Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesPhosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport: A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.GRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).PhosphoproteinsVanadates: Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.PhosphopeptidesSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Adaptor Protein Complex 2: An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6: A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Adaptor Protein Complex 1: A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Oncogene Protein pp60(v-src): A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src): Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.SH2 Domain-Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain SH2 type SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many of the proteins in this class are recruited to specific cellular targets such as a cell surface receptor complexes via their SH2 domain.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl: Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk: Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn: Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Genes, src: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits: A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.Oncogene Protein v-crk: A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck): This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.Son of Sevenless Proteins: A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-abl: Non-receptor tyrosine kinases encoded by the C-ABL GENES. They are distributed in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. c-Abl plays a role in normal HEMATOPOIESIS especially of the myeloid lineage. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl arises when specific N-terminal amino acids are deleted, releasing the kinase from negative regulation.GRB10 Adaptor Protein: A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.Receptor, EphA8: An eph family receptor found exclusively in BRAIN. EphA8 receptors may play a role in the axonal guidance of a subset of tectal commissural NEURONS.Vanadium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 12: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal catalytic domain and a large C-terminal domain that is enriched in PROLINE, GLUTAMIC ACID, SERINE, and THREONINE residues (PEST sequences). The phosphatase subtype is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as CELL MOVEMENT; CYTOKINESIS; focal adhesion disassembly; and LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic: Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Oncogene Protein v-cbl: An oncoprotein from the Cas NS-1 murine retrovirus that induces pre- B-CELL LYMPHOMA and MYELOID LEUKEMIAS. v-cbl protein is a tyrosine-phosphorylated, truncated form of its cellular homologue, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CBL.Sarcoma Viruses, Feline: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.NitrophenolsAvian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Clathrin: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Receptor, trkA: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Genistein: An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 13: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing five different PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. In addition to playing a role as a regulator of the FAS RECEPTOR activity this subtype interacts via its PDZ and FERM domains with a variety of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PROTEINS and CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.ras GTPase-Activating Proteins: PROTEINS that specifically activate the GTP-phosphohydrolase activity of RAS PROTEINS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Oncogene Proteins v-abl: Transforming proteins encoded by the abl oncogenes. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl to v-abl occurs by insertional activation that results in deletions of specific N-terminal amino acids.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Sperm Capacitation: The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Arsenicals: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Receptor, EphA3: An eph family receptor that is found primarily in adult BRAIN and variety of tissues in the developing embryo tissues. During embryonic development high levels of EphA3 receptor expression is seen in the nervous system and coincides with neuronal cell migration, suggesting a role for this protein in axonal pathfinding.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Antibodies, Phospho-Specific: Antibodies directed against immunogen-coupled phosphorylated PEPTIDES corresponding to amino acids surrounding the PHOSPHORYLATION site. They are used to study proteins involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways. (From Methods Mol Biol 2000; 99:177-89)Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Oncogene Proteins v-raf: A family of transforming proteins isolated from retroviruses such as MOUSE SARCOMA VIRUSES. They are viral-derived members of the raf-kinase family of serine-theonine kinases.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Lactams, Macrocyclic: LACTAMS forming compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-3 dozen atoms.Tungsten Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Yersinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod- to coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that occurs in a broad spectrum of habitats.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcr: Proto-oncogene protein bcr is a serine-threonine kinase that functions as a negative regulator of CELL PROLIFERATION and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. It is commonly fused with cellular abl protein to form BCR-ABL FUSION PROTEINS in PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME positive LEUKEMIA patients.Benzoquinones: Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Adaptor Protein Complex delta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.Talin: A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 4: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain short highly glycosylated extracellular domains and two active cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase domains.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 3: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing one or more PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. Expression of this phosphatase subtype has been observed in BONE MARROW; fetal LIVER; LYMPH NODES; and T LYMPHOCYTES.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Tyrphostins: A family of synthetic protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. They selectively inhibit receptor autophosphorylation and are used to study receptor function.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Receptor Aggregation: Chemically stimulated aggregation of cell surface receptors, which potentiates the action of the effector cell.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-yes: Members of the src-family tyrosine kinases that are activated during the transition from G2 PHASE to M PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It is highly homologous to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl: Translation products of a fusion gene derived from CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION of C-ABL GENES to the genetic locus of the breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22. Several different variants of the bcr-abl fusion proteins occur depending upon the precise location of the chromosomal breakpoint. These variants can be associated with distinct subtypes of leukemias such as PRECURSOR CELL LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE; and NEUTROPHILIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC.
Dual adapter for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositide is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... "Entrez Gene: DAPP1 dual adaptor of phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides". Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). " ... 2001). "Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides by ... a dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides". Biochem J. 342 (1): 7-12. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3420007. PMC ...
Adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interacting with PH domain and leucine zipper 1 (APPL1), or DCC-interacting protein 13-alpha ( ... "Entrez Gene: APPL1 adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 1". Diggins NL, Webb ... APPL1 is an adaptor protein localized to a subset of Rab5-positive ("early") endosomes, where it recruits other binding ... APPL1 contains several key interactory domains: pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain and Bin- ...
"Entrez Gene: APPL2 adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 2". "Salmonella ...
SH2B adapter protein 3 (SH2B3), also known as lymphocyte adapter protein (LNK), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... The SH2 domain spans approximately 100 amino acid residues and binds phosphotyrosine-containing proteins such as kinases. The ... SH2B adapter protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SH2B3 gene on chromosome 12. It is ubiquitously expressed ... "SH2B3 - SH2B adapter protein 3 - Homo sapiens (Human) - SH2B3 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2016-10-11. Takaki S ...
"Structural characterization of a novel Cbl phosphotyrosine recognition motif in the APS family of adapter proteins". J. Biol. ... SH2B adapter protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SH2B2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is expressed ... Iseki M, Takaki S, Takatsu K (2000). "Molecular cloning of the mouse APS as a member of the Lnk family adaptor proteins". ... Iseki M, Kubo-Akashi C, Kwon SM, Yamaguchi A, Takatsu K, Takaki S (2005). "APS, an adaptor molecule containing PH and SH2 ...
... non-covalent bonding to proteins that contain phosphotyrosines. The amino acid residues adjacent to the phosphotyrosine on the ... The SAP protein is important in the signalling events that activate T- and NK-cells due to its adaptor function. Normally, the ...
"A mammalian adaptor protein with conserved Src homology 2 and phosphotyrosine-binding domains is related to Shc and is ...
... is a non-catalytic cytoplasmic adaptor protein that is expressed specifically in muscle and is essential for the ... Further, Dok-7 contains pleckstrin homology (PH) and phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domains that are critical for Dok-7 function ...
1996). "A mammalian adaptor protein with conserved Src homology 2 and phosphotyrosine-binding domains is related to Shc and is ... Nakamura, T; Muraoka S; Sanokawa R; Mori N (March 1998). "N-Shc and Sck, two neuronally expressed Shc adapter homologs. Their ... Nakamura T; Muraoka S; Sanokawa R; Mori N (1998). "N-Shc and Sck, two neuronally expressed Shc adapter homologs. Their ... 2002). "The neuron-specific Rai (ShcC) adaptor protein inhibits apoptosis by coupling Ret to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ ...
2007). "The adaptor protein Lad associates with the G protein beta subunit and mediates chemokine-dependent T-cell migration". ... 2 domain and putative SH3 and phosphotyrosine binding sites". J Biol Chem. 273 (8): 4539-46. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.8.4539. PMID ... Choi YB; Kim CK; Yun Y (1999). "Lad, an adapter protein interacting with the SH2 domain of p56lck, is required for T cell ... Marti F; Lapinski PE; King PD (2005). "The emerging role of the T cell-specific adaptor (TSAd) protein as an autoimmune disease ...
Numb has demonstrated protein-protein interactions with Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1, Mdm2, L1, DPYSL2, SIAH1, ... Identification of cytoplasmic and membrane-associated variants of the phosphotyrosine binding domain". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (46 ... 1998). "The mammalian numb phosphotyrosine-binding domain. Characterization of binding specificity and identification of a ... 2003). "Integrin β cytoplasmic domain interactions with phosphotyrosine-binding domains: A structural prototype for diversity ...
It has been demonstrated that deletion of the phosphotyrosine binding domain in ODIN will lead to an immaturely developed ... Furthermore, ODIN serves as a key adaptor protein regulating the EphA receptor signaling pathway, which is critical for ... Shin J, Gu C, Park E, Park S (December 2007). "Identification of phosphotyrosine binding domain-containing proteins as novel ... 1 phosphotyrosine binding (PTD) domain, and 2 tandem sterile alpha motif (SAM) domains. The first SAM domain binds to the SAM ...
He identified the phosphotyrosine-binding Src homology 2 (SH2 domain) as the prototypic non-catalytic interaction module. SH2 ... "Proposing and Proving the Concept of Adapter Molecules in the Signal Transduction" 2012 Thomson Reuters Citation Laureates, ... candidate for Nobel Prize in Medicine "for identification of the phosphotyrosine binding SH2 domain and demonstrating its ...
In molecular biology, the Cbl TKB domain (tyrosine kinase binding domain), also known as the phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) ... domain is a conserved region found at the N-terminus of Cbl adaptor proteins. This N-terminal region is composed of three ...
SH2 domain-containing adapter protein B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHB gene. SHB (gene) has been shown to ... "Molecular interactions of the Src homology 2 domain protein Shb with phosphotyrosine residues, tyrosine kinase receptors and ... Cross MJ, Lu L, Magnusson P, Nyqvist D, Holmqvist K, Welsh M, Claesson-Welsh L (Aug 2002). "The Shb adaptor protein binds to ... Holmqvist K, Cross MJ, Rolny C, Hägerkvist R, Rahimi N, Matsumoto T, Claesson-Welsh L, Welsh M (May 2004). "The adaptor protein ...
Studies of the related mouse and rat proteins have shown that this protein functions as an adapter protein linking nNOS to ... This protein has a C-terminal PDZ-binding domain that mediates interactions with nNOS and an N-terminal phosphotyrosine binding ... "Entrez Gene: NOS1AP nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal) adaptor protein". Arking DE, Pfeufer A, Post W, Kao WH, Newton-Cheh C, ... Nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP) also known as carboxyl-terminal PDZ ligand of neuronal nitric oxide synthase ...
Lawe DC, Hahn C, Wong AJ (1997). "The Nck SH2/SH3 adaptor protein is present in the nucleus and associates with the nuclear ... Vadlamudi RK, Joung I, Strominger JL, Shin J (1996). "p62, a phosphotyrosine-independent ligand of the SH2 domain of p56lck, ... Najib S, Martín-Romero C, González-Yanes C, Sánchez-Margalet V (2005). "Role of Sam68 as an adaptor protein in signal ... Tang J, Feng GS, Li W (1997). "Induced direct binding of the adapter protein Nck to the GTPase-activating protein-associated ...
Feng GS, Ouyang YB, Hu DP, Shi ZQ, Gentz R, Ni J (May 1996). "Grap is a novel SH3-SH2-SH3 adaptor protein that couples tyrosine ... The cytoplasmic domains of the EpoR contain a number of phosphotyrosines that are phosphorylated by Jak2 and serve as docking ... phosphotyrosines also serve as docking sites for phosphatases that negatively affect EpoR signaling in order to prevent ... "Involvement of SH2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase Syp in erythropoietin receptor signal transduction pathways". The ...
A critical role for Cbl phosphotyrosine-binding domain binding to Syk phosphotyrosine 323". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (52): 35273-81. ... Park RK, Izadi KD, Deo YM, Durden DL (September 1999). "Role of Src in the modulation of multiple adaptor proteins in FcalphaRI ... Liu SK, McGlade CJ (December 1998). "Gads is a novel SH2 and SH3 domain-containing adaptor protein that binds to tyrosine- ... Wakioka T, Sasaki A, Mitsui K, Yokouchi M, Inoue A, Komiya S, Yoshimura A (May 1999). "APS, an adaptor protein containing ...
Phosphotyrosine (P.Tyr) residues on activated RTKs are recognized by a phosphodependent-binding domain, the SH2 domain. The ... SH2 domain proteins may have a variety of functions, including adaptor proteins to recruit other signaling proteins, enzymes ... In response to EGF, PDGF, or FGF receptor activation, the SH2 domains of PLCγ bind to specific phosphotyrosines in the C- ... This transmission is also provided by the SH2−domain contacts responsible for the coupling of phosphotyrosine-containing ...
... and that the SH2 domain of p85 specifically recognized phosphotyrosines on growth factor receptors or adaptor proteins via the ... Christofk HR, Vander Heiden MG, Wu N, Asara JM, Cantley LC (March 2008). "Pyruvate kinase M2 is a phosphotyrosine-binding ...
To inhibit SFKs, CSK is then recruited to the plasma membrane via binding to transmembrane proteins or adapter proteins located ... Upon phosphorylation by other kinases, Src-family members engage in intramolecular interactions between the phosphotyrosine ...
These adaptor proteins link RTK activation to downstream signal transduction pathways, such as the MAP kinase signalling ... Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (PTPs) are a group of enzymes that possess a catalytic domain with phosphotyrosine-specific ... Other proteins that interact with the activated receptor act as adaptor proteins and have no intrinsic enzymatic activity of ... Cd45, a cell surface glycoprotein, plays a critical role in antigen-stimulated dephosphorylation of specific phosphotyrosines ...
"The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors ... to 38-kilodalton phosphotyrosine protein after T-cell receptor stimulation". Mol. Cell. Biol. 14 (7): 4435-42. PMC 358815 . ... "The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors ... Bosselut R, Zhang W, Ashe JM, Kopacz JL, Samelson LE, Singer A (1999). "Association of the Adaptor Molecule Lat with Cd4 and ...
SH2 domains recognise specific amino acid sequences within proteins containing phosphotyrosine residues and SH3 domains ... phosphoinositide-3-kinase adaptor protein 1 SH2B1 - SH2B adaptor protein 1 SH2B2 - SH2B adaptor protein 2 SH2B3 - SH2B adaptor ... GRB2-related adaptor protein GRAP2 - GRB2-related adaptor protein 2 LDLRAP1 - low-density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein ... Signal transducing adaptor proteins are proteins that are accessory to main proteins in a signal transduction pathway. Adaptor ...
... also known as proto-oncogene c-Crk or p38 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRK gene. The CRK protein participates in the Reelin signaling cascade downstream of DAB1. Adapter molecule crk is a member of an adapter protein family that binds to several tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This protein has several SH2 and SH3 domains (src-homology domains) and is involved in several signaling pathways, recruiting cytoplasmic proteins in the vicinity of tyrosine kinase through SH2-phosphotyrosine interaction. The N-terminal SH2 domain of this protein functions as a positive regulator of transformation whereas the C-terminal SH3 domain functions as a negative regulator of transformation. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms with distinct biological activity have been described. Crk together with CrkL participates in the Reelin signaling cascade downstream of DAB1. v-Crk, a transforming oncoprotein from avian sarcoma viruses, is a fusion of viral ...
... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the LTK gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ALK/LTK receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) whose ligand is unknown. Closely related to the insulin receptor family of RTKs. Tyrosine-specific phosphorylation of proteins is a key to the control of diverse pathways leading to cell growth and differentiation. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. LTK has been shown to interact with IRS-1, Shc, and PIK3R1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000062524 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000027297 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Maru Y, Hirai H, Takaku F (May 1990). "Human ltk: gene structure and preferential expression in human leukemic cells". Oncogene Res. 5 (3): 199-204. PMID 2320375. "Entrez Gene: LTK leukocyte tyrosine kinase". Lopes SS, Yang X, Müller J, ...
Activated CDC42 kinase 1, also known as ACK1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TNK2 gene. TNK2 gene encodes a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, ACK1, that binds to multiple receptor tyrosine kinases e.g. EGFR, MERTK, AXL, HER2 and insulin receptor (IR). ACK1 also interacts with Cdc42Hs in its GTP-bound form and inhibits both the intrinsic and GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-stimulated GTPase activity of Cdc42Hs. This binding is mediated by a unique sequence of 47 amino acids C-terminal to an SH3 domain. The protein may be involved in a regulatory mechanism that sustains the GTP-bound active form of Cdc42Hs and which is directly linked to a tyrosine phosphorylation signal transduction pathway. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified from this gene, but the full-length nature of only two transcript variants has been determined. ACK1 or TNK2 has been shown to interact with AKT, Androgen receptor or AR, a tumor suppressor WWOX, FYN and Grb2. ACK1 interaction ...
... (also known as AFAP1L2) is a cytosolic adaptor protein and signal transduction mediator. XB130 regulates cell proliferation, cell survival, cell motility and gene expression. XB130 is highly similar to AFAP and is thus known as actin filament associated protein 1-like 2 (AFAP1L2). XB130 is a substrate and regulator of multiple tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling. XB130 is highly expressed in the thyroid and spleen. The XB130 gene is located on human chromosome 10q25.3 and encodes an 818 amino acid protein. It has a molecular weight of approximately 130 kDa and is structurally similar to actin-filament-associated protein (AFAP) and is thus known as AFAP1L2. Several tyrosine phosphorylation sites and a proline rich sequence are included in the N-terminal region of XB130, which allows it to interact and activate c-Src-containing proteins, as well as bind to p85α of PI3K. Two pleckstrin-homology domains are located in the middle portion, giving XB130 its lipid-binding ability. The C-terminal ...
... (IL-11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL11 gene. IL-11 is a multifunctional cytokine first isolated in 1990 from bone marrow-derived stromal cells. It is a key regulator of multiple events in hematopoiesis, most notably the stimulation of megakaryocyte maturation. It is also known under the names adipogenesis inhibitory factor (AGIF) and oprelvekin. The human IL-11 gene, consisting of 5 exons and 4 introns, is located on chromosome 19, and encodes a 23 kDa protein. IL-11 is a member of the IL-6-type cytokine family, distinguished based on their use of the common co-receptor gp130. Signal specificity is provided by the IL-11Rα subunit. Signal transduction is initiated upon binding of IL-11 to IL-11Ralpha and gp130, facilitating the homodimerization of gp130 molecules. This permits gp130-associated Janus kinases (JAK) to become activated and phosphorylate intracellular tyrosine residues on gp130. IL-11 has been demonstrated to improve platelet recovery after ...
Numerous TKIs aiming at various tyrosine kinases have been generated by the originators of these compounds and proven to be effective anti-tumor agents and anti-leukemic agents.[4][5] Based on this work imatinib was developed against chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)[6] and later gefitinib and erlotinib aiming at the EGF receptor. Sunitinib, an inhibitor of the receptors for FGF, PDGF and VEGF is also based on early studies on TKIs aiming at VEGF receptors.[7] Adavosertib is a Wee1 kinase inhibitor that is undergoing numerous clinical trials in the treatment of refractory solid tumors.[8] However, toxicities such as myelosuppression, diarrhea, and supraventricular tachyarrhythmia have arisen while attempting to determine the toxicity and effectiveness of the drug.[9] Lapatinib, FDA approved for treatment in conjunction with chemotherapy or hormone therapy, is also currently undergoing clinical trials in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancers as it is suggested intermittent ...
... are a model human cell line (epidermoid carcinoma) used in biomedical research. More specifically, they are used in studies of the cell cycle and cancer-associated cell signalling pathways since they express abnormally high levels of the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). As such they are often used as a positive control for EGFR expression. They contain no functional p53, a potent tumor suppressor gene, and so are highly sensitive to mitogenic stimuli. A431 cells were established from an epidermoid carcinoma in the skin/epidermis of an 85- year-old female patient. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of A431 cells induces rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular signalling proteins which control cellular processes such as growth, proliferation and apoptosis. At low (picomolar) concentrations EGF promotes cell growth of A431 cells whereas at higher (nanomolar) concentrations it inhibits growth by causing the cells to terminally differentiate. Treatment of A431 cells ...
维生素C治疗坏血病是250年来医学证实的事实。坏血病是长期缺乏维生素C的最终病况,它在人体上的表现是极度疲乏、肌肉无力、皮肤肿胀疼痛、牙龈出血、口臭、皮下及肌肉中血管破裂出血、关节软弱、骨骼脆弱以致骨折、虚脱、泻痢、肺脏及肾脏衰竭而导致昏迷以致死亡。由此可见维生素C对各个主要器官都有影响。[60][61][62] 腎上腺是人體含維生素C最高的器官。人體在緊張的時候,腎上腺分泌大量的腎上腺素到全身的肌肉中,準備好隨時動作,應付危機。腎上腺素是從酪氨酸(Tyrosine)制成多巴(Dopa),轉化成多巴胺(Dopamine),再轉化為降腎上腺素(Noradrenaline),最后制成腎上腺素。其中每一步驟都要消耗維生素C進行羥基化反應(Hydroxylation)。這是人和動物的腎上腺必須儲備大量維生素C的原因。[63][64] ...
... (Il32) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL32 gene. This gene encodes a member of the cytokine family. The protein contains a tyrosine sulfation site, 3 potential N-myristoylation sites, multiple putative phosphorylation sites, and an RGD cell-attachment sequence. Expression of this protein is increased after the activation of T-cells by mitogens or the activation of NK cells by IL-2. This protein induces the production of TNF-alpha from macrophage cells. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. Interleukin 32 (IL-32) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that can induce cells of the immune system (such as monocytes and macrophages) to secrete inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6. In addition, it can also induce the production of chemokines such as IL-8 and MIP-2 / CXCL2. IL-32 can also support osteoclast differentiation but not osteoclast activation by regulating the MAPK/ERK ...
Brill LM، Salomon AR، Ficarro SB، وآخرون. (2004). "Robust phosphoproteomic profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation sites from human T cells using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.". Anal. Chem. 76 (10): 2763-72. PMID 15144186. doi:10.1021/ac035352d. الوسيط ...
Chong YP, Chan AS, Chan KC, Williamson NA, Lerner EC, Smithgall TE, Bjorge JD, Fujita DJ, Purcell AW, Scholz G, Mulhern TD, Cheng HC (November 2006). "C-terminal Src kinase-homologous kinase (CHK), a unique inhibitor inactivating multiple active conformations of Src family tyrosine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (44): 32988-99. PMID 16959780. doi:10.1074/jbc.M602951200. ...
Rudiger, M., Wehland, J., Weber, K. (1994). „The carboxy-terminal peptide of detyrosinated α tubulin provides a minimal system to study the substrate specificity of tubulin-tyrosine ligase". Eur. J. Biochem. 220: 309-320. PMID 7510228 ...
Aoki N., Matsuda T. (2002). A nuclear protein tyrosine phosphatase TC-PTP is a potential negative regulator of the PRL-mediated signaling pathway: dephosphorylation and deactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a and 5b by TC-PTP in nucleus.. Mol. Endocrinol. 16: 58 - 69. PubMed DOI:10.1210/mend.16.1.0761 ...
adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interacting with PH domain and leucine zipper 2. See related. Ensembl:ENSMGAG00000012895 Gene ... APPL2 adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interacting with PH domain and leucine zipper 2 [ Meleagris gallopavo (turkey) ] Gene ID ... Phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. cd13247. Location:209 → 333. BAR-PH_APPL; Adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB ... Phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. cd13247. Location:165 → 289. BAR-PH_APPL; Adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB ...
We recently identified a novel adaptor protein, termed dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides (DAPP1), that ... Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides by the Src ... Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides by the Src ... Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides by the Src ...
The previously derived consensus sequence for phosphotyrosine recognition by the Cbl TKB domain is NXpY(S/T)XXP (X denotes ... Cbl is recruited to and phosphorylated by the insulin receptor in adipose cells through the adapter protein APS. APS is ... in which N-terminal residues distal to the phosphotyrosine directly contact residues of the four-helix bundle of the TKB domain ... that is conserved in the related adapter proteins SH2-B and Lnk. These studies reveal a novel mode of phosphopeptide ...
A mammalian adaptor protein with conserved Src homology 2 and phosphotyrosine-binding domains is related to Shc and is ... The Shc adaptor protein, hereafter referred to as ShcA, possesses two distinct phosphotyrosine-recognition modules, a C- ... The ShcC and ShcB SH2 domains bind phosphotyrosine-containing peptides and receptors with a specificity related to, but ... terminal Src homology 2 (SH2) domain and an N-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, and is itself phosphorylated on ...
... proteins comprise a family of four phosphotyrosine adaptor molecules which exhibit varied spatiotemporal expression and ... consistent with the function of ShcD as a cytoplasmic adaptor. Regional differences in expression are observed among neural Shc ... Localization of phosphotyrosine adaptor protein ShcD/SHC4 in the adult rat central nervous system. *Hannah N. Robeson1. , ... Robeson, H.N., Lau, H.R., New, L.A. et al. Localization of phosphotyrosine adaptor protein ShcD/SHC4 in the adult rat central ...
... proteins comprise a family of four phosphotyrosine adaptor molecules which exhibit varied spatiotemporal expression and ... consistent with the function of ShcD as a cytoplasmic adaptor. Regional differences in expression are observed among neural Shc ... From: Localization of phosphotyrosine adaptor protein ShcD/SHC4 in the adult rat central nervous system ...
pY, phosphotyrosine. (B) A localized signaling complex of three anchored signaling enzymes. Each enzyme is inactive when bound ... Signaling Through Scaffold, Anchoring, and Adaptor Proteins Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... In contrast, a single substitution of an Asn two residues COOH-terminal to one of the phosphotyrosine sites (the +2 position) ... One way receptors may amplify their signaling is to use adaptor proteins that provide additional docking sites for modular ...
... recruiting cytoplasmic proteins in the vicinity of tyrosine kinase through SH2-phosphotyrosine interaction. The N-terminal SH2 ... CRK CRK proto-oncogene, adaptor protein [Homo sapiens] CRK CRK proto-oncogene, adaptor protein [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:1398 ... supporting a positive role for Crk adaptor proteins in TCR-mediated signal amplification. Title: Crk adaptor proteins regulate ... CRK proto-oncogene, adaptor proteinprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:2362 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000167193 MIM: ...
These phosphotyrosines form potential binding sites for other signaling proteins. GH also promotes serine/threonine ... Adapter protein for several members of the tyrosine kinase receptor family. Involved in multiple signaling pathways mediated by ... SH2B adapter protein 1Add BLAST. 756. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. ... "SH2B1beta adaptor is a key enhancer of RET tyrosine kinase signaling.". Donatello S., Fiorino A., DeglInnocenti D., Alberti L. ...
adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interacting with PH domain and leucine zipper 2. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... OMIM: ADAPTOR PROTEIN, PHOSPHOTYROSINE INTERACTION, PH DOMAIN, AND LEUCINE ZIPPER-CONTAINING PROTEIN 2 ... and a C-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain, and they bind the Rab5 through the BAR domain. They are associated with ...
PhosphotyrosineBy similarity. 1. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm%5Fprocessing%5Fsection">PTM ... Adapter molecule crkAdd BLAST. 296. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. ... sp,P87378,CRK_XENLA Adapter molecule crk OS=Xenopus laevis OX=8355 GN=crk PE=2 SV=1 ...
Signaling adapters and effectors are selectively recruited to phosphotyrosine-rich signaling assemblies. To test whether the ... The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors ... and stained for both TCRζ and phosphotyrosine. ZAP-70-EGFP, TCRζ, and phosphotyrosine were pseudocolored green, red, and blue, ... PLC-γ1 and the adapters Grb2, Grap, and Gads bind to LAT in this manner (Zhang et al., 1998a). SLP-76 is also recruited into ...
phosphotyrosine binding. GO:0005070. SH3/SH2 adaptor activity. GO:0005088. Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. ...
9614078 Schulze WX, Deng L, Mann M (2005). "Phosphotyrosine interactome of the ErbB-receptor kinase family". Mol. Syst. Biol. 1 ... Adapter molecule crk is a member of an adapter protein family that binds to several tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This ... Adapter molecule crk also known as proto-oncogene c-Crk or p38 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRK gene. The CRK ... Blaukat A, Ivankovic-Dikic I, Grönroos E, Dolfi F, Tokiwa G, Vuori K, Dikic I (1999). "Adaptor proteins Grb2 and Crk couple ...
MF] SH3/SH2 adaptor activity *[MF] insulin receptor binding *[MF] phospholipid binding *[MF] phosphotyrosine binding *[MF] ...
... phosphotyrosine interactome; P , 0.05 and in red S score , 1). (B) Overview of site-specific phosphotyrosine interactions. Data ... The list includes ALK and the 30 most TKI-sensitive (as assessed by decreased association) ALK adaptor proteins (shown by gene ... An adaptor protein in the insulin signaling pathway enables the survival of aggressive neuroblastoma cells. ... An adaptor protein in the insulin signaling pathway enables the survival of aggressive neuroblastoma cells. ...
Dual adapter for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositide is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... "Entrez Gene: DAPP1 dual adaptor of phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides". Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). " ... 2001). "Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides by ... a dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides". Biochem J. 342 (1): 7-12. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3420007. PMC ...
dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides 1. MGI:1347063 div.headerTerm { background-color: #dfefff; border: ...
GRB2 Adaptor Protein * GRB2 protein, human * Proteins * cagA protein, Helicobacter pylori * Phosphotyrosine ...
ClpC activity depends on the assistance of specific adaptor proteins (18). These adaptor proteins include MecA, which targets ... Consistent with this hypothesis, the chemically more stable phospho-tyrosines were detected in extracts of hydrolyzed ... 3 A and B). As previously reported (10, 20), all ClpC proteins showed very low ATPase activity in the absence of an adaptor ... 2006) Adaptor protein controlled oligomerization activates the AAA+ protein ClpC. EMBO J 25:1481-1491. ...
Dual adaptor of phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides. NM_014395. Gene Info. DBI. Diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor ... Adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 1. NM_012096. Gene Info. ... Adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 2. NM_001251905. NM_001251904. NM_018171 ... Adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit. NM_001242837. NM_012305. Gene Info. ...
dual adaptor of phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides. 3.01. 0.00024. FERMT2. fermitin family homolog 2 (Drosophila) ...
HACS1 associates with phosphotyrosine-containing proteins in stimulated B cells. (A) Lysates from human BJAB cells were ... adaptor protein. Introduction. HACS1 is an adaptor protein identified in our transcriptional study of genes expressed in ... The SH3-SAM Adaptor HACS1 is Up-regulated in B Cell Activation Signaling Cascades. Yuan Xiao Zhu, Sally Benn, Zhi Hua Li, Ellen ... Since HACS1 belongs to a novel gene family of adaptor proteins that includes a highly homologous gene, HACS2/SLY (1, 2), we ...
Adaptor protein phosphotyrosine interacting with PH domain and leucine zipper 1. *AKT2 INTERACTOR ... Adaptor protein containing pH domain PTB domain and leucine zipper motif. *Adaptor protein containing pH domain PTB domain and ...
These findings suggest the possibility that doublecortin functions as a phosphotyrosine adapter that serves as a link between ... function as a potential phosphotyrosine adapter between phospho-FIGQY neurofascin and the μ subunit of the clathrin adapter ... Doublecortin in its role as the FIGQY phosphotyrosine adapter could provide a cell cortex anchor point for LIS1 by linking it ... Doublecortin could thus represent a new class of phosphotyrosine adapters with a novel sequence preference. Alternatively, the ...
  • Engelmann S, Togni M, Kliche S, Reinhold D, Schraven B, Reinhold A. The adhesion- and degranulation-promoting adaptor protein and its role in the modulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (springer.com)
  • Koga S, Yogo K, Yoshikawa K, Samori H, Goto M, Uchida T, Ishida N, Takeya T. Physical and functional association of c-Src and adhesion and degranulation promoting adaptor protein (ADAP) in osteoclastogenesis in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of phosphorylation-dependent protein interactions of adhesion and degranulation promoting adaptor protein (ADAP) reveals novel interaction partners required for chemokine-directed t cell migration. (springer.com)
  • There, I studied a unique signalling scaffold in the kidney known as the slit diaphragm, and through a combination of biochemical, cellular and genetic approaches, we were able to demonstrate the importance of several adaptor molecules in kidney development and disease. (uoguelph.ca)
  • In addition, a class of adapter molecules that mediate protein-protein interactions, but have no apparent catalytic function, have also been shown to play critical roles in T cell signaling. (jimmunol.org)
  • Gab1 belongs to an adaptor family consisting of Gab1, Gab2, and Gab3 in mammals, the Drosophila melanogaster orthologue Daughter of Sevenless (DOS), and the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue Suppressor of Clear (Soc 1). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Nck1 and Nck2 SH2/SH3 adaptors (collectively Nck) can couple phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signals to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and are therefore candidates for linking guidance cues to the regulatory machinery of the cytoskeleton. (pnas.org)
  • Our data indicate that Nck adaptors couple pTyr guidance signals to cytoskeletal events required for the ipsilateral projections of spinal cord neurons and thus for normal limb movement. (pnas.org)