An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.
The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.
A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that play a role in the coupling of SYNDECANS to CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
A macromolecular complex of proteins that includes DYSTROPHIN and DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. It plays a structural role in the linking the CYTOSKELETON to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.
Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signalling and activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.

Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38. (1/190)

Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis.  (+info)

Inhibition of the receptor-binding function of clathrin adaptor protein AP-2 by dominant-negative mutant mu2 subunit and its effects on endocytosis. (2/190)

Although interactions between the mu2 subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2 and tyrosine-based internalization motifs have been implicated in the selective recruitment of cargo molecules into coated pits, the functional significance of this interaction for endocytosis of many types of membrane proteins remains unclear. To analyze the function of mu2-receptor interactions, we constructed an epitope-tagged mu2 that incorporates into AP-2 and is targeted to coated pits. Mutational analysis revealed that Asp176 and Trp421 of mu2 are involved in the interaction with internalization motifs of TGN38 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Inducible overexpression of mutant mu2, in which these two residues were changed to alanines, resulted in metabolic replacement of endogenous mu2 in AP-2 complexes and complete abrogation of AP-2 interaction with the tyrosine-based internalization motifs. As a consequence, endocytosis of the transferrin receptor was severely impaired. In contrast, internalization of the EGF receptor was not affected. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the dominant-interfering approach for functional analysis of the adaptor protein family, and indicate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis may proceed in both a mu2-dependent and -independent manner.  (+info)

Mu1B, a novel adaptor medium chain expressed in polarized epithelial cells. (3/190)

The apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains of polarized epithelial cells contain distinct sets of integral membrane proteins. Biosynthetic targeting of proteins to the basolateral plasma membrane is mediated by cytosolic tail determinants, many of which resemble signals involved in the rapid endocytosis or lysosomal targeting. Since these signals are recognized by adaptor proteins, we hypothesized that there could be epithelial-specific adaptors involved in polarized sorting. Here, we report the identification of a novel member of the adaptor medium chain family, named mu1B, which is closely related to the previously described mu1A (79% amino acid sequence identity). Northern blotting and in situ hybridization analyses reveal the specific expression of mu1B mRNA in a subset of polarized epithelial and exocrine cells. Yeast two-hybrid analyses show that mu1B is capable of interacting with generic tyrosine-based sorting signals. These observations suggest that mu1B may be involved in protein sorting events specific to polarized cells.  (+info)

Early endosomes are required for major histocompatiblity complex class II transport to peptide-loading compartments. (4/190)

Antigen presentation to CD4(+) T lymphocytes requires transport of newly synthesized major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules to the endocytic pathway, where peptide loading occurs. This step is mediated by a signal located in the cytoplasmic tail of the MHC class II-associated Ii chain, which directs the MHC class II-Ii complexes from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes. The subcellular machinery responsible for the specific targeting of MHC class II molecules to the endocytic pathway, as well as the first compartments these molecules enter after exit from the TGN, remain unclear. We have designed an original experimental approach to selectively analyze this step of MHC class II transport. Newly synthesized MHC class II molecules were caused to accumulate in the Golgi apparatus and TGN by incubating the cells at 19 degrees C, and early endosomes were functionally inactivated by in vivo cross-linking of transferrin (Tf) receptor-containing endosomes using Tf-HRP complexes and the HRP-insoluble substrate diaminobenzidine. Inactivation of Tf-containing endosomes caused a marked delay in Ii chain degradation, peptide loading, and MHC class II transport to the cell surface. Thus, early endosomes appear to be required for delivery of MHC class II molecules to the endocytic pathway. Under cross-linking conditions, most alphabetaIi complexes accumulated in tubules and vesicles devoid of gamma-adaptin and/or mannose-6-phosphate receptor, suggesting an AP1-independent pathway for the delivery of newly synthesized MHC class II molecules from the TGN to endosomes.  (+info)

Gamma-synergin: an EH domain-containing protein that interacts with gamma-adaptin. (5/190)

The AP-1 adaptor complex is associated with the TGN, where it links selected membrane proteins to the clathrin lattice, enabling these proteins to be concentrated in clathrin-coated vesicles. To identify other proteins that participate in the clathrin-coated vesicle cycle at the TGN, we have carried out a yeast two- hybrid library screen using the gamma-adaptin subunit of the AP-1 complex as bait. Two novel, ubiquitously expressed proteins were found: p34, which interacts with both gamma-adaptin and alpha-adaptin, and gamma-synergin, an alternatively spliced protein with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 110-190 kD, which only interacts with gamma-adaptin. gamma-Synergin is associated with AP-1 both in the cytosol and on TGN membranes, and it is strongly enriched in clathrin-coated vesicles. It binds directly to the ear domain of gamma-adaptin and it contains an Eps15 homology (EH) domain, although the EH domain is not part of the gamma-adaptin binding site. In cells expressing alpha-adaptin with the gamma-adaptin ear, a construct that goes mainly to the plasma membrane, much of the gamma-synergin is also rerouted to the plasma membrane, indicating that it follows AP-1 onto membranes rather than leading it there. The presence of an EH domain suggests that gamma-synergin links the AP-1 complex to another protein or proteins.  (+info)

Duplications on human chromosome 22 reveal a novel Ret Finger Protein-like gene family with sense and endogenous antisense transcripts. (6/190)

Analysis of 600 kb of sequence encompassing the beta-prime adaptin (BAM22) gene on human chromosome 22 revealed intrachromosomal duplications within 22q12-13 resulting in three active RFPL genes, two RFPL pseudogenes, and two pseudogenes of BAM22. The genomic sequence of BAM22vartheta1 shows a remarkable similarity to that of BAM22. The cDNA sequence comparison of RFPL1, RFPL2, and RFPL3 showed 95%-96% identity between the genes, which were most similar to the Ret Finger Protein gene from human chromosome 6. The sense RFPL transcripts encode proteins with the tripartite structure, composed of RING finger, coiled-coil, and B30-2 domains, which are characteristic of the RING-B30 family. Each of these domains are thought to mediate protein-protein interactions by promoting homo- or heterodimerization. The MID1 gene on Xp22 is also a member of the RING-B30 family and is mutated in Opitz syndrome (OS). The autosomal dominant form of OS shows linkage to 22q11-q12. We detected a polymorphic protein-truncating allele of RFPL1 in 8% of the population, which was not associated with the OS phenotype. We identified 6-kb and 1.2-kb noncoding antisense mRNAs of RFPL1S and RFPL3S antisense genes, respectively. The RFPL1S and RFPL3S genes cover substantial portions of their sense counterparts, which suggests that the function of RFPL1S and RFPL3S is a post-transcriptional regulation of the sense RFPL genes. We illustrate the role of intrachromosomal duplications in the generation of RFPL genes, which were created by a series of duplications and share an ancestor with the RING-B30 domain containing genes from the major histocompatibility complex region on human chromosome 6.  (+info)

A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in polarized epithelial cells. (7/190)

Although polarized epithelial cells are well known to maintain distinct apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains, the mechanisms responsible for targeting membrane proteins to the apical or basolateral surfaces have remained elusive. We have identified a novel form of the AP-1 clathrin adaptor complex that contains as one of its subunits mu1B, an epithelial cell-specific homolog of the ubiquitously expressed mu1A. LLC-PK1 kidney epithelial cells do not express mu1B and missort many basolateral proteins to the apical surface. Stable expression of mu1B selectively restored basolateral targeting, improved the overall organization of LLC-PK1 monolayers, and had no effect on apical targeting. We conclude that basolateral sorting is mediated by an epithelial cell-specific version of the AP-1 complex containing mu1B.  (+info)

Association of AP1 adaptor complexes with GLUT4 vesicles. (8/190)

Nycodenz gradients have been used to examine the in vitro effects of GTP-(gamma)-S on adaptor complex association with GLUT4 vesicles. On addition of GTP-(gamma)-S, GLUT4 fractionates as a heavier population of vesicles, which we suggest is due to a budding or coating reaction. Under these conditions there is an increase in co-sedimentation of GLUT4 with AP1, but not with AP3. Western blotting of proteins associated with isolated GLUT4 vesicles shows the presence of high levels of AP1 and some AP3 but very little AP2 adaptor complexes. Cell free, in vitro association of the AP1 complex with GLUT4 vesicles is increased approximately 4-fold by the addition of GTP-(gamma)-S and an ATP regenerating system. Following GTP-(gamma)-S treatment in vitro, ARF is also recruited to GLUT4 vesicles, and the temperature dependence of ARF recruitment closely parallels that of AP1. The recruitment of both AP1 and ARF are partially blocked by brefeldin A. These data demonstrate that the coating of GLUT4 vesicles can be studied in isolated cell-free fractions. Furthermore, at least two distinct adaptor complexes can associate with the GLUT4 vesicles and it is likely that these adaptors are involved in mediating distinct intracellular sorting events at the level of TGN and endosomes.  (+info)

AP1S3_HUMAN] Subunit of clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1 that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules. Involved in TLR3 trafficking (PubMed:24791904).[1] [AP1G1_MOUSE] Subunit of clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1 that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules. [BST2_HUMAN] IFN-induced antiviral host restriction factor which efficiently blocks the release of diverse mammalian enveloped viruses by directly tethering nascent virions to the membranes of infected cells. Acts as a direct physical tether, holding virions to the cell ...
The AP-complex family (Boehm and Bonifacino, 2001; Nakatsu and Ohno, 2003; Owen et al., 2004; Robinson, 2004) has six members in mammals. AP-1A, AP-2, AP-3A and AP-4 are ubiquitously expressed. The other two members, AP-5 and AP-6, are cell-type-specific isoforms of AP-1A and AP-3A: the epithelium-specific AP-1B and the neuron-restricted AP-3B.. The AP complexes consist of four subunits: one small (σ1-σ4), one medium (μ1-μ4) and two large (α, γ, δ or ϵ; and β1-β4) subunits. These assemble to form a structure in which two appendage domains are connected by flexible hinge regions to the core (Owen et al., 2004; Owen and Luzio, 2000; Robinson, 2004). The large subunits are divided into three domains: the N-terminal domain, which makes up the core with the μ and σ subunits; the hinge domain, and the C-terminal appendage. One of the large subunits (α, γ, δ or ϵ) is implicated in binding to the target membrane (Collins et al., 2002; Nakatsu and Ohno, 2003; Owen et al., 2004; Traub, ...
Stonins are a small family of evolutionarily conserved clathrin adaptor complex AP-2mu-related factors that may act as cargo-specific sorting adaptors in endocytosis and perhaps beyond. Whereas little is known about the localization and function of stonin 1, recent work suggests that stonin 2 serves …
Subunit of clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1 that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules.
Current scientific tests which include ours, discovered a novel role of Rho3 in the Golgi/ endosomal trafficking, partly through bodily and/or purposeful conversation with the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) intricate and Cdc42 in fission yeast [9,10]. We also confirmed that the AP-1 complex mutant strains confirmed flaws in Golgi/ endosomal trafficking, secretion and vacuole fusion [eleven,twelve] and that Sip1, the AP-one accent recruits the AP-1 complicated to the Golgi/endosomes by figuring out the sip1-i4 mutant allele, which abolished the endosomal localization of the AP-1 complicated [13]. Sip1 is a homolog of Laa1 in the budding yeast [fourteen] and p200 in increased eukaryotes [fifteen], the two of which belong to the rising family members of AP-1 interacting associates. To realize the molecular operate of the AP-one accessory protein and elucidate the pathways interacting with Sip1/AP-one-mediated trafficking, we screened for the multi-duplicate suppressor of the ...
Author: Medigeshi, G. R. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2008-01; Title: AP-1 membrane-cytoplasm recycling regulated by μ1A-adaptin.
The endocytic pathway is essential for cell homeostasis and numerous small GTPase Rab have been involved in its control. The endocytic trafficking step controlled by Rab4b has not been elucidated although recent data suggested it could be important for glucose homeostasis, synaptic homeostasis, or adaptative immunity. Here we show that Rab4b is required for early endosome sorting of transferrin receptors (TfR) to the recycling endosomes and we identified the AP1γ subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-1 as a Rab4b effector and key component of the machinery of early endosomes sorting. We show that internalized transferrin (Tf) does not reach Vamp3/Rab11 recycling endosomes in absence of Rab4b while it is rapidly recycled back to the plasma membrane. On the contrary, Rab4b overexpression leads to the accumulation of internalized Tf within AP-1 and clathrin-coated vesicles. These vesicles are poor in early and recycling endocytic markers except TfR and require AP1γ for their formation. Furthermore, ...
beta-Adaptin antibody [N3C1], Internal (adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit) for WB. Anti-beta-Adaptin pAb (GTX101753) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
For todays edition of Dear Mark, Im answering one question from a reader. Its all about synthetic peptides, small chains of amino acids with
The Modern Flower Company is a small chain of high end London based florists. The identity employs a modernist aesthetic with a strong grid and clean typographic approach but adds an organic element with the typographic marque acting as a vine growing up …
EpsinR is a clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) enriched 70-kD protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, clathrin, and the gamma appendage domain of the adaptor protein complex 1 (AP1). In cells, its distribution overlaps with the perinuclear pool of clathrin and AP1 adaptors. Overexpression disrupts the CCV-dependent trafficking of cathepsin D from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes and the incorporation of mannose-6-phosphate receptors into CCVs. These biochemical and cell biological data point to a role for epsinR in AP1/clathrin budding events in the cell, just as epsin1 is involved in the budding of AP2 CCVs. Furthermore, we show that two gamma appendage domains can simultaneously bind to epsinR with affinities of 0.7 and 45 microM, respectively. Thus, potentially, two AP1 complexes can bind to one epsinR. This high affinity binding allowed us to identify a consensus binding motif of the form DFxDF, which we also find in gamma-synergin and use to predict that an uncharacterized EF-hand
When released from the 20°C block, VSVG emigrated away from membranes positive for conventional Golgi to closely apposed structures that were positive for AP-1B and Exo70. Intriguingly, Exo70 also strongly localized to Tfn- and TfnR-positive recycling endosomes. Thus, it seems possible that AP-1B-dependent cargo may at least partially enter recycling endosomes before continuing to the plasma membrane after exit from the Golgi. Our data are thus in agreement with previous observations showing that Rab11 (a recycling endosome-associated GTPase) may play a role in biosynthetic traffic, at least in nonpolarized cells (Chen et al., 1998). Moreover, both the TGN and recycling endosomes are complex sorting compartments (Mellman and Warren, 2000). In the case of epithelial cells, it is also interesting to note that polarized targeting of newly synthesized and recycling glycoproteins makes use of similar or identical sorting determinants in the TGN and in the endocytic pathway (Matter et al., 1993; ...
Journal de Physique II, Journal de Physique Archives représente une mine dinformations facile à consulter sur la manière dont la physique a été publiée depuis 1872.
Katya Heldwein, PhD, Principal Investigator. Katya received her PhD from Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, OR where she studied ligand recognition by bacterial transcription regulators using x-ray crystallography in the laboratory of Richard Brennan. She then did her postdoctoral work at Harvard Medical School in the laboratory of Stephen Harrison where she initially worked on clathrin adaptor complexes and later delved into herpesvirus cell entry. She opened her own laboratory at Tufts University School of Medicine in the Fall of 2006.. ...
Petrobreak oil cleaning spray is is an environmentally safe formula that is effective in both extinguishing and preventing petroleum fires, Petrobreak contains enzymes that convert long chain hydrocarbon into small chain byproducts, causing spills to disa
Petrobreak oil cleaning spray is is an environmentally safe formula that is effective in both extinguishing and preventing petroleum fires, Petrobreak contains enzymes that convert long chain hydrocarbon into small chain byproducts, causing spills to disa
The second was a little more off the wall. Theres a restaurant called Meat Liquor famed for its burgers that we tried to visit a week or two ago. However, it is extremely popular and as such, constantly has a queue stretching around the block unless you get there early. Anyway, having given up on it thanks to its popularity and our inability to finish before 7pm we hunted down another venue within the same very small chain. This one is called Meat Market - see what they did there? and is situated just next to Covent Garden.. If youre familiar with the area, youll know that Jubilee Market is situated between the Strand and Covent Garden Market. Upstairs (above Jubilee Market) is where youll find the place. To be honest, it took a bit of finding for us - mostly because we didnt know where it was, but to be fair - its up a windy staircase and from the outside doesnt look like much of anything.. Now I think of it, it doesnt look like much of anything from he inside either, but dont let ...
By Scott Harris on June 21, 2013 I recently had a fascinating and illustrative new business meeting. I received a call from the owner of a small chain of
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Custom indexed adapters, universal adapters and indexed primers compatible with a variety of DNA library prep methods. SI, CDI, UDI, UMI available. Easy to use Custom Adapter Configurator tool.
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This is one of three E.coli hydrogenases synthesized in response to different physiological conditions. HYD1 is believed to have a role in hydrogen cycling during fermentative growth.
Function: Phosphorylates the AP2M1/mu2 subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). May play a role in regulating aspects of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (By similarity ...
Previous work showed that UNC 101 and DPY 23 are adaptins orthologous to the mu1 and mu2 subunits of adaptor protein complex 1 and 2, and that they both can act as negative modulators of LET 23 Regorafenib chemical structure signalling. Similarly, SLI 1 is orthologous to CBL, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting LET 23 for degradation and SEM 5 is GRB2, an adaptor molecule that physically interact with EGFR. To address whether these genes could interact with cdt 2, we used loss of function alleles of dpy 23 AP2, unc 101 AP1, sli 1 CBL, and sem 5 GRB2 and performed cdt 2. We found that cdt 2 genetically interacts with dpy 23lf and unc 101lf, as cdt 2 RNAi induces a Muv phenotype in these back grounds. In contrast, no interaction was seen with sli 1lf or sem 5lf.. Since an absence of genetic interaction can sometimes suggest a physical interaction, we tested whether CDT 2 could physically interact with either SLI 1 or SEM 5. We produced in vitro labelled CDT 2 and puri fied SLI 1 and SEM 5 from ...
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The protein encoded by this gene is the medium chain of the trans-Golgi network clathrin-associated protein complex AP-1. The other components of this complex are beta-prime-adaptin, gamma-adaptin, and the small chain AP1S1. This complex is located at the…
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex AP2 is one of the best-studied components of the endocytic machinery. The AP2 complex consists of four different subunits, α, β2, σ2, and μ2, which assemble into a core domain with two appendages (Fig. 2; Collins et al., 2002; Jackson et al., 2010). AP2 has multiple binding partners, including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), clathrin, several endocytic accessory proteins, and two signaling motifs present on some cargo receptors (see Traub, 2009 for a detailed review). The AP2 complex has classically been considered to be the master initiator of clathrin-mediated endocytosis through its role in recruiting clathrin molecules to the membrane. However, several lines of evidence question this idea.. If the AP2 complex has an essential role in initiation then its presence would be required for the formation of endocytic sites. However, in yeast the endocytosis of mating pheromone α-factor is unaffected in strains lacking functional AP2 ...
Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in vesicle formation and cargo selection. They control the vesicular transport of proteins in different trafficking pathways (PubMed:10066790, PubMed:10436028). AP-4 forms a non clathrin-associated coat on vesicles departing the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and may be involved in the targeting of proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosomal-lysosomal system. It is also involved in protein sorting to the basolateral membrane in epithelial cells and the proper asymmetric localization of somatodendritic proteins in neurons. AP-4 is involved in the recognition and binding of tyrosine-based sorting signals found in the cytoplasmic part of cargos, but may also recognize other types of sorting signal (Probable). ...
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K01602 ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase small chain [EC:4.1.1.39] , (RefSeq) ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chain A, chloroplastic- ...
K01602 ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase small chain [EC:4.1.1.39] , (RefSeq) ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chain, ...
npu:Npun_F4197 K01602 ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase small chain [EC:4.1.1.39] , (GenBank) ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, small chain RbcS (A) MQTLPKERRYETLSYLPPLSDAQIAKQIQYILNQGYIPAIEFNETSEPTELYWTMWKLPL FGAKSTQEVLSEVQGCRSQFNGSYIRVVGFDNIKQCQVLSFLVHKPNRY ...
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The journal focuses on neuroimmunology and neuroinflammation, and the coverage extends to other basic and clinical studies related to neuroscience including molecular biology, psychology, pathology, physiology, endocrinology, pharmacology, oncology, etc.
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TGN1412 CASE STUDY - Clinical trials, Fialuridine, TGN This page was last edited on 20 May , at In addition, no signs of toxicity were observed in any of the physiological
The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition ... "Entrez Gene: AP4M1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, mu 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... Dell'Angelica EC, Mullins C, Bonifacino JS (Apr 1999). "AP-4, a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J Biol ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a Fourth Adaptor-related Protein Complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ...
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort integral membrane proteins at various stages of the endocytic and ... "Entrez Gene: AP4B1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... Dell'Angelica EC, Mullins C, Bonifacino JS (Apr 1999). "AP-4, a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J Biol ... 2001). "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1S1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 1 subunit". Montpetit A, Côté S, Brustein E, Drouin CA, Lapointe L ... Boehm M, Aguilar RC, Bonifacino JS (Nov 2001). "Functional and physical interactions of the adaptor protein complex AP-4 with ... The protein encoded by this gene is part of the clathrin coat assembly complex which links clathrin to receptors in coated ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit". Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999 ... and 3 ADP-ribosylation factors with adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3". Biochemistry. 41 (14): 4669-77. doi:10.1021/bi016064j. ... "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three- ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1M1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 1 subunit". Hinners I, Wendler F, Fei H, Thomas L, Thomas G, Tooze SA ... The protein encoded by this gene is the medium chain of the trans-Golgi network clathrin-associated protein complex AP-1. The ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the AP2 adaptor complex, which serves to link clathrin ... "Entrez Gene: AP2B1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, ... Kim YM, Benovic JL (Aug 2002). "Differential roles of arrestin-2 interaction with clathrin and adaptor protein 2 in G protein- ... He G, Gupta S, Yi M, Michaely P, Hobbs HH, Cohen JC (Nov 2002). "ARH is a modular adaptor protein that interacts with the LDL ...
"Entrez Gene: AP2M1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit". Follows ER, McPheat JC, Minshull C, Moore NC, Pauptit RA, ... This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric coat assembly protein complex 2 (AP2), which belongs to the adaptor ... "Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T ... "Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T ...
Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates ... "Entrez Gene: AP1B1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit". Nakagawa, T; Setou M; Seog D; Ogasawara K; Dohmae N; ... The protein encoded by this gene serves as one of the large subunits of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein ... 2001). "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 2 subunit". Rost, Martina; Döring Tatjana; Prange Reinhild (Nov ... Adaptins, together with medium and small subunits, form a heterotetrameric complex called an adaptor, whose role is to promote ... protein along with the complex is thought to function at some trafficking step in the complex pathways between the trans-Golgi ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Martinez-Arca S ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... and 3 ADP-ribosylation factors with adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3". Biochemistry. 41 (14): 4669-77. doi:10.1021/bi016064j. ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3S1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit". Human AP3S1 genome location and AP3S1 gene details page ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ohno H, Ooi CE, Rabinovich E, Roche KW, Bonifacino JS (March 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Hermansky-Pudlak ... The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ooi CE, Bonifacino JS (Jun 1997). "Beta3A-adaptin, a subunit of the adaptor-like complex AP-3". The Journal ...
The protein encoded by this gene is the medium subunit of AP-3, which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the ... "Entrez Gene: AP3M1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 1 subunit". Human AP3M1 genome location and AP3M1 gene details page in ... AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex composed of two large subunits (delta and beta3), a medium subunit (mu3), and a ... Drake MT, Zhu Y, Kornfeld S (2001). "The assembly of AP-3 adaptor complex-containing clathrin-coated vesicles on synthetic ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Huo L, Teng Z, Wang H, Liu X (March 2019). "A novel ... Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates ... The protein encoded by this gene serves as the small subunit of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein family. ... December 2006). "Mutations in the gene encoding the Sigma 2 subunit of the adaptor protein 1 complex, AP1S2, cause X-linked ...
The family routinely lies on the clathrin adaptor complex 3 beta-1 subunit proteins. The exact function of DUF 1682 is unclear ... The final protein is thought to be translated from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm of the cell. The protein is ... The portion of the protein which extends into the cytosol is predicted to be highly phosphorylated as the protein's ... cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), PAR b ZIP family and Sp4 Transcription Factor. NRF1 encodes a protein which ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Piccini M, Vitelli F, Bruttini M, Pober BR, Jonsson JJ ... Adaptor protein complex 1 is found on the cytoplasmic face of vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates both the ... This nucleolar protein is involved in the processing and modification of tRNA. GDI1: RabGDI alpha makes a complex with ... "Mutations in the Gene Encoding the Sigma 2 Subunit of the Adaptor Protein 1 Complex, AP1S2, Cause X-Linked Mental Retardation ...
This signaling domain recruits MyD88 adaptor protein that activates proinflammatory programes and NF-κB pathway. The activity ... which forms a complex with IL-18Rα and induces an anti-inflammatory response. The IL-37/IL-18Rα/IL-1R8 complex activates the ... IL-37 has high homology with IL-18 and can bind to IL-18Rα, which then forms a complex with IL-18BP, thereby reduces the ... The protein encoded by this gene is a proinflammatory cytokine. Many cell types, both hematopoietic cells and non-hematopoietic ...
"The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3". Journal of Cell Science. 118 (Pt ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGAP1 gene. ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 6 (3): 197-205 ...
... has been shown to interact with CRMP1, Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DPYSL2 gene. ... 2003). "p80 ROKalpha binding protein is a novel splice variant of CRMP-1 which associates with CRMP-2 and modulates RhoA- ... Gu Y, Ihara Y (2000). "Evidence that collapsin response mediator protein-2 is involved in the dynamics of microtubules". J. ...
Nie Z, Fei J, Premont RT, Randazzo PA (2005). "The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes ... Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AGAP2 gene. ... Werden SJ, Barrett JW, Wang G, Stanford MM, McFadden G (2007). "M-T5, the ankyrin repeat, host range protein of myxoma virus, ... A nuclear gtpase that enhances PI3kinase activity and is regulated by protein 4.1N". Cell. 103 (6): 919-30. doi:10.1016/S0092- ...
AP complexes mediate trafficking linking clathrin or other coat proteins to receptors in coated vesicles, selectively sorting ... which codes for the smallest subunit of the AP1 adaptor complex. The AP-1 complex is one of five Adaptor Protein complexes that ... Rychik, J.; Spray, T.L. (2002). "Strategies to treat protein-losing enteropathy". Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular ... The AP-1 complex is found in the trans-Golgi network and is responsible for controlling AP-1-coated vesicles and the ...
This complex is recruited by checkpoint protein Rad17 to the sites of DNA damage, which is thought to be important for ... Rad9 doesn't do the DNA repair itself, it is just an adaptor protein that sends the signal. Rad9 has also been shown to ... It forms a checkpoint protein complex with Rad1 and Hus1. This is also known as the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 or 9-1-1 complex. ... Cell cycle checkpoint control protein RAD9A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAD9A gene.Rad9 has been shown to ...
This gene encodes a protein which interacts with clathrin and adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit. The protein ... 1998). "Intersectin, a novel adaptor protein with two Eps15 homology and five Src homology 3 domains". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (47 ... 1997). "Binding specificity and in vivo targets of the EH domain, a novel protein-protein interaction module". Genes Dev. 11 ( ... "The epsins define a family of proteins that interact with components of the clathrin coat and contain a new protein module". J ...
... "p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". J ... Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... Bai RY, Jahn T, Schrem S, Munzert G, Weidner KM, Wang JY, Duyster J (August 1998). "The SH2-containing adapter protein GRB10 ... Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ...
In parallel, when toll-like receptors in the endocytic compartments recognize a virus the activation of the adaptor protein ... Bacteria and fungi may form complex biofilms, protecting from immune cells and proteins; biofilms are present in the chronic ... This leads to antiviral protein production, such as protein kinase R, which inhibits viral protein synthesis, or the 2′,5′- ... "Resistance" (R) proteins, encoded by R genes, are widely present in plants and detect pathogens. These proteins contain domains ...
... a family of ADP ribosylation factor-binding proteins related to adaptors and associated with the Golgi complex". J Cell Biol. ... Takatsu H, Yoshino K, Nakayama K (2000). "Adaptor gamma ear homology domain conserved in gamma-adaptin and GGA proteins that ... ADP-ribosylation factor-binding protein GGA1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GGA1 gene. This gene encodes a ... Members of this family are ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network ...
... a family of ADP ribosylation factor-binding proteins related to adaptors and associated with the Golgi complex". J. Cell Biol. ... including 6 ARF proteins and 11 ARF-like proteins, constitute a family of the RAS superfamily. The ARF proteins are categorized ... The ARF1 protein is localized to the Golgi apparatus and has a central role in intra-Golgi transport. Multiple alternatively ... 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio. ...
"Characterization of the CIN85 adaptor protein and identification of components involved in CIN85 complexes". Biochemical and ... "Characterization of the CIN85 adaptor protein and identification of components involved in CIN85 complexes". Biochemical and ... "SETA is a multifunctional adapter protein with three SH3 domains that binds Grb2, Cbl, and the novel SB1 proteins". Cellular ... "SETA is a multifunctional adapter protein with three SH3 domains that binds Grb2, Cbl, and the novel SB1 proteins". Cellular ...
All these protein-protein interaction form a complex called the inflammasome. The aggregation of the pro-caspase-1 causes the ... The pyrin domain of NLRs binds to an adaptor protein ASC (PYCARD) via PYD-PYD interaction. ASC contains PYD and CARD domain and ... Srinivasula SM, Poyet JL, Razmara M, Datta P, Zhang Z, Alnemri ES (2002). "The PYRIN-CARD protein ASC is an activating adaptor ... N-terminal domain is responsible for homotypic protein-protein interaction and it can consist of caspase recruitment domain ( ...
AP (adaptor protein) complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. AP complexes connect cargo proteins and ... The two major types of clathrin adaptor complexes are the heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes, and the monomeric ... and adaptor complexes that link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to ... Touz MC, Kulakova L, Nash TE (July 2004). "Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi- ...
Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... The ribosomes, membranes and Golgi complexes can be separated by another technique called density gradient centrifugation. ... The rotors may come with different adapters to hold various sizes of test tubes, bottles, or microtiter plates. ... By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ...
Signal transducing adaptor proteins. *EDARADD *EDARADD Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. *SH3BP2 *Cherubism. *LDB3 *Zaspopathy ... Mutations in the RPS6KA3 disturb the function of the protein, but it is unclear how a lack of this protein causes the signs and ... The RPS6KA3 gene makes a protein that is involved with signaling within cells. Researchers believe that this protein helps ... The protein RSK2 which is encoded by the RPS6KA3 gene is a kinase which phosphorylates some substrates like CREB and histone H3 ...
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... L-type voltage-gated calcium channel complex. • integral component of plasma membrane. • cell junction. • dendrite. • ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Apr 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective Wikipedia articles. [§ 1] ...
... cell surface expression of SAP-binding receptor CD229 is regulated via its interaction with clathrin-associated adaptor complex ... a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment". Genome Res. 13 ... Lee YJ، Luisiri P، Clark MR (1996). "A novel complex, p40/42, is constitutively associated with the B cell antigen receptor and ... "Functional requirements for interactions between CD84 and Src homology 2 domain-containing proteins and their contribution to ...
Adaptor molecules are responsible for self-assembly and recruitment. Two examples of adaptor proteins are AP180[3] and epsin.[4 ... During mitosis, clathrin binds to the spindle apparatus, in complex with two other proteins: TACC3 and ch-TOG/CKAP5. Clathrin ... In a cell, a triskelion floating in the cytoplasm binds to an adaptor protein, linking one of its feet to the membrane at a ... In a cell, clathrin triskelion in the cytoplasm binds to an adaptor protein that has bound membrane, linking one of its three ...
The assembled complex of hslV (blue) and hslU (red) from E. coli. This complex of heat shock proteins is thought to resemble ... the SCF itself is regulated by the APC via ubiquitination of the adaptor protein, Skp2, which prevents SCF activity before the ... Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks ... These proteins are ubiquitinated by SCFTIR1, or SCF in complex with the auxin receptor TIR1. Degradation of Aux/IAA proteins ...
... protein family, was recently shown to physically bind Atg16L1.[44] Atg16L1 is a member of an E3-like protein complex involved ... and enables the docking of specific cargos and adaptor proteins such as Sequestosome-1/p62.[49] The completed autophagosome ... substrate/chaperone complex.[32] This complex then moves to the lysosomal membrane-bound protein that will recognise and bind ... Without efficient autophagy, neurons gather ubiquitinated protein aggregates and degrade. Ubiquitinated proteins are proteins ...
1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio. ... 2009). "ULK-Atg13-FIP200 Complexes Mediate mTOR Signaling to the Autophagy Machinery". Mol. Biol. Cell. 20 (7): 1992-2003. doi: ... Autophagy-related protein 13 also known as ATG13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIAA0652 gene. ATG13 is an ... X. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (3): 169-76 ...
Together, these were a prerequisite for the evolution of the most complex eukaryotic cells, from which all multicellular ... by comparing sequences of DNA or proteins. The result of a successful analysis is a hierarchy of clades - groups that share a ... "On degenerate templates and the adaptor hypothesis" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 1, 2008. Retrieved ... Retrieved January 1, 2008.. *^ a b Fedonkin, M.A.; Gehling, J.G.; Grey, K.; Narbonne, G.M.; Vickers-Rich, P. (2007). The Rise ...
cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex. • nuclear membrane. • membrane. • transcription factor complex. • ... 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ...
positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ... This dissociation enables the adaptor protein TRADD to bind to the death domain, serving as a platform for subsequent protein ... positive regulation of protein complex disassembly. • regulation of cell proliferation. • cellular response to amino acid ... negative regulation of protein complex disassembly. • multicellular organism development. • negative regulation of bicellular ...
"The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-interacting protein (WIP) binds to the adaptor protein Nck". The Journal of Biological ... SLP-76-associated protein (SLAP), Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) proteins and the Arp2/3 complex link T cell ... protein binding. • identical protein binding. • actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase binding. • Rac GTPase ... "Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein is associated with the adapter protein Grb2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor in living ...
... and SH3 domain-containing adaptor protein that has been also shown to interact with another CAS family member, p130Cas/BCAR1, ... "Dcas supports cell polarization and cell-cell adhesion complexes in development". PLOS ONE. 5 (8): e12369. Bibcode:2010PLoSO ... "Entrez Gene: Cas scaffolding protein family member 4".. *^ a b Tikhmyanova N, Little JL, Golemis EA (April 2010). "CAS proteins ... Cas scaffolding protein family member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASS4 gene.[5] ...
... to bind to the ITAM and activated ZAP-70 phosphorylates tyrosines on the adaptor protein LAT, which then attracts PLC-γ. Other ... The TCR complex[edit]. The TCR receptor complex is an octomeric complex of variable TCR receptor α and β chains with three ... Associated molecules of the TCR complex involved in T-cell activation[edit]. The essential function of the TCR complex is to ... UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes protein/pdbid-2hac - Zeta-zeta dimer of T cell receptor ...
... where sequencing adapters are added prior to bisulfite fragmentation. Instead, the adapters are added after the DNA is treated ... October 2017). "Multiplexed quantification of proteins and transcripts in single cells". Nature Biotechnology. 35 (10): 936-939 ... "Cell type atlas and lineage tree of a whole complex animal by single-cell transcriptomics". Science. 360 (6391): eaaq1723. doi ... A transposase inserts sequencing adapters directly into open regions of chromatin, allowing those regions to be amplified and ...
2000). "Interactions of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family with cytosolic adaptor and scaffold proteins suggest ... 2002). "Mixed lineage kinase LZK forms a functional signaling complex with JIP-1, a scaffold protein of the c-Jun NH(2)- ... protein kinase inhibitor activity. • protein binding. • kinesin binding. • protein kinase binding. • JUN kinase binding. • ... "Entrez Gene: MAPK8IP1 mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1".. *^ a b c d e f Yasuda, J; Whitmarsh A J; ...
... essential adapter proteins in TLR signaling), they were still able to induce inflammatory responses, increase T cell activation ... clippings as antigen on their cell surface by coupling them to a special receptor known as a major histocompatibility complex ( ... Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA (July 1997). "A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation ... 23 (1): 67-73. doi:10.1051/medsci/200723167. PMID 17212934.. *^ Takeda K, Akira S (January 2005). "Toll-like receptors in ...
Signal transducing adaptor protein. *I-kappa B protein. *Mucin-4. *Olfactory marker protein ... GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. Small GTPases act as molecular switches in ... and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). ... GTP-Binding+Protein+Regulators at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
The adaptor molecules were eventually shown to be tRNAs and the catalytic "ribonucleic-protein complexes" became known as ... ribonucleic-protein complexes that catalyse the assembly of amino acids into proteins according to the messenger RNA ... Many molecular biologists were puzzled by the problem of the origin of a protein replicating system that is as complex as that ... DNA → RNA → Protein. Some critics thought that by using the word "dogma", Crick was implying that this was a rule that could ...
Signal transducing adaptor proteins. *EDARADD *EDARADD Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. *SH3BP2 *Cherubism. *LDB3 *Zaspopathy ... 20 (1): E6. doi:10.3171/foc.2006.20.1.7. PMID 16459996.. *^ a b c Kumar, R; Vaid, VK; Kalra, SK (July 2007). "Lhermitte-Duclos ... Carney complex. *PRKAG2 *Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. *PRKCSH *PRKCSH Polycystic liver disease ... It is often associated with Cowden syndrome.[1] It was described by Jacques Jean Lhermitte and P. Duclos in 1920.[2] ...
Proteins of the major histocompatibility complex class I are endogenous negative regulators of NMDAR-mediated currents in the ... adaptor, and scaffolding proteins. ... Two specific proteins have been identified as a major pathway ... The receptor is a heteromeric complex that interacts with multiple intracellular proteins by three different subunits: GluN1, ... which contain residues that can be directly modified by a series of protein kinases and protein phosphatases, as well as ...
Protein nanopore sequencing utilizes membrane protein complexes such as α-hemolysin, MspA (Mycobacterium smegmatis Porin A) or ... MPSS was a bead-based method that used a complex approach of adapter ligation followed by adapter decoding, reading the ... a small protein secreted by the pancreas. This provided the first conclusive evidence that proteins were chemical entities with ... Sanger is one of the few scientists who was awarded two Nobel prizes, one for the sequencing of proteins, and the other for the ...
受體蛋白(英语:Template:Signal transducing adaptor proteins). *GTP-binding(英语:Template:GTP-binding protein regulators) ... López-Rodríguez ML, Murcia M, Benhamú B, Olivella M, Campillo M, Pardo L. Computational model of the complex between GR113808 ... 卷曲受体 (1(英语:FZD1), 2(英语:FZD2), 3(英语:FZD3), 4(英语:FZD4), 5(英语:FZD5), 6(英语:FZD6), 7(英语:FZD7), 8(英语:FZD8), 9(英语:FZD9), 10(英语:FZD10)) ... G蛋白耦合受体 (1(英语:GPR1), 3(英语:GPR3), 4(英语:GPR4), 6(英语:GPR6), 12(英语:GPR12), 15(英语:GPR15), 17(
"p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". ... protein tyrosine kinase activity. • protein phosphatase binding. 細胞の構成要素. • 細胞質. • 細胞質基質. • 膜. • 焦点接着. • extrinsic component of ... positive regulation of protein phosphorylation. • regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin. • 胎座. • 脈管形成. • protein ... "Cell adhesion kinase beta forms a complex with a new member, Hic-5, of proteins localized at focal adhesions
Ensuing binding of ephrin-B3 to the cytoplasmic adaptor protein, Grb4, leads to the recruitment and binding of Dock180 and p21 ... the need to understand more complex structures becomes much more pertinent, and simpler associations formed at childhood are ... Reverse signaling between ephrin-B proteins and their Eph receptor tyrosine kinases have been found to initiate the retraction ... This suggests that pruning is triggered once the ligand reaches threshold protein levels within a few days after detectable ...
... which is facilitated by binding to adaptor proteins via protein-protein interaction motifs that are collectively referred to as ... Multiprotein complexes often form during caspase activation.[12] Some activating multiprotein complexes includes: *The death- ... The adaptor protein FADD will recruit (by a Death domain-Death domain interaction) pro-Caspase 8 via the DED domain. This FasR ... This molecule binds an adaptor protein (APAF-1), which recruits initiator Caspase-9 (via CARD-CARD interactions). This leads to ...
"EphrinB ligands recruit GRIP family PDZ adaptor proteins into raft membrane microdomains". Neuron. 22 (3): 511-24. doi:10.1016/ ... Stegmüller J, Werner H, Nave KA, Trotter J (2003). "The proteoglycan NG2 is complexed with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- ... "Interaction of the ERC family of RIM-binding proteins with the liprin-alpha family of multidomain proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 278 ... GRIP2‏ (Glutamate receptor interacting protein 2) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين GRIP2 في الإنسان.[1] ...
Some of the proteins that associate with HATs in these complexes function by targeting the HAT complex to nucleosomes at ... transcriptional adaptor), TFIID (transcription factor II D), TFTC (TBP-free TAF-containing complex), and NuA3/NuA4 (nucleosomal ... and it is the last protein to bind in the complex.. Histones tend to be positively charged proteins with N-terminal tails that ... structural proteins, polyamines, and proteins involved in nuclear import.[3] Acetylation of these proteins can alter their ...
... control mTOR signaling by acting as a GTPase-activating protein complex toward Rheb". Curr. Biol. 13 (15): 1259-68. doi:10.1016 ... on growth factor receptors or adaptor proteins via the pY-X-X-M motif.[13][14] ... October 2004). "A rapid method for determining protein kinase phosphorylation specificity". Nat. Methods. 1 (1): 27-9. doi: ... Use of Oriented Peptide Libraries to determine phosphopeptide binding specificity and protein kinase substrate specificity[edit ...
Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with DPYSL2 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: AP2A1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit". Nishimura, Takashi; Fukata Yuko; Kato Katsuhiro; ... AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. The AP-2 complex is a heterotetramer consisting of two large adaptins ... 1996). "Interaction of Shc with adaptor protein adaptins". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (9): 5265-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.9.5265. PMID ...
adapter-related protein complex 5 mu subunit. adapter-related protein complex 5 subunit mu-1. adaptor related protein complex 5 ... adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit mu 1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:20192 See related. Ensembl: ... The fifth adaptor protein complex. Hirst J, et al. PLoS Biol, 2011 Oct. PMID 22022230, Free PMC Article ... AP5M1 adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit mu 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 55745, updated on 13-Mar-2020 ...
AP-2 complex subunit beta. Names. adapter-related protein complex 2 beta subunit. adapter-related protein complex 2 subunit ... adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit beta. adaptor related protein complex 2 beta 1 subunit. adaptor-related protein complex 2 ... clathrin assembly protein complex 2 beta large chain. clathrin-associated/assembly/adaptor protein, large, beta 1. plasma ... a virally encoded peripheral membrane protein. Nef binds to the adaptor protein (AP) complexes of coated vesicles, inducing an ...
Compare adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 1 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used ... Your search returned 14 adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit mu 1 ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. ... Watch Webinar: How To Get Speed and Depth in your Host Cell Protein (HCP) Analysis ...
Adaptor-related protein complex 1 subunit sigma-1C, Clathrin assembly protein complex 1 sigma-1C small chain, Golgi adaptor HA1 ... Adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit sigma-1C, ... AP1S3 - adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 3.... Homo ... wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary ... knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound ...
... adaptor related protein complex 4 sigma 1 subunit), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... transporter activity clathrin-coated pit protein transporter activity protein transport endosome lumen trans-Golgi network ... transporter activity clathrin-coated pit protein transporter activity protein transport endosome lumen trans-Golgi network ... Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure. UniProt/SwissProt. Q9Y587 [function] [subcellular_location] [family_and_domains] [ ...
... plasma membrane adaptor AP-2 50kDA protein , adaptor protein complex AP-2, mu1 , adaptor-related protein complex AP-2, mu1 , ... adapter-related protein complex 2 mu subunit , adaptin-mu2 , adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu , clathrin adaptor complex ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, alpha 2 Subunit Antibodies * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, alpha 1 Subunit ... anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 3, beta 2 Subunit Antibodies * anti-Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 3, delta 1 Subunit ...
... adapter-related protein complex 2 mu subunit , adaptin-mu2 , adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu , clathrin adaptor complex ... adaptor protein complex AP-2, mu1 , clathrin assembly protein complex 2 medium chain A , clathrin coat assembly protein AP50-A ... plasma membrane adaptor AP-2 50 kDa protein , adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit , AP-2 complex subunit mu-like , ... adaptor-related protein complex AP-2, mu1 , clathrin-associated AP-2 , coat assembly protein complex 50 kD , HA2 50 kDa subunit ...
Protein (His tag). Spezies: Maus. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN3129522 bestellen. ... Recombinant Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, sigma 2 Subunit (AP1S2) ... Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, sigma 2 Subunit (AP1S2) (AA 1-160) protein (His tag) Protein AP1S2 Spezies: Maus Quelle: ... Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 1, sigma 2 Subunit (AP1S2) Protein-Typ. Recombinant. Proteineigenschaft. AA 1-160. Spezies. ...
adaptor-related protein complex 2, sigma 1 subunit. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, and PMID associations ... OMIM: HYPOCALCIURIC HYPERCALCEMIA, FAMILIAL, TYPE III; HHC3, ADAPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN COMPLEX 2, SIGMA-1 SUBUNIT; AP2S1*Gene ... Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International ... 1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917. ...
OMIM: ADAPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN COMPLEX 4, EPSILON-1 SUBUNIT; AP4E1, 613744*Gene Ontology: Ap4e1 *Mouse Phenome DB: Ap4e1 *UCSC: ... adaptor-related protein complex AP-4, epsilon 1. Synonyms: 2310033A20Rik. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, ... Vega: OTTMUSG16016 (Ap4e1, "adaptor-related protein complex AP-4, epsilon 1")*CCDS: 17696.1, 38231* ... Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International + ...
What is Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1? Meaning of Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 medical ... What does Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 mean? ... Looking for online definition of Adapter-related protein ... Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 explanation free. ... redirected from Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1) AP3B1. A gene on chromosome 5q14.1 that encodes a subunit of ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The cytoplasmic tail of L-selectin interacts with the adaptor-protein complex AP- ... The cytoplasmic tail of L-selectin interacts with the adaptor-protein complex AP-1 subunit mu1A via a novel basic binding motif ... 1 subunit mu1A via a novel basic binding motif. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Sort by ...
What is Adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit beta-1? Meaning of Adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit beta-1 medical term. What ... Adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit beta-1 explanation free. ... does Adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit beta-1 mean? ... Looking for online definition of Adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit beta-1 in the Medical Dictionary? ... redirected from Adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit beta-1) AP1B1. A gene on chromosome 22q12.2 that encodes a large subunit ...
... and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon ... The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, ... White boxes represent UTRs (untranslated regions). Orange: protein coding regions. The black lines connecting boxes represent ...
Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in ... adaptor related protein complex 4 subunit beta 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... This gene encodes a subunit of a heterotetrameric adapter-like complex 4 that is involved in targeting proteins from the trans- ... It is also involved in protein sorting to the basolateral membrane in epithelial cells and the proper asymmetric localization ...
adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit zeta 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... As part of AP-5, a probable fifth adaptor protein complex it may be involved in endosomal transport. According to PubMed: ... The encoded protein was found in a complex with other proteins that have a role in HR-DSBR. Knockdown of this gene reduced ...
Mechanisms of synaptic plasticity mediated by Clathrin Adaptor-protein complexes 1 and 2 in mice - eDiss In this collection. ... Clathrin adaptor protein complexes 1 and 2 (AP1 and AP2) have essential functions in synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling. In all ... Mechanisms of synaptic plasticity mediated by Clathrin Adaptor-protein complexes 1 and 2 in mice. Ratnakar Mishra ... Neurons express the ubiquitous AP1/σ1A complex and in addition, the tissue-specific AP1/σ1B complex. In our lab, we have ...
Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 4 Mu 1 Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in ... Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in ... The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition ...
Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 1 Subunit Gamma 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, ... The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This ... AP1G2 Gene(Protein Coding) Adaptor Related Protein Complex 1 Subunit Gamma 2. ... AP1G2 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 1 Subunit Gamma 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AP1G2 include Long ...
... proteins achieve steady-state localization by cycling through late endosomes. Here, we show that chitin synthase III (Chs3p), ... The yeast clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 is required for the efficient retention of a subset of late Golgi membrane ... Disruption of the clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) restores Chs3p transport to the plasma membrane. Similarly, in AP-1 ... In yeast, certain resident trans-Golgi network (TGN) proteins achieve steady-state localization by cycling through late ...
AP1S2 encodes an adaptin protein that constitutes part of the adaptor protein complex found at the cytoplasmic face of coated ... Aberrant endocytic processing through disruption of adaptor protein complexes is likely to result from the AP1S2 mutations ... AP1S2 is the first reported XLMR gene that encodes a protein directly involved in the assembly of endocytic vesicles. ... The complex mediates the recruitment of clathrin to the vesicle membrane. ...
AP1M2: adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 2. AP1-mu2, HSMU1B, MU-1B, MU1B, mu2. Summary. This gene encodes a subunit ... adaptor protein complex AP-1 mu-2 subunit,adaptor related protein complex 1 mu 2 subunit,clathrin assembly protein complex 1 mu ... which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This protein is capable of interacting with tyrosine-based ... clathrin coat associated protein AP47 2,clathrin-associated adaptor medium chain mu2,golgi adaptor AP-1 47 kDa protein,golgi ...
The yeast clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 is required for the efficient retention of a subset of late Golgi membrane ... The yeast clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 is required for the efficient retention of a subset of late Golgi membrane ... Disruption of the clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) restores Chs3p transport to the plasma membrane. Similarly, in AP-1 ... In yeast, certain resident trans-Golgi network (TGN) proteins achieve steady-state localization by cycling through late ...
Adaptor protein 1A (AP-1A) is known to interact with specific motifs in its cargo proteins and with the clathrin heavy chain, ... Adaptor protein 1A (AP-1A) is known to interact with specific motifs in its cargo proteins and with the clathrin heavy chain, ... Cytosolic adaptor proteins, which recognize the cytosolic domains of proteins that span the SG membrane, have been shown to ... Cytosolic adaptor proteins, which recognize the cytosolic domains of proteins that span the SG membrane, have been shown to ...
603401 ADAPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN COMPLEX 3, BETA-1 SUBUNIT; AP3B1. 608233 HERMANSKY-PUDLAK SYNDROME 2; HPS2. ... Nonsense mutations in ADTB3A cause complete deficiency of the beta3A subunit of adaptor complex-3 and severe Hermansky-Pudlak ...
The complex is part of the protein coat on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles which links clathrin to receptors in ... FBXW7 Proteins NEDD4 (Neural Precursor Cell Expressed, Developmentally Down-Regulated 4, E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase): NEDD4 ... DLL3 (delta Like Protein 3): DLL3 antibodies DLL3 ELISA Kits DLL3 Proteins ... The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded ...
Protein complexes formed by FEZ1 reveal its function as cargo adaptor for Kinesin-1 (KIF5C). (A and B) HEK 293 cells expressing ... The Sec1/Munc18 protein binds to Stx (12). Thus, the three proteins may form a tripartite complex in vivo. Indeed, ... Here, we report a transport complex linking syntaxin 1a (Stx) and Munc18, two proteins functioning in synaptic vesicle ... Conceivably, loss of phosphorylation of FEZ1 detaches the adapter-cargo complexes from the motor, leading to their accumulation ...
Adaptor Protein Complex 4. An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and ... Adaptor Protein Complex 1. A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS- ... A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are ... alone and in conjunction with 1) a theory-driven, empirically-informed social network... ...
  • This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric coat assembly protein complex 2 (AP2), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • A gene on chromosome 5q14.1 that encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric AP3 complex, a protein complex composed of two large subunits (delta and beta), a medium subunit (mu), and a small subunit (sigma). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 22q12.2 that encodes a large subunit of the heterotetrameric, trans-Golgi, clathrin-associated adaptor-related protein complex AP-1, which is located at the Golgi vesicle and links clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This gene encodes a subunit of a heterotetrameric adapter-like complex 4 that is involved in targeting proteins from the trans-Golgi network to the endosomal-lysosomal system. (nih.gov)
  • Both AP complexes are heterotetrameric, made of four adaptins. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric AP-4 complex. (genecards.org)
  • Adaptins, together with medium and small subunits, form a heterotetrameric complex called an adaptor, whose role is to promote the formation of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. (genecards.org)
  • The term AP complex, or adaptor, generally denotes one of four heterotetrameric protein complexes (AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, and AP-4) (for reviews, see Refs. (jimmunol.org)
  • AP3 plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes, as well as in biogenesis of melanosomes, platelet dense granules and lysosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • AP-4 forms a non clathrin-associated coat on vesicles departing the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and may be involved in the targeting of proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosomal-lysosomal system. (nih.gov)
  • This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition and sorting of cargo proteins with tyrosine-based motifs from the trans-golgi network to the endosomal-lysosomal system. (genecards.org)
  • Adaptins are important components of clathrin-coated vesicles transporting ligand-receptor complexes from the plasma membrane or from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes. (genecards.org)
  • This protein along with the complex is thought to function at some trafficking step in the complex pathways between the trans-Golgi network and the cell surface. (genecards.org)
  • In yeast, certain resident trans-Golgi network (TGN) proteins achieve steady-state localization by cycling through late endosomes. (nih.gov)
  • AP1S2 encodes an adaptin protein that constitutes part of the adaptor protein complex found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The complex is associated with the Golgi region as well as more peripheral structures. (uniprot.org)
  • This protein, as well as beta-prime-adaptin, gamma-adaptin, and the medium (mu) chain AP47, form the AP-1 assembly protein complex located at the Golgi vesicle. (thermofisher.com)
  • The prevailing view is that AP-2 mediates endocytosis from the plasma membrane, whereas AP-1, AP-3, and AP-4 participate in the protein sorting from the trans-Golgi network and/or endosomes to lysosomes. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the course of HCV protein production, there is disruption of the Golgi apparatus, loss of spatial organization of the ER, appearance of some "virus-like" structures and swelling of mitochondria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Involved in the recruitment of the COPI coat complex to the endoplasmic reticulum exit sites (ERES), and the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate (ERGIC) and cis-Golgi compartments which implicates ARF1 activation. (rcsb.org)
  • It is a subunit of clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1 that plays a role in protein sorting in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. (ptglab.com)
  • Adaptor proteins (AP) play important roles in the sorting of proteins from the trans-Golgi network, but how they function in the sorting of various melanosome-specific proteins such as Pmel17, an essential structural component of melanosomes, in melanocytes is unknown. (biologists.org)
  • AP-1A recruitment to membranes can be modulated by Phosphofurin Acidic Cluster Sorting protein 1 (PACS-1), a cytosolic protein which interacts with both AP-1A and cargo that has been phosphorylated by casein kinase II. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, we find that AP-1 interacts with Tsg101 and Nedd4.1, two cellular proteins known to be involved in HIV-1 and MLV budding. (cnrs.fr)
  • Interacts with AP1G1 and AP2A1 components of the adapter protein complexes AP-1 and AP-2. (rcsb.org)
  • Interacts with the GAE domain proteins GGA1 , GGA2 and GGA3 . (rcsb.org)
  • However, yeast two- or three-hybrid studies show that the dileucine motif in HIV Nef interacts mainly with AP-1 and AP-3 and only weakly with AP-2 ( 18 , 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This domain interacts with other DD-containing proteins and couples the death receptors to caspase activation and apoptosis. (wikipathways.org)
  • Interacts with poliovirus protein 3A (PubMed:17005635). (rcsb.org)
  • We have previously shown that the Histone Deacetylase Complex 1 (HDC1) protein from Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) interacts with histone deacetylases and quantitatively determines histone acetylation levels, transcriptional activity, and several phenotypes, including abscisic acid sensitivity during germination, vegetative growth rate, and flowering time. (plantphysiol.org)
  • showed that three cytosolic YXXPhi motifs in SIDT2 are required for the lysosomal localization of SIDT2, and that SIDT2 interacts with adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-2. (tcdb.org)
  • The complex is part of the protein coat on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles which links clathrin to receptors in vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein is found on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles in the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • NLR genes encode cytoplasmic proteins with a tripartite domain structure that is conserved with a subclass of plant disease resistance genes ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This is similar to the cytoplasmic multiprotein complexes assembled for the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-8 referred to as the apoptosome (containing Apaf-1) ( 24 ) and the death-inducing signaling complex (Fas/CD95-DISC) ( 25 ), respectively. (jimmunol.org)
  • Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, l. (xenbase.org)
  • In these cells, PMA can induce serine phosphorylation in the cytoplasmic tail of CD4 that triggers the down-regulation of CD4 from the cell surface ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • As examined by electron microscopy, HCV proteins induced formation of large electron-dense cytoplasmic structures derived from the ER and containing HCV proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A cellular process by which cytoplasmic organelles and macromolecular complexes are engulfed by double membrane-bound vesicles for delivery to lysosomes and subsequent degradation. (amazonaws.com)
  • Therefore, SXXE/D motifs found in the cytoplasmic domains of many TNFR family members and their adaptor proteins may serve to function as a specific interaction module for the α-helical death domain signal transduction. (jimmunol.org)
  • Following infection, viruses synthesize nonstructural proteins that mediate viral replication and promote dissemination. (asm.org)
  • Viruses from the family Reoviridae encode nonstructural proteins that are required for the formation of progeny viruses. (asm.org)
  • Although nonstructural proteins of different viruses in the family. (asm.org)
  • To identify the subcellular forms and biochemical events induced in human cells after HCV polyprotein expression, we have used a robust cell culture system based on vaccinia virus (VACV) that efficiently expresses in infected cells the structural and nonstructural proteins of HCV from genotype 1b (VT7-HCV7.9). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The positive-stranded viral RNA genome encodes a single polyprotein precursor that is processed into structural proteins (core, envelope protein 1, and envelope protein 2) and nonstructural proteins (p7, NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B) by host and viral proteases (reviewed in references 32 and 39 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs. (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS- Due to linkage disequilibrium, we were unable to distinguish between rs2476601/Trp 620 ( P = 2.11 ×10 −87 ) and rs6679677 ( P = 3.21 ×10 −87 ), an intergenic SNP between the genes putative homeodomain transcription factor 1 and round spermatid basic protein 1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • With the recent capability to scan hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome in thousands of samples, the identification of complex disease genes and regions has greatly been enhanced ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Through knockdown of endogenous miRNAs that were (1) highly expressed in human vascular endothelial cells, and (2) predicted to target mRNA sequences of hypertension-related genes, we have identified 35 miRNA-target pairs in which the endothelial miRNAs tonically reduce the abundance of the target mRNAs that are relevant to blood pressure regulation or hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • The nucleotide-binding domain (NBD), 3 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) (NLR) gene family is an evolutionarily conserved family of genes, important for immune function in animals ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Four of the verified genes (solute carrier family 9 isoform 3 regulator 1 (Slc9a3r1), sorbitol dehydrogenase 1, a kinase anchor protein, and glutathione S-transferase alpha 4) were induced. (springer.com)
  • Two genes (proteasome subunit, beta type 10 and adaptor-related protein complex AP-4 sigma 1) were suppressed. (springer.com)
  • We also identified eight growth factors and growth factor receptor genes that are significantly altered by each of the HDIs, including Frizzled related proteins 1 and 4, which modulate the Wnt signaling pathway. (springer.com)
  • Transcriptional profiling followed by ChIP identified a subset of cellular genes that are regulated in a similar fashion to HIV-1 by Spt6 and/or PAAF1, including many that are involved in cancer, such as BRCA1 and BARD1. (cnrs.fr)
  • CONCLUSION: These results show that intracellular levels of Spt6 are fine-tuned by PAAF1 and proteasome, which is required for HIV-1 transcription and extends to cellular genes implicated in cancer. (cnrs.fr)
  • 1] "Identification of novel human genes evolutionarily conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans by comparative proteomics. (tcdb.org)
  • The AP-2 complex is a heterotetramer consisting of two large adaptins (alpha or beta), a medium adaptin (mu), and a small adaptin (sigma). (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 3. (wikigenes.org)
  • Mutations in the gene encoding the Sigma 2 subunit of the adaptor protein 1 complex, AP1S2, cause X-linked mental retardation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • An important gene associated with Dandy-Walker Malformation with Intellectual Disability, Basal Ganglia Disease and Seizures is AP1S2 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 1 Subunit Sigma 2). (malacards.org)
  • GST-fused proteins were purified with the Cell Lytic B protocol (Sigma #B7435). (springer.com)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O00189 (Human AP-4 complex subunit mu-1) at the PDBe-KB. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fifth adaptor protein complex. (nih.gov)
  • As part of AP-5, a probable fifth adaptor protein complex it may be involved in endosomal transport. (nih.gov)
  • The WXXF motifs mediate binding of accessory proteins to the ear-domain of AP-1, GGAs and AP-2 through hydrophobic interactions. (rcsb.org)
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been found to increase during or after complex 1 and 2 formation to mediate or potentiate apoptosis upon TNF stimulation. (wikipathways.org)
  • TRAF-2 in complex 1 also activates the MAP kinase cascade, that leads to the activation of JNK, which on prolonged activation is believed to mediate both apoptosis and necrotic cell death. (wikipathways.org)
  • Transport of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin by the UNC-76/Kinesin-1 complex requires phosphorylation of UNC-76 by the UNC-51/ATG1 kinase, a prerequisite for UNC-76 to bind synaptotagmin ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Indeed, phosphorylation-regulated interactions between cargo, adaptors, and kinesins have also been observed for other transport complexes such as the kinesin light chain/JIP1 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein 1) complex ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The kinase activity of AAK1, an α-appendage-binding protein, is activated by clathrin. (biologists.org)
  • In this model, we observed that HCV proteins control cellular translation through eIF-2α-S51 phosphorylation, with involvement of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This results in activation of the receptor kinase and tyrosine phosphorylation of a family of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins. (jci.org)
  • PI3-kinase is critical for metabolic actions of insulin, such as glucose transport, glycogen synthesis, and protein synthesis, whereas Grb-2/SOS complex, which activates the MAP kinase cascade, is critical in mitogenic response. (jci.org)
  • In TNF-treated cells, TNFR1, TNFR-associated death domain protein (TRADD), Fas-associated death domain protein, and receptor-interacting protein kinase proteins form the signaling complex via modular interaction within their C-terminal death domains. (jimmunol.org)
  • Phospho-S215LKD and phospho-S296LAE motifs are also critical to TRADD for recruiting Fas-associated death domain protein and receptor-interacting protein kinase. (jimmunol.org)
  • TNF-bound TNFR1 recruits TNFR-associated death domain protein (TRADD), an adaptor protein that serves as the platform for additional recruitment of receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIP) and Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD), initiating both NF-κB activation and apoptosis induction ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • We identify dynamin and the EAP -binding alpha-adaptin appendage domain of the AP2 adaptor as switches in a regulated, multistep maturation process and provide direct evidence for a molecular checkpoint in clathrin mediated endocytosis. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The adaptin family of proteins is composed of four classes of molecules named alpha, beta-, beta prime- and gamma- adaptins. (genecards.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. (genecards.org)
  • AP1M1, also named as CLTNM, Mu-adaptin 1 and Clathrin coat assembly protein AP47, belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunit family. (ptglab.com)
  • Clathrin adaptor AP2 regulates thrombin receptor constitutive internalization and endothelial cell resensitization. (nih.gov)
  • The highly-conserved Notch signaling pathway is unique, as both the Notch receptor and most of its respective ligands (canonically the DSL or Delta/Serrate/lag-2 family members) are transmembrane proteins attached to the cell surface. (antibodies-online.com)
  • 7 ), interleukin-2 receptor-2 α chain ( IL2RA ) ( 8 - 10 ), interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 ( IFIH1 ) ( 11 ), and the regions on chromosomes 12q24, 12q13, 16p13, and 18p11 ( 12 - 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Together, these results indicate that DISC1 regulates the localization of NUDEL/LIS1/14-3-3ε complex into the axons as a cargo receptor for axon elongation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The lysosomal storage disorder mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is caused by mutations in the transient receptor potential-mucolipin-1 (TRP-ML1) ion channel. (rupress.org)
  • The gene MCOLN1 , coding for transient receptor potential-mucolipin-1 (TRP-ML1), is mutated in the rare lysosomal storage disorder mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) ( 1 - 4 ), which is clinically characterized by severe developmental delays and psychomotor retardation, constitutive achlorohydria, and retinal degeneration and corneal opacities ( 5 - 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • Apoptotic adaptor molecule specific for caspase-2 and FASL/TNF receptor-interacting protein RIP. (abcam.com)
  • receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modif. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Based on homology with transient receptor potential (TRP) ion-channel proteins, mucolipin-1 is classified as a founding member of the TRPML family and is also known as TRPML1. (biologists.org)
  • IL-1 RI, also known as the type 1 IL-1 receptor and CD121a, is a transmembrane protein in the Toll/IL-1 R (TIR) superfamily. (rndsystems.com)
  • IL-1 RI binds the pleiotropic cytokines IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta, plus the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 Ra). (rndsystems.com)
  • Binding of TNFα to TNF-R1 on the cell surface triggers trimerization of the receptor and exposes intracellular domain of TNF-R1 following the release of an inhibitory protein. (wikipathways.org)
  • Complex 1 eventually dissociates from the receptor and integrates FADD and procaspase8 to form a complex referred to as the complex 2. (wikipathways.org)
  • Immune cell adaptor protein SKAP1 couples the antigen-receptor (TCR/CD3) with the activation of LFA-1 adhesion in T-cells. (springer.com)
  • In neutrophils, involved in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated chemotaxis und superoxide production. (rcsb.org)
  • These intracellular protein-protein interactions are pivotal in transmitting the signal from the receptor to the final cellular effect, such as translocation of vesicles containing GLUT4 glucose transporters from the intracellular pool to the plasma membrane, activation of glycogen or protein synthesis, and initiation of specific gene transcription (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • The phosphorylated insulin receptor binds and phosphorylates IRS proteins and Shc, which bind differentially to various downstream signaling proteins. (jci.org)
  • PH domains, which are found in most of the proteins that interact with the insulin receptor, bind to charged headgroups of specific phosphatidylinositides and are thereby targeted preferentially to membrane structures. (jci.org)
  • Multiprotein complexes that contain a member of the NOD-like receptor family, adaptor proteins and the protease caspase 1. (amazonaws.com)
  • The activity of the HMGB1-TLR ligand complexes relied on engagement of the same receptor as for the noncomplexed TLR ligand, since HMGB1-LPS complexes used TLR4 and HMGB1-Pam 3 CSK 4 complexes used TLR2. (springer.com)
  • Elucidating HMGB1 receptor usage in processes where HMGB1 acts alone or in complex with other molecules is essential for the understanding of basic HMGB1 biology and for designing HMGB1-targeted therapies. (springer.com)
  • Extracellular viral dsRNA is recognized by the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ( 1 , 2 ), whereas intracellular viral dsRNA is detected by two recently characterized RNA helicases, RIG-I ( 41 ) and/or Mda5 ( 4 , 18 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we show that ITSN1 forms a complex with adaptor protein Ruk/CIN85, implicated in downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The ubiquitous AP1/σ1A complex binds to these endosomes and stimulates their maturation into late, multi-vesicular-body endosomes, up regulating endolysosomal protein transport. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • The complex binds polyphosphoinositide-containing lipids. (xenbase.org)
  • In this report we used two AP-2 complex-specific inhibitors: a dominant negative mutant of Eps15 (Eps15DIII) that binds to the α subunit of AP-2 complex and a small interference RNA that is specific for the μ2 subunit of AP-2 complex. (jimmunol.org)
  • A GST-tagged HIV Nef binds to AP-1, but not to AP-2 ( 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 binds membrane-integrated TNF (memTNF) as well as soluble TNF (sTNF) TNF-R1 contains a protein-protein interaction domain, called death domain (DD). (wikipathways.org)
  • Nrf2 binds DNA as a heterodimer with one of several small Maf proteins and is a potent activator of ARE-dependent transcription. (asm.org)
  • High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein that binds and bends DNA and facilitates transcription. (springer.com)
  • Title: The AP-2 adaptor beta2 appendage scaffolds alternate cargo endocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • In all cell types and tissues, AP1 mediates TGN/endosome protein sorting via clathrin-coated-vesicles (CCV), whereas AP2 transports proteins by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Bulgakova NA & Brown NH (2016) Drosophila p120-catenin is crucial for endocytosis of the dynamic E-cadherin-Bazooka complex . (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Bulgakova NA & Brown NH (2016) Drosophilap120-catenin is crucial for endocytosis of the dynamic E-cadherin-Bazooka complex . (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Salmonella typhimurium -derived OMVs caused a robust NLRC4-mediated caspase-1 activation and interleukin-1β secretion in macrophages in an endocytosis-dependent, but guanylate-binding protein-independent manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • Consistent with providing a scaffolding function for endocytic proteins, RALT drives EGFR endocytosis by binding to AP-2 and Intersectins. (rupress.org)
  • Intersectin 1 (ITSN1) is an adaptor protein involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, apoptosis, signal transduction and cytoskeleton organization. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The mechanism by which Nef induces CD4 endocytosis involves the recruitment of CD4 molecules to the endocytic machinery via the AP2 clathrin adapter complex at the plasma membrane ( 36 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in vesicle formation and cargo selection. (nih.gov)
  • Adaptor protein 1A (AP-1A) is known to interact with specific motifs in its cargo proteins and with the clathrin heavy chain, contributing to the formation of a clathrin coat. (frontiersin.org)
  • The AP complexes recruit clathrin to membranes and recognise sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Members of this Type 1 transmembrane protein family share structural characteristics including an extracellular domain consisting of multiple epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats, and an intracellular domain consisting of multiple, different domain types. (antibodies-online.com)
  • We focus on E-cadherin, a transmembrane protein that provides cell-cell adhesion between the epithelial cells. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • The remaining C-terminal two-thirds dictate cargo selection by directly recognizing the Yxxϕ motif, one of the most common sorting signals present in the cytosolic domains of transmembrane proteins. (biologists.org)
  • TNF is primarily produced as a type II transmembrane protein arranged as stable homotrimers. (wikipathways.org)
  • MAVS/IPS-1-1/VISA/Cardif contains an amino-terminal CARD domain and a carboxyl-terminal mitochondrial transmembrane sequence that localizes to the mitochondrial membrane. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2] "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment. (tcdb.org)
  • For soluble proteins, luminal pH and divalent metals can affect aggregation and interaction with surrounding membranes. (frontiersin.org)
  • We recently initiated an effort to systematically identify interaction partners of established presynaptic proteins using an automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen. (pnas.org)
  • However, we found that rs2476601/Trp 620 has a higher relative risk in type 1 diabetic case subjects carrying lower risk HLA class II genotypes than in those carrying higher risk ones ( P = 1.36 × 10 −4 in a test of interaction). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We show that the AP-1 complex facilitates retroviral budding through a direct interaction between the matrix and AP-1mu. (cnrs.fr)
  • The WXXF motif 1, which is preceded by an acidic residue and has a glycine in second position mediates specific interaction with AP-1. (rcsb.org)
  • The authors have recently described an interaction between Gag and the delta subunit of the AP-3 adaptor protein complex (1). (indigo.ca)
  • Available data indicate that Nef connects CD4 to an AP complex in the absence of CD4 phosphorylation ( 4 ) and that the Nef-AP interaction requires the dileucine sorting motif located in the C-terminal portion of the Nef protein ( 13 , 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Some of the best-characterized protein interaction domains involved in insulin signaling are the PH (pleckstrin homology), PTB (phosphotyrosine binding), SH2, and SH3 domains ( 1 ) (Table 1 ). (jci.org)
  • These interaction domains exist in the natural tertiary structure of proteins. (jci.org)
  • In other cases, the domains for interaction are created by posttranslational covalent modification of the protein. (jci.org)
  • Intrinsically disordered proteins can adopt multiple conformations, thereby enabling interaction with a wide variety of partners. (plantphysiol.org)
  • They often serve as hubs in protein interaction networks. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Here, we explored the protein interaction spectrum of HDC1 using a quantitative bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in tobacco ( Nicotiana benthamiana ) epidermal cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Independent of its redox state and endogenous cytokine-inducing ability, HMGB1 can form highly immunostimulatory complexes by interaction with certain proinflammatory mediators. (springer.com)
  • The interaction between HIV-1 Nef and adaptor protein-2 reduces Nef-mediated CD4(+) T cell apoptosis. (ptglab.com)
  • This likely requires direct molecular contacts between an element in the N-terminal region of SIV Nef molecule and the AP2 complex, as well as an interaction between the C-terminal disordered loop in Nef with CD4 itself or other cellular factors ( 14 , 29 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • Biochemical studies in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) and in animal systems have provided evidence for large multiprotein complexes linking a corepressor and a HDA with several histone-binding proteins and a range of associated proteins of mostly unknown function ( Yang and Seto, 2008 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • We also show that binding of FEZ1 to Kinesin-1 and Munc18 is regulated by phosphorylation, with a conserved site (serine 58) being essential for binding. (pnas.org)
  • This suggests that phosphorylation is a common mechanism for the regulation of kinesin-based transport complexes ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Like other growth factors, insulin uses phosphorylation and the resultant protein-protein interactions as essential tools to transmit and compartmentalize its signal. (jci.org)
  • The encoded protein is required for the activity of a vacuolar ATPase, which is responsible for proton pumping occurring in the acidification of endosomes and lysosomes. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • May function in protein sorting in late endosomes or multivesucular bodies (MVBs). (genecards.org)
  • Less MLV Gag is found associated with late endosomes in cells lacking AP-1, and our results suggest that AP-1 and AP-3 could function on the same pathway that leads to Gag release. (cnrs.fr)
  • Here we report that Kinesin-1, a motor protein of anterograde axonal transport, was identified as a novel DISC1-interacting molecule. (jneurosci.org)
  • In this study, we identified Kinesin-1, a microtubule-dependent and plus-end directed motor, as a DISC1-interacting molecule. (jneurosci.org)
  • Deletion of any of the intracellular adaptor molecules used by TLR2 (myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88), TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP)) or TLR4 (MyD88, TIRAP, TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM)) had similar effects on HMGB1 complex activation compared with noncomplexed LPS or Pam 3 CSK 4 . (springer.com)
  • This result implies that the enhancing effects of HMGB1-partner molecule complexes are not regulated by the induction of additional signaling cascades. (springer.com)
  • WB analysis of Jurkat cells using GTX45817 AP3S1 antibody at 0.2-1μg/ml. (genetex.com)
  • AP3S1 antibody is predicted to not cross-react with other AP3 protein family members. (genetex.com)
  • 1. Customer may provide cell or tissue lysate for antibody screening. (abnova.com)
  • WB resut of AP1M1 antibody (12112-1-AP, 1:500) with siRNA cell lysate. (ptglab.com)
  • AP50 is a subunit of the plasma membrane adaptor. (xenbase.org)
  • Results indicate that AP-2 is not essential for clathrin -coated vesicle formation at the plasma membrane, but that it is one of several endocytic adaptors required for the uptake of certain cargo proteins. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Aberrant endocytic processing through disruption of adaptor protein complexes is likely to result from the AP1S2 mutations identified in the three XLMR-affected families, and such defects may plausibly cause abnormal synaptic development and function. (ox.ac.uk)
  • AP1S2 is the first reported XLMR gene that encodes a protein directly involved in the assembly of endocytic vesicles. (ox.ac.uk)
  • organelles involved in protein sorting to the endocytic and secretory pathways, respectively. (biologists.org)
  • Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with DPYSL2 and NUMB. (wikipedia.org)
  • DISC1 is reported to interact with NudE-like (NUDEL), which forms a complex with lissencephaly-1 (LIS1) and 14-3-3ε. (jneurosci.org)
  • Upon dsRNA recognition and binding by its RNA helicase activity, RIG-I dimerizes and undergoes conformational alterations that enable the N-terminal CARD domain to interact with another downstream adapter protein(s). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This intracellular domain recruits a death-domain containing adaptor protein, TRADD by homophilic interactions. (wikipathways.org)
  • nonreceptor type 22 ( PTPN22 ) on chromosome 1p13 has been confirmed in type 1 diabetes and also in other autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and Graves' disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 150 SNPs to evaluate the association of the PTPN22 gene and its flanking chromosome region with type 1 diabetes in a minimum of 2,000 case subjects and 2,400 control subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS- In our datasets, there was no evidence for allelic heterogeneity at the PTPN22 locus in type 1 diabetes, indicating that the SNP rs2476601/Trp 620 remains the best candidate in this chromosome region in European populations. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CC Mus musculus chromosome 11 NCBIM37 sequence 1. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • CSE1 chromosome segregation 1-like (ye. (broadinstitute.org)
  • A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells . (thefullwiki.org)
  • 1) Chromatid - one of the two identical parts of the chromosome after S phase . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. (genecards.org)
  • All family members have single stranded, positive sense RNA genomes with a similar gene order and conserved nonstructural protein motifs. (mdpi.com)
  • S381DHE motif of TNFR1-death domain as well as S215LKD and S296LAE motifs of TRADD-death domain) are phosphorylated, and this is required for stable TNFR1-TRADD complex formation and subsequent activation of NF-κB. (jimmunol.org)
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 17 Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, mu 1 Subunit (AP2M1) ELISA Kits von 5 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • BMCC1 (zeige PRUNE2 ELISA Kits ) is an AP-2 (zeige GTF3A ELISA Kits ) associated endosomal protein in prostate cancer cells. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Arkadia (zeige RNF111 ELISA Kits ) complexes with clathrin adaptor AP2 (zeige GTF3A ELISA Kits ) mu2 subunit and regulates EGF (zeige EGF ELISA Kits ) signalling. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • V1H can function as an adaptor for interactions between Nef and AP-2 (zeige GTF3A ELISA Kits ). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • NLRC4 monomer is assembled into active oligomeric complex upon engagement by bacterial flagellin-bound neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein 5 (NAIP5), which is the actual sensor for bacterial flagellin ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • On complex 1 formation, NF-κB regulated anti-apoptotic gene products efficiently block initiation of apoptosis by complex 2. (wikipathways.org)
  • Biochemical analysis demonstrate that HCV proteins bring about the activation of initiator and effector caspases followed by severe apoptosis and mitochondria dysfunction, hallmarks of HCV cell injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We propose that AP-1 promotes Gag release by transporting it to intracellular sites of active budding, and/or by facilitating its interactions with other cellular partners. (cnrs.fr)
  • The NLRP1 inflammasome when activated by MDP or anthrax lethal toxin can recruit procaspase-1 via direct CARD-CARD interactions and cause its autocatalytic cleavage to mature caspase-1. (jimmunol.org)
  • Viral nonstructural protein interactions are complex and some may occur only in infected cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Although interactions between many cellular proteins and virus components have been identified, the functions of most of these interactions have not been delineated. (mdpi.com)
  • Interactions of viral protein U (Vpu) with cellular factors. (indigo.ca)
  • Imaging of HIV/host protein interactions. (indigo.ca)
  • Vpr and its interactions with cellular proteins. (indigo.ca)
  • Truncation of HDC1 to the ancestral core sequence narrowed the spectrum of interactions and of phenotypic outputs but maintained binding to a H3-binding protein and to H1. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The C terminals of TNFR1, TRADD, FADD, and RIP all carry a discrete region termed the "death domain," which is composed of six continuous α-helical bundles and responsible for homotypic interactions among these four proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • The trafficking of granule membrane proteins can be controlled by both luminal and cytosolic factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cytosolic adaptor proteins (APs), which recognize the cytosolic domains of proteins that span the SG membrane, have been shown to play essential roles in the assembly of functional SGs. (frontiersin.org)
  • The R402Q mutation of the Tyrosinase Gene: Lack of Association with oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • A large-scale conformational change couples membrane recruitment to cargo binding in the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, two CME routes characterized by specific lifetimes and specific cargo proteins contribute to synaptic plasticity. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • A cargo/PACS-1/AP-1A complex is necessary to drive the appropriate transport of several cargo proteins within the regulated secretory pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • We review the functions of AP-1A, PACS-1, and GGAs in facilitating the retrieval of proteins from immature SGs and review examples of cargo proteins whose trafficking within the regulated secretory pathway is governed by APs. (frontiersin.org)
  • We conclude that FEZ1 operates as a kinesin adaptor for the transport of Stx, with cargo loading and unloading being regulated by protein kinases. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that the v-SNARE VAMP7 mediates fusion of melanosomes with tubular transport carriers that also carry the cargo protein TYRP1 and that require BLOC-1 for their formation. (rupress.org)
  • AP3S1 belongs to the adaptor complexes 3 (AP3) small subunit family which is not clathrin-associated. (fishersci.com)
  • This gene encodes and ADAM family member that cleaves many proteins including TNF-alpha and E-cadherin. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This gene encodes a protein which is similar to the Drosophila crumbs protein and localizes to the inner segment of mammalian photoreceptors. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This gene encodes the small chain of this complex. (abnova.com)
  • The absence of AP-1mu obtained by genetic knock-out or by RNA interference reduces budding of murine leukemia virus (MLV) and HIV-1, leading to a delay of viral propagation in cell culture. (cnrs.fr)
  • Structures obtained for many of the viral proteins have provided information relevant to their functions. (mdpi.com)
  • Host restriction of HIV-1 by APOBEC3 and viral evasion through Vif. (indigo.ca)
  • Nef is a crucial viral protein for HIV to replicate at high titers and in the development of AIDS. (jimmunol.org)
  • As it has been considered that the viral cytopathic effect might be involved in the liver-cell injuries [ 1 , 2 , 13 ], here we have analyzed in detail the subcellular forms and biochemical changes occurring in human cells (HeLa and hepatic HepG2) following expression of the HCV polyprotein from VACV recombinant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the assembly protein complex 2, which serves to link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • Mu1B, a novel adaptor medium chain expressed in polarized epithelial cells. (gen-script.com)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • All WNV isolates constitute a single serotype and the majority of WNV strains have been grouped into two lineages (1 and 2) based on signature amino acid substitutions and deletions in the envelope protein sequence [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The N-terminal domain of the μ subunits shows a certain degree of sequence similarity with the σ subunits ( Boehm and Bonifacino, 2001 ), consistent with the notion that it also stabilizes the complex. (biologists.org)
  • Lu & Werner in "The complete cDNA sequence of mouse elongation factor 1 alpha (EF 1 alpha) mRNA" (NAR, 1989, vol. 17, p. 442). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The expression vector according to claim 5, wherein the recombinant nucleic acid according to claim 1 further comprises a protein coding sequence that encodes a reporter protein or a therapeutic protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. An isolated host cell comprising the expression vector of claim 5 wherein the expression vector of claim 5 comprises a protein coding sequence, and the host cell transiently or encoded in the expression vector of claim 5. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 9. An isolated host cell which is obtained by in vivo injection of the expression vector of claim 5 into a cell, wherein the expression vector of claim 5 comprises a protein coding sequence, and the host cell comprises the expression vector of claim 5 and transiently or encoded in the expression vector of claim 5. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5] "Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries. (tcdb.org)
  • They control the vesicular transport of proteins in different trafficking pathways (PubMed:10066790, PubMed:10436028). (nih.gov)
  • They control the vesicular transport of proteins in different trafficking pathways (PubMed:10436028, PubMed:11139587, PubMed:10066790, PubMed:11802162, PubMed:20230749). (genecards.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family. (antibodies-online.com)
  • 171 Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, mu 1 Subunit (AP2M1) Antibodies from 23 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Recombinant protein fragment corresponding to amino acids 97-383 of human AP2M1 (NP_001020376) produced in E.coli. (novusbio.com)
  • Regardless of the mechanism, the sensing of PAMPs and DAMPs by NLR proteins can result in the assembly of a caspase-1 activating multiprotein complex referred to as the "inflammasome" ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The protein components of the caspase-activating platforms are present as inactive monomers that oligomerize on exposure to the activating PAMP or DAMP signal. (jimmunol.org)
  • Inflammasome formation results in the cleavage of caspase-1 from its inactive proprotein form to its active mature form. (jimmunol.org)
  • This active caspase-1 then processes the cleavage of pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 into mature IL-1β and IL-18, respectively. (jimmunol.org)
  • 70 new targets of caspase-1 ranging from chaperones, cytoskeletal and translation machinery, and glycolysis and immune proteins ( 26 , 27 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In the presence of RIP and TRADD, CRADD recruits caspase-2 to the TNFR-1 signalling complex. (abcam.com)
  • This complex consists mostly of sensor protein, adaptor protein, and procaspase-1, leading to the generation of active caspase-1 ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Caspase-1 then processes inactive pro-IL-1β into an active form and facilitates leaderless IL-1β secretion into the extracellular space. (frontiersin.org)
  • We describe the detection of NLRP3 inflammasome activation on cellular basis using fluorescence microscopy and staining for active caspase-1 and the adaptor, ASC. (jove.com)
  • Title: Proteomic analysis identifies dysfunction in cellular transport, energy, and protein metabolism in different brain regions of atypical frontotemporal lobar degeneration. (nih.gov)
  • Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). (nih.gov)
  • Transport of syntaxin 1a (Stx), an essential component of the exocytotic release apparatus residing in the presynaptic plasma membrane, is clearly distinct from synaptic vesicle precursors and appears to involve a complex between Kinesin-1 and the Stx-binding protein syntabulin ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, it remains unclear how 14-3-3ε or other component regulates the transport of the NUDEL/LIS1 complex into axons. (jneurosci.org)
  • We deleted the mTORC1 component, regulatory-associated protein of mTOR (Raptor), in mouse HSCs and its loss causes a nonlethal phenotype characterized by pancytopenia, splenomegaly, and the accumulation of monocytoid cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The well known inflammasomes, the NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, and NAIP5 inflammasome complexes, and their key component proteins will be discussed in brief in this section. (jimmunol.org)
  • Fig. 2 ⇓ depicts the triggering PAMPs and DAMPs and the key component proteins of the four inflammasomes discussed below. (jimmunol.org)
  • Component of the adaptor complexes which link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. (xenbase.org)
  • Heavily glycosylated proteins that are the major component of the mucus that coats epithelial barrier surfaces. (amazonaws.com)
  • Gag is a myristoylated precursor protein that is translated in the cytoplasm and then traffics to the plasma membrane or to endosomal vesicles for assembly. (indigo.ca)
  • It is also involved in protein sorting to the basolateral membrane in epithelial cells and the proper asymmetric localization of somatodendritic proteins in neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Keap1, a BTB-Kelch protein, is the major upstream regulator of Nrf2 and controls both the subcellular localization and steady-state levels of Nrf2. (asm.org)
  • This complex recruits the adaptor protein MyD88, to initiate signaling in the NF kappa B pathway. (rndsystems.com)
  • The effect on SIRT1 activation of ginsenoside Rb1 and the inhibition effect of TLR4/MyD88 protein expression of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg3 were significantly stronger than that of other groups. (mdpi.com)
  • Their neuroprotective mechanism is associated with TLR4/MyD88 and SIRT1 activation signaling pathways, and they can reduce cerebral ischemic injury by inhibiting NF-κB transcriptional activity and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). (mdpi.com)
  • Owing to the similarities between polarized epithelial cells and melanocytes, we evaluated the expression of polarizing sorting elements in melanocytic cells and their relation to the sorting of melanosomal proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Host immune system attempts to detect invasion of bacterial pathogens via pattern-recognition receptors on tissue-resident sentinel cells, such as macrophages ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Homodimer formation of immune adaptor protein SKAP1 (SKAP-55) are mediated by residues A17 to L21 in the SKAP1 N-terminal region. (springer.com)
  • Homodimer formation of immune adaptor protein SKAP1 (SKAP-55) are mediated by the N-terminal region. (springer.com)
  • Such complexes have the ability to enhance the induced immune response up to 100-fold, compared with induction by the ligand alone. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, the hepatitis C virus NS3-4A protease complex specifically targets MAVS/IPS-1/VISA/Cardif for cleavage as part of its immune evasion strategy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Using a combination of biochemical analysis, subcellular fractionation, and confocal microscopy, we now demonstrate that NS3-4A cleavage of MAVS/IPS-1/VISA/Cardif/K1271 results in its dissociation from the mitochondrial membrane and disrupts signaling to the antiviral immune response. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As a response to selective pressures exerted by the host immune system, many viruses have developed an equally complex set of immunoevasive strategies. (mcw.edu)