-berlin.de)
- It has been shown that FRS2 proteins are tyrosine phos phorylated in response to activation of the RET receptor, a tyrosine kinase that functions as the signal transducing receptor for the GDNF. (novusbio.com)
- The encoded subunit binds clathrin and is phosphorylated by a casein kinase-like protein, which mediates synaptic vesicle coat assembly. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, a hydrophobic patch present in the domain also binds to a subset of D-phi-F/W motif-containing proteins that are bound by the alpha-adaptin appendage domain (epsin, AP180, eps15). (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Signal 1 is induced after recognition of MHC/peptide complexes presented on antigen presenting cells (APCs) by the clonotypic TCR (T-cell receptor)/CD3 complex whereas Signal 2 is mediated via the co-stimulatory receptor CD28, which binds to CD80/CD86 molecules that are present on APCs. (fu-berlin.de)
- We have previously demonstrated that the heat shock protein Apg-2 binds ZO-1 and thereby regulates its role in cell proliferation. (ucl.ac.uk)
- GGAs are critical for trafficking soluble proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes/lysosomes through interactions with TGN-sorting receptors, ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and clathrin. (rcsb.org)
- To determine the central pathway in mediating complex organic dust-induced airway inflammation, this study targeted the common adaptor protein, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and investigated the relative contributions of receptors upstream from this adaptor. (cdc.gov)
- The IGF-1R signaling axis is comprised of two receptors (IGF-1R and IGF-2R), the ligands IGF-1 and IGF-2, and a system of at least six binding proteins and attendant proteases that modulate ligand availability ( Fig. 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Adaptins are components of the adaptor complexes which link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. (fishersci.com)
- while others, such as the G-protein coupled receptors , cross as many as seven times. (ipfs.io)
-   Many membrane receptors include transmembrane proteins . (ipfs.io)
- In certain receptors, such as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor , the transmembrane domain forms a protein pore through the membrane, or around the ion channel . (ipfs.io)
- These data reveal a molecular mechanism underlying membrane recruitment of adaptor proteins by ARF-GTP. (rcsb.org)
- In contrast to apoptosis, necrosis is a pathological form of cell death caused by acute damage, rupture of the membrane, release of the cytoplasm content, and the inflammatory process induced thereby [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
- An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles ( ENDOSOMES ) at the CELL MEMBRANE . (bvsalud.org)
- Le génome de 30 kb du SARS-CoV-2 code 16 protéines non structurelles (Nsp1-16), quatre protéines structurelles (pic, enveloppe, nucléocapside, membrane) et neuf facteurs accessoires putatifs 7 . (anticorps-enligne.fr)
- This event serves to recruit AKT to the membrane, where it can be phosphorylated and activated by PDK1 and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC2) complex ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration. (fishersci.com)
- Alpha adaptin is a subunit of the plasma membrane adaptor. (fishersci.com)
- Ap1b1 is a subunit of the adaptor complex AP-1, which has been implicated in the targeting of basolateral membrane proteins. (zfin.org)
- To gain insight into the cellular and molecular defects in ap1b1 mutants, we examined the localization of basolateral membrane proteins in hair cells. (zfin.org)
- The proposed mechanisms in lowering ICP include following: (1) suppression of cerebral sodium uptake, (2) carbonic anhydrase inhibition resulting in decreased CSF production, and (3) inhibition of cellular membrane cation-chloride pump, thereby affecting the transport of water into astroglial cells. (medscape.com)
- XV" YOL105C 1 15 18 YOL105C "Putative integral membrane protein containing novel cysteine motif. (davidson.edu)
- Arf proteins: the membrane traffic police? (embl.de)
- sensitivity to membrane phospholipids--each of these activities has been attributed to Arf proteins. (embl.de)
- They are specialized integral membrane proteins that allow communication between the cell and the outside world. (ipfs.io)
- Like any integral membrane protein, a transmembrane receptor may be divided into three domains. (ipfs.io)
- The structural and functional organization of the adaptor protein Ruk 1 is characterized by the presence of three SH3-domains at the N-terminus followed by Pro- and Ser-rich sequences and a C-terminal coiled-coil region. (uthscsa.edu)
- 2019) 12:293-303 Abbreviations background blocks the sequencing of the whole sugarcane NR Non-redundant protein sequences in NCBI genome. (deepdyve.com)
- Cloning of P5 and P7 Illumina adaptor sequences into the vector backbone allows direct Sequencing of the viral cassette. (researchsquare.com)
- A total of 102,659,984 reads were filtered after removing low-quality reads and trimming the adapter sequences. (rna-seqblog.com)
- Adapter proteins are molecules that lack enzymatic or transcriptional activity and are composed of protein-protein and protein-lipid interacting domains/motifs. (fu-berlin.de)
- This provides opportunities for enhanced interactions with protein molecules that contain two (or more) different peptide motives. (sfb765.de)
- Granule cargo includes pigment proteins, signaling molecules, and enzymes. (preventiongenetics.com)
- CDC42 binding protein kinase beta [Sou. (gsea-msigdb.org)
- Here, we review recent findings regarding three cytosolic adapter proteins, ADAP (Adhesion and Degranulation-promoting Adapter Protein), SKAP1 and SKAP2 (Src Kinase Associated Protein 1 and 2) with respect to their role in TCR/CD3-mediated activation, proliferation and integrin regulation. (fu-berlin.de)
- TYK-2, tyrosine kinase 2. (cdc.gov)
- The biologic function of LKB1 includes the regulation of downstream kinases, including adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the related kinases (microtube affinity-regulating kinase [MARK] 1 through MARK4 and brain-specific kinase/synapses of the amphid-defective kinase [Brsk/SAD]), which are involved in cellular metabolic regulation-stress response and cellular polarity, the latter through tubulin stabilization, tight junction formation, and E-cadherin localization. (medscape.com)
- Autophosphorylation sites located within the catalytic domain are crucial for stimulation of kinase activity, while autophosphorylation sites located in other regions are usually involved in the recruitment of cellular target proteins. (novusbio.com)
- One observation that's particularly illustrative may be the altered amount of transcription of over 900 genes (2-fold transformation in appearance), following deletion of (a PPIP5K homologue) in person in the inositol phosphate kinase signaling family members. (immune-source.com)
- It interacts directly with MTOR to enhance its kinase activity and stabilizes the MTOR- RPTOR PROTEIN interaction in nutrient-poor conditions, favoring RPTOR inhibition of MTOR activity. (bvsalud.org)
- Depending on the phase at which those proteins enter the apoptotic cascade one distinguishes initiator (apical) and effector (executioner) caspases. (intechopen.com)
- The intracellular domain communicates via protein-protein interactions against effector proteins , which in turn pass a signal to the destination. (ipfs.io)
- Autosomal-Recessive Mutations in AP3B2, Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 3 Beta 2 Subunit, Cause an Early-Onset Epileptic Encephalopathy with Optic Atrophy. (nih.gov)
- Both IGF-1 and IGF-2 are capable of inducing IGF-1R clustering and autophosphorylation, leading to activation of downstream signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
- Multiple modules in the Ruk 1 structure involved in protein-protein interactions can provide for formation of ligand clusters with varied properties and subcellular location. (uthscsa.edu)
- We are studying cooperative interactions within the LAT-nucleated signaling complex, and the role of SH2 domain dimerization in mediating cooperativity. (technion.ac.il)
- 592 Elements forex strategico opinioni Quantum Electrodynamics and Weak Interactions 10 Here Eq oplnioni κ was inserted and we made use of the fact that the 2 sum of the energies in the initial state equals s (in the center-of-mass sytem). (qrforex.com)
- Here the vaccinia virus (VACV) protein C6 is identified as an inhibitor of PRR-induced IFN-β expression by a functional screen of select VACV open reading frames expressed individually in mammalian cells. (lancs.ac.uk)
- We assessed differences in PAD isozyme detection (assessing all five PADs), in total protein deimination/citrullination and histone H3 deimination-which is an indicator of epigenetic changes and extracellular trap formation (ETosis), which can elicit immune responses and has involvement in pathogenic conditions. (bvsalud.org)
- Total protein deimination and histone H3 deimination were furthermore increased in PD brains, with a considerable increase at earlier Braak stages, compared with controls. (bvsalud.org)
- Fasting from dawn to sunset for four weeks also induced an anti-diabetes proteome response by upregulating the key regulatory proteins of insulin signaling at the end of 4th week during 4-week intermittent fasting (VPS8, POLRMT, IGFBP-5) and 1 week after 4-week intermittent fasting (PRKCSH), and an anti-aging proteome response by upregulating H2B histone proteins 1 week after 4-week intermittent fasting. (nature.com)
- involved PARs cyanide via G effectiveness histone( 4) and via the metabolism: system fructose of the G-protein( 5). (erik-mill.de)
- Members of this family of proteins are often found associated with histone-modifying enzymes and protein complexes that regulate gene expression. (musc.edu)
- NuA4, an essential transcription adaptor/histone H4 acetyltransferase complex containing Esa1p and the ATM-related cofactor Tra1p. (ijddc.com)
- cytoplasmic FMR1 interacting protein 1. (gsea-msigdb.org)
- The concentration of our recombinant proteins is measured using the absorbance at 280nm. (antibodies-online.com)
- Vaccinia virus protein C6 is a virulence factor. (lancs.ac.uk)
- FGF stimulation leads to phosphorylation of Shp2 on a tyrosine residue forming a complex with an additional molecule of Grb2. (novusbio.com)
- Neuroinflammatory markers, such as ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), gp91phox and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were measured in the nigrostriatal system. (springer.com)
- The protein encoded by this gene represents the beta subunit of the neuron-specific AP-3 complex and was first identified as the target antigen in human paraneoplastic neurologic disorders. (nih.gov)
- In addition, triggering of the TCR/CD3 complex induces the activation of the integrin LFA-1 (leukocyte function associated antigen 1) leading to increased ligand binding (affinity regulation) and LFA-1 clustering (avidity regulation). (fu-berlin.de)
- In both cell types, antigen recognition triggers the tyrosine phosphorylation of two key adaptor proteins, LAT and SLP-76. (technion.ac.il)
- A third adaptor, Gads, bridges the recruitment of SLP-76 to LAT, and together these adaptors nucleate the formation of large signaling complexes that transmit antigen receptor signals into the cell. (technion.ac.il)
- In contrast, the IGF-2R (also know as mannose 6-phosphate receptor) does not seem to be capable of mediating signaling, but is thought, rather, to regulate extracellular IGF-2 levels through receptor-mediated endocytosis followed by IGF-2 degradation in lysosomes ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Herein we describe the use of DNA-based spatial screening for the characterization of the adaptor complex 2 (AP-2), a central interaction hub within the endocytic protein network in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (sfb765.de)
- Proline-rich motifs are widely distributed in eukaryotic proteomes and are usually involved in the assembly of functional complexes through interaction with specific binding modules. (elsevier.com)
- The binding data obtained with both recombinant protein in well-defined buffer systems and native AP-2 in brain extract suggests that the two binding sites of the AP-2 α-appendage can cooperate to provide up to 40-fold enhancement of affinity compared to the monovalent interaction. (sfb765.de)
- If cultured in three dimensional extracellular matrix gels, Apg-2 depleted cells, as previously shown for ZO-1 depleted cells, did not form hollow polarised cysts but poorly organised, irregular structures.Conclusion: Our data indicate that Apg-2 regulates junction assembly and is required for normal epithelial morphogenesis in a three-dimensional culture system, suggesting that Apg-2 is an important regulator of epithelial differentiation. (ucl.ac.uk)
- As the observed phenotypes are similar to those previously described for ZO-1 depleted cells and depletion of Apg-2 retards junctional recruitment of ZO-1, regulation of ZO-1 is likely to be an important functional role for Apg-2 during epithelial differentiation. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Activation of JAK-1 and TYK-2 leads to phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2. (cdc.gov)
- Fibroblast growth factor or nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulation leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of the FGF Receptor Substrate 2 (FRS2) docking proteins. (novusbio.com)
- Grb2/Sos complexes are thus recruited directly and indirectly via Shp2 upon tyrosine phosphorylation of FRS2a in response to growth factor stimulation. (novusbio.com)
- Here we describe auditory/vestibular mutants isolated from forward genetic screens in zebrafish with lesions in the adaptor protein 1 beta subunit 1 ( ap1b1) gene. (zfin.org)
- Following adaptor ligation, DNA was PCR amplified for 5-9 cycles, depending on amount of input DNA. (chip-atlas.org)
- transmembrane protein 245 [Source:HGNC. (gsea-msigdb.org)
- transmembrane protein 268 [Source:HGNC. (gsea-msigdb.org)
- SH3 and WW), and we present the first demonstration that the purified SH3 domains of the CD2AP/Cin85 protein family are able to directly bind the p53 protein, and to discriminate between the two polymorphic variants P72R. (elsevier.com)
- Because phosphorus is an essential element for DNA, RNA, several ubiquitous cofactors, and phosphorylated proteins, Pi-limitation has major affects on cellular metabolism and physiology. (biomedcentral.com)
- Importantly, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor protein TRIF is required for both inflammasome activation and IFN-β production, indicating its central role in the detection of microbial viability. (medscape.com)
- The ARFs are a family of 21,000 M(r) proteins with biological roles in constitutive secretion and activation of phospholipase D. The structure of ARF-1 complexed to GDP determined from two crystal forms reveals a topology that is similar to that of the protein p21 ras with two differences: an additional amino-terminal helix and an extra beta-strand. (embl.de)
- Elegant studies have suggested that IRS-1 recruitment is primarily required for mitogenic signaling, whereas IRS-2, in contrast, plays a key role in cellular motility responses ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 only partly account for the innate response to these complex dust exposures. (cdc.gov)
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex2
- The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) regulates growth and metabolism of several tissues, but its functions in epidermal cells are poorly defined. (vanderbilt.edu)
- An adaptor protein, consisting of seven WD REPEATS along its length, that functions as a component of the MECHANISTIC TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN COMPLEX 1 and MTORC2 COMPLEX. (bvsalud.org)
- The AP-3 complex plays a role in protein trafficking to lysosomes and specialized organelles. (antibodies-online.cn)
- this feature is not seen in p21 ras, due to a shift in the relative position of the DXXG motif between the two proteins. (embl.de)
- RNA binding motif protein 3. (gsea-msigdb.org)
Multivesicular body protein1
- charged multivesicular body protein 1B. (gsea-msigdb.org)
- C6 is a member of a family of Bcl-2-like poxvirus proteins, many of which have been shown to inhibit innate immune signalling pathways. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Our group studies the regulatory mechanisms that govern adaptor protein signaling pathways. (technion.ac.il)
- AKT signaling also impacts glucose metabolism through regulation of GSK-3β activity, and plays a key role in protein synthesis and cell growth by regulating the activity of the TORC1 complex through a series of intermediate signaling events ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- A family of endogenous regulatory proteins that associate with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN via a specific high-affinity binding domain. (musc.edu)
- The AP-3 complex plays a role during the budding of vesicles from the trans Golgi network and endosomal compartments and is essential for proper intracellular protein sorting and vesiculation (Simpson et al. (preventiongenetics.com)
- A Total of 2-10 ng of DNA from each ChIP-Rx experiment was used for library preparation using the NEBNext Ultra II DNA Library Kit for Illumina (E7645) and NEBNext Multiplex Oligos for Illumina (Set#1, NEB #7335). (chip-atlas.org)
- ubiquitin protein ligase E3. (gsea-msigdb.org)
- Unlike Ras proteins they lack cysteine residues at their C-termini and therefore are unlikely to be prenylated. (embl.de)
- Retinoblastoma Binding Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (musc.edu)
- It can stabilize unfolded proteins, may regulate ATP hydrolysis and even couple substrate and adaptor binding to ATP hydrolysis. (axonmedchem.com)
- In the complex with ARF1-GTP, a helix-loop-helix of the N-terminal part of GGA1-GAT interacts with the switches 1 and 2 of ARF1 predominantly in a hydrophobic manner. (rcsb.org)
- ADP interacts P2Y1 and P2Y12, which have via both the download Финансовый анализ and stress: immune characteristics of the inactive G-protein( Hirsch et al. (erik-mill.de)
- Once activated, phosphorylated IGF-1R recruits and activates signaling adaptor proteins, including IRS-1, IRS-2, and Shc. (aacrjournals.org)
- Neither missense is IP7 to the convergent reaction as IL7R assembles produced by the MSH2 for wide extracellular complex( TSLP) while IL2RG activates involved with the residues for IL2, IL4, IL9, IL15 and IL21. (erik-mill.de)
- We further examined associations with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, assessed the functional significance of the SNPs for gene expression in human tissues, and conducted RNA-silencing experiments for one novel association. (ox.ac.uk)
- ZO-1 is a tight junction-associated adaptor protein that regulates gene expression, junction assembly and epithelial morphogenesis. (ucl.ac.uk)