The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Conversion from one language to another language.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
The absence of light.
An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Performance of complex motor acts.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Differential response to different stimuli.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Images seen by one eye.
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.
The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).
The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.
Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From, 8/4/2000)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A decrease in the rate of speed.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
... (film), a 1973 film adaptation of the novel. *England Made Me, a 1991 album by Cath Carroll ... England Made Me may refer to: *England Made Me (novel), a 1935 novel by Graham Greene ...
This is referred to as "behavior adaptation". A 2006 US study suggested that airbags and antilock brakes can lead to unsafe ... Given behavior adaptation and migration, the current rigorous Interstate effectiveness of 14%, and CLRS on single-lane highways ... Behavioral Adaptation, Why Safety Features Don't Always Increase Safety (Claims Advisor), Oct. 2007 "Airbags, Antilock Brakes ... "Smart car" virtual shoulder rumble strips, referred to as a lane departure warning system, are increasingly available on ...
It is often referred to as the bicultural stage. Reverse culture shock[edit]. Reverse culture shock (also known as "re-entry ... Adaptation[edit]. In the mastery stage individuals are able to participate fully and comfortably in the host culture. Mastery ... Winkelman, Michael (1994). "Cultural Shock and Adaptation". Journal of Counseling & Development. 73 (2): 121-126.. ... adaptation of gut flora to different bacteria levels and concentrations in food and water; difficulty in seeking treatment for ...
They can drink from very shallow pools through their nostrils; the former genus Dipsochelys refers to this adaptation.[full ... Giant tortoises were once all places in a single genus (often referred to as Testudo or Geochelone), but more recent studies ... The tortoises were unique to these islands and had gained a number of special adaptations in the absence of ground predators. ... This may occur due to factors such as relaxed predation pressure, competitive release, or an adaptation to increased ...
... and adaptations to personal vehicles. Automobile accessibility also refers to ease of use by disabled people. Automobiles, ... This is referred to as a kneeling bus. At rapid transit systems, vehicles generally have floors in the same height as the ... Web "content" generally refers to the information in a Web page or Web application, including text, images, forms, and sounds ... Ergonomic adaptations, such as a lumbar support cushion, may also be needed. Generally, the more limiting the disability, the ...
But only in man does the taxonomy miss something like 99% of the adaptation in the species. I refer to the observed adaptation ... human beings are also referred to as persons or people": the selective group would not be referred to as "people" but as "a ... Human beings are commonly referred to individually as persons or people and collectively as man, mankind, humanity, or the ... Human beings are commonly referred to collectively as man, mankind, humanity, or the human race and individually as humans, ...
A pasture can also refer to any land used for grazing, and in this wider sense the term refers not only to grass pasture but ... These adaptations are limited through. Spatial shifts may be difficult if the areas are already inhabited by other species, or ... Spatial shifts refers to the migration towards colder areas, often on higher altitudes. A temporal shift means that a plant may ... The result was a clear adaptation of a constant pattern that plants recognized and had time to reach thermal acclimation ...
His friends refer to him simply as Shu (シュウ). At the end of the series, we can conclude that he is "Mr. Bunny." Shu Suzuki is ... Kiriu does not appear in the anime series; he is portrayed by actor Osamu Mukai in the live-action adaptation. Senri Ukita (宇喜多 ... His friends refer to him by family name only. He also responds to the nickname Fucchī (ふっちー) given to him by Kei. Shinnosuke ... Voiced by: Bin Sasaki Haruo Suzuki does not appear in either the anime series or the live-action adaptation. Sakura Suzuki (鈴木 ...
For example, in episode 4, Hugh refers to Dr. Primble as "Primple". And in episode 2, Brigadier Whitehead is referred to as ... The adaptation contains a few changes, which include mention of the Mother (and a phone call to Steed, ordering him to ... Henry Primble is much older in this adaptation. The new scene with Steed and Emma in a rooftop garden was added to the script. ...
This is what is referred to as VOR adaptation. Ethanol consumption can disrupt the VOR, reducing dynamic visual acuity. This ...
referred by Debi Roberson, University of Essex 2011 Fairchild, Mark D. (2005). "8. Chromatic Adaptation". Color Appearance ... In color vision, chromatic adaptation refers to color constancy; the ability of the visual system to preserve the appearance of ... Chromatic Adaptation Archived 2011-08-18 at the Wayback Machine Lindbloom, Bruce. Chromatic Adaptation Archived 2011-09-26 at ... The adaptation to see reds is particularly important for primate mammals, since it leads to the identification of fruits, and ...
Folklorism also refers to the invention or adaptation of folklore. Unlike fakelore, however, folklorism is not necessarily ... The term can refer to new stories or songs made up, or to folklore that is reworked and modified for modern tastes. The element ... Newall, Venetia J. (1987). "The Adaptation of Folklore and Tradition (Folklorismus)". Folklore. 98 (2): 131-151. doi:10.1080/ ...
In the television adaptation, he is portrayed by Orlando Jones. A later Gaiman novel, Anansi Boys, follows the sons of Anansi ... The proverb is: "If yuh cyaan ketch Kwaku, yuh ketch him shut", which refers to when Brah Dead (brother death or drybones), a ... He admits to being an African Trickster God, appears as an elderly human male who loves to eat, is frequently referred to as " ... In one chapter in the same book he also refers to himself as 'Spider.' Neil Gaiman's novel American Gods features Anansi (under ...
Portrayed by Rosario Dawson in the film adaptation and its sequel. Miho (ミホ), often referred to as "Deadly Little Miho" by ... Portrayed by Babs George in the film adaptation. One of Hartigan's lawyers, referred to in the film as 'Skinny Dude'. His ... in the film adaptation. Dallas, Old Town girl and Miho's driver. Gunned down by mercenaries. In the film adaptation, she is ... In the film adaptation of "That Yellow Bastard", Bob's role is expanded and he is shown to regret betraying Hartigan, picking ...
The book has been referred to as both postfeminist and anti-feminist. Crichton offered a rebuttal at the close of the novel ... In a review comparing the novel with the film adaptation, Nathan Rabin expressed a negative view: he described Disclosure as " ... In 1994, Disclosure, a film adaptation of the novel was released. It starred Demi Moore, Michael Douglas, Donald Sutherland and ...
His English adaptation of his last name refers to a Bison. In Mega Man Star Force, Bud tried to threaten Geo to go to school ... Altair, who sometimes referred to her by the pet name of "Vegalita", had to leave her in order to fight in a war. He died ... His Japanese last name Yagi, is the Japanese word for "goat". His English name refers to both a "kid" (a young goat) and to the ... In the dialog, when he first appears in EM Wave form, he refers to himself as "Plesio Wave", but the actual boss is identified ...
The term was a pejorative adaptation of the adjective morisco ("Moorish"). It soon became the standard term to refer to all ... The writing referred to the practice of secret congregational ritual prayer, (salat jama'ah) collecting alms in order to ... The text never featured the Trinity doctrine or referred to Jesus as Son of God, concepts which are blasphemous and offensive ... The content of this text was superficially Christian and did not refer to Islam at all, but contains many "Islamizing" features ...
Managing change over time, referred to as navigation, requires continuous adaptation. It requires managing projects over time ... while change management may be used solely to refer to how people and teams are affected by such organizational transition. It ...
This phenomenon is sometimes referred to as a contingent after-effect. Similarly, adaptation can cause such illusions in the ... Focal adaptation evoked by prolonged stimulation to a skin area causes the illusion that two subsequently presented stimulus ... Many illusions in vision are caused by adaptation, the prolonged exposure to a previous stimulus. In such cases, the perception ... Li, Lux; Chan, Arielle; Iqbal, Shah M.; Goldreich, Daniel (28 June 2017). "An Adaptation-Induced Repulsion Illusion in Tactile ...
"Decree on the Adaptation and Renewal of Religious Life". Adaptation refers to adjusting to the "changed conditions of the times ... Perfectæ caritatis, subtitled as the Decree on the Adaptation and Renewal of Religious Life, is the document issued by the ... Nevertheless, their manner of living should be revised according to the principles and criteria of adaptation and renewal ... ""; renewal refers to "a continuous return to the sources of all Christian life and to the original inspiration behind a given ...
A. E. Housman refers to the 'Greek Lad', Narcissus, in his poem "Look not in my Eyes" from A Shropshire Lad set to music by ... Narcissus appears in the Disney adaptation of Hercules. In the film, he is portrayed as an Olympian god with purple skin. In ... He was referred to as 'The prince who contemplated his soul'. Pink Narcissus is an artistic film by James Bidgood about the ... 1972), a near-23-minute epic song laden with religious and mythological imagery, refers to the myth of Narcissus as follows: A ...
... may also refer to an ability to persevere through a difficult situation. Different types of endurance performance can ... Adaptation of exercise plans should follow individual goals. Calculating the Intensity of exercise the individual capabilies ... "The major metabolic consequences of the adaptations of muscle to endurance exercise are a slower utilization of muscle glycogen ... Holloszy, J. O.; Coyle, E. F. (1 April 1984). "Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic ...
Ecologists refer to[clarification needed] parapatric and peripatric speciation in terms of ecological niches. A niche must be ... Ecological speciation occurs with much of the evidence, "...accumulated from top-down studies of adaptation and reproductive ... The first and most commonly used sense refers to the "birth" of new species. That is, the splitting of an existing species into ... Reinforcement, sometimes referred to as the Wallace effect, is the process by which natural selection increases reproductive ...
The script for this adaptation was written by Joel and Ethan Coen. List of American films of 1966 Nonlinear narrative "Big ... Please note these figures refer to rentals accruing to the distributors. "The 39th Academy Awards (1967) Nominees and Winners ...
The episode's title refers to Twelve Angry Men and its film adaptation. Similarly to both, "One Angry Veronica" depicts a jury ...
Alison Findley referred to Beatrice as "a conduit for the film's emotional energy". In Joss Whedon's 2012 film adaptation of ... In act 4, scene 1, Beatrice famously asks Benedick to "Kill Claudio". The last portion of act 4, scene 1 is often referred to ... In the 1964 German language adaptation, Viel Lärm um Nichts, Beatrice was played by Christel Bodenstein. Emma Thompson played ... Sarah Parish played a modernized Beatrice as part of the ShakespeaRe-Told series of televised Shakespeare adaptations. In ...
There are several different schemes, referred to as ATM adaptation layers (AAL). The schemes are: AAL0 - Raw cells with no ...
It had referred to the adaptation of farming techniques to local conditions. It became a buzzword when Japanese business ... Glocalization, or glocalism, in community organization refers to community organizing that sees social problems as neither ... or a local adaptation and interpretation of global forces. As a theoretical framework, it is compatible with many of the ...
He has referred to the film as "unwatchable". Several other "art" films followed: The Birthday Party, based on an unpublished ... Friedkin was slated to direct a film adaptation of Robin Cook's novel Brain. The moving image collection of William Friedkin is ... In 1980, he directed an adaptation of the Gerald Walker crime thriller Cruising, starring Al Pacino, which was protested ... Whereas Coppola directed The Conversation and Bogdanovich, the Henry James adaptation, Daisy Miller, Friedkin abruptly left the ...
"Organismically-inspired robotics: homeostatic adaptation and teleology beyond the closed sensorimotor loop" (PDF).. ... of the Systems Development Foundation to provide a summary of the current status of a field which until that point was referred ... it nevertheless failed to predict a number of important features such as adaptation and shunting. Scientists now believe that ...
In 2013, Amanda Hale portrayed Lady Margaret Beaufort in the television drama series, The White Queen, an adaptation of ... After her son's victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the Countess was referred to in court as "My Lady the King's Mother". ... Margaret refers to Edmund Tudor as her first husband. Under canon law, Margaret was not bound by her first marriage contract as ...
Feldhamer, George A.; Drickamer, Lee C.; Vessey, Stephen H.; Merritt, Joseph H.; Krajewski, Carey (2007). Mammalogy: Adaptation ... Used to refer to daily self-care activities. Basic. *Personal hygiene. *Dressing ...
The small world attribute refers to the many loosely connected nodes, non-random dense clustering of a few nodes (i.e., trophic ... Herbivore adaptations to plant defense. *Mimicry. *Plant defense against herbivory. *Predator avoidance in schooling fish ... These regions of high link density are often referred to as cliques, hubs, compartments, cohesive sub-groups, or modules... ...
A manga adaptation was published by Shueisha in Margaret and its sister magazine The Margaret. Between 2004 and 2009, the ... These are also referred to by their colors; the Yellow Rose (黄薔薇, Kibara) is Rosa Foetida, the White Rose (白薔薇, Shirobara) is ... The anime adaptations have been released in North America by Nozomi Entertainment under the title Maria Watches Over Us. The ... The musical choices of the Maria-sama ga Miteru anime adaptations are generally classical music-inspired.[7][8] The Christian ...
The primary and secondary venation may be referred to as pinnate, while the net like finer veins are referred to as netted or ... Evolutionary adaptationEdit. Poinsettia bracts are leaves which have evolved red pigmentation in order to attract insects and ... The leaves and stem together form the shoot.[2] Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage".[3][4] ... The term multicostate refers to having more than one prominent main vein. e.g. "fan" (palmate) palms (Arecaceae). Multicostate ...
The molar teeth were very large, with an area over twice that of modern humans.[7] The species is sometimes referred to as " ... and dietary adaptations in early hominins". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 151 (3): 356-71. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22281 ... Strong jaw muscles are believed to be an evolutionary adaptation of P. boisei for a diet of nuts, seeds and hard fruit.[16] ...
In 1958, A.S. Romer discovered specimen MCZ 7063, originally referred to Staurikosaurus in Carnian sediments. Herrerasaurus ... The tail, partially stiffened by overlapping vertebral projections, balanced the body and was also an adaptation for speed.[9] ... In a 2001 study conducted by Bruce Rothschild and other paleontologists, 12 hand bones and 20 foot bones referred to ... Over the years, the Ischigualasto Formation produced other fossils ultimately referred to Herrerasaurus. ...
Illuminant estimation and adaptation[edit]. A seascape photograph at Clifton Beach, South Arm, Tasmania, Australia. The white ... Sometimes the adjustment to keep neutrals neutral is called white balance, and the phrase color balance refers to the ... General illuminant adaptation[edit]. The best color matrix for adapting to a change in illuminant is not necessarily a diagonal ... Preferred chromatic adaptation spaces[edit]. Comparisons of images balanced by diagonal transforms in a number of different RGB ...
Other adaptations are pollen (so fertilisation can occur without water) and the seed, which allows the embryo to be transported ... Conifers are classified by three reproductive cycles, namely; 1-, 2-, or 3- . The cycles refers to the completion of female ... Pinophytes, Cycadophytes, and Ginkgophytes all developed at this time.[3] An important adaptation of these gymnosperms was ... Boreal conifers have many wintertime adaptations. The narrow conical shape of northern conifers, and their downward-drooping ...
Since 1976 the disease is most often referred to as Lyme disease,[256][257] Lyme borreliosis or simply borreliosis.[258][259] ... "The London climate change adaptation strategy - Draft report" (PDF). Greater London Authority. August 2008. Archived from the ...
The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the sixth mass extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is an ongoing ... The underlying reason includes evolutionary adaptation of large mammals to humans as well as greater pest pressure on human ... This may refer to groups of animals endangered by climate change. For example, during a catastrophic drought, remaining animals ... The term pollinator decline refers to the reduction in abundance of insect and other animal pollinators in many ecosystems ...
These adaptations and counter adaptations probably have led to extensive diversification in both the Brassicaceae and one of ... The genus name comes from the Classical Latin word brassica, referring to cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables. The ... Some insect herbivores have developed counter adaptations such as rapid absorption of the glucosinates, quick alternative ...
As the adaptation becomes more pronounced, the new species or race radiates from its entrance into the new space, or dies out ... An individual who inherits such deleterious traits is colloquially referred to as inbred. The avoidance of expression of such ... but more commonly refers to the genetic disorders and other consequences that may arise from expression of deleterious or ...
The common adaptation among the different designs is that they have extra-wide balloon wheels or tires, to increase stability ... In the United States a wheelchair that has been designed and tested for use as a seat in motor vehicles is often referred to as ... Other important adaptations can include powered doors, lowered fixtures such as sinks and water fountains, and accessible ... Important adaptations include external access, providing sufficient space for a wheelchair user to move around the home, ...
Females, referred to as "cows", carry the responsibility of childcare as males, referred to as "bulls", play no part in raising ... which is the same hearing adaptation used by bats - and, in the rorqual whales, jaw adaptations, similar to those found in ... 1-34 is generally understood to refer to a whale. The "sea monsters" in Lamentations 4:3 have been taken by some to refer to ... This adaptation allows the chest to compress during deep dives as opposed to resisting the force of water pressure.[11] ...
Sometimes, a pleiotropic gene may be both harmful and beneficial to an organism, which is referred to as antagonistic ... Studies on fungal evolutionary genomics have shown pleiotropic traits that simultaneously affect adaptation and reproductive ... Unfortunately, the process of antagonistic pleiotropy may result in an altered evolutionary path with delayed adaptation, in ... adaptation and reproductive isolation are instantly facilitated, and in turn, pleiotropically causes adaptive speciation. The ...
This type of diaphragmatic setup has been referred to as the "hepatic piston". The airways form a number of double tubular ... Such adaptations are the result of environments such as remote islands and deserts where water is very scarce.[98]:143 Other ... These animals are traditionally referred to as "anapsids", and form a paraphyletic basic stock from which other groups evolved. ... Even with these adaptations, breathing is never fully accomplished without lungs. Lung ventilation is accomplished differently ...
Cellular adaptation. Atrophy. Hypertrophy. Hyperplasia. Dysplasia. Metaplasia Squamous. Glandular. Cell death. Necrosis ... In fluorescent "in situ" hybridization refers to the cellular placement of the probe ...
One form of itriyya with a long history is laganum (plural lagana), which in Latin refers to a thin sheet of dough,[10] and ... International adaptations. As pasta was introduced elsewhere in the world, it became incorporated into a number of local ...
Compare also Meïr Halevi Letteris' Hebrew drama Ben Abuja, an adaptation of Goethe's Faust, Vienna, 1865. ... The same passage from the Jerusalem Talmud refers to Elisha as being alive when his pupil Rabbi Meir had become a renowned ... the rabbis of the Talmud refrained from relating teachings in his name and referred to him as the "Other One" (אחר, Acher).[1] ... and referred to him in terms used to designate some vile object ("dabar aḥer," lit. "another thing")." (Louis Ginzberg, "Elisha ...
I tried the effect of avoiding suus where the word doesn't refer to the subject of the sentence. Perhaps I was being pedantic ( ... but rather a humanistic adaptation and conventionalisation ad usum scholarum. I'm pretty sure most of us are more familiar with ... Toward birds or toward a bird: that's the question! This notice could refer to the set (e.g., Aves in general) or to the ...
Butler, Ann B.; Hodos, William (2 September 2005). Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and Adaptation. John Wiley & ... Such scientists use the term stem-tetrapod to refer to those tetrapod-like vertebrates that are not members of the crown group ... Although the kinetic inertial system is occasionally found in fish, it requires special adaptations (such as very narrow jaws) ... "Dermal bone in early tetrapods: a palaeophysiological hypothesis of adaptation for terrestrial acidosis". Proceedings of the ...
Kolk, Herman; Heeschen, Claus (May 1990). "Adaptation symptoms and impairment symptoms in Broca's aphasia". Aphasiology. 4 (3 ... Guided imagery refers to a technique used in natural and alternative medicine that involves using mental imagery to help with ...
A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation. Dislocations are often caused by sudden trauma on the joint like an ... recurrence and direction with adaptations made based on the needs of the patient. In general, the therapeutic program should ...
The hand bones of OH 7 suggest precision gripping, important in dexterity, as well as adaptations for climbing. In regard to ... now referred to as Homo rudolfensis. It is also argued that instead it represents a male specimen whereas other H. habilis ... Nonetheless, the jaw adaptations for processing mechanically challenging food indicates technological advancement did not ... as well as similarities in dental adaptations, Wood and biological anthropologist Mark Collard suggested moving the species to ...
synecdoche: Referring to a part by its whole or vice versa. *synonymia: Use of two or more synonyms in the same clause or ... Since it concerned relatively mechanical procedures of adaptation that for the most part could be learned, the techniques ... Run up refers to ascending and also to manufacturing. The effect is enhanced by the momentary suggestion, through a pun, that ... "I had butterflies in my stomach" is a metaphor, referring to a nervous feeling as if there were flying insects in one's stomach ...
Pre-adaptations and evolution after the initial introduction also play a role in the success of the introduced species. If the ... a term referred to as naturalisation. For example, L. leucozonium, shown by population genetic analysis to be an invasive ... Adaptation then proceeds to respond to the selective pressures of the new environment. These responses would most likely be due ... Intraspecific phenotypic plasticity, pre-adaptation and post-introduction evolution are all major factors in adaptive evolution ...
Adaptations of coins and banknotes so that the value can be determined by touch. For example: *In some currencies, such as the ... Statements that certain species of mammals are "born blind" refers to them being born with their eyes closed and their eyelids ... They use a combination of vision and other senses to learn, although they may require adaptations in lighting or the size of ... Low vision generally refers to a severe visual impairment, not necessarily limited to distance vision. Low vision applies to ...
The book refers to early Kannada writers such as the 6th century Western Ganga Dynasty King Durvinita, a writer of prose. Hence ... He wrote the first ten chapters of Gadugina Bharata (1430), a Kannada adaptation of epic Mahabharata in the court of Deva Raya ...
Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Adaptation and Ecology - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780080249391, ... Refer. Chapter 33. Metabolic Responses of a Sea Anemone to Hypoxia and Air Exposure. Chapter 34. Lactate - The Preferred ... Short-Term Adaptation. Long-Term Adaptation. References. Chapter 52. Effects of Temperature on the Catalytic Properties of ... Animals and Environmental Fitness: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Adaptation and Ecology 1st Edition. Abstracts. ...
The flexibility of a surveillance system refers to the systems ability to change as needs change. The adaptation to changing ... Users should not rely on this HTML document, but are referred to the electronic PDF version and/or the original MMWR paper copy ... The stability of a surveillance system refers to its resilience to system changes (e.g., change in coding from International ...
TAG, tumor-associated genes are from; CGC, refers to Cancer Gene Census database. Other, refers to ... YTHDF1 links hypoxia adaptation and non-small cell lung cancer progression.. Shi Y1,2, Fan S3, Wu M4, Zuo Z5, Li X5, Jiang L1, ... YTHDF1 is a hypoxia adaptation gene. a The signature of positive selection on cancer related genes in Tibetan humans evaluated ... The Keap1-Nrf2-AKR1C1 axis is the same mediator for YTHDF1 low expression dependent hypoxia adaptation. Thus, the balance of ...
Refer to Section 3). 1.4.3 SS7 and M3UA Interworking In the case of SS7 and M3UA interworking, the M3UA adaptation layer is ... 3.1 Common Message Header The protocol messages for MTP3-User Adaptation require a message header which contains the adaptation ... User Adaptation Layer", RFC 3331, August 2002. [28] George, T., et. al., "SS7 MTP2-User Peer-to-Peer Adaptation Layer", Work in ... Reserved for Other SIGTRAN Adaptation Layers 6 Reserved for Other SIGTRAN Adaptation Layers 7 Reserved for Other SIGTRAN ...
England Made Me (film), a 1973 film adaptation of the novel. *England Made Me, a 1991 album by Cath Carroll ... England Made Me may refer to: *England Made Me (novel), a 1935 novel by Graham Greene ...
Using an adaptation paradigm, in which an adaptor and subsequent test stimulus are presented during each trial, the present ... Using an adaptation paradigm, in which an adaptor and subsequent test stimulus are presented during each trial, the present ... In addition, we found that men have greater N170 categorical adaptation for face and word processing than women. There was also ... In addition, we found that men have greater N170 categorical adaptation for face and word processing than women. There was also ...
Interassociation recommendations for developing a plan to recognize and refer student-athletes with psychological concerns at ... Interassociation recommendations for developing a plan to recognize and refer student-athletes with psychological concerns at ... Adaptation, Psychological / physiology* * Adolescent * Adolescent Behavior / physiology * Adult * Athletes / psychology* * ...
Gene numbers refer to PMM0XXX in MED4. Unfilled genes are likely pseudogenes. Color coding of strain names reflects ecotype ... This implies that nutrient adaptation has occurred more recently than adaptation to light and temperature gradients. One ... Adaptation to P Limitation in Prochlorococcus.. Our analysis revealed genomic variation among Prochlorococcus isolates that is ... Phosphate acquisition genes in Prochlorococcus ecotypes: Evidence for genome-wide adaptation. Adam C. Martiny, Maureen L. ...
It is often referred to as the bicultural stage. Reverse culture shock[edit]. Reverse culture shock (also known as "re-entry ... Adaptation[edit]. In the mastery stage individuals are able to participate fully and comfortably in the host culture. Mastery ... Winkelman, Michael (1994). "Cultural Shock and Adaptation". Journal of Counseling & Development. 73 (2): 121-126.. ... adaptation of gut flora to different bacteria levels and concentrations in food and water; difficulty in seeking treatment for ...
Refer to the RCPCHs adaptation of the ICD-10. 5. True or false: Final coding will always be at the central registry.. ...
The capability to generate long-distance transmission of electrical signals is no longer regarded as anecdotal or an irrelevant feature of plants. Recent genetic, electrophysiological, and imaging work on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has led to a revival in the interest for this phenomenon. These electrical signals are likely of enormous importance in determining the dynamics of the interactions between plants and their environment, including herbivorous insects, and it is likely that they play many other functions thorough the plant life cycle. Since multi-cellularity evolved independently in plants and animals, the characterization of the molecular and mechanistic aspects of these signals will be valuable to understanding central aspects of electrical transmission in biological systems, as well as providing insight into the unique aspects of these signaling networks in plants. Recent investigations of the transmission of these signals in the shoot and the root of plants, both with
Resilience refers to positive adaptation following stress or trauma. The original Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale brief ... The functional status, referring to the capacity to perform a variety of activities that are normal for most people, will be ... Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. ... Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01986725 ...
Adaptation: Adaptation refers to adjustments to respond to climate change.. Emissions: Substances released into the air and are ... Anthropogenic: Anthropogenic refers to man-made impacts, processes, or products.. Climate: Climate describes the average and ... Current climate change, which is also referred to as global warming, is a result of the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse ... Existing built environments must also be assessed in terms of projected climate changes and required adaptations carried out. ...
4Baron (2010) refers to this as origination, an adaptation of Wineburgs "sourcing" heuristic. ... As we will see, Barons adaptation of Wineburgs heuristics comes into play during a well-conceived field study. ... 3Baron (2010) refers to this as contextualization (similar to Wineburg).. ... Links to larger historical context? Reveals timeframe of origination? Contradicts expectations? Denotes an adaptation? Confirms ...
Therefore, adaptation refers to the adjustments made by farmers to reduce risks. The capacity of farmers to adapt is based on ... Vulnerability refers to the degree to which a system is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate ... Adaptation is considered a key factor that will shape the future severity of climate change impacts on food production. But ... Adaptation is considered a key factor that will shape the future severity of climate change impacts on food production. Changes ...
This is all part of the adaptation phase. 3. Neck: Keep your head down and your chin up! Do not lift your entire head. Fit ... expert Mat Steinmetz refers to this as "periscope head." Keep your spine in a neutral position and try to hide behind your ... Remember that triathlon bike fit requires an adaptation process and bike fit is not always "one and done." The best position is ... Since bike fit is usually a multi-appointment and adaptation process, I suggest starting early and revisiting the position ...
Crop adaptation refers to agricultures ability to withstand climate change. Farmers will encounter problems they have never ... The basis for crop adaptation is the genetic diversity found in more than 1500 seedbanks around the world. This irreplaceable ... Concerted adaptation efforts will be required crop-by-crop, country-by-country, and internationally." ... "Indeed, diversity is being lost - diversity that almost certainly holds the key to future crop adaptation. Moreover, the time ...
Mutual adaptation works with full commitment and effective implementation strategies Our View. Also referred to as Issue-based ... Mutual Adaptation in Classroom Organization Wanted to see the transition from a traditional classroom to an open classroom. ... Mutual Adaptation. Focus: 1) measuring the degree to which a particular innovation is implemented as planned. 2) identifying ... Mutual Adaptation. Controversial Curriculum Implementation Activity: Part One. Measuring Implementation. A process between the ...
... after adaptation to 3 s of random motion; we refer to this condition as unadapted; see Materials and Methods). To investigate ... The effects of adaptation on the TWs were similarly attenuated by tACS. In Figure 3c, tACS reduced the adaptation-induced ... In addition, adaptation effects that are not specific to the direction of motion (e.g., contrast adaptation) would sum in the ... b, The difference in TA after adaptation with local and remote tACS is shown as a function of the extent of adaptation per ...
This process is referred to as "adaptation" of the filter. (Although represented in the figure as an analog function, it should ... it will interfere with the adaptation of the auxiliary filter during periods when such adaptation is necessary. Accordingly, it ... The first two of these tests are referred to in Table I, herein, as TR and TT, respectively. Each has the logical value 1 when ... In preferred embodiments, the step size is set to zero (i.e., adaptation is disabled) when, inter alia, the signal σF Fm has a ...
Many news stories have referred to our work. We believe the study has already helped guide the national debate and demonstrated ... The Adaptation Panel (whose membership is listed on page vi) assessed the impacts of possible climate change on human and ... Mitigation, Adaptation,. and the Science Base. Panel on Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. Committee on Science, ... adaptation, and the science base / Panel on Policy Implications of. Greenhouse Warming, Committee on Science, Engineering, and ...
This text refers to the paperback edition. About the Author. David Moody is the author of the Hater and Autumn novels. He grew ... A film adaptation of Autumn was made in Canada and starred Dexter Fletcher and David Carradine. Film rights to the Hater series ... David Pitt --This text refers to the paperback edition. Review. Trust is a slow-burner and all the richer for it. The layers ... This text refers to the paperback edition. ... This text refers to the paperback edition. ...
We propose that these lineages represent separate species, driven by adaptation to different ladybird hosts. Our combined ... The concept of "ecological species" generally refers to reproductive isolation evolved through adaptation to different ... Henceforward, in the text we will refer to these distinct clades by the first letters of the host genus and species names: Ab ... We propose that these lineages represent separate species, driven by adaptation to different ladybird hosts. Our combined ...
Sometimes referred to as "spectacle adaptation" or "optical treatment of amblyopia". *. Occlusion phase: a time period in which ... Refractive adaptation phase. The primary purpose of this phase was to ensure that full refractive adaptation was complete ... Refractive adaptation phase: a time period during which an improvement in vision of the amblyopic eye may occur in response to ... During refractive adaptation, visual acuity in seven children improved to an extent that they were no longer eligible to enter ...
For brevity we refer to it as window size.) To find this window size we define an estimator at an exon where i is the position ... and the second, which we use as our proxy for the rate of adaptation in the window, does not. Thus. (14)where is the total ... Connecting the data with the model requires us to relate our proxy of the rate of adaptation in a window, to the rate itself, υ ... On the basis of the regression we estimated the rate of adaptation to be 3.6 × 10−12 bp−1 gen−1, the selection coefficient to ...
Adaptation of Winlink 2000 Emergency Amateur Radio Email Network to a VHF Packet Radio Infrastructure: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0773- ... Some sources refer to the sysop as "system administrator".. RMS: The abbreviation for Radio Message Server. It is a bridge or ... "Adaptation of Winlink 2000 Emergency Amateur Radio Email Network to a VHF Packet Radio Infrastructure." Handbook of Research on ... "Adaptation of Winlink 2000 Emergency Amateur Radio Email Network to a VHF Packet Radio Infrastructure." In Handbook of Research ...
Adaptation or reformulation of these will be made in the light of the needs and desires of native peoples. Critical analysis ... Reading Institute Courses (P,E). (Please refer to the Calendar Section, Institutes in Education). 3540. Reading in the Primary ... Institute in the Teaching of Social Studies in French Immersion Courses (P,E).(Please refer to the Calendar section, Institutes ... Institute in the Teaching of Mathematics in French Immersion Courses (P,E).(Please refer to the Calendar Section, Institutes in ...
Domain Adaptation to Improve Object Categorization. Software written by Alessandro Bergamo. Please refer to the following paper ...
Today, we refer to this adaptation as coping.. No matter what type of stress you encounter during your life journey - be it ... This General Adaptation Syndrome has three distinct stages.. Stage 1: The first stage begins with the alarm reaction, in which ... The General Adaptation Syndrome. Our knowledge about stress and adrenal function began in the early 1900s, when famous stress- ... The problems referred to as burnout, stressed-out, overtraining (overexercising) and nervous breakdown are almost always the ...
It is an aspect of the ego- denoting adaptation. The Rolling Mirror, refers to the cyclic quality of nature; life. There is ... What was Osbert referring to when he said he couldnt access your replies on the Sacred Knowledge thread and what did he mean ...
  • Animals and Environmental Fitness: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Adaptation and Ecology, Volume 2 contains the proceedings of the First Conference of the European Society for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry held in Liège, Belgium, on August 27-31, 1979. (
  • It is a great course that will summarize information about exercise, physiological systems, metabolism and adaptations after training. (
  • A biological adaptation is any structural (morphological or anatomical ), physiological , or behavioral characteristics of an organism or group of organisms (such as species ) that make it better suited in its environment and consequently improves its chances of survival and reproductive success . (
  • Adaptations can be structural, physiological, or behavioral. (
  • Physiological adaptations are systems present in an organism that allow it to perform certain biochemical reactions (e.g., making venom, secreting slime, being able to keep a constant body temperature). (
  • It can mean the adjustment of living matter to environmental conditions and to other living things either in an organism's lifetime (physiological adaptation) or in a population over many many generations (evolutionary adaptation). (
  • The N170 adaptation paradigm has been used to characterize neural responses to objects of expertise. (
  • Together, these findings provide a direct demonstration that weak electric fields applied to the scalp significantly affect neural processing in the primate brain and that this includes a hitherto unknown mechanism that attenuates sensory adaptation. (
  • Acute stress responses promote adaptation and survival via responses of neural, cardiovascular, autonomic, immune and metabolic systems. (
  • This paper presents a review of adaptation concepts at the evolutionary, environmental, neural, sensory, mental and mathematical levels, including Helson's and Parducci's theories of perception and category judgments. (
  • Neuronal plasticity refers to the adaptation of neural function and structure. (
  • Noise adaptation is characterized by a decrease in the average neural firing rate and an accompanying decrease in the average value of the generator potential, both of which can be attributed to noise-induced resets of the generator potential mediated by the integrate-and-fire mechanism. (
  • Therefore, our intelligence seems to come from the hierarchy of adaptive mechanisms, from the very slow evolution that enables the genome to adapt over a lifetime, to the quick pace of neural adaptation expressing knowledge acquired through its lifetime. (
  • The model adaptation system and methods can be applied to several types of speaker recognition models including neural tree networks (NTN), Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), and dynamic time warping (DTW) or to multiple models (i.e., combinations of NTNs, GMMs and DTW). (
  • Based on the habitats for which organisms develop adaptations, adaptations can be categorized into 3 fundamental types, namely aquatic , terrestrial , and volant (flying), each of which can be further divided into many subtypes. (
  • Often, two or more species co-adapt and co-evolve as they develop adaptations that interlock with those of the other species, such as with flowering plants and pollinating insects . (
  • We have recently shown that tACS at 10 Hz counteracts the behavioral effects of motion adaptation in humans ( Kar and Krekelberg, 2014 ). (
  • This study assesses differences in biological and behavioral domains that relate to individual adaptation and resiliency to an isolated, confined and controlled environment, and evaluates the effect of confinement, work, monotony, and social and physical isolation on stress resiliency and well-being. (
  • This study leverages the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) heuristic framework to conduct experimental studies to identify biological domains (molecular, circuitry, physiology) and behavioral domains that relate to individual adaptation and resiliency (as well as behavioral vulnerability) in spaceflight-relevant confined environments. (
  • Behavioral adaptations are special ways a particular organism behaves to survive in its natural habitat (e.g., becoming active at night, taking a certain posture). (
  • Furthermore, m 6 A modified mRNA binding protein YTHDF1, one of evolutionary positively selected genes for high-altitude adaptation is amplified in various cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (
  • [6] This second, subsidiary element of his theory is what is now called Lamarckism , a proto-evolutionary hypothesis of the inheritance of acquired characteristics , intended to explain adaptations by natural means. (
  • Visual coding, a process involved in visual adaptation, is the means by which the brain adapts to certain stimuli, resulting in a biased perception of those stimuli. (
  • The rate and strength of visual adaptation depends heavily on the number of stimuli presented simultaneously, as well as the amount of time for which the stimulus is present. (
  • Visual adaptation was found to be weaker when there were more stimuli present. (
  • Moreover, studies have found that stimuli can rival each other, which explains why higher numbers of simultaneous stimuli lead to lower stimulus adaptation. (
  • In the N170 adaptation paradigm, the adaptor and test stimuli are presented successively, with a specified inter-stimulus interval (ISI). (
  • The N170 categorical adaptation effect is measured by comparing N170 amplitudes elicited by the same category of test stimulus when preceded by different categories of adaptor stimuli. (
  • Together, the findings suggest that N170 categorical adaptation is a common phenomenon during visual processing of various expert stimuli presented with short ISIs. (
  • The second kind of adaptation refers to the adjustment of perception sensitivity to stimuli range. (
  • Temporal processing refers to the processing of acoustic stimuli over time. (
  • The computational and neuronal mechanisms of human dexterity and adaptation abilities remain elusive. (
  • I will also address the underlying mechanisms responsible for these training adaptations. (
  • Practopoiesis tells us that somewhat similar adaptation mechanisms of trials and errors occur while an organism grows, while it digests food and also, while it acts intelligently or thinks. (
  • These adaptation mechanisms can change in an eye-blink the way the brain networks are effectively connected. (
  • Then genes slowly create the mechanisms of fast adaptations. (
  • Next, adaptation mechanisms change the properties of our nerve cells within seconds. (
  • This finding suggests possible adaptation mechanisms in chronically exposed swine farmers. (
  • Studies have also shown that visual adaptation occurs in the early stages of processing. (
  • The fact that this distinction occurs, implies that face recognition is a process that happens on a higher level and later on in the visual encoding, rather than early on within visual adaptation. (
  • First, unlike the typical long periods (tens of minutes) used in transcranial direct current stimulation, the attenuation of adaptation occurs even for brief periods of stimulation (seconds). (
  • This effect is robust, can be observed on the single-subject level, and occurs during adaptation both within and across trials. (
  • Adaptation occurs in response to changes in the environment, life style, or relationship to other organisms. (
  • Second, we found that brief application of transcranial alternating current stimulation at 10 Hz reduced spike-frequency adaptation of MT neurons and led to a broadband increase in the power spectrum of local field potentials. (
  • A quantitative theory of noise adaptation in stochastic integrate-and-fire neurons is developed. (
  • For leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, the long-run noise adaptation is not total, but the response to noise is partially eliminated. (
  • The functional significance of noise adaptation for the performance of networks comprising integrate-and-fire neurons is discussed. (
  • Structural adaptations are special body parts of an organism that help it to survive in its natural habitat (e.g., skin color, shape, body covering). (
  • We have seen in previous Cyberounds ® in this series how the excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters (EAA) and their receptors, representing the most highly expressed neurotransmitter system in the brain, play a key role in learning and memory and in the adaptive plasticity that is associated with acute adaptation to stress, as well as with the structural plasticity that accompanies repeated stress. (
  • Featuring a range of theoretical approaches, and chapters on the historical, ideological and economic aspects of adaptation, the volume reflects today's acceptance of intertextuality as a vital and progressive cultural force. (
  • Since bike fit is usually a multi-appointment and adaptation process, I suggest starting early and revisiting the position several times throughout your season. (
  • The improvement attributable to wearing glasses (that most children with amblyopia require) takes considerable time, 4 8 9 10 a process we call "refractive adaptation. (
  • Thus, the spatial correspondence between neutral polymorphism and nonsynonymous divergence may be especially informative about the process of adaptation. (
  • A Companion to Literature, Film and Adaptation is open to anybody interested in learning more about the process of translating the printed page into film. (
  • We refer to this process as "matching habitat choice. (
  • Furthermore, while adaptations often are seen as a static set of suitable characteristics, in reality the process of developing adaptations is a dynamic process. (
  • Adaptation refers to the process of finding ways to prepare for and flexibly respond to changes in climate. (
  • Adaptation is a key biological process in organisms and can take many forms. (
  • This process has been named "allostatic load," and it refers to the price the tissue or organ pays for an overactive or inefficiently managed allostatic response. (
  • Adaptation is primarily a process rather than a physical form or part of a body. (
  • This apparent paradox -- between protection and adaptation on the one hand and damage on the other hand -- is not unique to the EAA but is a general phenomenon among all the mediators of adaptation. (
  • 1) , (2) , (3) The neurotransmitters of the brain, as well as the neuroendocrine system, autonomic nervous system and immune system, are mediators of adaptation to challenges of daily life, referred to as "allostasis," meaning "maintaining stability through change. (
  • Deborah Cartmell is Professor of English and Director of the Centre for Adaptations at De Montfort University, UK. (
  • Visual adaptation is the temporary change in sensitivity or perception when exposed to a new or intense stimulus, and the lingering afterimage that may result when the stimulus is removed. (
  • The fading of the lilac circles is due to a loss of sensitivity to that stimulus and the adaptation to the new stimulus. (
  • if the stimulus is absent long enough, the aftereffects of visual adaptation will subside. (
  • Using an adaptation paradigm, in which an adaptor and subsequent test stimulus are presented during each trial, the present study investigated N170 categorical adaptation for faces and Chinese characters in both women and men. (
  • In a commonly used adaptation paradigm, an adaptor and subsequent test stimulus are presented during each trial. (
  • The first, known as level adaptation, refers to the shift of the neutral perception level to the average stimulus value. (
  • 4,5 This depth is related to the modulation rate of the stimulus, which refers to the frequency with which the signal changes over time. (
  • We propose that these lineages represent separate species, driven by adaptation to different ladybird hosts. (
  • The CCRC hosts a collection of adaptation approaches, examples, and planning tools for both agriculture and forestry. (
  • Adaptation is related to biological fitness , which governs the rate of evolution as measured by change in gene frequencies . (
  • The word can also refer to a trait that is considered an adaptation. (
  • In cell biology and pathophysiology, cellular adaptation refers to changes made by a cell in response to adverse or varying environmental changes. (
  • adaptation, in biology, has several meanings. (
  • Adaptation is a major topic in the philosophy of biology , as it concerns function and purpose ( teleology ). (
  • The papers explore the physiology and biochemistry of animal adaptation and ecology and cover topics ranging from amino acid transport and metabolism during osmotic shock to the role of organic compounds in osmoregulation in plants and animals. (
  • The effect of seawater adaptation on the phosphatidyl-choline metabolism in the eel is also considered, along with evaporative water loss in anuran amphibians. (
  • An increasing number of studies in Drosophila, however, have found that adaptive substitution may account for a substantial fraction of the divergence between species and that adaptation may frequently influence the pattern of polymorphism within a species. (
  • The term die out in the context of adaptation means that the death rate over the entire population of the species exceeds the birth rate for a long enough period for the species to disappear. (
  • In some extreme conditions, it is possible for the previous adaptation to be poorly selected, the advantage it confers over generations decreasing, up to and including the adaptation becoming a hindrance to the species' long-term survival. (
  • Every experience we have, whether or not we call it "stressful," elicits a response in the brain and throughout the body that results in some type of adjustment and adaptation to whatever has happened to us. (
  • While adaptations provide for the individual purpose of the organism-survival, reproduction, development, maintenance-these same characteristics provide diversity and add to human fascination with, and enjoyment of, nature . (
  • Yet dispersing individuals often sample and compare environments and settle in those environments that best match their phenotype, causing directed gene flow, which can in fact promote population differentiation and adaptation. (
  • Whether envisioned as the product of design or natural selection , or natural selection on the microevolutionary level and design for macroevolutionary changes, the reality is that new adaptations are needed when organisms encounter new environments, and such have arisen for millions of years. (
  • Some cells have special adaptations to their environments. (
  • We sequenced the whole genomes and transcriptomes of Leishmania donovani strains throughout their adaptation to in vivo conditions mimicking natural vertebrate and invertebrate host environments. (
  • Our results independently confirm a high rate of adaptive substitution (∼1/3000 generations) and newly suggest that many adaptations are of surprisingly great selective effect (∼1%), reducing the effective population size by ∼15% even in highly recombining regions of the genome. (
  • In the case of polymorphism, the effects of adaptation have also been seen in Drosophila: selective sweeps, which are local reductions in linked neutral polymorphism caused by adaptive substitutions, have been repeatedly detected in Drosophila populations, both in detailed studies of individual loci ( e.g . (
  • We discuss the potential implications of matching habitat choice for the degree and rate of local adaptation, the evolution of niche width, adaptive peak shifts, speciation in the presence of gene flow, and on our view and interpretation of measures of natural selection. (
  • 3057 S. Rengasami Category: Standards Track Tridea Works M. Kalla Telcordia Technologies G. Sidebottom Signatus Technologies January 2006 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Q.921-User Adaptation Layer Status of This Memo This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. (
  • RFC 4233 ISDN Q.921-User Adaptation Layer January 2006 Table of Contents 1 . (
  • Introduction In this document, the term Q.921-User refers to an upper layer that uses the services of Q.921, not the user side of ISDN interface [ 1 ]. (
  • This section describes the need for ISDN Q.921-User Adaptation (IUA) layer protocol as well as how this protocol shall be implemented. (
  • hence, the procedures described in this document are also applicable for a QSIG adaptation layer. (
  • RFC 4233 ISDN Q.921-User Adaptation Layer January 2006 Association - An association refers to an SCTP association. (
  • The association will provide the transport for the delivery of Q.921-User protocol data units and IUA adaptation layer peer messages. (
  • Abstract This document describes conventions for using the Session Description Protocol (SDP) described in RFC 2327 for controlling ATM Bearer Connections, and any associated ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL). (
  • 44 5.6.2 ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) attributes. (
  • This phenomenon is referred to as noise adaptation . (
  • From this we see that adaptation is not just a matter of visible traits: in such parasites critical adaptations take place in the life cycle , which is often quite complex. (
  • otherwise referred to as "lifestyle") is called allostatic overload. (
  • Therefore, allostatic load refers to the "cost" of adaptation. (
  • We introduce a method to infer, from the spatial correspondence between polymorphism and divergence, the rate and selective strength of adaptation. (
  • For example, in highly recombining regions of the Drosophila genome ( c = 2.5 cM/Mb), a selective sweep associated with a large selection coefficient of 1% should on average depress neutral polymorphism in a region of 100 kb surrounding the adaptation to 60% of its nominal value and to 30% of its nominal value in the surrounding 50 kb ( G illespie 2004 ). (
  • Adoption and twin comparisons, and selective adaptation, life span perspective: Prologue. (
  • Body size adaptation effects are thought to be higher-level aftereffects. (
  • supercompensation effects and long-term adaptation. (
  • OEEP's CCPO works across USDA to help ensure that the effects of climate change on working lands and rural communities are understood across the Department and that adaptation is integrated into USDA programs, policies and operations based on the most up-to-date science. (
  • The 2014 USDA Climate Adaptation Plan provides policy guidance on climate adaptation.The Plan presents strategies and actions to address the effects of climate change on key mission areas including agricultural production, food security, rural development, and forestry and natural resources conservation.The 2014 USDA Climate Change Adaptation Plan includes input from eleven USDA agencies and offices. (
  • Our model should allow studies of the impact of aneuploidy on molecular adaptations and cellular fitness. (
  • you will see training effect used to describe these long term adaptations. (
  • Some adaptations may improve reproductive success of the population, but not a particular individual, such as seen in altruistic behavior in social insects . (
  • Dysplasia refers to abnormal changes in cellular shape, size, and/or organization. (
  • Individuals who are less satisfied with their bodies have been shown to direct more visual attention to thin bodies, resulting in stronger adaptation to thin bodies, suggesting that visual adaptation may provide a mechanism for the association between exposure to thin media portrayals of bodies and body size misperception. (
  • The basis for crop adaptation is the genetic diversity found in more than 1500 seedbanks around the world. (
  • WASHINGTON - While people and other vertebrates are color blind in dim light, some deep-sea fish may possess keen color vision to thrive in the near total darkness of their extreme environment thanks to a unique genetic adaptation, scientists said on Thursday. (
  • Key concepts: Climate change mitigation refers to reducing greenhouse gas emissions in order to slow or stop global climate change (i.e. flying less, using renewable energy). (
  • Adaptation is considered a key factor that will shape the future severity of climate change impacts on food production. (
  • No credible or effective agreement to address the challenges of climate change can ignore agriculture and the need for crop adaptation to ensure the world's future food supplies," according to the statement. (
  • Crop adaptation refers to agriculture's ability to withstand climate change. (
  • The group called on negotiators to recognize the importance of crop diversity conservation and use as an essential element in the commitments they will make for climate change adaptation. (
  • Without effective investment in agricultural adaptation right now, future food security will quickly fall victim to climate change," said Cary Fowler, Executive Director, Global Crop Diversity Trust. (
  • This Departmental Regulation from 2015 provides guidance on the establishment and periodic revision of a USDA Climate Change Adaptation Plan. (
  • A century later, experimental field studies and breeding experiments by people such as E. B. Ford and Theodosius Dobzhansky produced evidence that natural selection was not only the 'engine' behind adaptation, but was a much stronger force than had previously been thought. (
  • YTHDF1 links hypoxia adaptation and non-small cell lung cancer progression. (
  • However, if you exercise three to five times a week for several months, the body will make long-term or chronic adaptations to the repeated stress of regular exercise. (
  • Some biologists try to avoid terms which imply purpose in adaptation, not least because it suggests a deity's intentions, but others note that adaptation is necessarily purposeful. (
  • This implies that nutrient adaptation has occurred more recently than adaptation to light and temperature gradients. (
  • OCE also provides data, tools and information to assist land managers, stakeholders and USDA agencies and mission areas with adaptation assessments, planning and implementation. (
  • Detection of temporal modulation: Temporal modulation refers to a reoccurring change (eg, frequency or amplitude) in the signal over time. (
  • Cells belonging to these two groups differ not only in light optima and pigmentation ( 5 ) but also in nitrogen ( 6 ) and phosphorus ( 7 ) utilization capabilities, presumably adaptations that are related to depth-dependent nutrient concentrations. (
  • In an experiment conducted by Gillian Rhodes, the effect of face adaptation was investigated, along with whether visual adaptation affects the recognition of faces. (
  • adaptation and not specifically to the super compensation effect. (
  • The experiment found that perceptual adaptation does, in fact, affect face recognition. (
  • In addition, we found that men have greater N170 categorical adaptation for face and word processing than women. (
  • We found that, after extensive training with both kinematic or dynamic perturbations, adaptation to unpracticed, diagonal, perturbations happened along the previously learned structure (vertical or horizontal), and resulting adaptation trajectories were curved. (
  • Aquatic adaptations are found in those plants and animals that live in water habitats: fresh water, brackish water, and sea water. (
  • For specific deadlines, refer to individual program descriptions. (
  • Adaptation is an observable fact of life accepted by philosophers and natural historians from ancient times, independently of their views on evolution , but their explanations differed. (
  • The USDA Climate Hubs website hosts information and resources on climate adaptation, impacts, and vulnerabilities, which can be sorted by topic or by region. (
  • We tested these predictions by investigating how previously learned structures influence subsequent motor adaptation. (
  • IMCI): evidence and recommendations for further adaptations. (
  • In 18th and 19th century natural theology , adaptation was taken as evidence for the existence of a deity. (
  • In natural theology , adaptation was interpreted as the work of a deity and as evidence for the existence of God. (