Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Adaptor Protein Complex 1: A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.Adaptor Protein Complex 2: An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.Adaptor Protein Complex 4: An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.Adaptor Protein Complex Subunits: The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.Adaptor Protein Complex delta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits: A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport: A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesClathrin: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.Human Characteristics: The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins: A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.GRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Adaptor Protein Complex sigma Subunits: A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.trans-Golgi Network: A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.Clathrin-Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.PhosphoproteinsCoated Pits, Cell-Membrane: Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.GRB10 Adaptor Protein: A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.Gene Products, nef: Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk: Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.CRADD Signaling Adaptor Protein: A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.GRB7 Adaptor Protein: A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl: Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Son of Sevenless Proteins: A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Mice, Inbred C57BLCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.LIM Domain Proteins: A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Protein Interaction Maps: Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein: A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Cullin Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Syntenins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that play a role in the coupling of SYNDECANS to CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Dystrophin-Associated Protein Complex: A macromolecular complex of proteins that includes DYSTROPHIN and DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. It plays a structural role in the linking the CYTOSKELETON to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src): Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.PDZ Domains: Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.Arrestins: Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport: A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6: A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signalling and activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Coat Protein Complex I: A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Clathrin Heavy Chains: The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Endopeptidase Clp: An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn: Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
(1/190) Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38.

Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis.  (+info)

(2/190) Inhibition of the receptor-binding function of clathrin adaptor protein AP-2 by dominant-negative mutant mu2 subunit and its effects on endocytosis.

Although interactions between the mu2 subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2 and tyrosine-based internalization motifs have been implicated in the selective recruitment of cargo molecules into coated pits, the functional significance of this interaction for endocytosis of many types of membrane proteins remains unclear. To analyze the function of mu2-receptor interactions, we constructed an epitope-tagged mu2 that incorporates into AP-2 and is targeted to coated pits. Mutational analysis revealed that Asp176 and Trp421 of mu2 are involved in the interaction with internalization motifs of TGN38 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Inducible overexpression of mutant mu2, in which these two residues were changed to alanines, resulted in metabolic replacement of endogenous mu2 in AP-2 complexes and complete abrogation of AP-2 interaction with the tyrosine-based internalization motifs. As a consequence, endocytosis of the transferrin receptor was severely impaired. In contrast, internalization of the EGF receptor was not affected. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the dominant-interfering approach for functional analysis of the adaptor protein family, and indicate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis may proceed in both a mu2-dependent and -independent manner.  (+info)

(3/190) Mu1B, a novel adaptor medium chain expressed in polarized epithelial cells.

The apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains of polarized epithelial cells contain distinct sets of integral membrane proteins. Biosynthetic targeting of proteins to the basolateral plasma membrane is mediated by cytosolic tail determinants, many of which resemble signals involved in the rapid endocytosis or lysosomal targeting. Since these signals are recognized by adaptor proteins, we hypothesized that there could be epithelial-specific adaptors involved in polarized sorting. Here, we report the identification of a novel member of the adaptor medium chain family, named mu1B, which is closely related to the previously described mu1A (79% amino acid sequence identity). Northern blotting and in situ hybridization analyses reveal the specific expression of mu1B mRNA in a subset of polarized epithelial and exocrine cells. Yeast two-hybrid analyses show that mu1B is capable of interacting with generic tyrosine-based sorting signals. These observations suggest that mu1B may be involved in protein sorting events specific to polarized cells.  (+info)

(4/190) Early endosomes are required for major histocompatiblity complex class II transport to peptide-loading compartments.

Antigen presentation to CD4(+) T lymphocytes requires transport of newly synthesized major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules to the endocytic pathway, where peptide loading occurs. This step is mediated by a signal located in the cytoplasmic tail of the MHC class II-associated Ii chain, which directs the MHC class II-Ii complexes from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes. The subcellular machinery responsible for the specific targeting of MHC class II molecules to the endocytic pathway, as well as the first compartments these molecules enter after exit from the TGN, remain unclear. We have designed an original experimental approach to selectively analyze this step of MHC class II transport. Newly synthesized MHC class II molecules were caused to accumulate in the Golgi apparatus and TGN by incubating the cells at 19 degrees C, and early endosomes were functionally inactivated by in vivo cross-linking of transferrin (Tf) receptor-containing endosomes using Tf-HRP complexes and the HRP-insoluble substrate diaminobenzidine. Inactivation of Tf-containing endosomes caused a marked delay in Ii chain degradation, peptide loading, and MHC class II transport to the cell surface. Thus, early endosomes appear to be required for delivery of MHC class II molecules to the endocytic pathway. Under cross-linking conditions, most alphabetaIi complexes accumulated in tubules and vesicles devoid of gamma-adaptin and/or mannose-6-phosphate receptor, suggesting an AP1-independent pathway for the delivery of newly synthesized MHC class II molecules from the TGN to endosomes.  (+info)

(5/190) Gamma-synergin: an EH domain-containing protein that interacts with gamma-adaptin.

The AP-1 adaptor complex is associated with the TGN, where it links selected membrane proteins to the clathrin lattice, enabling these proteins to be concentrated in clathrin-coated vesicles. To identify other proteins that participate in the clathrin-coated vesicle cycle at the TGN, we have carried out a yeast two- hybrid library screen using the gamma-adaptin subunit of the AP-1 complex as bait. Two novel, ubiquitously expressed proteins were found: p34, which interacts with both gamma-adaptin and alpha-adaptin, and gamma-synergin, an alternatively spliced protein with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 110-190 kD, which only interacts with gamma-adaptin. gamma-Synergin is associated with AP-1 both in the cytosol and on TGN membranes, and it is strongly enriched in clathrin-coated vesicles. It binds directly to the ear domain of gamma-adaptin and it contains an Eps15 homology (EH) domain, although the EH domain is not part of the gamma-adaptin binding site. In cells expressing alpha-adaptin with the gamma-adaptin ear, a construct that goes mainly to the plasma membrane, much of the gamma-synergin is also rerouted to the plasma membrane, indicating that it follows AP-1 onto membranes rather than leading it there. The presence of an EH domain suggests that gamma-synergin links the AP-1 complex to another protein or proteins.  (+info)

(6/190) Duplications on human chromosome 22 reveal a novel Ret Finger Protein-like gene family with sense and endogenous antisense transcripts.

Analysis of 600 kb of sequence encompassing the beta-prime adaptin (BAM22) gene on human chromosome 22 revealed intrachromosomal duplications within 22q12-13 resulting in three active RFPL genes, two RFPL pseudogenes, and two pseudogenes of BAM22. The genomic sequence of BAM22vartheta1 shows a remarkable similarity to that of BAM22. The cDNA sequence comparison of RFPL1, RFPL2, and RFPL3 showed 95%-96% identity between the genes, which were most similar to the Ret Finger Protein gene from human chromosome 6. The sense RFPL transcripts encode proteins with the tripartite structure, composed of RING finger, coiled-coil, and B30-2 domains, which are characteristic of the RING-B30 family. Each of these domains are thought to mediate protein-protein interactions by promoting homo- or heterodimerization. The MID1 gene on Xp22 is also a member of the RING-B30 family and is mutated in Opitz syndrome (OS). The autosomal dominant form of OS shows linkage to 22q11-q12. We detected a polymorphic protein-truncating allele of RFPL1 in 8% of the population, which was not associated with the OS phenotype. We identified 6-kb and 1.2-kb noncoding antisense mRNAs of RFPL1S and RFPL3S antisense genes, respectively. The RFPL1S and RFPL3S genes cover substantial portions of their sense counterparts, which suggests that the function of RFPL1S and RFPL3S is a post-transcriptional regulation of the sense RFPL genes. We illustrate the role of intrachromosomal duplications in the generation of RFPL genes, which were created by a series of duplications and share an ancestor with the RING-B30 domain containing genes from the major histocompatibility complex region on human chromosome 6.  (+info)

(7/190) A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in polarized epithelial cells.

Although polarized epithelial cells are well known to maintain distinct apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains, the mechanisms responsible for targeting membrane proteins to the apical or basolateral surfaces have remained elusive. We have identified a novel form of the AP-1 clathrin adaptor complex that contains as one of its subunits mu1B, an epithelial cell-specific homolog of the ubiquitously expressed mu1A. LLC-PK1 kidney epithelial cells do not express mu1B and missort many basolateral proteins to the apical surface. Stable expression of mu1B selectively restored basolateral targeting, improved the overall organization of LLC-PK1 monolayers, and had no effect on apical targeting. We conclude that basolateral sorting is mediated by an epithelial cell-specific version of the AP-1 complex containing mu1B.  (+info)

(8/190) Association of AP1 adaptor complexes with GLUT4 vesicles.

Nycodenz gradients have been used to examine the in vitro effects of GTP-(gamma)-S on adaptor complex association with GLUT4 vesicles. On addition of GTP-(gamma)-S, GLUT4 fractionates as a heavier population of vesicles, which we suggest is due to a budding or coating reaction. Under these conditions there is an increase in co-sedimentation of GLUT4 with AP1, but not with AP3. Western blotting of proteins associated with isolated GLUT4 vesicles shows the presence of high levels of AP1 and some AP3 but very little AP2 adaptor complexes. Cell free, in vitro association of the AP1 complex with GLUT4 vesicles is increased approximately 4-fold by the addition of GTP-(gamma)-S and an ATP regenerating system. Following GTP-(gamma)-S treatment in vitro, ARF is also recruited to GLUT4 vesicles, and the temperature dependence of ARF recruitment closely parallels that of AP1. The recruitment of both AP1 and ARF are partially blocked by brefeldin A. These data demonstrate that the coating of GLUT4 vesicles can be studied in isolated cell-free fractions. Furthermore, at least two distinct adaptor complexes can associate with the GLUT4 vesicles and it is likely that these adaptors are involved in mediating distinct intracellular sorting events at the level of TGN and endosomes.  (+info)

*  Endosome
Proteins are marked for this pathway by the addition of ubiquitin. The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport ( ... Transmembrane proteins can be delivered to the perimeter membrane or the lumen of lysosomes. Transmembrane proteins destined ... Ghosh, P.; Kornfeld, S. (Jul 2004). "The GGA proteins: key players in protein sorting at the trans-Golgi network". Eur J Cell ... Hicke, L.; Dunn, R. (2003). "Regulation of membrane protein transport by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-binding proteins". Annu Rev ...
*  Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1
... has been shown to interact with DPYSL2 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: AP2A1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit". Nishimura, Takashi; Fukata Yuko; Kato Katsuhiro; ... AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. The AP-2 complex is a heterotetramer consisting of two large adaptins ... 1996). "Interaction of Shc with adaptor protein adaptins". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (9): 5265-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.9.5265. PMID ...
*  Clathrin adaptor protein
Adaptor protein (AP) complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. AP complexes connect cargo proteins and ... The two major types of clathrin adaptor complexes are the heterotetrameric vesicular transport adaptor proteins (AP1-5), and ... Clathrin adaptor proteins, also known as adaptins, are vesicular transport adaptor proteins associated with clathrin. These ... and adaptor complexes that link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to ...
*  MEDNIK syndrome
AP complexes mediate trafficking linking clathrin or other coat proteins to receptors in coated vesicles, selectively sorting ... which codes for the smallest subunit of the AP1 adaptor complex. The AP-1 complex is one of five Adaptor Protein complexes that ... Rychik, J.; Spray, T.L. (2002). "Strategies to treat protein-losing enteropathy". Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card ... The AP-1 complex is found in the trans-Golgi network and is responsible for controlling AP-1-coated vesicles and the ...
*  AP1S2
Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates ... "Entrez Gene: AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Human AP1S2 genome location and AP1S2 gene details page ... The protein encoded by this gene serves as the small subunit of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein family. ... the cytoplasmic domains of human and simian retroviral transmembrane proteins with components of the clathrin adaptor complexes ...
*  CENTG2
"The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3". Journal of Cell Science. 118 (Pt ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGAP1 gene. ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 6 (3): 197-205 ...
*  CENTG1
Nie Z, Fei J, Premont RT, Randazzo PA (2005). "The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes ... Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AGAP2 gene. ... Werden SJ, Barrett JW, Wang G, Stanford MM, McFadden G (2007). "M-T5, the ankyrin repeat, host range protein of myxoma virus, ... A nuclear gtpase that enhances PI3kinase activity and is regulated by protein 4.1N". Cell. 103 (6): 919-30. doi:10.1016/S0092- ...
*  B2-adapt-app C
AP (adaptor protein) complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. AP complexes connect cargo proteins and ... The two major types of clathrin adaptor complexes are the heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes, and the monomeric ... and adaptor complexes that link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to ... Touz MC, Kulakova L, Nash TE (July 2004). "Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi- ...
*  AP3D1
"Entrez Gene: AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit". Martinez-Arca S, Rudge R, Vacca M, Raposo G, Camonis J ... "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". The Journal of Cell Biology. 137 (4): 835-45. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Developmental Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... and 3 ADP-ribosylation factors with adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3". Biochemistry. 41 (14): 4669-77. doi:10.1021/bi016064j. ...
*  ARF5
... and 3 ADP-ribosylation factors with adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3". Biochemistry. 41 (14): 4669-77. doi:10.1021/bi016064j. ... 2000). "A New Paxillin-binding Protein, PAG3/Papα/KIAA0400, Bearing an ADP-Ribosylation Factor GTPase-activating Protein ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... The gene products include 6 ARF proteins and 11 ARF-like proteins and constitute 1 family of the RAS superfamily. The ARF ...
*  AP3M1
The protein encoded by this gene is the medium subunit of AP-3, which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the ... "Entrez Gene: AP3M1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 1 subunit". Human AP3M1 genome location and AP3M1 gene details page in ... AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex composed of two large subunits (delta and beta3), a medium subunit (mu3), and a ... Drake MT, Zhu Y, Kornfeld S (2001). "The assembly of AP-3 adaptor complex-containing clathrin-coated vesicles on synthetic ...
*  AP1G1
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit". Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999 ... and 3 ADP-ribosylation factors with adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3". Biochemistry. 41 (14): 4669-77. doi:10.1021/bi016064j. ... "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three- ...
*  X-linked intellectual disability
"Entrez Gene: AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit". Piccini M, Vitelli F, Bruttini M, Pober BR, Jonsson JJ ... Adaptor protein complex 1 is found on the cytoplasmic face of vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates both the ... This nucleolar protein is involved in the processing and modification of tRNA. GDI1: RabGDI alpha makes a complex with ... "Mutations in the Gene Encoding the Sigma 2 Subunit of the Adaptor Protein 1 Complex, AP1S2, Cause X-Linked Mental Retardation ...
*  AP1M1
"Entrez Gene: AP1M1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 1 subunit". Hinners I, Wendler F, Fei H, Thomas L, Thomas G, Tooze SA ... The protein encoded by this gene is the medium chain of the trans-Golgi network clathrin-associated protein complex AP-1. The ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
*  AP4M1
The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition ... "Entrez Gene: AP4M1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, mu 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... Dell'Angelica EC, Mullins C, Bonifacino JS (Apr 1999). "AP-4, a novel protein complex related to clathrin adaptors". J Biol ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a Fourth Adaptor-related Protein Complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ...
*  AP2B1
The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the AP2 adaptor complex, which serves to link clathrin ... "Entrez Gene: AP2B1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, ... Kim YM, Benovic JL (Aug 2002). "Differential roles of arrestin-2 interaction with clathrin and adaptor protein 2 in G protein- ... He G, Gupta S, Yi M, Michaely P, Hobbs HH, Cohen JC (Nov 2002). "ARH is a modular adaptor protein that interacts with the LDL ...
*  AP2M1
"Entrez Gene: AP2M1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit". Follows ER, McPheat JC, Minshull C, Moore NC, Pauptit RA, ... This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric coat assembly protein complex 2 (AP2), which belongs to the adaptor ... "Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T ... "Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T ...
*  AP1B1
Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates ... "Entrez Gene: AP1B1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit". Nakagawa, T; Setou M; Seog D; Ogasawara K; Dohmae N; ... The protein encoded by this gene serves as one of the large subunits of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein ... 2001). "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using ...
*  AP4B1
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort integral membrane proteins at various stages of the endocytic and ... "Entrez Gene: AP4B1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit". Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (August 1999). " ... Hirst J, Bright NA, Rous B, Robinson MS (1999). "Characterization of a fourth adaptor-related protein complex". Mol. Biol. Cell ... 2001). "Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using ...
*  AP1G2
The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This ... "Entrez Gene: AP1G2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 2 subunit". Rost, Martina; Döring Tatjana; Prange Reinhild (Nov ... Adaptins, together with medium and small subunits, form a heterotetrameric complex called an adaptor, whose role is to promote ... protein along with the complex is thought to function at some trafficking step in the complex pathways between the trans-Golgi ...
*  AP1S1
"Entrez Gene: AP1S1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 1 subunit". Montpetit A, Côté S, Brustein E, Drouin CA, Lapointe L ... Boehm M, Aguilar RC, Bonifacino JS (Nov 2001). "Functional and physical interactions of the adaptor protein complex AP-4 with ... The protein encoded by this gene is part of the clathrin coat assembly complex which links clathrin to receptors in coated ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ...
*  AP3S1
"Entrez Gene: AP3S1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit". Human AP3S1 genome location and AP3S1 gene details page ... Dell'Angelica EC, Ohno H, Ooi CE, Rabinovich E, Roche KW, Bonifacino JS (Apr 1997). "AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex with ... 2003). "Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1". Dev. Cell. 5 (3): 513-21. doi:10.1016/ ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". J. ...
*  AP3B1
"Entrez Gene: AP3B1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Hermansky-Pudlak ... The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin ... Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L, Robinson MS (May 1997). "Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3". ... Dell'Angelica EC, Klumperman J, Stoorvogel W, Bonifacino JS (Apr 1998). "Association of the AP-3 adaptor complex with clathrin ...
*  DPYSL2
... has been shown to interact with CRMP1, Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DPYSL2 gene. ... 2003). "p80 ROKalpha binding protein is a novel splice variant of CRMP-1 which associates with CRMP-2 and modulates RhoA- ... Gu Y, Ihara Y (2000). "Evidence that collapsin response mediator protein-2 is involved in the dynamics of microtubules". J. ...
*  EPN2
This gene encodes a protein which interacts with clathrin and adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit. The protein ... 1998). "Intersectin, a novel adaptor protein with two Eps15 homology and five Src homology 3 domains". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (47 ... 1997). "Binding specificity and in vivo targets of the EH domain, a novel protein-protein interaction module". Genes Dev. 11 ( ... "The epsins define a family of proteins that interact with components of the clathrin coat and contain a new protein module". J ...
*  Interferon
... both type I and type II IFNs activate a member of the CRK family of adaptor proteins called CRKL, a nuclear adaptor for STAT5 ... the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the ... Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... the E7 protein of Human papillomavirus (HPV), and the B18R protein of vaccinia virus. Reducing IFN-α activity may prevent ...
*  AP1M2
"Entrez Gene: AP1M2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 2 subunit". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot ... This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric adaptor-related protein complex 1 (AP-1), which belongs to the adaptor ... Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS, Mellman I (Oct 1999). "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in ... the cytoplasmic domains of human and simian retroviral transmembrane proteins with components of the clathrin adaptor complexes ...
Subunit of non-clathrin- and clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules. AP-3 appears to be involved in the sorting of a subset of transmembrane proteins targeted to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. In concert with the BLOC-1 complex, AP-3 is required to target cargos into vesicles assembled at cell bodies for delivery into neurites and nerve terminals ...
Subunit of clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1 that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or endosomes. The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules.
One of our major objectives was to address whether AP-1 is needed for anterograde TGN to EE trafficking of A(F→A)-ALP. It was shown previously that the loss of function of the AP-1 β-subunit Apl2p did not delay the trafficking of A(F→A)-ALP to the PVC and, in fact, accelerated it slightly (Ha et al., 2003). Because it was possible that in apl2 mutants A(F→A)-ALP could reach the PVC by alternative routes, we assessed trafficking in gga1,2Δ apl2-ts and gga1,2Δ apl2-ts end3-ts strains. In both cases, trafficking was markedly accelerated relative to a wild-type strain. A(F→A)-ALP appeared to reach the PVC by the normal TGN→EE→PVC route because a S13A mutation previously shown to prevent EE to PVC transport of A(F→A)-ALP (Johnston et al., 2005) was shown to also block trafficking in the gga1,2Δ apl2-ts strain. Furthermore, secretory pathway function of the gga1,2Δ apl2-ts strain appeared normal, ruling out any large-scale autophagic transport of TGN membranes to the vacuole that ...
The endocytic pathway is essential for cell homeostasis and numerous small GTPase Rab have been involved in its control. The endocytic trafficking step controlled by Rab4b has not been elucidated although recent data suggested it could be important for glucose homeostasis, synaptic homeostasis, or adaptative immunity. Here we show that Rab4b is required for early endosome sorting of transferrin receptors (TfR) to the recycling endosomes and we identified the AP1γ subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-1 as a Rab4b effector and key component of the machinery of early endosomes sorting. We show that internalized transferrin (Tf) does not reach Vamp3/Rab11 recycling endosomes in absence of Rab4b while it is rapidly recycled back to the plasma membrane. On the contrary, Rab4b overexpression leads to the accumulation of internalized Tf within AP-1 and clathrin-coated vesicles. These vesicles are poor in early and recycling endocytic markers except TfR and require AP1γ for their formation. Furthermore, ...
beta-Adaptin antibody [N3C1], Internal (adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit) for WB. Anti-beta-Adaptin pAb (GTX101753) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
EpsinR is a clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) enriched 70-kD protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, clathrin, and the gamma appendage domain of the adaptor protein complex 1 (AP1). In cells, its distribution overlaps with the perinuclear pool of clathrin and AP1 adaptors. Overexpression disrupts the CCV-dependent trafficking of cathepsin D from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes and the incorporation of mannose-6-phosphate receptors into CCVs. These biochemical and cell biological data point to a role for epsinR in AP1/clathrin budding events in the cell, just as epsin1 is involved in the budding of AP2 CCVs. Furthermore, we show that two gamma appendage domains can simultaneously bind to epsinR with affinities of 0.7 and 45 microM, respectively. Thus, potentially, two AP1 complexes can bind to one epsinR. This high affinity binding allowed us to identify a consensus binding motif of the form DFxDF, which we also find in gamma-synergin and use to predict that an uncharacterized EF-hand
Figure 6. Melanosome biogenesis and transport mediated by Rab27a. (A) Premelanosomes arise from the late secretory or endosomal pathway. Stage 1 premelanosomes lacking pigment are thought to correspond to the coated endosome, an intermediate between early and late endosomes densely coated on one face with clathrin. Some sorting of protein cargo occurs in the Stage 1 premelanosome, mediated by clathrin-associated adaptor protein complexes such as AP-3. Melanin synthesis begins in Stage II premelanosomes that contain regular arrays of parallel fibers that give these organelles a striated appearance by electron microscopy. During Stage III, these fibers gradually darken and thicken as eumelanin is deposited along them, such that by Stage IV no striations are visible and the melansome is filled with melanin. (B) The transport of mature melanosomes takes place on microtubules and actin filaments via the action of kinesins and myosins, respectively. Kinesin transports melanosomes toward the cell ...
Katya Heldwein, PhD, Principal Investigator. Katya received her PhD from Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, OR where she studied ligand recognition by bacterial transcription regulators using x-ray crystallography in the laboratory of Richard Brennan. She then did her postdoctoral work at Harvard Medical School in the laboratory of Stephen Harrison where she initially worked on clathrin adaptor complexes and later delved into herpesvirus cell entry. She opened her own laboratory at Tufts University School of Medicine in the Fall of 2006.. ...
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Looking for online definition of adaptor complex sigma3B in the Medical Dictionary? adaptor complex sigma3B explanation free. What is adaptor complex sigma3B? Meaning of adaptor complex sigma3B medical term. What does adaptor complex sigma3B mean?
This is one of three E.coli hydrogenases synthesized in response to different physiological conditions. HYD1 is believed to have a role in hydrogen cycling during fermentative growth.
Function: Phosphorylates the AP2M1/mu2 subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). May play a role in regulating aspects of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (By similarity ...
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셀레믹스는 아래의 가이드라인에 따라 샘플을 준비할 것을 권장합니다. 아래 제시된 최소 샘플 요구 조건을 충족할 수 없는 샘플의 경우 별도로 문의해 주시기 바랍니다 ...
Our study provides evidence for a new role of Src in the phosphorylation of the clathrin adaptor complex AP-2 (via the phosphorylation of the β-subunit, i.e. β2-adaptin). We identify Y737 in the ear domain of β2-adaptin as an important Src target. We show that this residue represents a regulatory site for controlling the dissociation of β-arrestin from AP-2 in clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Our results not only extend the pleiotropic function of Src in GPCR internalization, but also highlight the importance of receptor-dependent signaling in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of AT1R.. β-arrestins are multifunctional adaptors involved in the endocytosis and signaling of many GPCRs (Claing et al., 2002; Lefkowitz, 1998). They have been shown to target receptors to CCPs through binding to clathrin and the β-subunit of AP-2 (Goodman, Jr et al., 1996; Laporte et al., 1999), and to act as signal transducers by recruiting different kinases to GPCRs (Luttrell and Luttrell, 2004). We have previously ...
The protein encoded by this gene is the medium chain of the trans-Golgi network clathrin-associated protein complex AP-1. The other components of this complex are beta-prime-adaptin, gamma-adaptin, and the small chain AP1S1. This complex is located at the…
The heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex AP2 is one of the best-studied components of the endocytic machinery. The AP2 complex consists of four different subunits, α, β2, σ2, and μ2, which assemble into a core domain with two appendages (Fig. 2; Collins et al., 2002; Jackson et al., 2010). AP2 has multiple binding partners, including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), clathrin, several endocytic accessory proteins, and two signaling motifs present on some cargo receptors (see Traub, 2009 for a detailed review). The AP2 complex has classically been considered to be the master initiator of clathrin-mediated endocytosis through its role in recruiting clathrin molecules to the membrane. However, several lines of evidence question this idea.. If the AP2 complex has an essential role in initiation then its presence would be required for the formation of endocytic sites. However, in yeast the endocytosis of mating pheromone α-factor is unaffected in strains lacking functional AP2 ...
Component of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components involved both in vesicle formation and cargo selection. They control the vesicular transport of proteins in different trafficking pathways (PubMed:10066790, PubMed:10436028). AP-4 forms a non clathrin-associated coat on vesicles departing the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and may be involved in the targeting of proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosomal-lysosomal system. It is also involved in protein sorting to the basolateral membrane in epithelial cells and the proper asymmetric localization of somatodendritic proteins in neurons. AP-4 is involved in the recognition and binding of tyrosine-based sorting signals found in the cytoplasmic part of cargos, but may also recognize other types of sorting signal (Probable). ...
K01602 ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase small chain [EC:4.1.1.39] , (RefSeq) ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chain, ...
K01602 ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase small chain [EC:4.1.1.39] , (RefSeq) ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chain A, chloroplastic- ...
npu:Npun_F4197 K01602 ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase small chain [EC:4.1.1.39] , (GenBank) ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, small chain RbcS (A) MQTLPKERRYETLSYLPPLSDAQIAKQIQYILNQGYIPAIEFNETSEPTELYWTMWKLPL FGAKSTQEVLSEVQGCRSQFNGSYIRVVGFDNIKQCQVLSFLVHKPNRY ...
One of the goals of this workout is to avoid "dumping the chain" into the hardest gear for a sprint. Sprinting starts out with a hard jump. As you "wind" out each gear, you shift down one. Just like driving a stick-shift car, you work down the gears when the rpms reach the correct range. After warming up, begin six sprints in the small chain ring with no gear changes, riding 50 meters and winding the gears out. Rest 2-3 minutes between sprints. Then do three sprints in the big chain ring, shifting once. Rest 2-3 minutes after each sprint. Next do three big chainring sprints two gear changes. Finish with one big-ring sprint with three gear changes. Cool down.. ...
The journal focuses on neuroimmunology and neuroinflammation, and the coverage extends to other basic and clinical studies related to neuroscience including molecular biology, psychology, pathology, physiology, endocrinology, pharmacology, oncology, etc.
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Looking for online definition of Clathrin assembly protein complex 1 sigma-1C small chain in the Medical Dictionary? Clathrin assembly protein complex 1 sigma-1C small chain explanation free. What is Clathrin assembly protein complex 1 sigma-1C small chain? Meaning of Clathrin assembly protein complex 1 sigma-1C small chain medical term. What does Clathrin assembly protein complex 1 sigma-1C small chain mean?
Toxoplasma gondii possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes and rhoptries during parasite replication. These apical secretory organelles release their contents into host cells promoting parasite invasion and survival. Using a CreLox-based inducible knock-out strategy and the ddFKBP over-expression system, we unraveled novel functions of the clathrin adaptor complex TgAP1. First, our data indicate that AP1 in T. gondii likely functions as a conserved heterotetrameric complex composed of the four subunits γ, β, μ1, σ1 and interacts with known regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular budding such as the unique ENTH-domain containing protein, which we named Epsin-like protein (TgEpsL). Disruption of the μ1 subunit resulted in the mis-sorting of microneme proteins at the level of the Trans-Golgi-Network (TGN). Furthermore, we demonstrated that TgAP1 regulates rhoptry biogenesis by activating rhoptry protein exit from the TGN, but also ...
Gene target information for AP-1sigma - Adaptor Protein complex 1, sigma subunit (fruit fly). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
BIKE: Jenn yelled at me that I was in 6th place overall...including the first wave. The guy in the lead had about 5 minutes on me. I used the initial flat part of the bike to get into my shoes, which were already on my bike. Then I dropped into the small chain ring and began the climb out of town. First, I picked off my buddy from the swim. Then I would spot riders way up the road, one by one....and use them to gauge off of. I felt really good, early. I tried to keep my power numbers in check. Around mile 21-22, I saw a rider. I thought that there was one more guy in front of him, based on Jenns early assessment. But, while I was working to catch him, I caught a glimpse of a car in front with the hazard lights on. Hmm...was that the lead car? I passed the guy around mile 23 and tried to ask him if he was in front....but he either didnt hear me or didnt want to tell me. But, I had a strong feeling he was. I received confirmation later when I passed a couple of spectators out on the course. I ...
ppp:PHYPADRAFT_87752 K01602 ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase small chain [EC:4.1.1.39] , (RefSeq) hypothetical protein (A) MASAVVSVSIVAAASPASVCRESSSVKQFSGLKSTTLSASKARRLSSVHNGSRVQCMQVW NPIGQPKFETFSYLPPLTDDQIAKQVDFMIQQNLIPCIEFDTVGSVSRTNFSGPGSSGYY DGRYWTMWKLPMFGCTDSAQVLREIQECKQSFPSCWVRVLGFDSKKQVQICGFLVARPN ...
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Identification of Atg2 and ArfGAP1 as Candidate Genetic Modifiers of the Eye Pigmentation Phenotype of Adaptor Protein-3 AP-3 Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Formation of clathrin-coated vesicles, important in endocytosis, relies on accessory proteins assembled by adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2). Here, mass spectrometry and crystallization identifies proteins recruited by AP2s β-appendage for this purpose.
Abstract In metazoans, intracellular trafficking is mediated by many conserved pathways. The main trafficking pathways involve the Adaptor Protein complexes (AP) AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3, Clathrin and Clathrin Associated Sorting Proteins (CLASPS). These proteins direct cargoes to and from the Golgi, the endosome, the lysosome and the plasma membrane. Lipoprotein receptors are one class of proteins that use these pathways and are endocytosed by AP-2 and Disabled family proteins. Disabled family proteins are ~ conserved family of monomeric adaptor proteins and consist of a single PTB domain and have a variety of motifs associated with trafficking. C. elegans has one Disabled family member, DAB-1.1 show here that .DAB-1 is a generally expressed regulator of membrane trafficking. Loss of dab-1 function, as well as an array of molecules involved membrane trafficking, perturbs cadherin-catenin function, though I have not been able to determine the precise basis of these genetic interactions. I show that ...
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Inhibition of the MyD88 adaptor results in reduced cytokine productions.PBMC from TB-IRIS patients (week 2) were treated with MyD88 inhibitor (MYD88-Inh), contr
ERM proteins bind the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor‐1, 2 (NHERF‐1 and ‐2), which are key cytoplasmic proteins involved in the anchoring of ion channels and receptors to the actin cytoskeleton through binding to ERM proteins. These adaptor proteins preserve FERM‐binding Motif‐2 (MDWxxxxx(L/I)Fxx(L/F)) and form an α‐helix that docks into the groove formed by the β‐sandwich loops of subdomain C (Terawaki et al, 2006), which displays no similarity to the DCC/neogenin P3 motif (Figure 6C). The myosin‐X FERM domain lacks the PtdIns(4,5)P2‐binding site found in the radixin FERM domain as previously described (Figure 6D).. It was one of the most exciting findings in cell biology of cytoskeletons that myosin‐X has the ability to function as a motorized link between actin filaments and microtubules in spindle assembly during meiosis (Weber et al, 2004; Toyoshima and Nishida, 2007; Woolner et al, 2008). However, to date, only a single report of Xenopus myosin‐X has shown the ...
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To clarify things a bit more here in the post though, let me provide a bit more detail on what goes into my VMs network configuration. In VBox Manager -, pfSense VM -, Settings -, Network, Adapter 1 is a Bridged Adapter and Adapter 2 is a Host-Only Adapter. Under the USB Settings, I have a USB Device Filter configured to match my Alfa USB WiFi adapter. These are all the configured devices that will eventually become the actual network interfaces in pfSense once the VM boots. During the VM boot process, the pfSense kernel detects Network Adapter 1 as /dev/em0, Network Adapter 2 as /dev/em1 and the USB WiFi adapter as /dev/run0. Later in the boot process, pfSense configures these network devices as network interfaces typical for a network router. In my case, the VM Bridged adapter (em0) becomes the WAN interface where all Internet-bound traffic is directed. Since pfSense provides a GUI for configuration, the VM Host-Only adapter (em1) becomes a LAN interface (192.168.56.2/24) which allows ...
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Protocol After completion of the End Repair/dA-Tailing program add 1.0 μl of adaptor (or vector if generating an expression library)
Well recently I have switched to pc gaming and I have an xbox 360 headset ( Tritton Detonator) I have took it out of the mix amp so it works with my ipod and all. If I bought this adapter would I be a...
AP3山羊多克隆抗体(ab3705)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
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Modified neurotoxin comprising neurotoxin including structural modification, wherein the structural modification alters the biological persistence, preferably the biological half-life, of the modified neurotoxin relative to an identical neurotoxin without the structural modification. The structural modification includes addition or deletion of a leucine-based motif or parts thereof. In one embodiment, methods of making the modified neurotoxin include using recombinant techniques. In another embodiment, methods of using the modified neurotoxin to treat biological disorders include treating autonomic disorders, neuromuscular disorders or pains.
Bcl10 (B cell lymphoma/leukemia-10) promotes immune responses downstream of antigen receptors and phagocytic receptors by stimulating nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling and by stimulating phagocytosis of antigenic particles. After activation of antigen receptors, a complex consisting of Carma1, Bcl10, and Malt1 (the CBM complex) recruits and activates the inhibitor of κB kinase complex, thus leading to release and nuclear translocation of the NF-κB dimers that mediate a transcriptional response to antigen. The mechanism by which Bcl10 promotes internalization of antigenic particles downstream of phagocytic receptors has been unclear. Marion et al. report that Bcl10 interacted with the clathrin adaptor proteins AP1 and EpsinR and promoted the delivery of a vesicular phosphatase that plays a critical role in phagocytosis. Phagocytosis begins with the formation of cup-shaped invaginations on the plasma membrane, followed by the formation of pseudopods that extend around the particle to enlarge ...
Pictured at right is the pre-release G4 adapter next to the ridiculously huge Apple UFO adapter at left (encased in the cool PackAge 45W from id east end.). This pre-release adapter is essentially an Apple cable connected to their existing Micro adapter. The final product will ship with the Madsonline L-shaped connector plug and may be a slightly different color. Madsonline may sell a limited quantity of the first generation adapters in about three weeks via their Web site.. The pre-release adapter that I am using functions just as you would expect and runs at about the same temperature as their previous G3 Micro adapter, which is warmer than the Apple AC adapter. The temperature is normal according to Madsonline and is simply a tradeoff of such a small design.. The company expects the final model to be available in about six weeks. Pricing has not yet been determined.. ...
Sensor uses frog peptides to test for drug and medical device contamination. Princeton engineers have developed a sensor that may revolutionize how drugs and medical devices are tested for contamination, and in the process also help ensure the survival of two species of threatened animals.. To be fair, some of the credit goes to an African frog.. In the wild, the African clawed frog produces antibacterial peptides -- small chains of amino acids -- on its skin to protect it from infection. Princeton researchers have found a way to attach these peptides, which can be synthesized in the laboratory, to a small electronic chip that emits an electrical signal when exposed to harmful bacteria, including pathogenic E. coli and salmonella.. "Its a robust, simple platform," said Michael McAlpine, an assistant professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering and the lead researcher on the project. "We think these chips could replace the current method of testing medical devices and drugs.". A paper ...
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There is no general answer to that. Different shops may be selling different versions of the adapters.. India has (should have) the same power grid as most of Europe (230V, 50Hz) so the problem isnt electrical but most of the time physical, the plug.. Whether these adapters have the correct plug or not is something you will have to ask the shop as there is no way of telling which once they have on stock, if available at all ...
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I read somewhere that it should be possible to add wifi to the Organelle by using an USB-adapter. I tried to insert one (in my powered usb hub attached to the Organelle) that works on my Beaglebone Black but it seems dea…
WikiGenes - AP1S3 - adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 3...  WikiGenes - AP1S3 - adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 3...
Adaptor-related protein complex 1 subunit sigma-1C, Clathrin assembly protein complex 1 sigma-1C small chain, Golgi adaptor HA1 ... Adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit sigma-1C, ... AP1S3 - adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 3.... Homo ... wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary ... knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/130340.html
Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, mu 1 Subunit (AP2M1) ELISA Kits  Adaptor-Related Protein Complex 2, mu 1 Subunit (AP2M1) ELISA Kits
... adapter-related protein complex 2 mu subunit , adaptin-mu2 , adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu , clathrin adaptor complex ... adaptor protein complex AP-2, mu1 , clathrin assembly protein complex 2 medium chain A , clathrin coat assembly protein AP50-A ... plasma membrane adaptor AP-2 50 kDa protein , adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit , AP-2 complex subunit mu-like , ... adaptor-related protein complex AP-2, mu1 , clathrin-associated AP-2 , coat assembly protein complex 50 kD , HA2 50 kDa subunit ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/egfr-signaling-pathway-pathway-26/ap2m1-elisa-kit-1886/
AP2S1 (adaptor-related protein complex 2, sigma 1 subunit) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)  AP2S1 (adaptor-related protein complex 2, sigma 1 subunit) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)
adaptor-related protein complex 2, sigma 1 subunit. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, and PMID associations ... OMIM: HYPOCALCIURIC HYPERCALCEMIA, FAMILIAL, TYPE III; HHC3, ADAPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN COMPLEX 2, SIGMA-1 SUBUNIT; AP2S1*Gene ... Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International + ... 1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917. ...
more infohttps://www.komp.org/geneinfo.php?geneid=23444
EpsinR: an AP1/clathrin interacting protein involved in vesicle trafficking. - Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences  EpsinR: an AP1/clathrin interacting protein involved in vesicle trafficking. - Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences
... and the gamma appendage domain of the adaptor protein complex 1 (AP1). In cells, its distribution overlaps with the perinuclear ... Thus, potentially, two AP1 complexes can bind to one epsinR. This high affinity binding allowed us to identify a consensus ... which we also find in gamma-synergin and use to predict that an uncharacterized EF-hand-containing protein will be a new gamma ... enriched 70-kD protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, clathrin, ...
more infohttps://www.nds.ox.ac.uk/publications/817530
Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) deficiency causes a novel autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome with microcephaly and...  Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) deficiency causes a novel autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome with microcephaly and...
Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) deficiency causes a novel autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome with microcephaly and ... Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) deficiency causes a novel autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome with microcephaly and ... one of the four subunits of the adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4), identified by chromosomal microarray analysis. ... Conclusion These findings, along with previous reports of human and mouse mutations in other members of the complex, indicate ...
more infohttp://jmg.bmj.com/content/early/2010/10/23/jmg.2010.082263
Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBI  Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBI
adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunitprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:101919 See related. Ensembl: ... Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ] Gene ID: 11765, updated on 31-Jan-2019 ... Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [Mus musculus] Ap1g1 adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit [Mus ... adaptor-related protein complex 1 subunit gamma-1. clathrin assembly protein complex 1 gamma-1 large chain. gamma-adaptin. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/?term=11765
AP1M2 adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 2 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI  AP1M2 adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 2 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
Clat_adaptor_s; Clathrin adaptor complex small chain. cl10970. Location:154 → 423. AP_MHD_Cterm; C-terminal domain of adaptor ... Clat_adaptor_s; Clathrin adaptor complex small chain. cl10970. Location:154 → 421. AP_MHD_Cterm; C-terminal domain of adaptor ... a virally encoded peripheral membrane protein. Nef binds to the adaptor protein (AP) complexes of coated vesicles, inducing an ... adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 2provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:558 See related. Ensembl: ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/10053
Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 - Wikipedia  Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 - Wikipedia
Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with DPYSL2 and NUMB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: AP2A1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit". Nishimura, Takashi; Fukata Yuko; Kato Katsuhiro; ... AP2 adaptors) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. The AP-2 complex is a heterotetramer consisting of two large adaptins ... 1996). "Interaction of Shc with adaptor protein adaptins". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (9): 5265-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.9.5265. PMID ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptor-related_protein_complex_2,_alpha_1
adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit gamma 2 ELISA Kits from MyBioSource.com | Biocompare.com  adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit gamma 2 ELISA Kits from MyBioSource.com | Biocompare.com
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Ap1g1 - adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit | International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium  Ap1g1 - adaptor protein complex AP-1, gamma 1 subunit | International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium
Based on automated MP annotations supported by experiments on knockout mouse models. Click on icons to go to all Ap1g1 data for that phenotype. ...
more infohttps://www.mousephenotype.org/data/genes/MGI:101919
AP4S1 (adaptor related protein complex 4 sigma 1 subunit)  AP4S1 (adaptor related protein complex 4 sigma 1 subunit)
... adaptor related protein complex 4 sigma 1 subunit), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... transporter activity clathrin-coated pit protein transporter activity protein transport endosome lumen trans-Golgi network ... transporter activity clathrin-coated pit protein transporter activity protein transport endosome lumen trans-Golgi network ... Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure. UniProt/SwissProt. Q9Y587 [function] [subcellular_location] [family_and_domains] [ ...
more infohttp://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/GC_AP4S1.html
adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit zeta 1 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com  adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit zeta 1 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com
Compare adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit zeta 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit zeta 1 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well- ... Your search returned 2 adaptor related protein complex 5 subunit zeta 1 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ... Watch Webinar: How To Get Speed and Depth in your Host Cell Protein (HCP) Analysis ...
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The yeast clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 is required for the efficient retention of a subset of late Golgi membrane...  The yeast clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 is required for the efficient retention of a subset of late Golgi membrane...
The yeast clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 is required for the efficient retention of a subset of late Golgi membrane ... The yeast clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 is required for the efficient retention of a subset of late Golgi membrane ... Disruption of the clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) restores Chs3p transport to the plasma membrane. Similarly, in AP-1 ... In yeast, certain resident trans-Golgi network (TGN) proteins achieve steady-state localization by cycling through late ...
more infohttps://scholars.duke.edu/display/pub646150
AP2B1 (adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)  AP2B1 (adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)
OMIM: ADAPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN COMPLEX 2, BETA-1 SUBUNIT; AP2B1*Gene Ontology: Ap2b1 *Mouse Phenome DB: Ap2b1 *UCSC: Chr.11: ... adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit. Synonyms: 1300012O03Rik. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM ... Vega: OTTMUSG915 (Ap2b1, "adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit")*CCDS: 25161, 25161.1, 25162, 25162.1* ... Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International + ...
more infohttps://www.komp.org/geneinfo.php?geneid=23441
Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 | definition of Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 by Medical...  Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 | definition of Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 by Medical...
What is Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1? Meaning of Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 medical ... What does Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 mean? ... Looking for online definition of Adapter-related protein ... Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1 explanation free. ... redirected from Adapter-related protein complex 3 subunit beta-1) AP3B1. A gene on chromosome 5q14.1 that encodes a subunit of ...
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The Odysseys mythological network.  The Odyssey's mythological network.
Adaptor Protein Complex 4. An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and ... Adaptor Protein Complex 1. A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS- ... A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are ... alone and in conjunction with 1) a theory-driven, empirically-informed social network... ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2112197/The-Odysseys-mythological-network.html
AP1G1 - AP-1 complex subunit gamma-1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - AP1G1 gene & protein  AP1G1 - AP-1 complex subunit gamma-1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - AP1G1 gene & protein
The AP complexes mediate both the recruitment of clathrin to membranes and the recognition of sorting signals within the ... Subunit of clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1 that plays a role in protein sorting in the late-Golgi/trans-Golgi ... Adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) is a heterotetramer composed of two large adaptins (gamma-type subunit AP1G1 and beta-type ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O43747
The Talk.Origins Archive Post of the Month: December 1999  The Talk.Origins Archive Post of the Month: December 1999
origin of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2 and 3 and the F subcomplex of. > > the coatomer COPI would tend to be classified as ... Now an interesting thing you can do is to take a protein from one species and compare it to a similar protein from another ... Well, for starters, a system that is irreducibly complex. By irreducibly complex, I mean a single system composed of several ... Briefly, sequence analysis is involved with protein and DNA sequences. Now proteins, as you know, are composed of subunits ...
more infohttp://www.talkorigins.org/origins/postmonth/dec99.html
AP1G2 Gene - GeneCards | AP1G2 Protein | AP1G2 Antibody  AP1G2 Gene - GeneCards | AP1G2 Protein | AP1G2 Antibody
Protein Coding), Adaptor Related Protein Complex 1 Subunit Gamma 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, ... The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This ... AP1G2 Gene(Protein Coding) Adaptor Related Protein Complex 1 Subunit Gamma 2. ... AP1G2 (Adaptor Related Protein Complex 1 Subunit Gamma 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AP1G2 include Long ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=AP1G2
The yeasts Rho1p and Pkc1p regulate the transport of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) from internal stores to the plasma membrane |...  The yeasts Rho1p and Pkc1p regulate the transport of chitin synthase III (Chs3p) from internal stores to the plasma membrane |...
Δ clathrin adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1)Δ cells. In chs6 mutants, Chs3p fails to be incorporated into PM-bound transport ... the G protein Rho1p, and the protein kinase Pkc1p, but not the cell integrity response mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade ... In cells deficient for both the clathrin adaptor complex 1 and Chs6p, where Chs3p is transported to the PM by an alternative ... The protein composition of fractions obtained from differential centrifugations and sucrose gradients were analyzed by SDS/PAGE ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/100/18/10287?ijkey=44ede6e6d5ec129106c03c893c84c6561399ed23&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  • This high affinity binding allowed us to identify a consensus binding motif of the form DFxDF, which we also find in gamma-synergin and use to predict that an uncharacterized EF-hand-containing protein will be a new gamma binding partner. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a range of insults, including heat stress, hypoosmotic shock, and physical damage, induce the activation of the yeast isozyme of the protein kinase C Pkc1p, which is essential for the maintenance of cell wall integrity ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Rho1p-GTP is recruited to membranes, activates Pkc1p ( 7 ), and initiates a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade that regulates a variety of cellular responses. (pnas.org)
  • The Rho1p/Pkc1p-controled MAPK cascade comprises the MAP/Erk kinase (MEK) kinase Bck1, the MEKs Mkk1p and Mkk2p and the MAPK Slt2p/Mpk1p ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • This protein is capable of interacting with tyrosine-based sorting signals. (nih.gov)
  • This encoded protein is a calcium-dependent serine endoprotease that can efficiently cleave precursor proteins at their paired basic amino acid processing sites. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Transport proteins are composed of proton pumps that generate electrochemical gradients , which allow for neurotransmitter uptake, and neurotransmitter transporters that regulate the actual uptake of neurotransmitters. (ipfs.io)
  • provides proteins, antibodies and immunological kits as well as services used in scientific research, including proteomics, biotechnology and pharmaceutical development. (biosci.com.au)
  • In both images neurons are stained with a somatodendritic marker, microtubule associated protein (red). (ipfs.io)
  • The members of this family are proprotein convertases that process latent precursor proteins into their biologically active products. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The evolutionary origin of the Krebs citric acid cycle has been for a long time a model case in the understanding of the origin and evolution of metabolic pathways: How can the emergence of such a complex pathway be explained? (talkorigins.org)