Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Mice, Inbred C57BLT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Inbred BALB CAdaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Pattern Recognition: A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Genes, RAG-1: Genes involved in activating the enzyme VDJ recombinase. RAG-1 is located on chromosome 11 in humans (chromosome 2 in mice) and is expressed exclusively in maturing lymphocytes.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Mice, Inbred C3HLung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Natural Killer T-Cells: A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.Immunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.CRISPR-Cas Systems: Adaptive antiviral defense mechanisms, in archaea and bacteria, based on DNA repeat arrays called CLUSTERED REGULARLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEATS (CRISPR elements) that function in conjunction with CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (Cas proteins). Several types have been distinguished, including Type I, Type II, and Type III, based on signature motifs of CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Toll-Like Receptor 9: A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Hagfishes: Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only family in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats: Repetitive nucleic acid sequences that are principal components of the archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS, which function as adaptive antiviral defense systems.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.Toll-Like Receptor 5: A pattern recognition receptor that binds FLAGELLIN. It mediates cellular responses to certain bacterial pathogens.Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Interferon-beta: One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Petromyzon: A genus of primitive fish in the family Petromyzontidae. The sole species is Petromyzon marinus, known as the sea lamprey. The adult form feeds parasitically on other fish species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Interleukin-21 Receptor alpha Subunit: An interleukin-21 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for interleukin-21. It signals via interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as JANUS KINASE 1 and JANUS KINASE 3.CRISPR-Associated Proteins: Protein components of the CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS for anti-viral defense in ARCHAEA and BACTERIA. These are proteins that carry out a variety of functions during the creation and expansion of the CRISPR ARRAYS, the capture of new CRISPR SPACERS, biogenesis of SMALL INTERFERING RNA (CRISPR or crRNAs), and the targeting and silencing of invading viruses and plasmids. They include DNA HELICASES; RNA-BINDING PROTEINS; ENDONUCLEASES; and RNA and DNA POLYMERASES.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Toll-Like Receptor 3: A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.Toll-Like Receptor 8: A pattern recognition receptor that recognizes GUANOSINE and URIDINE-rich single-stranded RNA.Interleukin-12 Subunit p40: A cytokine subunit that is a component of both interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P35 via a disulfide bond to form interleukin-12 and to INTERLEUKIN-23 SUBUNIT P19 to form interleukin-23.Toll-Like Receptor 7: A pattern recognition receptor that binds several forms of imidazo-quinoline including the antiviral compound Imiquimod.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Myeloid Cells: The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein: A NOD signaling adaptor protein that contains two C-terminal leucine-rich domains which recognize bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal capase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. The protein plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Mutations of the gene encoding the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 protein have been associated with increased susceptibility to CROHN DISEASE.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Poly I-C: Interferon inducer consisting of a synthetic, mismatched double-stranded RNA. The polymer is made of one strand each of polyinosinic acid and polycytidylic acid.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Neuroimmunomodulation: The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Inflammasomes: Multiprotein complexes that mediate the activation of CASPASE-1. Dysregulation of inflammasomes has also been linked to a number of autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Self Tolerance: The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit that was originally discovered as a component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR. It was subsequently found to be a component of several other receptors including the INTERLEUKIN 4 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN 7 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-9 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR, and the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR. Mutations in the gene for the interleukin receptor common gamma chain have been associated with X-LINKED COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Interleukin-23: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cellsVaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Physiology, Comparative: The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.alpha-Defensins: DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.Receptors, Interleukin-17: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.

Epidemic enhancement in partially immune populations. (1/1427)

We observe that a pathogen introduced into a population containing individuals with acquired immunity can result in an epidemic longer in duration and/or larger in size than if the pathogen were introduced into a naive population. We call this phenomenon "epidemic enhancement," and use simple dynamical models to show that it is a realistic scenario within the parameter ranges of many common infectious diseases. This finding implies that repeated pathogen introduction or intermediate levels of vaccine coverage can lead to pathogen persistence in populations where extinction would otherwise be expected.  (+info)

Therapeutic use of Aldara in chronic myeloid leukemia. (2/1427)

The potent clinical responses seen in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) after administration of donor-specific lymphocytes, as well as the correlation between the presence of antigen specific T cells and prolonged remission in these patients, suggests a role for the immunological control of CML. Here we propose Aldara, a clinically used formulation of imiquimod, as an agent for augmenting immune responses to CML antigens. Our proposition is based upon 3 tenets: 1) Endogenous dendritic cells (DC) of CML patients, which are known to be derived from the malignant clone, express and present various leukemic antigens; 2) CML-antigen reactive T cell clones exist in the patient but in many situations are ineffectively stimulated to cause significant hematological responses; and 3) Antigen presentation by mature, activated DC, which endogenously express CML-antigens may endow the pre-existing ineffective T cell responses with ability to control CML progression. The practical use of Aldara as a localized activator of DC in the context of present day leukemic therapeutics, as well as various properties of this unique immune modulator will be discussed.  (+info)

Immune-mediated changes in actinic keratosis following topical treatment with imiquimod 5% cream. (3/1427)

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify the molecular processes responsible for the anti-lesional activity of imiquimod in subjects with actinic keratosis using global gene expression profiling. METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was conducted to evaluate gene expression changes in actinic keratosis treated with imiquimod 5% cream. Male subjects (N = 17) with > or = 5 actinic keratosis on the scalp applied placebo cream or imiquimod 3 times a week on nonconsecutive days for 4 weeks. To elucidate the molecular processes involved in actinic keratosis lesion regression by imiquimod, gene expression analysis using oligonucleotide arrays and real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed on shave biopsies of lesions taken before and after treatment. RESULTS: Imiquimod modulated the expression of a large number of genes important in both the innate and adaptive immune response, including increased expression of interferon-inducible genes with known antiviral, anti-proliferative and immune modulatory activity, as well as various Toll-like receptors. In addition, imiquimod increased the expression of genes associated with activation of macrophages, dendritic cells, cytotoxic T cells, and natural killer cells, as well as activation of apoptotic pathways. CONCLUSION: Data suggest that topical application of imiquimod stimulates cells in the skin to secrete cytokines and chemokines that lead to inflammatory cell influx into the lesions and subsequent apoptotic and immune cell-mediated destruction of lesions.  (+info)

The identification of lymphocyte-like cells and lymphoid-related genes in amphioxus indicates the twilight for the emergence of adaptive immune system. (4/1427)

To seek evidence of a primitive adaptive immune system (AIS) before vertebrate, we examined whether lymphocytes or lymphocyte-like cells and the related molecules participating in the lymphocyte function existed in amphioxus. Anatomical analysis by electron microscopy revealed the presence of lymphocyte-like cells in gills, and these cells underwent morphological changes in response to microbial pathogens that are reminiscent of those of mammalian lymphocytes executing immune response to microbial challenge. In addition, a systematic comparative analysis of our cDNA database of amphioxus identified a large number of genes whose vertebrate counterparts are involved in lymphocyte function. Among these genes, several genes were found to be expressed in the vicinity of the lymphocyte-like cells by in situ hybridization and up-regulated after exposure to microbial pathogens. Our findings in the amphioxus indicate the twilight for the emergence of AIS before the invertebrate-vertebrate transition during evolution.  (+info)

Computational investigations into the origins of short-term biochemical memory in T cell activation. (5/1427)

Recent studies have reported that T cells can integrate signals between interrupted encounters with Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) in such a way that the process of signal integration exhibits a form of memory. Here, we carry out a computational study using a simple mathematical model of T cell activation to investigate the ramifications of interrupted T cell-APC contacts on signal integration. We consider several mechanisms of how signal integration at these time scales may be achieved and conclude that feedback control of immediate early gene products (IEGs) appears to be a highly plausible mechanism that allows for effective signal integration and cytokine production from multiple exposures to APCs. Analysis of these computer simulations provides an experimental roadmap involving several testable predictions.  (+info)

Patterns in age-seroprevalence consistent with acquired immunity against Trypanosoma brucei in Serengeti lions. (6/1427)

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The platelet as an immune cell-CD40 ligand and transfusion immunomodulation. (7/1427)

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Respiratory syncytial virus impairs macrophage IFN-alpha/beta- and IFN-gamma-stimulated transcription by distinct mechanisms. (8/1427)

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The fate of adaptive T cell immunity is determined by multiple cellular and molecular factors, among which the cytokine milieu plays the most important role in this process. Depending on the cytokines present during the initial T cell activation, T cells become effector cells that produce different effector molecules and execute adaptive immune functions. Studies thus far have primarily focused on defining how these factors control T cell differentiation by targeting T cells themselves. However, other non-T cells, particularly APCs, also express receptors for the factors and are capable of responding to them. In this review, we will discuss how APCs, by responding to those cytokines, influence T cell differentiation and adaptive immunity.
When toxins from small bowel overgrowth spill over into the circulation, they can triggering excessive free radical production and inhibit mitochondri
Antigen-experienced immune cells migrate back to the bone marrow (BM), where they are maintained in BM survival niches for an extended period. The composition of T cell subpopulations in the BM changes with age, leading to an accumulation of highly differentiated T cells and a loss of naïve T cells. While innate immune cells are also affected by age, little is known about interactions between different adaptive immune cell populations maintained in the BM. In this study, the phenotype and function of innate and adaptive immune cells isolated from human BM and peripheral blood (PB) was analysed in detail using flow cytometry, to determine if the accumulation of highly differentiated T and B cells, supported by the BM niches, limits the maintenance of other immune cells, or affects their functions such as providing protective antibody concentrations. Total T cells increase in the BM with age, as do highly differentiated CD8+ T cells which no longer express the co-stimulatory molecule CD28, while natural
The active vitamin D metabolite 1 25 D3 (1 25 has been proven to be a significant regulator of innate and adaptive immune function. gene appearance which treatment using a physiological focus of 25(OH)D3 down-regulated IFN-γ and IL-17F gene appearance ...
A combination of the above functions means that dendritic cells link innate and adaptive immune responses. Adaptive immunity, while slower to develop compared with innate immunity, is pathogen-specific and greatly decreases pathogen survivability. Furthermore, a memory of the encounter is retained, leading to more rapid and effective responses to subsequent infection by the same pathogen ...
October 2017. Structure of the peptide editor TAPBPR in complex with MHC I reveals how adaptive immune responses are shaped by high-affinity epitope selection ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Adaptive Immunity. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
The importance of the crosstalk between innate immunity and the adaptive immune response has only recently started to be appreciated. Although it is well recognized that dendritic cells, NK cells, NK-T cells and T cells are all critical for the host response to pathogens, the respective fields that study the biology of these immune cells tend to exist in parallel worlds with minimum exchange of information and ideas. This fragmentation hinders the integration of these fields towards a unified theory of host response. The Aegean Conference: ""Crossroads between Innate and Adaptive Immunity"" will bring together leading international scientists and experts to address critical areas of Innate and Adaptive immunity something necessary for the development of more efficient scientific exchange and crosspollination between these fields. The purpose of this conference will be to bring together scientists from all over the world to discuss their latest findings on the various aspects of Innate and ...
Anecdotal literature has shown that severe combined immunodeficiency is defect in the immune system characterized by loss of the adaptive immune cells known as B cells and T cells.
Emerging evidence suggests that cytokines produced by inflammatory cells act as rheostats to link the degree of wounding and local inflammation to epithelial cell survival, proliferation, and metabolism that collectively underpin the repair response. Among these cytokines, the GP130 family, which encompasses, among others, IL6 and IL11, plays a major role in orchestrating these complex processes through the activation of the latent signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the epithelium. However, many of the molecular mechanisms that govern and ensure effective epithelial wound healing and regeneration renewal also promote tumorigenesis and the progression of established cancers. Accordingly, GP130 cytokines endow the inflammatory tumor microenvironment with a capacity to promote "cancer hallmark capabilities" of the malignant epithelium, while simultaneously suppressing the antitumor response of innate and adaptive immune cells. Here, we review some recent insights derived ...
Since its establishment in 1985 as the University of Pittsburgh Transplantation Institute, the mission of the Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute (STI) has been to improve the clinical,
Have you ever wondered WHY you get sick from different things, sometimes seemingly for no reason? Havent you ever wished that you could find some way to stop
The mechanisms triggering renal inflammation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are unclear. We performed a detailed analysis of the time course of innate and adaptive immunity activation in the 5/6 renal ablation (Nx) model. Munich-Wistar rats undergoing Nx were studied 15, 60 and 120 days after ablation. Hypertension, albuminuria, creatinine retention, interstitial expansion and infiltration by macrophages and T-lymphocytes were already evident 15 days after Nx. PCR-array was used to screen for altered gene expression, whereas gene and protein expressions of TLR4, CASP1, IL-1 beta and NLRP3 were individually assessed. Tlr4, Tlr5, Lbp, Nlrp3, Casp1, Irf7 and Il1b were already upregulated 15 days after Nx, while activation of Tlr2, Tlr7, Tlr9, Nod2, Tnf and Il6 was seen after 60 days post-ablation. The number of genes related to innate or adaptive immunity grew steadily with time. These observations indicate that parallel activation of innate and adaptive immunity antecedes glomerular injury and ...
Decline in immune function is a hallmark of aging, leading to increased susceptibility of elderly individuals to bacterial infections of lungs, urinary tract, skin and soft tissues and reactivation of inactive tuberculosis and herpes zoster (reviewed in Refs. 1 and 2). There is an increased severity of pneumococcal, influenza, and respiratory syncytial viral infections in the elderly population (3, 4, 5, 6). For example, an estimated 90% of the 20,000 deaths that are attributed to influenza annually in the U.S. occur in persons aged ≥65 years (7). Age-related changes in the adaptive immune system are well-documented and include diminished and/or altered cytokine patterns, reduction in clonal expansion and function of Ag-specific T and B cells and a decline in Ag-presenting cell function (1, 2, 8, 9). The decline in adaptive immune function leads to decreased efficacy of preventive vaccination in the elderly. In the case of influenza, although the vaccine is ∼70-90% effective in preventing ...
The NIAID Lymphocyte Biology Section studies basic aspects of innate and adaptive immune function, with an emphasis on the biochemical mechanisms involved in discrimination between self and foreign peptide-associated MHC molecules by T-cells as well as on T-cell antigen-presenting cell interactions and the subsequent delivery of effector function.
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by many cell types in both normal and pathogenic circumstances. Because EVs, particularly exosomes, are known to transfer biologically active proteins, RNAs and lipids between cells, they have recently become the focus of intense interest as potential mediators of cell-cell communication, particularly in long-range and juxtacrine signaling events associated with adaptive immune function and progression of cancer. Among the EVs, exosomes appear particularly adapted for long-range delivery of cargoes between cells. Because of their association with disease states, the exciting potential for exosomes to serve as diagnostic biomarkers and as target-specific biomolecule delivery vehicles has stimulated a broad range of biomedical investigations to learn how exosomes are generated, what their cargoes are, and how they might be tailored for uptake by remote targets. Addressing these questions requires experimental models in which biochemically ...
The adaptive immune cells (B and T) cells develop normal responses only if they are stimulated by exposure to foreign substances…Children get primed with IgG antibodies from their mother and IgA antibodies from breast milk which provide "passive" immunity for the first two years of life. After that, children need to begin activating their own adaptive immunity - their own IgMs and IgGs….If this process of educating the adaptive immune system is not sufficiently activated in early childhood, the immune system of the adolescent or adult remains underdeveloped. Then the response to foreign bodies relies more on the "emergency" system, using IgE antibodies instead of IgG, IgA, or IgM antibodies. It is these IgE antibodies that tend to overreact, causing allergies. Essentially, an "under-trained" adaptive immune system, such as that of someone raised in a sterile environment, is more prone to confuse harmless foreign bodies like pollen, dog hair, peanuts, eggs, or insect venom, for parasites. ...
Despite ongoing research, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still the 3rd leading cause of death worldwide. In Turkey, the average prevalence is 19.2% and increases with age. Currently, there is no therapy for COPD, with all treatment only able to alleviate symptoms. Clinically, COPD is characterized by progressive and largely irreversible airflow limitation resulting from long-term exposure to toxic gases and particles, in particular cigarette smoke. This drives excess mucus production, small airway remodeling, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The progression and severity of COPD are associated with increasing infiltration of the airways and parenchyma by innate and adaptive immune cells with a predominance of B and T cells, and in more severe disease, the presence of lymphoid follicles. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying how innate and adaptive immune cells contribute to disease pathogenesis, however, have remained unclear. Here, we will discuss the roles of ...
Despite ongoing research, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still the 3rd leading cause of death worldwide. In Turkey, the average prevalence is 19.2% and increases with age. Currently, there is no therapy for COPD, with all treatment only able to alleviate symptoms. Clinically, COPD is characterized by progressive and largely irreversible airflow limitation resulting from long-term exposure to toxic gases and particles, in particular cigarette smoke. This drives excess mucus production, small airway remodeling, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The progression and severity of COPD are associated with increasing infiltration of the airways and parenchyma by innate and adaptive immune cells with a predominance of B and T cells, and in more severe disease, the presence of lymphoid follicles. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying how innate and adaptive immune cells contribute to disease pathogenesis, however, have remained unclear. Here, we will discuss the roles of ...
The Interaction between Regulatory T Cells and NKT Cells in the Liver: A CD1d Bridge Links Innate and Adaptive Immunity. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
With T cell therapy delivering little efficacy in solid tumors and PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors only effective in 10-15% of cancer patients, the cell immunotherapy revolution is turning to macrophages to target solid tumors due to their inherent ability to infiltrate the tumor microenvironment, stimulate the immune system and recruit adaptive immune cells to the tumor site.. The Macrophage-directed Therapies Summit is focused on bringing together the various applications and approaches from CD47 blockades to CAR-macrophages to discuss how to overcome common challenges in order to ensure clinical proof of concept.. As the leaders in development from the likes of Boehringer Ingelheim, Celgene and TG Therapeutics explore how to ensure safety and reduce toxicity, manage and control the plasticity of macrophages and consider homing and trafficking cells to the correct tumor site, join us this October to discuss the recent advances in the clinic and the challenges that remain.. Here is a snapshot of the ...
|p|Human B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are white blood cells that play key roles in adaptive immune responses. They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies, and are also classified as professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). In ad
|p|Human B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are white blood cells that play key roles in adaptive immune responses. They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies, and are also classified as professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). In ad
Once a pathogen has bypassed the animals physical barriers and self-cleaning behaviors, it is recognized by the innate immune system, which triggers a broad immune response to combat infection. This innate response is non-specific and rapid, can affect a wide range of pathogen types, and also triggers the development of subsequent adaptive immunity ...
An overview of the immune system. Descriptions of the anatomic arrangement of the immune system, our natural barries and how innate and adaptive immunity work.
The interaction between a CD4+ TH cell and an antigen presenting cell (APC) is a finely tuned event in adaptive immunity. The affinity is dictated by the T cell receptor (TCR) and the characteristics of antigenic peptide ...
Every year, I hear from people who say they suffered from the flu for weeks or even months before they could get over it. That is a very dangerous sign of a weakened adaptive immune system.
View Notes - homo-heterosporous[1] from BIOL 240 at S.F. State. Are there risks (disadvantages) to being homothallic? Are there benefits (adaptive advantages) to being heterothallic? Are there risks
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth. The adaptive immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the innate immune system). Adaptive immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, and leads to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. Like the innate system, the adaptive system includes both humoral immunity components and cell-mediated immunity components. Unlike the innate immune system, the adaptive immune system is highly specific to a particular pathogen. Adaptive immunity can also provide long-lasting protection; for example, someone who recovers from measles is now protected ...
The innate immune system initially recognizes pathogens via both the complement system and pattern recognition receptors. The complement system, also part of humoral immunity, is a family of proteins that recognize and bind pathogens, marking them for phagocytosis. Pattern recognition receptors include 3 families of receptors (toll-like, NOD-like, and RIG-I-like), each of which initiate the type I interferon response upon activation by specific pathogen classes. This interferon response activates adaptive immunity, a major part of cell-mediated immunity including B cells and T cells. The conclusion of adaptive immunity results in memory T cells, which express receptors for antigens, and memory B cells, which produce antibodies to recognize pathogens. These cells allow the adaptive immune system to mount a stronger response upon the next exposure to the pathogen. Innate and adaptive immunity were originally thought to be two separate arms of the immune system. However, recent studies show ...
1 Functions of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Innate Immune Cells Adaptive Immune Cells Immune recognition Immune effector mechanisms Immune regulation Immunological memory response - particularly the adaptive arm of the immune response - occurs in the secondary lymphoid organs draining the site of infection. The immune system has evolved a number of effector mechanisms capable of destroying pathogenic organisms. 1). The innate arm of the immune system recognises pathogens non-specifically and generates immediate generic mechanisms of pathogen clearance. Many cytokine receptors are dimeric, and the chains making up some of the cytokine receptors are promiscuous. For example, the common ␥ chain (CD132) is shared by a number of cytokine receptors (notably the receptors for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21), and the IL-4R chain (IL-4R␣) pairs with IL-␣13R to convey signals in response to IL-13. 8 Adaptive immunity The adaptive immune response differs ...
Vaccines are currently the most successful prophylactic intervention against many infectious diseases. Subunit vaccines are a promising strategy for the development of novel effective vaccines, however, protein subunits are poorly immunogenic alone. Successful subunit vaccines require formulation with adjuvant compounds in order to stimulate cells of the innate immune system and generate protective adaptive immune responses. The development of vaccine adjuvants is critical for subunit vaccine development, but requires improved high throughput screening methods that reliably predict in vivo immune responses. Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) agonists are a growing class of potential vaccine adjuvants that are able to shape both the scale and character of the immune response to subunit vaccines through the direction of CD4 T cell polarization. We have applied a high-throughput in vitro assay to assess the CD4 T cell polarization potential of a panel of PRR agonists. Using this system, we ...
Host-symbiont associations are widespread in nature and exhibit a variety of interactions ranging from parasitism to mutualism. Insects living on nutritionally unbalanced diets are prone to establish long-term mutualistic relationships with vertically transmitted intracellular bacteria (endosymbionts) that complement their diet, improve their metabolism and reproduction, and impact many host adaptive traits, including immunity and defense against pathogens [1-7]. While the metabolic, ecological and evolutionary features of these interactions have been well described [8-10], the mechanisms allowing the persistence of such associations remain largely unexplored. Beneficial bacteria are essential for the associations survival but represent a constant immune challenge for the host. Insect immunity must preserve endosymbionts and control their load and location while being able to cope with potential environmental infections by microbial intruders. This dilemma is more puzzling considering that both ...
After more than 30 years of active research on HIV/AIDS, many challenging questions remain unanswered. For example, some individuals progress to AIDS within a year after HIV acquisition, whereas others never develop the disease. Host genetic factors play a role in disease progression, but the precise pathways are still unknown. Studies aimed at deciphering this are hampered by interindividual variability and the high propensity of HIV to mutate: as a consequence, the host-virus interactions can vary significantly between different infected people. How innate and adaptive immune mechanisms slow HIV replication is still ill defined and differs substantially among different ethnic groups. As most studies to date have focused on patients of European ancestry, it has become a global health priority to determine how HIV control is achieved in nonwhites (27). In the current study, we assessed the protective effect of −35 SNP in Han Chinese subjects who were infected in a short time frame by a very ...
Well, you should remember that macrophage is not typical innate immunity cell. It also acts as APC for activating adaptive immunity. The time when innate immunity is about to stop and adaptive immunity is about to begin is called induced immunity, which dendritic cells and macrophage switch their function from antigen-eating to become antigen-presenting. In adaptive immunity, macrophage does not engulf antigen by phagolysosome mechanism (eating function) anymore like it use to do in innate immunity, it engulf antigen to be processed as peptide and will bring it back to its surface to be presented with MHC (APC function ...
Immune response plays a fundamental role in protecting the organism from infections; however, dysregulation often occurs and can be detrimental for the organism, leading to a variety of immune-mediated diseases. Recently our understanding of the molecular and cellular networks regulating the immune response, and, in particular, adaptive immunity, has improved dramatically. For many years, much of the focus has been on the study of protein regulators; nevertheless, recent evidence points to a fundamental role for specific classes of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in regulating development, activation and homeostasis of the immune system. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most comprehensive and well-studied, a number of reports suggest the exciting possibility that long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) could mediate host response and immune function. Finally, evidence is also accumulating that suggests a role for miRNAs and other small ncRNAs in autocrine, paracrine and exocrine signaling events, thus highlighting an
cDCs link innate and adaptive immunity by sensing pathogens and initiating adaptive immune responses. Although the two physiological functions of cDCs are likely to play distinct roles in immune homeostasis, they have not previously been evaluated independently. In the gut, cDCs sense and capture gut microbes in part by extending their processes into the gut lumen (Macpherson and Uhr, 2004; Niess et al., 2005; Chieppa et al., 2006; Vallon-Eberhard et al., 2006). Microbial sensing induces cDCs to produce cytokines such as IL-23, which are required to activate innate lymphoid cells (Kinnebrew et al., 2012; Satpathy et al., 2013). In addition, the ingested microbes are carried to local lymphoid organs, such as the mLNs, processed, and presented to T cells to initiate adaptive immune responses (Macpherson and Uhr, 2004; Niess et al., 2005).. Ablation experiments using CD11cDTR mice, conditional deletion of genes (e.g., Irf4, Irf8, or Notch2) with CD11cCre mice, and Batf3-deficient mice result in ...
Our immune system is the collective defense system against disease that classically works to identify foreign microorganisms and protect the body from these invaders. It includes both biological structures and processes. The immune processes can be broken down to two main types of immunity that work together to keep us healthy: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. The innate immune system is comprised of biological immune responses that were genetically passed down from your parents and present since birth, whereas the adaptive immune system refers to responses that the body has learned and developed from exposure to foreign proteins. ...
Abstract: In this paper, we consider the adaptive Eulerian--Lagrangian method (ELM) for linear convection-diffusion problems. Unlike the classical a posteriori error estimations, we estimate the temporal error along the characteristics and derive a new a posteriori error bound for ELM semi-discretization. With the help of this proposed error bound, we are able to show the optimal convergence rate of ELM for solutions with minimal regularity. Furthermore, by combining this error bound with a standard residual-type estimator for the spatial error, we obtain a posteriori error estimators for a fully discrete scheme. We present numerical tests to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our adaptive algorithm ...
Many remarkable advances have improved our understanding of the cellular and molecular events in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Chief among these is the accumulating knowledge of how the immune system contributes to all phases of atherogenesis, including well-known inflammatory reactions consequent to intimal trapping and oxidation of LDL. Advances in our understanding of the innate and adaptive responses to these events have helped to clarify the role of inflammation in atherogenesis and suggested new diagnostic modalities and novel therapeutic targets. Here we focus on recent advances in understanding how adaptive immunity affects atherogenesis.. ...
The news that CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing in its current form may not work in a substantial fraction of people due to many of us having immunity to Cas9 came as a shock to many, but if you think about it, maybe […]. ...
Although it is clear that innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading organisms, the TLRs are also playing a role in adaptive immunity, and the dendritic cell (DC) appears to be playing a key role in linking the innate and adaptive immune responses. As immature cells, they are present…
Tissue repair is an integral component of cancer treatment (e.g., due to surgery, chemotherapy, radiation). Previous work has emphasized the immunosuppressive effects of tumors on adaptive immunity and has shown that surgery incites cancer metastases. However, the extent to which and how tumors may …
The recognition of bacterial infections or foreign substances is mediated and controlled by the human immune system. This innate and adaptive immune system comprises the most important metabolic and cellulare processes to fight against infections and other diseases ...
The immune system maintains homeostasis by preventing pathogens from disrupting the bodys normal functioning. It achieves this in various ways, including adaptive immunity when the body encounters a...
ACT - Adaptive Computing Technology. Looking for abbreviations of ACT? It is Adaptive Computing Technology. Adaptive Computing Technology listed as ACT
An adaptive CAP filter includes a clock-controlled A/D converter for converting an input signal, a digital level-control circuit, an adaptive controlled reception filtering system with two parallel filters and a downstream decision maker for outputting reconstructed signal coordinates. The digital level-control circuit and the adaptive reception filtering system are decoupled by virtue of the fact that either an adjustment of the digital level-control circuit or a coefficient adjustment of the adaptive reception filtering system is active. A method for controlling a cap receiver is also provided.
Prerequisites: BIO 2101 or (BIO 2129 and 2130), and BioCore placement level 3 (or admission to a major). Covers major features of innate and adaptive immunity, including antibodies, T cell receptors, leukocyte development, responses to bacterial and viral infections, vaccines, and disorders of the immune system such as allergy, autoimmunity, and AIDS. No laboratory ...
The property of the immune system that allows it to mount a more vigorous response in subsequent exposures to a specific pathogen (part of adaptive immunity ...
First, HIV is highly mutable. Because of the virus ability to rapidly respond to selective pressures imposed by the immune system, the population of virus in an infected individual typically evolves so that it can evade the two major arms of the adaptive immune system; humoral (antibody-mediated) and cellular (mediated by T cells) immunity ...
How is Hierarchical Adaptive Merge Split Mesh abbreviated? HAMSM stands for Hierarchical Adaptive Merge Split Mesh. HAMSM is defined as Hierarchical Adaptive Merge Split Mesh rarely.
For more than 30 years, Dr. Marracks research has focused primarily on the T cell, an immune-system cell that recognizes foreign substances in the body and orchestrates the adaptive immune response.
Adaptive skiing is important in many peoples lives. Its a challenge, its an adventure and the mountains are a venue where the family can participate together
ForbesLeadership 2.0: Are You An Adaptive Leader?ForbesGreat leadership is indeed a difficult thing to pin down and understand. | Global Leaders
A method and system of adaptive power control. Characteristics of a specific integrated circuit are used to adaptively control power of the integrated circuit.
The influenza A virus is one of the leading causes of respiratory tract infections in humans. Upon infection with an influenza A virus, both innate and adaptive immune responses are induced. Here we discuss various strategies used by influenza A viruses to evade innate immune responses and recognition by components of the humoral and cellular immune response, which consequently may result in reduced clearing of the virus and virus-infected cells. Finally, we discuss how the current knowledge about immune evasion can be used to improve influenza A vaccination strategies.
The immune system is divided into the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response is known as the first line of defense, and it depends mostly on inflammatory components. It is faster and less specific than the adaptive response. In contrast, the adaptive response involves the participation of lymphocytes, and it generates memory. It takes longer to build an adaptive response, but such responses are more specific than innate responses. While adaptive immune responses are an excellent system for fighting pathogens, they are also very effective against allograft acceptance. In solid organ transplantation, the graft is subjected to ischemia prior to being transplanted. Ischemia and reperfusion (IR) is the first step in which the immune system acts to avoid the survival of the graft. Ischemia is defined as the cessation of arterial blood flow, which leads to oxygen deprivation of the cells. Cold ischemia is most often used in transplantation, whereby the organ is harvested and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A possible new bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. T2 - Are the anti-mitochondrial citrate synthase autoantibodies components of the natural antibody network?. AU - Czömpöly, Tamás. AU - Olasz, Katalin. AU - Simon, Diána. AU - Nyárády, Zoltán. AU - Pálinkás, László. AU - Czirják, László. AU - Berki, Tímea. AU - Németh, Péter. PY - 2006/4/1. Y1 - 2006/4/1. N2 - Natural antibody (nAb) producing B-1 B cells are considered an intermediate stage of evolution between innate and adaptive immunity. nAbs are immunoglobulins that are produced without antigen priming. nAbs can recognize foreign targets and may serve in the first line of immune defense during an infection. Natural autoantibodies (nAAbs) present in the serum of both healthy humans and patients suffering from systemic autoimmune diseases recognize a set of evolutionarily conserved self-structures. Because of their endosymbiotic evolutionary origin, proteins compartmentalized into mitochondria ...
Øjeblikket, er du ser job oplysninger om den Phd Fellowship Establishment Haemophilia Model With Increased Tolerance Use Mice Deficiencies Adaptive Immunity The Lifepharm Centre arbejdspladser stillingsopslag og karriere på Denmark JobsCenter hjemmeside. Læs omhyggeligt arbejdspladser ansøger, job specifikationer og arbejdspladser kvalifikationer, før du anvender de Phd Fellowship Establishment Haemophilia Model With Increased Tolerance Use Mice Deficiencies Adaptive Immunity The Lifepharm Centre job.
Beyond structural and chemical barriers to pathogens, the immune system has two fundamental lines of defense: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is the first immunological mechanism for fighting against an intruding pathogen. It is a rapid immune response, initiated within minutes or hours after aggression, that has no immunologic memory. Adaptive immunity, on the other hand, is antigen-dependent and antigen-specific; it has the capacity for memory, which enables the host to mount a more rapid and efficient immune response upon subsequent exposure to the antigen. There is a great deal of synergy between the adaptive immune system and its innate counterpart, and defects in either system can provoke illness or disease, such as inappropriate inflammation, autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiency disorders and hypersensitivity reactions. This article provides a practical overview of innate and adaptive immunity, and describes how these host defense mechanisms are involved in both heath and
phdthesis{6dfbe2a0-b0a8-4145-9a6f-89d3cb82ccc9, abstract = {The intestinal surface is daily challenged with tremendous amount of foreign material derived our diet and from the commensal bacteria that densely populate the mucosal surface. Occasionally the gut mucosa is exposed to pathogens trying to enter our body. The important task of the intestinal immune system is to remain tolerant toward innocuous luminal constituents and to elicit defense responses towards invading pathogens. Conventional dendritic cells (cDC) play a central role in the initiation of such tolerogenic and defense responses. They scan and sample the local environment, migrate to the draining lymph nodes, where they activate adaptive immune cells specifically recognizing the presented luminal antigens. Several subsets of cDC populate the intestinal mucosa, but their role in the adaptive immune response is incompletely defined. The present Ph.D. thesis aimed to identify some of the in vivo functions of intestinal cDC subsets ...
Lung squamous cell carcinoma, which account for 25 percent of all lung cancers, have not been well characterized owing to a lack of systematic understanding of molecular pathogenesis. We performed the whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing from 101 tumors and matched normal samples from Korean patients. Somatic mutations and gene expression defined two intrinsic subtypes: (1) classical subtype; (2) immunogenic subtype. Classical subtype displayed upregulation of cell cycle related genes and enriched for gene mutations (TP53, NAV3, NFE2L2, CDKN2A, PIK2CA, KEAP1 and RB1) involved in cell proliferation, squamous differentiation and oxidative stress. Immunogenic subtype had more tumor-infiltrating immune cells than classical type. More proportion of adaptive immune cells was also detected in immunogenic subtype. Immune genes, involved in adaptive immune response, were also upregulated in immunogenic subtype. Taken together, our finding revealed that each subtype has different immune mechanisms in ...
Study Infection - Adaptive Immune Response flashcards from Catherine Jones's University of Leicester class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
An immune response consists of a finely orchestrated interplay between initial recognition of potential microbial threats by the innate immune system and subsequent licensed adaptive immune neutralization. The initial recognition integrates environmental cues derived from pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and cell intrinsic damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to contextualize the insult and inform a tailored adaptive response via T and B lymphocytes. While there is much data to support the role of transcriptional responses downstream of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in informing the adaptive immune response, markedly less attention has been paid to the role of post-translational responses to PAMP and DAMP recognition by the innate immune system, and how this may influence adaptive immunity ...
CONICET Digital, el repositorio institucional del CONICET, un servicio gratuito para acceder a la producción científico-tecnológica de investigadores, becarios y demás personal del CONICET.
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The immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that protect your body from pathogens; and, this time of year, youll hear a lot about it. Think of it as a personal shield. Its job is to protect you from harmful organisms and toxins that can have a negative effect on your health.. Your immune system is made up of two parts. One is your innate immune system, which protects you against infections and helps wounds like cuts and bruises heal. The other is your adaptive immune system, which adapts to protect you from viruses like the flu. Together, these form a complex system of cells, tissues, and organs that protect your health.. When your immune system is supported, its two components work together in harmony to protect you from illness. But, like any system, it can be compromised and fail. Some people are born with weak immune systems. Some are also born with unregulated, sometimes called overactive, immune systems. Even if you start out with a perfectly healthy immune ...
Peptides that act like small molecules are highly desirable as drug candidates for targeting larger proteins and peptide specific binding sites. Hybridtides are
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What is Human Immune System The immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease in which
Goals: To learn about immune system development, function, and disorders; to become familiar with the theory and application of current methods in immunological research; to gain experience in reading primary scientific literature. Content: History and theories of immunology with an emphasis on the experiments that defined the major advances in the field; innate and adaptive immunity; humoral and cellular immune responses; antibody gene, protein structure and function; autoimmunity, cancer, HIV, and transplantation. Prerequisites: BIOL 3050 and 3060 NOTE: Students must concurrently register for a lecture and a corresponding 0-credit lab section of this course. Credits: 4
For all the success of a new generation of immunotherapies for cancer, they often leave an entire branch of the immune systems disease-fighting forces untapped. Such therapies act on the adaptive immune system, the ranks ...
Cell, Cells, Ligands, Memory, Role, Survival, T Cells, Bfl, Cell Lines, Family, Hela Cells, Adaptive Immune Response, Concentration, Infection, Innate Immune Response, Mammals, Plays, Tissue, Autoimmune Diseases, B Cells
Vitamin A, Ability, Absorption, Adaptive Immunity, Architecture, Children, Developing Countries, Diseases, Giardia, Giardia Lamblia, Giardiasis, Health, Immunity, Infectious Diseases, Lamblia, Liver, Persons, Prevalence, Retinol, School
Coordination of T cell metabolic programs with cell fate decisions is a fundamental issue in adaptive immunity. Upon antigen stimulation, na?ve T cells undergo...
Despite the critical importance of the immune system for good health, many people have never heard of several key parts of the immune system. For exam
mouse SLY1 protein: SLY - SH3 protein expressed in lymphocytes; an essential molecular component for the full activation of adaptive immunity; amino acid sequence in first source
Goldberg, E. L., M. J. Romero-Aleshire, K. R. Renkema, M. S. Ventevogel, W. M. Chew, J. L. Uhrlaub, M. J. Smithey, K. H. Limesand, G. D. Sempowski, H. L. Brooks, et al., Lifespan-extending caloric restriction or mTOR inhibition impair adaptive immunity of old mice by distinct mechanisms., Aging Cell, vol. 14, issue 1, pp. 130-8, 2015 Feb. PMCID: PMC4326902 PMID: 25424641 ...
Artificially acquired immunity is any immunity conferred to the body through non-natural means, by introducing a specially designed version of a whole or part of a pathogen to stimulate the bodys...
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قُلْ إِن كَانَ ءَابَآؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَآؤُكُمْ وَإِخْوَٰنُكُمْ وَأَزْوَٰجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَٰلٌ ٱقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَٰرَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَٰكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَآ أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ وَجِهَادٍ فِى سَبِيلِهِۦ فَتَرَبَّصُوا۟ حَتَّىٰ يَأْتِىَ ٱللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِۦ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِى ٱلْقَوْمَ ٱلْفَٰسِقِين ...
لَوْ خَرَجُوا۟ فِيكُم مَّا زَادُوكُمْ إِلَّا خَبَالًا وَلَأَوْضَعُوا۟ خِلَٰلَكُمْ يَبْغُونَكُمُ ٱلْفِتْنَةَ وَفِيكُمْ سَمَّٰعُونَ لَهُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌۢ بِٱلظَّٰلِمِين ...
Defining SCENAR Therapy and Its Benefits Self-Controlling Energy Neuro Adaptive Regulator (SCENAR) therapy is an approach to treatment that is
Recent clinical outcomes and subsequent approvals of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 checkpoint blockade antibodies, which mitigate inhibitory signaling that decreases antitumor T cell responses, have ignited extraordinarily broad efforts to develop the potential of cancer immunotherapy (Pardoll, 2012; Topalian et al., 2015). Unlike strategies that typically elicit antitumor responses of limited duration and nearly inevitable treatment resistance, immunotherapeutics can achieve durable and long-lasting antitumor responses in a minority of patients with advanced disease (Sharma and Allison, 2015). To build upon this success, combination immunotherapies are a next logical step (Gajewski et al., 2013; Spranger and Gajewski, 2013).. One such approach combines a tumor-specific antibody to drive antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) through neutrophil- and eosinophil-mediated attack and an extended serum half-life IL-2 fusion to activate CD8+ T cells and NK cells. However, this strategy is ...
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Patients with a diverse spectrum of rare genetic disorders can present with inflammatory bowel disease (monogenic IBD). Patients with these disorders often develop symptoms during infancy or early childhood, along with endoscopic or histological features of Crohns disease, ulcerative colitis, or IBD unclassified. Defects in interleukin-10 signaling have a Mendelian inheritance pattern with complete penetrance of intestinal inflammation. Several genetic defects that disturb intestinal epithelial barrier function or affect innate and adaptive immune function have incomplete penetrance of the IBD-like phenotype. Several of these monogenic conditions do not respond to conventional therapy and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Due to the broad spectrum of these extremely rare diseases, a correct diagnosis is frequently a challenge and often delayed. In many cases, these diseases cannot be categorized based on standard histological and immunologic features of IBD. Genetic analysis is required
TY - JOUR. T1 - Beta-2-microglobulin in autism spectrum disorders. AU - Goines, Paula. AU - Schauer, Joseph. AU - Heuer, Luke. AU - Ashwood, Paul. AU - Van de Water, Judith A. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental diseases of unknown etiology. There are no biological markers for ASD and current diagnosis is based on behavioral criteria. Recent data has shown that MHC I, a compound involved in adaptive immune function, is also involved in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and behavior. It has been suggested that altered MHC I expression could play a part in neurodevelopmental diseases like ASD. To address this possibility, we measured plasma levels of beta-2-microglobulin (β2m), a molecule that associates with MHC I and is indicative of MHC I expression, in 36 children with autism, 28 typically developing controls and subjects with developmental disabilities (n=16) but not autism. The age range of our study population was 17-120 ...
Over the last years it has become clear that many neurological diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are induced by an adaptive immune response directed against molecules expressed on CNS-resident cells. Prototypic examples are anti- N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which is induced by an immune response against the NMDAR expressed on neurons or neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in which the disease is induced by antibodies directed against aquaporin-4 expressed on astrocytes. There are many more examples in which it has become clear that a specific adaptive immune response mediated by T or/and B cells is leading to CNS disease. Often the symptoms of the induced disease are not easily interpreted as caused by an immune mediated disease. Beside classical neurological symptoms like ataxia, vision disturbance and motor or sensory symptoms, these can include cognitive disturbances, behavioral abnormalities or/and epileptic seizures. Although much has been learned regarding the
Male sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) with a specific restriction fragment length polymorphism fragment in their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotype (O-males) are more resistant to ectoparasites (a tick, Ixodes ricinus) than are males that lack this fragment (NO-males). However, emerging evidence suggests that such adaptive immune responses are costly, here manifested by reduced body condition and a compromised defence against secondary infections by haemoprotid parasites that use the ticks as vectors. Subsequent to tick encounter, O-males suffer from a higher leucocyte-erythrocyte ratio, and higher haemoprotid parasitaemia, in particular in relation to vector encounter rate. Furthermore, O-males (i.e. successful tick defenders) with more haemoprotid parasites remaining in their blood stream were in better body condition, whereas this did not apply in NO-males, demonstrating that the adaptive immunoreaction can-in the short term-be energetically even more costly than being moderately
Albano E, Bruzzì S, Sutti S.. Dept of Health Sciences, University "A. Avogadro" of East Piedmont, Novara Italy.. It is well established that chronic hepatic inflammation represents the main driving force in the evolution to fibrosis/cirrhosis of both alcoholic (ASH) and nonalcoholic (NASH) steatohepatitis. So far, innate immune mechanisms have been recognized as the main responsible in supporting inflammatory processes in steatohepatitis. However, growing evidence points on the possible role of adaptive immunity as an additional factor in promoting hepatic inflammation in ASH and NASH. In fact, patient with ASH and NASH, but not those with steatosis only, are characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies and lymphocyte-mediated responses triggered by antigens originating from oxidative stress. Similar immune responses are also detectable in experimental models of ASH and NASH and interference with either oxidative stress or the functions of either helper CD4+ and effector CD8+ ...
Current studies of Dendritic Cells (DCs) have confirmed not only their major role as antigen presenting cells in adaptive immunity but also their important functions in maintaining tolerance and in the initiation of the innate resistance and inflammatory responses. Thus, DCs function as an important bridge between innate resistance and adaptive immunity either through cellular interactions or secretion of pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines. The origin and migration pattern of DCs, their cell biological mechanisms of action, their functional diversity, their specializations and activities in specific tissue contexts, as well as their sharing of hematopoietic lineages, functions, and receptors with other phagocytic cell types such as monocytes and macrophages are subjects of intense investigation. Increasingly, the role of dendritic cells in disease pathology and as potential therapeutic targets is being explored both in the laboratory and in the clinic. This is particularly true in ...
The main focus of our research is to investigate the role of natural killer (NK) cells in the development of adaptive immune responses. The research focuses along two lines. (1) The interaction between dendritic cells (DC) and NK cells. (2) How NK cells can affect T and B cell mediated responses by direct physical interaction.. In particular, we are looking at the role of TRAIL in the elimination of DC in vivo and the role of 2B4 (CD244) on NK cells in the stimulation of T cells. How NK cells interact with DC or cells of the adaptive immune system has implications for the generation of a successful immune response aimed at eradication of infections or tumors. The studies also have relevance for the uncontrolled immune reactions occurring during autoimmune reactions and during allergic responses.. Keywords: NK cell, T cell, cellular, cytotoxicity, cancer, virus, toxoplasma. ...
Clearly we are at an early stage in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which TA-specific mAb-based immunotherapy mediates effective clinical responses. Although not conclusive, the information we have reviewed has focused attention on the potential role of TA-specific adaptive immunity in patients treated with TA-specific mAb-based immunotherapy. Such responses would be desirable, because they provide a mechanism for long-term protection and immunologic memory. Moreover, the generation of TA-specific adaptive immunity provides a mechanism to explain the improved clinical responses in at least some patients treated with repeated administrations of some TA-specific mAb.. If T cells do play a role in the clinical efficacy of TA-specific mAb-based immunotherapy, one might ask why T cells activated in this setting are effective at controlling tumor cell growth but not when patients are vaccinated with T-cell-based activation strategies. Several possibilities can be envisioned to ...
The complement system has been long appreciated as a major effector arm of the innate immune response. It consists of a complex group of serum proteins and glycoproteins and soluble or membrane-bound receptors, which play an important role in host defense against infection. Complement, a phylogenetically conserved arm of innate immunity, functions together with the adaptive immune response by serving as an important inflammatory mediator of antigen-antibody interactions. It also provides an interface between the innate and adaptive immune response by contributing to the enhancement of the humoral response mounted against specific antigens ...
Image source: rgbstock / johnnyberg. Eating Greens and How It Affects Immune Health. My mother always used to tell me "eat your greens, theyre good for you!" It turns out, mother was more right than she could possibly know.. Eating ones greens may be even more crucial for immune health than we previously thought, according to recent research which has discovered that an immune cell population essential for intestinal health may be controlled by leafy greens in the diet.. The immune cells, termed innate lymphoid cells ("ILCs"), are located in the lining of the digestive tract. They were discovered in 2013 by researchers at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Molecular Research in Australia. [1]. Let me back-track a bit. Science has, for many years, divided the immune system into two types: innate and adaptive. Innate immunity is present at birth and does not require prior exposure to protect you against pathogens. Adaptive immunity only develops when you have been exposed to a pathogen, for ...
T cells are produced in the thymus however precursor T cells are produced in the bone marrow and migrate to the thymus located in the mediastinum, once matured T cells will travel around the body. There are two types of T cells that derive from the thymus which can be distinguishable based on the molecules present on the cell surface. Helper T cells express a molecule called CD4 on their cell surface, therefore known as CD4 T cells (T helper cells). The other type of T cells express a molecule called CD8 on their cell surface, therefore known as CD8 T cells (known as cytotoxic after activation ...
The production of long-lived, high-affinity antibodies is critical for resistance to infection. This process requires the formation of germinal centers. Dysregu...
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Much of todays network security architecture relies on signature-based solutions, such as IPSs (Intrusion Prevention Systems), IDSs (Intrusion Detection Systems) and firewalls. If you have read my previous blog-entries, you know my opinion about the signature-based approach. To sum it...
Adaptive immunity[edit]. Activated platelets are able to participate in adaptive immunity, interacting with antibodies. They ... Hampton T (April 2018). "Platelets' Role in Adaptive Immunity May Contribute to Sepsis and Shock". JAMA. 319 (13): 1311-1312. ... "Platelets kill bacteria by bridging innate and adaptive immunity via platelet factor 4 and FcγRIIA". Journal of Thrombosis and ... "Thrombocyte inhibition restores protective immunity to mycobacterial infection in zebrafish". The Journal of Infectious ...
O'Leary JG, Goodarzi M, Drayton DL, von Andrian UH (May 2006). "T cell- and B cell-independent adaptive immunity mediated by ... Adaptive features of NK cells-"memory-like", "adaptive" and memory NK cells[edit]. Main article: Adaptive NK cells ... 2.6 Adaptive features of NK cells-"memory-like", "adaptive" and memory NK cells ... "Innate or adaptive immunity? The example of natural killer cells". Science. 331 (6013): 44-9. doi:10.1126/science.1198687. PMC ...
"Adaptive Immunity: Care for the community". Nature. 445 (7124): 153-153. doi:10.1038/445153a.. ... These apply to parasites whose hosts are plants as well as animals.[17][14] These strategies represent adaptive peaks; ... that trigger the adaptive immune system's lymphocytes such as T cells and antibody-producing B cells. These have receptors that ...
Weng, N. P. (2006). "Aging of the Immune System: How Much Can the Adaptive Immune System Adapt?". Immunity. 24 (5): 495-499. ... Hakim, F.T.; R.E. Gress (2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3): 179-189 ... the inability for effector T-lymphocytes to modulate an adaptive immune response (see below). A decline in humoral immunity ... the prevailing of innate immunity, the failing of clonotypic immunity, and the filling of immunological space". Vaccine. 18 (16 ...
This is a form of adaptive immunity. Plant immune systems also can respond to an initial infection in one part of the plant by ... The system is known as PAMP-Triggered Immunity or as Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI). The second tier, primarily governed by R ... Effector Triggered Immunity (ETI) is activated by the presence of pathogen effectors. The ETI response is reliant on R genes, ... The two above-described tiers are central to plant immunity but do not fully describe plant immune systems. In addition, many ...
Diamond, MS (2003). "Evasion of innate and adaptive immunity by flaviviruses". Immunology and Cell Biology. 81 (3): 196-206. ... "Infection and Immunity. 61 (6): 2273-2276. PMC 280844. PMID 8500868.. *^ Zhang, Jing-Ren; et al. (1997). "Antigenic Variation ... Immunity to re-infection is based on recognition of the antigens carried by the pathogen, which are "remembered" by the ... and the innate and adaptive immune systems. To protect itself, the parasite decorates itself with a dense, homogeneous coat (~ ...
... cytotoxic adaptive immunity), and B cells (for humoral, antibody-driven adaptive immunity). They are the main type of cell ... The lymphocytes involved in adaptive immunity (i.e. B and T cells) differentiate further after exposure to an antigen; they ... T cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas B cells are primarily responsible for humoral immunity (relating to ... T cells (thymus cells) and B cells (bone marrow- or bursa-derived cells[a]) are the major cellular components of the adaptive ...
Role in adaptive immunityEdit. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by ... adaptive immunity) by recruiting other immune cells such as lymphocytes. For example, they are important as antigen presenters ... "Immunity. 38 (2): 296-308. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2012.10.015. PMC 3582771 . PMID 23333075.. ... Mowat, Allen Mci (2011). "Mucosal macrophages in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation". Journal of Innate Immunity. 6: 550- ...
"A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity". Science. 337 (6096): 816-821. doi:10.1126/ ... The CRISPR/Cas9 system is based on an adaptive immune system of prokaryotic organisms, and its use for genome editing was first ...
Wu H, Arron JR (November 2003). "TRAF6, a molecular bridge spanning adaptive immunity, innate immunity and osteoimmunology". ... "Infection and Immunity. 75 (5): 2171-80. doi:10.1128/IAI.01178-06. PMC 1865739. PMID 17353286.. ... "Immunity. 31 (1): 145-57. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2009.06.015. PMC 3039716. PMID 19604493.. ... Their major role is to shut down T cell-mediated immunity toward the end of an immune reaction and to suppress autoreactive T ...
At least one of PAI-2's physiological functions may involve regulation of adaptive immunity.[5] ... "A physiological function of inflammation-associated SerpinB2 is regulation of adaptive immunity". Journal of Immunology. 184 (5 ... Schroder WA, Major L, Suhrbier A (2011). "The role of SerpinB2 in immunity". Critical Reviews in Immunology. 31 (1): 15-30. doi ...
"Innate or Adaptive Immunity? The Example of Natural Killer Cells". Science. 331 (6013): 44-49. doi:10.1126/science.1198687. CS1 ... T cell-and B cell-independent adaptive immunity mediated by natural killer cells'". Nature Immunology. 7 (5): 507-516. doi: ... The role NK cells play is analogous to that of cytotoxic T cells in the vertebrate adaptive immune response. NK cells provide ... Notably, further insights into the biology of adaptive NK cells are hampered by the fact that a direct viral ligand for NKG2C ...
Boehm, T., McCurley, N., Sutoh, Y., Schorpp, M., Kasahara, M., and Cooper, M.D. (2012). VLR-based adaptive immunity. Annual ... Variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) belong to the Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) family and mediate adaptive immune responses in ...
Zakharova L.A. (2009). "Evolution of adaptive immunity". Seriya Biologicheskaya. 2: 143-154. Linton P.J.; Dorshkind K. (2004 ... There are also hypotheses that suggest that thymic involution is directly adaptive. For example, some hypotheses have proposed ... 2003). "Neonates support lymphopenia-induced proliferation". Immunity. 18 (1): 131-140. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(02)00508-3. PMID ...
Lanier, Lewis L. (25 January 2013). "Shades of grey-the blurring view of innate and adaptive immunity". Nature Reviews ... "Innate or Adaptive Immunity? The Example of Natural Killer Cells". Science. 331 (6013): 44-49. doi:10.1126/science.1198687. ... As information has emerged about the functions of NK cells and other ILCs as effectors and orchestrators of the adaptive immune ... Natural killer ('NK') cells are cytotoxic innate effector cells analogous to the cytotoxic T cells of the adaptive immune ...
... cells of the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocytes) and non-immune cells (epithelial and endothelial cells, and fibroblasts).[ ... Adaptive immune response[edit]. In order to understand the links between the innate immune response and the adaptive immune ... "A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity". Nature. 388 (6640): 394-7. doi: ... DCs then migrate to the lymph nodes where T cells (adaptive immune cells) wait for signals to trigger their activation.[16] ...
Prolonged use of opioids may cause immunosuppression of both innate and adaptive immunity.[4] Decrease in proliferation as well ... Glucocorticoids also suppress the humoral immunity, causing B cells to express smaller amounts of IL-2 and IL-2 receptors. This ... Glucocorticoids suppress the cell-mediated immunity. They act by inhibiting genes that code for the cytokines Interleukin 1 (IL ... Although CD3 antibodies act more specifically than polyclonal antibodies, they lower the cell-mediated immunity significantly, ...
"Genome-wide association study in alopecia areata implicates both innate and adaptive immunity". Nature. 466 (7302): 113-7. ...
... γδ T cells straddle the border between innate and adaptive immunity. On one hand, γδ T cells are a component of adaptive ... Both innate and adaptive immunity depend on the ability of the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self molecules ... Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an ... Pancer Z, Cooper MD (2006). "The evolution of adaptive immunity". Annual Review of Immunology. 24 (1): 497-518. doi:10.1146/ ...
Translocated transcription factors activate expression of interferons 𝛂 and 𝛃, and these initiate adaptive immunity. NP encoded ... Impairment of dendritic cells and adaptive immunity by Ebola and Lassa viruses". Journal of Immunology. 170 (6): 2797-2801. doi ...
1999). "Beta-defensins: linking innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic and T cell CCR6". Science. 286 (5439): 525-8. ... 2002). "Mediators of innate immunity that target immature, but not mature, dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when ...
Flajnik MF, Kasahara M (September 2001). "Comparative genomics of the MHC: glimpses into the evolution of the adaptive immune ... system". Immunity. 15 (3): 351-362. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(01)00198-4. PMID 11567626.. ...
Unlike mammals, Drosophila flies only have innate immunity and lack an adaptive immune response. The D. melanogaster immune ... Troha K, Buchon N (September 2019). "Methods for the study of innate immunity in Drosophila melanogaster". Wiley ... immunity, diabetes, and cancer, as well as drug abuse.[78][79][80] ... Immunity. 51 (4): 625-637.e3. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2019.08.020. PMID 31564469.. ...
In malaria, as in other diseases, innate immunity leads into, and stimulates, adaptive immunity. ... the effects of innate immunity are overshadowed by those of adaptive immunity. It is also necessary to study populations in ... preceding adaptive immunity which exerts effects after several days. ... Protection by HbAS involves the enhancement of not only innate but also of acquired immunity to the parasite.[24] Prematurely ...
"Principles of innate and adaptive immunity". Charles A Janeway, Jr; Travers, Paul; Walport, Mark; Shlomchik, Mark J. (2001-01- ... This process further produces memory B cell and memory T cells that allow long-lasting immunity to occur. In conclusion, if a ... This immune response is highly specific to pathogens and provides the host with long-lasting immunity against future infection ...
Immunology: lymphocytic adaptive immune system and complement. Lymphoid. Antigens. *Antigen *Superantigen. *Allergen ... Immunity vs.. tolerance. *action: Immunity. *Autoimmunity. *Alloimmunity. *Allergy. *Hypersensitivity. *Inflammation. *Cross- ...
Raju V. V. Tatituri, Gerald F. M. Watts, Veemal Bhowruth, Nathaniel Barton, Alissa Rothchild, Fong-Fu Hsu, Catarina F. Almeida, Liam R. Cox, Lothar Eggeling, Susanna Cardell, Jamie Rossjohn, Dale I. Godfrey, Samuel M. Behar, Gurdyal S. Besra, Michael B. Brenner, and Manfred Brigl ...
... Brancaleone Vincenzo,1 Iqbal J. Asif,2 Paschalidis Nikolaos,3 and Maione Francesco4 ...
Second Crossroads between Innate and Adaptive Immunity, in Crete, Greece, June 17-22, 2007. This meeting is designed to serve ...
Adaptive immunity is mediated through numerous genetic and cellular processes that generate favourable somatic variants of ... At this stage in the evolution of jawed vertebrate adaptive immunity, a genetic event that disrupted a V-type immunoglobulin ... Although the evolution of adaptive immunity has been thought to occur by the acquisition of novel molecular capabilities, an ... Yellow diamonds indicate placement of two forms of adaptive immunity in jawed and jawless vertebrates; yellow circles indicate ...
Junior Research Group Adaptive Immunity and Lymphoma. Sandrine Sander, MD, PhD. A wide spectrum of methods is used to ... Adaptive Immunity and Lymphoma * Research Projects *Driver genes and pathways in lymphomagenesis ... B cells are important players in adaptive immunity and our group is interested in B cell development and function as well as ... Adaptive Immunity and Lymphoma *Research Projects *Driver genes and pathways in lymphomagenesis ...
Your adaptive immunity gets its name because it adapts and changes, or adapts, as you go through life and are exposed to ... Several types of white blood cells work together to create your adaptive immunity:. * Helper T cells: Also called CD4 cells, ... One of the awesome features of your adaptive immunity is that it can remember a pathogen it has encountered before. This ... When your innate defenses are breached, its time for the troops of your adaptive immunity to rally and fight back. ...
... Carlos Rosales,1 Nicolas Demaurex,2 Clifford A. Lowell,3 and Eileen ... presents an overview on how this enzyme has key roles in various functions of neutrophils in innate and adaptive immunity. When ... Neutrophils can do this by exchanging information with macrophages, dendritic cells, and other cells of the adaptive immune ... To illuminate the complex role of neutrophils in infection, inflammation, and immunity, this special issue has gathered ...
... Carlos Rosales,1 Nicolas Demaurex,2 Clifford A. Lowell,3 and Eileen ...
Innate and adaptive immunity to Francisella.. Elkins KL1, Cowley SC, Bosio CM. ... Here, the basic parameters of innate and adaptive immune responses to Francisella are reviewed, with an emphasis on those that ...
Control of adaptive immunity by the innate immune system.. Iwasaki A1, Medzhitov R1. ... Here we discuss these emerging principles of innate control of adaptive immunity. ... TH1 cell-mediated immunity requires stimulation, in a GM-CSF-dependent manner, by the CD207+CD103+ DC subset, a minor ... Finally, TH2 cell-mediated immunity requires IRF4-dependent CD301b+CD11b+ DCs (mouse). These DCs comprise the majority of ...
Natural immunity, Congresses, Natural Immunity, Antigen Presentation, Active Immunity, Physiology ... Crossroads between innate and adaptive immunity II by Crossroads Between Innate and Adaptive Immunity Conference (2nd 2007 ... Crossroads between innate and adaptive immunity II 1 edition By Crossroads Between Innate and Adaptive Immunity Conference (2nd ... Immune response, Regulation, Natural immunity, Congresses, Natural Immunity, Antigen Presentation, Active Immunity, Physiology ...
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Variability in HLA genes serves a critical role in adaptive immunity. ... human genetics: The genetics of cellular immunity. These genes code for the major histocompatibility antigens, which are found ...
Molecular aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. [G Arlaud; Mike Carroll; Alister Dodds; Uffe Holmskov; Jens Chr Jensenius; ... However, the wide range of immunity system topics, while staying broadly within innate/adaptive immunity will also appeal to a ... Molecular aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. Author:. G Arlaud; Mike Carroll; Alister Dodds; Uffe Holmskov; Jens Chr ... This book provides a survey of topics, in the area of innate and adaptive immunity, which have been researched within the MRC ...
Dendritic cells are activated in response to Mucorales hyphae only, and induce adaptive immunity. It is crucial to further ... knowledge regarding our immune systems failure to eradicate resting spores under intact immunity and inhibit fungal growth ... adaptive immunity mucormycosis; spores; hyphae; innate immunity; macrophages; neutrophils; dendritic cells; platelets; adaptive ... Innate and Adaptive Immunity to Mucorales by Harlene Ghuman and Kerstin Voelz *. ...
Introduction: innate immunity informs adaptive responses in atherosclerosis. *Understanding adaptive immunity in ... Introduction: innate immunity informs adaptive responses in atherosclerosis. *Understanding adaptive immunity in ... Understanding adaptive immunity in atherosclerosis. Adaptive responses occur following recognition of an antigen by membrane Ig ... mice in which adaptive immunity is deleted (e.g., Rag-null mice or mice on a SCID background) demonstrate that while adaptive ...
In this review, we will discuss how APCs, by responding to those cytokines, influence T cell differentiation and adaptive ... T cells become effector cells that produce different effector molecules and execute adaptive immune functions. Studies thus far ... The fate of adaptive T cell immunity is determined by multiple cellular and molecular factors, among which the cytokine milieu ... Cellular Factors Targeting APCs to Modulate Adaptive T Cell Immunity. Anabelle Visperas. ,1. ,. 2 Jeongsu Do. ,1 and Booki Min ...
This review focuses on different aspects of the adaptive immune responses as determinants of the different outcomes of HCV ... The precise role of adaptive immune responses in the clinical outcome of HCV infection is still only partially defined. Recent ... Zeisel MB, Fafi-Kremer S, Robinet E, Habersetzer F, Baumert TF, Stoll-Keller F. Adaptive Immunity to Hepatitis C Virus. Viruses ... Zeisel, M.B.; Fafi-Kremer, S.; Robinet, E.; Habersetzer, F.; Baumert, T.F.; Stoll-Keller, F. Adaptive Immunity to Hepatitis C ...
A Multicomponent Vaccine Provides Immunity against Local and Systemic Infections by Group A Streptococcus across Serotypes GAS ...
... There are two main mechanisms of immunity within the adaptive immune system ... Humoral immunity is also called antibody-mediated immunity. With assistance from helper T cells, B cells will differentiate ... Cellular immunity occurs inside infected cells and is mediated by T lymphocytes. The pathogens antigens are expressed on the ...
Toll-like receptors and their function in innate and adaptive immunity.. Heine H1, Lien E. ... Division of Innate Immunity, Research Center Borstel, Center for Medicine and Biosciences, Germany. [email protected] ... the innate immune system through mammalian Toll-like receptors has also an instructive role for the responses of the adaptive ...
Liver-resident NK cells confer adaptive immunity in skin-contact inflammation.. Peng H1, Jiang X, Chen Y, Sojka DK, Wei H, Gao ...
On the other hand, the cells of adaptive immunity are only called to... ... Innate immunity refers to the cells and the proteins that are present in the body and are ready to fight diseases at all times ... While innate immunity is present from birth and remains in the body throughout, adaptive or acquired immunity develops during a ... the cells of adaptive immunity are only called to action if certain pathogens overcome the power of innate immunity. ...
Adaptive immunity maintains occult cancer in an equilibrium state.. Koebel CM1, Vermi W, Swann JB, Zerafa N, Rodig SJ, Old LJ, ... The capacity of immunity to control and shape cancer, that is, cancer immunoediting, is the result of three processes that ... expansion of transformed cells is held in check by immunity); and escape (tumour cell variants with dampened immunogenicity or ... function either independently or in sequence: elimination (cancer immunosurveillance, in which immunity functions as an ...
Explore adaptive immunity cell signaling pathways, including the AKT signaling pathway, the Fas signaling pathway, and the RANK ... Browse adaptive immunity pathways Adaptive immunity is one of two ways by which vertebrates clear pathogens from the body. The ... are derived from T-helper cells and provide help to cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. ...
  • Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), together with CRISPR-associated genes ( cas ), constitute an adaptive microbial immune system that provides acquired resistance against viruses and plasmids. (pnas.org)
  • Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), together with CRISPR-associated ( cas ) genes constitute an adaptive microbial immune system which provides acquired resistance against viruses and plasmids via uptake of short fragments of invasive DNA (spacers) ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Numerous seminal works have investigated the interaction between innate immunity and the CNS under conditions such as stress, bulimia or anorexia, fever, and others ( 6 - 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • These data represent the first evidence for a mechanism by which Ebola and Lassa viruses target DC to impair adaptive immunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Indeed, it was reported that T-bet expression in DCs is essential for optimal induction of Th1 immunity in vivo [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Many agents with adjuvant activity, such as bacterial endotoxin, Freund's adjuvant, bacterial CpG motifs, monophosphoryl lipid A, MF59, and α-galactosylceramide boost immunity through induction of DC maturation ( 16 - 19 ). (rupress.org)
  • Consequently, we conclude that EMT induction in HCC is associated with downregulation of adaptive immunity in a manner dependent on the COX-2 pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • After pulmonary exposure to anthrax spores, toxin expression was required for the development of protective immunity to a subsequent lethal challenge. (asm.org)
  • We determined the association of components of innate and adaptive immunity longitudinally with ASCVD, and assessed whether arterial calcifications play a role in this association. (prolekare.cz)
  • Although the first two items are not classic components of innate immunity, they are uniquely involved in the initial inflammatory response to caries. (wikipedia.org)