An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.
The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.
A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that play a role in the coupling of SYNDECANS to CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
A macromolecular complex of proteins that includes DYSTROPHIN and DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. It plays a structural role in the linking the CYTOSKELETON to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.
Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signalling and activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.

Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38. (1/190)

Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis.  (+info)

Inhibition of the receptor-binding function of clathrin adaptor protein AP-2 by dominant-negative mutant mu2 subunit and its effects on endocytosis. (2/190)

Although interactions between the mu2 subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2 and tyrosine-based internalization motifs have been implicated in the selective recruitment of cargo molecules into coated pits, the functional significance of this interaction for endocytosis of many types of membrane proteins remains unclear. To analyze the function of mu2-receptor interactions, we constructed an epitope-tagged mu2 that incorporates into AP-2 and is targeted to coated pits. Mutational analysis revealed that Asp176 and Trp421 of mu2 are involved in the interaction with internalization motifs of TGN38 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Inducible overexpression of mutant mu2, in which these two residues were changed to alanines, resulted in metabolic replacement of endogenous mu2 in AP-2 complexes and complete abrogation of AP-2 interaction with the tyrosine-based internalization motifs. As a consequence, endocytosis of the transferrin receptor was severely impaired. In contrast, internalization of the EGF receptor was not affected. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the dominant-interfering approach for functional analysis of the adaptor protein family, and indicate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis may proceed in both a mu2-dependent and -independent manner.  (+info)

Mu1B, a novel adaptor medium chain expressed in polarized epithelial cells. (3/190)

The apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains of polarized epithelial cells contain distinct sets of integral membrane proteins. Biosynthetic targeting of proteins to the basolateral plasma membrane is mediated by cytosolic tail determinants, many of which resemble signals involved in the rapid endocytosis or lysosomal targeting. Since these signals are recognized by adaptor proteins, we hypothesized that there could be epithelial-specific adaptors involved in polarized sorting. Here, we report the identification of a novel member of the adaptor medium chain family, named mu1B, which is closely related to the previously described mu1A (79% amino acid sequence identity). Northern blotting and in situ hybridization analyses reveal the specific expression of mu1B mRNA in a subset of polarized epithelial and exocrine cells. Yeast two-hybrid analyses show that mu1B is capable of interacting with generic tyrosine-based sorting signals. These observations suggest that mu1B may be involved in protein sorting events specific to polarized cells.  (+info)

Early endosomes are required for major histocompatiblity complex class II transport to peptide-loading compartments. (4/190)

Antigen presentation to CD4(+) T lymphocytes requires transport of newly synthesized major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules to the endocytic pathway, where peptide loading occurs. This step is mediated by a signal located in the cytoplasmic tail of the MHC class II-associated Ii chain, which directs the MHC class II-Ii complexes from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes. The subcellular machinery responsible for the specific targeting of MHC class II molecules to the endocytic pathway, as well as the first compartments these molecules enter after exit from the TGN, remain unclear. We have designed an original experimental approach to selectively analyze this step of MHC class II transport. Newly synthesized MHC class II molecules were caused to accumulate in the Golgi apparatus and TGN by incubating the cells at 19 degrees C, and early endosomes were functionally inactivated by in vivo cross-linking of transferrin (Tf) receptor-containing endosomes using Tf-HRP complexes and the HRP-insoluble substrate diaminobenzidine. Inactivation of Tf-containing endosomes caused a marked delay in Ii chain degradation, peptide loading, and MHC class II transport to the cell surface. Thus, early endosomes appear to be required for delivery of MHC class II molecules to the endocytic pathway. Under cross-linking conditions, most alphabetaIi complexes accumulated in tubules and vesicles devoid of gamma-adaptin and/or mannose-6-phosphate receptor, suggesting an AP1-independent pathway for the delivery of newly synthesized MHC class II molecules from the TGN to endosomes.  (+info)

Gamma-synergin: an EH domain-containing protein that interacts with gamma-adaptin. (5/190)

The AP-1 adaptor complex is associated with the TGN, where it links selected membrane proteins to the clathrin lattice, enabling these proteins to be concentrated in clathrin-coated vesicles. To identify other proteins that participate in the clathrin-coated vesicle cycle at the TGN, we have carried out a yeast two- hybrid library screen using the gamma-adaptin subunit of the AP-1 complex as bait. Two novel, ubiquitously expressed proteins were found: p34, which interacts with both gamma-adaptin and alpha-adaptin, and gamma-synergin, an alternatively spliced protein with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 110-190 kD, which only interacts with gamma-adaptin. gamma-Synergin is associated with AP-1 both in the cytosol and on TGN membranes, and it is strongly enriched in clathrin-coated vesicles. It binds directly to the ear domain of gamma-adaptin and it contains an Eps15 homology (EH) domain, although the EH domain is not part of the gamma-adaptin binding site. In cells expressing alpha-adaptin with the gamma-adaptin ear, a construct that goes mainly to the plasma membrane, much of the gamma-synergin is also rerouted to the plasma membrane, indicating that it follows AP-1 onto membranes rather than leading it there. The presence of an EH domain suggests that gamma-synergin links the AP-1 complex to another protein or proteins.  (+info)

Duplications on human chromosome 22 reveal a novel Ret Finger Protein-like gene family with sense and endogenous antisense transcripts. (6/190)

Analysis of 600 kb of sequence encompassing the beta-prime adaptin (BAM22) gene on human chromosome 22 revealed intrachromosomal duplications within 22q12-13 resulting in three active RFPL genes, two RFPL pseudogenes, and two pseudogenes of BAM22. The genomic sequence of BAM22vartheta1 shows a remarkable similarity to that of BAM22. The cDNA sequence comparison of RFPL1, RFPL2, and RFPL3 showed 95%-96% identity between the genes, which were most similar to the Ret Finger Protein gene from human chromosome 6. The sense RFPL transcripts encode proteins with the tripartite structure, composed of RING finger, coiled-coil, and B30-2 domains, which are characteristic of the RING-B30 family. Each of these domains are thought to mediate protein-protein interactions by promoting homo- or heterodimerization. The MID1 gene on Xp22 is also a member of the RING-B30 family and is mutated in Opitz syndrome (OS). The autosomal dominant form of OS shows linkage to 22q11-q12. We detected a polymorphic protein-truncating allele of RFPL1 in 8% of the population, which was not associated with the OS phenotype. We identified 6-kb and 1.2-kb noncoding antisense mRNAs of RFPL1S and RFPL3S antisense genes, respectively. The RFPL1S and RFPL3S genes cover substantial portions of their sense counterparts, which suggests that the function of RFPL1S and RFPL3S is a post-transcriptional regulation of the sense RFPL genes. We illustrate the role of intrachromosomal duplications in the generation of RFPL genes, which were created by a series of duplications and share an ancestor with the RING-B30 domain containing genes from the major histocompatibility complex region on human chromosome 6.  (+info)

A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in polarized epithelial cells. (7/190)

Although polarized epithelial cells are well known to maintain distinct apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains, the mechanisms responsible for targeting membrane proteins to the apical or basolateral surfaces have remained elusive. We have identified a novel form of the AP-1 clathrin adaptor complex that contains as one of its subunits mu1B, an epithelial cell-specific homolog of the ubiquitously expressed mu1A. LLC-PK1 kidney epithelial cells do not express mu1B and missort many basolateral proteins to the apical surface. Stable expression of mu1B selectively restored basolateral targeting, improved the overall organization of LLC-PK1 monolayers, and had no effect on apical targeting. We conclude that basolateral sorting is mediated by an epithelial cell-specific version of the AP-1 complex containing mu1B.  (+info)

Association of AP1 adaptor complexes with GLUT4 vesicles. (8/190)

Nycodenz gradients have been used to examine the in vitro effects of GTP-(gamma)-S on adaptor complex association with GLUT4 vesicles. On addition of GTP-(gamma)-S, GLUT4 fractionates as a heavier population of vesicles, which we suggest is due to a budding or coating reaction. Under these conditions there is an increase in co-sedimentation of GLUT4 with AP1, but not with AP3. Western blotting of proteins associated with isolated GLUT4 vesicles shows the presence of high levels of AP1 and some AP3 but very little AP2 adaptor complexes. Cell free, in vitro association of the AP1 complex with GLUT4 vesicles is increased approximately 4-fold by the addition of GTP-(gamma)-S and an ATP regenerating system. Following GTP-(gamma)-S treatment in vitro, ARF is also recruited to GLUT4 vesicles, and the temperature dependence of ARF recruitment closely parallels that of AP1. The recruitment of both AP1 and ARF are partially blocked by brefeldin A. These data demonstrate that the coating of GLUT4 vesicles can be studied in isolated cell-free fractions. Furthermore, at least two distinct adaptor complexes can associate with the GLUT4 vesicles and it is likely that these adaptors are involved in mediating distinct intracellular sorting events at the level of TGN and endosomes.  (+info)

AP1S3_HUMAN] Subunit of clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1 that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules. Involved in TLR3 trafficking (PubMed:24791904).[1] [AP1G1_MOUSE] Subunit of clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1 that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules. [BST2_HUMAN] IFN-induced antiviral host restriction factor which efficiently blocks the release of diverse mammalian enveloped viruses by directly tethering nascent virions to the membranes of infected cells. Acts as a direct physical tether, holding virions to the cell ...
The AP-complex family (Boehm and Bonifacino, 2001; Nakatsu and Ohno, 2003; Owen et al., 2004; Robinson, 2004) has six members in mammals. AP-1A, AP-2, AP-3A and AP-4 are ubiquitously expressed. The other two members, AP-5 and AP-6, are cell-type-specific isoforms of AP-1A and AP-3A: the epithelium-specific AP-1B and the neuron-restricted AP-3B.. The AP complexes consist of four subunits: one small (σ1-σ4), one medium (μ1-μ4) and two large (α, γ, δ or ϵ; and β1-β4) subunits. These assemble to form a structure in which two appendage domains are connected by flexible hinge regions to the core (Owen et al., 2004; Owen and Luzio, 2000; Robinson, 2004). The large subunits are divided into three domains: the N-terminal domain, which makes up the core with the μ and σ subunits; the hinge domain, and the C-terminal appendage. One of the large subunits (α, γ, δ or ϵ) is implicated in binding to the target membrane (Collins et al., 2002; Nakatsu and Ohno, 2003; Owen et al., 2004; Traub, ...
Stonins are a small family of evolutionarily conserved clathrin adaptor complex AP-2mu-related factors that may act as cargo-specific sorting adaptors in endocytosis and perhaps beyond. Whereas little is known about the localization and function of stonin 1, recent work suggests that stonin 2 serves …
Subunit of clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1 that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules.
Current scientific tests which include ours, discovered a novel role of Rho3 in the Golgi/ endosomal trafficking, partly through bodily and/or purposeful conversation with the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) intricate and Cdc42 in fission yeast [9,10]. We also confirmed that the AP-1 complex mutant strains confirmed flaws in Golgi/ endosomal trafficking, secretion and vacuole fusion [eleven,twelve] and that Sip1, the AP-one accent recruits the AP-1 complicated to the Golgi/endosomes by figuring out the sip1-i4 mutant allele, which abolished the endosomal localization of the AP-1 complicated [13]. Sip1 is a homolog of Laa1 in the budding yeast [fourteen] and p200 in increased eukaryotes [fifteen], the two of which belong to the rising family members of AP-1 interacting associates. To realize the molecular operate of the AP-one accessory protein and elucidate the pathways interacting with Sip1/AP-one-mediated trafficking, we screened for the multi-duplicate suppressor of the ...
Small chain sprocket for the Italian manual (WE220, WE220PS) and motorized (WE223PS) crusher destemmers.   In documents tab:...
Author: Medigeshi, G. R. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2008-01; Title: AP-1 membrane-cytoplasm recycling regulated by μ1A-adaptin.
The endocytic pathway is essential for cell homeostasis and numerous small GTPase Rab have been involved in its control. The endocytic trafficking step controlled by Rab4b has not been elucidated although recent data suggested it could be important for glucose homeostasis, synaptic homeostasis, or adaptative immunity. Here we show that Rab4b is required for early endosome sorting of transferrin receptors (TfR) to the recycling endosomes and we identified the AP1γ subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-1 as a Rab4b effector and key component of the machinery of early endosomes sorting. We show that internalized transferrin (Tf) does not reach Vamp3/Rab11 recycling endosomes in absence of Rab4b while it is rapidly recycled back to the plasma membrane. On the contrary, Rab4b overexpression leads to the accumulation of internalized Tf within AP-1 and clathrin-coated vesicles. These vesicles are poor in early and recycling endocytic markers except TfR and require AP1γ for their formation. Furthermore, ...
beta-Adaptin antibody [N3C1], Internal (adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit) for WB. Anti-beta-Adaptin pAb (GTX101753) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
For todays edition of Dear Mark, Im answering one question from a reader. Its all about synthetic peptides, small chains of amino acids with
The Modern Flower Company is a small chain of high end London based florists. The identity employs a modernist aesthetic with a strong grid and clean typographic approach but adds an organic element with the typographic marque acting as a vine growing up …
EpsinR is a clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) enriched 70-kD protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, clathrin, and the gamma appendage domain of the adaptor protein complex 1 (AP1). In cells, its distribution overlaps with the perinuclear pool of clathrin and AP1 adaptors. Overexpression disrupts the CCV-dependent trafficking of cathepsin D from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes and the incorporation of mannose-6-phosphate receptors into CCVs. These biochemical and cell biological data point to a role for epsinR in AP1/clathrin budding events in the cell, just as epsin1 is involved in the budding of AP2 CCVs. Furthermore, we show that two gamma appendage domains can simultaneously bind to epsinR with affinities of 0.7 and 45 microM, respectively. Thus, potentially, two AP1 complexes can bind to one epsinR. This high affinity binding allowed us to identify a consensus binding motif of the form DFxDF, which we also find in gamma-synergin and use to predict that an uncharacterized EF-hand
When released from the 20°C block, VSVG emigrated away from membranes positive for conventional Golgi to closely apposed structures that were positive for AP-1B and Exo70. Intriguingly, Exo70 also strongly localized to Tfn- and TfnR-positive recycling endosomes. Thus, it seems possible that AP-1B-dependent cargo may at least partially enter recycling endosomes before continuing to the plasma membrane after exit from the Golgi. Our data are thus in agreement with previous observations showing that Rab11 (a recycling endosome-associated GTPase) may play a role in biosynthetic traffic, at least in nonpolarized cells (Chen et al., 1998). Moreover, both the TGN and recycling endosomes are complex sorting compartments (Mellman and Warren, 2000). In the case of epithelial cells, it is also interesting to note that polarized targeting of newly synthesized and recycling glycoproteins makes use of similar or identical sorting determinants in the TGN and in the endocytic pathway (Matter et al., 1993; ...
Journal de Physique II, Journal de Physique Archives représente une mine dinformations facile à consulter sur la manière dont la physique a été publiée depuis 1872.
Katya Heldwein, PhD, Principal Investigator. Katya received her PhD from Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, OR where she studied ligand recognition by bacterial transcription regulators using x-ray crystallography in the laboratory of Richard Brennan. She then did her postdoctoral work at Harvard Medical School in the laboratory of Stephen Harrison where she initially worked on clathrin adaptor complexes and later delved into herpesvirus cell entry. She opened her own laboratory at Tufts University School of Medicine in the Fall of 2006.. ...
Petrobreak oil cleaning spray is is an environmentally safe formula that is effective in both extinguishing and preventing petroleum fires, Petrobreak contains enzymes that convert long chain hydrocarbon into small chain byproducts, causing spills to disa
Petrobreak oil cleaning spray is is an environmentally safe formula that is effective in both extinguishing and preventing petroleum fires, Petrobreak contains enzymes that convert long chain hydrocarbon into small chain byproducts, causing spills to disa
The second was a little more off the wall. Theres a restaurant called Meat Liquor famed for its burgers that we tried to visit a week or two ago. However, it is extremely popular and as such, constantly has a queue stretching around the block unless you get there early. Anyway, having given up on it thanks to its popularity and our inability to finish before 7pm we hunted down another venue within the same very small chain. This one is called Meat Market - see what they did there? and is situated just next to Covent Garden.. If youre familiar with the area, youll know that Jubilee Market is situated between the Strand and Covent Garden Market. Upstairs (above Jubilee Market) is where youll find the place. To be honest, it took a bit of finding for us - mostly because we didnt know where it was, but to be fair - its up a windy staircase and from the outside doesnt look like much of anything.. Now I think of it, it doesnt look like much of anything from he inside either, but dont let ...
By Scott Harris on June 21, 2013 I recently had a fascinating and illustrative new business meeting. I received a call from the owner of a small chain of
The M.2 to mini PCIe adapter adapter is designed to convert a cellular M.2 card (key B) to be used in a full or half sized mPCIe card slot. This adapter has two SIM card holders and supports USB2.0. Please observe! When using generic 3rd party adapters with 5G cellular data card modules, always ensure compatibility for pin-out definitions, signal voltage level, and power output capabilities for your selected cellular module, the adapter and host board prior to using the adapters. Failure to do so can result in malfunctioning systems or hardware damage to the parts. Available variants: M2BU3S-U2D V3.0
Demonstrations to include Ambarella self-driving vehicles, Mercedes-Benz cargo recognition system, and third-party ADAS applications SANTA CLARA, Calif.,-December 19, 2019-Ambarella, Inc. (Nasdaq: AMBA), an AI vision silicon company, will demonstrate advanced ADAS and AD applications based on Ambarellas CVflow® SoC family at a private event during CES 2020 in Las Vegas. Ambarella will perform autonomous driving and parking demonstrations using its Embedded Vehicle Autonomy (EVA), a self-driving vehicle, on Las Vegas roads. EVA builds upon 20 years of autonomous vehicle research and utilizes CVflow embedded processors to run AI-based computer vision algorithms. Its camera perception and 8-megapixel stereovision are implemented using Ambarella CV2 processors. With EVA our goal is to continue to push the limits of whats considered achievable with computer vision-powered self-driving vehicles, said Dr. Alberto Broggi, general manager of Ambarella, Italy. CV2 provides the needed computational ...
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GoPro™-adapter for ski poles. For mounting the original GoPro™ support on the grip. Compatible with these models: 6366872, 6366870, 6362707, 636685...
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This is one of three E.coli hydrogenases synthesized in response to different physiological conditions. HYD1 is believed to have a role in hydrogen cycling during fermentative growth.
Function: Phosphorylates the AP2M1/mu2 subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). May play a role in regulating aspects of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (By similarity ...
Previous work showed that UNC 101 and DPY 23 are adaptins orthologous to the mu1 and mu2 subunits of adaptor protein complex 1 and 2, and that they both can act as negative modulators of LET 23 Regorafenib chemical structure signalling. Similarly, SLI 1 is orthologous to CBL, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting LET 23 for degradation and SEM 5 is GRB2, an adaptor molecule that physically interact with EGFR. To address whether these genes could interact with cdt 2, we used loss of function alleles of dpy 23 AP2, unc 101 AP1, sli 1 CBL, and sem 5 GRB2 and performed cdt 2. We found that cdt 2 genetically interacts with dpy 23lf and unc 101lf, as cdt 2 RNAi induces a Muv phenotype in these back grounds. In contrast, no interaction was seen with sli 1lf or sem 5lf.. Since an absence of genetic interaction can sometimes suggest a physical interaction, we tested whether CDT 2 could physically interact with either SLI 1 or SEM 5. We produced in vitro labelled CDT 2 and puri fied SLI 1 and SEM 5 from ...
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셀레믹스는 아래의 가이드라인에 따라 샘플을 준비할 것을 권장합니다. 아래 제시된 최소 샘플 요구 조건을 충족할 수 없는 샘플의 경우 별도로 문의해 주시기 바랍니다 ...
The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition ... "Entrez Gene: AP4M1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, mu 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... Dell'Angelica EC, Mullins C, Bonifacino JS (Apr 1999). "AP-4, a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J Biol ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a Fourth Adaptor-related Protein Complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ...
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort integral membrane proteins at various stages of the endocytic and ... "Entrez Gene: AP4B1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... Dell'Angelica EC, Mullins C, Bonifacino JS (Apr 1999). "AP-4, a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J Biol ... 2001). "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1S1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 1 subunit". Montpetit A, Côté S, Brustein E, Drouin CA, Lapointe L ... Boehm M, Aguilar RC, Bonifacino JS (Nov 2001). "Functional and physical interactions of the adaptor protein complex AP-4 with ... The protein encoded by this gene is part of the clathrin coat assembly complex which links clathrin to receptors in coated ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit". Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999 ... and 3 ADP-ribosylation factors with adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3". Biochemistry. 41 (14): 4669-77. doi:10.1021/bi016064j. ... "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three- ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1M1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 1 subunit". Hinners I, Wendler F, Fei H, Thomas L, Thomas G, Tooze SA ... The protein encoded by this gene is the medium chain of the trans-Golgi network clathrin-associated protein complex AP-1. The ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the AP2 adaptor complex, which serves to link clathrin ... "Entrez Gene: AP2B1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, ... Kim YM, Benovic JL (Aug 2002). "Differential roles of arrestin-2 interaction with clathrin and adaptor protein 2 in G protein- ... He G, Gupta S, Yi M, Michaely P, Hobbs HH, Cohen JC (Nov 2002). "ARH is a modular adaptor protein that interacts with the LDL ...
"Entrez Gene: AP2M1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit". Follows ER, McPheat JC, Minshull C, Moore NC, Pauptit RA, ... This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric coat assembly protein complex 2 (AP2), which belongs to the adaptor ... "Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T ... "Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T ...
Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates ... "Entrez Gene: AP1B1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit". Nakagawa, T; Setou M; Seog D; Ogasawara K; Dohmae N; ... The protein encoded by this gene serves as one of the large subunits of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein ... 2001). "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 2 subunit". Rost, Martina; Döring Tatjana; Prange Reinhild (Nov ... Adaptins, together with medium and small subunits, form a heterotetrameric complex called an adaptor, whose role is to promote ... protein along with the complex is thought to function at some trafficking step in the complex pathways between the trans-Golgi ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit". Martinez-Arca S, Rudge R, Vacca M, Raposo G, Camonis J ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... and 3 ADP-ribosylation factors with adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3". Biochemistry. 41 (14): 4669-77. doi:10.1021/bi016064j. ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3S1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit". Human AP3S1 genome location and AP3S1 gene details page ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ohno H, Ooi CE, Rabinovich E, Roche KW, Bonifacino JS (March 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Entrez Gene: AP3B1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Hermansky-Pudlak ... The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ooi CE, Bonifacino JS (Jun 1997). "Beta3A-adaptin, a subunit of the adaptor-like complex AP-3". The Journal ...
The protein encoded by this gene is the medium subunit of AP-3, which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the ... "Entrez Gene: AP3M1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 1 subunit". Human AP3M1 genome location and AP3M1 gene details page in ... AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex composed of two large subunits (delta and beta3), a medium subunit (mu3), and a ... Drake MT, Zhu Y, Kornfeld S (2001). "The assembly of AP-3 adaptor complex-containing clathrin-coated vesicles on synthetic ...
"Entrez Gene: AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Huo L, Teng Z, Wang H, Liu X (March 2019). "A novel ... Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates ... The protein encoded by this gene serves as the small subunit of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein family. ... December 2006). "Mutations in the gene encoding the Sigma 2 subunit of the adaptor protein 1 complex, AP1S2, cause X-linked ...
"AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Entrez Gene. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. ... Adaptor protein complex 1 is found on the cytoplasmic face of vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates both the ... This nucleolar protein is involved in the processing and modification of tRNA. GDI1: RabGDI alpha makes a complex with ... December 2006). "Mutations in the gene encoding the Sigma 2 subunit of the adaptor protein 1 complex, AP1S2, cause X-linked ...
The family routinely lies on the clathrin adaptor complex 3 beta-1 subunit proteins. The exact function of DUF 1682 is unclear ... The final protein is thought to be translated from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm of the cell. The protein is ... The portion of the protein which extends into the cytosol is predicted to be highly phosphorylated as the protein's ... cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), PAR b ZIP family and Sp4 Transcription Factor. NRF1 encodes a protein which ...
This signaling domain recruits MyD88 adaptor protein that activates proinflammatory programs and NF-κB pathway. The activity of ... which forms a complex with IL-18Rα and induces an anti-inflammatory response. The IL-37/IL-18Rα/IL-1R8 complex activates the ... IL-37 has high homology with IL-18 and can bind to IL-18Rα, which then forms a complex with IL-18BP, thereby reduces the ... The protein encoded by this gene is a proinflammatory cytokine. Many cell types, both hematopoietic cells and non-hematopoietic ...
"The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3". Journal of Cell Science. 118 (Pt ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGAP1 gene. ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 6 (3): 197-205 ...
... has been shown to interact with CRMP1, Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DPYSL2 gene. ... 2003). "p80 ROKalpha binding protein is a novel splice variant of CRMP-1 which associates with CRMP-2 and modulates RhoA- ... Gu Y, Ihara Y (2000). "Evidence that collapsin response mediator protein-2 is involved in the dynamics of microtubules". J. ...
Nie Z, Fei J, Premont RT, Randazzo PA (2005). "The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes ... Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AGAP2 gene. ... Werden SJ, Barrett JW, Wang G, Stanford MM, McFadden G (2007). "M-T5, the ankyrin repeat, host range protein of myxoma virus, ... A nuclear gtpase that enhances PI3kinase activity and is regulated by protein 4.1N". Cell. 103 (6): 919-30. doi:10.1016/S0092- ...
AP complexes mediate trafficking linking clathrin or other coat proteins to receptors in coated vesicles, selectively sorting ... which codes for the smallest subunit of the AP1 adaptor complex. The AP-1 complex is one of five Adaptor Protein complexes that ... Rychik, J.; Spray, T.L. (2002). "Strategies to treat protein-losing enteropathy". Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular ... The AP-1 complex is found in the trans-Golgi network and is responsible for controlling AP-1-coated vesicles and the ...
This complex is recruited by checkpoint protein Rad17 to the sites of DNA damage, which is thought to be important for ... Rad9 doesn't do the DNA repair itself, it is just an adaptor protein that sends the signal. Rad9 has also been shown to ... It forms a checkpoint protein complex with Rad1 and Hus1. This is also known as the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 or 9-1-1 complex. ... Cell cycle checkpoint control protein RAD9A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAD9A gene.Rad9 has been shown to ...
This gene encodes a protein which interacts with clathrin and adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit. The protein ... 1998). "Intersectin, a novel adaptor protein with two Eps15 homology and five Src homology 3 domains". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (47 ... 1997). "Binding specificity and in vivo targets of the EH domain, a novel protein-protein interaction module". Genes Dev. 11 ( ... "The epsins define a family of proteins that interact with components of the clathrin coat and contain a new protein module". J ...
Together with the adaptor ASC protein AIM2 forms a caspase-1 activating complex known as the AIM2 inflammasome. The first step ... April 2012). "Structures of the HIN domain:DNA complexes reveal ligand binding and activation mechanisms of the AIM2 ... Interferon-inducible protein AIM2 also known as absent in melanoma 2 or simply AIM2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... Binding of dsDNA displaces PYD domain, which then engages the downstream inflammasome adaptor protein ASC through homotypic PYD ...
In parallel, when TLRs in the endocytic compartments recognize a virus the activation of the adaptor protein TRIF is induced. ... Bacteria and fungi may form complex biofilms, protecting them from immune cells and proteins; biofilms are present in the ... This leads to antiviral protein production, such as protein kinase R, which inhibits viral protein synthesis, or the 2′,5′- ... "Resistance" (R) proteins, encoded by R genes, are widely present in plants and detect pathogens. These proteins contain domains ...
... "p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". J ... Ren R, Ye ZS, Baltimore D (April 1994). "Abl protein-tyrosine kinase selects the Crk adapter as a substrate using SH3-binding ... Bai RY, Jahn T, Schrem S, Munzert G, Weidner KM, Wang JY, Duyster J (August 1998). "The SH2-containing adapter protein GRB10 ... Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ...
... a family of ADP ribosylation factor-binding proteins related to adaptors and associated with the Golgi complex". J Cell Biol. ... Takatsu H, Yoshino K, Nakayama K (2000). "Adaptor gamma ear homology domain conserved in gamma-adaptin and GGA proteins that ... ADP-ribosylation factor-binding protein GGA1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GGA1 gene. This gene encodes a ... Members of this family are ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network ...
... a family of ADP ribosylation factor-binding proteins related to adaptors and associated with the Golgi complex". J. Cell Biol. ... including 6 ARF proteins and 11 ARF-like proteins, constitute a family of the RAS superfamily. The ARF proteins are categorized ... The ARF1 protein is localized to the Golgi apparatus and has a central role in intra-Golgi transport. Multiple alternatively ... 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio. ...
"Characterization of the CIN85 adaptor protein and identification of components involved in CIN85 complexes". Biochemical and ... "Characterization of the CIN85 adaptor protein and identification of components involved in CIN85 complexes". Biochemical and ... "SETA is a multifunctional adapter protein with three SH3 domains that binds Grb2, Cbl, and the novel SB1 proteins". Cellular ... "SETA is a multifunctional adapter protein with three SH3 domains that binds Grb2, Cbl, and the novel SB1 proteins". Cellular ...
2001). "Characterization of the CIN85 adaptor protein and identification of components involved in CIN85 complexes". Biochem. ... The B-cell linker protein is encoded by the BLNK gene and is an adaptor protein also known as SLP-65, BASH, and BCA. BLNK is ... Linker or adaptor proteins provide mechanisms by which receptors can amplify and regulate downstream effector proteins. The B- ... "Characterization of the CIN85 Adaptor Protein and Identification of Components Involved in CIN85 Complexes". Biochemical and ...
"Dimerization of the docking/adaptor protein HEF1 via a carboxy-terminal helix-loop-helix domain"، Exp. Cell Res.، 252 (1): 224- ... "Id helix-loop-helix proteins inhibit nucleoprotein complex formation by the TCF ETS-domain transcription factors"، EMBO J.، 18 ... "Protein-Protein Interaction Panel Using Mouse Full-Length cDNAs"، Genome Res.، 11 (10): 1758-65، 2001، doi:10.1101/gr.180101، ... "The helix-loop-helix protein Id-2 enhances cell proliferation and binds to the retinoblastoma protein"، Genes Dev.، 8 (11): ...
TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the ... Also, the DBD and signal-sensing domains may reside on separate proteins that associate within the transcription complex to ... Cofactors are interchangeable between specific gene promoters; the protein complex that occupies the promoter DNA and the amino ... recruit coactivator or corepressor proteins to the transcription factor DNA complex[16] ...
Signal transducing adaptor protein. *Scaffold protein. Transcription factors. *General. *Transcription preinitiation complex ... Calmodulin may activate the Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, or may act directly on other effector proteins.[14] ... Certain proteins of the cytoplasm and organelles act as buffers by binding Ca2+. Signaling occurs when the cell is stimulated ... Many of Ca2+ mediated events occur when the released Ca2+ binds to and activates the regulatory protein calmodulin. ...
This complex further complexes with the ubiquitin ligase protein CUL4A[51] and with PARP1.[52] This larger complex rapidly ... like protein kinase, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-like group, two serine/threonine(S/T) kinases and their adaptors ... more complex organisms with more complex genomes have correspondingly more complex repair mechanisms.[145] The ability of a ... In E. coli , the proteins involved are the Mut class proteins: MutS, MutL, and MutH. In most Eukaryotes, the analog for MutS is ...
... while the second function as heterotrimeric G protein complexes. The latter class of complexes is made up of alpha (α), beta (β ... Signal transducing adaptor protein. *I-kappa B protein. *Mucin-4. *Olfactory marker protein ... γ proteins.[17] Signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes ... G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside ...
... the suicide gene complex has two elements: a mutated FK506-binding protein with high specificity to the small molecule ... These unique bispecific adaptors are constructed with a FITC molecule and a tumor-homing molecule to precisely bridge the ... The first receptor protein typically contains the extracellular antigen binding domain, while the second protein contains the ... Anti-tumor activity in mice is induced only when both the universal CAR T cells plus the correct antigen-specific adaptor ...
... both type I and type II IFNs activate a member of the CRK family of adaptor proteins called CRKL, a nuclear adaptor for STAT5 ... the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the ... Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... the E7 protein of Human papillomavirus (HPV), and the B18R protein of vaccinia virus. Reducing IFN-α activity may prevent ...
"Characterization of a protein complex containing spliceosomal proteins SAPs 49, 130, 145, and 155". Molecular and Cellular ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (April 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... "Characterization of a protein complex containing spliceosomal proteins SAPs 49, 130, 145, and 155". Molecular and Cellular ... "UV-damaged DNA-binding protein in the TFTC complex links DNA damage recognition to nucleosome acetylation". The EMBO Journal. ...
Homotrimerisation is a process whereby three of the same subunits, associate to make a complex of three identical YadA proteins ... Function: The function of the neck domain is to be the adaptor between the larger diameter of the beta-helices and the smaller ... Protein pages needing a picture, Protein families, Protein domains, Virulence factors, Gram-negative bacteria, Secretion, ... First, biogenesis of proteins in the Type V Secretion System (T5SS). Second, it is thought to target the protein to the inner ...
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Apr 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... "Crystal structures of an NAD kinase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus in complex with ATP, NAD, or NADP". Journal of Molecular ... 237 (1): 80-7. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(85)90256-5. PMID 2982330. Lee SH, Seo HY, Kim JC, Heo WD, Chung WS, Lee KJ, Kim MC, Cheong ...
... s (abbreviated Arr) are a small family of proteins important for regulating signal transduction at G protein-coupled ... The strength of arrestin-receptor interaction plays a role in this choice: tighter complexes tend to increase the probability ... clathrin and clathrin adaptor AP2, which promotes receptor internalization via coated pits and subsequent transport to internal ... Arrestins were first discovered as a part of a conserved two-step mechanism for regulating the activity of G protein-coupled ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the exocyst complex, a multiple protein complex essential for targeting ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Jun 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Exocyst complex component 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EXOC3 gene. ... At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal ...
The MyD88 protein acts as an adapter, connecting proteins that receive signals from outside the cell to the proteins that relay ... "Dysregulation of LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4-MyD88 complex formation and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 activation in ... After ligand binding, all TLRs apart from TLR3, interact with adaptor protein MyD88. Another adaptor protein, which is ... In that species it is a universal adapter protein as it is used by almost all TLRs (except TLR 3) to activate the transcription ...
... is an adaptor protein. The protein encoded by this gene is a death domain containing adaptor molecule that interacts with ... This protein binds adaptor protein TRAF2, reduces the recruitment of inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (IAPs) by TRAF2, and thus ... This protein can also interact with receptor TNFRSF6/FAS and adaptor protein FADD/MORT1, and is involved in the Fas-induced ... TRADD+Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles with short description, Short ...
"Alternative splicing of dystrobrevin regulates the stoichiometry of syntrophin binding to the dystrophin protein complex". Curr ... The protein encoded by this gene is a peripheral membrane protein found associated with dystrophin and dystrophin-related ... Fernández-Larrea J, Merlos-Suárez A, Ureña JM, Baselga J, Arribas J (1999). "A role for a PDZ protein in the early secretory ... Dystrophin is a large, rod-like cytoskeletal protein found at the inner surface of muscle fibers. Dystrophin is missing in ...
Conserved oligomeric Golgi complex subunit 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COG7 gene. Multiprotein complexes ... 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio. ... Several complexes have been identified, including the Golgi transport complex (GTC), the LDLC complex, which is involved in ... These 3 complexes are identical and have been termed the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, which includes COG7 (Ungar ...
2002). "Regulation of FcepsilonRI-mediated degranulation by an adaptor protein 3BP2 in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells". ... 1996). "Peripheral blood dendritic cells express Fc epsilon RI as a complex composed of Fc epsilon RI alpha- and Fc epsilon RI ... Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; alpha polypeptide, also known as FCER1A, is a protein which in humans is ... The IgE receptor consists of 3 subunits: alpha (this protein), beta, and gamma; only the alpha subunit is glycosylated. GRCh38 ...
Belogrudov GI, Hatefi Y (Feb 2002). "Factor B and the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex". J Biol Chem. 277 (8): 6097-103. doi: ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Jun 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Oster G, Wang H (2003). "Rotary protein motors". Trends Cell Biol. 13 (3): 114-21. doi:10.1016/S0962-8924(03)00004-7. PMID ... ATP5S: ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex subunit s (factor B) Kinosita K, Yasuda R, Noji H (2003). "F1- ...
ClpS is a bacterial adaptor protein that is responsible for recognizing protein substrates via their N-terminal residues and ... January 2013). "Structural insights into the inactive subunit of the apicoplast-localized caseinolytic protease complex of ... ClpS is as a specific adaptor protein for the ATP-dependent AAA+ protease ClpAP, and hence ClpS delivers N-degron substrates to ... The bacterial N-end rule is already well documented; it involves the Clp protease system which consists of the adaptor protein ...
"Characterization of the CIN85 adaptor protein and identification of components involved in CIN85 complexes". Biochem. Biophys. ... Adapter molecule crk is a member of an adapter protein family that binds to several tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This ... Adapter molecule crk also known as proto-oncogene c-Crk is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRK gene. The CRK protein ... "Adaptor proteins Grb2 and Crk couple Pyk2 with activation of specific mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades". J. Biol. Chem ...
Not only catalytic but also adaptor activities of this protein are involved in this process. Its movement from the cytosol to ... Poe JC, Fujimoto M, Jansen PJ, Miller AS, Tedder TF (June 2000). "CD22 forms a quaternary complex with SHIP, Grb2, and Shc. A ... pathways independently on its catalytic activity by serving as a bridge for other proteins thereby regulate protein-protein ... Overall, the protein functions as a negative regulator of cell proliferation and survival. Nevertheless, SHIP1 may also bind to ...
Interaction with other proteins (e.g. the adaptor molecule ASC) is mediated via N-terminal pyrin (PYD) domain. There are 14 ... MyD88 attracts the IRAK4 molecule, IRAK4 recruits IRAK1 and IRAK2 to form a signaling complex. The signaling complex reacts ... which binds more limited number and variety of ligands and works in a complex with NAIP protein. Other NLRs such as IPAF and ... which are associated with intracellular kinases via adaptor proteins (see non-RD kinases below), plant PRRs are composed of an ...
KLHL3 serves as an adaptor protein that promotes the interaction between WNK1 and Cullin3, which is in a complex containing an ... The WNK1 protein is composed of 2382 amino acids (molecular weight 230 kDa). The protein contains a kinase domain located ... The gene belongs to a group of four related protein kinases (WNK1, WNK2, WNK3, WNK4). Homologs of this protein have been found ... WNK (lysine deficient protein kinase 1), also known as WNK1, is an enzyme that is encoded by the WNK1 gene. WNK1 is serine- ...
... via the coregulatory proteins (CoReg) in the nucleus. Alternately, the estrogen or SERM complexes may occur through the ER ... with the help of adaptor proteins such as caveolin 1 or SHC1, which target the ER complexes to the plasma membrane. Activation ... of the ER complex causes increased kinase activity in phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase ( ... The anti-ER (SP1) antibody targets the ER alpha protein (ERα) located in the nucleus of ER positive normal and neoplastic cells ...
... adapter proteins and signaling complexes to regulate cytoskeletal linking, cell polarity, cell signaling and vesical ... They are formed by interactions between intracellular adapter proteins, transmembrane proteins and the actin cytoskeletons of ... These complexes, formed primarily of members of the claudin and the occludin families, consist of about 35 different proteins, ... These complexes, consisting of transmembrane adhesion proteins of the cadherin family, link adjacent cells together through ...
... and CUL4B-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. DDB1 serves as a bridge or adaptor protein which interacts with dozens of ... Leupin O, Bontron S, Strubin M (2003). "Hepatitis B virus X protein and simian virus 5 V protein exhibit similar UV-DDB1 ... Lee TH, Elledge SJ, Butel JS (1995). "Hepatitis B virus X protein interacts with a probable cellular DNA repair protein". J. ... "Turnover of hepatitis B virus X protein is regulated by damaged DNA-binding complex". J. Virol. 76 (13): 6495-501. doi:10.1128/ ...
This protein forms a kinase complex with TRAF6, MAP3K7 and TAB1, thus serves as an adaptor linking MAP3K7 and TRAF6. This ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7-interacting protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K7IP2 ... "Entrez Gene: MAP3K7IP2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 interacting protein 2". Thienpont B, Zhang L, Postma AV ... a novel adaptor protein, mediates activation of TAK1 MAPKKK by linking TAK1 to TRAF6 in the IL-1 signal transduction pathway". ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is a neuronal adaptor protein that interacts with ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... It is also regarded as a putative vesicular trafficking protein in the brain that can form a complex with the potential to ... Amyloid beta A4 precursor protein-binding family A member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APBA2 gene. This ...
Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with DPYSL2 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: AP2A1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit". Nishimura, Takashi; Fukata Yuko; Kato Katsuhiro; ... AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. The AP-2 complex is a heterotetramer consisting of two large adaptins ... 1996). "Interaction of Shc with adaptor protein adaptins". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (9): 5265-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.9.5265. PMID ...
protein coding gene. Chr13:94492332-94702838 (+). 129S1/SvImJ MGP_129S1SvImJ_G0020833. protein coding gene. Chr13:95765570- ... protein coding gene. Chr13:94928608-95212437 (+). BALB/cJ MGP_BALBcJ_G0020784. protein coding gene. Chr13:92852100-93061371 (+) ... protein coding gene. Chr13:102613911-102831037 (+). DBA/2J MGP_DBA2J_G0020661. protein coding gene. Chr13:91975218-92188141 (+) ... protein coding gene. Chr13:94396199-94604339 (+). PWK/PhJ MGP_PWKPhJ_G0019848. protein coding gene. Chr13:90695727-90902351 (+) ...
STE20-related kinase adaptor; TAU = tau protein; TORC = TOR complex; TSC 1/2 = tuberous sclerosis proteins 1 and 2. View Media ... STE20-related kinase adaptor; TAU = tau protein; TORC = TOR complex; TSC 1/2 = tuberous sclerosis proteins 1 and 2. ... CRE-binding protein; FAS = fatty acid synthase; MAPs = microtubule associated proteins; MARK = microtube affinity-regulating ... CRE-binding protein; FAS = fatty acid synthase; MAPs = microtubule associated proteins; MARK = microtube affinity-regulating ...
STE20-related kinase adaptor; TAU = tau protein; TORC = TOR complex; TSC 1/2 = tuberous sclerosis proteins 1 and 2. View Media ... STE20-related kinase adaptor; TAU = tau protein; TORC = TOR complex; TSC 1/2 = tuberous sclerosis proteins 1 and 2. ... CRE-binding protein; FAS = fatty acid synthase; MAPs = microtubule associated proteins; MARK = microtube affinity-regulating ... CRE-binding protein; FAS = fatty acid synthase; MAPs = microtubule associated proteins; MARK = microtube affinity-regulating ...
Nakatsu F, Ohno H. Adaptor protein complexes as the key regulators of protein sorting in the post-Golgi network. Cell Struct ... Recruitment of the Mint3 adaptor is necessary for export of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) from the Golgi complex. J Biol ... The beta-appendages of the four adaptor-protein (AP) complexes: structure and binding properties, and identification of sorting ... and knockout of LZTFL1 induces abnormal distribution of heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1) in the Lztfl1- ...
Name: adaptor-related protein complex 5, zeta 1 subunit. Synonyms: C330006K01Rik. Type: Gene ... Name: kinase insert domain protein receptor. Synonyms: VEGF receptor-2, VEGFR-2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor- 2 ... 1 The distribution fee covers the expense of rederiving mice from a live mouse; you will receive the resulting litter. The ... Name: serine (or cysteine) peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 9 ...
adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit beta 1. ISO. ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Autosomal recessive keratitis- ... protein:increased expression:nucleus:. mRNA,protein:increased expression:cornea,nucleus:. RGD. PMID:22956607 PMID:22956607. RGD ... Protein-Protein Interactions) PhenoMiner (Quatitative Phenotypes) Gene Annotator OLGA (Gene List Generator) RatMine GViewer ( ... DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member C24. ISO. ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Aniridia 1. ClinVar. PMID:10737978 ...
Adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1. Protein classi Assigned HPA protein class(es) for the encoded protein(s). ... Evidence at protein level. Protein expressioni A summary of the overall protein expression pattern across the analyzed normal ... RNA AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION SUMMARYi Below is an overview of RNA and protein expression data generated in the Human Protein ... Protein evidencei Evidence score for genes based on UniProt protein existence (UniProt evidence); a Human Protein Atlas ...
adaptor related protein complex 3 subunit beta 1. ISO. ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Mucopolysaccharidosis type 6. ClinVar ... Protein-Protein Interactions) PhenoMiner (Quatitative Phenotypes) Gene Annotator OLGA (Gene List Generator) RatMine GViewer ( ... secretory carrier membrane protein 1. ISO. ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Mucopolysaccharidosis type 6. ClinVar. PMID: ... protein:increased expression:intervertebral disk. RGD. PMID:23192728. RGD:10043113. NCBI chrNW_004955407:26,597,165... ...
protein coding gene. adaptor-related protein 5 complex, sigma 1 subunit. Tssr20255. 2. 131210363 to 131210476 113. +. TSS ... protein coding gene. heat shock protein 12B. Gm11037. 2. 131133497 to 131134215 718. +. protein coding gene. predicted gene ... protein coding gene. cell division cycle 25B. Tssr20248. 2. 131186983 to 131187001 18. +. TSS region. transcription start site ... protein coding gene. sperm flagellar 1. Tssr20245. 2. 131170945 to 131170953 8. +. TSS region. transcription start site region ...
title = "Adaptor Protein Ruk1 Forms Protein-Protein Complexes with Endonuclease Activity in HEK293 Cells", ... T1 - Adaptor Protein Ruk1 Forms Protein-Protein Complexes with Endonuclease Activity in HEK293 Cells ... keywords = "Adaptor proteins, CIN85, DNAse activity, Heparin-Sepharose, Protein-protein interactions, Ruk, SETA, SH3-domain", ... It was concluded that the adaptor protein Ruk1 forms complexes with endonucleases in HEK293 cells.", ...
protein coding gene. adaptor-related protein 5 complex, sigma 1 subunit. Tssr20257. 2. 131232751 to 131232769 18. +. TSS region ... protein coding gene. ring finger protein 24. Gm14233. 2. 131298545 to 131299835 1290. +. unclassified non-coding RNA gene. ... protein coding gene. mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein. Cpgi12290. 2. 131262012 to 131263187 1175. CpG island. CpG ... protein coding gene. pantothenate kinase 2. Tssr20261. 2. 131280351 to 131280367 16. +. TSS region. transcription start site ...
PrEST Antigen AP3B1 antigen APrEST91029 for adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit ... Target Protein. adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit. Target Gene ... N-terminal His6ABP (ABP = Albumin Binding Protein derived from Streptococcal Protein G) ...
Proteins and Enzymes, ELISAs, cDNA Clones, Luminex Assays, Peptides, Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays, and Small Molecules. ... View our 36 IL-1 RI products for your research including IL-1 RI Primary Antibodies, ... This complex recruits the adaptor protein MyD88, to initiate signaling in the NF kappa B pathway. IL-1 RI is expressed ... Contains 4 membranes-each spotted in duplicate with 41 different proteins and 4 serine or tyrosine phosphorylation sites ...
We found a significant fold increase in the levels of several tumor suppressor and DNA repair gene protein products (GP)s at ... and an anti-aging proteome response by upregulating H2B histone proteins 1 week after 4-week intermittent fasting. ... from dawn to sunset for four weeks also induced an anti-diabetes proteome response by upregulating the key regulatory proteins ... and 1 week after 4-week intermittent fasting (CAMP, PLAC1) compared with the levels before 4-week intermittent fasting. ...
Doublecortin interacts with mu subunits of clathrin adaptor complexes in the developing nervous system MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR ... The synaptic vesicle proteins SV2A and SV2B (SV2 = synaptic vesicle protein 2) are two highly related proteins belonging to a ... Compensatory Actions of Ldb Adaptor Proteins During Corticospinal Motor Neuron Differentiation CEREBRAL CORTEX Leone, D. P., ... One of the isolated clones encodes the mu1 subunit of the adaptor complex AP-1 involved in clathrin-dependent protein sorting. ...
1 Nef disrupts the transport of major histocompatibility compl ... V-ATPase binds to the medium chain of adaptor protein complex 2 ... Subunit H of the V-ATPase binds to the medium chain of adaptor protein complex 2 and connects Nef to the endocytic machinery. J ... Localization of the AP-3 adaptor complex defines a novel endosomal exit site for lysosomal membrane proteins. J. Cell Biol. ... Localization of the AP-3 adaptor complex defines a novel endosomal exit site for lysosomal membrane proteins. J. Cell Biol. ...
Mu subunits of adaptor protein (AP) complexes, AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, and AP-4. ... The mu homology domain (MHD) is an ~280 residue protein-protein interaction module, which is found in endocytotic proteins ... Proteins of the muniscin family: Syp1, FCHO1/2 and SGIP1.. The MHD domain has an elongated, banana-shaped, all beta-sheet ...
This domain lies at the C-terminus of the clathrin-adaptor protein complex-3 beta-1 subunit. The AP-3 complex is associated ... This domain lies at the C terminus of the clathrin-adaptor protein complex-3 beta-1 subunit. The AP-3 complex is associated ... We have recently shown that two proteins related to two of the adaptor subunitsof clathrincoated vesicles, p47 (mu3) and beta- ... Antibodies raisedagainst recombinant delta and sigma3 show that they are the other two subunits ofthe adaptor-like complex. We ...
Syntrophins are modular adapter proteins that link ion channels and signaling proteins to dystrophin and its homologues. A ... yeast two-hybrid screen of a human brain cDNA library using the PDZ domain of gamma 1- syntrophin, a recently identified brain- ... Syntrophins are modular adapter proteins that link ion channels and signaling proteins to dystrophin and its homologues. A ... and dystrophin form a ternary complex. Collectively, our results suggest that gamma 1-syntrophin participates in regulating the ...
Recombinant Zebrafish AP2B1 full length or partial length protein was expressed. ... ap2b1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit [ Danio rerio (zebrafish) ]. ... Recombinant Human AP2B1 Protein, MYC/DDK-tagged. +Inquiry. Ap2b1-1653M. Recombinant Mouse Ap2b1 Protein, Myc/DDK-tagged. + ... Home / Products / Recombinant Proteins / Recombinant Zebrafish AP2B1 Recombinant Zebrafish AP2B1 Online Inquiry. AP2B1 Related ...
adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit beta 1. renamed from. adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit 2018-05-01. ...
F-box proteins act as substrate adaptors that target proteins containing a specific phosphorylated sequence element, referred ... to as a phosphodegron, to the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for ubiquitination (1,2). β-TrCP targets many important proteins ... is an F-box family protein characterized by the presence of the protein-protein mediating F-box domain first described in ... Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a recombinant protein specific to human β-TrCP protein. ...
coatomer protein complex, subunit delta. coatomer protein delta-COP. delta-COP. delta-coat protein. ... AP_delta-COPI_MHD; Mu homology domain (MHD) of adaptor protein (AP) coat protein I (COPI) delta subunit. cl38905. Location:2 → ... AP_delta-COPI_MHD; Mu homology domain (MHD) of adaptor protein (AP) coat protein I (COPI) delta subunit. cd14830. Location:4 → ... AP_delta-COPI_MHD; Mu homology domain (MHD) of adaptor protein (AP) coat protein I (COPI) delta subunit. cd14830. Location:4 → ...
View our 1 TRAF-5 Primary Antibodies for your research. ... TRAFs are a family of intracellular adaptor proteins that ... TRAFs were identified by their ability to form complexes with TNF receptor superfamily members, although they also associate ... They mediate the interaction between receptors and a range of molecules including other adaptor proteins and kinases. At least ... All TRAF proteins have a homologous C-terminal TRAF domain that can bind the cytoplasmic domain of receptors as well as other ...
... sorting signals are tyrosine-based and dileucine-based signals that interact with heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes ( ... sorting signals are tyrosine-based and dileucine-based signals that interact with heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes ( ... while AP-2 adaptor complexes are involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. β Adaptin subunits (β1, β2, β3, β4) lack sequence ... while AP-2 adaptor complexes are involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. β Adaptin subunits (β1, β2, β3, β4) lack sequence ...
STE20-related kinase adaptor; TAU = tau protein; TORC = TOR complex; TSC 1/2 = tuberous sclerosis proteins 1 and 2. View Media ... STE20-related kinase adaptor; TAU = tau protein; TORC = TOR complex; TSC 1/2 = tuberous sclerosis proteins 1 and 2. ... CRE-binding protein; FAS = fatty acid synthase; MAPs = microtubule associated proteins; MARK = microtube affinity-regulating ... CRE-binding protein; FAS = fatty acid synthase; MAPs = microtubule associated proteins; MARK = microtube affinity-regulating ...
STE20-related kinase adaptor; TAU = tau protein; TORC = TOR complex; TSC 1/2 = tuberous sclerosis proteins 1 and 2. View Media ... STE20-related kinase adaptor; TAU = tau protein; TORC = TOR complex; TSC 1/2 = tuberous sclerosis proteins 1 and 2. ... CRE-binding protein; FAS = fatty acid synthase; MAPs = microtubule associated proteins; MARK = microtube affinity-regulating ... CRE-binding protein; FAS = fatty acid synthase; MAPs = microtubule associated proteins; MARK = microtube affinity-regulating ...
Adaptor-related protein complex 5 sigma subunit ELISA KIT; Sigma5AP5S1 ELISA KIT; C20orf29 ELISA KIT; Sigma5 ELISA KIT. ...
  • AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP2A1 gene. (
  • This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. (
  • We found a significant fold increase in the levels of several tumor suppressor and DNA repair gene protein products (GP)s at the end of 4th week during 4-week intermittent fasting (CALU, INTS6, KIT, CROCC, PIGR), and 1 week after 4-week intermittent fasting (CALU, CALR, IGFBP4, SEMA4B) compared with the levels before 4-week intermittent fasting. (
  • Thedelta subunit is closely related to the protein product of the Drosophila garnet gene, which when mutated results in reduced pigmentation of the eyes and othertissues. (
  • This gene maps in a region, which include the mixed lineage leukemia and Friend leukemia virus integration 1 genes, where multiple disease-associated chromosome translocations occur. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is the medium chain of the trans-Golgi network clathrin-associated protein complex AP-1. (
  • Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms have been found for this gene. (
  • This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 32 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database. (
  • In this work, we have identified a single gene in Giardia encoding a protein containing an ENTH domain that defines monomeric adaptor proteins of the epsin family. (
  • Here we describe auditory/vestibular mutants isolated from forward genetic screens in zebrafish with lesions in the adaptor protein 1 beta subunit 1 ( ap1b1) gene. (
  • HPS-2 is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the beta-3A subunit of the heterotetrameric AP3 complex ( AP3BA ), which assists in the vesicle formation from the trans-Golgi network or late endosome. (
  • This gene has 1 transcript ( splice variant ) and 317 orthologues . (
  • ATPase: catalytic family and complex with Structure and gene environments. (
  • In dimerization types, Gq is IL-18 for energy gene-internal and network in term to combination but inhibits then second for digital protein processivity. (
  • Furthermore, mice lacking the Irak gene demonstrate an attenuated response to injected IL-1. (
  • In the absence of a mitotic signal from outside the cell, β-catenin is sequestered in a complex with the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene product, a serine threonine glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3β) and an adapter protein axin (or a homologue conductin), enabling phosphorylation and degradation of free β-catenin by the ubiquitin-proteasome system [ 8 ]. (
  • Nonetheless, Cdk5r1 , the gene encoding p35, shows marked expression predominately in the neuronal linage [ 10 ] (Fig. 1 ). (
  • A genetic variant near adaptor-related protein complex 2 alpha 2 subunit gene is associated with coronary artery disease in a Chinese population. (
  • In this study, we coupled 5'-Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (5'-SAGE) to high-throughput pyrosequencing from 454 Life Sciences to analyze the transcriptomes and identify up-regulated genes among vegetative mycelium (Myc) and stage 1 primordium (S1-Pri) of Coprinopsis cinerea during fruiting body development. (
  • Patterns of enrichment based on gene annotations from the GO and KEGG databases indicated that various structural and functional protein families were uniquely employed in either stage and that during primordial growth, cellular metabolism is highly up-regulated. (
  • Patients with HPS2 have variants in the AP3B1 gene that encodes the ß chain of the adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex. (
  • We observed increased gene expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 in PBMCs, and increased protein levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β in PD patients. (
  • In this study, we used genetic selection in budding yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) to identify gene products that control plasma membrane residence of integral membrane proteins. (
  • Neuron-specific gene 2 (NSG2) encodes for one of the most abundant proteins in the nervous system during perinatal development. (
  • Because of their morphologic and functional complexity, neurons have evolved specialized proteins like those of the neuron-specific gene family [neuron-specific gene (NSG)1-NSG3]. (
  • Neuron-specific gene 2 (NSG2, neuronal vesicle trafficking-associated 2) belongs to the "neuron-specific gene" family of small, single-pass transmembrane proteins that localize to vesicular compartments within neuronal dendrites. (
  • Finally, TAB1 was shown to be MTR10, a gene encoding nuclear transport receptor/adaptor. (
  • For t-SNAREs on the plasma membrane, the protein syntaxin supplies one helix and the protein encoded by this gene contributes the other two. (
  • Therefore, this gene product is a presynaptic plasma membrane protein involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. (
  • Two alternative transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been described for this gene. (
  • Kinesin light chain 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLC1 gene. (
  • Although previously named " kinesin 2", this gene is not a member of the kinesin-2 / kinesin heavy chain subfamily of kinesin motor proteins. (
  • By genetically swapping the mouse cytomegalovirus gene M27, which encodes a DDB1 binding interferon antagonist, against other viral DDB1 binders,we will address the pathobiological relevance of such proteins in vitro und in vivo. (
  • This is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which encodes the protein dystrophin. (
  • Among them, microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non coding RNAs (sncRNAs) of approximately 22 nt in length, which act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and are known to help fine-tune complex genetic networks ([ 11 ], for review). (
  • 8. S100A4 as candidate gene in allergy, Science Trans Med 6: 1-11. (
  • Protein class the gene product belongs to according to selected gene lists. (
  • Number of protein-coding transcribed from this gene as defined by Ensembl . (
  • Virus nucleic acids are predominantly recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR3 for double-stranded RNA [dsRNA], TLR7 for single-stranded RNA [ssRNA], and TLR9 for CpG DNA) in the endosome and by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation-associated gene 50 (MDA5), cyclic GMP-AMP synthase DNA (cGAS), and other receptors in the cytosol (1, 2). (
  • The human UBA3 gene is positioned on chromosome 3p 1 3 and gave rise to a 2.2-kilobase pair transcript that was detected in all tissues. (
  • Recent investigation of Cullin 4 (CUL4) has ushered this class of multi protein ubiquitin E3 ligases to middle stage as vital regulators of various processes together with cell cycle regulation, developmental patterning, DNA replication, DNA harm and restore, and epi gene tic management of gene expression. (
  • Interestingly, somatic heterozygous missense mutations in the SPOP substrate-binding cleft not too long ago had been recognized in as much as 1 5% of human PCs (making SPOP the gene mostly affected by nonsynonymous level mutations in PC), however their contribution to PC pathophysiology stays unknown. (
  • An R-loop formed between an antisense lncRNA and a cognate coding gene assembles an RNP complex including an epigenetic reader (GADD45A ) and writer (TET DNA demethylase). (
  • The protein kinase LKB1 is a crucial regulator of cell growth/proliferation and cell polarity and is the causative gene in the cancer-predisposing disease Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). (
  • Since AP-1 and AP-2 are known to be involved in transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) trafficking, the effect of LZTFL1 on TfR1 recycling was analyzed. (
  • IL-1 RI, also known as the type 1 IL-1 receptor and CD121a, is a transmembrane protein in the Toll/IL-1 R (TIR) superfamily. (
  • IL-1 RI binds the pleiotropic cytokines IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta, plus the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 Ra). (
  • TRAFs were identified by their ability to form complexes with TNF receptor superfamily members, although they also associate with Toll/IL-1 receptor family members as well. (
  • Here, we found that CXCL8/IL8, a potent proangiogenic and inflammatory chemokine, up-regulates VEGF mRNA and protein levels in endothelial cells by acting on its cognate receptor, CXCR2, and that this results in the autocrine activation of VEGFR2. (
  • complement C3a receptor 1 [Source:H. (
  • PRR receptor binding results in production of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-12, IL-18, and IL-23 that promote the induction and expansion of Th1 and Th17 cells (Fig. 1 ) [ 1 ]. (
  • We found that GlENTHp (for G. lamblia ENTH protein) localized in the cytosol, strongly interacted with PI3,4,5P3, was associated with the alpha subunit of AP-2, clathrin and ubiquitin and was involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. (
  • Signal 1 is induced after recognition of MHC/peptide complexes presented on antigen presenting cells (APCs) by the clonotypic TCR (T-cell receptor)/CD3 complex whereas Signal 2 is mediated via the co-stimulatory receptor CD28, which binds to CD80/CD86 molecules that are present on APCs. (
  • IGF-1R is a heterotetrameric receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) composed of two alpha and two beta subunits ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), Shc, Grb2, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) levels were similar in normal and OA Obs in the presence or absence of IGF-1. (
  • As mediated by the estrogen receptor, BPA may induce the pyroptosis of neuroblastoma cells through NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD signaling pathway, and caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis may be involved in BPA-induced apoptosis, which is alleviated by EGCG, an anti-oxidation agent. (
  • Recycling requires receptor monoubiquitination by a membrane-embedded ubiquitin ligase complex composed of three RING finger (RF) domain-containing proteins: PEX2, PEX10, and PEX12. (
  • We showed that Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) and the kinase IRAK2 interacted with 4-1BBL to mediate late-phase TLR4 signaling. (
  • TLR4-4-1BBL-mediated signaling depended on TIRAP and IRAK2, as well as a complex consisting of the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6), the kinase TAK1 (transforming growth factor--activated kinase 1), and the adaptor protein TAB1 (TAK-binding protein 1). (
  • TLR-4 ligands, receptor complexes, and cell signalling pathways have been well characterized. (
  • When a mitotic signal is delivered by the Wnt pathway, by association of the Wg/Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins and their membrane receptor frizzled, it leads to activation of the dishevelled (Dsh) protein, which is recruited to the cell membrane. (
  • The KPNB1 protein is engaged in nuclear protein import, either by coupling itself with an adapter protein (e.g., importin-alpha subunit which binds to nuclear localization signals (NLS) in cargo substrates), or by functioning autonomously as a nuclear transport receptor (acts as NLS receptor, docking of the importin/substrate complex to the nuclear pore complex). (
  • Fas (CD95/APO-1) belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and its signaling pathway has been extensively studied over the past 15 years. (
  • Mutations affecting only CD4 regulation mapped to residues previously shown to mediate the binding of Nef to this receptor, such as W57 and L58, as well as to an AP-recruiting dileucine motif and to an acidic dipeptide in the C-terminal region of the protein. (
  • Two surfaces of download Stupid History: Tales of Stupidity, Strangeness, and Mythconceptions Through the produced in Reactome indicate cellular function kinase outside the T of plasma water, entering locus extension with the I H3 phosphorylated CenH3( not indexed CENP-A), and the embryo of junctions, complex proteins at the Patients of pro-apoptotic cells that belong intracellular for receptor sodium. (
  • The research, published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation , describes the role of TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), an adaptor protein and E3 ubiquitin ligase, in ensuring the vitality of stem cells that regenerate muscle tissue. (
  • Whereas RIG-I-mediated activation of NF-KB required the signaling adaptor MAVS and a complex of the adaptors CARD9 and Bcl-10, RIG-I also bound to the adaptor ASC to trigger caspase-1-dependent inflammasome activation by a mechanism independent of MAVS, CARD9 and the Nod-like receptor protein NLRP3. (
  • Antibodies are complex, flexible adapter proteins that link specificity in a so-called variable region to functions such as complement activation, Fcγ receptor binding, neonatal Fc receptor binding, and half life determination in a constant region. (
  • Thus, distinct glycosylation variants of a single monoclonal antibody may differ in complement activation, Fcγ receptor binding, pharmacokinetics (via binding affinity for the neonatal Fc receptor), and structural stability ( table 1 ). (
  • TLR signaling triggers a cascade of events in DCs that includes modified chemokine and cytokine production, altered chemokine receptor expression, and changes in signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (
  • Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are transmembrane proteins conveying extracellular stimulus inside the cell. (
  • Instead, it forms a tripartite complex consisting of a dimeric ligand, two ligand-binding co-receptors (either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha 1 (GFRɑ1) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor alpha-like (GFRAL) and two molecules of RET. (
  • A novel adaptor protein orchestrates receptor patterning and cytoskeletal polarity in T-cell contacts. (
  • CD314, also known as NKG2D (natural killer receptor G2D) or KLRK1 (killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily K, member 1), is a homodimeric C-type lectin-like activating receptor and costimulator with type II membrane orientation (C teminus extracellular). (
  • The PTB domain was first identified in the Shc signaling protein and subsequently in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), as a modular domain that recognizes proteins with phosphorylated NPxY motifs. (
  • Upon binding to the activated receptor, Shc itself is phosphorylated and recruits a plethora of adaptor proteins, such as Grb2 and SOS1, leading to downstream pathway activation. (
  • 1. Molecular editing of cellular responses by high-affinity IgE receptor. (
  • Furthermore, we discovered that synthesized Frizzled-6 is certainly connected with another PCP proteins recently, cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 1 (CELSR1), in the secretory transportation pathway, and that association regulates their surface area delivery. (
  • In contrast, the Tom70 receptor interacts specifically with the chaperone Hsp90, which then recruits its client proteins to the mitochondria (18, 19). (
  • The p 1 60 steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) SRC- 1 , SRC-2 [nuclear receptor coactivator (NCOA)2], and SRC-3 [amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB 1 )/NCOA3] are key pleiotropic "grasp regulators" of transcription issue exercise crucial for most cancers cell proliferation, survival, metabolism, and metastasis. (
  • In prostate most cancers (PC), the p 1 60 SRCs play vital roles in androgen receptor transcriptional exercise, cell proliferation, and resistance to androgen deprivation remedy. (
  • its binding to SLP-76 were needed for the activation of NF-κB and its transcription of the HIV-1 very long terminal replicate (LTR) in assistance with ligation of co-receptor CD28 but not LFA-1. (
  • Beta-arrestin acts as a clathrin adaptor in endocytosis of the beta2-adrenergic receptor. (
  • Regulation of serotonin-2C receptor G-protein coupling by RNA editing. (
  • The biologic function of LKB1 includes the regulation of downstream kinases, including adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the related kinases (microtube affinity-regulating kinase [MARK] 1 through MARK4 and brain-specific kinase/synapses of the amphid-defective kinase [Brsk/SAD]), which are involved in cellular metabolic regulation-stress response and cellular polarity, the latter through tubulin stabilization, tight junction formation, and E-cadherin localization. (
  • Interaction of gamma 1-syntrophin with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta. (
  • A yeast two-hybrid screen of a human brain cDNA library using the PDZ domain of gamma 1- syntrophin, a recently identified brain-specific isoform, yielded overlapping clones encoding the C terminus of diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), an enzyme that converts diacylglycerol into phosphatidic acid. (
  • DGK-zeta translocates from the cytosol to the nucleus, a process negatively regulated by protein kinase C phosphorylation. (
  • CDC42 binding protein kinase beta [Sou. (
  • Here, we review recent findings regarding three cytosolic adapter proteins, ADAP (Adhesion and Degranulation-promoting Adapter Protein), SKAP1 and SKAP2 (Src Kinase Associated Protein 1 and 2) with respect to their role in TCR/CD3-mediated activation, proliferation and integrin regulation. (
  • Once activated by IGF-1R, phosphorylated IRS-1 binds the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), stimulating PI3K activity and leading to increased levels of membrane bound phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP 3 ). (
  • Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CBR-470-1, an inhibitor of the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), leads to methylglyoxal modification of Keap1, Keap1-Nrf2 disassociation, and increased expression of Nrf2 responsive genes. (
  • Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) is required for ATP synthesis in the process of glycolysis [ 15 , 16 ]. (
  • reveal that a gain-of-function JAK1 genetic variant results in a mutant protein with mosaic expression that drives multi-organ immune dysregulation via kinase dependent and independent mechanisms. (
  • A aggregate selenide of cytoplasm SFLLRN, the transcriptional six amino elastases of the full subunits used when role is active, can be arachidonic kinase of protein and reticulum cGMP. (
  • Stimulation of the type 1 IL-1R (IL-1R1) and the IL-18R by their cognate ligands induces recruitment of the IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK). (
  • Cdk5 is a proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase that governs a variety of cellular processes in neurons, the dysregulation of which compromises normal brain function. (
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase. (
  • The Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain is a major protein interaction module that is central to tyrosine kinase signaling. (
  • CD314 homodimers are associated with DAP10, a membrane adaptor protein that signals similar to CD28 by recruitment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. (
  • Furthermore, we show that induction of RAE-1δ on macrophages by CSF-1 requires PI3K p110α kinase signaling. (
  • Although the function of the CTLH complex remains unclear, here we used yeast two-hybrid screening to isolate Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS) as a protein binding to a key component of CTLH complex, Armadillo repeat containing 8 (ARMc8) α. (
  • PKR, a serine/threonine protein kinase induced by interferon, phosphorylates eIF2- and attenuates overall protein translation, thus triggering apoptosis (12). (
  • This pathway is mediated downstream by SKAP1 (kinase-associated phosphoprotein 1) that regulates the complex formation between Rap1 and RapL (regulator for cell adhesion and polarization enriched in lymphoid tissues) [26 32 Two tyrosine motifs at Y595DDV and Y651DDV of ADAP bind to the SH2 domain of SLP-76 upon TCR stimulation. (
  • Integrin-linked kinase is an adaptor with essential functions during mouse development. (
  • The complex is part of the protein coat on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles which links clathrin to receptors in vesicles. (
  • TRAFs are a family of intracellular adaptor proteins that interact with a wide range of cell surface receptors and participate in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and stress responses. (
  • They mediate the interaction between receptors and a range of molecules including other adaptor proteins and kinases. (
  • All TRAF proteins have a homologous C-terminal TRAF domain that can bind the cytoplasmic domain of receptors as well as other TRAFs. (
  • GGAs are critical for trafficking soluble proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes/lysosomes through interactions with TGN-sorting receptors, ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and clathrin. (
  • This complex is located at the Golgi vesicle and links clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. (
  • Secreted by the acidophil cells of the anterior pituitary, circulating GH shoots to the liver where it can bind GH receptors to stimulate the expression of IGF-I and its cohort IGFBP3 (IGF binding protein 3, there are six in total), a protein that carries IGF-I and magnifies its effects. (
  • In the induction phase of EAE, inflammation is initiated by the binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) to pattern recognition receptors (PRR) on innate immune cells, including inflammatory dendritic cells and monocytes (Fig. 1 ). (
  • After triggering of signal transducing receptors, adapter proteins organize the proper processing of membrane proximal and intracellular signals as well as the activation of downstream effector molecules. (
  • The IGF-1R signaling axis is comprised of two receptors (IGF-1R and IGF-2R), the ligands IGF-1 and IGF-2, and a system of at least six binding proteins and attendant proteases that modulate ligand availability ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • A recent cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the complex reveals its function as a retro-translocation channel for peroxisomal import receptors. (
  • In mammals, these proteins include two groups of membrane receptors, one of seven members including LDL-R, LRP-1, LRP-1B, LRP-2/megalin, LRP-8/ApoER2, VLDL-R, and MEGF7 and the second more distant group including SorLA/LR11 and the Wnt signaling receptors LRP-5 and LRP-6 [ 3 ]. (
  • OVERVIEW OF THE NLRP3 INFLAMMASOME COMPLEX NLRs are innate cytosolic receptors that recognize diverse PAMPs and DAMPs. (
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that usually bind ligands specific to micro-organisms such as lipids and proteins from bacterial walls or double-stranded RNA. (
  • Although nuclear roles for the GW182/TNRC6 proteins are unknown, recent reports have demonstrated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling activity that utilises the importin-α and importin-β transport receptors for nuclear translocation. (
  • which function as sorting adapters for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, raising the possibility that it may function in the selection of integral membrane proteins for export. (
  • Synaptic vesicle membrane docking and fusion is mediated by SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) located on the vesicle membrane (v-SNAREs) and the target membrane (t-SNAREs). (
  • Adapter protein which associates with tyrosine-phosphorylated growth factor receptors, such as KDR and PDGFRB, or their cellular substrates. (
  • Tom20 and Tom70 are characterized as two major import receptors in the TOM complex that mediate recognition via different mechanisms. (
  • Conclusions These findings show that ADAP regulates two methods of HIV-1 illness cooperatively with two unique receptors and as such serves as a new potential target in the blockade of HIV-1 illness. (
  • In this study we demonstrate that ADAP and its binding to SLP-76 regulate two steps of HIV-1 infection by cooperating differentially with two distinct co-receptors. (
  • This domain lies at the C-terminus of the clathrin-adaptor protein complex-3 beta-1 subunit. (
  • We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify novel associations between genetic variants and circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration, and examined functional implications of variants and genes that were discovered. (
  • The impaired function of specific organelles indicates that the causative genes encode protein complexes that regulate vesicle trafficking in the endolysosomal system including AP-3, BLOC-1, BLOC-2, and BLOC-3. (
  • Four such genes, HPS1, ADTB3A, HPS3, and HPS4, are associated with the 4 known subtypes of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 1 (HPS-1), Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS-2), Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 3 (HPS-3), and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 4 (HPS-4). (
  • Both IL-1 agonists signal through the IL-1R type 1 (IL-1R1) 4 ( 6 , 7 ) and initiate a number of downstream events, including nuclear translocation of NF-κB, a rel -related transcription factor that activates expression of many inflammatory and immune response genes ( 7 , 8 , 9 ). (
  • Of the 86 modifiers identified in the screen, genes encoding components of Notch signaling and proteins involved in intracellular transport were of particular interest. (
  • The human genes encoding these proteins are clustered at chromosomal region 6p21 and coexpressed in multiple tissues, including the pancreas. (
  • The STimulator of INterferon Genes (STING), is a cytoplasmic protein that teams up with the cytoplasmic DNA sensor cGAS to detect floating dsDNA from pathogens or shrinking mitochondria and initiate a signal transduction via TBK1, IRF3 and NF-kB to promote the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and type 1 IFNs (TNF-a, IFN- a, IFN- b). (
  • The transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of cytoprotective genes, is controlled by dimeric Kelchlike ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1), a substrate adaptor protein for Cullin3/RING-box protein 1 ubiquitin ligase, which normally targets Nrf2 for ubiquitination and degradation but loses this ability in response to electrophiles and oxidants (inducers). (
  • Neurons have evolved a number of unique protein-coding genes that regulate trafficking of protein complexes within small organelles throughout dendrites and axons. (
  • Id-related genes encoding helix-loop-helix proteins are required for G1 progression and are repressed in senescent human fibroblasts"، J Biol Chem ، 269 (3): 2139-45، فبراير 1994، PMID 8294468 . (
  • Muscular dystrophy, the result of mutations in the genes that encode for dystrophin and the associated proteins that binds to it can arise in various forms. (
  • While the nature and role of protein coding genes involved in adaptation to the host-plant begin to emerge, the putative role of non-coding genes has yet to be explored. (
  • It has been shown that furanone 1 interacts with the QS expert regulator protein LuxR to prevent induction of the prospective genes and covalently modifies the DPD synthase, LuxS.12 With this light, it is evident that there is some covalent connection between the furanone and its target proteins, which is in accord with the observed activity reported herein. (
  • Even though DNA was present in much higher quantities than protein in these preparations, it was hotly debated whether or not the DNA or histones carried the genes biologists were looking for. (
  • In response to oxidative stress, electrophile metabolites inhibit activity of the BCR(KEAP1) complex, promoting nuclear accumulation of NFE2L2/NRF2, heterodimerization with one of the small Maf proteins and binding to ARE elements of cytoprotective target genes (PubMed:19489739, PubMed:29590092). (
  • The NFE2L2/NRF2 pathway is also activated in response to selective autophagy: autophagy promotes interaction between KEAP1 and SQSTM1/p62 and subsequent inactivation of the BCR(KEAP1) complex, leading to NFE2L2/NRF2 nuclear accumulation and expression of cytoprotective genes (PubMed:20452972). (
  • lipoproteins in cultural complex activities may anywhere compositionally undergo it lipid-linked to induce syndromes with type by these Mutations and in cellular Variations bind cells mediate it ubiquitin-conjugating to appear the acylated apartment of genes to Interactions with blindness. (
  • The bioavailability of both ligands is also modulated by the IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), which are bound to ligand in circulation and thus prevent degradation and thereby increase the half-life of circulating ligand. (
  • Additionally, dynein is essential for many other cellular processes, including mitochondrial movement, endosomal and lysosomal trafficking, transporting mis-folded proteins bound for degradation, nuclear positioning, and mitosis 1-3 (Fig. 2). (
  • To appreciate the pathogenesis of lysosomal disorders fully, it is important to understand the dynamics of endosome-lysosome organelles, their capacity for the uptake and degradation of complex macromolecules, and how lysosomal biogenesis and hydrolysis are altered by substrate storage. (
  • Under resting conditions, Nrf2 targeted for degradation through ubiquitination by binding Keap1, an adaptor protein for the Cul3 ubiquitin ligase complex [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • Hrd1 and ER-Associated Protein Degradation, ERAD, are Critical Elements of the Adaptive ER Stress Response in Cardiac Myocytes. (
  • Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase degradation protein 1 (Hrd1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been studied in yeast, where it contributes to ER protein quality control by ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins that accumulate during ER stress. (
  • The first one showed that Drosophila LpR1 increases the immune response by modulating the uptake and degradation of Necrotic Serpin, a protein that controls the innate response to gram-negative infection in insects [ 14 ]. (
  • To counter this defensive response, virus encodes the NSvc4 protein to interfere with S-acylation of remorin and induce its autophagic degradation. (
  • The GW182/TNRC6 family of proteins are central scaffolds that link microRNA-associated Argonaute proteins to the cytoplasmic decay machinery for targeted mRNA degradation processes. (
  • By contrast, the majority of human miRNAs display only partial complementarity with mRNA targets requiring the association of a GW182/TNRC6 family member with one of four Ago proteins (termed Ago1-4) to trigger cytoplasmic mRNA degradation [ 5 - 7 ]. (
  • As deadenylation represses translation and can trigger irreversible mRNA degradation, the GW182/TNRC6 protein family are essential scaffolds that link miRISCs to the decay machinery. (
  • Protein metabolism involves co-ordinated actions of synthesis and degradation. (
  • Proteolux is a light-controllable specific protein degradation system. (
  • The system contains several parts: the bacterial ClpXP protease from E. Coli and the specific recognition sequence (DAS-tag) for ClpX for the degradation part as the photoreceptor protein phytochrome B (PhyB) and the phytochrome interacting factor 6(PIF6) from A. thaliana for the light-dependent part of the system. (
  • The ClpX is responsible for recognizing proteins bearing a specific degradation tag, unfolding and leading them into the catalytic core of the enzyme, where two ClpP subunits break down the peptides bonds. (
  • Target proteins are fused to the PIF and tagged with the specific degradation sequence which, through light activation, brings the degradation sequence in proximity to ClpX and guides them to the catalytic core of the protease. (
  • Therefore a specific degradation of proteins containing the degradation sequence can be induced by a light signal. (
  • It recognizes specific degradation tags of target substrate proteins, unfolds them in an ATP-consuming hydrolysis reaction, and uses additional cycles of ATP hydrolysis to translocate the unfolded polypeptide into an interior chamber of ClpP, where proteolysis takes place. (
  • In E. coli, the adaptor SspB tethers ssrA-tagged substrates to the ClpXP protease, causing a modest increase in their rate of degradation. (
  • its Kd value is significantly higher than the one of wild type SsrA, thus degradation of DAS-tagged proteins is not significant within the range of physiological concentrations. (
  • The role of the adaptor-protein SspB has been assumed by Pif6 in our system, only light-induced activation can lead to binding and efficient degradation of DAS bearing constructs. (
  • The target protein will be fused to Pif6 and to the specific degradation tag. (
  • To avoid problems with the accessibility or an increased activity of the target protein we provide two different variants: the C-terminal degradation tags, with the target protein construct [PIF6-linker-Protein-DAS] and the N-terminally fused λO-tag resulting in the construct [λO-Protein-linker-PIF6]. (
  • The C-terminal fusion of PIF6 using the N-terminal degradation tag λO is consequently more promising to succeed, as the specific degradation sequence consists of very few amino acids (3 for the DAS-tag and 11 for the λO -tag) which do not perturb protein activity in most of the cases. (
  • The tumour suppressor FBW7 is a substrate adaptor for the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF), that targets several oncoproteins for proteasomal degradation. (
  • TRIP12 inactivation causes FBW7 protein accumulation and increased proteasomal degradation of the SCFFBW7 substrate Myeloid Leukemia 1 (MCL1), and sensitizes cancer cells to anti-tubulin chemotherapy. (
  • IKK integrates different signals ranging from stress bacterial endotoxin or cytokine activation such as TNFα and interleukin 1β (IL-1β)22 23 Stimulus-dependent activation of IKK a multi-protein complex composed of IKKα IKKβ and a catalytic subunit NEMO prospects to degradation of IκB inhibitors and launch of NF-κB into the nucleus8. (
  • Regulated proteasome subunit homeostasis is normally managed through mobile probing of the amount of proteasome set up hence, as well as the interplay between UPS-mediated sorting or degradation of misfolded proteins into distinct cellular compartments. (
  • We now report that PC-associated SPOP mutants can't work together with SRC-3 protein or promote its ubiquitination and degradation. (
  • HBx is thought to achieve these functions by hijacking Cullin-RING ubiquitin E3 ligase 4 (CRL4) to target the SMC5/6 complex, a restriction factor for extrachromosomal viral DNA degradation. (
  • Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Janus kinases (JAKs) regulate transcriptional programs and protein synthesis to promote the differentiation of effector CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). (
  • The Cdk family comprises 21 members, most of which depend on the association with specific cyclin partners to become constitutively active protein kinases [ 6 ]. (
  • They have extensive interactions with centrosome proteins, microtubule-associated proteins, and enzymes such as kinases and ubiquitin ligases. (
  • Multiple modules in the Ruk 1 structure involved in protein-protein interactions can provide for formation of ligand clusters with varied properties and subcellular location. (
  • Interestingly, Miro proteins were not essential to maintain the core of the MICOS complex, but their loss could destabilize certain interactions between components of the MICOS complex. (
  • Despite the importance of such a process, little is known about the interactions between the proteins. (
  • We also used immunoprecipitation followed by western blot analysis to detect interactions between key IGF-1 signaling elements. (
  • Atherosclerosis is characterized as an inflammatory process which occurs as a result of complex cellular and environmental interactions [ 1 ]. (
  • UV-Crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP) is a powerful technique for elucidating RNA-protein interactions. (
  • We further show that the interactions observed between TNRC6A and importin-α are conserved between mouse and human complexes. (
  • Plant miRNAs often display full base-pairing interactions with target sequences allowing direct cleavage of mRNAs by catalytically active Ago proteins [ 4 ]. (
  • SH2 domains are phosphotyrosine recognition domains, often mediating transient interactions with target proteins. (
  • PARP-2 is a nuclear protein, which regulates a variety of cellular functions that are mainly controlled by protein-protein interactions. (
  • CD2 and the nature of protein interactions mediating cell-cell recognition. (
  • Now, "RedChIP" has us stampeding in anticipation towards the exploration of the complex interactions taking place between RNA, DNA, and proteins in the nucleus. (
  • While RNA-DNA proximity ligation techniques map genome-wide ncRNA interactions , they don´t describe the proteins involved. (
  • As a parallel to HiChIP , which takes a protein-centric view of mapping DNA-DNA interactions , RedChIP evaluates RNA-DNA interactions occurring with a given protein. (
  • Finally, RNA-DNA sequencing reports on RNA-DNA interactions mediated by the protein and protein-DNA interactions mediated by RNAs. (
  • Indeed, the identification of Kcnq1ot1, which targets Polycomb complexes to repressed genomic domains, and the significant overlap of ncRNAs isolated via a conventional technique suggest that RedChIP represents the way forward for studies of RNA-protein-DNA interactions in live cells. (
  • We demonstrate that in HIV-infected primary T cells, Nef promotes a physical interaction between endogenous AP-1 and MHC-I. Moreover, we present data that this interaction uses a novel AP-1 binding site that requires amino acids in the MHC-I cytoplasmic tail. (
  • cytoplasmic FMR1 interacting protein 1. (
  • The myofibers (muscle fibers) that comprise skeletal muscle are basically muscle cells packed with contractile machinery (myofibrils), rechargeable energy sources (mitochondria), many nuclei (myonuclei), and a cytoplasmic unit (sarcoplasm, over two-thirds of which is water), each competing in a sense for space inside the cell [1]. (
  • Cytoplasmic dynein 1 (hereafter referred to as dynein) is a 1.6 MDa multi-protein complex that serves as the primary ATP-hydrolyzing motor responsible for retrograde axonal transport along microtubules (MTs) in eukaryotic cells (Fig. 1A). (
  • Domains of cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (A) and dynactin p150 Glued (B). (A) Dynein domains include the positions of mouse and human mutations as well as the buttress (light blue), stalk + MT binding domains (MTBD) (green), 6 AAA ATPase domains (blue), and intra-dynein complex binding domains (turquoise). (
  • Dystrophin is a rod-shaped cytoplasmic protein, and a vital part of a protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton of a muscle fiber to the surrounding extracellular matrix through the cell membrane. (
  • 1 It has five proline-rich stretches in its cytoplasmic tail involved in signal transduction. (
  • TRAPs form a unique group of adaptor proteins with common structural features: a short extracellular domain, single membrane-spanning alpha-helices, and multiple immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) within a long cytoplasmic tail. (
  • To avoid immune recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Nef disrupts the transport of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I) to the cell surface in HIV-infected T cells. (
  • Adapter proteins are molecules that lack enzymatic or transcriptional activity and are composed of protein-protein and protein-lipid interacting domains/motifs. (
  • We found that IL-2 signaling through JAK1 and JAK3 (JAK1/3) increased the abundance of a key subset of proteins to induce the accumulation of critical cytokines and effector molecules in T cells. (
  • 2008 ) reported that Atg9 molecules self-associate independently of other known autophagy proteins in both nutrient-rich and starvation conditions. (
  • NTAL also termed LAT2 (for its domain similarity with LAT) or linker for activation of B cells (LAB) was identified as a 30 kD phosphorylated protein in myeloid cell lines (15) and simultaneously by search in human genome database for molecules with Grb2-binding motifs (YXN, where X stands for any amino acid), putative transmembrane domain with a stretch of hydrophobic residues and potential palmitoylation sites (16). (
  • Granule cargo includes pigment proteins, signaling molecules, and enzymes. (
  • clathrate c's inclusion complexes in which molecules of one type are trapped within cavities of another substance, such as within a crystalline lattice structure or large molecule. (
  • My early work showed that neural cell adhesion molecules are the first proteins accumulating at nascent synaptic contacts between developing neurons and that these proteins stabilize the contacts and induce their transformation into mature synapses by capturing synaptic precursor organelles (Sytnyk et al. (
  • Thus, kinesin light chains function as adapter molecules and not motors per se. (
  • Membranes of adjacent cells form intercellular junctional complexes to mechanically anchor neighbour cells (anchoring junctions), to seal the paracellular space and to prevent diffusion of integral proteins within the plasma membrane (tight junctions) and to allow cell-to-cell diffusion of small ions and molecules (gap junctions). (
  • These different types of specialised plasma membrane microdomains, sharing common adaptor molecules, particularly zonula occludens proteins, frequently present intermingled relationships where the different proteins co-assemble into macromolecular complexes and their expressions are co-ordinately regulated. (
  • DNA bases, RNA bases, modified bases, proteins, and small molecules can all be detected and identified in this way. (
  • It has similarities to heat shock proteins and clathrin-associated proteins, and may be involved in vesicle structure or trafficking. (
  • Atg9 is the only characterized transmembrane protein that is absolutely required for Cvt vesicle formation, and it is proposed to carry membrane from peripheral donor sites to the phagophore assembly site where the vesicle forms. (
  • The vesicle formation assay that reconstitutes ER export of cargo proteins has been well established (11, 13, 14). (
  • The AP-3 complex is associated with the Golgi region of the cell as well as with more peripheral structures. (
  • We are calling this complex AP-3, a name that has also been used for the neuronalspecific phosphoprotein AP180, but we feel that it is amore appropriate designation for an adaptor-related heterotetramer.Immunofluorescence using anti-delta antibodies reveals that the AP-3 complex isassociated with the Golgi region of the cell as well as with more peripheralstructures. (
  • This domain is present in the epsin or epsin-related (epsinR) adaptor proteins, which are implicated in endocytosis and Golgi-to-endosome protein trafficking, respectively, in other eukaryotic cells. (
  • The AP-3 complex plays a role during the budding of vesicles from the trans Golgi network and endosomal compartments and is essential for proper intracellular protein sorting and vesiculation (Simpson et al. (
  • To identify factors that regulate post-Golgi trafficking of integral membrane proteins, we harnessed the activity of yeast chitin synthase 3 (Chs3), an integral membrane enzyme that is trafficked between Golgi and endosomal compartments and the plasma membrane. (
  • Wobst H, Schmitz B, Schachner M, Diestel S, Leshchyns'ka I, Sytnyk V . (2015) Kinesin-1 promotes post-Golgi trafficking of NCAM140 and NCAM180 to the cell surface. (
  • It associates with kinesin heavy chain through an N-terminal domain, and six tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs are thought to be involved in binding of cargos such as vesicles, mitochondria, and the Golgi complex. (
  • In the present study we have searched the EST database and haveidentified, cloned, and sequenced a ubiquitously expressed homologue of beta-NAP,beta3A, as well as homologues of the alpha/gamma and sigma adaptor subunits,delta and sigma3, which are also ubiquitously expressed. (
  • Antibodies raisedagainst recombinant delta and sigma3 show that they are the other two subunits ofthe adaptor-like complex. (
  • Previous studies identified net1 tab 2-1 and CDC14 TAB 6-1 as mutations in the RENT complex subunits Net1 and Cdc14, respectively, and revealed that the MEN acts by promoting release of Cdc14 from its nucleolar Net1 anchor during anaphase. (
  • Here, we review the important recent advances, and the current stage in our understanding of the principles and mechanisms by which these PQC regulatory pathways regulate the spatial organization or elimination of proteasome subunits under various conditions (see Figure 1 for schematic representation of these pathways). (
  • Recently, a number of WD40-repeat proteins (WDR) had been discovered to work together with DDB 1 and function the substrate-recognition subunits of the CUL4-DDB 1 ubiquitin ligase. (
  • Activation of JAK-1 and TYK-2 leads to phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2. (
  • however, the phosphorylation of IRS-1 was reduced in OA Ob. (
  • phosphorylation, inhibition of protein synthesis and protection from ER stress. (
  • Mast cells derived from bone marrow of Lat -/- mice exhibited severe decrease in the phosphorylation of numerous proteins, degranulation, and cytokine production. (
  • We report here that phosphorylation of Tyr304 in the functional C-terminal region (residues 301-333) of ephrin B2 confers high -affinity binding to the SH2 domain of the Grb4 protein. (
  • The phosphorylation credentials was couple highly easily conduct in mutational TGN in conjugation expression, but cells are completed proteins of new homology promoting recognized fibrillin or NOTCH2 portion( Senderek et al. (
  • The results suggest that a phosphorylation-based gating mechanism controls cargo selection by yeast retromer, and they establish a functional precedent for CDC25 protein phosphatases that lies outside of their canonical role in regulating cell cycle progression. (
  • Instead, we found that the PAR-4-mediated phosphorylation of polarity regulators such as PAR-1 and MEX-5 in the early embryo occurs in the absence of STRD-1. (
  • Thus, PAR-4 requires STRD-1 to phosphorylate AMPK to regulate cell growth/proliferation under reduced insulin signalling conditions, whereas PAR-4 can promote phosphorylation of key proteins, including PAR-1 and MEX-5, to specify early embryonic polarity independently of STRD-1. (
  • By elution with 0.5 and 1.0 M NaCl, two fractions with DNase activity and containing proteins with molecular weights of 83, 80 and 72 kD were obtained. (
  • These data reveal a molecular mechanism underlying membrane recruitment of adaptor proteins by ARF-GTP. (
  • Studies of the underlying mechanisms regulating asymmetric division of Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs) have contributed to the establishment of paradigms and identification of molecular components that control asymmetric division in more complex stem cell systems (Reviewed in Chia et al. (
  • Key pathological processes within blood and central nervous system (CNS) during EAE and MS. (1) Danger associate molecular patterns (DAMP) and Pathogen-Associated molecular patterns (PAMP) released into the peripheral blood activate inflammatory myeloid and T cells that migrate into the CNS after blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. (
  • To gain insight into the cellular and molecular defects in ap1b1 mutants, we examined the localization of basolateral membrane proteins in hair cells. (
  • These findings demonstrate that LpRs contribute to MB development and function, supporting the existence of a LpR-dependent signaling in Drosophila , and advance our understanding of the molecular factors functioning in neural systems to generate complex behaviors in this model. (
  • Lipophorins are the invertebrate's molecular entity equivalent to lipoproteins in vertebrates and bind LpRs through their protein component (apolipophorin) [ 12 ]. (
  • Molecular mechanisms regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation Eun-Kyeong Jo1,2, Jin Kyung Kim1,2, Dong-Min Shin1,2 and Chihiro Sasakawa3,4 Inflammasomes are multi-protein signaling complexes that trigger the activation of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of interleukin-1b. (
  • Several molecular mechanisms have been suggested for NLRP3 activation to induce caspase-1 activation and IL-1b maturation. (
  • To define the molecular basis for this assembly and the overall architecture of the E3, we determined the crystal structures of the BTB-BACK domains of KLHL11 both alone and in complex with Cul3, along with the Kelch domain structures of KLHL2 (Mayven), KLHL7, KLHL12, and KBTBD5. (
  • KPNB1 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 899 amino acids (1-876 a.a.) and having a molecular mass of 99.6kDa. (
  • As no experimental structure of TRPM3 is available, we built a homology model of the channel in complex with PI(4,5)P 2 via molecular modeling. (
  • These results, together with molecular docking and analysis of evolutionarily conserved residues, yield the first structural model of the DNA-binding complex containing LMO2, LDB1, SCL/TAL1, and GATA-1. (
  • The SH2 and PDZ domains were found to bind to the Tyr304 phosphopeptide both independently and at the same time, forming a three -component molecular complex. (
  • There are 58 different RTKs in humans with similar molecular structure, which are activated by ligands binding to their extracellular domain [ 1 ] . (
  • Among the latter, the ones that are also deregulated in response to host-plant are molecular candidates underlying a complex adaptive trait. (
  • For that purpose, the STAM2 (Signal transducing adapter molecule 2) protein of the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport) machinery was chosen to examine the effect of the flexibility and dynamics of the linker regions on the molecular recognition with ubiquitin and Lysine63-linked di-ubiquitin (K63-Ub2). (
  • In brief, disordered linkers provide plasticity to the protein, which allow adaptability and specificity to molecular recognition process. (
  • Thus, production of CSF-1 by tumor cells leading to activation of PI3K p110α represents a novel cellular and molecular pathway mediating NKG2D ligand expression on tumor-associated macrophages. (
  • Structural and Kinetic Views of Molecular Chaperones in Multidomain Protein Folding. (
  • Multidomain protein folding often requires the assistance of molecular chaperones. (
  • Molecular chaperones promote or delay the folding of the client protein, but the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. (
  • This review summarizes the findings of biophysical and structural studies on the mechanism of multidomain protein folding mediated by molecular chaperones and explains how molecular chaperones recognize the client proteins and alter their folding properties. (
  • Tumor-suppressive functions of leucine zipper transcription factor-like 1. (
  • This process is triggered by an oxygen-sensitive transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1alpha), which becomes active in hypoxic tissues, leading to the synthesis and secretion of VEGF. (
  • activating transcription factor 4, C/EBP homologous protein, and cell death. (
  • Structure of the leukemia oncogene LMO2: implications for the assembly of a hematopoietic transcription factor complex. (
  • Through its LIM domains, LMO2 is thought to function as the scaffold for a DNA-binding transcription regulator complex, including the basic helix-loop-helix proteins SCL/TAL1 and E47, the zinc finger protein GATA-1, and LIM-domain interacting protein LDB1. (
  • Additionally, we annotated more than 79,000 transcription start sites (TSSs) based on the transcriptomes of the mycelium and stage 1 primoridum stages. (
  • The method involves irreversible crosslinking of the RNA to protein, immunoprecipitation, ligation of 5′ and 3′ adapters, reverse transcription, and finally PCR amplification. (
  • MIM:138500) can form from amounts in SLC36A2, Signaling a high transcription protein inactivation 2( PAT2), a removal coupling of acid and signal. (
  • These dynamics are in part due to NF-κB-dependent transcription of inhibitory kappa B protein family (primarily IκBα and IκB? (
  • Loss of ADAP and the SLP-76/ADAP module markedly impaired CD28-mediated HIV-1 transcription as well as LFA-1-dependent formation of virological synapse for cell-cell viral spread. (
  • Studies also indicated that DNA damage-binding protein 1 (DDB1), an adaptor protein within CRL4 complex, may stimulate HBV transcription via a mechanism that does not involve an interaction with HBx. (
  • One of the most extensively studied TRAPs is LAT that was initially characterized as a 36-38 kDa protein prominently tyrosine-phosphorylated upon T-cell activation (8). (
  • This adaptor has been discovered by searching human genome database for tyrosine motifs found in LAT (24). (
  • Phosphorylated tyrosine residues recruit adapter proteins and trigger the activation of intracellular signaling cascades [ 1 ] . (
  • CD2BP1 modulates CD2-dependent T cell activation via linkage to protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST. (
  • The ability of Nef to target MHC-I from the TGN to lysosomes is dependent on expression of the μ1 subunit of adaptor protein (AP) AP-1A, a cellular protein complex implicated in TGN to endolysosomal pathways. (
  • Here, we compare the key signaling pathways triggered in response to IGF-1 stimulation between normal and OA osteoblasts (Obs). (
  • Four pathways affect treated identified, of which PARs 1,3 and 4 are circumstances for alternatingwith. (
  • Transmembrane adaptor proteins (TRAPs) facilitate activation within signal transduction pathways but lack both intrinsic enzymatic and transcriptional activities. (
  • The protein TRAF6 is a very important adaptor protein that is involved in multiple signaling pathways and its functions are important to maintain the stemness of satellite cells in adults. (
  • However, it is also a major modifier of protein function regulation in numerous pathways [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • 1. What is the exact role of host MVP in IFN signaling pathways and the proteins interacting with MVP in the process of hepatitis viral infection? (
  • Protein-protein interaction is considered as an important field of research, as it is the key to control variable cell processes and pathways. (
  • Abstract :Hepatitis B virus (HBV) regulatory protein HBx is required to initiate and maintain productive virus replication. (
  • Upon FcεRI activation, LAT is rapidly phosphorylated (10) and forms complexes with intracellular adaptor proteins such as SLP-76, Grb2, Gads, phospholipase Cγ1 and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Vav1 (11-14). (
  • During ER stress, disruption of the complex of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A and catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 by the small molecule guanabenz (antihypertensive, ?2-adrenoceptor agonist) and subsequent inhibition of stress-induced dephosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? (
  • Ap1b1 is a subunit of the adaptor complex AP-1, which has been implicated in the targeting of basolateral membrane proteins. (
  • A spontaneously arising mutation that activates the yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) CDC25 family phosphatase, Mih1, results in accelerated turnover of a subset of endocytosed plasma membrane proteins due to deficient sorting into a retromer-mediated recycling pathway. (
  • During endosome maturation, integral membrane proteins are either retained, leading their eventual turnover in the lysosome, or they are exported and delivered to other organelles for re-use. (
  • One mutant obtained displays a loss of retromer-dependent plasma membrane recycling of multiple integral plasma membrane proteins. (
  • In the protozoa parasite Giardia lamblia, endocytosis and lysosomal protein trafficking are vital parasite-specific processes that involve the action of the adaptor complexes AP-1 and AP-2 and clathrin. (
  • Mucolipidosis II is caused by mutations in GNPTA encoding the alpha/beta GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase", Nature Medicine , vol. 11, 2006, pp. 1109-1112. (
  • Mutations identified in many SH2 domain-containing proteins as well as the SH2 domain itself are associated with human diseases ranging from cancers, diabetes, to immunodeficiencies. (
  • The Cas9-guide RNA complex, the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, introduces cuts in genomic DNA at specific sites, allowing for sequencing of select regions to reveal DNA methylation, single nucleotide mutations, and structural variations. (
  • Binding of the dynein complex to cargo and dynein's processivity is dependent upon dynein's omni-present binding protein dynactin 1-3 (Fig. 1B) and specific adaptor proteins such as presenilin, LIS1, NUDEL, MuMA, Miro, Milton, BimL, and BimEL 1-3 . (
  • In this context immune cell specific adaptor proteins that mediate T-cell activation and effector functions have been identified [25 26 These adaptors lack definable catalytic activities but instead possess binding domains or sites for the formation of multimeric complexes. (
  • Both IGF-1 and IGF-2 are capable of inducing IGF-1R clustering and autophosphorylation, leading to activation of downstream signaling. (
  • The downstream partners of Nef in this event are the adapter protein complex (AP) of CCP and possibly a subunit of the vacuolar ATPase. (
  • Keeping it together: Miro proteins regulate whole mitochondrial transport in association with MICOS complex. (
  • Mitochondrial Rho GTPase (Miro) proteins link mitochondria to kinesin and dynein motors, enabling the transport of mitochondria along microtubules. (
  • 2013). Interestingly, the yeast and the Drosophila homologues of Miro proteins are thought to be associated with the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS). (
  • The MICOS complex is involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial cristae and inner membrane (IMM) architecture. (
  • This structure is called mitochondrial intermembrane space bridging complex (MIB). (
  • 2018). In this preprint, the authors continue to investigate alternative roles of Miro proteins in mitochondrial biology combining biochemical, super-resolution and electron microscopy techniques. (
  • However, no significant changes in MICOS components, Sam50 protein, motor proteins or other mitochondrial proteins were observed. (
  • Indeed, Miro1 and Miro2 co-immunoprecipitate with core components of the MICOS complex, responsible for mitochondrial cristae organization, and with Sam50, an outer mitochondrial membrane that interacts with MICOS complex to bridge both membranes. (
  • Using super resolution microscopy techniques, Miro proteins were shown to localize to discrete domains along the mitochondrial network forming nanoclusters. (
  • The authors found that Mic19/CHCHD3 could still form clusters, but those were severely affected, with some mitochondrial areas devoid of them, indicating that Miro proteins are important for the distribution of MICOS clusters. (
  • It was previously established that Miro1 and Miro2 regulate mitochondrial transport along microtubules by interacting with TRAK adaptors. (
  • The neurotoxin MPP + (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion) disrupts mitochondrial function leading to oxidative stress and neuronal death. (
  • In neurons, the disruption of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex results in reactive oxidative species (ROS) production and oxidative stress. (
  • Inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, including 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), rotenone, are currently being utilized for animal and cellular models of degenerative neuronal disease models [ 1 ]. (
  • These results link mitochondrial PE metabolism to MICOS combining functions in protein and lipid homeostasis to preserve mitochondrial structure and function. (
  • 2013 These complexes shuttle phosphatidic acid (PA) imported from your ER across the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) to the inner membrane (IM) where it is enzymatically converted to cardiolipin (CL). (
  • However it remained unclear how Ups2-Mdm35 complexes affected the accumulation of mitochondrial PE as the activity of Psd1 and the synthesis of PC were not affected in (Fig. S1 A). His-tagged Ups2* and Mdm35 were coexpressed in is usually lethal in yeast cells lacking Phb1 a subunit of prohibitin membrane scaffolds (Osman et al. (
  • Tom70 recruits this protein complex to the mitochondrial outer membrane through Hsp90, which thus induces the release of cytochrome into the cytosol, initiating virus-induced apoptosis. (
  • Most mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and synthesized in the cytosol as preproteins, except for a few mitochondrion-encoded proteins. (
  • The translocase of outer membrane (TOM) complex, an 400-kDa core complex in the mitochondrial outer membrane, is responsible for the recognition and translocation of the mitochondrial preproteins from the cytosol into the mitochondria (16, 17). (
  • Seminal studies recently identified the mitochondrial outer membrane protein MAVS/IPS-1/VISA/Cardiff as an essential adaptor for RIG-I/Mda5 signal transduction during RNA virus infection (20,C23). (
  • the interaction is direct and promotes ubiquitination by the BCR(KEAP1) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex (PubMed:16888629, PubMed:15601839). (
  • It can stabilize unfolded proteins, may regulate ATP hydrolysis and even couple substrate and adaptor binding to ATP hydrolysis. (
  • In a second step the ADAP-SLP-76 module cooperated with LFA-1 to regulate conjugate formation between T-cells and dendritic cells or Ciproxifan additional T-cells as well as the development of the virological synapse (VS) and viral spread between immune cells. (
  • In the complex with ARF1-GTP, a helix-loop-helix of the N-terminal part of GGA1-GAT interacts with the switches 1 and 2 of ARF1 predominantly in a hydrophobic manner. (
  • Moreover, MICOS complex interacts with Sam50 protein on the OMM, building a bridge between the OMM and the IMM. (
  • NRP interacts and recruits the phytochrome-associated protein phosphatase FyPP3 to the endosome and promotes the turnover of FyPP3 in the vacuole, while FyPP3 is able to dephosphorylate NRP and its overexpression shortens the half-life of NRP in vivo . (
  • Interacts with adapter protein complex 1 (AP-1) and AP-2, but not AP-3 and AP-4 (By similarity). (
  • By using this approach, we found that under homeostatic conditions, the interaction between Keap1 and Nrf2 follows a cycle in which the complex sequentially adopts two distinct conformations: "open," in which Nrf2 interacts with a single molecule of Keap1, followed by "closed," in which Nrf2 binds to both members of the Keap1 dimer. (
  • EpsinR forms a well balanced complicated with clathrin, which complex interacts using the polybasic sorting theme over Glyoxalase I inhibitor the C-terminal cytosolic domains of Fzd6 Glyoxalase I inhibitor to mediate the product packaging of Fzd6 into transportation vesicles (9). (
  • An ER-localized proteins, Shisa, interacts using the immature glycosylated type of Fzd inside the ER in embryos (12). (
  • We not too long ago demonstrated that the E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor speckle-type poxvirus and zinc finger (POZ) area protein (SPOP) interacts immediately with SRC-3 and promotes its cullin 3-dependent ubiquitination and proteolysis in breast most cancers, thus functioning as a possible tumor suppressor. (
  • however, through the action of the adaptor protein SspB, DAS- or λO -tagged proteins are significantly degraded. (
  • Two classes of intracellular effectors of B ephrins have been identified: one contains the PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain (for example PDZ-RGS3), and the second the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain (e.g. the Grb4 adaptor protein). (
  • The amino-terminal region of PARP-2 (aa 1-90), containing the DNA binding SAP domain, has no significant homology with any other PARP [ 1 ]. (
  • we named this mammalian complex C-terminal to the Lissencephaly type-1-like homology (CTLH) complex. (
  • Moreover, human UBA3 may kind a beta-mercaptoethanol-sensitive conjugate with NEDD8 in the presence of APP-BP 1 , a protein with sequence homology to the N-terminal half of ubiquitin-activating enzyme. (
  • In sum, our evidence suggests that binding of AP-1 to the Nef-MHC-I complex is an important step required for inhibition of antigen presentation by HIV. (
  • These cytokines are also released from activated γδ T cells and jointly combine to initiate pro-inflammatory feedback loops that augment the production of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 by antigen presenting cells (APC), leading to enhanced Th17 responses and continued γδ T cell activation of the effector phase. (
  • In addition, triggering of the TCR/CD3 complex induces the activation of the integrin LFA-1 (leukocyte function associated antigen 1) leading to increased ligand binding (affinity regulation) and LFA-1 clustering (avidity regulation). (
  • Structural analysis of the CD2 T lymphocyte antigen by site-directed mutagenesis to introduce a disulphide bond into domain 1. (
  • Elegant studies have suggested that IRS-1 recruitment is primarily required for mitogenic signaling, whereas IRS-2, in contrast, plays a key role in cellular motility responses ( 4 ). (
  • Moreover, IL-2 maintained the concentration of proteins that support core metabolic processes essential for cellular fitness. (
  • Therefore, satellites are now accepted as the "third component" of the vertebrate centrosome/cilium complex, which profoundly changes the way we think about the assembly, maintenance, and remodeling of the complex at the cellular and organismal levels. (
  • We will first highlight the complexity of centriolar satellites (hereafter satellites) by showcasing their structural and cellular properties as the third component of the vertebrate centrosome/cilium complex and as a member of the emerging class of membraneless organelles. (
  • While satellites cluster around the nuclear envelope in myotubes, they are concentrated at the apical side in polarized epithelial cells of the intestine and kidney ( Figure 1 , E, G, and H). The variation in their cellular distribution suggests cell type and tissue-specific functions for satellites, which remains mostly unexplored. (
  • The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic network of filamentous proteins that enables the active transport of cellular cargo, transduces force, and when assembled into higher-order structures, forms the basis for motile cellular structures that promote cell movement. (
  • DDB1, a cellular adapter protein for certain Cullin ubiquitin ligases, is exploited by numerous viruses. (
  • LZTFL1 participates in immune synapse formation, ciliogenesis, and the localization of ciliary proteins, and knockout of LZTFL1 induces abnormal distribution of heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1) in the Lztfl1 -knockout mouse photoreceptor cells, suggesting that LZTFL1 is involved in intracellular transport. (
  • The results from the disruption of adaptin recruitment with brefeldin A treatment suggested ADP-ribosylation factor-dependent localization of LZFL1 and AP-1 in the PNR. (
  • Collectively, our results suggest that gamma 1-syntrophin participates in regulating the subcellular localization of DGK-zeta to ensure correct termination of diacylglycerol signaling. (
  • Segregation of cell fate determinants to the daughter GMC is regulated by the reciprocal localization of four protein complexes: two complexes are localized to the apical cortex and two to the basal cortex (see Figure 1 ). (
  • Protein localization predicted from several bioinformatic algorithms. (
  • Here we describe the structure of mouse importin-α in complex with the TNRC6A nuclear localisation signal peptide. (
  • Chaston JJ, Stewart AG, Christie M (2017) Structural characterisation of TNRC6A nuclear localisation signal in complex with importin-alpha. (
  • In some of the tab mutants including mtr10 tab 1-1 , defective nuclear export of the ribosomal protein Rpl11b was observed. (
  • However, importin α functions as an adaptor that links classical NLS (cNLS)-containing proteins to importin β, which, in turn, docks the ternary complex at the nuclear-pore complex (NPC). (
  • With a combination of the several biophysical methods namely NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spin relaxation, SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) and CD (Circular Dichroism), the study has demonstrated that the alteration in the linker region modifies the flexibility and the dynamics of the protein, one among them possibly introduces slight change in conformation. (
  • This causes the dissociation from the proteasome holo-complex to CP and RP subcomplexes, migration towards the nuclear periphery and a stepwise export through the nucleus towards the cytoplasm to create PSGs, membrane-less assemblies of soluble protein. (
  • Adaptor proteins mediate the interaction between motors and satellites. (
  • Fas engagement drives the formation of a complex termed DISC (death-inducing signaling complex), which contains the adaptor molecule Fas-associated protein, two members of the caspase family caspase-8 and -10, and a pseudo-caspase termed c-FLIP. (
  • The 'backbone,' or fundamental structure, of a monoclonal antibody consists of amino acids, which are encoded by DNA and form primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures, becoming a protein molecule. (
  • Traditionally, clathrate compounds are polymeric and completely envelop the guest molecule, but in modern usage clathrates also include host-guest complexes and inclusion compounds. (
  • Mon projet de recherche est d'étudier et de définir le rôle des segments intrinsèquement désordonnés de la protéine STAM2 (Signal transducing adapter molecule 2) impliquée dans la machinerie ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complexe Required for Transport) , première étape dans le processus de dégradation lysosomale. (
  • NEDD8 is a ubiquitin-like molecule that may be covalently conjugated to a restricted quantity of mobile proteins , akin to Cdc53/ cullin . (
  • This complex recruits the adaptor protein MyD88, to initiate signaling in the NF kappa B pathway. (
  • We found that DGK-zeta recruits gamma 1-syntrophin into the nucleus and that the PDZ-binding motif is required. (
  • Once activated, phosphorylated IGF-1R recruits and activates signaling adaptor proteins, including IRS-1, IRS-2, and Shc. (
  • This process is further amplified by IL-1β- and IL-23-activated γδ T cells that secrete IL-17 and IL-21 that act in a feedback loop to enhance the Th17 response as part of the effector phase. (
  • While some of these proteins may augment the effector functions of CTLs, others may limit their cytotoxicity. (
  • Recent advances have indicated that inflammasomes contribute the etiology of MS. Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes of the innate immune response involved in the processing of caspase-1, the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 as well as the cell death-mediated mechanism of pyroptosis and the activation of the adaptive immune response. (
  • Noticeably, the mRNA levels of caspase-1 and IL-1β were changed differently in the two cell lines: the level of caspase-1 mRNA was enhanced in IMR-32 cells but suppressed in SK-N-SH cells, and that of IL-1β was suppressed in IMR-32 cells but enhanced in SK-N-SH cells. (
  • When combined, LPS and OSM synergized to increase MCP-1, IL-6, VEGF protein, and mRNA expression as assessed by qRT-PCR, in both HAoAFs and HAoSMCs, while LPS-induced IL-8 levels were reduced. (
  • i) Tunicamycin induced ER stress as measured by increased mRNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa, P-eIF2? (
  • The protein and mRNA expression levels of inflammasomes subtypes and components in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined using western blotting and RT-qPCR. (
  • p42/44 MAPK can be triggered via an IRS-1/Syp or Grb2/Shc interaction. (
  • The interaction of Grb2 with IRS-1 progressively increased in response to IGF-1 in OA Obs whereas this was absent in normal Ob. (
  • This is mostly linked with abnormal IRS-1/Syp and IRS-1/Grb2 interaction in these cells. (
  • Similarly to LAT and NTAL, PAG is palmitoylated and localized in detergent resistant membranes, but in contrast to other TRAPs none of its tyrosines is involved in binding of Grb2 adaptor. (
  • Grb2 is a good example of a bifunctional adaptor protein that brings proteins into close proximity, allowing signal transduction through proteins that can span different compartments. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that in vitro LZTFL1 directly binds to AP-1 and AP-2 and coimmunoprecipitates AP-1 and AP-2 from cell lysates. (
  • TfR1, AP-1 and LZTFL1 from cell lysates could be coimmunoprecipitated. (
  • These data support a novel role of LZTFL1 in regulating the cell surface TfR1 level by interacting with AP-1 and AP-2. (
  • In the brain, DGK-zeta and gamma 1-syntrophin were colocalized in cell bodies and dendrites of cerebellar Purkinjie neurons and other neuronal cell types, suggesting that their interaction is physiologically relevant. (
  • Archain sequences are well conserved among eukaryotes and this protein may play a fundamental role in eukaryotic cell biology. (
  • 1. Cell fate determinants are segregated to the basal cortex of the dividing NB, resulting in a disruption of the symmetry of the mother cell prior to division. (
  • The basal complexes, which will segregate to the GMC, asymmetrically localize three major cell fate determinants: Prospero, Brat, and Numb, which inhibit self-renewal and promote differentiation (Bowman et al. (
  • An important complex forming the core of the cell division apparatus in stem cells has been imaged using the Macromolecular Crystallography beamlines, I04 and I04-1 at Diamond Light Source. (
  • As recently reported in Nature Communications, the spindle orientation protein known as LGN bound to an adapter protein known as Inscuteable in a tetrameric arrangement, which drove asymmetric stem cell division. (
  • On the right, the structure of Insc:LGN complex governing this asymmetric cell division process. (
  • Subsequently, ligand bound LFA-1 transmits a signal into the T cells ( outside-in signaling ) which enhances T-cell interaction with APCs (adhesion), T-cell activation and T-cell proliferation. (
  • AKT signaling also impacts glucose metabolism through regulation of GSK-3β activity, and plays a key role in protein synthesis and cell growth by regulating the activity of the TORC1 complex through a series of intermediate signaling events ( 7 ). (
  • The effect of IGF-1 on cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase and collagen synthesis was evaluated in the presence or not of 50 ng/ml IGF-1, whereas signaling was studied with proteins separated by SDS-PAGE before western blot analysis. (
  • In contrast, cell proliferation was higher in OA Obs compared to normal under basal conditions, and IGF-1 stimulated more cell proliferation in OA Obs than in normal Ob, an effect totally dependent on p42/44 MAPK activiy. (
  • In total 19,394 human proteins were assessed and 14,906 (multiple mapping possible) were assigned to cell physiological processes using the PANTHER software. (
  • In filamentous fungi, peroxisomes also produce β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin [ 5 ], and specialized derivatives called Woronin bodies contain proteins that promote cell integrity and wound healing [ 12 ]. (
  • Pretreatment with CBR-470-1 potently attenuated MPP + -induced oxidative injury and SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. (
  • Subsequently, this leads to calcium overload, lipid peroxidation, DNA/protein damage, and eventually neuronal cell death [ 1 ]. (
  • Activated Nrf2 protein disassociates from Keap1 and translocates to cell nuclei. (
  • ELISAs performed on cell supernatants showed that stimulation with OSM alone caused increased MCP-1, IL-6, and VEGF levels. (
  • In cardiac myocytes, the ER stressors, thapsigargin and tunicamycin increased ERAD, as well as adaptive ER stress proteins, and minimally affected cell death. (
  • However, when Hrd1 was knocked down, thapsigargin and tunicamycin dramatically decreased ERAD, while increasing maladaptive ER stress proteins and cell death. (
  • determine a plant remorin protein acting as a negative regulator of Rice stripe virus infection by reducing viral cell-to-cell movement. (
  • The functions of the DNA can model added also to the Industrial Revolution, when compromised process of single IgGs and enzymatic depolarization nucleotide published to apparent protein and epithelial cell of Canadians. (
  • The E-cadherin-catenin complex plays a crucial role in epithelial cell-cell adhesion and in the maintenance of tissue architecture. (
  • Perturbation in the expression or function of this complex results in loss of intercellular adhesion, with possible consequent cell transformation and tumour progression. (
  • Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of the adult mouse brain indicates that the expression of Cdk5 is not restricted to neurons [ 10 ] (Fig. 1 ). (
  • The LIM only protein 2 (LMO2) is a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cell development whose ectopic expression in T cells leads to the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (
  • However, how the two proteins interact at a single-cell level is presently unknown. (
  • The activity of UDP GalNAc: cell lipoprotein transporters( GalNAc titles, GALNTs) are out the response of N cell-surface on arrest, electron or predominantly interaction promoters on a ciliary family of proteins, and most normally translated with cells( Wandall et al. (
  • The cell that synthesises the protein also adds 'post-translational modifications' through glycosylation of amino acid residues. (
  • 1 A vial of therapeutic antibody actually comprises multiple species with distinct glycosylation profiles (microheterogeneity), all products of the cell line used to make the antibody. (
  • The changes in RGS18 and RGS1 expression are likely important for DC function, because both proteins inhibit G alpha(i)- and G alpha(q)-mediated signaling and can reduce CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)12-, CC chemokine ligand (CCL)19-, or CCL21-induced cell migration. (
  • The dystrophin-associated protein complex is important for cell structure and cell signalling . (
  • Thus, misfunctionnal proteins do not accumulate inside the cell. (
  • Proteins with C-terminal LAA- tags are degraded rapidly in the cell, even without presence of SspB. (
  • Direct measurements of heterotypic adhesion between the cell surface proteins CD2 and CD48. (
  • These results agree with literature reports detailing a lack of activity of 1 1 against the QS of applications.4 A similar analysis of furanone 1 against a mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell collection (RAW 264.7) revealed that 1, at 50 M, resulted in only 16% cell viability, as compared to hexyl-DPD 5 which exhibited no toxic. (
  • Differences in Ag affinity can lead changes in adapter proteins resulting in differential mast cell responses. (
  • Acute ligation of NKG2D on NK cells transmits a powerful activation signal through the DAP10 and DAP12 adaptors, triggering NK cell release of cytotoxic granules and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ ( Raulet, 2003 ). (
  • They claim that the association of CELSR1 with Frizzled-6 is certainly essential also, enabling effective Frizzled-6 Glyoxalase I inhibitor delivery towards the cell surface area, providing an excellent control system that ensures the correct stoichiometry of the two PCP proteins at cell boundaries. (
  • HIV-1 can disseminate between immune cells either by cell-free illness or by direct cell-cell spread. (
  • Cell-cell transmission of HIV-1 takes place through membrane nanotubes or virological synapses (VS) that form following physical contact between infected and uninfected cells [9-13]. (
  • Proteins forming gap junction channels (connexins, particularly) and proteins fulfilling cell attachment or forming tight junction strands mutually influence expression and functions of one another. (
  • We demonstrate that most of par-4 -dependent regulation of germline stem cell (GSC) quiescence occurs through AMPK, whereby PAR-4 requires STRD-1 to phosphorylate and activate AMPK. (
  • Consistent with this, even though AMPK plays a major role in the regulation of cell proliferation, like strd-1 it does not affect embryonic polarity. (
  • This disruption of lysosomal function can involve either a specific lysosomal hydrolase deficiency, a defect in lysosomal protein processing, or impaired lysosomal biogenesis. (
  • A patient with possible Hurler syndrome was first described by Berkhan in 1907 (1), and it may be the first report of a lysosomal storage disorder. (
  • In 1999, Meikle and colleagues (11) reported the prevalence of lysosomal storage disorders as 1 in 7,700 live births for an Australian study that involved 27 different diseases. (
  • Moreover, in some populations the prevalence of certain lysosomal storage disorders has been reported to be high, including 1 in 18,500 for aspartylglucosaminuria in the Finnish population (12) and 1 in 3,900 for Tay-Sachs in the Ashkenazi Jewish population (13). (
  • This finding led to past speculation that the combined incidence of lysosomal storage disorders may be as high as 1 in 1500 births (14), and more recent estimates suggest the prevalence is approximately 1 in 1000 births ( (
  • The AP-3 complex may be directly involved in trafficking to lysosomes or alternatively it may be involved in another pathway, but that mis-sorting in that pathway may indirectly lead to defects in pigment granules (PMID:10024875). (
  • 1 ] A higher chain length increases the activity of these anionic polymers to accelerate factor XIIa-mediated factor XI activation, thrombin generation, block tissue factor pathway inhibitor activity, and strengthen fibrin clots by enhancing their mechanical stability and resistance to fibrinolysis. (
  • On The Cover Evening Complex (EC), core components of plant circadian oscillator, negatively regulates leaf senescence by transcriptionally repressing MYC2 , which encodes an essential component of JA signaling pathway that promotes leaf senescence. (
  • These results demonstrate that although IRAK participates in IL-1 and IL-18 signal transduction, residual cytokine responsiveness operates through an IRAK-independent pathway. (
  • We prove that You-2932, TMD-8, and Granta-519 tissues (Kitchen table 2) co-express Myc and Bcl2 inside an energetic BCR signaling pathway (Physique 1). (
  • An EIFL( Electronic Information for Libraries) Guide for Libraries stimulates an tissue to the Marrakesh Treaty for disorders with energy subfamilies( 2013), its connective sites and dehydroascorbate for extant activity in pathway to absorb the factors it prevents to complexes to impact the paper flies Due to stages with level metals. (
  • The dystrophin-associated protein complex , also known as the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex is a multiprotein complex that includes dystrophin and the dystrophin-associated proteins . (
  • The dystrophin-associated protein complex also contains dystrophin-associated proteins . (
  • To study the nature and biological role of such complexes, the recombinant protein Ruk 1 with a Glu-epitope at the C-terminus (Ruk 1 Glu-tagged) was purified from transfected HEK293 cells by affinity chromatography on protein G-Sepharose with covalently conjugated anti-Glu-tag antibodies. (
  • The reaction was inhibited by ZnCl 2 and heparin, and previous precipitation of Ruk-related proteins with anti-Ruk antibodies resulted in the exhaustion of nuclease activity. (
  • By immunoblotting with anti-Ruk antibodies, 83-kD protein immunologically related to the Ruk 1 protein was identified in the fractions. (
  • [2] [3] Dystrophin binds to actin of the cytoskeleton , and also to proteins in the extracellular matrix . (
  • For the majority of experimentally solved SH2:peptide ligand complex structures, the bound pTyr peptide forms an extended conformation and binds perpendicularly to the central β strands of the SH2 domain. (
  • Represses antiviral cytosolic DNA sensing by suppressing the expression of the adapter protein STING1 and decreasing responsiveness to STING1 agonists while increasing susceptibility to infection with DNA viruses (PubMed:30158636). (
  • This means that certain flanking residues can increase binding affinity including a polar residue at +1 can and hydrophobic position at -7. (
  • Proteins domains with less than 90 residues aswell as the amalgamated collapse domains, i.e., comprising several polypeptide string or faraway elements of the same string sequentially, were eliminated. (
  • Results from a mechanistic evaluation indicated that Frizzled-6 product packaging into vesicles on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is certainly regulated by a primary relationship between your polybasic theme as well as the Glu-62 and Glu-63 residues in the secretion-associated Ras-related GTPase 1A (SAR1A) subunit of layer proteins complicated II (COPII). (
  • 2008 Nonvesicular lipid transport is usually mediated by lipid transfer proteins which comprise numerous conserved protein families with variable degrees of lipid specificity (Lev 2010 We have recognized heterodimeric complexes of yeast Ups1 (human PRELID1) and Mdm35 (human TRIAP1) as novel lipid transfer proteins in mitochondria (Connerth et al. (
  • This effect depends on LpRs and Dab, the Drosophila ortholog of the Reelin signaling adaptor protein Dab1. (
  • By SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with subsequent staining with silver, a set of minor bands in addition to the 85-kD Ruk 1 Glu-tagged was detected in the purified preparation of the recombinant protein. (
  • Recombinant Zebrafish AP2B1 full length or partial length protein was expressed. (
  • By using recombinant proteins and populations of cells, some of the general features of the regulation of Nrf2 by Keap1 have been outlined. (
  • DxxFxxLxxxR motif of LZTFL1 is essential for these bindings, suggesting LZTFL1 has roles in AP-1 and AP-2-mediated protein trafficking. (
  • Physiological roles of clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes]. (
  • Neither Hrd1 nor ERAD has been studied in the heart, or in cardiac myocytes, where protein quality control is critical for proper heart function.The objective of this study were to elucidate roles for Hrd1 in ER stress, ERAD, and viability in cultured cardiac myocytes and in the mouse heart, in vivo.The effects of small interfering RNA-mediated Hrd1 knockdown were examined in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. (
  • They organize and assemble macromolecular complexes (signalosomes) in space and time. (
  • B) Satellites are membraneless macromolecular protein complexes. (
  • These results indicate that the level and functional status of RGS proteins in DCs significantly impact their response to GPCR ligands such as chemokines. (
  • As CD314 ligands the MHC class-I chain-related proteins A and B (MICA, MICB) and UL16-binding proteins (ULBPs) have been identified. (
  • Most peroxisomal metabolic enzymes reside in the lumen (otherwise known as the matrix), but are synthesized in the cytosol and must be imported post-translationally into the organelle [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3. (
  • Further characterization of these proteins is important to understand details of chitin metabolism. (
  • One mechanism by which TLR signaling could modify GPCR signaling is by altering the expression of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins. (
  • instead, they combined RNA-DNA proximity ligation ( Red-C ) with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to create RedChIP, which identifies RNAs associated with a DNA-bound protein of interest. (
  • Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis, which involves insufficient insulin secretion, reduced responsiveness to endogenous or exogenous insulin , increased glucose production, and/or abnormalities in fat and protein metabolism. (
  • Our recent study characterized Tom70 as an important adaptor linking MAVS to TBK1/IRF3 activation, thus establishing a novel function of Tom70 in innate immunity (24). (
  • 2016 Dec 1;99(6):1368-1376. (
  • 2016. An Approach to Function Annotation for Proteins of Unknown Function (PUFs) in the Transcriptome of Indian Mulberry. . (
  • IGF-1 stimulation altered alkaline phosphatase in Ob, an effect reduced in the presence of PD98059, an inhibitor of p42/44 MAPK signaling, whereas neither IGF-1 nor PD98059 had any significant effect on collagen synthesis. (
  • 2-LTR download SPRING factors showed to the hospital protein can impact expressed by ABCB11 without further phosphatase. (